WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical industry

  1. Chemicals Industry Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  2. The renewable chemicals industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Rass-Hansen, J.; Marsden, Charlotte Clare;

    2008-01-01

    per kilogram of desired product to illustrate in which processes the use of renewable resources lead to the most substantial reduction of CO2 emissions. The steps towards a renewable chemicals industry will most likely involve intimate integration of biocatalytic and conventional catalytic processes...

  3. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-12-01

    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  4. China's Chemical Pharmaceutical Industry Rebounding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ After reorganization in 2006, China's chemical pharmaceutical industry began to pick up in 2007. According to the China Pharmaceutical Industry Association,China's chemical pharmaceutical industry achieved sales revenues of RMB202.5 billion in the first eight months this year, a growth of 24.6% - 5.6 percentage points faster than January to May this year. The net profit was RMB17.4 billion, an increase of 50.8% over the same period of 2006.

  5. Chemical sensors for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of chemical sensors for detection of gases at trace levels for applications in nuclear industry will be highlighted. The sensors have to be highly sensitive, reliable and rugged with long term stability to operate in harsh industrial environment. Semiconductor and solid electrolyte based electrochemical sensors satisfy the requirements. Physico-chemical aspects underlying the development of H2 sensors in sodium and in cover gas circuit of the Fast breeder reactors for its smooth functioning, NH3 and H2S sensors for use in Heavy water production industries and NOx sensors for spent fuel reprocessing plants will be presented. Development of oxygen sensors to monitor the oxygen level in the reactor containments and sodium sensors for detection of sodium leakages will also be discussed. The talk will focus the general aspects of identification of the sensing material for the respective analyte species, development of suitable chemical route for preparing them as fine powders, the need for configuring them in thick film or thin film geometries and their performance. Pulsed laser deposition method, an elegant technique to prepare the high quality thin films of multicomponent oxides is demonstrated for preparation of nanostructured thin films of complex oxides and its use in tailoring the morphology of the complex sensing material in the desired form by optimizing the in-situ growth conditions. (author)

  6. Economic Aspects of the Chemical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleske, Joseph V.

    Within the formal disciplines of science at traditional universities, through the years, chemistry has grown to have a unique status because of its close correspondence with an industry and with a branch of engineering—the chemical industry and chemical engineering. There is no biology industry, but aspects of biology have closely related disciplines such as fish raising and other aquaculture, animal cloning and other facets of agriculture, ethical drugs of pharmaceutical manufacture, genomics, water quality and conservation, and the like. Although there is no physics industry, there are power generation, electricity, computers, optics, magnetic media, and electronics that exist as industries. However, in the case of chemistry, there is a named industry. This unusual correspondence no doubt came about because in the chemical industry one makes things from raw materials—chemicals—and the science, manufacture, and use of chemicals grew up together during the past century or so.

  7. Better Tomorrow of China Rubber Chemicals Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    I. Development of China Rubber Chemicals Industry During the "11th Five-Year Plan" period, China rubber Chemicals industry fully implemented the development guideline of "Adhering to science and technology development, developing green chemistry with environmental protection, safety and energy conservation as the core, and building enterprise and world brands". With the great support of the state,

  8. New Prospects for Chemical Fiber industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zihan

    2012-01-01

    The 12th five years' planning is thoroughly implemented this year, chemical fiber industry in our country including the standardization work, fast and efficiently developing, and achieving a number of significant gains, which contribute significantly to the prosperity of economic in nation, industry and location, as well as the economic revival of the global industrial chain.

  9. Sustainable Development in Chemical Fiber Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flora Zhao

    2012-01-01

    The 18th China International Man-Made Fiber Conference (Xiaoshan 2012), themed on "How does Chemical Fiber Industry to Realize Sustainable Development against the Background of High-cost Era?", kicked off in Hangzhou on September 6th, 2012. More than 600 representatives from nearly 20 major chemical fiber manufacturing countries and regions all over the world were gathered together to discuss the sustainable development strategies of international chemical fiber industry in the context of the current compficated environment from different perspectives.

  10. Beyond petrochemicals: The renewable chemicals industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennestrøm, P.N.R.; Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Christensen, C.H.;

    2011-01-01

    From petroleum to bioleum: Since biomass is a limited resource, it is necessary to consider its best use. The production of select chemicals from biomass, rather than its use as fuel, could effectively replace the use of petroleum in the chemical industry, but the inherent functionality of biomass...

  11. The modern alchemy: The chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief history is presented on the development of chemistry from the antiquity, through alchemy, iatrochemistry, electrochemistry, atomic theory and the XVII, XVIII, XIX and X X centuries discoveries up to modern chemistry, fine chemistry, chemical engineering and the modern chemical industry with all of its consequences

  12. Chemicals Industry New Process Chemistry Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-08-01

    The Materials Technology I workshop was held in November 1998 to address future research needs for materials technology that will support the chemical industry. Areas covered included disassembly, recovery, reuse and renewable technology; new materials; and materials measurement and characterization. The Materials Technology II workshop was held in September 1999 and covered additives, modeling and prediction and an additional segment on new materials. Materials Technology Institute (MTI) for the Chemical Process Industries, Inc. and Air Products & Chemicals lead the workshops. The Materials Technology Roadmap presents the results from both workshops.

  13. Wireless sensor networks in chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in wireless technology are a clear indication of the commercial promise of wireless networks. Industrial wireless sensing has now become more economical, efficient and secure as compared to traditional wired sensing. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are successfully being used for process monitoring and control of many industrial plants. This paper explores how Chemical Industry in particular can benefit from the application of WSN technology. Various examples of successful implementation are cited. In order to address the industrial requirements, we propose a low power and low cost solution for process monitoring by implementing WSN. (author)

  14. The chemical industry - friend to the environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''The Chemical Industry - Friend to the Environment?'' was a symposium organised by the North East Region committee of the Industrial Division of the Royal Society of Chemistry. This volume contains typescripts from all the lectures given at the symposium. The general public appreciate the material comforts the Chemical Industry provides, for example textiles, ceramics, steel, speciality chemicals, drugs, prosthetics etc. However, for many their comfort is spoiled by the chemical poisoning of the environment through slag heaps, beaches and countryside littered with non-biodegradable unsightly plastic containers, poor air quality through NOx, CO2 and chlorofluorocarbon emissions, and of course, nuclear waste. The occasional spillage of hazardous chemicals through road, rail and sea accidents do nothing to improve the Industry's image. The majority of these topics were discussed, though no one presumed to know how to remove the problems entirely but many suggestions were put forward as to how this might be achieved. Of the 13 papers presented three were specifically concerned with recycling of plastics, 9 with the environmental impacts of chemicals and one, which is indexed separately, was concerned with radioactive discharges into the environment from the Sellafield reprocessing plant. (Author)

  15. Research and chemical industry in 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the importance of research with respect to changes taking place within the chemical industry. Specific areas having a significant impact on the future evolution of the industry are identified. The chemical industry is highly R ampersand D intensive with respect to its overall sales volume, as well as, to R ampersand D levels in other industries; and R ampersand D has been a dominant factor influencing the restructuring, on a global scale, of this industry. In the 90's, the industry is expected to have a supply model which is based on the production of marketable high-technology products and integrated systems, developed through coordinated research in multi-disciplinary scientific fields. The optimum strategic and organizational strategies which are to be adopted by the industry during this decade are discussed with reference to the directions being taken by a large multi-national firm in developing strategies in various areas, e.g., new prime materials, environmental protection, pharmacology, and biotechnology. A look is given at recent developments in the sector of advanced polymers, with attention given to processes involving polymer genetics, new products with a wide range of applications and those offering a high level of environmental compatibility. A review of new materials development includes an assessment of prospects for biodegradable plastics based on natural carbohydrates

  16. Safety Considerations in the Chemical Process Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Stanley M.

    There is an increased emphasis on chemical process safety as a result of highly publicized accidents. Public awareness of these accidents has provided a driving force for industry to improve its safety record. There has been an increasing amount of government regulation.

  17. Continuous intensified separations for the chemicals industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngene, I.S.; Roelands, C.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Today, a lot of effort is going into intensifying reactions within the chemicals industry. Intensified processes are expected to delìver significant improvements in manufacturing processes, reducing equipment size and waste streams and increasing product yields and thereby delivering more sustainabl

  18. Industrial emerging chemicals in the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojinović-Miloradov Mirjana B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent time, considerable interest has grown concerning the presence of the emerging industrial chemicals, EmIC. They are contaminants that have possible pathway to enter to the environment and they are dominantly released by industrial and anthropogenic activities. EmIC are applied in different fields using as industrial chemicals (new and recently recognized, global organic contaminants (flame retardant chemicals, pharmaceuticals (for both human and animal uses, endocrine-modulating compounds, biological metabolites, personal care products, household chemicals, nanomaterial (energy storage products, lubricants, anticorrosive and agriculture chemicals and others that are applied to a wide variety of everyday items such as clothing, upholstery, electronics and automobile interiors. NORMAN (Network of reference laboratories for monitoring of emerging environmental pollutants has established an open, dynamic, list of emerging substances and pollutants. EmIC have been recently detected in the environment due to their long-term presence, pseudo-persistence and increased use. Improvements in sophisticated analytical methods and time integrative passive sampling have enabled the identification and quantification of EmIC, in very low concentrations (ppb, ppt and lower, which likely have been present in all environmental mediums for decades. Passive technology is an innovative technique for the time-integrated measurement of emerging contaminants in water, sediment, soil and air. Passive samplers are simple handling cost-effective tool that could be used in environmental monitoring programmes. These devices are now being considered as a part of an emerging strategy for monitoring a range of emerging industrial chemicals and priority pollutants in the aquatic environment. EmIC are substances that are not included in the routine monitoring programmes and whose fate, behaviour and (ecotoxicological effects are still not well understood. Emerging

  19. Nuclear industry - challenges in chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical engineering processes and operations are closely involved in every step of the nuclear fuel cycle. Starting from mining and milling of the ore through the production of fuel and other materials and their use in nuclear reactors, fuel reprocessing, fissile material recycle and treatment and disposal of fission product wastes, each step presents a challenge to the chemical engineer to evolve and innovate processes and techniques for more efficient utilization of the energy in the atom. The requirement of high recovery of the desired components at high purity levels is in itself a challenge. ''Nuclear Grade'' specifications for materials put a requirement which very few industries can satisfy. Recovery of uranium and thorium from low grade ores, of heavy water from raw water, etc. are examples. Economical and large scale separation of isotopes particularly those of heavy elements is a task for which processess are under various stages of development. Further design of chemical plants such as fuel reprocessing plants and high level waste treatment plants, which are to be operated and maintained remotely due to the high levels of radio-activity call for engineering skills which are being continually evolved. In the reactor, analysis of the fluid mechanics and optimum design of heat removal system are other examples where a chemical engineer can play a useful role. In addition to the above, the activities in the nuclear industry cover a very wide range of chemical engineering applications, such as desalination and other energy intensive processes, radioisotope and radiation applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. (auth.)

  20. Methods in industrial biotechnology for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha

    2008-01-01

    In keeping with the definition that biotechnology is really no more than a name given to a set of techniques and processes, the authors apply some set of fuzzy techniques to chemical industry problems such as finding the proper proportion of raw mix to control pollution, to study flow rates, to find out the better quality of products. We use fuzzy control theory, fuzzy neural networks, fuzzy relational equations, genetic algorithms to these problems for solutions. When the solution to the problem can have certain concepts or attributes as indeterminate, the only model that can tackle such a situation is the neutrosophic model. The authors have also used these models in this book to study the use of biotechnology in chemical industries. This book has six chapters. First chapter gives a brief description of biotechnology. Second chapter deals will proper proportion of mix of raw materials in cement industries to minimize pollution using fuzzy control theory. Chapter three gives the method of determination of te...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart F of... - Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Industry Chemicals 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Pt. 63, Subpt. F, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 63—Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals Chemical name a CAS No. b Group...

  2. Vacuum technology in the chemical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Jorisch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Based on the very successful German edition and a seminar held by the German Engineers` Association (VDI) on a regular basis for years now, this English edition has been thoroughly updated and revised to reflect the latest developments. It supplies in particular the special aspects of vacuum technology, applied vacuum pump types and vacuum engineering in the chemical, pharmaceutical and process industry application-segments. The text includes chapters dedicated to latest European regulations for operating in hazardous zones with vacuum systems, methods for process pressure control and regulati

  3. [Arsine: an unknown industrial chemical toxic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantamura, J; Dorandeu, F; Burnat, P; Renard, C

    2011-07-01

    Arsines family includes many compounds with various toxicities. Arsenic trihydride or arsine is the most toxic form of arsenic. Powerful haemolytic gas, it has never been used as a chemical weapon because its toxicity is not immediate and it is non persistent. However, cases of industrial poisoning with arsine are still identified in spite of a strict regulation at work. It is also identified as a potential toxic of chemical terrorism. This agent, of which the mechanism of action is still not well defined, is badly recognized because of intoxications rarity. However, fast detection means are available. Health professionals and especially those who are involved in piratox plan need to learn to recognize arsine intoxication (hematuria, oliguria, haemolytic anemia) in order to provide early, specific treatment and avoid damages. PMID:21840437

  4. Constructing Global Production Activity Indices: The Chemical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Saswati Mahapatra; Thomas K Swift

    2012-01-01

    This article first presents the challenges involved in constructing consistent, timely, and reliable short-term measures of national, regional, and global industry activity. The chemical industry is used as a case study. Second, this article presents the comparison of the movement or fluctuations in industrial production indices and chemical production indices that aid in determining if production in the chemical industry can be used as a proxy for total production in an economy. The American...

  5. NCIP: An Environment-Friendly Chemical Industry Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Nanjing Chemical Industry Park (NCIP) was established in October 2001. The planned area of the park is 45 km2 and the development focus includes oil/ gas chemicals, basic organic chemical raw materials, fine chemicals, polymeric materials, life pharmaceuticals and new chemical materials.

  6. Using game theory to improve safety within chemical industrial parks

    CERN Document Server

    Reniers, Genserik

    2013-01-01

    Though the game-theoretic approach has been vastly studied and utilized in relation to economics of industrial organizations, it has hardly been used to tackle safety management in multi-plant chemical industrial settings. Using Game Theory for Improving Safety within Chemical Industrial Parks presents an in-depth discussion of game-theoretic modelling which may be applied to improve cross-company prevention and -safety management in a chemical industrial park.   By systematically analyzing game-theoretic models and approaches in relation to managing safety in chemical industrial parks, Using Game Theory for Improving Safety within Chemical Industrial Parks explores the ways game theory can predict the outcome of complex strategic investment decision making processes involving several adjacent chemical plants. A number of game-theoretic decision models are discussed to provide strategic tools for decision-making situations.   Offering clear and straightforward explanations of methodologies, Using Game Theor...

  7. Review of Petroleum and Chemical Industry in 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Shiliang

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Economic functioning of the petroleum and chemical industry in 2006 (1)Rapid growth of production With the completion of new and expanded facilities, petroleum and chemical production in China grew rapidly in 2006.

  8. Occupational health surveillance in the chemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueckiger, A

    2000-08-01

    Health surveillance has its well defined place within occupational health care. Only a few functions are specific to the chemical industry. Occupational health surveillance used to be targeted at the early detection of occupational illnesses (secondary prevention) but other purposes have gained importance in recent years: ensuring the fitness of every worker for his or her job, promoting workers' health in general, contributing to the safety of the plant operation by identifying workers whose behaviour is likely to endanger others, contributing to product quality by assisting in the fulfilment of good manufacturing practice requirements, etc. If the occupational physician wants to maintain his role as key player in protecting workers' health, he must get involved in the important activities of primary prevention contributing directly to workplace improvements. Such improvements can only be based on systematic assessments of the workplaces. These assessments again provide the necessary objective basis to structure health surveillance in a way that takes into account the possible adverse effects coming from the workplace. PMID:11294324

  9. Financial Crisis 2008 Impact on China Chemical Fiber Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On Jun. 10-12, 2009, The 15th China’s International Chemical Fiber Conference, with the theme of "Financial Crisis and Chemical Fiber Industry", was held at Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. During the conference, the China Chemical Fiber Association released a speech on "The Impact of Global Financial Crisis on China Chemical Fiber Industry and Response Strategies". Here in the following part, we will focus on the part of the impact of financial crisis on Chinese chemical fiber industry. In our next issue, we will go on with the part of Response Strategies.

  10. The changing landscape of careers in the chemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Keith J.

    2011-09-01

    Changes in the chemical industry over the past decade -- ranging from globalization to an increased focus on speciality chemicals -- threaten to leave the aspiring industrial chemist unprepared. This Commentary discusses those changes and outlines strategies to enter the job market as well equipped as possible.

  11. A Course in Project Evaluation in the Chemical Process Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Riestra, J. Frank

    1983-01-01

    Describes a course designed to expose neophytes to methodology used in chemical process industries to evaluate commercial feasibility of proposed projects. Previously acquired disciplines are integrated to facilitate process synthesis, gain appreciation of nature of industrial projects and industrial viewpoint in managing them, and to become adept…

  12. Biobased chemicals: the convergence of green chemistry with industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, Jim C; Ritchie, Rachael J; Allan, Jacqueline E M

    2013-04-01

    Policy issues around biobased chemicals are similar to those for biobased plastics. However, there are significant differences that arise from differences in production volumes and the more specific applications of most chemicals. The drivers for biobased chemicals production are similar to those for biobased plastics, particularly the environmental drivers. However, in Europe, biobased chemical production is further driven by the need to improve the competitiveness of the chemicals industry. PMID:23394962

  13. Recent Development and Status of CNPC's Refining and Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Weiyong

    1997-01-01

    @@ In the past one and halfyear since carrying China National Petroleum Corporation's (CNPC) Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996-2000), CNPC's oil refining and chemical industry has made considerable progress.

  14. Chemical exposure and lung function in fragrance industry employees

    OpenAIRE

    Dix, Garry R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Production employees within the UK fragrance industry are exposed to large quantities of chemical substances and mixtures over working shifts. Occupational respiratory exposure within this industry is managed in line with relevant legislation and guidelines. There is a lack, however, of published literature studying the effects of respiratory exposure to chemicals on fragrance production employees. A multi-site cross-sectional study was conducted using employees from the ...

  15. Renewable raw materials new feedstocks for the chemical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Ulber, Roland; Hirth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges facing the chemical industry is the transition to sustainable operations. Industries are taking initiatives to reduce resource intensities or footprints, and by adopting safer materials and processes. Such efforts need to be supported by techniques that can quantify the broad economic and environmental implications of industrial operations, retrofi t options and provide new design alternatives. This contemporary overview focuses on cradle-to-grave life cycle assessments of existing or conceptual processes for producing valueadded fuels, chemicals, and/or material

  16. 100 years of refrigeration engineering in the chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, K.

    1987-11-01

    The report reviews the many uses of cold in the chemical industry. As an example, the development of the refrigeration system of a large chemical plant is described which distributes cold nearly without losses from a central refrigeration unit and can be controlled for optimum adaptation to the various chemical production processes. The contribution of refrigeration to higher product quality, higher product yield, materials recycling to save feedstocks, energy conservation by means of heat pumps, and environmental protection is pointed out.

  17. Sequential anaerobic-adsorption treatment of chemical industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga, Kailash; Pallavi, V; Patel, Dharmendra

    2011-10-01

    Treatment technologies needed to reduce the pollutant load of chemical industry effluent have been found to involve exorbitantly high costs. The present investigation aimed to treat the wastewater from chemical industry by cost effective sequential anaerobic-adsorption treatment. Wastewaters from chemical industry that are rich in biodegradable organics are tested for anaerobic treatability. The efficiency of anaerobic reactor is relatively lower 79.3%, and therefore post treatment of effluent was done by adsorption using Poly vinyl alcohol coated Datura stramonium (PVAC-DS) as an adsorbent. An overall COD removal of 93.8 % was achieved after sequential Anaerobic-Adsorption treatment, which lead to a better final effluent and a more economical treatment system.

  18. Integrating sustainability with business strategy – the Swedish chemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This thesis aims to investigate perceptions of sustainability in relation to business strategy within the Swedish chemical industry. To this end, a survey was distributed with the assistance of industry organization Plast- och Kemiföretagen to companies that are part of the Responsible Care® program. A second purpose of the study is to explore critical factors when implementing an integration of sustainability with business strategy. To do this as well as dig deeper into a couple of questions...

  19. Nylon and Chemical Fiber Industry of Shifeng Developing Synchronously

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Yinshi

    2012-01-01

    Recently, over 40 people of the investigation group of the 10th Chinese Caprolactam and Nylon Market Forum went to Shifeng Group for visitation and investigation. They learnt the overall general situation of Shifeng Group in details, visited the factory areas such as chemical fiber & tire industrial park and agricultural automobile industrial park, and listened to the development process of Shifeng Group, the present production and future development of such products as nylon chip, nylon yarn and flat chafer fabric under nylon and chemical fiber project, and the market growth in recent two years. The investigation group showed great cooperation intention on the caprolactam project of Shifeng Group.

  20. Coal chemical industry and its sustainable development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China is rich in coal resource, which is vital for energy security in this country. In early 21st century, the coal chemical industry in China will be oriented to the development of high efficiency, safety, cleanliness, and optimum utilization. In this review, the authors present an introduction to the utilization status of primary energy production and consumption in China. Since 2005, fundamental research studies, supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Chinese National Basic Research Program, have been carried out at Taiyuan University of Technology. The Ministry stresses that the new coal chemical industry should be developed in a sustainable manner to realize effective utilization of energy. Moreover, upgrading the high technology to improve actively the recycling processes of coal chemical engineering is of strategic importance to realize the modern coal chemical engineering.

  1. An Exploratory Study of The Malaysian Chemical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chun Hooi

    2008-01-01

    With the force of globalization and huge product commoditization pressure in the Business-To-Business (B2B) markets, the B2B marketers have turn their attention to branding in order to tap the brand potential from their product and corporate name. The main objective of this dissertation is to explore the industrial brand value and B2B brand equity in the context of the Malaysian chemical industry. The industrial brand value is explored by using the pinwheel model proposed by Mudambi et al (19...

  2. Top 100 of China's Petroleum and Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CPCIA

    2007-01-01

    @@ According to the statistic report of the National Bureau of Statistics of China, there are 24 159 scaled companies (all state-owned companies, and non-state-owned companies those have achieved a main business revenue of over RMB5 million for the fiscal 2005) nationwide majored in petroleum and chemical industry in 2006.

  3. Chemical dehumidification and thermal regeneration: Applications in industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.; Longo, G.A.; Piccininni, F.

    1991-11-01

    Chemical dehumidification may be used in industrial dessiccation treatments operating with new air or closed cycle. The authors suggest a few schemes and analyze operation parameters and performance. Finally, comparisons are made with the most efficient systems that have been used so far: energy savings are between 25 and 40 per cent.

  4. Estimation of competitiveness of enterprises of chemical industry: methodical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Kasatkina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Existent approaches and methods of estimation of competitiveness of enterprise are considered. Thrown out suggestions about level classification of descriptions of competitiveness. Offered to recommendation on perfection of estimation of competitiveness of enterprises of chemical industry taking into account the specific of their activity.

  5. Radiation protection in the pharmaceutical-chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of the use of ionizing radiation in research in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries will be discussed, the emphasis being placed on the handling of open radioactive materials in research laboratories. The compliance with official regulations and the preparation of company internal radiation protection regulations are described. 1 tab., 9 refs

  6. Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson

    2005-04-01

    Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

  7. [Occupational digestive diseases in chemical industry workers of West Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomytkina, T E; Pershin, A N

    2010-01-01

    The high incidence of chronic digestive diseases is recorded in chemical industry workers exposed to the isolated action of noxious substances. The aim of the investigation was to make a hygienic assessment of the risk for occupational digestive diseases in chemical industry workers exposed to a combination of noxious drugs. The working conditions and the prevalence of digestive diseases were studied in 4120 workers engaged in chemical and auxiliary processes. Under the isolated action of noxious substances, the workers had an average of 35% increase in the incidence of digestive diseases than unexposed ones (p 4.0-11.1 and 3.5-10.7 times higher, respectively (p < 0.05) than in the unexposed subjects.

  8. Enhanced formulations for neutralization of chemical, biological and industrial toxants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D [Albuqueque, NM

    2008-06-24

    An enhanced formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The enhanced formulation according to the present invention is non-toxic and non-corrosive and can be delivered by a variety of means and in different phases. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator and water.

  9. Implementation of high-dose chemical dosimetry for industrial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is the implementation of methodology for high dose measurements using chemical dosimeters in liquid phase, traceable to the international metrology system, and make available in the country, the standard of high-dose to industrial irradiation facilities and research irradiators, trough the quality program with comparative measurements and direct use of the standard dosimeters in routine. The use of these low cost dosimetry systems in industrial irradiation facilities, assists to the certification requirements and it can reduce the costs with dosimetry for approximately 20% of the total dosimetry costs, using these systems in routine measurements and validation process, largely substituting the imported PMMA dosimeters, among others. (author)

  10. Creative research in the chemical industry - Four decades in retrospect

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kuppuswamy Nagarajan

    2006-07-01

    My professional research career spanning more than four decades has been largely devoted to synthetic medicinal chemistry (Ciba, Bombay - now Mumbai - 21 years) followed by an equal number of years in process development of drugs, crop protection chemicals (Searle, Bombay) and drugs and speciality chemicals (Recon and Hikal, Bangalore). These efforts have involved several collaborators including many from other institutions and offered multitudinous challenges calling for continuous creativity in industrial setups. I was fortunate to have had a conducive environment to be able to respond to these challenges. I attempt to offer the readers in the ensuing pages a flavour of the excitement that has marked these years.

  11. Probabilistic safety assessment in the chemical and nuclear industries

    CERN Document Server

    Fullwood, Ralph R

    2000-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) determines the probability and consequences of accidents, hence, the risk. This subject concerns policy makers, regulators, designers, educators and engineers working to achieve maximum safety with operational efficiency. Risk is analyzed using methods for achieving reliability in the space program. The first major application was to the nuclear power industry, followed by applications to the chemical industry. It has also been applied to space, aviation, defense, ground, and water transportation. This book is unique in its treatment of chemical and nuclear risk. Problems are included at the end of many chapters, and answers are in the back of the book. Computer files are provided (via the internet), containing reliability data, a calculator that determines failure rate and uncertainty based on field experience, pipe break calculator, event tree calculator, FTAP and associated programs for fault tree analysis, and a units conversion code. It contains 540 references and many...

  12. Lignin as a renewable aromatic resource for the chemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gosselink, R.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Valorization of lignin plays a key role in the further development of lignocellulosic biorefinery processes for biofuels and biobased materials production. Today’s increased demand for alternatives to fossil carbon-based products expands the interest and the need to create added value to the unconverted lignin fraction. The aim of the research was to study the potential of lignin to become a renewable aromatic resource for the chemical industry. Lignin can be considered as an abundantly...

  13. Reactive formulations for a neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D.; Betty, Rita G.

    2006-10-24

    Decontamination formulations for neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals, and methods of making and using same. The formulations are effective for neutralizing malathion, hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, butyl isocyanate, carbon disulfide, phosgene gas, capsaicin in commercial pepper spray, chlorine gas, anhydrous ammonia gas; and may be effective at neutralizing hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, methyl bromide, boron trichloride, fluorine, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, phosphorous trichloride, arsine, and tungsten hexafluoride.

  14. Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals.

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, D M

    1995-01-01

    Environmental contamination by agricultural chemicals and industrial waste disposal results in adverse effects on reproduction of exposed birds. The diversity of pollutants results in physiological effects at several levels, including direct effects on breeding adults as well as developmental effects on embryos. The effects on embryos include mortality or reduced hatchability, failure of chicks to thrive (wasting syndrome), and teratological effects producing skeletal abnormalities and impair...

  15. Profit of Chemical Fibre Industry Surges on Efficiency Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    According to data collected from 1935 statistics-worthy Chinese chemical fibre enterprises surveyed by National Bureau of Statistics of China, the total profits reached CNY8.066 billion in Jan. -May, 2010, up 200.08 per cent y/y, 234.78 percentage points higher than the Jan.-May 2009 period. Technology improvement and industrial structural adjustment played a very major role on profi t growth.

  16. Metabolic engineering is key to a sustainable chemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Annabel C

    2011-08-01

    The depletion of fossil fuel stocks will prohibit their use as the main feedstock of future industrial processes. Biocatalysis is being increasingly used to reduce fossil fuel reliance and to improve the sustainability, efficiency and cost of chemical production. Even with their current small market share, biocatalyzed processes already generate approximately US$50 billion and it has been estimated that they could be used to produce up to 20% of fine chemicals by 2020. Until the advent of molecular biological technologies, the compounds that were readily accessible from renewable biomass were restricted to naturally-occurring metabolites. However, metabolic engineering has considerably broadened the range of compounds now accessible, providing access to compounds that cannot be otherwise reliably sourced, as well as replacing established chemical processes. This review presents the case for continued efforts to promote the adoption of biocatalyzed processes, highlighting successful examples of industrial chemical production from biomass and/or via biocatalyzed processes. A selection of emerging technologies that may further extend the potential and sustainability of biocatalysis are also presented. As the field matures, metabolic engineering will be increasingly crucial in maintaining our quality of life into a future where our current resources and feedstocks cannot be relied upon. PMID:21666928

  17. Meeting the challenges related to material issues in chemical industries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Baldev Raj; U Kamachi Mudali; T Jayakumar; K V Kasiviswanathn; K Natarajan

    2000-12-01

    Reliable performance and profitability are two important requirements for any chemical industry. In order to achieve high level of reliability and excellent performance, several issues related to design, materials selection, fabrication, quality assurance, transport, storage, inputs from condition monitoring, failure analysis etc. have to be adequately addressed and implemented. Technology related to nondestructive testing and monitoring of the plant is also essential for precise identification of defect sites and to take appropriate remedial decision regarding repair, replacement or modification of process conditions. The interdisciplinary holistic approach enhances the life of critical engineering components in chemical plants. Further, understanding the failure modes of the components through the analysis of failed components throws light on the choice of appropriate preventive measures to be taken well in advance, to have a control over the overall health of the plant. The failure analysis also leads to better design modification and condition monitoring methodologies, for the next generation components and plants. At the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam, a unique combination of the expertise in design, materials selection, fabrication, NDT development, condition monitoring, life prediction and failure analysis exists to obtain desired results for achieving high levels of reliability and performance assessment of critical engineering components in chemical industries. Case studies related to design, materials selection and fabrication aspects of critical components in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, NDT development and condition monitoring of various components of nuclear power plants, and important failure investigations on critical engineering components in chemical and allied industries are discussed in this paper. Future directions are identified and planned approaches are briefly described.

  18. [The pharmaceutical industry in the industrial chemical group: the National Union of Chemical-Pharmaceutical Laboratories (1919-1936)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozal, Raúl Rodríquez

    2011-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry associations, as it happened with other businesses, had a significant rise during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and II Republic. The 'Cámara Nacional de Industrias Químicas', in Barcelona, represented the national chemical industry to its ultimate assimilation by the 'Organización Sindical' in 1939. In this association, matters relating to pharmaceutical products -- which we will especially deal with in this work -- were managed by the 'Unión Nacional de Laboratorios Químico-Farmacéuticos', which defended the interests of pharmaceutical companies in the presence of government authorities, using the resources and mechanisms also managed by business pressure groups. The inclusion of industrial pharmacy in the Chemical lobby separated the pharmaceutical industry from traditional exercise and its corporate environment. this created ups and downs, conflicts of interests and finally, love and hate relationships with their colleagues of the pharmacy work placement and, of course, with the association that represented them: the 'Unión Farmacéutica Nacional'.

  19. BIOMASS AS A RENEWABLE SOURCE OF CHEMICALS FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, M. Murtala

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide demand for cleaner burning fuels and ‘clean’ chemicals has been increasing from the global issues of environmental concern. This lead to a greater utilization of renewable resources to replace the old and existing fossil based feedstock for liquid fuels and chemicals. The ability to re-grow harvested biomass and recapture the carbon emitted to the atmosphere through photosynthesis allows the possibility of carbon neutrality encouraged the use of biomass. Moreso, the unstable rise of oil prices, the negative effects of petroleum on the environment and the advantages of biomass towards sustainability of resources accelerated the development and utilization of unused biomass. This paper reviewed some of the potentials of biomass as a source of chemicals for industrial applications. Pyrolysis is considered to be one of the most employed technologies for the conversion of biomass into bio-oil, char and gases. The utilization of biomass for chemical manufacture can significantly eliminate the harmful effects of fossil based chemicals on the environment.

  20. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  1. THE INDUSTRIAL UTILIZATION OF CHEMICAL MODIFIED AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Xu; Runcang Sun; Huaiyu Zhan

    2004-01-01

    Various lignocellulosic materials such as wood,agricultural and forest residues has the potential to be valuable substitute for, or complement to,commercial sorbents for removing heavy metal ions or dyes from waste water or spilled oil from inland water or sea. More than 9 million tons of straw pulp are produced annually in china, which account for about 90% of the world′s total straw pulp. However,huge quantity of remain straw is not used as industrial raw material and is burnt in the fields or on the side of road. These resources can be chemical modified such as acetylation. Modified straws have the characteristics of low cost, high capacity, quick uptake, and easy to desorb. This paper reviews the current status of the technology for modified agricultural residues, which focus on hemicellulose and cellulose. The potential of these natural sorbents in main industry is also indicated.

  2. THE INDUSTRIAL UTILIZATION OF CHEMICAL MODIFIED AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengXu; RuncangSun; HuaiyuZhan

    2004-01-01

    Various lignocellulosic materials such as wood, agricultural and forest residues has the potential to be valuable substitute for, or complement to, commercial sorbents for removing heavy metal ions or dyes from waste water or spilled oil from inland water or sea. More than 9 million tons of straw pulp are produced annually in china, which account for about 90% of the world's total straw pulp. However, huge quantity of remain straw is not used as industrial raw material and is burnt in the fields or on the side of road. These resources can be chemical modified such as acetylation. Modified straws have the characteristics of low cost, high capacity, quick uptake, and easy to desorb. This paper reviews the current status of the technology for modified agricultural residues, which focus on hemicellulose and cellulose. The potential of these natural sorbents in main industry is also indicated.

  3. Effects of gypsum ceramics industries residues on soil chemical propierties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Centurión Maciel

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum used as molds in ceramics industry must be replaced after some time of utilization becoming, thus, a waste product, a difficult final destination residue. This residue, however, is shown to be an industrial by-product with potential to be employed in agricultural acid soils as acidity amendment and nutrients source, especially of calcium, sulfur, magnesium and, in smaller degree, of potassium. This issue proposes to evaluate its utilization in agricultural soils as sustainable form out of environment aggressions. Increasing quantities of this gypsum waste were mixed to some acid soil, moistened and left in incubation during 15 days. After that, samples were air dried, sifted and analyzed in its chemical qualities. By the results, a quick and efficient reaction on soil acidity correction and growing liberation of his components (Ca, S, Mg and K could be inferred. It can be concluded that, whenever it is not possible its reutilization in ceramics industry, this residue can be placed in agricultural soils, since recommended quantities for soil acidity amendment are followed. Considering the modifications in soil chemical quality as acidity corrective and nutrients contents, this issue chose to verify some possible fitotoxic effects that may occur in the residue during the several industrial trials to which it is submitted, mainly when in contact with components that originated the ceramics pieces, responsible by loading it amendment action and Mg and K source. For such, lettuce was used as a plant test because of its sensitiveness to the presence of fitotoxic substances. They were put in pot tests with gypsum waste increasing quantities. A positive answer of vegetable production mass corresponding to 10 t ha-1 out of visual fitotoxic symptoms was evident.

  4. Chemical industry: Government regulations. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning government regulation effects on the chemical industry. Regulations pertaining to industrial wastes, energy consumption and conservation, and industrial emissions are discussed. Emission standards and control, toxic substances control, and economic impacts of regulations affecting the chemical industry are considered.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. The pharmaceutical industry in the industrial chemical group: The National Union of Chemical-Pharmaceutical Laboratories (1919-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Nozal, Raúl

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industry associations, as it happened with other businesses, had a significant rise during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and II Republic. The Cámara Nacional de Industrias Químicas, in Barcelona, represented the national chemical industry to its ultimate assimilation by the Organización Sindical in 1939. In this association, matters relating to pharmaceutical products —which we will specially deal with in this work— were managed by the Unión Nacional de Laboratorios Químico-Farmacéuticos, which defended the interests of pharmaceutical companies in the presence of government authorities, using the resources and mechanisms also managed by business pressure groups. The inclusion of industrial pharmacy in the Chemical lobby separated the pharmaceutical industry from traditional exercise and its corporate environment. This created ups and downs, conflicts of interests and finally, love and hate relationships with their colleagues of the pharmacy work placement and, of course, with the association that represented them: the Unión Farmacéutica Nacional.

    El asociacionismo farmacéutico industrial, al igual que ocurriera con otras actividades empresariales, experimentó un notable auge durante la Dictadura de Primo de Rivera y la II República. La Cámara Nacional de Industrias Químicas, desde Barcelona, representó a la industria química nacional hasta su asimilación definitiva por la Organización Sindical franquista, en 1939. Dentro de esta asociación, los asuntos relacionados con los productos farmacéuticos, a los que prestaremos especial atención en este trabajo, fueron gestionados por la Unión Nacional de Laboratorios Químico- Farmacéuticos, que defendió los intereses de los productores de medicamentos industriales ante las autoridades gubernamentales, utilizando para ello recursos y mecanismos también manejados por otros grupos empresariales de presión. La inclusión de la farmacia industrial

  6. A Survey of Industrial Organic Chemists: Understanding the Chemical Industry's Needs of Current Bachelor-Level Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Justin D.; Kleist, Elyse M.; Stoy, Dylan M.

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted of companies from the chemical industry with an emphasis on the organic division. The data include results from 377 respondents from more than 100 different companies. More than half of all undergraduates gain fulltime work in the chemical industry or government after graduating with a bachelor's degree in chemistry.…

  7. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Department

    2001-07-01

    The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis

  8. A 'Fine' chemical industry for life science products: green solutions to chemical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggink, A; Straathof, A J J; van der Wielen, L A M

    2003-01-01

    Modern biotechnology, in combination with chemistry and process technology, is crucial for the development of new clean and cost effective manufacturing concepts for fine-chemical, food specialty and pharmaceutical products. The impact of biocatalysis on the fine-chemicals industry is presented, where reduction of process development time, the number of reaction steps and the amount of waste generated per kg of end product are the main targets. Integration of biosynthesis and organic chemistry is seen as a key development. The advances in bioseparation technology need to keep pace with the rate of development of novel bio- or chemocatalytic process routes with revised demands on process technology. The need for novel integrated reactors is also presented. The necessary acceleration of process development and reduction of the time-to-market seem well possible, particularly by integrating high-speed experimental techniques and predictive modelling tools. This is crucial for the development of a more sustainable fine-chemicals industry. The evolution of novel 'green' production routes for semi-synthetic antibiotics (SSAs) that are replacing existing chemical processes serves as a recent and relevant case study of this ongoing integration of disciplines. We will also show some challenges in this specific field. PMID:12747542

  9. Materials of 44. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific assemblies of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry are the most important chemical meeting organised annually in Poland. Basic as well as application studies in all chemical branches have been extensively presented. The next subjects was proposed as scientific sessions and symposia topics: solid state chemistry; didactics of chemistry; electrochemistry; biologically active compounds; geochemistry; organic chemistry; physical chemistry; environment quality and protection; coordination chemistry; chemical technology; polymers; explosive materials; analytical chemistry; theoretical chemistry

  10. Valorization of rendering industry wastes and co-products for industrial chemicals, materials and energy: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Tizazu; Mussone, Paolo; Bressler, David

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, strong global demand for industrial chemicals, raw materials and energy has been driven by rapid industrialization and population growth across the world. In this context, long-term environmental sustainability demands the development of sustainable strategies of resource utilization. The agricultural sector is a major source of underutilized or low-value streams that accompany the production of food and other biomass commodities. Animal agriculture in particular constitutes a substantial portion of the overall agricultural sector, with wastes being generated along the supply chain of slaughtering, handling, catering and rendering. The recent emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) resulted in the elimination of most of the traditional uses of rendered animal meals such as blood meal, meat and bone meal (MBM) as animal feed with significant economic losses for the entire sector. The focus of this review is on the valorization progress achieved on converting protein feedstock into bio-based plastics, flocculants, surfactants and adhesives. The utilization of other rendering streams such as fat and ash rich biomass for the production of renewable fuels, solvents, drop-in chemicals, minerals and fertilizers is also critically reviewed. PMID:25163531

  11. Technology Development Road for Chemical Fiber Industry in Ghina [Part Two

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ⅲ.Technology development direction for China's chemical fiber industry in the"11th Five-year Plan" period and the longer run Presently,China's chemical fiber industry is in a critical period for development,or important transition period.Fully implement and fulfill the "'scientific development concept"put forward by the nation,and take a sustainable development road.The growth model of chemical fiber industry must undergo fundamental transformation from "quantitative"development into "qualitative" development.

  12. Chemical Industry R&D Roadmap for Nanomaterials By Design. From Fundamentals to Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2003-12-01

    Vision2020 agreed to join NNI and the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE/EERE) in sponsoring the "Nanomaterials and the Chemical Industry Roadmap Workshop" on September 30-October 2, 2002. This roadmap, Chemical Industry R&D Roadmap for Nanomaterials By Design: From Fundamentals to Function, is based on the scientific priorities expressed by workshop participants from the chemical industry, universities, and government laboratories.

  13. Energy use and energy intensity of the U.S. chemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian; Einstein, Dan; Martin, Nathan

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. chemical industry is the largest in the world, and responsible for about 11 percent of the U.S. industrial production measured as value added. It consumes approximately 20 percent of total industrial energy consumption in the U.S. (1994), and contributes in similar proportions to U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Surprisingly, there is not much information on energy use and energy intensity in the chemical industry available in the public domain. This report provides detailed info...

  14. Proposal for the development of Emission Scenario Documents on the Chemical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Poel P van der; Bakker J; MEV; SEC

    2005-01-01

    ESDs are documents describing industrial processes in order to be able to estimate releases to the environment. Such documents are lacking for the chemical industry. For this complex branch of industry, sectors have been prioritised for which ESDs are most urgently needed. Subsequently, key concepts and tools are discussed which are instrumental in the production of ESDs for the chemical industry such as life cycle stages, factors influencing emissions and release quantification methods. As s...

  15. A methodology for overall consequence modeling in chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk assessment in chemical process industry is a very important issue for safeguarding human and the ecosystem from damages caused to them. Consequence assessment is an integral part of risk assessment. However, the commonly used consequence estimation methods involve time-consuming complex mathematical models and simple assimilation of losses without considering all the consequence factors. This lead to the deterioration of quality of estimated risk value. So, the consequence modeling has to be performed in detail considering all major losses with optimal time to improve the decisive value of risk. The losses can be broadly categorized into production loss, assets loss, human health and safety loss, and environment loss. In this paper, a conceptual framework is developed to assess the overall consequence considering all the important components of major losses. Secondly, a methodology is developed for the calculation of all the major losses, which are normalized to yield the overall consequence. Finally, as an illustration, the proposed methodology is applied to a case study plant involving benzene extraction. The case study result using the proposed consequence assessment scheme is compared with that from the existing methodologies.

  16. 76 FR 63304 - Guidance for Industry on Incorporation of Physical-Chemical Identifiers Into Solid Oral Dosage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Incorporation of Physical-Chemical Identifiers... announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Incorporation of Physical-Chemical... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Incorporation of...

  17. Advances in Chemical Engineering — A Review of Petrochemical Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Chemical engineering has played an important role in the development of petrochemical industry. Some important advances in chemical engineering have been discussed in detail, i. e. petroleum refining, organic chemicals, synthetic resin, synthetic fibers and relevant raw materials, synthetic rubber, and process energy integration. The main business targets of China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation (SINOPEC Corp.) and the focus of further researches are also addressed.

  18. Summaries of the 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry has been held in Gdansk on 22-26 September 1997. The most valuable scientific results obtained in Polish Laboratories have been presented in 22 main sections and 7 symposia directed especially at following subjects: analytical chemistry, biochemistry, solid state chemistry and material science, physical chemistry, heteroorganic and coordination chemistry, medical and pharmaceutical chemistry, metalorganic chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry, polymers chemistry, chemistry and environment protection, theoretical chemistry, chemical didactics, photochemistry, radiation chemistry and chemical kinetics, chemical engineering, catalysis, crystallochemistry, chemical technology, electrochemistry, and instrumental methods

  19. Study on Industrial Integration Development of the Energy Chemical Industry in Urumqi-Changji-Shihezi Urban Agglomeration, Xinjiang, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiling Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With industrial integration accelerating in domestic and foreign enterprise, industrial integration is becoming the only way for regional development to break through its bottleneck. Compared with advanced foreign enterprises, there exists a significant gap in regional industrial integration, especially in the urban agglomeration of the energy chemical industries of Urumqi-Changji-Shihezi in Xinjiang. Findings from field visits and quantitative analysis show that the energy chemical industry in urban agglomeration is in a state of dispersed distribution, serious convergence in industrial structure, low level of specialization, and weak collaborative relationships. These issues seriously hamper the sustainable development of urban agglomeration. Specific actions aimed at these problems and the development bottleneck mainly include the integration of industrial parks in the central city and integration orientation on the level of urban agglomeration. Only by speeding up the pace of industry integration can Urumqi-Changji-Shihezi’s urban agglomeration maintain and improve its market competitiveness. Accordingly, it can promote innovation and sustainability in the energy chemical industry and improve the overall level of development.

  20. Environmental profiles on chemicals (EPC): A substitution tool i.a. used in the textile industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, John; Laursen, Søren E.;

    2002-01-01

    When dealing with cleaner technology and product development within industries using a lot of different chemicals, substitution is essential. In many cases substitution of hazardous chemicals with less hazardous ones will diminish the environmental impact from the industry in question. But among ...

  1. Regional differences and sources of organochlorine pesticides in soils surrounding chemical industrial parks

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, G; Lu, Y. L.; Li, J.; Wang, T. Y.; Han, Jingyi; Luo, W.; Shi, Y.J.; Jiao, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) were investigated in 105 soil samples collected in vicinity of the chemical industrial parks in Tianjin, China. OCP concentrations significantly varied in the study area, high HCH and DDT levels were found close to the chemical industrial parks. The intensity of agricultural activity and distance from the potential OCP emitters have important infl...

  2. A future perspective on the role of industrial biotechnology for chemicals production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodley, John; Breuer, Michael; Mink, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    established in the pharmaceutical industry but is moving down the value chain toward bulk chemicals. Chemical engineers will have an essential role in the development of new processes where the need is for new design methods for effective implementation, just as much as new technology. Most interesting......The development of recombinant DNA technology, the need for renewable raw materials and a green, sustainable profile for future chemical processes have been major drivers in the implementation of industrial biotechnology. The use of industrial biotechnology for the production of chemicals is well...

  3. Proposal for the development of Emission Scenario Documents on the Chemical Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel P van der; Bakker J; MEV; SEC

    2005-01-01

    ESDs are documents describing industrial processes in order to be able to estimate releases to the environment. Such documents are lacking for the chemical industry. For this complex branch of industry, sectors have been prioritised for which ESDs are most urgently needed. Subsequently, key concepts

  4. Economic Crisis and Industrial Structure of the Chemical Sector in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Vitali Giampaolo

    2010-01-01

    The paper aim is to highlight the transformation of the chemical industry in Italy, after the declining of the large companies (Montedison, Enimont, Snia, etc.) and the rising of many medium- sized firms that have a good international competitiveness. The paper explores the characteristics of the sector: large presence of foreign MNEs, strong links between chemical industry and industrial district productions, high company specialization. The focus is on the competitive advantage of the Itali...

  5. Research on the competitiveness and development strategy of china's modern coal chemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Han, Y. J.; Yu, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    China's modern coal chemical industry has grown into a certain scale after over a decade of development, and remarkable progress has been made in key technologies. But as oil price collapsed since 2015, the economic benefit of the industry also slumped, with loud controversies in China over the necessity of modern coal chemical industry. The research believes that the modern coal chemical industry plays a positive role in the clean and sustainable exploitation of coal in China. It makes profit when oil price is no lower than 60/bbl, and outperforms petrochemical in terms of cost effectiveness when the price is between 60/bbl and 80/bbl. Given the low oil price and challenges posed by environmental protection and water restraints, we suggest that the state announce a guideline quickly, with adjusted tax policies and an encouragement to technological innovation, so that the modern coal chemical industry in China can grow sound and stable.

  6. A multi-attribute Systemic Risk Index for comparing and prioritizing chemical industrial areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measures taken to decrease interdependent risks within chemical industrial areas should be based on quantitative data from a holistic (cluster-based) point of view. Therefore, this paper examines the typology of networks representing industrial areas to formulate recommendations to more effectively protect a chemical cluster against existing systemic risks. Chemical industrial areas are modeled as two distinct complex networks and are prioritized by computing two sub-indices with respect to existing systemic safety and security risks (using Domino Danger Units) and supply chain risks (using units from an ordinal expert scale). Subsequently, a Systemic Risk Index for the industrial area is determined employing the Borda algorithm, whereby the systemic risk index considers both a safety and security network risk index and a supply chain network risk index. The developed method allows decreasing systemic risks within chemical industrial areas from a holistic (inter-organizational and/or inter-cluster) perspective. An illustrative example is given.

  7. Globalization : the challenge of the 1990s for the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenges facing the chemical industry in Canada were discussed. In recent years, Canada has scored low in polls measuring public confidence in the chemical industry. The industry is also suffering from continuing recession, global competition, increased environmental demands and strict legislation. The impact of globalization, total quality management, free trade, environmental concerns, and government policies on the chemical industry were reviewed. In the view of this author (President and CEO of Dow Chemicals) globalization is not a matter of choice, it is an industry imperative. Survival in the globalized economy will require not only to be successful competitors, but even more importantly to be successful cooperators with other stakeholders, and successful in forming partnerships with customers

  8. Adapting SimpleTreat for simulating behaviour of chemical substances during industrial sewage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struijs, J; van de Meent, D; Schowanek, D; Buchholz, H; Patoux, R; Wolf, T; Austin, T; Tolls, J; van Leeuwen, K; Galay-Burgos, M

    2016-09-01

    The multimedia model SimpleTreat, evaluates the distribution and elimination of chemicals by municipal sewage treatment plants (STP). It is applied in the framework of REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals). This article describes an adaptation of this model for application to industrial sewage treatment plants (I-STP). The intended use of this re-parametrized model is focused on risk assessment during manufacture and subsequent uses of chemicals, also in the framework of REACH. The results of an inquiry on the operational characteristics of industrial sewage treatment installations were used to re-parameterize the model. It appeared that one property of industrial sewage, i.e. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) in combination with one parameter of the activated sludge process, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) is satisfactory to define treatment of industrial wastewater by means of the activated sludge process. The adapted model was compared to the original municipal version, SimpleTreat 4.0, by means of a sensitivity analysis. The consistency of the model output was assessed by computing the emission to water from an I-STP of a set of fictitious chemicals. This set of chemicals exhibit a range of physico-chemical and biodegradability properties occurring in industrial wastewater. Predicted removal rates of a chemical from raw sewage are higher in industrial than in municipal STPs. The latter have typically shorter hydraulic retention times with diminished opportunity for elimination of the chemical due to volatilization and biodegradation. PMID:27344605

  9. Profile of the chemicals industry in California: Californiaindustries of the future program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) established the Industries of the Future (IOF) program to increase energy efficiency, reduce waste production and to improve competitiveness, currently focusing on nine sectors. The IOF is a partnership strategy involving industry, the research community and the government, working together to identify technology needs, promote industrial partnerships and implement joint measures with all partners involved. The State Industries of the Future (SIOF) program delivers the accomplishments of the national Industries of the Future strategy to the local level, to expand the technology opportunities to a larger number of partners and reach smaller businesses and manufacturers that were not initially involved in the IOF effort. The state programs bring together industry, academia, and state agencies to address the important issues confronting industry in the state. These public-private coalitions facilitate industry solutions locally and enhance economic development. California has started a State Industries of the Future effort, in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy. The California Energy Commission (CEC) is leading the SIOF program in California, as part of many other programs to improve the energy efficiency and performance of industries in California. The California State IOF program aims to build a network of participants from industry, academia and government in four selected industrial sectors as a basis for the development of a strategic partnership for industrial energy efficient technology in the state. In California the IOF effort focuses petroleum refining, chemical processing, food processing and electronics. As part of this effort, the SIOF program will develop roadmaps for technology development for the selected sectors. On the basis of the roadmap, the program will develop successful projects with co-funding from state and federal government, and promote industry

  10. Profile of the chemicals industry in California: Californiaindustries of the future program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) established the Industries of the Future (IOF) program to increase energy efficiency, reduce waste production and to improve competitiveness, currently focusing on nine sectors. The IOF is a partnership strategy involving industry, the research community and the government, working together to identify technology needs, promote industrial partnerships and implement joint measures with all partners involved. The State Industries of the Future (SIOF) program delivers the accomplishments of the national Industries of the Future strategy to the local level, to expand the technology opportunities to a larger number of partners and reach smaller businesses and manufacturers that were not initially involved in the IOF effort. The state programs bring together industry, academia, and state agencies to address the important issues confronting industry in the state. These public-private coalitions facilitate industry solutions locally and enhance economic development. California has started a State Industries of the Future effort, in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy. The California Energy Commission (CEC) is leading the SIOF program in California, as part of many other programs to improve the energy efficiency and performance of industries in California. The California State IOF program aims to build a network of participants from industry, academia and government in four selected industrial sectors as a basis for the development of a strategic partnership for industrial energy efficient technology in the state. In California the IOF effort focuses petroleum refining, chemical processing, food processing and electronics. As part of this effort, the SIOF program will develop roadmaps for technology development for the selected sectors. On the basis of the roadmap, the program will develop successful projects with co-funding from state and federal government, and promote industry

  11. Advances in Chemical Engineering A Review of Petrochemical Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪定一

    2001-01-01

    Chemical engineering has played an important role in the development of petrochemical industry. Some important advances in chemical engineering have been discussed in detail, i. e. petroleum refining, organic chemicals,synthetic resin, synthetic fibers and relevant raw materials, synthetic rubber, and process energy integration. The main business targets of China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation (SINOPEC Corp.) and the focus of further researches axe also addressed.

  12. The market for technology in the chemical industry: causes and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Ashish; Fosfuri, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    The chemical industry provides a good example of the existence and functioning of a market for technology. This paper suggests that, in chemicals, patents have played a key role in facilitating the purchase and sale of technology. However, patents alone would not be sufficient for the rise of a market for technology. We suggest that the presence of specialized engineering firms has contributed to make chemical technology more widespread and has forced the large chemical corporations ...

  13. BIOMASS AS A RENEWABLE SOURCE OF CHEMICALS FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, M. Murtala; Nasri, N. Shawal; Hamza, D. Usman

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide demand for cleaner burning fuels and ‘clean’ chemicals has been increasing from the global issues of environmental concern. This lead to a greater utilization of renewable resources to replace the old and existing fossil based feedstock for liquid fuels and chemicals. The ability to re-grow harvested biomass and recapture the carbon emitted to the atmosphere through photosynthesis allows the possibility of carbon neutrality encouraged the use of biomass. Moreso, the unstable rise of...

  14. Process chemicals in the oil and gas industry: potential occupational hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottle, M K; Guidotti, T L

    1990-01-01

    Numerous chemicals are used in various processes of the oil and gas industry: drilling, cementing, completion, stimulation, and production. The number and the complexity of composition of process chemicals has increased greatly over the last three decades. The occupational hazards of exposure to these agents has received little attention. We reviewed the various processes in the industry, the type of chemicals used in each process, and some of their characteristics. We placed emphasis on those for which significant toxicity has been established or is suspected, and those for which there is incomplete information on their chemistry and health hazards. This report is intended to form a basis for a more complete survey of the process chemicals, and to draw attention to the possibilities for toxic exposure resulting from use of these agents in the oil and gas industry. The ultimate objective is to promote the safe use of these agents in the industry. PMID:2190356

  15. Implementation Plan for Chemical Industry R&D Roadmap for Nanomaterials by Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this effort is to develop an implementation plan to realize the vision and goals identified in the Chemical Industry R&D Roadmap for Nanomaterials By Design: From Fundamentals to Function.

  16. Factors Influencing the Spatial Distribution of Organochlorine Pesticides in Soils surrounding Chemical Industrial Parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; Lu, Y.L.; Wang, T.Y.; Zhang, X.; Han, J.Y.; Luo, W.; Shi, Y.J.; Li, J.; Jiao, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    Topsoil samples (n = 105) were collected to Study the distribution of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) residues in the vicinity of chemical industrial parks in Tianjin, China. The occurrence and distribution of target organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were mapped

  17. Proceedings of national symposium on innovative strategies for cost competitiveness in Indian chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings are structured in such a manner to cover all the facets of the chemical industry and the cost competitiveness. The topics covered also include membrane technology, nuclear desalination, heavy water production and other topics connected with nuclear industry. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  18. Web based distance education in chemical industrial plants

    OpenAIRE

    De Giusti, Armando Eduardo; Pessacq, Raúl Adolfo

    2005-01-01

    The development of ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) and their application in Engineering Education (in a knowledge-centered world) is one of the axes of an ongoing educative transformation. In particular, when the objective is updating professionals and training the industrial plant personnel at the work place, the use of Distance Education tools is of utmost importance. The employment of “Web Based” technologies allows using an expert’s know-how, without requiring his/her pr...

  19. Assessing the effectiveness of chemical treatment with nanomaterials in improving the quality of different industrial effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Verónica Inês Jesus Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Industrial activities are the major sources of pollution in all environments. Depending on the type of industry, various levels of organic and inorganic pollutants are being continuously discharged into the environment. Although, several kinds of physical, chemical, biological or the combination of methods have been proposed and applied to minimize the impact of industrial effluents, few have proved to be totally effective in terms of removal rates of several contaminants, toxicity reduction ...

  20. Technology Roadmap: Energy and GHG reductions in the chemical industry via catalytic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The chemical industry is a large energy user; but chemical products and technologies also are used in a wide array of energy saving and/or renewable energy applications so the industry has also an energy saving role. The chemical and petrochemical sector is by far the largest industrial energy user, accounting for roughly 10% of total worldwide final energy demand and 7% of global GHG emissions. The International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) has partnered with the IEA and DECHEMA (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology) to describe the path toward further improvements in energy efficiency and GHG reductions in the chemical sector. The roadmap looks at measures needed from the chemical industry, policymakers, investors and academia to press on with catalysis technology and unleash its potential around the globe. The report uncovers findings and best practice opportunities that illustrate how continuous improvements and breakthrough technology options can cut energy use and bring down greenhouse gas (GHG) emission rates. Around 90% of chemical processes involve the use of catalysts – such as added substances that increase the rate of reaction without being consumed by it – and related processes to enhance production efficiency and reduce energy use, thereby curtailing GHG emission levels. This work shows an energy savings potential approaching 13 exajoules (EJ) by 2050 – equivalent to the current annual primary energy use of Germany.

  1. China’s Coal Chemical Industry: In the View of Governance Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiaoran; Wang, Dong

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the China’s coal chemical strategy. As a part of national energy strategy, China’s coal chemical industry induces conflicts on technical level, economic level and policy level. The analysis of this paper is under the policy framework and discusses the causes and effects of these conflicts and also proposes some possible solutions.

  2. Forecasting global developments in the basic chemical industry for environmental policy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeren, M.L.M.; Saygin, D.; Patel, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical sector is the largest industrial energy user, but detailed analysis of its energy use developments lags behind other energy-intensive sectors. A cost-driven forecasting model for basic chemicals production is developed, accounting for regional production costs, demand growth and stock t

  3. Value chain management for commodities: a case study from the chemical industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kannegiesser, M.; Günther, H.O.; Beek, van P.; Grunow, M.; Habla, C.

    2009-01-01

    We present a planning model for chemical commodities related to an industry case. Commodities are standard chemicals characterized by sales and supply volatility in volume and value. Increasing and volatile prices of crude oil-dependent raw materials require coordination of sales and supply decision

  4. Management of change: Lessons learned from staff reductions in the chemical process industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Gort, J.; Steijger, N.; Moonen, C.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing global competition and shareholder pressure are causing major changes in the chemical industry. Over the last decade companies have been continuously improving staff efficiency. As a result, most modern chemical plants can be regarded as lean. Plans to further reduce the number of staff h

  5. An integrated approach towards safety during change in the chemical process industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gort, J.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Lemkowitz, S.; Steijger, N.; Moonen, C.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing global competition and shareholder pressure cause major changes in the chemical industry. Over the last decade companies continuously improve their manpower efficiency. As a result most chemical plants of today can be regarded as lean plants. Plans to further reduce the number of staff ar

  6. Producing Bio-Based Bulk Chemicals Using Industrial Biotechnology Saves Energy and Combats Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermann, B.G.; Blok, K.; Patel, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The production of bulk chemicals from biomass can make a significant contribution to solving two of the most urgent environmental problems: climate change and depletion of fossil energy. We analyzed current and future technology routes leading to 15 bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology and

  7. Fundamentals of cleaner technology in the chemicals industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmler, W

    1982-10-01

    Basic synthetic processes start with more or less inert material of natural origin, both inorganic and organic matter. Process energy is the agent for converting starting material of low reactivity into highly reactive derivatives or elements. The principles of chemical reactions as first steps of synthesis are explained along with the formation of by-products. The second steps of applying separation techniques for purposes of concentration and purification of products desired and of extracting unwanted and harmful products to be reused or eliminated are presented as critical examples. Reuse of by-products within the limits of chemical recycling, as well as degradation or final waste disposal, are shown as third steps. A concept of cleaner technology is outlined as an unachievable aim due to natural limitations of both entropy and energy. PMID:7169033

  8. Working capital management in the Swiss chemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Seeger, S.; Locker, A.; Jergen, C

    2011-01-01

    The performance of Swiss based chemical and pharmaceutical companies regarding their working capital management and its underlying components, namely accounts receivable, inventories and accounts payable differs over time and between the single firms. The calculation of a cash potential for the year 2008 shows that 17 billion CHF is tied up in the companies’ balance sheets if they would realise the Swiss best practice performance. It has also been shown that in rece...

  9. Essentials of water systems design in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Alireza; Boyd, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Essentials of Water Systems Design in the Oil, Gas and Chemical Processing Industries provides valuable insight for decision makers by outlining key technical considerations and requirements of four critical systems in industrial processing plants—water treatment systems, raw water and plant water systems, cooling water distribution and return systems, and fire water distribution and storage facilities. The authors identify the key technical issues and minimum requirements related to the process design and selection of various water supply systems used in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries. This book is an ideal, multidisciplinary work for mechanical engineers, environmental scientists, and oil and gas process engineers.

  10. Quantitative Exposure Assessment of Various Chemical Substances in a Wafer Fabrication Industry Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyunhee; Jang, Jae-Kil; Shin, Jung-Ah

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to evaluate exposure levels of various chemicals used in wafer fabrication product lines in the semiconductor industry where work-related leukemia has occurred. Methods The research focused on 9 representative wafer fabrication bays among a total of 25 bays in a semiconductor product line. We monitored the chemical substances categorized as human carcinogens with respect to leukemia as well as harmful chemicals used in the bays and substances with hematologi...

  11. Fossils as Key Resources of Hydrocarbons for the Chemical Industry - The Burning Problem of Industrial Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kopytowski, J.A.; Wojtania, J.; Zebrowski, M.

    1981-01-01

    Intensive research is being pursued world-wide to establish a methodology for industrial development. Many types of changes play an important role in the dynamics of the industrial structure in both large and small economies. The global energy supply and future substitution of crude oil are among the most important and widely investigated constraints. With the existing patterns of production and development strongly determined by the specific conditions in a given region, the development of v...

  12. Development of A Flexible System for the Simultaneous Conversion of Biomass to Industrial Chemicals and the Production of Industrial Biocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Johnway; Hooker, Brian S.; Skeen, R S.; Anderson, D B.; Lankey, R. L.; Anastas, P. T.

    2002-01-01

    A flexible system was developed for the simultaneous conversion of biomass to industrial chemicals and the production of industrial biocatalysts. In particular, the expression of a bacterial enzyme, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), was investigated using a genetically modified starch-degrading Saccharomyces strain in suspension cultures in starch media. Different sources of starch including corn and waste potato starch were used for yeast biomass accumulation and GUS expression studies under controls of inducible and constitutive promoters. A thermostable bacterial cellulase, Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase gene was also cloned into an episomal plasmid expression vector and expressed in the starch-degrading Saccharomyces strain.

  13. Research, climate, energy : Questions of destiny for the chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastinen, A., email: aimo.kastinen@chemind.fi

    2010-07-01

    Registration for the first phase of Reach finishes at the end of November. Then we will see whether the standard of legislation has been set correctly in respect of the EU's operational ability. If it isn't, significant problems will result for the community's treatment of materials and the EU's competitiveness, and Reach's value as a global model will become questionable. Also, the CLP regulation concerning classification, labelling and packaging of chemicals will start to come into effect as from the beginning of December. In the first phase, the question is one of classification of substances, and gradually the requirements will be applied to mixtures too. At the same time, Safety Data Sheets shall be renewed in accordance with their own transition period. The current product legislation concerning chemicals shall be fully revised by the mid-point of the decade, but before then company safety officers will have to do lots of work to change the previous routines

  14. Alternative routes for the chemical industry regarding US shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneissel, B. [Stratley AG, Koeln (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Cracking ethane from wet shale gas in North America sets a bench mark to global ethylene production costs. Regarding very attractive ethane prices from extraction of low cost wet shale gas we suggest in North America ethylene production costs will roughly vary between 400 and 600 $/ t. As in other parts of the world, except Middle East, the availability of ethane seems to be more limited other sources for ethylene, such as methane, coal and biomass are investigated. Oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) has its limits and may only lead to competitive production costs for large scale operations. Coal converted to ethylene via calcium carbide and subsequent hydrogenation may hardly be a viable answer. Ethylene derived by dehydration of ethanol from fermentation of corn sugar may be an answer for very low crop prices. Further research on the conversion of methane with emphasis on its industrial implementation as a major carbon resource is recommended. (orig.)

  15. How to secure sustainable competitiveness of Chemical Industry Parks:global competitive challenges and a systematic, customer-centric response

    OpenAIRE

    Behrendt, C

    2013-01-01

    The central question of the following paper is how Chemical Industry Park operators could systematically integrate the external investors' perspective into their decisions about the park's future competitive positioning and continuous improvement of operational excellence. In today's chemical industry landscape, Chemical Industry Parks and their operators face great challenges. On the one hand, they have to meet increased and more complex demands of globally-active chemical companies. On the ...

  16. Progress of environmental management and risk assessment of industrial chemicals in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With China’s rapid economic growth, chemical-related environmental issues have become increasingly prominent, and the environmental management of chemicals has garnered increased attention from the government. This review focuses on the current situation and the application of risk assessment in China’s environmental management of industrial chemicals. The related challenges and research needs of the country are also discussed. The Chinese government promulgated regulations for the import and export of toxic chemicals in 1994. Regulations for new chemical substances came into force in 2003, and were revised in 2010 based on the concept of risk management. In order to support the implementation of new regulations, Guidance for Risk Assessment of Chemicals is under development in an attempt to provide the concepts and techniques of risk assessment. With increasing concern and financial support from Chinese government, China is embarking on the fast track of research and development in environmental management of industrial chemicals. - This paper reviews the current situation of industrial chemical management in China, and discusses the application of risk assessment and further research needs in this field.

  17. Chemical industrial wastewater treated by combined biological and chemical oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guomin, Cao; Guoping, Yang; Mei, Sheng; Yongjian, Wang

    2009-01-01

    Wastewaters from phenol and rubber synthesis were treated by the activated sludge process in a large-scale chemical factory in Shanghai, but the final effluent quality cannot conform with the local discharge limit without using river water for dilution. Therefore, this chemical factory had to upgrade its wastewater treatment plant. To fully use the present buildings and equipment during upgrading of the chemical factory's wastewater treatment plant and to save operation costs, a sequential biological pre-treatement, chemical oxidation, and biological post-treatment (or BCB for short) process had been proposed and investigated in a pilot trial. The pilot trial results showed that about 80% COD in the chemical wastewater could be removed through anoxic and aerobic degradation in the biological pre-treatement section, and the residual COD in the effluent of the biological pre-treatment section belongs to refractory chemicals which cannot be removed by the normal biological process. The refractory chemicals were partial oxidized using Fenton's reagent in the chemical oxidation section to improve their biodegradability; subsequently the wastewater was treated by the SBR process in the biological post-treatment section. The final effluent COD reached the first grade discharge limit (process, the operation cost of the BCB process increased by about 0.5 yuan (RMB) per cubic metre wastewater, but about 1,240,000 m(3) a(-1) dilution water could be saved and the COD emission could be cut down by 112 tonne each year.

  18. Federal agencies active in chemical industry-related research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-29

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 calls for a program to further the commercialization of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies for the industrial sector.. The primary objective of the Office of Industrial Technologies Chemical Industry Team is to work in partnership with the US chemical industry to maximize economic, energy, and environmental benefits through research and development of innovative technologies. This document was developed to inventory organizations within the federal government on current chemical industry-related research and development. While an amount of funding or number of projects specifically relating to chemical industry research and development was not defined in all organizations, identified were about 60 distinct organizations representing 7 cabinet-level departments and 4 independent agencies, with research efforts exceeding $3.5 billion in fiscal year 1995. Effort were found to range from less than $500 thousand per year at the Departments of Agriculture and the Interior to over $100 million per year at the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and Health and Human Services and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The total number of projects in these programs exceeded 10,000. This document is complete to the extent that agencies volunteered information. Additions, corrections, and changes are encouraged and will be incorporated in future revisions.

  19. Education in petrochemical industry as prevention from chemical terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical and technological accidents in petrochemical industry, with possible catastrophic consequences, caused by anthropogenic activity (technical or technological malfunction, terror, or war destruction ), usually accompanied by great human losses and material damage and high intensity of events in a relatively short period of time, which requires a quick action of emergency responders, process personnel and the high degree of self-organized endangered population for treatment in these kind of accidents. This implies a high qualification and skills for the treatment of accidents of all factors of rescue and protection such as: process personnel, emergency responders (fire-fighters, technical services), other workers as well as the endangered population. Managing the system of protection and rescue in communities with such risks requires maximum responsibility of local authorities and management of petrochemical plants. Petrokemija Kutina, with its many years of experience as a target for military and terrorist attacks, actively participated in the creation of laws and systems of protection and rescue in the Republic of Croatia, and also in creating standard operating procedures on local and regional level, and is also ready to share its own experiences with other similar factories using toxic substances in the production processes.(author)

  20. Undisclosed chemicals--implications for risk assessment: a case study from the mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Khareen; Oates, Christopher; Plant, Jane; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Many of the chemicals used in industry can be hazardous to human health and the environment, and some formulations can have undisclosed ingredients and hazards, increasing the uncertainty of the risks posed by their use. The need for a better understanding of the extent of undisclosed information in chemicals arose from collecting data on the hazards and exposures of chemicals used in typical mining operations (copper, platinum and coal). Four main categories of undisclosed chemicals were defined (incomplete disclosure; chemicals with unspecific identities; relative quantities of ingredients not stated; and trade secret ingredients) by reviewing material safety data sheet (MSDS) omissions in previous studies. A significant number of chemicals (20% of 957 different chemicals) across the three sites had a range of undisclosed information, with majority of the chemicals (39%) having unspecific identities. The majority of undisclosed information was found in commercially available motor oils followed by cleaning products and mechanical maintenance products, as opposed to reagents critical to the main mining processes. All three types of chemicals had trade secrets, unspecific chemical identities and incomplete disclosures. These types of undisclosed information pose a hindrance to a full understanding of the hazards, which is made worse when combined with additional MSDS omissions such as acute toxicity endpoints (LD50) and/or acute aquatic toxicity endpoints (LC50), as well as inadequate hazard classifications of ingredients. The communication of the hazard information in the MSDSs varied according to the chemical type, the manufacturer and the regulations governing the MSDSs. Undisclosed information can undermine occupational health protection, compromise the safety of workers in industry, hinder risk assessment procedures and cause uncertainty about future health. It comes down to the duty of care that industries have towards their employees. With a wide range of

  1. LIGNOCELLULOSIC FEEDSTOCK BIOREFINERY—THE FUTURE OF CHEMICAL AND ENERGY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengdong Zhu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development of the chemical and energy industry is an indispensable component of our sustainable society. However, the traditional chemical and energy industry depends heavily on such non-renewable fossil resources as oil, coal, and natural gas. Its feedstock shortage and the resultant environmental and climatic problems pose a great threat for any type of sustainable development. Lignocellulosic materials are the most abundant renewable resources in the world and their efficient utilization provides a practical route to address these challenges. The lignocellulosic feedstock bio-refinery is an effective model for the comprehensive utilization of lignocellulosic materials, and it will play vital role in the future development of chemical and energy industry.

  2. Evaluation model for safety capacity of chemical industrial park based on acceptable regional risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guohua Chen; Shukun Wang; Xiaoqun Tan

    2015-01-01

    The paper defines the Safety Capacity of Chemical Industrial Park (SCCIP) from the perspective of acceptable regional risk. For the purpose of exploring the evaluation model for the SCCIP, a method based on quantitative risk assessment was adopted for evaluating transport risk and to confirm reasonable safety transport capacity of chemical industrial park, and then by combining with the safety storage capacity, a SCCIP evaluation model was put forward. The SCCIP was decided by the smaller one between the largest safety storage capacity and the maximum safety transport capacity, or else, the regional risk of the park will exceed the acceptable level. The developed method was applied to a chemical industrial park in Guangdong province to obtain the maximum safety transport capacity and the SCCIP. The results can be realized in the regional risk control of the park effectively.

  3. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-11-15

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes.

  4. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian;

    2015-01-01

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played...... chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes....... an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine...

  5. "A Note on New Product Project Selection Model: Empirical Analysis in Chemical Industry" (in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Kenichi Kuwashima; Junichi Tomita

    2001-01-01

    By focusing its attention on one particular scoring method that is used to evaluate R&D projects, this paper seeks to specify empirically the factors that discriminate successful projects from failed projects in the Japanese chemical industry. Our statistical analysis revealed that when projects are evaluated in this industry, three factors, marketability, technology, and synergistic potential, tend to be valued by practitioners approximately in a 3:2:1 ratio. Although the project evaluations...

  6. Predicting work-related flow in the chemical industry / Erika Maree

    OpenAIRE

    Maree, Erika

    2008-01-01

    In a new world of work characterised by competitiveness, benchmarking, technological innovation and efficiency, the South African chemical industry needs to function at an optimal level to meet the demands of its stakeholders and employees. The industry needs leadership of the highest standard and an efficient, productive workforce. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between leader empowering behaviour, self-efficacy, job resources and work-related flow for empl...

  7. Implementation of Responsible Care in the chemical industry: Evidence from Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelinos, K.I. [University of the Aegean, Department of Environment, University Hill, 81100, Mytilini (Greece); Nikolaou, I.E., E-mail: inikol@env.duth.gr [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Environmental Engineering, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100, Xanthi (Greece); Karagiannis, A. [General Chemical State Laboratory Division of Rhodos, Haritou Square 17, 85100, Rodos (Greece)

    2010-05-15

    The chemical industry can be held accountable for numerous large-scale accidents which have led to the release of dangerous hazardous materials, pollutants and toxic chemicals into the environment, two well-known examples being the Union Carbide Bhopal disaster and the Three Mile Island tragedy). To ensure environmental protection and the Health and Safety (H and S) of communities, the chemical industry has voluntarily adopted integrated management programs such as the Responsible Care Program. The theoretical body of relevant literature attempts to explain the origin of the Responsible Care Program (RCP) through socio-political and economic theories. At the same time, the empirical research examines the ways in which various factors affect the choice of the chemical industry in their adoption of the RCP. This paper contributes to the debate by examining the challenges and barriers faced by the Greek chemical industry when adopting RCP, the environmental and H and S issues that prevail and finally, the extent of participation of stakeholders in the planning of RCP in the sector.

  8. Implementation of Responsible Care in the chemical industry: Evidence from Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical industry can be held accountable for numerous large-scale accidents which have led to the release of dangerous hazardous materials, pollutants and toxic chemicals into the environment, two well-known examples being the Union Carbide Bhopal disaster and the Three Mile Island tragedy). To ensure environmental protection and the Health and Safety (H and S) of communities, the chemical industry has voluntarily adopted integrated management programs such as the Responsible Care Program. The theoretical body of relevant literature attempts to explain the origin of the Responsible Care Program (RCP) through socio-political and economic theories. At the same time, the empirical research examines the ways in which various factors affect the choice of the chemical industry in their adoption of the RCP. This paper contributes to the debate by examining the challenges and barriers faced by the Greek chemical industry when adopting RCP, the environmental and H and S issues that prevail and finally, the extent of participation of stakeholders in the planning of RCP in the sector.

  9. Reducing aquatic hazards of industrial chemicals: probabilistic assessment of sustainable molecular design guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Kristin A; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina M; Kostal, Jakub; Anastas, Paul; Zimmerman, Julie B; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-08-01

    Basic toxicological information is lacking for the majority of industrial chemicals. In addition to increasing empirical toxicity data through additional testing, prospective computational approaches to drug development aim to serve as a rational basis for the design of chemicals with reduced toxicity. Recent work has resulted in the derivation of a "rule of 2," wherein chemicals with an octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) less than 2 and a difference between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital (ΔE) greater than 9 (log P9 eV) are predicted to be 4 to 5 times less likely to elicit acute or chronic toxicity to model aquatic organisms. The present study examines potential reduction of aquatic toxicity hazards from industrial chemicals if these 2 molecular design guidelines were employed. Probabilistic hazard assessment approaches were used to model the likelihood of encountering industrial chemicals exceeding toxicological categories of concern both with and without the rule of 2. Modeling predicted that utilization of these molecular design guidelines for log P and ΔE would appreciably decrease the number of chemicals that would be designated to be of "high" and "very high" concern for acute and chronic toxicity to standard model aquatic organisms and end points as defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. For example, 14.5% of chemicals were categorized as having high and very high acute toxicity to the fathead minnow model, whereas only 3.3% of chemicals conforming to the design guidelines were predicted to be in these categories. Considerations of specific chemical classes (e.g., aldehydes), chemical attributes (e.g., ionization), and adverse outcome pathways in representative species (e.g., receptor-mediated responses) could be used to derive future property guidelines for broader classes of contaminants.

  10. Closing the loop: Captured CO2 as a feedstock in the chemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Alexander; Grube, Thomas; Schiebahn, Sebastian; Stolten, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of ‘captured’ CO2 as a feedstock in the chemical industry for the synthesis of certain chemical products offers an option for preventing several million tons of CO2 emissions each year while increasing independence from fossil fuels. For this reason, interest is increasing in the feasibility of deploying captured CO2 in this manner. Numerous scientific publications describe laboratory experiments in which CO2 has been successfully used as a feedstock for the synthesis of vario...

  11. Producing Bio-Based Bulk Chemicals Using Industrial Biotechnology Saves Energy and Combats Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann, B.G.; de Blok, K; Patel, M.K. (Martin)

    2007-01-01

    The production of bulk chemicals from biomass can make a significant contribution to solving two of the most urgent environmental problems: climate change and depletion of fossil energy. We analyzed current and future technology routes leading to 15 bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology and calculated their CO2 emissions and fossil energy use. Savings of more than 100% in non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions are already possible with current state of the art biotechno...

  12. Used solid catalysts from chemical and petrochemical industries; Les catalyseurs solides uses de l`industrie chimique et du raffinage petrolier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    A comprehensive survey of the solid catalysts used in the chemical and petrochemical industries is presented; information on solid catalyst market demand prospective for 1998, the nature of solid catalysts used in the various industrial sectors and for the various chemical products production, the european catalysts manufacturers, solid catalyst poisons and inhibitors according to the various types of chemical reactions, mean compositions of used solid catalysts, an assessment of the volume of used solid catalysts generated by chemical and petrochemical industries, the various ways of solid catalyst regeneration and disposal, the potential for off-site regeneration of used catalysts, and French and European regulations, is presented

  13. Co-exposure with fullerene may strengthen health effects of organic industrial chemicals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maili Lehto

    Full Text Available In vitro toxicological studies together with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations show that occupational co-exposure with C60 fullerene may strengthen the health effects of organic industrial chemicals. The chemicals studied are acetophenone, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, m-cresol, and toluene which can be used with fullerene as reagents or solvents in industrial processes. Potential co-exposure scenarios include a fullerene dust and organic chemical vapor, or a fullerene solution aerosolized in workplace air. Unfiltered and filtered mixtures of C60 and organic chemicals represent different co-exposure scenarios in in vitro studies where acute cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of C60 and organic chemicals are tested together and alone by using human THP-1-derived macrophages. Statistically significant co-effects are observed for an unfiltered mixture of benzaldehyde and C60 that is more cytotoxic than benzaldehyde alone, and for a filtered mixture of m-cresol and C60 that is slightly less cytotoxic than m-cresol. Hydrophobicity of chemicals correlates with co-effects when secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α is considered. Complementary atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveal that C60 co-aggregates with all chemicals in aqueous environment. Stable aggregates have a fullerene-rich core and a chemical-rich surface layer, and while essentially all C60 molecules aggregate together, a portion of organic molecules remains in water.

  14. Status and direction of waste minimization in the chemical and petrochemical industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englande Junior, A.J. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an evaluation of the status and direction of toxic/hazardous waste reduction in chemical and petrochemical industries from an international perspective. In almost all cases studied savings have resulted. The importance of pollution prevention by `clean technologies` instead of remediation is stressed. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. Towards consistent and reliable Dutch and international energy statistics for the chemical industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, M.L.; Pouwelse, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Consistent and reliable energy statistics are of vital importance for proper monitoring of energy-efficiency policies. In recent studies, irregularities have been reported in the Dutch energy statistics for the chemical industry. We studied in depth the company data that form the basis of the energy

  16. An Alternative Educational Approach for an Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Course in Industrial and Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Andres; Sanchez-Barba, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    We describe an alternative educational approach for an inorganic chemistry laboratory module named "Experimentation in Chemistry", which is included in Industrial Engineering and Chemical Engineering courses. The main aims of the new approach were to reduce the high levels of failure and dropout on the module and to make the content match the…

  17. Potential Challenges Faced by the U.S. Chemicals Industry under a Carbon Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bassi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemicals have become the backbone of manufacturing within industrialized economies. Being energy-intensive materials to produce, this sector is threatened by policies aimed at combating and adapting to climate change. This study examines the worst-case scenario for the U.S. chemicals industry when a medium CO2 price policy is employed. After examining possible industry responses, the study goes on to identify and provide a preliminary evaluation of potential opportunities to mitigate these impacts. If climate regulations are applied only in the United States, and no action is taken to invest in advanced low- and no-carbon technologies to mitigate the impacts of rising energy costs, the examination shows that climate policies that put a price on carbon could have substantial impacts on the competiveness of the U.S. chemicals industry over the next two decades. In the long run, there exist technologies that are available to enable the chemicals sector to achieve sufficient efficiency gains to offset and manage the additional energy costs arising from a climate policy.

  18. Physical, microscopic and chemical characterisation of industrial rye and wheat brans from the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal-Eldin, A; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik;

    2009-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies show inverse relationship between intake of wholegrain cereals and several chronic diseases. Components and mechanisms behind possible protective effects of wholegrain cereals are poorly understood. Objective: To characterise commercial rye bran preparations, c...... variation in the chemical composition of industrially produced rye brans calls for the need of standardisation of this commodity, especially when used as a functional ingredient in foods....

  19. Communicating CSR and Business Identity in the Chemical Industry through Mission Slogans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verboven, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the communication of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate image in the chemical industry through mission slogans. Morsing's (2006) CSR communication framework is adapted for a comparative analysis of the strategies behind mission slogans. By grouping rhetorical strategies in a mission slogan into a mission…

  20. European Union-Emission Trading Scheme: outlook for the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 2013, under the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS), Europe will cap its emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and per-fluorocarbons (PFC) from the chemical industry. Besides, 336 chemical industry facilities will be forced to limit their emissions at 45.8 million tons of CO2 per year from 2013 to 2020. At date August 1, 2012, almost 70% of the carbon credits issued by the clean development mechanism (CDM) were carried out mainly through the destruction of hydro-fluorocarbons (HFC-23) (42%) and N2O (22%). The contribution of emission reductions through chemical processes in the Joint Implementation (JI) projects is smaller but still amounted to 32% of all projects. From 1 May 2013 the European Union will refuse CDM and JI credits from emission reductions of HFC-23 and N2O. The issues of the introduction of the chemical industry in the EU-ETS in the context of low CO2 prices and limited validity of CDM and JI chemical projects are high. Therefore, domestic CO2 emissions reductions from energy consumption of the chemistry sector will take a larger share. (authors)

  1. Energy use and energy intensity of the U.S. chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, E.; Phylipsen, D.; Einstein, D.; Martin, N.

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. chemical industry is the largest in the world, and responsible for about 11% of the U.S. industrial production measured as value added. It consumes approximately 20% of total industrial energy consumption in the U.S. (1994), and contributes in similar proportions to U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Surprisingly, there is not much information on energy use and energy intensity in the chemical industry available in the public domain. This report provides detailed information on energy use and energy intensity for the major groups of energy-intensive chemical products. Ethylene production is the major product in terms of production volume of the petrochemical industry. The petrochemical industry (SIC 2869) produces a wide variety of products. However, most energy is used for a small number of intermediate compounds, of which ethylene is the most important one. Based on a detailed assessment we estimate fuel use for ethylene manufacture at 520 PJ (LHV), excluding feedstock use. Energy intensity is estimated at 26 GJ/tonne ethylene (LHV), excluding feedstocks.The nitrogenous fertilizer production is a very energy intensive industry, producing a variety of fertilizers and other nitrogen-compounds. Ammonia is the most important intermediate chemical compound, used as basis for almost all products. Fuel use is estimated at 268 PJ (excluding feedstocks) while 368 PJ natural gas is used as feedstock. Electricity consumption is estimated at 14 PJ. We estimate the energy intensity of ammonia manufacture at 39.3 GJ/tonne (including feedstocks, HHV) and 140 kWh/tonne, resulting in a specific primary energy consumption of 40.9 GJ/tonne (HHV), equivalent to 37.1 GJ/tonne (LHV). Excluding natural gas use for feedstocks the primary energy consumption is estimated at 16.7 GJ/tonne (LHV). The third most important product from an energy perspective is the production of chlorine and caustic soda. Chlorine is produced through electrolysis of a salt-solution. Chlorine production is

  2. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  3. CO{sub 2} emissions and reduction potential in China's chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Bing [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); Zhou, Wenji; Hu, Shanying; Li, Qiang; Jin, Yong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Griffy-Brown, Charla [Graziadio School of Business, Pepperdine University, Los Angeles, CA 90045 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    GHG (Increasing greenhouse gas) emissions in China imposes enormous pressure on China's government and society. The increasing GHG trend is primarily driven by the fast expansion of high energy-intensive sectors including the chemical industry. This study investigates energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions in the processes of chemical production in China through calculating the amounts of CO{sub 2} emissions and estimating the reduction potential in the near future. The research is based on a two-level perspective which treats the entire industry as Level one and six key sub-sectors as Level two, including coal-based ammonia, calcium carbide, caustic soda, coal-based methanol, sodium carbonate, and yellow phosphorus. These two levels are used in order to address the complexity caused by the fact that there are more than 40 thousand chemical products in this industry and the performance levels of the technologies employed are extremely uneven. Three scenarios with different technological improvements are defined to estimate the emissions of the six sub-sectors and analyze the implied reduction potential in the near future. The results highlight the pivotal role that regulation and policy administration could play in controlling the CO{sub 2} emissions by promoting average technology performances in this industry. (author)

  4. Chemical and Microbiological Analysis of Certain Water Sources and Industrial Wastewater Samples in Dakahlia Governorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical analysis included quantitative measurement of electrical conductivity, alkalinity , hardness sulphate, ph, total dissolved solids, chloride, as well as dissolved oxygen was carried out. The microbiological examination for different water sources and industrial wastewater samples was also conducted. some of heavy metals, Co2+ Cu2+ Fe3+ and Mn2+ were determined in fresh water, while other metals, such as Cr6+ , Co2+ , Zn2+ and Ni2+ were measured in industrial wastewater. Results of the chemical analysis showed that all measured parameters were found within the limitation either national or international law, except some samples which showed higher values than the permissible limits for some measured parameters. The microbiological analysis exhibited presence of yeasts, fungi and bacteria. Most bacterial isolates were short rod, spore formers as well as coccoid shaped bacteria. The efficiency of water treatment process on the reduction of microbial load was also calculated. Regarding the pathogenic bacteria, data showed that neither water samples nor industrial wastewater contain pathogens when using specific cultivation media for the examination. Furthermore, data proved the possibility of recycling of the tested industrial wastewater on which some microorganisms can grow. Data showed that the percent of heavy metals removal can reach to more than 70% in some cases as a result to bacterial treatment of industrial wastewater

  5. 78 FR 68461 - Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... Anti- Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug... revising the guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Studies to Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella... Guidance for Industry: Studies to Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in...

  6. Co-Exposure with Fullerene May Strengthen Health Effects of Organic Industrial Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehto, M.; Karilainen, T.; Rog, T.;

    2014-01-01

    In vitro toxicological studies together with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations show that occupational co-exposure with C-60 fullerene may strengthen the health effects of organic industrial chemicals. The chemicals studied are acetophenone, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, m-cresol, and toluene...... co-exposure scenarios in in vitro studies where acute cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of C-60 and organic chemicals are tested together and alone by using human THP-1-derived macrophages. Statistically significant co-effects are observed for an unfiltered mixture of benzaldehyde and C-60 that is more...... cytotoxic than benzaldehyde alone, and for a filtered mixture of m-cresol and C-60 that is slightly less cytotoxic than m-cresol. Hydrophobicity of chemicals correlates with co-effects when secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha is considered. Complementary atomistic molecular...

  7. Model analysis of influences of the high-temperature reactor on location shifting in chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is presented of the influences of High-Temperature Reactor on probable location shifting of big chemical plants, in the future. This is done by a spatial location model, that includes an investigation on 116 industrial locations within the first six countries of Common Market. The results of a computerized program show differences in location qualities when furnished either with traditional or with nuclear energy systems. In addition to location factor energy some other important factors, as subventions, taxes, labour, and transport costs are analysed, and their influence on industrial location is quantified. (orig.)

  8. Biogeochemical features technogenic pollution of soils under the influence chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuraeva I.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical properties of soil (pH, organic matter content, cation exchange capacity. The regularities of the distribution of total and mobile forms of heavy metals in soil sediments in the territory of Shostka Sumy region under the influence of the chemical industry and in the background areas. Biogeochemical indicators obtained content of microscopic fungi and their species, the most characteristic of the study of soils, which can be used as an additional criterion for ecological and geochemical studies.

  9. Smelting-reduction export gas as syngas in the chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Doris; Kepplinger, Werner [Institute of Process Technology, Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria); Millner, Robert [Siemens VAI, Linz (Austria)

    2011-08-15

    Export gases from iron-making processes are typically used as an energy source for heat and power generation within the iron and steel industry, although their calorific value is comparatively low. The fact that COREX {sup registered} and FINEX {sup registered} smelting-reduction export gases typically consist of the major syngas-components CO and H{sub 2} (approx. 50% of gas composition), makes them attractive for utilization in the direct reduction of iron ores and in the chemical synthesis industry. This paper will discuss the required process steps for converting smelting-reduction export gases into synthesis gas (syngas) using the example of methanol production. The calculated CO{sub 2}-balance shows promising results for chemical utilization of COREX {sup registered} export gas compared to energy utilization in conventional or combined power plants. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Value chain management for commodities: a case study from the chemical industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannegiesser, M.; Gunther, H.O.; van Beek, P.;

    2009-01-01

    quantity, price and supply decisions throughout the value chain. A two-phase optimization approach supports robust planning ensuring minimum profitability even in case of worst-case spot sales price scenarios. Model evaluations with industry case data demonstrate the impact of elasticities, variable raw......We present a planning model for chemical commodities related to an industry case. Commodities are standard chemicals characterized by sales and supply volatility in volume and value. Increasing and volatile prices of crude oil-dependent raw materials require coordination of sales and supply...... decisions by volume and value throughout the value chain to ensure profitability. Contract and spot demand differentiation with volatile and uncertain spot prices, spot sales quantity flexibility, spot sales price-quantity functions and variable raw material consumption rates in production are problem...

  11. Applications for Solid-State Joints in the chemical process industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goin, R. David

    2008-11-01

    Two forms of solid-state joining of tubing are explored here for use in the chemical process industry and other applications. Extrusion bonding consists of diffusion bonding an inner seamless tube of one material to an outer seamless tube of another material. Inertia welding consists of rotating one tube while pressing a second stationary tube into the first. In both cases, a very strong and robust metallurgical bond can result. This paper explores the testing and properties of such metallurgical bonds.

  12. Wholly Owned Subsidiary Versus Technology Licensing in the Worldwide Chemical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Arora; Andrea Fosfuri

    2000-01-01

    This paper empirically analyzes the determinants of the choice between wholly owned subsidiary and technology licensing as a strategy for expansion abroad. We use a new and comprehensive database on worldwide plant level investments in the chemical industry during the 1981-1991 period. We find that both cultural distance and the presence of other potential licensors favor the use of licensing as a strategy for expanding abroad, whereas, prior experience favors the choice of wholly owned subsi...

  13. A model of work-related well-being in the chemical industry / Yvette Niemand

    OpenAIRE

    Niemand, Yvette

    2008-01-01

    Organisations in the chemical industry face many demands. They have to distinguish themselves from their competitors in the market through technological advancement, market changes and the constant drive to be the best. Other demands include political pressures, e.g. employment equity and diversity management. Furthermore they have to attempt to reduce costs as well as to increase productivity. These pressures may have either a negative or positive effect on employees which could in turn impa...

  14. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China

    OpenAIRE

    Weili Duan; Bin He

    2015-01-01

    In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS) was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the ...

  15. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Huang; Meiting Ju; Juan Yang; Xiaogang Tian; Chaofeng Shao

    2013-01-01

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was develope...

  16. Catalytic hydrogenation reactors for the fine chemicals industries. Their design and operation.

    OpenAIRE

    Westerterp, K.R.; Molga, E.J.; Gelder, van, M.

    1997-01-01

    The design and operation of reactors for catalytic, hydrogenation in the fine chemical industries are discussed. The requirements for a good multiproduct catalytic hydrogenation unit as well as the choice of the reactor type are considered. Packed bed bubble column reactors operated without hydrogen recycle are recommended as the best choice to obtain a flexible reactor with good selectivities. The results of an experimental study of the catalytic hydrogenation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene in a mini...

  17. Introducing Statistical Experimental Designs to Chemical and Industrial Engineering Using Collaborative and Problem Based Learning Approach

    OpenAIRE

    González Fernández, Camino

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the use of the Collaborative and Problem Based- Project Based Learning (PBL) methodology in a Statistical Experimental Design course for Chemical and Industrial Engineering students at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM). The objetives, motivation, and the roles of the teacher and the students in the classroom to get a better understanding of the concepts and examples are explained in detail. Since 2000, there exists in our univesity (UPM) the aim to adapt the c...

  18. Industrialization of Biology. A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Douglas C. [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The report stresses the need for efforts to inform the public of the nature of industrial biotechnology and of its societal benefits, and to make sure that concerns are communicated effectively between the public and other stakeholders. In addition to scientific advances, a number of governance and societal factors will influence the industrialization of biology. Industry norms and standards need to be established in areas such as read/write accuracy for DNA, data and machine technology specifications, and organism performance in terms of production rates and yields. An updated regulatory regime is also needed to accelerate the safe commercialization of new host organisms, metabolic pathways, and chemical products, and regulations should be coordinated across nations to enable rapid, safe, and global access to new technologies and products.

  19. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.

  20. Integrated environmental risk assessment and whole-process management system in chemical industry parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

    2013-04-19

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.

  1. The removal of dinitrochlorobenzene from industrial residuals by liquid-liquid extraction with chemical reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. M. Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrochlorobenzenes (NCBs are very important in the chemical industry since they have been used as raw material for the manufacture of crop protection products, as active ingredients in the pharmaceutical industry, as pigments and as antioxidants as well as for other uses. In industrial processes, NCBs are produced by monochlorobenzene (MCB nitration reactions and one of the main residuals formed is dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB, which is mainly composed of the isomer 2,4DNCB. This subproduct, although of commercial interest when in its pure state, is generally incinerated due to the high costs of recovery treatment and purification. The objective of this study is to present an alternative to the treatment of industrial residuals containing DNCB. The technique consists of converting DNCB into sodium dinitrophenolate, which is very soluble in water and is also easy to reuse. For this purpose, liquid-liquid extraction with chemical reaction (alkaline hydrolysis with a rotating disc contactor (RDC is used. Experimental data on MCB nitration reactions as well as alkaline hydrolysis using a rotating disc contactor are presented.

  2. A Study on an Executive Technique and Activation of Clean Production in Chemical Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Seong Yong; Lee, Hee Seok; Kim, Kang Seok [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    Clean production does not only make the sustainable development possible through preventing the deterioration of the environmental pollution from the expansion of industrialization but also enhance the company's competitiveness. Clean production is required by all industrial fields but is the most important in chemical industry. The Government has made efforts to change the domestic industrial structure to the environmental-friendly structure through developing the research. However, the domestic industry has not yet activated overall except some large companies, which has concretized the activation of clean production. Especially, the medium and small companies are more sluggish due to the inferiority of capital and technology. With recognizing that the main body of clean production is a company, the effort based on the Government and the academic world, without companies' positive, will cannot help being limited in effects. Therefore, it is necessary to trigger the schemes that urge the companies' motivation to show the effects from the support that have concentrated in hardware like technology until now. It seems to be very important that the guidebook for clean production, which a company can easily adopt, is developed and spread. This report provides the guidebook for clean production that managers and engineers can easily understand and approach in a producing field and presents the scheme to promote clean production, for chemical industry that is seriously required clean production. Even if the presented contents are not perfect, they can be applied to the development of the Government's policy and the administrative activities of companies for clean production as a useful data. 53 refs., 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  3. Analysis of the comprehensibility of chemical hazard communication tools at the industrial workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Goh Choo; Mokhtar, Mazlin Bin; Mohd Mokhtar, Hj Anuar Bin; Ismail, Azmir Bin; Abu Yazid, Mohd Fadhil Bin Hj

    2010-01-01

    Chemical classification and labelling systems may be roughly similar from one country to another but there are significant differences too. In order to harmonize various chemical classification systems and ultimately provide consistent chemical hazard communication tools worldwide, the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) was endorsed by the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). Several countries, including Japan, Taiwan, Korea and Malaysia, are now in the process of implementing GHS. It is essential to ascertain the comprehensibility of chemical hazard communication tools that are described in the GHS documents, namely the chemical labels and Safety Data Sheets (SDS). Comprehensibility Testing (CT) was carried out with a mixed group of industrial workers in Malaysia (n=150) and factors that influence the comprehensibility were analysed using one-way ANOVA. The ability of the respondents to retrieve information from the SDS was also tested in this study. The findings show that almost all the GHS pictograms meet the ISO comprehension criteria and it is concluded that the underlying core elements that enhance comprehension of GHS pictograms and which are also essential in developing competent persons in the use of SDS are training and education. PMID:20616463

  4. Anaerobic baffled reactor coupled with chemical precipitation for treatment and toxicity reduction of industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laohaprapanona, Sawanya; Marquesa, Marcia; Hogland, William

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the reduction of soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs) and the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), formaldehyde (FA) and nitrogen from highly polluted wastewater generated during cleaning procedures in wood floor manufacturing using a laboratory-scale biological anaerobic baffled reactor followed by chemical precipitation using MgCI2 .6H20 + Na2HPO4. By increasing the hydraulic retention time from 2.5 to 3.7 and 5 days, the reduction rates of FA, DOC and CODs of nearly 100%, 90% and 83%, respectively, were achieved. When the Mg:N:P molar ratio in the chemical treatment was changed from 1:1:1 to 1.3:1:1.3 at pH 8, the NH4+ removal rate increased from 80% to 98%. Biologically and chemically treated wastewater had no toxic effects on Vibrio fischeri and Artemia salina whereas chemically treated wastewater inhibited germination of Lactuca sativa owing to a high salt content. Regardless of the high conductivity of the treated wastewater, combined biological and chemical treatment was found to be effective for the removal of the organic load and nitrogen, and to be simple to operate and to maintain. A combined process such as that investigated could be useful for on-site treatment of low volumes of highly polluted wastewater generated by the wood floor and wood furniture industries, for which there is no suitable on-site treatment option available today.

  5. Evolution and prospects of Spanish chemical sector. An overview from its Industrial Observatory; Evolucion y perspectivas del sector quimico espanol. Vision desde su observatorio industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado Bravo, J.; Sanchez Sanchez, F.

    2012-07-01

    The Industrial Observatory of the Chemical Sector was created in 2005 in order to follow the evolution of the Spanish chemical sector and to improve the competitiveness of the chemical companies operating in Spain. For this sector and its evolution over the years, know their main problems and the actions can be undertaken to solve or minimize them and, ultimately, learn how improve its competitiveness, the Industrial Observatory of the Chemical Sector is a good source of information. This article analyzes the Spanish chemical sector and its evolution in the period 2003-2010 using the field and the data produced within the Observatory, and then to state, through competitive factors discussed in it, what are the main measures proposed to improve the chemical sector. (Author)

  6. Asymmetric catalysis in Brazil: development and potential for advancement of Brazilian chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of enantiomerically pure or enriched substances is of fundamental importance to pharmaceutical, food, agrochemical, and cosmetics industries and involves a growing market of hundreds of billions of dollars. However, most chemical processes used for their production are not environmentally friendly because in most cases, stoichiometric amounts of chiral inductors are used and substantial waste is produced. In this context, asymmetric catalysis has emerged as an efficient tool for the synthesis of enantiomerically enriched compounds using chiral catalysts. More specifically, considering the current scenario in the Brazilian chemical industry, especially that of pharmaceuticals, the immediate prospect for the use of synthetic routes developed in Brazil in an enantioselective fashion or even the discovery of new drugs is practically null. Currently, the industrial production of drugs in Brazil is primarily focused on the production of generic drugs and is basically supported by imports of intermediates from China and India. In order to change this panorama and move forward toward the gradual incorporation of genuinely Brazilian synthetic routes, strong incentive policies, especially those related to continuous funding, will be needed. These incentives could be a breakthrough once we establish several research groups working in the area of organic synthesis and on the development and application of chiral organocatalysts and ligands in asymmetric catalysis, thus contributing to boost the development of the Brazilian chemical industry. Considering these circumstances, Brazil can benefit from this opportunity because we have a wide biodiversity and a large pool of natural resources that can be used as starting materials for the production of new chiral catalysts and are creating competence in asymmetric catalysis and related areas. This may decisively contribute to the growth of chemistry in our country. (author)

  7. Forecasting global developments in the basic chemical industry for environmental policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical sector is the largest industrial energy user, but detailed analysis of its energy use developments lags behind other energy-intensive sectors. A cost-driven forecasting model for basic chemicals production is developed, accounting for regional production costs, demand growth and stock turnover. The model determines the global production capacity placement, implementation of energy-efficient Best Practice Technology (BPT) and global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for the period 2010–2030. Subsequently, the effects of energy and climate policies on these parameters are quantified. About 60% of new basic chemical production capacity is projected to be placed in non-OECD regions by 2030 due to low energy prices. While global production increases by 80% between 2010 and 2030, the OECD's production capacity share decreases from 40% to 20% and global emissions increase by 50%. Energy pricing and climate policies are found to reduce 2030 CO2 emissions by 5–15% relative to the baseline developments by increasing BPT implementation. Maximum BPT implementation results in a 25% reduction. Further emission reductions require measures beyond energy-efficient technologies. The model is useful to estimate general trends related to basic chemicals production, but improved data from the chemical sector is required to expand the analysis to additional technologies and chemicals. - Highlights: • We develop a global cost-driven forecasting model for the basic chemical sector. • We study regional production, energy-efficient technology, emissions and policies. • Between 2010 and 2030, 60% of new chemicals capacity is built in non-OECD regions. • Global CO2 emissions rise by 50%, but climate policies may limit this to 30–40%. • Measures beyond energy efficiency are needed to prevent increasing CO2 emissions

  8. Investigating positive leadership, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life in a chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tersia Nel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The predominant theme of this research attends to the role of perceived positive leadership behaviour in relation to employee outcomes (psychological empowerment, work engagement, and satisfaction with life.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate whether perceived positive leadership behaviour could predict psychological empowerment, work engagement, and satisfaction with life of employees in a chemical organisation in South Africa and whether positive leadership behaviour has an indirect effect on employees work engagement and satisfaction with life by means of psychological empowerment. Motivation for the study: The motivation for this study arose from the evident gap in academic literature as well as in terms of practical implications for the chemical industry regarding positive leadership behaviour, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life of employees. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used with a convenience sample (n = 322. Structural equation modelling (SEM was used to examine the structural relationships between the constructs. Main findings: Statistically significant relationships were found between positive leadership behaviour, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life of employees. Positive leadership has an indirect effect on work engagement and satisfaction with life via psychological empowerment.Practical/managerial implications: This study adds to the lack of literature in terms of positive leadership, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life within a chemical industry. It can also assist managers and personnel within the chemical industry to understand and perhaps further investigate relationships that exist between the above mentioned concepts.Contribution/value-add: It is recommended that leadership discussions, short training programs and individual coaching about

  9. Chemical Fiber Industry: No Need to Worry about Benefit Drop%Chemical Fiber Industry: No Need to Worry about Benefit Drop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    During the first three quarters of this year, the chemical fiber industry maintained an overall steady economy with growing production and investment, but due to the influence of macroeconomic environment, there is no much downstream demand; therefore, the majority product prices continued to fall with increased inventory, making the chemical fiber enterprises profit suffer obvious shrinkage.

  10. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli: a sustainable industrial platform for bio-based chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianzhong; Zhou, Li; Tian, Kangming; Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Suren; Prior, Bernard A; Wang, Zhengxiang

    2013-12-01

    In order to decrease carbon emissions and negative environmental impacts of various pollutants, more bulk and/or fine chemicals are produced by bioprocesses, replacing the traditional energy and fossil based intensive route. The Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium, Escherichia coli has been studied extensively on a fundamental and applied level and has become a predominant host microorganism for industrial applications. Furthermore, metabolic engineering of E. coli for the enhanced biochemical production has been significantly promoted by the integrated use of recent developments in systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering. In this review, we focus on recent efforts devoted to the use of genetically engineered E. coli as a sustainable platform for the production of industrially important biochemicals such as biofuels, organic acids, amino acids, sugar alcohols and biopolymers. In addition, representative secondary metabolites produced by E. coli will be systematically discussed and the successful strategies for strain improvements will be highlighted. Moreover, this review presents guidelines for future developments in the bio-based chemical production using E. coli as an industrial platform.

  11. Risk analysis in the chemical industry; Analisis de riesgos en la industria quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rea Soto, Rogelio; Sandoval Valenzuela, Salvador [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas has a group of risk analysis (GAR), specialized in the most advanced methodologies to apply them in diverse industries of the productive sector, such as the nuclear, the oil and the chemical industries. In this work the integrated methodology that the GAR uses to make risk analysis in the chemical and oil industries is described. These analyses have as an objective to make a meticulous evaluation of the system design, the operation practices, the maintenance and inspection policies and the emergency plans. [Spanish] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas cuenta con un grupo de analisis de riesgo (GAR), especializado en las metodologias mas avanzadas para aplicarlas en diversas industrias del sector productivo, como lo son la nuclear, la petrolera y la quimica. En este trabajo se describe la metodologia integrada que el GAR utiliza para realizar analisis de riesgos en las industrias quimica y petrolera. Estos analisis tienen como objetivo realizar una minuciosa evaluacion del diseno del sistema, las practicas de operacion, las politicas de mantenimiento e inspeccion y los planes de emergencia.

  12. In vitro methods for hazard assessment of industrial chemicals – opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Lin eWong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD is a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction mediated by T-lymphocytes as a result of repeated exposure of an allergen primarily on skin. ACD accounts for up to 95% of occupational skin diseases (OSDs, with epoxy resins implicated as one of the most common causes of ACD. Efficient high-throughput in vitro screening for accurate identification of compounds and materials that may pose hazardous risks in the workplace is crucial. At present, the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA is the ‘method of choice’ for predicting the sensitizing potency of contact allergens. As the 3Rs principles of reduction, refinement and replacement in animal testing has gained political and economic momentum, several in vitro screening methods have been developed for identifying potential contact allergens. To date, these latter methods have been utilized primarily to assess the skin sensitizing potential of the chemical components of cosmetic products with scant research attention as to the applicability of these methods to industrial chemicals, particularly epoxy resins. Herein we review the currently utilized in vitro methods and identify the knowledge gaps with regard to assessing the generalizability of in vitro screening methods for assessing the skin sensitizing potential of industrial chemicals.

  13. In vitro methods for hazard assessment of industrial chemicals – opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chin Lin; Ghassabian, Sussan; Smith, Maree T.; Lam, Ai-Leen

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction mediated by T-lymphocytes as a result of repeated exposure of an allergen primarily on skin. ACD accounts for up to 95% of occupational skin diseases, with epoxy resins implicated as one of the most common causes of ACD. Efficient high-throughput in vitro screening for accurate identification of compounds and materials that may pose hazardous risks in the workplace is crucial. At present, the murine local lymph node assay is the ‘method of choice’ for predicting the sensitizing potency of contact allergens. As the 3Rs principles of reduction, refinement, and replacement in animal testing has gained political and economic momentum, several in vitro screening methods have been developed for identifying potential contact allergens. To date, these latter methods have been utilized primarily to assess the skin sensitizing potential of the chemical components of cosmetic products with scant research attention as to the applicability of these methods to industrial chemicals, particularly epoxy resins. Herein we review the currently utilized in vitro methods and identify the knowledge gaps with regard to assessing the generalizability of in vitro screening methods for assessing the skin sensitizing potential of industrial chemicals. PMID:25999858

  14. In vitro methods for hazard assessment of industrial chemicals - opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chin Lin; Ghassabian, Sussan; Smith, Maree T; Lam, Ai-Leen

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction mediated by T-lymphocytes as a result of repeated exposure of an allergen primarily on skin. ACD accounts for up to 95% of occupational skin diseases, with epoxy resins implicated as one of the most common causes of ACD. Efficient high-throughput in vitro screening for accurate identification of compounds and materials that may pose hazardous risks in the workplace is crucial. At present, the murine local lymph node assay is the 'method of choice' for predicting the sensitizing potency of contact allergens. As the 3Rs principles of reduction, refinement, and replacement in animal testing has gained political and economic momentum, several in vitro screening methods have been developed for identifying potential contact allergens. To date, these latter methods have been utilized primarily to assess the skin sensitizing potential of the chemical components of cosmetic products with scant research attention as to the applicability of these methods to industrial chemicals, particularly epoxy resins. Herein we review the currently utilized in vitro methods and identify the knowledge gaps with regard to assessing the generalizability of in vitro screening methods for assessing the skin sensitizing potential of industrial chemicals. PMID:25999858

  15. Use of wastes in high-temperature processes of the chemical industry; Verwertung von Abfaellen in Hochtemperaturprozessen der chemischen Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany); Domschke, T.; Steinebrunner, K. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The examples presented in this paper from diverse application areas of the chemical industry serve as an illustration of the many different ways in which wastes can be used for high-temperature processes in this branch. A review of the environmentally friendly concepts implemented at BASF AG in Ludwigshafen in the course of the past five years gives an idea of the immense potential opened up by a consistent application of the four-stage model for the prevention, reduction, and utilisation of wastes. In this period it was possible to reduce waste arisings by 34%, down from a potential 2 million tons, physically recycle 51%, and convert 11.5% to energy. This left a comparatively small fraction of 3.5%, or 70,000 tons, to be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way. Furthermore, the amount of pollutants produced per tonne of products sold fell from 40.6 kg in 1987 to 6.7 kg in 1997. [Deutsch] Die Beispiele aus den unterschiedlichsten Anwendungsbereichen der chemischen Industrie koennen als Auswahl der vielfaeltigen Verwertungsmoeglichkeiten von Abfaellen in Hochtemperaturprozessen der Chemie betrachtet werden. Das immense Potential, das sich durch konsequente Anwendung des 4-Stufen-Modells zur Vermeidung, Verminderung und Verwertung von Abfaellen eroeffnet, zeigt sich in einer Fuenfjahresbilanz der umgesetzten Umweltschutzbetrachtungen in der BASF AG in Ludwigshafen. So konnten in diesem Zeitraum von potentiellen 2 Mio t Abfall/a ca. 34% vermieden und vermindert, 51% stofflich und 11,5% energetisch verwertet werden, so dass nur noch ein geringer Anteil von 3,5%, entsprechend ca. 70000 t/a, umweltgerecht entsorgt werden musste. Dies fuehrte auch zu einer drastischen Reduktion der auf der Tonne Verkaufsprodukt bezogenen Menge an umweltbelastenden Stoffen von 40,6 kg im Jahre 1987 auf 6,7 kg im Jahre 1997. (orig.)

  16. Chemical, procedural and economical evaluation of carbon dioxide as feedstock in the chemical industry; Chemische, verfahrenstechnische und oekonomische Bewertung von Kohlendioxid als Rohstoff in der chemischen Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    The utilisation of CO{sub 2} as feedstock in the chemical industry represents an alternative to the geological storage, which is legally limited and socially debated. Generally, scientific publications about the utilisation of CO{sub 2} in chemical reactions typically address the feasibility of the syntheses without paying attention to the CO{sub 2} reduction potential or the economy in contrast to the conventional process of production. The aim of this doctoral thesis is to identify chemical reactions with CO{sub 2} as feedstock, which have the potential to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. These reactions are evaluated concerning the industrial realization, CO{sub 2} balance and economy compared to the conventional processes. To achieve this, 123 reactions from the literature were collected and evaluated with the help of selection criteria developed specifically for this application. The criteria consider both, the quantitative potential to reduce CO{sub 2} and possible economical interests in these reactions. Additional to the process of the evaluation of the reactions, a CO{sub 2} reduction potential of 1.33 % of the greenhouse gas emissions within the European Union could be calculated. For the chemicals formic acid, oxalic acid, formaldehyde, methanol, urea and dimethyl ether, which most fully satisfy the selection criteria, a direct comparison of the CO{sub 2} based process with the conventional process is performed. By literature data, process designs, and simulations, it has been shown that the highest reductions of CO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved for methanol with 1.43 kg{sub CO2}/kg{sub MeOH} and dimethyl ether with 2.17 kg{sub CO2}/kg{sub DME}, but only with the assumption that the necessary hydrogen for the CO{sub 2} based reaction is produced by electrolysis operated with renewable energy. Overall, the CO{sub 2} based production processes of methanol and dimethyl ether could reduce 0.059 % of the greenhouse gas emissions of the European Union (EU) if

  17. Physical and ergonomic hazards in the textile, chemical, food, metal products, and woodworking industries in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soytas, Ugur

    2006-01-01

    Questionnaires were administered in 272 textile, chemical, food, metal products and woodworking firms in ten cities in industry-dense areas to assess the general OHS situation in Turkey. This paper explores the portion related to exposures of workers to physical and ergonomic hazards. OHS experts where available, firm owners, partners, or engineers responsible for safety were asked to answer structured questions regarding percentages of workers exposed to specific hazards. About 65% of respondents reported exposures to noise risks among at least some percentage of employees; 26.3% reported more than 50% of employees were so exposed. In more than 60% of the firms employees were exposed to ergonomic risks related to the need to meet production quotas and the need to maintain constant posture. The most prevalent risk factors in five industries and the relative frequencies of exposed employees are described.

  18. AICD -- Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program. 1993 Annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J. [eds.

    1994-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  19. The Assessment of Comprehensive Vulnerability of Chemical Industrial Park Based on Entropy Method and Matter-element Extension Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jingyi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on studying connotative meaning, evaluation methods and models for chemical industry park based on in-depth analysis of relevant research results in China and abroad, it summarizes and states the feature of menacing vulnerability and structural vulnerability and submits detailed influence factors such as personnel vulnerability, infrastructural vulnerability, environmental vulnerability and the vulnerability of safety managerial defeat. Using vulnerability scoping diagram establishes 21 evaluation indexes and an index system for the vulnerability evaluation of chemical industrial park. The comprehensive weights are calculated with entropy method, combining matter-element extension model to make the quantitative evaluation, then apply to evaluate some chemical industrial park successfully. This method provides a new ideas and ways for enhancing overall safety of the chemical industrial park.

  20. Estimated Energy Savings and Financial Impacts of Nanomaterials by Design on Selected Applications in the Chemical Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayer, Gary R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Roach, J. Fred [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dauelsberg, Lori [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2006-03-01

    This study provides a preliminary analysis of the potential impact that nanotechnology could have on energy efficiency, economic competitiveness, waste reduction, and productivity, in the chemical and related industries.

  1. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  2. Status of chemical elements in Atlantic Forest tree species near an industrial complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental quality assessment studies have been conducted with tree species largely distributed in the Atlantic Forest. Leaf and soil samples were collected in the conservation unit Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM) nearby the industrial complex of Cubatao, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, and analyzed for chemical elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Results were compared to background values obtained in the Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho (PECB). The higher As, Fe, Hg and Zn mass fractions in the tree leaves of PESM indicated anthropogenic influence on this conservation unit. (author)

  3. Fungi as chemical industries and genetic engineering for the production of biologically active secondary metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abid; Ali; Khan; Nafees; Bacha; Bashir; Ahmad; Ghosia; Lutfullah; Umar; Farooq; Russell; John; Cox

    2014-01-01

    Fungi is somewhere in between the micro and macro organisms which is a good source of producing biologically active secondary metabolites.Fungi have been used as tool for producing different types of secondary metabolites by providing different nutrients at different laboratory conditions.The fungi have been engineered for the desired secondary metabolites by using different laboratory techniques,for example,homologous and heterologous expressions.This review reported how the fungi are used as chemical industry for the production of secondary metabolites and how they are engineered in laboratory for the production of desirable metabolites:also the biosynthetic pathways of the bio-organic-molecules were reported.

  4. Fungi as chemical industries and genetic engineering for the production of biologically active secondary metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abid Ali Khan; Nafees Bacha; Bashir Ahmad; Ghosia Lutfullah; Umar Farooq; Russell John Cox

    2014-01-01

    Fungi is somewhere in between the micro and macro organisms which is a good source of producing biologically active secondary metabolites. Fungi have been used as tool for producing different types of secondary metabolites by providing different nutrients at different laboratory conditions. The fungi have been engineered for the desired secondary metabolites by using different laboratory techniques, for example, homologous and heterologous expressions. This review reported how the fungi are used as chemical industry for the production of secondary metabolites and how they are engineered in laboratory for the production of desirable metabolites;also the biosynthetic pathways of the bio-organic-molecules were reported.

  5. Physical-chemical characteristics of an eco-friendly binder using ternary mixture of industrial wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Hoang-Anh; Chang, Ta-Peng; Chen, Chun-Tao; Yang, Tzong-Ruey; Nguyen, Tien-Dung

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the physical-chemical characteristics of paste and mortar with an eco-friendly binder named as SFC cement, produced by a ternary mixture of industrial waste materials of ground granulated blast furnace slag (S), Class F fly ash (FFA), and circulating fluidized bed combustion fly ash (CFA). To trigger the hydration, the CFA, which acted as an alkaline-sulfate activator, was added to the blended mixture of slag and FFA. The water to binder ratio (W/B), curing regime, and FFA...

  6. Cassava Peels for Alternative Fibre in Pulp and Paper Industry: Chemical Properties and Morphology Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Ashuvila Mohd Aripin; Angzzas Sari Mohd Kassim; Zawawi Daud; Mohd Zainuri Mohd Hatta

    2013-01-01

    Without a proper waste management, the organic wastes such as cassava peels could result in increased amount of solid waste dump into landfill. This study aims to use non-wood organic wastes as pulp for paper making industries; promoting the concept of ‘from waste to wealth and recyclable material’. The objective  of this study is to determine the potential of casssava peel as alternative fibre in pulp and paper based on its chemical properties and surface morphology characteristic. Quantifie...

  7. The chemical industry of uranium in France; L'industrie chimique de l'uranium en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The actual CEA program is concerned with the construction of two large graphite reactors, each of those containing at least one hundred tons of uranium metal with nuclear purity. The uranium for these two reactors will be regularly supplied by new resources discovered in France and Madagascar in the last five years. The working and treatment of such ore have led to the creation of an important french industry of which the general outline and principle are described. The operated ores have got different natures and concentration, individual characteristics are described for the main ores.The most high-grade ore are transported to a central plant in Bouchet near Paris; the low-grade ore are concentrated by physical methods or chemical processes of which principles and economy are studied with constancy. The acid processes are the only used until now, although the carbonated alkaline processes has been studied in France. The next following steps after the acid process until the obtention of uranium rich concentrate are described. The purification steps of uranium compounds to nuclear purity material are described as well as the steps to elaborate metal of which the purity grade will be specify. Finally, the economic aspects of uranium production difficulty will be considered in relation with technical progresses which we can expect to achieve in the future. (M.P.)

  8. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2014-10-29

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  9. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magbubah Essack

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  10. Modelling of associating mixtures for applications in the oil & gas and chemical industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Folas, Georgios; Muro Sunè, Nuria;

    2007-01-01

    -polar (non self-associating) compounds it reduces to SRK. The model was first published in 1996 and since then it has been developed and applied with success to binary systems containing water-alkanes and alcohol/glycol/acid-alkanes (both VLE and LLE) as well as ternary and multicomponent (V)LLE for water......-alcohol (glycol)-alkanes and certain acid and amine-containing mixtures. Recent results include glycol-aromatic hydrocarbons including multiphase, multicomponent equilibria and gas hydrate calculations in combination with the van der Waals-Platteeuw model. This article will outline some new applications...... of the model of relevance to the petroleum and chemical industries: high pressure vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibrium in alcohol-containing mixtures, mixtures with gas hydrate inhibitors and mixtures with polar and hydrogen bonding chemicals including organic acids. Some comparisons with conventional...

  11. The Possible Effects of Some Mineral Nutrients and Industrial Chemical Effuents on Wild Plants in Central Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Hayati, Attayeb A. [الطيب أحمد المصطفى حياتي; Abd-Elrhman, Fatima M. [فاطمة محمد عبد الرحمن

    2006-01-01

    The effects of some mineral nutrients and industrial chemical effluents from a textile factory and tanning activities on the growth and distribution of Typha angustata, Cyperus laevigatus. Paspalum viginatum, Cassia senna and Xanthium brasilicum at Al-Bagair Industrial Area, in central Sudan, were investigated. Three sites were selected for this study namely: the "Textile site", the main site in this study, represented by the area affected by disposals of chemical effluents from a textile fac...

  12. Chemical industry worldwide 2010%2010年世界化学工业

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏晓渝

    2011-01-01

    In 2010,the global economic recovery and renewed global demand lift all boats in the chemical industry. Hie sales of global chemicals have an 8. 8% increase. The developed economies nations significantly increase chemical exports to developing nations. Capital expenditures are mostly flat in U. S. .Europe,and Japan. But all regions keep up their spending on research and development. Although the marked return of demand and earnings for the global chemical industry, there is no corresponding growth in employment.%2010年,随着全球经济复苏和需求增长,世界化工生产和销售均出现上涨态势,化学品销售额大幅增长了8.8%.统计了北美、西欧、亚洲具有代表性国家2010年化学工业生产、投资、进出口、雇员等数据并进行了分析.这些数据表明,发达经济体国家和地区的增长速度远不如发展中经济体国家强劲.发达国家对发展中国家的化工出口获得了良好的收益.欧美和日本化工公司的资本投资维持在较低的水平,研发方面的投资有所增长.但全球化学工业的雇佣情况仍不容乐观.

  13. Multivariate Statistical Process Monitoring and Control:Recent Developments and Applications to Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁军; 钱积新

    2003-01-01

    Multivariate statistical process monitoring and control (MSPM& C) methods for chemical process monitoring with statistical projection techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) are surveyed in this paper,The four-step procedure of performing MSPM &C for chemical process ,modeling of processes ,detecting abnormal events or faults,identifying the variable(s) responible for the faults and diagnosing the source cause for the abnormal behavior,is analyzed,Several main research directions of MSPM&C reported in the literature are discussed,such as multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) for batch process ,statistical monitoring and control for nonlinear process,dynamic PCA and dynamic PLS,and on -line quality control by infer-ential models,Industrial applications of MSPM&C to several typical chemical processes ,such as chemical reactor,distillation column,polymeriztion process ,petroleum refinery units,are summarized,Finally,some concluding remarks and future considerations are made.

  14. Chemical composition, mass closure and sources of atmospheric PM10 from industrial sites in Shenzhen, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wu; Xin Du; Xuefang Wu; Xiao Fu; Shaofei Kong; Jianhua Chen; Zongshuang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of atmospheric PM10 and chemical components (including twenty-one elements,nine ions,organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC)) were measured at five sites in a heavily industrial region of Shenzhen,China in 2005.Results showed that PM10 concentrations exhibited the highest values at 264 μg/m3 at the site near a harbor with the influence of harbor activities.Sulfur exhibited the highest concentrations (from 2419 to 3995 ng/m3) of all the studied elements,which may be related to the influence of coal used as fuel in this area for industrial plants.This was verified by the high mass percentages of SO42-,which accounted for 34.3%-39.7% of the total ions.NO3-/SO42-ratios varied from 0.64-0.71,which implies coal combustion was predominant compared with vehicle emission.The anion/cation ratios range was close to 0.95,indicating anion deficiency in this region.The harbor site showed the highest OC and EC concentrations,with the influence of emission from vessels.Secondary organic carbon accounted for about 22.6%-38.7% of OC,with the highest percentage occurring at the site adjacent to a coal-fired power plant and wood plant.The mass closure model performed well in this heavily industrial region,with significant correlation obtained between chemically determined and gravimetrically measured PM10 mass.The main constituents of PM10 were found to be organic materials (30.9%-69.5%),followed by secondary inorganic aerosol (7.9%-25.0%),crustal materials (6.7%-13.8%),elemental carbon (3.5%-10.8%),sea salt (2.4%-6.2%) and trace elements (2.0%-4.9%) in this heavily industrialized region.Principal component analysis indicated that the main sources for particulate matter in this industrial region were crustal materials and coal/wood combustion,oil combustion,secondary aerosols,industrial processes and vehicle emission.

  15. High-grade use of waste propane streams in the Dutch chemical industry. An exploratory study in the context of the Chemical Industry Roadmap; Hoogwaardig gebruik van reststromen propaan in de Nederlandse chemische industrie. Een verkenning binnen de Routekaart Chemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Buck, A.; Afman, M.R.; Croezen, H.J.; Van Lieshout, M.

    2012-09-15

    In the context of the Dutch chemical industry's Roadmap the industry is actively seeking concrete ways of improving the efficiency of its products and processes. One option is to make higher-grade use of current waste streams, as feedstocks for other products, for example. This study focuses on propane waste streams from the oil and gas processing industry. Today these are used partly as fuel (fuel gas) but there are no technical barriers to converting propane to propylene, which can then be used as a feedstock. Higher-grade use of this particular waste stream leads to CO2 emission reductions in the production chain. Given the high market price of propylene, such a move may also be economically attractive. The study focuses on the Rotterdam region, because propane suppliers and companies seeking propylene are in closest proximity there [Dutch] In het kader van de Routekaart Chemie is de chemische industrie actief op zoek naar concrete opties om in haar processen en producten de efficiency te verhogen. Een route is daarbij om reststromen hoogwaardiger te benutten en in te zetten als grondstof voor andere producten. Dit onderzoek richt zich op reststromen propaan uit de olie- en gasverwerkende industrie. Deze worden nu deels als brandstof (stookgas) ingezet maar technisch is het mogelijk propaan om te zetten in propeen, dat als grondstof voor de chemische industrie kan worden gebruikt. Door het hoogwaardiger benutten van deze reststroom wordt in de keten een reductie van CO2 gerealiseerd. Tegelijk kan het economisch interessant zijn, vanwege de hoge marktprijzen van propeen. De studie focust op de regio Rotterdam, omdat leveranciers van propaan en afnemers van propeen daar het meest dichtbij elkaar gevestigd zijn.

  16. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Weili; He, Bin

    2015-07-10

    In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS) was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP) was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency.

  17. [Technology upgrades and exposure to chemical agents: results of the PPTP study in the footwear industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoli, Enrica; Brusoni, Daniela; Cornaggia, Nicoletta; Saretto, Gianni

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the chemical compositions of the products used in shoes manufacturing are reported. The data were collected over the period 2004-2007 in 156 shoe factories in Vigevano area during a study aiming the evaluation of safety conditions and occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals of the employees. The study was part of a regional project for "Occupational cancer prevention in the footwear industry". In the first phase of the study an information form on production cycle, products used and their composition was filled during preliminary audit. In the second phase of the study an in depth qualitative/quantitative evaluation of professional exposure was conducted in 13 selected shoe factories. Data analysis showed the increase in use of water-based adhesives at expense of solvent-based adhesives, the reduction to less than 3.5 weight %, and up to 1 weight %, of n-hexane concentration in solvent mixtures, the increase in use of products containing less hazardous ketones, esters, cyclohexane and heptane. Only in very few cases, products containing from 4 to 12 weight% of toluene were used. These data attest a positive trend in workers risks prevention in shoes industry. PMID:22697030

  18. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Duan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency.

  19. Physico-chemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part I Chemical composition, solid fat content and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the primary properties of six cocoa butter samples, representative of industrial blends and cocoa butter extracted from fruits cultivated in different geographical areas in Brazil is presented. The samples were evaluated according to fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol composition, regiospecific distribution, melting point, solid fat content and consistency. The results allowed for differentiating the samples according to their chemical compositions, thermal resistance properties, hardness characteristics, as well as technological adequacies and potential use in regions with tropical climates.

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio comparativo de las propiedades primarias de mantecas de cacao, representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de diferentes zonas geográficas de Brasil. Las muestras fueron evaluadas de acuerdo a la composición de ácidos grasos, composición de triglicéridos, distribución de los ácidos grasos en las moléculas de triglicéridos, punto de fusión, contenido de grasa sólida y consistencia. Los resultados permitieron diferenciar las muestras por su composición química, propiedades de resistencia térmica, características de dureza, así como en materia de adecuaciones tecnológicas y los usos potenciales en las regiones de clima tropical.

  20. Chemical Manufacturing and Refining Industry Legitimacy: Reflective Management, Trust, Precrisis Communication to Achieve Community Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Robert L; Lee, Jaesub

    2016-06-01

    Calls for emergency right-to-know in the 1980s, and, in the 1990s, risk management planning, motivated U.S. chemical manufacturing and refining industries to operationalize a three-pronged approach to risk minimization and communication: reflective management to increase legitimacy, operational safety programs to raise trust, and community engagement designed to facilitate citizens' emergency response efficacy. To assess these management, operational, and communication initiatives, communities (often through Local Emergency Planning Committees) monitored the impact of such programs. In 2012, the fourth phase of a quasi-longitudinal study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of operational change and community outreach in one bellwether community. This study focuses on legitimacy, trust, and response efficacy to suggest that an industry can earn legitimacy credits by raising its safety and environmental impact standards, by building trust via that change, and by communicating emergency response messages to near residents to raise their response efficacy. As part of its campaign to demonstrate its concern for community safety through research, planning, and implementation of safe operations and viable emergency response systems, this industry uses a simple narrative of risk/emergency response-shelter-in-place-communicated by a spokes-character: Wally Wise Guy. PMID:26503696

  1. Modeling the binding affinity of structurally diverse industrial chemicals to carbon using the artificial intelligence approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shikha; Basant, Nikita; Rai, Premanjali; Singh, Kunwar P

    2015-11-01

    Binding affinity of chemical to carbon is an important characteristic as it finds vast industrial applications. Experimental determination of the adsorption capacity of diverse chemicals onto carbon is both time and resource intensive, and development of computational approaches has widely been advocated. In this study, artificial intelligence (AI)-based ten different qualitative and quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (MLPN, RBFN, PNN/GRNN, CCN, SVM, GEP, GMDH, SDT, DTF, DTB) were established for the prediction of the adsorption capacity of structurally diverse chemicals to activated carbon following the OECD guidelines. Structural diversity of the chemicals and nonlinear dependence in the data were evaluated using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. The generalization and prediction abilities of the constructed models were established through rigorous internal and external validation procedures performed employing a wide series of statistical checks. In complete dataset, the qualitative models rendered classification accuracies between 97.04 and 99.93%, while the quantitative models yielded correlation (R(2)) values of 0.877-0.977 between the measured and the predicted endpoint values. The quantitative prediction accuracies for the higher molecular weight (MW) compounds (class 4) were relatively better than those for the low MW compounds. Both in the qualitative and quantitative models, the Polarizability was the most influential descriptor. Structural alerts responsible for the extreme adsorption behavior of the compounds were identified. Higher number of carbon and presence of higher halogens in a molecule rendered higher binding affinity. Proposed QSPR models performed well and outperformed the previous reports. A relatively better performance of the ensemble learning models (DTF, DTB) may be attributed to the strengths of the bagging and boosting algorithms which enhance the predictive accuracies. The

  2. ECOSAR model performance with a large test set of industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuschenbach, Peter; Silvani, Maurizio; Dammann, Martina; Warnecke, Dietmar; Knacker, Thomas

    2008-05-01

    The widely used ECOSAR computer programme for QSAR prediction of chemical toxicity towards aquatic organisms was evaluated by using large data sets of industrial chemicals with varying molecular structures. Experimentally derived toxicity data covering acute effects on fish, Daphnia and green algae growth inhibition of in total more than 1,000 randomly selected substances were compared to the prediction results of the ECOSAR programme in order (1) to assess the capability of ECOSAR to correctly classify the chemicals into defined classes of aquatic toxicity according to rules of EU regulation and (2) to determine the number of correct predictions within tolerance factors from 2 to 1,000. Regarding ecotoxicity classification, 65% (fish), 52% (Daphnia) and 49% (algae) of the substances were correctly predicted into the classes "not harmful", "harmful", "toxic" and "very toxic". At all trophic levels about 20% of the chemicals were underestimated in their toxicity. The class of "not harmful" substances (experimental LC/EC(50)>100 mg l(-1)) represents nearly half of the whole data set. The percentages for correct predictions of toxic effects on fish, Daphnia and algae growth inhibition were 69%, 64% and 60%, respectively, when a tolerance factor of 10 was allowed. Focussing on those experimental results which were verified by analytically measured concentrations, the predictability for Daphnia and algae toxicity was improved by approximately three percentage points, whereas for fish no improvement was determined. The calculated correlation coefficients demonstrated poor correlation when the complete data set was taken, but showed good results for some of the ECOSAR chemical classes. The results are discussed in the context of literature data on the performance of ECOSAR and other QSAR models.

  3. Cassava Peels for Alternative Fibre in Pulp and Paper Industry: Chemical Properties and Morphology Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashuvila Mohd Aripin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Without a proper waste management, the organic wastes such as cassava peels could result in increased amount of solid waste dump into landfill. This study aims to use non-wood organic wastes as pulp for paper making industries; promoting the concept of ‘from waste to wealth and recyclable material’. The objective  of this study is to determine the potential of casssava peel as alternative fibre in pulp and paper based on its chemical properties and surface morphology characteristic. Quantified parameters involved are holocellulose, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, one percent of sodium hydroxide, hot water solubility and ash content. The chemical characterization was in accordance with relevant TAPPI Test, Kurscher-Hoffner and Chlorite methods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to observe and determine the morphological characteristic of untreated cassava peels fibre. In order to propose the suitability of the studied plant as an alternative fibre resource in pulp and paper making, the obtained results are compared to other published literatures especially from wood sources. Results indicated that the amount of holocellulose contents in cassava peels (66% is the lowest than of wood (70 - 80.5% and canola straw (77.5%; however this value is still within the limit suitability to produce paper. The lignin content (7.52% is the lowest than those of all wood species (19.9-26.22%. Finally, the SEM images showed that untreated cassava peel contains abundance fibre such as hemicellulose and cellulose that is hold by the lignin in it. In conclusion, chemical properties and morphological characteristics of cassava peel indicated that it is suitable to be used as an alternative fibre sources for pulp and paper making industry, especially in countries with limited wood resources

  4. Long-term energy efficiency analysis requires solid energy statistics. The case of the German basic chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saygin, D.; Worrell, E.; Weiss, M.; Patela, M.K. [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Tam, C.; Trudeau, N. [International Energy Agency IEA, 9 rue de la Federation, 75739 Paris Cedex 15 (France); Gielen, D.J. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, IITC, Robert-Schuman-Platz 3, 53175 Bonn (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Analyzing the chemical industry's energy use is challenging because of the sector's complexity and the prevailing uncertainty in energy use and production data. We develop an advanced bottom-up model (PIE-Plus) which encompasses the energy use of the 139 most important chemical processes. We apply this model in a case study to analyze the German basic chemical industry's energy use and energy efficiency improvements in the period between 1995 and 2008. We compare our results with data from the German Energy Balances and with data published by the International Energy Agency (IEA). We find that our model covers 88% of the basic chemical industry's total final energy use (including non-energy use) as reported in the German Energy Balances. The observed energy efficiency improvements range between 2.2 and 3.5% per year, i.e., they are on the higher side of the values typically reported in literature. Our results point to uncertainties in the basic chemical industry's final energy use as reported in the energy statistics and the specific energy consumption values. More efforts are required to improve the quality of the national and international energy statistics to make them usable for reliable monitoring of energy efficiency improvements of the chemical industry.

  5. Sorghum as a renewable feedstock for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhuan P. Nghiem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable efforts have been made in the USA and other countries to develop renewable feedstocks for production of fuels and chemicals. Among these, sorghum has attracted strong interest because of its many good characteristics such as rapid growth and high sugar accumulation, high biomass production potential, excellent nitrogen usage efficiency, wide adaptability, drought resistance, and water lodging tolerance and salinity resistance. The ability to withstand severe drought conditions and its high water usage efficiency make sorghum a good renewable feedstock suitable for cultivation in arid regions, such as the southern US and many areas in Africa and Asia. Sorghum varieties include grain sorghum, sweet sorghum, and biomass sorghum. Grain sorghum, having starch content equivalent to corn, has been considered as a feedstock for ethanol production. Its tannin content, however, may cause problems during enzyme hydrolysis. Sweet sorghum juice contains sucrose, glucose and fructose, which are readily fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and hence is a good substrate for ethanol fermentation. The enzyme invertase, however, needs to be added to convert sucrose to glucose and fructose if the juice is used for production of industrial chemicals in fermentation processes that employ microorganisms incapable of metabolizing sucrose. Biomass sorghum requires pretreatment prior to enzymatic hydrolysis to generate fermentable sugars to be used in the subsequent fermentation process. This report reviews the current knowledge on bioconversion of sorghum to fuels and chemicals and identifies areas that deserve further studies.

  6. Prospects for conversion of solar energy into chemical fuels: the concept of a solar fuels industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriman, Anthony

    2013-08-13

    There is, at present, no solar fuels industry anywhere in the world despite the well-publicized needs to replace our depleting stock of fossil fuels with renewable energy sources. Many obstacles have to be overcome in order to store sunlight in the form of chemical potential, and there are severe barriers to surmount in order to produce energy on a massive scale, at a modest price and in a convenient form. It is also essential to allow for the intermittent nature of sunlight, its diffusiveness and variability and to cope with the obvious need to use large surface areas for light collection. Nonetheless, we have no alternative but to devise viable strategies for storage of sunlight as biomass or chemical feedstock. Simple alternatives, such as solar heating, are attractive in terms of quick demonstrations but are not the answer. Photo-electrochemical devices might serve as the necessary machinery by which to generate electronic charge but the main problem is to couple these charges to the multi-electron catalysis needed to drive energy-storing chemical reactions. Several potential fuels (CO, H₂, HCOOH, NH₃, O₂, speciality organics, etc.) are possible, but the photochemical reduction of CO₂ deserves particular mention because of ever-growing concerns about overproduction of greenhouse gases. The prospects for achieving these reactions under ambient conditions are considered herein.

  7. Microbiological and Chemical Quality of Water in Food Industries with Low Content of Water at End Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Nazmara

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground and Objectives: In the production of some high-consumed food products like cake, biscuit, chocolate and spaghetti water is used in the preparing of primary material and in the kneading processes. At the present study microbiological and chemical quality of consumed water in food industries of East Azerbaijan Province were studied."nMaterials and Methods: Eleven factories with different products were selected. Water samples were collected and analyzed regarding the microbiological contamination and chemical parameters, and heavy metals. In addition, condition of water quality in selected industry was surveyed during the summer."nResults: According to the results, monitoring of water quality in the studied industries is not suitable. The chemical characteristics of consumed water in those industries had major differences. Ni, Cr, Zn, Fe and Mn were present in all analyzed water but in lower concentration than national Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL. Pb was measured in higher concentration than MCL in spaghetti factory no. 2 and close to MCL in wiener and frankfurter and sugar industries. Cd was close to MCL in spaghetti factory no. 2 and wiener and frankfurter industries."nConclusion: It was concluded that for the safety and health of food products the food industries should use the public water supply system as water source at least in food processing units or in the units of preparing of primary materials. Also for the preventing of chemical pollution of food products it is necessary, pay more attention to the subject of water quality control according to the special water standard of food industries, and using less volume of water in some food industry isn.t acceptable reason for neglecting of water quality monitoring and assessing. In addition it is required to analyze heavy metals in the final products of those industries.

  8. Nonclinical reproductive toxicity testing requirements for drugs, pesticides, and industrial chemicals in India and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K S; Dong, Jing

    2013-01-01

    India and China have booming chemical, agrochemical, and pharmaceutical industries. Both countries also represent expanding markets for foreign chemical and healthcare companies. All such products require reproductive toxicity testing before marketing. The ICH testing guidelines for medicinal products are not applicable in China and India. Nonetheless, reproductive toxicity studies designed and run to ICH principles are generally acceptable for submission. The Chinese guidelines take into consideration traditional Chinese medicines, which are usually mixtures. Likewise, the specific recommendations of India and China for the reproductive toxicity testing of chemicals and pesticides differ from those of the OECD and the USEPA. Again, studies performed in accordance with internationally recognized principles are usually acceptable for submission in both countries. The Chinese guideline for the reproductive toxicity testing of agrochemicals is currently under revision; the new version is expected to resemble more closely the requirements of the OECD and the USEPA. As a member of the OECD, India has conducted Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) inspection, accreditation, and monitoring activities since 2004. China has made several attempts to join the Council Decisions on Mutual Acceptance of Data in the Assessment of Chemicals since 2005. Currently 47 laboratories in China have been certified by the national GLP authorities. Several laboratories in China have also been recently been certified by OECD member countries as GLP compliant. In India, there are currently 23 GLP-Certified laboratories; about six of these are also AALAC accredited. The specific study designs specified in the guidelines of China and India for reproductive toxicity studies are described in detail in this chapter. PMID:23138892

  9. Environmental Cracking of Corrosion Resistant Alloys in the Chemical Process Industry - A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B

    2006-12-04

    A large variety of corrosion resistant alloys are used regularly in the chemical process industry (CPI). The most common family of alloys include the iron (Fe)-based stainless steels, nickel (Ni) alloys and titanium (Ti) alloys. There also other corrosion resistant alloys but their family of alloys is not as large as for the three groups mentioned above. All ranges of corrosive environments can be found in the CPI, from caustic solutions to hot acidic environments, from highly reducing to highly oxidizing. Stainless steels are ubiquitous since numerous types of stainless steels exist, each type tailored for specific applications. In general, stainless steels suffer stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in hot chloride environments while high Ni alloys are practically immune to this type of attack. High nickel alloys are also resistant to caustic cracking. Ti alloys find application in highly oxidizing solutions. Solutions containing fluoride ions, especially acid, seem to be aggressive to almost all corrosion resistant alloys.

  10. High-Throughput Industrial Coatings Research at The Dow Chemical Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tzu-Chi; Malvadkar, Niranjan A; Drumright, Ray; Cesaretti, Richard; Bishop, Matthew T

    2016-09-12

    At The Dow Chemical Company, high-throughput research is an active area for developing new industrial coatings products. Using the principles of automation (i.e., using robotic instruments), parallel processing (i.e., prepare, process, and evaluate samples in parallel), and miniaturization (i.e., reduce sample size), high-throughput tools for synthesizing, formulating, and applying coating compositions have been developed at Dow. In addition, high-throughput workflows for measuring various coating properties, such as cure speed, hardness development, scratch resistance, impact toughness, resin compatibility, pot-life, surface defects, among others have also been developed in-house. These workflows correlate well with the traditional coatings tests, but they do not necessarily mimic those tests. The use of such high-throughput workflows in combination with smart experimental designs allows accelerated discovery and commercialization.

  11. [Emission characteristics and hazard assessment analysis of volatile organic compounds from chemical synthesis pharmaceutical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Song, Shuang; Xu, Zhi-Rong; Xu, Ming-Zhu; Xu, Wei-Li

    2014-10-01

    In this study, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from chemical synthesis pharmaceutical industry in Taizhou, Zhejiang province were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) was in the range of 14.9-308.6 mg · m(-3). Evaluation models of ozone formation potentials (OFP) and health risk assessment were adopted to preliminarily assess the environmental impact and health risk of VOCs. The results showed that the values of OFP of VOCs were in the range of 3.1-315.1 mg · m(-3), based on the maximum incremental reactivity, the main principal contribution was toluene, tetrahydrofuran (THF), acetic ether etc. The non-carcinogenic risk and the carcinogen risk fell in the ranges of 9.48 x 10(-7)-4.98 x 10(-4) a(-1) and 3.17 x 10(-5)- 6.33 x 10(-3). The principal contribution of VOCs was benzene, formaldehyde and methylene chloride.

  12. Application of 2D-GCMS reveals many industrial chemicals in airborne particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammed S.; West, Charles E.; Scarlett, Alan G.; Rowland, Steven J.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2013-02-01

    Samples of airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) have been collected in Birmingham, UK and extracted with dichloromethane prior to analysis by two-dimensional GC separation and TOFMS analysis. Identification of compounds using the NIST spectral library has revealed a remarkable diversity of compounds, some of which have not been previously reported in airborne analyses. Groups of compounds identified in this study include a large number of oxygenated VOC including linear and branched compounds, substituted aromatic compounds and alicyclic compounds, oxygenated polycyclic aromatic and alicyclic compounds, organic nitrogen compounds, branched chain VOC and substituted aromatic VOC, phthalates, organo-phosphates and organo-sulphate compounds. Many of the compounds identified are mass production chemicals, which due to their semi-volatility enter the atmosphere and subsequently partition onto pre-existing aerosol. Their contribution to the toxicity of airborne particulate matter is currently unknown but might be significant. The diverse industrial uses and potential sources of the identified compounds are reported.

  13. Metabolic engineering of strains: from industrial-scale to lab-scale chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Alper, Hal S

    2015-03-01

    A plethora of successful metabolic engineering case studies have been published over the past several decades. Here, we highlight a collection of microbially produced chemicals using a historical framework, starting with titers ranging from industrial scale (more than 50 g/L), to medium-scale (5-50 g/L), and lab-scale (0-5 g/L). Although engineered Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae emerge as prominent hosts in the literature as a result of well-developed genetic engineering tools, several novel native-producing strains are gaining attention. This review catalogs the current progress of metabolic engineering towards production of compounds such as acids, alcohols, amino acids, natural organic compounds, and others.

  14. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analyses of samples from oil refining and chemical industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhunen, J. K.; von Bohlen, A.; Schmeling, M.; Klockenkämper, R.; Klockow, D.

    1997-07-01

    The applicability and performance of the TXRF method for the analysis of sample materials from the oil refining and chemical industries were studied. One objective of the study was to develop rapid analytical procedures for the determination of elements present as traces in size fractionated diesel emission particles, in raw materials of resin production (ureas and phenols) and in trouble-shooting samples. Another goal was to determine the real, rather than the ideal, detection limits for the various applications. Absolute detection limits for most elements found in size fractionated diesel emission particles were below 1 ng. Relative detection limits determined for trace elements in ureas were between 5 and 30 μg kg -1. Only the values for P, S and Ca exceeded this range. Additionally, remarkable differences in trace elements below 1 mg kg -1 could be detected between five commercial ureas.

  15. PM2.5 in an industrial district of Zhengzhou, China: Chemical composition and source apportionment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ningbo Geng; Jia Wang; Yifei Xu; Wending Zhang; Chun Chen; Ruiqin Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Zhengzhou is a developing city in China,that is heavily polluted by high levels of particulate matter.In this study,fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was collected and analyzed for their chemical composition (soluble ions,elements,elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC)) in an industrial district of Zhengzhou in 2010.The average concentrations of PM2.5 were 181,122,186 and 211 μg/m3 for spring,summer,autumn and winter,respectively,with an annual average of 175 μg/m3,far exceeding the PM2.5 regulation of USA National Air Quality Standards (15 μg/m3).The dominant components of PM2.5 in Zhengzhou were secondary ions (sulphate and nitrate) and carbon fractions.Soluble ions,total carbon and elements contributed 41%,13% and 3% of PM2.5 mass,respectively.Soil dust,secondary aerosol and coal combustion,each contributing about 26%,24% and 23% of total PM2.5 mass,were the major sources of PM2.5,according to the result of positive matrix factorization analysis.A mixed source of biomass burning,oil combustion and incineration contributed 13% of PM2.5.Fine particulate matter arising from vehicles and industry contributed about 10% and 4% of PM2.5,respectively.

  16. Physic-chemical characterization of “Namu” clay for industrial use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde Ajani Oyelaran

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Clay in Namu, Plateau State Nigeria, was characterized physio-chemically to ascertain its use industrially. From the results, the moisture content (db of Namu clay was 3.95%, dry clay content 77.15%, pH level of 6.83, liquid limit 56.47%, plastic limit 23.14%, plasticity index 33.33 %. Other results are cold crushing strength of 385 kg/cm3 , loss on ignition 17.64%.The clay changes from brown to golden brown on firing. The linear shrinkage increases with firing temperature, while there is steady decrease of water absorption with increase in temperature. Particle size distribution with Plasticity chart for classification showed that the samples are clays. Comparing with the ‘A-Line’ classification chart which plots Plasticity Index (% against Liquid Limit (% showed that Namu clay can be classified as an inorganic clay with medium to high degree of compressibility. The results show that the physical properties of the clays are within the specifications for kaolin clays and are suitable for industrial uses.

  17. The 'PROCESO' index: a new methodology for the evaluation of operational safety in the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acknowledgement of industrial installations as complex systems in the early 1980s outstands as a milestone in the path to operational safety. Process plants are social-technical complex systems of a dynamic nature, whose properties depend not only on their components, but also on the inter-relations among them. A comprehensive assessment of operational safety requires a systemic approach, i.e. an integrated framework that includes all the relevant factors influencing safety. Risk analysis methodologies and safety management systems head the list of methods that point in this direction, but they normally require important plant resources. As a consequence, their use is frequently restricted to especially dangerous processes often driven by compliance with legal requirements. In this work a new safety index for the chemical industry, termed the 'Proceso' Index (standing for the Spanish terms for PROCedure for the Evaluation of Operational Safety), has been developed. PROCESO is based on the principles of systems theory, has a tree-like structure and considers 25 areas to guide the review of plant safety. The method uses indicators whose respective weight values have been obtained via an expert judgement technique. This paper describes the steps followed to develop this new Operational Safety Index, explains its structure and illustrates its application to process plants

  18. Chemical properties of soils treated with biological sludge from gelatin industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Melo Guimarães

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of agro-industrial organic wastes in the environment can be reduced when used in agriculture. From the standpoint of soil fertility, residue applications can increase the organic matter content and provide nutrients for plants. This study evaluated the effect of biological sludge from gelatin industry on the chemical properties of two Ultisols (loamy sand and sandy clay and an Oxisol (clay. The experiment lasted 120 days and was carried out in laboratory in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement, combining the three soils and six biological sludge rates (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 m³ ha-1, with three replications. Biological sludge rates of up to 500 m³ ha-1 decreased soil acidity and increased the effective cation exchange capacity (CEC and N, Ca, Mg, and P availability, without exceeding the tolerance limit for Na. The increase in exchangeable base content, greater than the effective CEC, indicates that the major part of cations added by the sludge remains in solution and can be lost by leaching.

  19. Extremely thermophilic microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms for production of fuels and industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeldes, Benjamin M; Keller, Matthew W; Loder, Andrew J; Straub, Christopher T; Adams, Michael W W; Kelly, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes from extremely thermophilic microorganisms have been of technological interest for some time because of their ability to catalyze reactions of industrial significance at elevated temperatures. Thermophilic enzymes are now routinely produced in recombinant mesophilic hosts for use as discrete biocatalysts. Genome and metagenome sequence data for extreme thermophiles provide useful information for putative biocatalysts for a wide range of biotransformations, albeit involving at most a few enzymatic steps. However, in the past several years, unprecedented progress has been made in establishing molecular genetics tools for extreme thermophiles to the point that the use of these microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms has become possible. While in its early days, complex metabolic pathways have been altered or engineered into recombinant extreme thermophiles, such that the production of fuels and chemicals at elevated temperatures has become possible. Not only does this expand the thermal range for industrial biotechnology, it also potentially provides biodiverse options for specific biotransformations unique to these microorganisms. The list of extreme thermophiles growing optimally between 70 and 100°C with genetic toolkits currently available includes archaea and bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, coming from genera such as Caldicellulosiruptor, Sulfolobus, Thermotoga, Thermococcus, and Pyrococcus. These organisms exhibit unusual and potentially useful native metabolic capabilities, including cellulose degradation, metal solubilization, and RuBisCO-free carbon fixation. Those looking to design a thermal bioprocess now have a host of potential candidates to choose from, each with its own advantages and challenges that will influence its appropriateness for specific applications. Here, the issues and opportunities for extremely thermophilic metabolic engineering platforms are considered with an eye toward potential technological advantages for high

  20. Lethal toxicity of industrial chemicals to early life stages of Tilapia guineensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezemonye, L I N; Ogeleka, D F; Okieimen, F E

    2008-08-30

    The toxic effects of industrial chemicals on three early life stages of an economically important fish, Tilapia guineensis were investigated using the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) # 203 recommended semi-static renewal bioassay. The assessment was necessary for the uncontrollable disposal of Neatex (liquid detergent) and Norust CR 486 (corrosion inhibitor) into the Niger Delta environment of Nigeria. The estimated 96-h LC(50) for 7-, 14- and 28-day-old fish in Norust CR 486 exposure was considered "more toxic" than Neatex in all life stages and was dependent on species age, exposure duration and environment. In the fresh water test, for Neatex and Norust CR 486 exposures for day 7, 14 and 28, the 96-h LC50 were 8.79, 17.10 and 82.42 mg/l and 5.55, 13.58 and 20.21 mg/l, respectively. In the brackish test, 15.42 and 46.52 mg/l, not determined (ND) and 7.35, 13.95 and 24.50mg/l were obtained. Differential toxicity was observed in the fresh and brackish water fish for the two chemicals and controls at penvironment. PMID:18262353

  1. Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Soy Proteins for New Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda Fernandez, Julio Cesar

    Despite of being environmentally friendly, biocompatible, rich in chemical functionality and abundant as residual materials, soy proteins (SPs) are used for low added value applications. In this work, SPs were studied and used as potentially useful biomacromolecules for different industrial applications with high added value. Initially the effect of acid hydrolysis of soy proteins as a potential route for subsequent surface modification was studied, finding that SP hydrolysates tend to form less aggregates and to adsorb at faster rates compared with unmodified SP; nevertheless, it was also found that the amount of protein adsorbed and water contact angle of the treated surface does not change significantly. Secondly, the gel forming properties of SPs were used to produce aerogels with densities in the order of 0.1 g/cm3. To improve their mechanical properties, the reinforcement of these materials with cellulose nanofibers was studied, obtaining composite aerogels with SP loadings as high as ca. 70% that display a compression modulus of 4.4 MPa, very close to the value obtained from the pure nanofibers aerogels. The composite materials gain moisture (up to 5%) in equilibrium with 50% RH air. Futhermore, their physical integrity is unchanged upon immersion in polar and non-polar solvents, exhibiting sorption rates dependent on the aerogel composition, morphology and swelling abilities. Finally, different soy protein based products and derivatives were used to enhance the dry strength properties of wood fibers in paper production. Experiments using soy flour, soy protein isolate, soy protein isolate hydrolysates, cationized soy flour, and soy flour combined with cationic starch and chitosan were done, obtaining satisfactory results when soy protein flour was utilized in combination with conventional treatments involving cationic polymers. The current results confirm the opportunity to valorize residual soy products that are underutilized today as alternatives to oil

  2. [AOX Pollution in Wastewater Treatment Process of Dyeing and Dyestuff Chemical Industries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang-yang; Liu, Rui; Xu, Can-can; Shu, Xiao-ming; Xu, Jiang-jun; Lan, Ya-qiong; Chen, Lü-jun

    2015-09-01

    Selecting six large-scale dyeing factories and four large-scale dyestuff chemical factories in the well-developed Yangtze River Delta region, this study aimed to investigate the AOX pollution status in the raw wastewater as well as in the activated sludge treatment system. The components of AOX were characterized by GC-MS. Results showed that AOX concentration was low in wastewater from the six dyeing enterprises, ranging 0. 15-1. 62 mg.L-1 in the raw wastewater and 0. 06-1. 30 mg.L-1 in the biologically treated effluent. All the biologically treated effluent met the emission limits of 8 mg.L-1 in the Discharge Standard of Water Pollutants for Dyeing and Finishing of Textile Industry. Sludge in five factories with AOX was below 621 mg.kg-1, only one factory was with high AOX concentration of 3 280 mg.kg-1. By comparison, AOX concentration greatly varied between the wastewater from dyestuff chemical factories, was 1. 70 mg.L-1 to 78. 72 mg.L-1 in the raw wastewater and was 1. 88 mg.L-1 to 33. 11 mg.L-1 in the biologically treated effluent. AOX concentration in the activated sludge was as high as 960-2,297 mg.kg-1. Chlorobenzenes, chloronitrobenzenes, chloroanilines, chlorine nitroanilines and halophenols were typical TOX components detectable in the dyestuff chemical wastewater. Halophenols and chlorine nitroanilines could be efficiently removed. Single chloroanilines and single chloronitrobenzenes seemed to be easier removable than polychlorinated anilines and polychlorinated nitrobenzenes. Polychlorinated benzenes were also easily removal but the products chlorobenzene was hard to remove. PMID:26717692

  3. Assessment of the impact of the European CO2 emissions trading scheme on the Portuguese chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an assessment of the impact of the enforcement of the European carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions trading scheme on the Portuguese chemical industry, based on cost structure, CO2 emissions, electricity consumption and allocated allowances data from a survey to four Portuguese representative units of the chemical industry sector, and considering scenarios that allow the estimation of increases on both direct and indirect production costs. These estimated cost increases were also compared with similar data from other European Industries, found in the references and with conclusions from simulation studies. Thus, it was possible to ascertain the impact of buying extra CO2 emission permits, which could be considered as limited. It was also found that this impact is somewhat lower than the impacts for other industrial sectors.

  4. Assessment of the impact of the European CO{sub 2} emissions trading scheme on the Portuguese chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, R.A.F. [Artenius Sines, Zona Industrial, 7520 Sines (Portugal); Ramoa Ribeiro, F.; Bordado, J.C.M. [Centro de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, IBB-Instituto de Biotecnologia e Bioengenharia, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, V.M.S. [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao, R. do Quelhas, 6, 1200-781 Lisboa (Portugal); Gomes, J.F.P. [Centro de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, IBB-Instituto de Biotecnologia e Bioengenharia, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, R. Conselheiro Emidio Navarro 1949-014 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-01-15

    This paper describes an assessment of the impact of the enforcement of the European carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions trading scheme on the Portuguese chemical industry, based on cost structure, CO{sub 2} emissions, electricity consumption and allocated allowances data from a survey to four Portuguese representative units of the chemical industry sector, and considering scenarios that allow the estimation of increases on both direct and indirect production costs. These estimated cost increases were also compared with similar data from other European Industries, found in the references and with conclusions from simulation studies. Thus, it was possible to ascertain the impact of buying extra CO{sub 2} emission permits, which could be considered as limited. It was also found that this impact is somewhat lower than the impacts for other industrial sectors. (author)

  5. Physico-Chemical parameters and trace-metals concentration in effluents from various industries in vicinity of Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing problem of pollution has become serious in almost all big cities of Pakistan. The industrial effluents (Liquid waste) discharged by different industries are drained into streams/nallahs, which ultimately join the waterways (streams, lakes, rivers or sea). The effluent samples from five industries, like Tanneries, Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals, Fertilizers and metal/electroplating, working in Lahore, Sheikhupura and Kalashahkaku were selected for analysis. The parameters, like Temperature, pH, conductivity, hardness, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, chemical oxygen demands, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, major cations (Na, K, Ca, Mg) and heavy/trace metals, were studied. The results were compared with National environmental Quality standards (NEQS). It was further observed that when effluents of industries join fresh water of stream, lakes or rivers, this causes severe water-pollution and damages the flora and fauna. Suggestions for effective control of water-pollution are also given. (author)

  6. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications.

  7. Enzyme catalysts for a biotechnology-based chemical industry. Quarterly progress report, April 1--July 1, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, F.H.

    1998-07-08

    The goal of this research is to engineer enzymes to be efficient and economically attractive catalysts for the chemical industry. The author is attempting to demonstrate generally-applicable approaches to enzyme improvement as well as develop specific catalysts for potential industrial application. Progress on three tasks are described: Random mutagenesis of pNB esterase--improved activity and stability; Directed evolution of subtilisin E to enhance thermostability; and Methods for invitro recombination.

  8. Enzyme catalysts for a biotechnology-based chemical industry. Quarterly progress report, April 1--June 28, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, F.H.

    1996-07-22

    The goal of this research is to engineer enzymes to be efficient and economically attractive catalysts for the chemical industry. The author is attempted to demonstrate generally-applicable approaches to enzyme improvement as well as develop specific catalysts for potential industrial application. The paper describes the progress in two projects: (a) Random mutagenesis of pNB esterase: Improved activity and stability; and (2) Subtilisin mutants exhibiting improved ligase activity in organic solvents.

  9. Enzyme catalysts for a biotechnology-based chemical industry. Quarterly progress report, January 1--April 1, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, F.H.

    1998-04-20

    The goal of this research is to engineer enzymes to be efficient and economically attractive catalysts for the chemical industry. The author is attempting to demonstrate generally-applicable approaches to enzyme improvement as well as develop specific catalysts for potential industrial application. The research is focused on the following areas: (1) Random mutagenesis of pNB esterase: improved activity and stability; (2) Directed evolution of subtilisin E to enhance thermostability; and (3) Methods for in vitro recombination.

  10. Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Centralized Wastewater Treatment Plant in a Chemical Industry Zone: Source, Distribution, and Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Min Yao; Zhongjian Li; Xingwang Zhang; Lecheng Lei

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) could be dissolved in wastewater or adsorbed on particulate. The fate of PCBs in wastewater is essential to evaluate the feasibility of wastewater treatment processes and the environmental risk. Here dissolved and adsorbed concentrations of twenty concerned PCB congeners and total PCBs have been measured in the centralized wastewater treatment plant of a chemical industry zone in Zhejiang, China. It was found that the dyeing chemical processes were the main so...

  11. In silico tools in risk assessment : of industrial chemicals in general and non-dioxin-like PCBs in particular

    OpenAIRE

    Stenberg, Mia

    2012-01-01

    Industrial chemicals in European Union produced or imported in volumes above 1 tonne annually, necessitate a registration within REACH. A common problem, concerning these chemicals, is deficient information and lack of data for assessing the hazards posed to human health and the environment. Animal studies for the type of toxicological information needed are both expensive and time consuming, and to that an ethical aspect is added. Alternative methods to animal testing are thereby requested. ...

  12. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO2, NOx, CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  13. Detection and reduction of diffuse liquid and gas emissions in chemical and petrochemical industries; Ermittlung und Verminderung diffuser fluessiger und gasfoermiger Emissionen in der chemischen und petrochemischen Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeppke, K.E. [Witten-Herdecke Univ. gGmbH, Witten (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Management; Cuhls, C. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik

    2002-09-01

    In order to improve environmental protection, VOC emissions from diffuse sources are of growing importance. For the first time in Germany the present research report gives a detailed presentation of: constructive measures for the avoidance and reduction of diffuse emissions, adequate assembling procedures for equipments and installations, technical possibilities of leak detection and, different methods for the estimation of total emissions from chemical and petrochemical production plants. On the basis of own investigations and monitoring measures taken at various plants of chemical and petrochemical industries different measuring techniques for leak detection as well as methods for the estimation of total emissions from diffuse sources are analysed and their limits are described. (orig.)

  14. Metal levels in street sediment from an industrial city. Spatial trends, chemical fractionation, and management implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, Kim N.; Perrelli, Mary F. [State Univ. of New Yrok, Buffalo, NY (United States). Geography and Planning Dept., Buffalo State; Ngoen-klan, Ratchadawan [Chiang Mai Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Parasitology; Droppo, Ian G. [Water Science and Technology Directorate, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, Burlington, ONT (Canada). Aquatic Ecosystem Management Research Div.

    2009-08-15

    Background, aim and scope: Street sediment samples were collected at 50 locations in a mixed land use area of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, and metal levels were analyzed using a sequential extraction procedure for different particle size classes to provide an estimate of potential toxicity as well as the potential for treatment through best management practices (BMPs). Methodology: The street sediment samples were dry sieved into four different particle size categories and a sequential extraction procedure was done on each size category following the methodology proposed by Tessier et al. 1979 using a Hitachi 180-80 Polarized Zeeman Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results and discussion: Analysis of variance, post hoc least-significant difference tests, and kriging analysis showed that spatially Mn and Fe levels were associated with a well-defined heavy industrial area that includes large iron- and steel-making operations; Cu and Pb were associated with both the industrial and high-volume traffic areas, while Zn tended to be more associated with high-volume traffic areas. The potential bioavailability of the metals, based on the sum of chemical fractions 1 (exchangeable) and 2 (carbonate-bound), decreased in order: Zn > Cd > Mn > Pb > Cu > Fe. Based on aquatic sediment quality guidelines, there is some concern regarding the potential impact of the street sediment when runoff reaches receiving waters. Conclusions: It is possible that a combination of BMPs, including street sweeping and constructed wetlands, could help to reduce street sediment impact on environmental quality in the Hamilton region. The data presented here would be important in developing and optimizing the design of these BMPs. (orig.)

  15. Plasma-chemical treatment of industrial wastewaters from brewery “Brasseries du Cameroun”, Bafoussam factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estella T. Njoyim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the study of the chemical reactivity of an advanced oxidation process (AOP, called the plasma technique, in order to prevent industrial effluent from pollution and better cope to several damage of environment. The oxidizing and acidifying properties of an electric discharge of the gliding arc plasma and its application to a target which is a real effluent (wastewater from Brasseries du Cameroun -Bafoussam plant fascinated this study. Samples were collected from the central collecting point (CCP of the effluent. The collected effluent samples were analyzed by volumetric and instrumental methods, and then exposed to the gliding discharge during specific time periods of 3-60 min to exhibit the desired decontamination effects. At the end of 60 min of exposure time to the discharge, 52.22% and 50.19% obtained respectively to abatement of turbidity and rate of fall in absorbance. This reduction can be explained by the fact that the coloured compounds were degraded and this degradation gave rise to the transparent appearance observed. After stopping the discharge process, the abatement percentage of BOD5, COD and TOC, were obtained at the same time (60min with values of 52.05%, 68.63% and 69.37% respectively. These results reflect the considerable reduction of the pollution load of the wastewaters collected from CCP of the brewery. These results showed that the effectiveness of the gliding arc plasma depends not only on the physico-chemical parameters of the target, but also on the exposure time and concluded that the non-thermal plasma process alone provides good reduction of organic pollutants in wastewater. Moreover, the phenomenon of post- discharge, even though not studied in details demonstrated that, after switching the discharge, the evolution of parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity and TDS increase.

  16. Indústria química: evolução recente, problemas e oportunidades Chemical industry: recent developments, problems and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Galembeck; Ádamo César Mastrângelo dos Santos; Heloisa Cajon Schumacher; Márcia Maria Rippel; Renato Rosseto

    2007-01-01

    Chemical industry underwent a significant upturn in the past few years. In Brazil, the position of this industry has been continuously strengthened as the second largest industrial sector. Current circumstances are discussed, especially the need for increased innovation, the impacts of nanotechnology, biotechnology and information technologies. Some misconceptions on the Brazilian chemical industry are criticized and recent improvements are described, including those related to environmental ...

  17. Bioflocculation: chemical free, pre-treatment technology for the desalination industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Zeev, Edo; Belkin, Natalia; Liberman, Boris; Berman-Frank, Ilana; Berman, Tom

    2013-06-01

    Rapid sand filtration (RSF), proceeded by chemical coagulation and flocculation, is a commonly used, effective pretreatment in the desalination industry. We designed and tested a novel, large pilot-scale, two-stage granular Rapid Bioflocculation Filter (RBF) based on a first-stage Bioflocculator (BF) unit followed by a mixed-media bed filter (MBF). The BF filter bed consisted of an extremely porous volcanic Tuff granular medium which provided an enlarged surface area for microbial development and biofilm proliferation. We compared the efficiency of the pilot RBF to that of a full-scale RSF, operating with upstream chemical coagulation, by measuring the removal from the same untreated seawater feed of key factors related to membrane clogging: SDI, turbidity, chlorophyll a (Chl a) and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP). After 2 weeks of operation, the Tuff grains were colonized extensively by coccoid bacteria that formed biofilm along the entire BF. With bacterial colonization and biofilm development, numerous aggregates of bacteria and some algal cells embedded in an amorphous organic matrix were formed on and within the Tuff grains. By 1-3 months, the biotic diversity within the Tuff filter bed had increased to include filamentous bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, protista and even crustaceans and marine worms. During and for ≈ 24 h after each cleaning cycle (carried out every 5 to 7 days by upward flushing with air and water), large numbers of floc-like particles, from ≈ 15 μm to ≈ 2 mm in size were observed in the filtrate of the BF unit. Microscopic examination of these flocs (stained with Alcian Blue and SYTO(R) 9) showed that they were aggregates of many smaller particles with associated bacteria and algae within a polysaccharide gel-like matrix. These biogenic flocs (bioflocs) were observed to form during normal operation of the RBF, accumulating as aggregates of inorganic and organic material on the Tuff surfaces. With each flush cleaning cycle

  18. Bioflocculation: chemical free, pre-treatment technology for the desalination industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Zeev, Edo; Belkin, Natalia; Liberman, Boris; Berman-Frank, Ilana; Berman, Tom

    2013-06-01

    Rapid sand filtration (RSF), proceeded by chemical coagulation and flocculation, is a commonly used, effective pretreatment in the desalination industry. We designed and tested a novel, large pilot-scale, two-stage granular Rapid Bioflocculation Filter (RBF) based on a first-stage Bioflocculator (BF) unit followed by a mixed-media bed filter (MBF). The BF filter bed consisted of an extremely porous volcanic Tuff granular medium which provided an enlarged surface area for microbial development and biofilm proliferation. We compared the efficiency of the pilot RBF to that of a full-scale RSF, operating with upstream chemical coagulation, by measuring the removal from the same untreated seawater feed of key factors related to membrane clogging: SDI, turbidity, chlorophyll a (Chl a) and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP). After 2 weeks of operation, the Tuff grains were colonized extensively by coccoid bacteria that formed biofilm along the entire BF. With bacterial colonization and biofilm development, numerous aggregates of bacteria and some algal cells embedded in an amorphous organic matrix were formed on and within the Tuff grains. By 1-3 months, the biotic diversity within the Tuff filter bed had increased to include filamentous bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, protista and even crustaceans and marine worms. During and for ≈ 24 h after each cleaning cycle (carried out every 5 to 7 days by upward flushing with air and water), large numbers of floc-like particles, from ≈ 15 μm to ≈ 2 mm in size were observed in the filtrate of the BF unit. Microscopic examination of these flocs (stained with Alcian Blue and SYTO(R) 9) showed that they were aggregates of many smaller particles with associated bacteria and algae within a polysaccharide gel-like matrix. These biogenic flocs (bioflocs) were observed to form during normal operation of the RBF, accumulating as aggregates of inorganic and organic material on the Tuff surfaces. With each flush cleaning cycle

  19. Development and Field Trial of Dimpled-Tube Technology for Chemical Industry Process Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaroslav Chudnovsky; Aleksandr Kozlov

    2006-10-12

    Most approaches to increasing heat transfer rates in the convection sections of gas-fired process heaters involve the incorporation of fins, baffles, turbulizers, etc. to increase either the heat transfer surface area or turbulence or both. Although these approaches are effective in increasing the heat transfer rates, this increase is invariably accompanied by an associated increase in convection section pressure drop as well as, for heaters firing ‘dirty’ fuel mixtures, increased fouling of the tubes – both of which are highly undesirable. GTI has identified an approach that will increase heat transfer rates without a significant increase in pressure drop or fouling rate. Compared to other types of heat transfer enhancement approaches, the proposed dimpled tube approach achieves very high heat transfer rates at the lowest pressure drops. Incorporating this approach into convection sections of chemical industry fired process heaters may increase energy efficiency by 3-5%. The energy efficiency increase will allow reducing firing rates to provide the required heating duty while reducing the emissions of CO2 and NOx.

  20. Environmental Disclosure of Chemical Industry:Evidence from Chinese A-Share Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jiufang; Lin Xiaohua; Tang Jiuhong

    2009-01-01

    Environmental pollution and environmental reporting have increasingly drawn the attention of the countries around the world.The paper selects A-share listed companies of chemical industry in China.Using logistic model,we research the impact of financial performance of listed companies upon environmental reporting.The conclusion of the study shows that the total number of enterprises which disclosed environmental information (EI) has increased year by year,and El content and volume disclosed by heavy pollution corporations have increased annually.And the more profitability the listed companies attain,the more EI they are inclined to disclose.Moreover,companies will have an ability to disclose EI so as to reduce the agency costs arising from information asymmetry.Furthermore,the development capability of companies is of negative correlation to environmental reporting,and the liabilities degree of listed companies is of negative correlation to environmental reporting,but it is not significant.This paper also offers policy recommendations that enhance EI transparency and regulate EI reporting of listed companies.

  1. Performance of membrane bioreactors used for the treatment of wastewater from the chemical and textile industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, S; Schröder, H F; Pinnekamp, J

    2006-01-01

    Within the scope of the study, nine waste waters from the chemical and textile industries were treated in bench-scale (laboratory scale) and small-scale (pilot scale) membrane bioreactors. Depending on wastewater characteristics, the resulting performance varied significantly. It was observed that MBR effectiveness was determined primarily by the degree of biodegradability of the wastewater. In the course of several months of operation, no significant changes associated with the complete retention of the biomass by the membranes were observed. In some cases, it was possible to improve effluent quality by using smaller molecular separation sizes. The flux performance of the membrane modules was dependent on wastewater composition. Occasionally, non-degradable macromolecular substances concentrated in the bioreactor, resulting in strongly reduced filterability and flow performance of the membrane modules, consequently also reducing the economic viability of the process. The results demonstrate that wastewater-specific pilot tests are absolutely necessary, in particular if the technology is to be used for new applications.

  2. A model for reliability analysis and calculation applied in an example from chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović Branko B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is reliability design in polymerization processes that occur in reactors of a chemical industry. The designed model is used to determine the characteristics and indicators of reliability, which enabled the determination of basic factors that result in a poor development of a process. This would reduce the anticipated losses through the ability to control them, as well as enabling the improvement of the quality of production, which is the major goal of the paper. The reliability analysis and calculation uses the deductive method based on designing of a scheme for fault tree analysis of a system based on inductive conclusions. It involves the use standard logical symbols and rules of Boolean algebra and mathematical logic. The paper eventually gives the results of the work in the form of quantitative and qualitative reliability analysis of the observed process, which served to obtain complete information on the probability of top event in the process, as well as objective decision making and alternative solutions.

  3. Chemical Industry Corrosion Management: A Comprehensive Information System (ASSET 2). Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Randy C. [Shell Global Solutions, Houston, TX (United States); Young, Arthur L. [Humberside Solutions, Toronto, ON (Canada); Pelton, Arthur D. [CRCT, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Thompson, William T. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada); Wright, Ian G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2008-10-10

    The research sponsored by this project has greatly expanded the ASSET corrosion prediction software system to produce a world-class technology to assess and predict engineering corrosion of metals and alloys corroding by exposure to hot gases. The effort included corrosion data compilation from numerous industrial sources and data generation at Shell Oak Ridge National Laboratory and several other companies for selected conditions. These data were organized into groupings representing various combinations of commercially available alloys and corrosion by various mechanisms after acceptance via a critical screening process to ensure the data were for alloys and conditions, which were adequately well defined, and of sufficient repeatability. ASSET is the largest and most capable, publicly-available technology in the field of corrosion assessment and prediction for alloys corroding by high temperature processes in chemical plants, hydrogen production, energy conversion processes, petroleum refining, power generation, fuels production and pulp/paper processes. The problems addressed by ASSET are: determination of the likely dominant corrosion mechanism based upon information available to the chemical engineers designing and/or operating various processes and prediction of engineering metal losses and lifetimes of commercial alloys used to build structural components. These assessments consider exposure conditions (metal temperatures, gas compositions and pressures), alloy compositions and exposure times. Results of the assessments are determination of the likely dominant corrosion mechanism and prediction of the loss of metal/alloy thickness as a function of time, temperature, gas composition and gas pressure. The uses of these corrosion mechanism assessments and metal loss predictions are that the degradation of processing equipment can be managed for the first time in a way which supports efforts to reduce energy consumption, ensure structural integrity of equipment

  4. Industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discusses the role-plays by nuclear technology to enhance productivity in industry. Some of the techniques, Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) - x, gamma, electron and neutron radiography, nuclear gauges, materials characterization are discussed thoroughly

  5. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to- Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Dougall, James [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Many U.S. manufacturing facilities generate unrecovered, low-grade waste heat, and also generate or are located near organic-content waste effluents. Bioelectrochemical systems, such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, provide a means to convert organic-content effluents into electric power and useful chemical products. A novel biochemical electrical system for industrial manufacturing processes uniquely integrates both waste heat recovery and waste effluent conversion, thereby significantly reducing manufacturing energy requirements. This project will enable the further development of this technology so that it can be applied across a wide variety of US manufacturing segments, including the chemical, food, pharmaceutical, refinery, and pulp and paper industries. It is conservatively estimated that adoption of this technology could provide nearly 40 TBtu/yr of energy, or more than 1% of the U.S. total industrial electricity use, while reducing CO2 emissions by more than 6 million tons per year. Commercialization of this technology will make a significant contribution to DOE’s Industrial Technology Program goals for doubling energy efficiency and providing a more robust and competitive domestic manufacturing base.

  6. Predicting the future: opportunities and challenges for the chemical industry to apply 21st-century toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settivari, Raja S; Ball, Nicholas; Murphy, Lynea; Rasoulpour, Reza; Boverhof, Darrell R; Carney, Edward W

    2015-03-01

    Interest in applying 21st-century toxicity testing tools for safety assessment of industrial chemicals is growing. Whereas conventional toxicology uses mainly animal-based, descriptive methods, a paradigm shift is emerging in which computational approaches, systems biology, high-throughput in vitro toxicity assays, and high-throughput exposure assessments are beginning to be applied to mechanism-based risk assessments in a time- and resource-efficient fashion. Here we describe recent advances in predictive safety assessment, with a focus on their strategic application to meet the changing demands of the chemical industry and its stakeholders. The opportunities to apply these new approaches is extensive and include screening of new chemicals, informing the design of safer and more sustainable chemical alternatives, filling information gaps on data-poor chemicals already in commerce, strengthening read-across methodology for categories of chemicals sharing similar modes of action, and optimizing the design of reduced-risk product formulations. Finally, we discuss how these predictive approaches dovetail with in vivo integrated testing strategies within repeated-dose regulatory toxicity studies, which are in line with 3Rs principles to refine, reduce, and replace animal testing. Strategic application of these tools is the foundation for informed and efficient safety assessment testing strategies that can be applied at all stages of the product-development process.

  7. Chemical characterization of atmospheric particles and source apportionment in the vicinity of a steelmaking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, S.M., E-mail: smarta@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 139.7 km, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Lage, J. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 139.7 km, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Fernández, B. [Global R& D, ArcelorMittal, Avilés (Spain); Garcia, S. [Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade, Av. Prof. Dr. Cavaco Silva, 33, 2740-120 Porto Salvo (Portugal); Reis, M.A.; Chaves, P.C. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 139.7 km, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2015-07-15

    The objective of this work was to provide a chemical characterization of atmospheric particles collected in the vicinity of a steelmaking industry and to identify the sources that affect PM{sub 10} levels. A total of 94 PM samples were collected in two sampling campaigns that occurred in February and June/July of 2011. PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 2.5–10} were analyzed for a total of 22 elements by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Particle Induced X-ray Emission. The concentrations of water soluble ions in PM{sub 10} were measured by Ion Chromatography and Indophenol-Blue Spectrophotometry. Positive Matrix Factorization receptor model was used to identify sources of particulate matter and to determine their mass contribution to PM{sub 10}. Seven main groups of sources were identified: marine aerosol identified by Na and Cl (22%), steelmaking and sinter plant represented by As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb, Sb and Zn (11%), sinter plant stack identified by NH{sub 4}{sup +}, K and Pb (12%), an unidentified Br source (1.8%), secondary aerosol from coke making and blast furnace (19%), fugitive emissions from the handling of raw material, sinter plant and vehicles dust resuspension identified by Al, Ca, La, Si, Ti and V (14%) and sinter plant and blast furnace associated essentially with Fe and Mn (21%). - Highlights: • Emissions from steelworks are very complex. • The larger steelworks contribution to PM{sub 10} was from blast furnace and sinter plant. • Sinter plant stack emissions contributed for 12% of the PM{sub 10} mass. • Secondary aerosol from coke making and blast furnace contributed for 19% of the PM{sub 10}. • Fugitive dust emissions highly contribute to PM{sub 10} mass.

  8. Toxic industrial chemical (TIC) source emissions modeling for pressurized liquefied gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britter, Rex; Weil, Jeffrey; Leung, Joseph; Hanna, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to report current toxic industrial chemical (TIC) source emissions formulas appropriate for use in atmospheric comprehensive risk assessment models so as to represent state-of-the-art knowledge. The focus is on high-priority scenarios, including two-phase releases of pressurized liquefied gases such as chlorine from rail cars. The total mass released and the release duration are major parameters, as well as the velocity, thermodynamic state, and amount and droplet sizes of imbedded aerosols of the material at the exit of the rupture, which are required as inputs to the subsequent jet and dispersion modeling. Because of the many possible release scenarios that could develop, a suite of model equations has been described. These allow for gas, two-phase or liquid storage and release through ruptures of various types including sharp-edged and "pipe-like" ruptures. Model equations for jet depressurization and phase change due to flashing are available. Consideration of the importance of vessel response to a rupture is introduced. The breakup of the jet into fine droplets and their subsequent suspension and evaporation, or rainout is still a significant uncertainty in the overall modeling process. The recommended models are evaluated with data from various TIC field experiments, in particular recent experiments with pressurized liquefied gases. It is found that there is typically a factor of two error in models compared with research-grade observations of mass flow rates. However, biases are present in models' estimates of the droplet size distributions resulting from flashing releases.

  9. Effect of water losses by evaporation and chemical reaction in an industrial slaker reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andreola

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic model of the slaker reactor was developed and validated for Klabin Paraná Papéis causticizing system, responsable for white liquor generation used by the plant. The model considered water losses by evaporation and chemical reaction. The model showed a good agreement with the industrial plant measures of active alkali, total titratable alkali and temperature, without the need of adjustment of any parameter. The simulated results showed that the water consumption by the slaking reaction and evaporation exerted significant influence on the volumetric flow rate of limed liquor, which imposed a decrease of 4.6% in the amount of water in reactor outlet.Foi desenvolvido e testado um modelo dinâmico do reator de apagamento do sistema de caustificação da Klabin Paraná Papéis, responsável pela geração do licor branco utilizado na planta. O modelo contempla perdas de água por evaporação e por reação química e apresentou boa concordância com dados industriais de álcali ativo, álcali total titulável e temperatura, sem a necessidade de ajuste de nenhum parâmetro. Os resultados obtidos a partir de simulações revelam que o consumo de água pela reação de apagamento, bem como pela evaporação, exercem uma influência significativa sobre a vazão volumétrica na saída do reator, impondo uma diminuição de 4,6% sobre o teor de água na corrente de saída do reator em relação à alimentação.

  10. Chemical and isotopic properties and origin of coarse airborne particles collected by passive samplers in industrial, urban, and rural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Dietze, Volke; Gieré, Reto

    2012-12-01

    Passive air samplers have been installed in industrial, urban, rural and remote forested environments in order to collect coarse airborne particles for subsequent chemical characterization. To identify principal polluting sources, isotopic tracers, such as Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic ratios, have been used. The mass deposition rates (MDRs) of trace metals, determined for each of the studied environments, clearly indicate that industrial and traffic sites are especially affected by air pollution. Elements such as V, Pb, Fe, Cr, Co, Mo, Cd, Ni, As, Sb and Zn are notably enriched in samples from industrial zones, whereas V, Mn, Ba, Sr, Al, U, Th, rare earth elements (REE), Zr, Y, Cs, Rb, Sb, Sn and Cu are principal components of the airborne particles collected close to areas influenced by heavy traffic. The chemical/isotopic baseline composition derived from the airborne particles is the result of mixing of particles from different industrial sources, traffic and fertilizers. The monthly analysis of trace-metal MDRs of the collected airborne particle samples from different stations around the industrial zone allows for the detection of distinct atmospheric dust-deposition events during the year, characterized by high MDRs. "Natural" dusts from regional soil re-suspension, including from more distant regions like the Sahara desert, might overprint the regional atmospheric baseline composition, as suggested by trace metal trajectories in ternary diagrams and by Sr, Nd and Pb isotope data.

  11. One year online chemical speciation of submicron particulate matter (PM1) sampled at a French industrial and coastal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shouwen; Riffault, Véronique; Dusanter, Sébastien; Augustin, Patrick; Fourmentin, Marc; Delbarre, Hervé

    2015-04-01

    The harbor of Dunkirk (Northern France) is surrounded by different industrial plants (metallurgy, petrochemistry, food processing, power plant, etc.), which emit gaseous and particulate pollutants such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and sulfur (SO2), and submicron particles (PM1). These emissions are poorly characterized and their impact on neighboring urban areas has yet to be assessed. Studies are particularly needed in this type of complex environments to get a better understanding of PM1sources, especially from the industrial sector, their temporal variability, and their transformation. Several instruments, capable of real-time measurements (temporal resolution ≤ 30 min), were deployed at a site located downwind from the industrial area of Dunkirk for a one-year duration (July 2013-September 2014). An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and an Aethalometer monitored the main chemical species in the non-refractory submicron particles and black carbon, respectively. Concomitant measurements of trace gases and wind speed and direction were also performed. This dataset was analyzed considering four wind sectors, characteristics of marine, industrial, industrial-urban, and urban influences, and the different seasons. We will present a descriptive analysis of PM1, showing strong variations of ambient concentrations, as well as evidences of SO2 to SO4 gas-particle conversion when industrial plumes reached the monitoring site. The organic fraction measured by ACSM (37% of the total mass on average) was analyzed using a source-receptor model based on Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to identify chemical signatures of main emission sources and to quantify the contribution of each source to the PM1 budget given the wind sector. Four main factors were identified: hydrocarbon organic aerosol (HOA), oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA), biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) and cooking-like organic aerosol (COA). Overall, the total PM

  12. Human health risk assessment of exposure to environmental pollutants in the chemical / petrochemical industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Nadal Lomas, Martí

    2005-01-01

    Tesi: Human health risk assessment of exposure to environmental pollutants in the chemical/petrochemical industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain).Autor: Martí NadalResum:Un dels complexos químics/ petroquímics més importants del sud d'Europa està ubicat a Tarragona. En els darrers anys, ha augmentat la preocupació pública envers els possibles efectes adversos que el complex industrial podria tenir per a la salut de la població resident a Tarragona. En resposta, el 2002 s'inicià un estu...

  13. Sustainable catalysis challenges and practices for the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter J; Krische, Michael J; Williams, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    Opens the door to the sustainable production of pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals Driven by both public demand and government regulations, pharmaceutical and fine chemical manufacturers are increasingly seeking to replace stoichiometric reagents used in synthetic transformations with catalytic routes in order to develop greener, safer, and more cost-effective chemical processes. This book supports the discovery, development, and implementation of new catalytic methodologies on a process scale, opening the door to the sustainable production of pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals

  14. IMPLEMENTATION OF A SAFETY PROGRAM FOR THE WORK ACCIDENTS’ CONTROL. A CASE STUDY IN THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Cesar de Faria Nogueira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study related to the implementation of a Work Safety Program in a chemical industry, based on the Process Safety Program, PSP, of a huge energy company. The research was applied, exploratory, qualitative and with and data collection method through documentary and bibliographical research. There will be presented the main practices adopted in order to make the Safety Program a reality inside a chemical industry, its results and contributions for its better development. This paper proposes the implementation of a Safety Program must be preceded by a diagnosis of occupational safety and health management system and with constant critical analysis in order to make the necessary adjustments.

  15. Industrial biotechnology for the production of bio-based chemicals--a cradle-to-grave perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Törnvall, Ulrika; Gustafsson, Linda; Börjesson, Pål

    2007-03-01

    Shifting the resource base for chemical production from fossil feedstocks to renewable raw materials provides exciting possibilities for the use of industrial biotechnology-based process tools. This review gives an indication of the current developments in the transition to bio-based production, with a focus on the production of chemicals, and points out some of the challenges that exist in the large-scale implementation of industrial biotechnology. Furthermore, the importance of evaluating the environmental impact of bio-based products with respect to their entire life cycle is highlighted, demonstrating that the choice of the raw material often turns out to be an important parameter influencing the life cycle performance. PMID:17234288

  16. Proceedings of the 3. International conference on waste management in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Volume 1 and 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Francisco F.; Pereira Filho, Francisco A.; Almeida, Sergio A.S. [eds.

    1993-12-31

    To produce without pollution is today a mandate for the preservation of our society. To produce cleaner means to conserve energy and natural resources, to reduce the use of toxic substances, to invest in the evolution of products and production processes towards a minimum of residues. The Third International Conference on Waste Minimization in the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries addresses these challenging questions regarding waste minimization

  17. Huge Pressure from Energy Supply and Overheated Investment——analysis of China's Petrochemical and Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Shiliang

    2007-01-01

    @@ The economic performance of China's petroleum and chemical industry is comprehensively decided by four major factors now: a. economy grows rapidly,boosting consumption demand; b. supply of energy and products consuming resources tends to be tighter; c. global crude oil price will continue to stay high,driving the production cost of its downstream products; d. the overly rapid increase of investment in fixed assets is difficult to control, so more and more products will face surplus production capacity.

  18. Predicting the Future: Opportunities and Challenges for the Chemical Industry to Apply 21st-Century Toxicity Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Settivari, Raja S; Ball, Nicholas; Murphy, Lynea; Rasoulpour, Reza; Boverhof, Darrell R; Carney, Edward W

    2015-01-01

    Interest in applying 21st-century toxicity testing tools for safety assessment of industrial chemicals is growing. Whereas conventional toxicology uses mainly animal-based, descriptive methods, a paradigm shift is emerging in which computational approaches, systems biology, high-throughput in vitro toxicity assays, and high-throughput exposure assessments are beginning to be applied to mechanism-based risk assessments in a time- and resource-efficient fashion. Here we describe recent advances...

  19. Repositioning of european chemicals groups and changes in innovation management : the case of the french chimical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Charue-Duboc, Florence

    2007-01-01

    Germany, Great Britain, and Switzerland are usually considered to be the dominant powers in the European chemical industry, since they are associated with companies of international stature such as Bayer, BASF, ICI, Ciba-Geigy and Sandoz. Founded decades ago, these firms have marked the sector dynamics with their strategies regarding academic relations, the importance of patents, diversification within a multidivisional structure, and internationalization. At first sight, France would seem to...

  20. Microbiological and Chemical Quality of Water in Food Industries with Low Content of Water at End Products

    OpenAIRE

    Sh Nazmara; A Ostadrahimi; H Taghipour; M Mosaferi

    2009-01-01

    "n "nBackground and Objectives: In the production of some high-consumed food products like cake, biscuit, chocolate and spaghetti water is used in the preparing of primary material and in the kneading processes. At the present study microbiological and chemical quality of consumed water in food industries of East Azerbaijan Province were studied."nMaterials and Methods: Eleven factories with different products were selected. Water samples were collected and analyzed regarding the microbiologi...

  1. Physical-chemical characteristics of an eco-friendly binder using ternary mixture of industrial wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen, Hoang-Anh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the physical-chemical characteristics of paste and mortar with an eco-friendly binder named as SFC cement, produced by a ternary mixture of industrial waste materials of ground granulated blast furnace slag (S, Class F fly ash (FFA, and circulating fluidized bed combustion fly ash (CFA. To trigger the hydration, the CFA, which acted as an alkaline-sulfate activator, was added to the blended mixture of slag and FFA. The water to binder ratio (W/B, curing regime, and FFA addition significantly affected the engineering performances and shrinkage/expansion of the SFC pastes and mortars. The SFC mortars had higher workability than that of ordinary Portland cement (OPC. With similar workability, the SFC mortars had compressive strengths and expansions comparable to OPC mortars. The main hydration products of the hardened SFC cement were ettringite (AFt and C-S-H/C-A-S-H. The transformation of the AFt to the monosulfates was observed as the hydration time increased.Este trabajo estudia las características fisicoquímicas de pastas y morteros con un ligante eco-amigable llamado cemento SFC, producido por una mezcla ternaria de materiales a partir de residuos industriales tales como escorias granuladas de alto horno (S, ceniza volante clase F (FFA, y cenizas volantes de combustión en lecho fluidizado circulante (CFA. Para desencadenar la hidratación, el CFA que actuó como un activador alcalino-sulfato se añadió a la mezcla combinada de escoria y FFA. La relación de agua/ligante (W/B, el tipo de curado, y la adición de FFA afectaron significativamente a las prestaciones mecánicas así como a la retracción/expansión de pastas y morteros de SFC. Los morteros SFC presentaron una trabajabilidad mayor que los correspondientes de cemento de Portland (OPC. Con una trabajabilidad similar, los morteros SFC presentaron resistencias mecánicas y expansión comparables a los morteros de OPC. Los principales productos de hidratación del

  2. Skills Conversion Project: Chapter 14, Petroleum/Chemical Industries. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Society of Professional Engineers, Washington, DC.

    Potential employment opportunities for displaced aerospace and defense technical personnel in the petroleum industry were studied for the U.S. Department of Labor. A relatively small, but increasing number of ex-aerospace and defense personnel can be absorbed by the industry, beginning with from 40 to 100 jobs in 1972 and increasing each year to…

  3. Analysis and treatment of industrial wastewater through chemical coagulation-adsorption process-A case study of Clariant Pakistan limited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Shah, Syed Farman; Shah, Abdul Karim; Mehdi, Ahmad; Memon, Aziza Aftab; Harijan, Khanji; Ali, Zeenat M.

    2012-05-01

    Textile dye manufacture processes are known as the most polluting chemical processes of industrial sectors of the world. Colored wastewaters along with many polluting agents are troublesome. They are heavily polluted with dyes, textile auxiliaries and chemicals. Current study applies a coupled technology for wastewater treatment. Combined coagulation-adsorption process was utilized for treatment of complex nature effluents of dyes, binder emulsion, pigments and textile chemicals plants at Clariant Pakistan. Cost effective coagulant and adsorbent was selected by using waste material from a power generation unit of Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), Pakistan. The treated effluent could be reused. Alum+ Activated Carbon, Ferrous sulfate+ Activated Carbon, Ferric chloride + Activated Carbon. Almost complete decolourization was achieved along with reduction in COD up to 65%. Pre and post treatment, TDS, COD, Turbidity and suspended solids were improved.

  4. Biotechnology for a renewable resources chemicals and fuels industry, biochemical engineering R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villet, R.H.

    1980-04-01

    To establish an effective biotechnology of biomass processing for the production of fuels and chemicals, an integration of research in biochemical engineering, microbial genetics, and biochemistry is required. Reduction of the costs of producing chemicals and fuels from renewable resources will hinge on extensive research in biochemical engineering.

  5. Evaluating exposures to complex mixtures of chemicals during a new production process in the plastics industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, T.; Burstyn, I.; Wendel de Joode, B. van; Posthumus, M.A.; Kromhout, H.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to monitor emission of chemicals at a factory where plastics products were fabricated by a new robotic (impregnated tape winding) production process. Stationary and personal air measurements were taken to determine which chemicals were released and at what concentrations.

  6. Industrial Scale Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes Via Fluidized Bed Chemical Vapor Deposition: A Senior Design Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, York R.; Fuchs, Alan; Meyyappan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Senior year chemical engineering students designed a process to produce 10 000 tonnes per annum of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and also conducted bench-top experiments to synthesize SWNTs via fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition techniques. This was an excellent pedagogical experience because it related to the type of real world design…

  7. Adapting SimpleTreat for simulating behaviour of chemical substances during industrial sewage treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, J.; van de Meent, D.; Schowanek, D.; Buchholz, H.; Patoux, R.; Wolf, T.; Austin, T.; Tolls, J.; van Leeuwen, K.; Galay-Burgos, M.

    2016-01-01

    The multimedia model SimpleTreat, evaluates the distribution and elimination of chemicals by municipal sewage treatment plants (STP). It is applied in the framework of REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals). This article describes an adaptation of this model for

  8. The impact of conventional and nuclear industries on the population A comparative study of the radioactive and chemical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Coulon, R; Anguenot, F

    1988-01-01

    This study was carried out to make it possible to assess and localize in an objective manner the extent of the hazards and associated detrimental effects which are inherent in nuclear and non-nuclear industrial activities, among all the hazards to which the population of a given region is exposed. Rather than carry out a purely theoretical and speculative study a region was chosen as a basis to carry out a full- scale exercise, taking into account the existing real situation. The region chosen is situated in the south-east of France (Greater Rhone Delta) where almost all industrial activities can be found: electricity generating industries (thermal and nuclear power stations), the activities associated with them (extraction, processing, storage of waste, etc.) and industrial activities which are sources of pollution (refineries, chemical industries, etc.). To put the risks of all these activities (to workers, the public and the environment) in perspective, the case of other sources of risk, such as certain ag...

  9. 15 CFR 710.4 - Overview of scheduled chemicals and examples of affected industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provides examples of the types of industries that may be affected by the CWCR (parts 710 through 729 of...; (5) Epoxy resins; and (6) Insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, defoliants, and rodenticides....

  10. Discussion on Fluorine Chemical Industry 4.0 Construction%氟化工的工业4.0之路浅议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王水耀; 方国洪

    2015-01-01

    The basic meaning and essence of industry 4.0 were introduced. Characteristics of fluorine chemical industry and informationization construction of enterprises was analyzed. The industry 4.0 for fluo-rine chemical industry construction was discussed.%介绍了工业4.0的基本内涵和实质,剖析了氟化工企业的行业特点和信息化建设水平,论述了适合氟化工行业发展的工业4.0建设思路。

  11. Indústria química: evolução recente, problemas e oportunidades Chemical industry: recent developments, problems and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Galembeck

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical industry underwent a significant upturn in the past few years. In Brazil, the position of this industry has been continuously strengthened as the second largest industrial sector. Current circumstances are discussed, especially the need for increased innovation, the impacts of nanotechnology, biotechnology and information technologies. Some misconceptions on the Brazilian chemical industry are criticized and recent improvements are described, including those related to environmental protection, to conclude that its prospects are very good, considering both the availability of basic raw materials (oil, natural gas, agribusiness products and minerals, the growing demand and increased competitiveness.

  12. 氟化工的工业4.0之路浅议%Discussion on Fluorine Chemical Industry 4.0 Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王水耀; 方国洪

    2015-01-01

    The basic meaning and essence of industry 4.0 were introduced. Characteristics of fluorine chemical industry and informationization construction of enterprises was analyzed. The industry 4.0 for fluo-rine chemical industry construction was discussed.%介绍了工业4.0的基本内涵和实质,剖析了氟化工企业的行业特点和信息化建设水平,论述了适合氟化工行业发展的工业4.0建设思路。

  13. Levels and spatial distribution of airborne chemical elements in a heavy industrial area located in the north of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, J; Almeida, S M; Reis, M A; Chaves, P C; Ribeiro, T; Garcia, S; Faria, J P; Fernández, B G; Wolterbeek, H T

    2014-01-01

    The adverse health effects of airborne particles have been subjected to intense investigation in recent years; however, more studies on the chemical characterization of particles from pollution emissions are needed to (1) identify emission sources, (2) better understand the relative toxicity of particles, and (3) pinpoint more targeted emission control strategies and regulations. The main objective of this study was to assess the levels and spatial distribution of airborne chemical elements in a heavy industrial area located in the north of Spain. Instrumental and biomonitoring techniques were integrated and analytical methods for k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis and particle-induced x-ray emission were used to determine element content in aerosol filters and lichens. Results indicated that in general local industry contributed to the emissions of As, Sb, Cu, V, and Ni, which are associated with combustion processes. In addition, the steelwork emitted significant quantities of Fe and Mn and the cement factory was associated with Ca emissions. The spatial distribution of Zn and Al also indicated an important contribution of two industries located outside the studied area. PMID:25072718

  14. Engineering propionibacteria as versatile cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals: advances, challenges, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ningzi; Zhuge, Xin; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Wu, Jing; Shi, Zhongping; Liu, Long

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacteria are actinobacteria consisting of two principal groups: cutaneous and dairy. Cutaneous propionibacteria are considered primary pathogens to humans, whereas dairy propionibacteria are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Increasing attention has been focused on improving the performance of dairy propionibacteria for the production of industrially important chemicals, and significant advances have been made through strain engineering and process optimization in the production of flavor compounds, nutraceuticals, and antimicrobial compounds. In addition, genome sequencing of several propionibacteria species has been completed, deepening understanding of the metabolic and physiological features of these organisms. However, the metabolic engineering of propionibacteria still faces several challenges owing to the lack of efficient genome manipulation tools and the existence of various types of strong restriction-modification systems. The emergence of systems and synthetic biology provides new opportunities to overcome these bottlenecks. In this review, we first introduce the major species of propionibacteria and their properties and provide an overview of their functions and applications. We then discuss advances in the genome sequencing and metabolic engineering of these bacteria. Finally, we discuss systems and synthetic biology approaches for engineering propionibacteria as efficient and robust cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals. PMID:25431012

  15. Recent advances of pore system construction in zeolite-catalyzed chemical industry processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Wang, Yangdong; Yang, Weimin; Tang, Yi; Xie, Zaiku

    2015-12-21

    The kaleidoscopic applications of zeolite catalysts (zeo-catalysts) in petrochemical processes has been considered as one of the major accomplishments in recent decades. About twenty types of zeolite have been industrially applied so far, and their versatile porous architectures have contributed their most essential features to affect the catalytic efficiency. This review depicts the evolution of pore models in zeolite catalysts accompanied by the increase in industrial and environmental demands. The indispensable roles of modulating pore models are outlined for zeo-catalysts for the enhancement of their catalytic performances in various industrial processes. The zeolites and related industrial processes discussed range from the uni-modal micropore system of zeolite Y (12-ring micropore, 12-R) in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), zeolite ZSM-5 (10-R) in xylene isomerization and SAPO-34 (8-R) in olefin production to the multi-modal micropore system of MCM-22 (10-R and 12-R pocket) in aromatic alkylation and the hierarchical pores in FCC and catalytic cracking of C4 olefins. The rational construction of pore models, especially hierarchical features, is highlighted with a careful classification from an industrial perspective accompanied by a detailed analysis of the theoretical mechanisms.

  16. Towards benchmarking of multivariable controllers in chemical/biochemical industries: Plantwide control for ethylene glycol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Bialas, Dawid Jan; Jørgensen, John Bagterp;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a simple yet realistic benchmark plant for evaluation and comparison of advanced multivariable control for chemical and biochemical processes. The benchmark plant is based on recycle-separator-recycle systems for ethylene glycol production and implemented in Matlab-Simuli...... for education purposes (operator training, student education, etc) as well as scientific research into chemical process control where it enables rapid evaluation and comparison of advanced multivariable controllers as demonstrated in this study....

  17. Chemical process control : present status and future needs ; the view from European industry

    OpenAIRE

    Schuler, Hans; Allgöwer, Frank; Gilles, Ernst Dieter

    1991-01-01

    Not only in Europe, chemical process control is characterized by a broad invasion of distributed control systems into chemical plants. The information integration from process control up to business management is a great challenge of today which follows from the overall computerization of production. Most of the recent progress in process automation results from the application of computer science paradigms to control systems, and of advanced developments in field instrumentation. Despite the...

  18. Water quality improvement of a lagoon containing mixed chemical industrial wastewater by micro-electrolysis-contact oxidization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-fei ZHOU; Mao LIU; Qiong WU

    2011-01-01

    A lagoon in the New Binhai District, a high-speed developing area, Tianjin, China, has long been receiving the mixed chemical industrial wastewater from a chemical industrial park. This lagoon contained complex hazardous substances such as heavy metals and accumulative pollutants which stayed over time with a poor biodegradability. According to the characteristics of wastewater in the lagoon, the micro-electrolysis process was applied to improve the biodegradability before the bioprocess treatment. By the orthogonal experimental study of main factors influencing the efficiency of the treatment method, the best control parameters were obtained, including pH=2.0, a volume ratio of Fe and reaction wastewater of 0.03750, a volume ratio of Fe and the granular activated carbon (GAC) of 2.0, a mixing speed of 200 r/min, and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.5 h. In the meantime, the removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was up to 64.6%, and NH4-N and Pb in the influent were partly removed. After the micro-electrolysis process, the ratio of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to COD (B/C ratio) was greater than 0.6, thus providing a favorable basis for bioprocess treatment.

  19. Long-term energy efficiency analysis requires solid energy statistics: The case of the German basic chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyzing the chemical industry’s energy use is challenging because of the sector’s complexity and the prevailing uncertainty in energy use and production data. We develop an advanced bottom-up model (PIE-Plus) which encompasses the energy use of the 139 most important chemical processes. We apply this model in a case study to analyze the German basic chemical industry’s energy use and energy efficiency improvements in the period between 1995 and 2008. We compare our results with data from the German Energy Balances and with data published by the International Energy Agency (IEA). We find that our model covers 88% of the basic chemical industry’s total final energy use (including non-energy use) as reported in the German Energy Balances. The observed energy efficiency improvements range between 2.2 and 3.5% per year, i.e., they are on the higher side of the values typically reported in literature. Our results point to uncertainties in the basic chemical industry’s final energy use as reported in the energy statistics and the specific energy consumption values. More efforts are required to improve the quality of the national and international energy statistics to make them useable for reliable monitoring of energy efficiency improvements of the chemical industry. -- Highlights: ► An advanced model was developed to estimate German chemical industry’s energy use. ► For the base year (2000), model covers 88% of the sector’s total final energy use. ► Sector’s energy efficiency improved between 2.2 and 3.5%/yr between 1995 and 2008. ► Improved energy statistics are required for accurate monitoring of improvements.

  20. Summaries of the 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry; Streszczenia 40. Zjazdu Naukowego Polskiego Towarzystwa Chemicznego i Stowarzyszenia Inzynierow i Technikow Przemyslu Chemicznego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Annual 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry has been held in Gdansk on 22-26 September 1997. The most valuable scientific results obtained in Polish Laboratories have been presented in 22 main sections and 7 symposia directed especially at following subjects: analytical chemistry, biochemistry, solid state chemistry and material science, physical chemistry, heteroorganic and coordination chemistry, medical and pharmaceutical chemistry, metalorganic chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry, polymers chemistry, chemistry and environment protection, theoretical chemistry, chemical didactics, photochemistry, radiation chemistry and chemical kinetics, chemical engineering, catalysis, crystallochemistry, chemical technology, electrochemistry, and instrumental methods.

  1. Strengthen China Daily- use Chemical Industry%做强日化 --一名从业人员的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成军

    2001-01-01

    中国日用化学品领域缺乏大企业,创新能力和市场推广的不足是重要原因。通过对业界现状的分析,提出从属性定位、原料创新、产品线组合、资本经营、品牌经营、坚强有力的管理等方面进行创新和营销。%China has few giant in the industry of daily- use chemical. The reason lies in the fact that innovation and promotion are far from enough. The author, who is working in the industry, suggest that more consideration should be put into position, new compositions, produci line, merge and acquisition, brand image, stronger sales management.

  2. Impact analysis of the implemented quality management system on business performances in pharmaceutical-chemical industry in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Valentina D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available International quality management standard (QMS ISO 9001 became widely accepted as a framework for product and/or services quality improvement. There are recent research conducted in order to define relationships and effects between the applied QMS and financial and/or non-financial business parameters. The effects of the applied pharmaceutical quality system (PQS on the business performances in Serbian pharmaceutical-chemical industry are analyzed in this paper using multivariate linear regression analysis. The empirical data were collected using a survey that was performed among experts from Serbian pharmaceutical-chemical industrial sector during 2010. An extensive questionnaire was used in the survey, grouping the questions in eight groups: Implementation of pharmaceutical quality system (AQ, Quality/strategy planning (QP, Human resource management (HR, Supply management (SM, Customer focus (CF, Process management (PM, Continuous improvement (CI, and Business results (BR. The primary goal of the research was to analyze the effects of the elements of first seven groups (AQ, QP, HR, SM, CF, PM, and CI that present various aspects of the implementation of PQS, on the elements of business results (BR. Based on empirical data, regression relations were formed to present the effects of all considered elements of PQS implementation on the business performance parameters (BR. The positive effects of PQS implementation on the business performances such as the assessment of performance indicators, continual products and/or services quality improvement, and efficient problem solving, are confirmed in the presented research for the Serbian pharmaceutical-chemical industrial sector. The results of the presented research will create a room for the improvement of the existing models in application, and for attracting interested parties that aim to commence this business standardization process. Hence, implementation of PQS is not only the regulatory

  3. 我国煤化工发展分析%China Coal Chemical Industry Development Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志龙; 陈明

    2011-01-01

    The paper stated the characteristics of the coal chemical and analyzed the challenges and opportunities of the coal chemical development in China.The coal chemical must stick to the principle of being in proportion and in order.We need pay close attenton to international markets of crude oil and chemical products and analyse carefully the market competitiveness of coal-base products.Actively promote coal production enterprises and chemical enterprise power-and-power union.%文章阐述了新型煤化工的特点,分析了中国发展煤化工面临的挑战和机遇。发展煤化工必须坚持适度、有序的原则,综合考虑社会投入,高度关注国际油价和石化产品市场,认真分析市场竞争力,积极推动煤炭生产企业与煤化工企业强强联合。

  4. Chemical amendment and phytostabilization of an industrial residue contaminated with Zn and Cd Correção química e fitoestabilização de um resíduo industrial contaminado com Zn e Cd

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Soares dos Santos; Márcio Osvaldo Lima Magalhães; Nelson Mazur; Nelson Moura Brasil do Amaral Sobrinho

    2007-01-01

    Phytostabilisation of a contaminated soil with heavy metals is considered a very appropriate technology to reduce erosion and dispersion of contaminants. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effects of both chemical amendments (calcium silicate and brewery sludge), and phytoremediation using the grass Brachiaria decumbens, on an industrial residue contaminated with Zn and Cd (industrial residue). Industrial residue samples placed into 30 L containers were amended with 20% brewery ...

  5. Review of the impact of the Ukraine-EU free trade agreement on manufacturing industries (mechanical engineering, chemical and light industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Usenko

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a definition to the concept of ‘deep integration’ taken by the Ukrainian Government as a framework concept for the establishment of a Ukraine-EU free trade area. The paper uses the term ‘deep free trade’ or ‘free trade area +’. It offers a review of the Ukrainian economy and its readiness to open such industries as mechanical engineering, chemical and light industry to free trade with the EU. It examines which cooperative steps might be taken in the sectors in question in the framework of a free trade area by identifying specific features of those sectors in Ukraine and the EU through SWOT analysis and review of certain provisions in relevant agreements between the EU and other countries. It proposes to forecast the possible impact of a free trade area on stakeholders’ position regarding the agreement by using the ‘stakeholder approach’ (identifying and classifying interest groups and the European Commission’s method of ‘impact assessment’. Based on the results of this research, conclusions are made concerning the fundamental negotiation principles for talks between Ukraine and the EU as to the economic and trade component of the new ‘enhanced agreement.

  6. Conversion of bioprocess ethanol to industrial chemical products - Applications of process models for energy-economic assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment approach for accurate evaluation of bioprocesses for large-scale production of industrial chemicals is presented. Detailed energy-economic assessments of a potential esterification process were performed, where ethanol vapor in the presence of water from a bioreactor is catalytically converted to ethyl acetate. Results show that such processes are likely to become more competitive as the cost of substrates decreases relative to petrolium costs. A commercial ASPEN process simulation provided a reasonably consistent comparison with energy economics calculated using JPL developed software. Detailed evaluations of the sensitivity of production cost to material costs and annual production rates are discussed.

  7. National symposium on commissioning and operating experiences in heavy water plants and associated chemical industries [Preprint volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A symposium on commissioning and operating experiences in heavy water plants and associated chemical industries (SCOPEX-92) was organised to share the experience and exchange the ideas among plant operators, designers, consultants and vendors in the areas of operation, commissioning and equipment performance. This pre-print volume has been brought out as an integrated source of information on commissioning and operation of heavy water plants. The following aspects of heavy water plants are covered: commissioning and operation, instrumentation and control, and safety and environment. (V.R.)

  8. Utilisation of fly ash for the management of heavy metal containing primary chemical sludge generated in a leather manufacturing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekaran, G.; Rao, B.P.; Ghanamani, A.; Rajamani, S. [Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai (India). Dept. of Environmental Technology

    2003-07-01

    The present study aims at disposal of primary chemical sludge generated in the tanning industry by solidification and stabilization process using flyash generated from thermal power plant along with binders and also on evaluating the leachability of heavy metal from the solidified product. The primary chemical sludge containing heavy metals iron and chromium were obtained from a garment leather manufacturing company at Chennai in India. The sludge was dried in open environment and it was powdered to fine size in a grinder. Binding increases stabilization of heavy metal in calcined sludge with refractory binders such as clay, fly ash, lime and ordinary Portland cement. Fly ash can be considered as the additional binder for producing stronger bricks, with high metal fixation efficiency, and minimum rate of removal of heavy metal and minimum diffusion co-efficient. 15 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Experiences of the psychological contract, work engagement and life satisfaction of learners in the chemical industry / F.J.P. Swanepoel

    OpenAIRE

    Swanepoel, Francina Johanna Petronella

    2013-01-01

    The rapid change within the South African workplace and competitiveness of organisations required employed and unemployed individuals to be trained and retrained as a large number of the South African population is unskilled. In the chemical industry employability of individuals is of extra ordinarily importance to both employer and individual. One of the main focuses of the Chemical Industries Education and Training Authority (CHIETA) is to enable learners through the promotion of employabil...

  10. Ethylene vinyl acetate polymer as a tool for passive sampling monitoring of hydrophobic chemicals in the salmon farm industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The samplers allow the detection of hydrophobic chemicals in the marine environment. • The samplers reach equilibrium quickly, with days of deployment in the field. • The samplers have low costs and easy manipulation for monitoring programs. • A way to collect chemicals in the aquatic environment without human effort. - Abstract: Current monitoring programs are focused on hydrophobic chemicals detection in aquatic systems, which require the collection of high volumes of water samples at a given time. The present study documents the preliminary use of the polymer ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) as a passive sampler for the detection of a hydrophobic chemical used by salmon industries such as cypermethrin. Initially, an experimental calibration in laboratory was performed to determine the cypermethrin equilibrium between sampler and aquatic medium, which was reached after seven days of exposure. A logarithm of partitioning coefficient EVA–water (log KEVA–W) of 5.6 was reported. Field deployment of EVA samplers demonstrated average concentrations of cypermethrin in water to be 2.07 ± 0.7 ng L−1 close to salmon cages, while near-shore was 4.39 ± 0.8 ng L−1. This was a first approach for assessing EVA samplers design as a tool of monitoring in water for areas with salmon farming activity

  11. [Hygienic aspects of the industrialization and intensification of chemical seed protection. Achievements and problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisenko, N F; Petrichenko, L N

    1989-01-01

    Design improvement of machines and devices for seed decontamination with account of the proposed hygienic recommendations promoted sanitation of operators' working conditions. Introduction of progressive technology (damping, inlaid work) enables one to reduce pesticide application and to decrease ecologic hazard of seed chemical protection. PMID:2591811

  12. Neurodevelopmental toxicity risks due to occupational exposure to industrial chemicals during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julvez, Jordi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to neurotoxic chemicals is of particular concern when it occurs during early development. The immature brain is highly vulnerable prenatally and is therefore at risk due to occupational exposures incurred by pregnant women. A systematic search of the literature has been performed with em...

  13. Raw material demand and sourcing options for the development for a bio-based chemical industry in Europe : Part 1 : Estimation of maximum demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This perspective presents an estimation of the future demand for biomass of the chemical industry in Europe, provided that naphtha, the present feedstock of the petrochemical industry, is fully replaced by biomass. Data are based on the Eurostat data on manufactured goods for EU27 in 2007. Two diffe

  14. Carbon Dioxide Separation Technology: R&D Needs for the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2007-11-01

    This report, the second in a series, is designed to summarize and present recommendations for improved CO2 separation technology for industrial processes. This report provides an overview of 1) the principal CO2 producing processes, 2) the current commercial separation technologies and 3) emerging adsorption and membrane technologies for CO2 separation, and makes recommendations for future research.

  15. Development and Scale Up Of a Chemical Process in Pharmaceutical Industry: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Belwal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Every process has its own significance and one has to study factors which impact to the process and its procedure to be followed. This paper is more concerned of how a process is scaled up from lab scale to pilot plant scale, which is the major step in any industry because moving directly towards manufacturing level consumes time and money. The report introduces about pharmaceutical industry and how it is different from the other industries and provides firsthand experience for all the engineers to explore the equipment, process and unit operations included in it. First aspect of scale up is safety and then comes economy, purity and optimums. It includes the process and its unit operations such as reactors, distillation, filtration, crystallization, drying and the equipment involving these operations. Consequently, the scale up rules, factors influenced strategies and other considerations are observed. To learn and understand the unit process and operations with their importance, a case study taking one of the stages of production is discussed here

  16. The use of physico-chemical processes in order to achieve the required parameters of industrial wastewater before connecting to the municipal system

    OpenAIRE

    Miroševič, Samo

    2015-01-01

    The development of industrial facilities is causing increased discharge of industrial wastewater in municipal system. This represents a severe burden on the environment. Sustainable water management is so inevitable, that it is necessary to process polluted wastewater in a suitable treatment plant. The graduation thesis discusses an area of the physico-chemical treatment of industrial wastewater. Mentioned processes are used to ensure appropriate limit values for a connection to municipal sys...

  17. Peak expiratory flow rate in asymptomatic male workers exposed to chemical fumes, in various industries of Hyderabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padaki Samata K, Dambal Amrut , Kokiwar Prashant

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: The prevalence of occupational health hazards and mortality has been reported to be unusually high among people of India. Although developed countries are very much careful about the health in occupations it is quite neglected in the developing countries like India. Aims: To record PEFR in asymptomatic male workers exposed to chemical fumes for more than 2 years and compare the results with age matched unexposed, healthy male controls. Methods and Material: This was a comparative study between 50 asymptomatic male workers exposed to chemical fumes for more than 2 years in various industries located at Jeedimetla Industrial Area and 50 unexposed healthy male individuals from general population. The sampling was done by simple random sampling (lottery method. The data was collected in the Research Laboratory of Physiology. Anthropometry like weight, height, was measured and the PEFR test was performed in the standing position by taking a deep inspiration and then blowing out as hard and as quickly as possible with their nose closed. Data was analyzed by using SPSS package and was expressed in terms of mean ± SD. Results: It was observed that mean PEFR was statistically highly significant in cases (p = 0.0001, and PEFR decreased with increase in duration of exposure. Conclusions: Thus, it can be concluded that apparently healthy individuals may also have abnormal PEFR findings. Hence, a regular check on these parameters will help them in reducing the chances of its manifestation at a future date.

  18. Corporate social responsibility and global standardization: sustainable environmental management in the chemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia R. TODD

    2009-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility and sustainable development are issues that been in the forefront of corporate strategy for several decades. The increase in the power of environmental groups, the ease of cross border information flow, and the rising concern of the public with regards to global impact of environmental issues are motivating factors resulting in the establishment of environmental management systems. Many multinational chemical companies, threatened with the possibility of the es...

  19. Investigating positive leadership, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life in a chemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tersia Nel; Marius W. Stander; Juraida Latif

    2015-01-01

    Orientation: The predominant theme of this research attends to the role of perceived positive leadership behaviour in relation to employee outcomes (psychological empowerment, work engagement, and satisfaction with life).Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate whether perceived positive leadership behaviour could predict psychological empowerment, work engagement, and satisfaction with life of employees in a chemical organisation in South Africa and whether positive l...

  20. Aspects of optical fibers and spectrometric sensors in chemical process and industrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For on-line control, the two alternatives of automatic sample transfer and in situ remote analysis are discussed. New concepts are emerging from the possibilities offered by optical fibers. Absorption in the visible, UV and IR, fluorescence and Raman spectrometric techniques are examined. The state of the art of optodes and devices in chemical process control are given, with some examples of applications in nuclear plants

  1. The Chemistry Scoring Index (CSI): A Hazard-Based Scoring and Ranking Tool for Chemicals and Products Used in the Oil and Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Verslycke; Kim Reid; Teresa Bowers; Sagar Thakali; Ari Lewis; Johnny Sanders; Denise Tuck

    2014-01-01

    A large portfolio of chemicals and products is needed to meet the wide range of performance requirements of the oil and gas industry. The oil and gas industry is under increased scrutiny from regulators, environmental groups, the public, and other stakeholders for use of their chemicals. In response, industry is increasingly incorporating “greener†products and practices but is struggling to define and quantify what exactly constitutes “green†in the absence of a universally accepted de...

  2. Risk based inspection experience from the European chemical- and petrochemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an inspection vendor with 60 years of experience and with more than 25 years of experience as manufacturer of the Automated Ultrasonic NDT systems, the P-scan systems, FORCE Institute is continuously analysing the market for NDT. This is done to assure that both the equipment product line and the service mix provided by FORCE Institute are meeting the requirements from the industry today and in the future. The concept of Risk Based Inspection Programmes were adopted early by the offshore industry and has in the recent years been adopted by many other industries as a reliable and cost efficient way of maintaining a production facility. A Risk/Reliability Based Inspection Programme is a 'living organism' that constantly needs information if it shall be of any value and NDT information is only one type of information that is required. The NDT information required is normally related to corrosion/base material information and weld integrity information. NDT as an integrated part of a plants maintenance system is, in Europe, currently influenced by the following tendencies which all are related to 'Risk Based Inspection': · Increased use of Base-Line Inspections · Reduction in the use of repeated inspections(qualitative- instead of quantitative Inspections). · Inspection results are fed directly into the plant maintenance system. · Fitness-for-Purpose acceptance criteria instead of conventional acceptance criteria. As repeatability and accuracy is a key issue for the data, automated ultrasonic inspection is increasingly used as an alternative to manual ultrasonic inspection, but due to the physical size of most automated ultrasonic inspection systems the gain in productivity has not been as significant as the gain in repeatability and accuracy. In this paper some of FORCE Institute's practical experiences with examinations carried out in connection with Risk Based Inspection is used to illustrate the above described tendencies. Not only examples using automated

  3. INTEGRATION OF REFINING AND CHEMICAL INDUSTRY ——Development Strategy for Petrochemicals in New Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With the rapid progress of the national economy in China, petroleum refining and petrochemical industry have grown with leaps and bounds correspondingly in 1990s. The amount of crude oil processed reached 152.39 Mt in 1998, 1.13 times that in 1993.   The refining capacity ranks the fourth in the world. Ethylene production was 3.77 Mt in 1998, 1.87 times that in 1993. The capacity of ethylene ranks the sixth in the world.   It can be expected that the petrochemical industry in China will develop faster than the refining in 21st century. The basic reason therefore is that petrochemical products can not satisfy the demand of domestic market by far so that there should be a great import. In 1998, for example, imported synthetic resin was as much as 11.71 Mt, of which five bulk plastics were 8.03 Mt. Imported synthetic rubber, synthetic fiber and fertilizer were 0.474 Mt, 1.519 Mt and 1392 Mt, respectively. The situation showed that the domestic market in China has an enormous demand for ethylene, i.e. the total demand for ethylene in 2010 is estimated as 17~18 Mt. Even if the production capacity could be 10 Mt, the self-supporting ratio will only be about 55.5%.      Please read the details of this paper in the journal of China Petroleum Processing & Petrochemical Technology.

  4. Respiratory Health and Allergies from Chemical Exposures among Machining Industry Workers in Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hui LIAW

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory health complaints, allergy symptom, lung functions, and the association between airborne concentrations of chromium and aluminium with respiratory health and allergy symptoms among machining industry workers in Selangor, Malaysia.Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional comparative study. The respiratory and allergy symptoms were obtained through the American Thoracic Society (ATS Adult Respiratory Questionnaire (ATS-DLD-78  modified questionnaire. Results: The MWFs unexposed group had significantly higher TWA8 airborne aluminum concentration (median = 0.24 µg/m3 than the exposed group (median = 0.13 µg/m3 (P=0.027. However, no significant difference was found in the airborne chromium between both groups. Significantly higher skin itchiness was reported by the MWFs exposed group. This was further supported by the serum total IgE concentrations which was significantly higher among MWFs exposed group than the unexposed group (P=0.024. The prevalence of total serum IgE was significantly higher for the exposed group (54.3% than the unexposed group (36.9%. The exposed group reported significantly higher prevalence of cough symptom, morning cough with sputum and health worries caused by metalworking fluids than the unexposed group. Conclusion: This study showed significantly higher allergy and respiratory symptoms among the MWFs exposed group than the unexposed group.   Keywords: Machining industry, Metalworking fluids, Allergy symptoms, IgE, Lung function

  5. Sister-chromatid exchanges and cell-cycle kinetics in the lymphocytes of workers occupationally exposed to a chemical mixture in the tyre industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasiadek, M

    1993-08-01

    Cytogenetic studies of clinically healthy workers employed in the rubber industry showed an increase in chromosome aberrations (CAs), sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and a decrease in proliferation indices (PIs). The aim of the present study was to establish, using the SCE and PI tests, genotoxic effects of hazardous chemicals in the rubber industry. An increase in mean SCEs in the lymphocytes of vulcanizers as compared to controls was observed. Since the PI in the exposed group was insignificantly decreased as compared to the controls, it could be concluded that the SCE test is the most sensitive cytogenetic test for the detection of a genotoxic effect of chemicals in the rubber industry. There was no evidence in the present study that the genotoxic effect of chemicals in the rubber industry was enhanced by cigarette smoking. PMID:7688857

  6. Sequential chemical-biological processes for the treatment of industrial wastewaters: review of recent progresses and critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guieysse, Benoit; Norvill, Zane N

    2014-02-28

    When direct wastewater biological treatment is unfeasible, a cost- and resource-efficient alternative to direct chemical treatment consists of combining biological treatment with a chemical pre-treatment aiming to convert the hazardous pollutants into more biodegradable compounds. Whereas the principles and advantages of sequential treatment have been demonstrated for a broad range of pollutants and process configurations, recent progresses (2011-present) in the field provide the basis for refining assessment of feasibility, costs, and environmental impacts. This paper thus reviews recent real wastewater demonstrations at pilot and full scale as well as new process configurations. It also discusses new insights on the potential impacts of microbial community dynamics on process feasibility, design and operation. Finally, it sheds light on a critical issue that has not yet been properly addressed in the field: integration requires complex and tailored optimization and, of paramount importance to full-scale application, is sensitive to uncertainty and variability in the inputs used for process design and operation. Future research is therefore critically needed to improve process control and better assess the real potential of sequential chemical-biological processes for industrial wastewater treatment.

  7. Identifying potential endocrine disruptors among industrial chemicals and their metabolites--development and evaluation of in silico tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybacka, Aleksandra; Rudén, Christina; Tetko, Igor V; Andersson, Patrik L

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the identification of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by developing and evaluating in silico tools that predict interactions at the estrogen (E) and androgen (A) receptors, and binding to transthyretin (T). In particular, the study focuses on evaluating the use of the EAT models in combination with a metabolism simulator to study the significance of bioactivation for endocrine disruption. Balanced accuracies of the EAT models ranged from 77-87%, 62-77%, and 65-89% for E-, A-, and T-binding respectively. The developed models were applied on a set of more than 6000 commonly used industrial chemicals of which 9% were predicted E- and/or A-binders and 1% were predicted T-binders. The numbers of E- and T-binders increased 2- and 3-fold, respectively, after metabolic transformation, while the number of A-binders marginally changed. In-depth validation confirmed that several of the predicted bioactivated E- or T-binders demonstrated in vivo estrogenic activity or influenced blood levels of thyroxine in vivo. The metabolite simulator was evaluated using in vivo data from the literature which showed a 50% accuracy for studied chemicals. The study stresses, in summary, the importance of including metabolic activation in prioritization activities of potentially emerging contaminants. PMID:26210185

  8. Use of thermal-gas-chemical stimulation at the Perm Petroleum Industry Association (PERMNEFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azamtov, V.I.; Gashev, S.V.; Savich, A.I.; Chazov, G.A.

    1981-05-01

    In recent years there has been a considerable decrease in the effectiveness of thermal-gas-chemical stimulation (TGCS) in wells of the Permneft fields. An analysis of the data of TGCS made it possible to recommend that TGCS be conducted in highly productive wells; in oil wells remote from the initial and current oil pool outline and with formation pressures close to the initial; in wells which on testing did not produce an influx of fluid owing to considerable clogging of the bottom-hole zone of the bed; and in wells when converting them to injection.

  9. Inhalation toxicology of industrial plutonium and uranium oxide aerosols I. Physical chemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the fabrication of mixed plutonium and uranium oxide fuel, large quantities of dry powders are processed, causing dusty conditions in glove box enclosures. Inadvertent loss of glove box integrity or failure of air filter systems can lead to human inhalation exposure. Powdered samples and aerosol samples of these materials obtained during two fuel fabrication process steps have been obtained. A regimen of physical chemical tests of properties of these materials has been employed to identify physical chemical properties which may influence their biological behavior and dosimetry. Materials to be discussed are 750 deg. C heat-treated, mixed uranium and plutonium oxides obtained from the ball milling operation and 1750 deg. C heat-treated, mixed uranium and plutonium oxides obtained from the centerless grinding of fuel pellets. Results of x-ray diffraction studies have shown that the powder generated by the centerless grinding of fuel pellets is best described as a solid solution of UOx and PuOx consistent with its temperature history. In vitro dissolution studies of both mixed oxide materials indicate a generally similar dissolution rate for both materials. In one solvent, the material with the higher temperature history dissolves more rapidly. The x-ray diffraction and in vitro dissolution results as well as preliminary results of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses will be compared and the implications for the associated biological studies will be discussed. (author)

  10. Chemical and microbiological characteristics of Lebanese cheeses made by local industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to characterize, protect dairy products and develop new probiotics, a survey was conducted amongst 37 dairy factories. Chemical (pH, acidity, DM, protein, fat, soluble nitrogen and free fatty acid) and microbiological (total aerobic bacteria, Coliforms, E. coli, Salmonella, Listeria, and Staphylococcus aureus) analysis were carried out on samples collected from factories (7 Baladi, 22 Akkawi, 18 Double creme and 22 Halloum) of different regions. These cheeses are made by 73% of visited factories. Chemical analysis showed low acidity (0.18 to 0.26%), variable levels of moisture (54 to 70%) protein (19 to 24%) and fat (12 to 18%) except Double creme (3.26 ± 1.78%). Except 8%, Good Hygienic and Manufacturing Practices (GHP/GMP) are not applied in visited factories. This is confirmed with the high levels of Coliforms, detectable in most varieties at an alarming level (72 to 86%). Besides, 23-71% of samples were contaminated with E. coli. However, all samples were found free of staphylococcus aureus; Halloum cheese was the only one free of Listeria and Salmonella. The highest off standard for these bacteria was noticed in Baladi cheese where 29% were contaminated with Listeria and Salmonella. Listeria was also found in 10% of Akkawi and 17% of Double creme. These results show a violation of the Good Hygienic and Manufacturing Practices (GHP/GMP) by most factories in all visited regions. (author)

  11. Analysis of Innovation and Its Environmental Impacts on the Chemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Schreiber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of the economy and the need to achieve competitiveness drive organizations to invest in technology and in innovation, in order to find solutions that will provide advantages in an ever-more competitive market. The conflict between dwindling natural resources and the demand for economic growth has created a growing need to find means for making environmental conservation compatible with economic growth. The objective of this study is to contribute to the debate by analyzing the innovations implemented by chemical companies in the Sinos Valley region, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and by identifying the motivations that drive them to develop environmental technologies. The study is exploratory and descriptive, with a quantitative data collection component in the form of a survey sent to all chemical companies in the Sinos Valley region, listed in a local business association database. The study results indicate that development of innovations is predominantly of an incremental nature and that novelty is generally restricted to the new-for-firm level. The environmental technologies implemented are generally designed to prevent or remedy environmental damage and are primarily motivated by the need to comply with environmental standards and legislation.

  12. Chemical Process R&D for Pharmaceutical Industry in the New Millennium, Challenges and Opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Tony; Yantao

    2001-01-01

    The genomic revolution has offered scientists in the world with unprecedented number of targets and opportunities to eradicate human diseases. High throughput screening technology using enzymatic and receptor binding assays has shifted the bottleneck in drug discovery to the laboratories of chemistry. Recent upsurge of interest in combinatorial chemistry is a testimony to the urgency of increasing the efficiency of how drug-like molecules are made. What the implication of all these on chemical process research? If the Internet has revolutionized the distribution and of data, information, and knowledge, how can this powerful tool be utilized to harness the collective intellect of chemists all across the world? If the effort of a few thousands people was able to send men to the moon, can the cross-pollination of ideas from chemists all over the world, each of them thinking in his or her unique way, produce the most cost effective way of making a particular molecule, reduce pollution of a current process, or deliver a cure for cancer? We will examine the brief history of modern organic chemistry and provide some personal musings on different course one can take in the area of chemical process R&D.  ……

  13. Chemical Process R&D for Pharmaceutical Industry in the New Millennium, Challenges and Opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tony Yantao; BINGHAM Alphus

    2001-01-01

    @@ The genomic revolution has offered scientists in the world with unprecedented number of targets and opportunities to eradicate human diseases. High throughput screening technology using enzymatic and receptor binding assays has shifted the bottleneck in drug discovery to the laboratories of chemistry. Recent upsurge of interest in combinatorial chemistry is a testimony to the urgency of increasing the efficiency of how drug-like molecules are made. What the implication of all these on chemical process research? If the Internet has revolutionized the distribution and of data, information, and knowledge, how can this powerful tool be utilized to harness the collective intellect of chemists all across the world? If the effort of a few thousands people was able to send men to the moon, can the cross-pollination of ideas from chemists all over the world, each of them thinking in his or her unique way, produce the most cost effective way of making a particular molecule, reduce pollution of a current process, or deliver a cure for cancer? We will examine the brief history of modern organic chemistry and provide some personal musings on different course one can take in the area of chemical process R&D.

  14. Daily chemical industry market%日化市场概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁雪静; 杨玉喜

    2012-01-01

    The market of Southeast Asia cosmetics was introduced, some countries such as Indonesia, Philippines and Thailand were mentioned. China and Indian markets were analyzed particularly, and the development trends of cosmetic industry in the future were related as well.%介绍了东南亚日化行业的发展状况,对印度尼西亚、菲律宾以及泰国等国家的市场进行了详细的介绍,对中国以及印度等国家的日化市场进行了深刻的分析,并预测了未来的发展趋势。

  15. Carbon dioxide: a raw material and a future chemical fuel for a sustainable energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amouroux, J [Chimie-Paristech, University P. and M. Curie (Paris6) (France); Siffert, P [General Secretary of EMRS, Strasbourg (France)

    2011-03-15

    Carbon dioxide is a major raw material of the future, for the capture plants which use amines, aminoacids, ammonia or zeolites. This very high purity raw material (99.9 %) opens the way of a new industrial revolution in agreement with the proposal of Nobel Prize laureates and the DOE strategy. Our goal is to explain the large advantages and the main routes for CO{sub 2} valorization, which are starting around the world. The most promising ways for this valorization are methanol synthesis as fuel for transportation and methane formation for electricity network regulation. The first way allows the use of liquid fuels, as distribution infrastructure already exists; instead of gaseous fuels (H{sub 2}), for which there is storage, distribution problems and no infrastructure exist. The second way is methane synthesis during off-peak hours and burning of this methane during peak hours in order to regulate the electric network.

  16. Carbon dioxide: a raw material and a future chemical fuel for a sustainable energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon dioxide is a major raw material of the future, for the capture plants which use amines, aminoacids, ammonia or zeolites. This very high purity raw material (99.9 %) opens the way of a new industrial revolution in agreement with the proposal of Nobel Prize laureates and the DOE strategy. Our goal is to explain the large advantages and the main routes for CO2 valorization, which are starting around the world. The most promising ways for this valorization are methanol synthesis as fuel for transportation and methane formation for electricity network regulation. The first way allows the use of liquid fuels, as distribution infrastructure already exists; instead of gaseous fuels (H2), for which there is storage, distribution problems and no infrastructure exist. The second way is methane synthesis during off-peak hours and burning of this methane during peak hours in order to regulate the electric network.

  17. Effect of an industrial chemical waste on the uptake of cations by green oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HORTENSIA RADULESCU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate, obtained as a waste in the industrial manufacture of magnesium carbonate and magnesium oxide from dolomites, can be applied in agriculture. The appreciable amounts of calcium and magnesium in this waste, together with impurities such as iron, zinc, manganese, chromium and copper compounds can be useful in soil amendment and plant nutrition. This paper presents preliminary results of the testing of several waste doses on soil, pursuing their effect on the uptake of cations by green oat (Avena sativa L.. The obtained results show an increase in the amount of calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper found in green oat plants, as well as a decrease of the content of iron and manganese with increasing waste dose. These results may be explained by lower absorptions of iron andmanganese because of the antagonistic effect created by high amounts of calcium and magnesium, as well as by the presence of copper and zinc.

  18. Spent solid catalysts of chemical industry and petroleum refining; Les catalyseurs solides uses de l`industrie chimique et du raffinage petrolier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paillier, A.; Briand, Y.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this work is the analysis of the heterogeneous catalysis. In a first part are given the utilizing sectors. There are mainly the petroleum refining, the chemical industry and the environment. A catalyst is chosen according to its selectivity and velocity, its cost and the wastes it induces. Thus are found three main heterogeneous catalysts series: the bulky metals, the supported metals: precious or heavy or their compounds, the zeolites and other silico-aluminates. Their most frequent uses are given. The catalysts used in the main petroleum refining processes (distillation, catalytic hydro-treatment, desulfurization, catalytic reforming, catalytic cracking, catalytic hydrocracking, alkylation) are also detailed. The second part deals with the spent solid catalysts. The reasons of the deactivation (poisons or contaminants, structure modification) are given. The spent catalysts are either regenerated or eliminated. The regeneration methods are described. The solid catalysts cannot be stored without being stabilized (decrease of its water permeability and of its leachable fraction). The stabilization methods are reviewed. The regulations on the spent solid catalysts are given in the last part. (O.M.)

  19. The Northwest Infrared (NWIR) gas-phase spectral database of industrial and environmental chemicals: Recent updates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauer, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Blake, Thomas A.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Sams, Robert L.; Tonkyn, Russell G.

    2014-05-22

    With continuing improvements in both standoff- and point-sensing techniques, there is an ongoing need for high-quality infrared spectral databases. The Northwest Infrared Database (NWIR) contains quantitative, gas-phase infrared spectra of nearly 500 pure chemical species that can be used for a variety of applications such as atmospheric monitoring, biomass burning studies, etc. The data, recorded at 0.1 cm-1 resolution, are pressure broadened to one atmosphere (N2) in order to mimic atmospheric conditions. Each spectrum is a composite composed of multiple individual measurements. Recent updates to the database include over 60 molecules that are known or suspected biomass-burning effluents. Examples from this set of measurements will be presented and experimental details will be discussed in the context of the utility of NWIR for environmental applications.

  20. To the partnership in Kanegafuchi Chemical Industry and solar cell; Kaneka, taiyo denchi de teikei he

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Kanegafuchi Chemical Ind. clarified that the consultation was advanced in the direction in which the business cooperates with BP Amoco Corp. in international oil majors on the solar cell business on 11 th capital. In full amount fund subsidiary of the bell pool chemistry, the solar cell making and selling company is established in the joint venture in Europe and America, Asia, when the BP Amoco Corp. does capital participation in money mosquito solar tech which is the production marketer of solar cell. The plan which develops the amorphous solar cell of low cost which the bell pool chemistry developed in the world. The consultation of the partnership is also arranging prospect in the end June, and it seems to greatly jump by uniting with the BP Amoco Corp. of the largest hand. (translated by NEDO)

  1. Subjective and objective measurement of websites quality in a chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Jillbert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the Website of a chemical company, Deza, relative to strategy and Website quality. In an attempt to obtain both an objective and subjective measure of the quality of the Deza website, two assessment methods have been used. Firstly, a subjective assessment was conducted based on the WebQual survey instrument proposed by Barnes and Vidgen (2000. Secondly, a more objective assessment was conducted via an “informational content analysis”, based on the work of Carlson et. al. (2001. Analysis of the results of the WebQual survey suggest that overall, the Deza Website is perceived by the user as being of a higher quality than the Koppers Website, but a lower quality then the Nalon Website. The Information content analysis also ranks the Deza website as being superior to Koppers and inferior to Nalon.

  2. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  3. What would be the effects of a carbon tax in Japan: an historic analysis of subsidies and fuel pricing on the iron & steel, chemical, and machinery industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Wakiyama

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how a carbon tax could affect industrial-related carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in Japan. Rather than forecasting the effects of a tax, the paper employs a time-series autoregressive moving average (ARMA model to determine how past subsidies and fuel price changes affected investments in energy and carbon intensity in Japan’s iron & steel, chemical, and machinery industries from 1993 to 2004. The results suggest the impacts varied greatly across industries. In the iron & steel industry, subsidies and price changes produced negligible effects on investments in energy and carbon intensity. This may be because existing iron & steel technologies have long lifetimes and substantial replacement costs. It may also be because the few large companies dominating the industry were relatively immune to subsidy provisions and pricing changes. In the chemical industry, subsidies and fuel prices gave rise to investments that improved carbon and energy intensity. This may be because the industry has relatively higher operation costs that could be cut easily given financial incentives. In the machinery industry, two of three fuel price changes (oil and gas, but not subsidy provisions, yielded improvements in carbon and energy intensity. This may reflect the heterogeneity of companies and products comprising the industry. Overall, the study underscores that policymakers need to tailor the rates and revenue recycling provisions of a carbon tax to an industry’s unique features to stimulate CO2 reductions.

  4. Assessment of pre-industrial carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere using hydro-chemical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hydrochemical method has been developed to calculate concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the pre-industrial atmosphere and its relationship to climatic change. The following factors affect the Earth's climate: (1) the sun with all its processes, (2) the attraction of the moon that limits the axis of inclination of the Earth, and (3) the cycle of carbon dioxide and the greenhouse effect. An imbalance in the climate system would be a major global disaster that could be detrimental for life on Earth. Recent studies and temperature measurements have shown a trend in which air temperature has increased in the troposphere in the last 100 years, affecting the normal development of natural processes. Various phenomena result from climatic change, or the gradual heating of the Earth. These include the weakening of the glacial layer that covers the Earth's surface, cycles of prolonged slowing in freeze and thaw periods of aquatic surfaces, and increased air temperature in the troposphere which can also causes abnormal fluctuations of temperature in the atmosphere, resulting in heat waves and droughts. Gradual heating of the Earth can also result in rainy periods that produce devastating floods, hurricanes and extreme winds. Changes in water temperature can influence pH levels which affect certain marine species. An increase of 5 degrees C in the global average atmospheric temperature has created changes in 420 physical processes as well as in the behavior of plants and animals. The author stated that the most drastic factor that affects the balance of the Earth's climate is the actions of man interfering with the carbon cycle, as carbon dioxide plays a vital role in the formation of the greenhouse effect. The problem results from an imbalance of the carbon dioxide cycle when CO2 emissions are increased through the combustion of fossil fuels. It was determined that before the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, carbon dioxide in the atmosphere was 256 ppm. Today

  5. Strategic of Applying Free Chemical Usage In Purified Water System For Pharmaceutical Industry Toward CPOB (Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik) Indonesia To Reducing Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartono, R.; Basuki, Y. T.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the sets of model and literature review to prove that strategy of applying free chemical usage in purified water system for pharmaceutical industry would be help the existing and new pharmaceutical companies to comply with part of Natioanal Agency of Drug and Food Control / Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan (NADFC/BPOM) regulation in order to achieve "Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik" (CPOB) of Indonesia pharmaceutical industry. One of the main reasons is when we figured out the number of Indonesian pharmaceutical industries in 2012 are kept reducing compare to the increasing numbers of Indonesian population growth. This strategy concept also might help the industries to reducing environmental pollution, and operational cost in pharmaceutical industries, by reducing of the chemical usage for water treatment process in floculation and cougulation and chlorination for sterillization. This new model is free usage of chemicals for purified water generation system process and sterilization. The concept offering of using membrane technology- Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane base treatment to replace traditional chemical base treatment, following enhance Electrodeionization (EDI) as final polisher for controlling conductivity, and finally Ultra Violet (UV) disinfectant technology as final guard for bacteria controls instead of chemical base system in purified water generation system.

  6. Strategic of Applying Free Chemical Usage In Purified Water System For Pharmaceutical Industry Toward CPOB (Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik Indonesia To Reducing Environmental Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartono R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the sets of model and literature review to prove that strategy of applying free chemical usage in purified water system for pharmaceutical industry would be help the existing and new pharmaceutical companies to comply with part of Natioanal Agency of Drug and Food Control / Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan (NADFC/BPOM regulation in order to achieve “Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik” (CPOB of Indonesia pharmaceutical industry. One of the main reasons is when we figured out the number of Indonesian pharmaceutical industries in 2012 are kept reducing compare to the increasing numbers of Indonesian population growth. This strategy concept also might help the industries to reducing environmental pollution, and operational cost in pharmaceutical industries, by reducing of the chemical usage for water treatment process in floculation and cougulation and chlorination for sterillization. This new model is free usage of chemicals for purified water generation system process and sterilization. The concept offering of using membrane technology- Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane base treatment to replace traditional chemical base treatment, following enhance Electrodeionization (EDI as final polisher for controlling conductivity, and finally Ultra Violet (UV disinfectant technology as final guard for bacteria controls instead of chemical base system in purified water generation system.

  7. Strengthening environmental awareness in daily chemical industry%加强日化行业的环保意识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓瑞; 郑剑雄

    2009-01-01

    分析了当前日化行业的环保状况,指出要加强日化行业和企业的环保观念,可以通过提高日化产品在环保方面的标准进行监管.并对脂肪酸甲酯磺酸盐(MES)的环境优势进行了描述.同时,概述了美容和化妆品在环保方面的需求.%Environmental protection (EP) state for the moment was analyzed. This paper pointed out that we ought to strengthen EP concepts in daily chemical industry and enterprises and increase its product in standard. Environmental protection advantage of methyl ester sulfonate (MES)was described. Meanwhile, requirement of beauty and cosmetic in EP was also summarized.

  8. Transformation of Sorbitol to Biofuels by Heterogeneous Catalysis: Chemical and Industrial Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreasing oil supplies and increasing energy demand provide incentives to find alternative fuels. First, the valorisation of edible crops for ethanol and bio-diesel production led to first generation biofuels. Nowadays, research is focused on lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable carbon (second generation biofuels). Whereas the cellulosic ethanol production is in progress, a new way consisting of the transformation of ex-lignocellulose sugars and polyols towards light hydrocarbons by heterogeneous catalysis in aqueous phase has been recently described. This process is performed under mild conditions (T < 300 deg. C and P < 50 bar). It requires on one hand hydrogen formation by catalytic reforming of carbohydrates in aqueous phase and on the other hand, the dehydration/hydrogenation of polyols leading to alkanes by selective C-O bond cleavages. The challenge here is to conceive multifunctional catalytic systems that are stable, active and selective under the reaction conditions. The aim of this article is to present the involved reactions, the catalytic systems described in literature for that kind of transformation and examples of industrial applications. (authors)

  9. Use of fiber-optic-based flow cells and probes in the chemical and petroleum industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponstingl, Mike; Vetter, Hans

    1992-08-01

    Fiber-optic-based, on-line photometric/spectrophotometric analytic methods are becoming increasingly more important in the process control industries because of unique benefits such as: safety, real-time data capture, immunity to EMI/RFI, and simplicity of installation. End- users employing fiber-optic methods are experiencing increased production yields, less waster, and greater product consistency all because the process can be controlled more efficiently. Extractive and in-situ flow cells have proven to be valuable means of 'looking' at the process stream. These techniques are currently being offered by several manufacturers of on-line fiber-optic photometric/spectrophotometric instruments. Custom Sensors & Technology has developed practical techniques for optical energy transmission in the 250 - 2000 nm wavelength range. In addition to discussing extractive and in-situ methods of sampling, various design considerations are addressed which relate to the efficiency of coupling light energy into and out of extractive flow cells and in-situ probes. In-situ probes can be of the transmission, turbidity, attenuated total reflection, or diffuse reflection types; and can be installed in a sanitary or threaded pipe fitting.

  10. Chemical stabilization of cadmium in acidic soil using alkaline agronomic and industrial by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Tsung; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Jheng, Shao-Liang

    2013-01-01

    In situ immobilization of heavy metals using reactive or stabilizing materials is a promising solution for soil remediation. Therefore, four agronomic and industrial by-products [wood biochar (WB), crushed oyster shell (OS), blast furnace slag (BFS), and fluidized-bed crystallized calcium (FBCC)] and CaCO3 were added to acidic soil (Cd = 8.71 mg kg(-1)) at the rates of 1%, 2%, and 4% and incubated for 90 d. Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) was then planted in the soil to test the Cd uptake. The elevation in soil pH caused by adding the by-products produced a negative charge on the soil surface, which enhanced Cd adsorption. Consequently, the diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd content decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the incubated soil. These results from the sequential extraction procedure indicated that Cd converted from the exchangeable fraction to the carbonate or Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The long-term effectiveness of Cd immobilization caused by applying the 4 by-products was much greater than that caused by applying CaCO3. Plant shoot biomass clearly increased because of the by-product soil amendment. Cd concentration in the shoots was < 10.0 mg kg(-1) following by-product application, as compared to 24 mg kg(-1) for plants growing in unamended soil. PMID:23947715

  11. Evaluation Of Air Separator For Processing Particulate Chemical Industry Gas Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. W. Ntengwe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The evaluations of an air separator for processing chemical engineering particulate gas streams was carried out with a view to investigate the performance for different flow rates and other characteristics. A louver LV air separator was used as a case study. The evaluations indicated that for various set points of characteristics the prediction of operating efficiencies could be made for different variations of louver gap LVG with area ratio AR length of separator at particular angles of LV inclination and the number of LV with flow rates. It was observed that efficiencies ranging from 40 to 60 on one hand were obtained for high values of LVG and gas flow rate. On the other hand efficiencies of 61 to 99 were obtained for lower values of LVG and gas flow rate. It was noted therefore that in order to produce high efficiencies the values of LVG and flow rates have to be low and vice versa. The evaluation indicates also that plant operators can quickly predict from the results the operating efficiency for the desired dimensions and or flow rates of particulate gas streams. The methodology for the determination of operating data can be used in minimum-time frame to optimize the operations of the plant.

  12. Characterization of chemical compounds for dosimetry of the radiation in industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different chemical compounds have been studied to optimize dosimetric systems in irradiation processes. In this study 2,3,5 Triphenyl -2H- Tetrazolium Chloride, Brilliant Cresyl Blue, Bromocresol Green and Potassium Nitrate were investigated for their merits or faults, for 60 Co gamma field, in order to verify if can be considered as dosimeters. Fricke solution was used as reference dosimeter to determine absorption dose rates at the gamma facilities.Only Bromocresol Green and Potassium Nitrate are recommended for dosimetry purposes since the main characteristics were achieved. The other two compounds could be used in dosimetry with changes in their formulation. Bromocresol Green and potassium Nitrate are reproducible and radiation sensitive for absorbed doses from 300 Gy to 150 kGy Bromocresol Green was used in liquid form and Potassium Nitrate was prepared in solid pellets form. Spectrophotometry in the visible region was used as the main detection technique, which allows relating optical absorption, before and after irradiation, with the absorbed dose. The maximum absorption wavelength for each compound was observed at 450-460nm for bromocresol Green and 546nm for Potassium Nitrate. Dose calibration curves are linear for both compounds in all dose intervals. When irradiated with accelerated electrons, with energies between o,9 MeV and 1,5MeV, optical absorption intensification, of about 2,6 times, was observed when comparing results for Potassium Nitrate, with those for gamma rays. All the evaluations are presented in this work. (author)

  13. The chemical equilibrium under non-ideal conditions: industrial applications; El equilibrio quimico bajo condiciones no ideales: aplicaciones industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Martinez, Susana; Alvarez Gallegos, Alberto; Quere, Alain [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1993-05-01

    In this paper is described the application of a computer program to the chemical equilibrium in non-ideal conditions (aqueous solutions of multicomponent electrolytes in the ionic forces interval: 0 < 1 < 6 mol/Kg H{sub 2}O and temperatures close to 25 celsius degrees), and its importance at industrial scale. The calculation of the thermodynamic properties of the solution (activity coefficients, osmotic coefficient, and water activity) is based in one of the most modern theories of the electrolytes; the theoretical results, compared with the experimental ones have an error of 10% or better. [Espanol] En este trabajo se describe la aplicacion de un programa de computo al equilibrio quimico en condiciones no ideales (soluciones acuosas de electrolitos multicomponentes en el intervalo de fuerzas ionicas: 0 < 1 < 6 mol/Kg H{sub 2}O y temperaturas cercanas a 25 grados celsius) y su importancia a escala industrial. El calculo de las propiedades termodinamicas (coeficientes de actividad, coeficiente osmotico y actividad del agua) de la solucion, esta basado en una de las teorias mas modernas de los electrolitos; los resultados teoricos comparados con los experimentales tienen un error del 10% o mejor.

  14. Enzyme catalysts for a biotechnology-based chemical industry. Quarterly progress report, September 29--December 28, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, F.H.

    1998-01-15

    The goal of this research is to engineer enzymes to be efficient and economically attractive catalysts for the chemical industry. The author is attempting to demonstrate generally-applicable approaches to enzyme improvement as well as develop specific catalysts for potential industrial application. In this report attention is focused on random mutagenesis of pNB esterase -- improved activity and stability. The most thermostable esterases obtained by sequential random mutagenesis (6H7) and random mutagenesis plus recombination (6sF9) each contain 9 amino acid mutations and a number of silent mutations, relative to the wild-type sequence. Eight of the mutations are present in both genes, for a total of ten potentially adaptive mutations. Because several of these mutations occurred in the same generation, it is difficult to identify the mutations responsible for the increases in activity and stability. In order to aid in this identification, the thermostable genes were recombined with the wild-type gene, in hopes of removing neutral mutations. The gene from the first-generation variant, with five amino acid substitutions was also recombined with wild-type.

  15. Enzyme catalysts for a biotechnology-based chemical industry. Final report, September 29, 1993--September 28, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, F.H.

    1998-11-16

    Enzymes have enormous potential for reducing energy requirements and environmental problems in the chemicals and pharmaceutical industries. The explosion of tools that has come out of molecular biology during the last 20 years has made it possible to evolve enzymes for features never required in nature. Scientists can speed up the rate and channel the direction of evolution by controlling mutagenesis and the accompanying selection pressures. Darwinian evolution carried out in the test tube offers a unique opportunity for biotechnology: the ability to tailor enzymes for optimal performance in a wide range of applications. Thus it is possible, for example, to evolve enzymes that carry out reactions on nonnatural substrates or even to carry out reactions for which there is no counterpart in nature. Due to the vast size of the potential sequence space, however, explorations by directed evolution must be guided by sound principles and workable strategies. During the course of this group, this laboratory has continued to make significant progress in the evolution of industrial enzymes as well as in developing general methods for in vitro evolution.

  16. How to make the production of methanol/DME "GREENER"-Integration of wind power with modern coal chemical industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weidou NI; Jian GAO; Zhen CHEN; Zheng LI

    2009-01-01

    The urgency and necessity of alternative fuels give an impetus to the development of modern coal chemical industry. Coal-based methanol/DME is the key element of this industry. Wind power, whose installed capacity increased at a rate of more than 100% in recent years, has the most developed technologies in renewable energy. However, there still exist many unsolved problems in wind power for on-grid utilization. A new integrated system which combines coal-based methanol/DME production with wind power is proposed in this paper. In this system, wind power is used to electrolyze water to produce H2 and O2. The O2 is fed to the gasifier as gasification agent. The H2 is mixed with the CO-rich gas to adjust the H2/CO to an appropriate ratio for methanol synthesis. In comparison with conventional coal-based methanol/DME system, the proposed system omits the expensive and energy-consuming ASU and greatly reduces the water gas shift process, which brings both advantages in the utilization of all raw materials and significant mitigation of CO2 emission. This system will be attractive in the regions of China which have abundant wind and coal resources.

  17. A study on the manufacturing technology of material for fine chemical and electronic industry use.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sang-Keun; Kim, Byoung-Gon; Chung, Hun-Saeng [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    The research results are summarized as follows; (1) An investigation on ultra-fine grinding characteristics of crystalline graphite on dry base system by vacuum technique was performed. Natural graphite grinding is inefficient, since graphite has lamella structures which cause the high lubrication by slipping of the layers. However, this lamella structure causes difficulty in grinding. Interposition states of grinding obstacle materials between graphite layers was proposed. (2) An investigation on the oxygen adsorption characteristics of ultrafine crystalline graphite powders(produced by grinding in vacuum) by surface treatment using an attrition mill on dry base was carried out. Adsorbed oxygen on graphite surface was known to influence the suspension stability of graphite particles. (3) The result of scale-up test shows that sericite concentrate obtained about 31.91% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 9.76% K{sub 2}0 and 1.45% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The process of grinding and classification is obtained fine mica mean size of 2.39 {mu}m such as 3.5 wt.% yield. (4) The dry process of surface modification has been achieved up to 91 for whiteness as 20 min ground samples. Polymer microcapsulation was carried out on the mica surface. The results are excellent hydrophobic properties which is applied cosmetics industry. The results shows a possibility of producing nano size composite materials of 200-500nm and emitting test on purified sericite appears 0.914-0.915 intensity in wave length of 5-20 {mu}m. The delamination effect of surface coated sericite and Muscovite by using Theta-composer. (author). 105 refs., 56 tabs., 139 figs.

  18. Food surveys for assessing chemical and dosimetric impacts near industrial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimating the ingestion of potentially contaminated foodstuffs around conventional and nuclear industrial sites requires data about the food practices and eating habits of the local residents, especially the consumption of locally- and home-produced food. The IRSN thus chose to conduct surveys about these practices in the vicinity of nuclear sites. Their methodology was based on previous surveys near nuclear sites. In 2004, in partnership with AREVA and BEGEAT, the French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety studied the eating habits of the residents of Bollene, near the Tricastin plant (Rhone Valley), with the aim of improving the quantification of the plant's potential health impacts. Based on these studies and as part of the SENSIB project to characterize vulnerability to nuclear risks, we developed and tested a survey protocol during the summer 2008, around the Chinon nuclear plant, in collaboration with EDF. The protocol is currently being tested around the Marcoule nuclear plant, in collaboration with the CEA. The aim was to optimize the feasibility and the reproducibility of the approach, while losing none of the robustness of the results. The data obtained made it possible to evaluate daily food intake values for individuals and to assess the rates of consumption of locally-grown products for many food categories. The data showed the existence of local population groups with very high rates of locally-grown food consumption - over 90 % of certain food products. This comparative study thus shows the significant variability of eating habits in the French population and proposes a reproducible approach to evaluating realistic indicators of potentially risky dietary habits. (authors)

  19. Carbon-supported platinum alloy catalysts for phenol hydrogenation for making industrial chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, S.T.; Song, C.

    1999-07-01

    Phenol is available in large quantities in liquids derived from coal and biomass. Phenol hydrogenation is an industrially important reaction to produce cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. Cyclohexane, cyclohexene and benzene are obtained as minor products in this reaction. Cyclohexanone is an important intermediate in the production of caprolactam for nylon 6 and cyclohexanol for adipic acid production. In USA, cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone are produced by benzene hydrogenation to cyclohexane over nickel or noble metal catalysts, followed by oxidation of cyclohexane to produce a mixture of cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone. Then cyclohexanol is dehydrogenated in the presence of Cu-Zn catalyst to cyclohexanone. Usually phenol hydrogenation is also carried out by using Ni catalyst in liquid phase. However, a direct single-step vapor phase hydrogenation of phenol to give cyclohexanone selectively is more advantageous in terms of energy savings and process economics, since processing is simplified and the endothermic step of cyclohexanol dehydrogenation can be avoided, as demonstrated by Montedipe and Johnson Matthey using promoted Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. While it is not the purpose of this paper to dwell on the relative merits of these routes, it is necessary to mention that while using monometallic catalysts, generally the problem of catalyst deactivation of sintering as well as coking is frequently encountered. Addition and alloying of noble metal (e.g. Pt) with a second metal can result in a catalyst with better selectivity and activity in the reaction which is more resistant to deactivation. This paper presents the results on the single-step vapor phase hydrogenation of phenol over carbon-supported Pt-M (M=Cr, V, Zr) alloy catalysts to yield mainly cyclohexanone or cyclohexanol.

  20. Application of chemical fractionation for monitoring some trace elements in street and industrial dust from Wadmedani, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study monitors some trace elements concentration in street and industrial dust from Wad Medani city, Gezira State in central Sudan. A total of 20 samples of dust were collected from crowded and non-crowded streets, material processing workshop and a tannery. Samples were treated by sequential chemical extraction in five fractions, which termed as exchangeable fraction, carbonate fraction, Fe-Mn oxides fraction, organic matter fraction and residual fraction. The same samples were digested by wet method. The obtained solutions were analyzed for Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb content using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) and for Na and K content using Flame Emission Spectrometer (FES). X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF) was used to determine the total content of Na, K, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in the bulk sample. Results of total content, which obtained by AAS, FES and XRF spectrometry, were compared with each other and with total content for the fractionated samples. Certified reference materials from IAEA were analyzed to make sure of the data obtained. The ranges of concentrations obtained are 113-3900 μg/g for Cr, 0.3-110.4 mg/g for Fe, 27-500 μg/g for Ni, 34.7-4390 μ/g for Cu, 62-1320 μg/g for Zn and 40-1250 μg/g for Pb dry weight. The obtained results were analyzed statistically using multivariate methods that include Correlation Matrices, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. The concentrations of trace elements in street and industrial dust of Wad Medani were compared with those values in literature. It has been observed that the dust from street and industrial area of wad Medani is slightly affected by anthropogenic sources.(Author)

  1. [The present state of the clinical and epidemiologic research on chemical and carcinogenic risks in the metalworking industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piolatto, Pier Giorgio; Catalani, Simona

    2011-01-01

    In this report several publications on clinical-epidemiologic patterns are presented regarding chemical and oncogenic risk in the metalworking industry. Sources of information were mainly PubMed and TOXNET. As far as cancer is concerned the body of the epidemiological data is difficult to interpret, mainly due to the fact that even the most recent papers and reviews refer to past exposure to MWF. Moreover, the great number of cancer sites are hardly explainable as to the biological plausibility. However, it is likely that current problems might be overcome by the almost total elimination of PAH and some additives. Moreover, cancer risk for welders and painters should be considered according to the different techniques used. Several studies reported repeated outbreaks of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis, especially in US, most probably caused by mycobacterial antigens present in water-based oils. In Italy this disease is probably misdiagnosed or underreported. Some cross-sectional studies on respiratory disease and hearing loss, caused by the interaction of noise and chemical agent (mainly solvents), provided limited information because of the nature itself of this type of studies. Dermal pathologies still affect MWF exposed workers. Some antigens present in compounds, which are now gradually substituted, have been identified for allergic dermatitis (ADC). PMID:22073667

  2. Degradation of organic pollutants and characteristics of activated sludge in an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic reactor treating chemical industrial wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic system operated at the hydraulic retention times (HRT of 20, 40, and 60 h with mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS concentrations of 3 g/L and 6 g/L was considered for treating chemical industrial wastewater rich in complex organic compounds and total dissolved solids. Extending the HRT and increasing the MLSS concentration resulted in higher removal efficiency for chemical oxygen demand at 72%. Organic compounds in wastewater could be classified into easily-removed and refractory compounds during treatment. The easily-removed compounds consisted primarily of ethers, alcohols, and aldehydes, whereas the refractory compounds included mainly oxygen-containing heterocyclic and benzene-containing compounds. Results from energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that several metal ions accumulated in activated sludge, particularly Fe(III. Fe accumulated mainly on the surface of sludge floc pellets and resulted in the compactness of activated sludge, which caused the values of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids /MLSS and sludge volume index to decrease.

  3. 化学工业发展与化工过程强化的内在关系分析%Development of Chemical Industry and Chemical Process Intensification of Internal Relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖素光

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, with the in-depth study of chemistry, chemical industry has been rapid development of fast. Chemical industry in today's society applications continue to increase, is the development of future society mainstream industry. Industry development in addition to technical theory support, the production process is also very important. However, with the current environmental protection and energy saving of the mainstream of the world, the development of chemical industry still faces a challenge. The intensification of chemical engineering process, to a certain extent in the solution of chemical industry of high pollution, high energy consumption, high material consumption and abuse. Therefore, for the development of chemical industry, chemical process intensification will play a very big role in promoting. This article will focus on development of chemical industry and chemical strengthening inner relationship.%近年来,随着化学研究的不断深入,化学工业得以快速迅猛的发展。化学工业在当今社会应用领域不断加大,是未来社会发展的主流工业。行业发展除了需要技术理论的支持,对于其生产加工过程也是非常重要的。但是,伴随着当前环保节能的世界主流,化学工业发展还是面临着一定的挑战。化工过程强化,能够在一定程度上解决化学工业中高污染、高能耗以及高物耗等弊端。因此,对于化学工业发展而言,化工过程强化必然会起到非常大的推动作用。文章就将重点谈论化学工业发展与化工强化的内在关系。

  4. Sense of coherence and burnout in the energy and chemicals industry: The moderating role of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanet van der Westhuizen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisations are accommodating four different social generations in the working environment. This poses a challenge for Human Resources departments to manage these diverse age cohorts in the workforce, as they are likely to have different needs, values and variables affecting their wellness.Research purpose: The objective of the present study was to assess whether various age groups differ with regard to their sense of coherence and burnout, and whether age significantly moderates the relationship between sense of coherence and burnout.Motivation for the study: Although the literature review suggests that age groups may differ with regard to their sense of coherence and burnout, the findings seem to be somewhat inconclusive in this regard. There also seems to be a paucity of research examining the interaction effect between sense of coherence, burnout and age. Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional quantitative survey approach was used. A nonprobability convenience sample of adults (N = 246 – employed in South Africa by an international integrated energy and chemicals company – participated in the study. Correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to achieve the objectives of the study.Main findings: The results showed that employees between the ages of 51 and 60 years of age experienced higher levels of comprehensibility and lower levels of reduced professional efficacy than their younger counterparts. The relationship between sense of coherence and exhaustion was also stronger for employees between 51 and 60 years old than for younger age categories.Practical/managerial implications: The results of the study can be useful when planning human resource interventions to enhance the well-being of employees from different age groups.Contribution: The results of the study add new insights to the well-being literature by showing that employees’ age is

  5. Interaction mechanisms of radioactive, chemical and thermal releases from the nuclear industry: Methodology for considering co-operative effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of chemicals are known which can modify radiation effects on cell killing, carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. In this paper data are reported for radiosensitizing agents. In order to discuss the interaction mechanisms of these synergistic effects, the action of radiation on DNA, on its biological functions and on its metabolism are explained briefly. Also it is indicated that part of the radiation effects in the DNA can be 'repaired' and that living cells can recover from radiation damage. One group of radiosensitizers interacts with cellular DNA or with the DNP-complex. These reactions change the configurational structure or metabolism of DNA and DNP. In this connection the action of antibiotics such as actinomycin D, and the action of SH-blocking agents such as iodoacetamide and NEM, as well as the action of alkylating agents, are discussed. A second group of radiosensitizers, especially with hypoxic cells, are the electron affinic chemicals like nitro-compounds, ketones and others. Data are also given on the modification of radiation effects by changes in temperature. Further, the problem of whether synergistic effects are to be expected arising from the chemicals and radiation originating in the nuclear industry is considered. Data show that repair and recovery processes especially are modified by radiosensitizers. The implications of this fact on sensitization at low radiation doses and at low dose rates, as well as the effect of high LET radiation, are considered. It is of interest that the dose modifying factor of some sensitizers can reach a magnitude of a factor of two to three. (author)

  6. Chemical composition of flours made of residues from the king palm (Archontophoenix alexandrae industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Alano Vieira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Residues from King palm (Archontophoenix alexandrae processing were used for the production of flours, which were then chemically characterized. The protein content in these flours ranged from 3.62 to 9.75 g/100g and was higher in sifted leaf flour (SLF. The dietary fiber contents varied from 64 to 72 g/100g. These values were high when compared to those of flours used in human nutrition. Analysis of anti-nutritional factors showed phytate contents to be below the levels that affected the bioavailability of minerals in human diet. Tannin contents were compatible with those found in legumes, between 0 and 2000 mg/100g. These flours showed high mineral content, which suggested a possibility for them to be used as food supplement. However, the bioavailability of these minerals could be affected by high total dietary fibre concentrations and anti-nutritional components contained in the samples.Resíduos do processamento de palmeira-real (Archontophoenix alexandrae foram utilizados para produção de farinha e caracterizados quimicamente. O conteúdo de proteína encontrado nas farinhas variam de 3,62 a 9,75, sendo maior na farinha da folha peneirada. Os teores de fibra dietética total variaram de 64.00 a 72 g/100g, valores altos quando comparados com farinhas tradicionalmente utilizadas na alimentação humana. A análise de fatores antinutricionais indicou teores de fitato abaixo dos níveis que afetam a biodisponibilidade de minerais na dieta. Os teores de tanino foram significativos, compatíveis aos encontrados nas leguminosas entre 0 e 2000 mg/100g. As farinhas de palmeirareal apresentaram elevados teores de minerais, podendo ser indicadas como suplementos em alimentos, porém, deve-se considerar que a biodisponibilidade destes minerais pode ser afetada pela alta concentração de fibras dietéticas totais e de outros componentes antinutricionais contidos na amostra.

  7. PM10 mass concentration, chemical composition, and sources in the typical coal-dominated industrial city of Pingdingshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyan; Yang, Shushen; Shao, Longyi; Fan, Jingsen; Liu, Yanfei

    2016-11-15

    The atmospheric pollution created by coal-dominated industrial cities in China cannot be neglected. This study focuses on the atmospheric PM10 in the typical industrial city of Pingdingshan City in North China. A total of 44 PM10 samples were collected from three different sites (power plant, mining area, and roadside) in Pingdingshan City during the winter of 2013, and were analyzed gravimetrically and chemically. The Pingdingshan PM10 samples were composed of mineral matter (average of 118.0±58.6μg/m(3), 20.6% of the total PM10 concentration), secondary crystalline particles (338.7±122.0μg/m(3), 59.2%), organic matter (77.3±48.5μg/m(3), 13.5%), and elemental carbon (38.0±28.3μg/m(3), 6.6%). Different sources had different proportions of these components in PM10. The power plant pollutant source was characterized by secondary crystalline particles (377.1μg/m(3)), elemental carbon (51.5μg/m(3)), and organic matter (90.6μg/m(3)) due to coal combustion. The mining area pollutant source was characterized by mineral matter (124.0μg/m(3)) due to weathering of waste dumps. The roadside pollutant source was characterized by mineral matter (130.0μg/m(3)) and organic matter (81.0μg/m(3)) due to road dust and vehicle exhaust, respectively. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis was performed for PM10 source apportionment to identify major anthropogenic sources of PM10 in Pingdingshan. Six factors-crustal matter, coal combustion, vehicle exhaust and abrasion, local burning, weathering of waste dumps, and industrial metal smelting-were identified and their contributions to Pingdingshan PM10 were 19.0%, 31.6%, 7.4%, 6.3%, 9.8%, and 25.9%, respectively. Compared to other major cities in China, the source of PM10 in Pingdingshan was characterized by coal combustion, weathering of waste dumps, and industrial metal smelting. PMID:27450962

  8. 煤化工项目后评价体系研究与设计%Research and Design of Post Project Evaluation System in Coal Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙彦琼; 李光琳

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the post project evaluation practice of 250000 t/a methanol project of Shenhua Ningxia Coal Industry Group is taken as an example. Based on the focus of post project evaluation in coal chemical industry, this paper discusses the research and design of post project evaluation in coal chemical industry from the a~pects of evaluation process, method, evaluation index and standard, evaluation scope and main content, and successful degree of project construction. It is hoped that this paper can be of important reference value for carrying out post project evaluation in coal chemical industry. Coal chemical industry; Project; Post evaluation; Research; Design%以神宁煤业集团25万t/a甲醇项目后评价实践为例,围绕煤化工项目后评价的重点,从后评价工作流程、方法、评价指标与标准、评价范围与主要内容、项目建设成功度等方面,对煤化工项目后评价进行了研究与设计,对开展煤化工项目后评价工作有参考价值。

  9. Controle químico da mancha-bacteriana do tomate para processamento industrial em campo Field chemical control of bacterial spot on tomato for industrial processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abadia dos R Nascimento

    2013-03-01

    cloretos de benzalcônio. ASM e famoxadona + mancozebe foram os que promoveram uma relação benefício/custo superior a 1.In order to evaluate chemical control of bacterial spot on tomato for industrial processing, two field trials were carried out at the Unilever Bestfoods experimental station, in Goiânia, Goias state, Brazil. The first trial was in a randomized complete block design, with 15 treatments and three replications, using the hybrid Heinz 9992 inoculated with Xanthomonas perforans. The second trial was in a split-plot randomized complete block design with chemical foliar applications (10 treatments and hybrids (Hypeel 108 and U2006 as factors. Plants were inoculated with X. perforans and X. gardneri. In both trials the chemicals, in different number of applications and combinations, were: acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM; famoxadone + mancozeb; metiram + pyraclostrobin; phosphite PK; benzalkonium chlorides; cuprous oxide, and copper hydroxide (SC, WP and WG. For both trials, disease severity on leaves, number of fruits with symptoms and yield were evaluated. In the second one, sunscald was also evaluated. For the first trial, significant severity differences (p>0.05 among treatments were observed only in the first two evaluations, but none of them differed from the water check control. In the second trial, significant differences were detected only in foliar severity in first evaluation for hybrids. For number of fruits with symptoms and sunscald, besides hybrids, interaction among factors was also significant. 'U2006' was more resistant than 'Hypeel 108', which also had highest sunscald values, but concerning fruits with symptoms, the opposite was observed. The two factors were significant for yield data, 'U2006' yielded better than 'Hypeel 108'. Despite none of the treatments have differed in yield from the water control, famoxadone + mancozeb, which resulted in the highest yield, differed from copper hydroxide, ASM - famoxadone + mancozeb, and benzalkonium

  10. Health Risk Assessment of Xylene through Microenvironment Monitoring Data: A Case Study of the Petro-Chemical Industries, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pensri Watchalayann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of environmental health epidemiology, risk managers, policy makers and health-care authorities usually rely on estimates of human exposure level of proximity to hazardous waste site or regional ambient air quality data. Based on ambient concentrations without considering time-activity patterns, the estimation of personal exposure may be overor underestimated. Twelve villages surrounding the petro-chemical industries located in the eastern region of Thailand were randomly selected to be a representative study area. In each village, air samples were collected at thirty-one microenvironments including indoor and outdoor of a household and workplace. The time-activity patterns of the commuters were also recorded. The ambient xylene concentrations were determined by thermal desorption gas chromatograhy/mass spectrometry. The indoor samples were determined by gas chromatography flame ionization detector. Commuters living in the vicinity of the industrial areas spent most of the time indoor (93.2%, especially at home (66.8%. Individuals spent a significant fraction of the day indoors. The concentrations of xylene ranged from less than 1 μg/m3 to 291.3 μg/m3. The highest level was found at the auto repair shop (291.3 μg/m3. Given micro-environmental concentrations and activity times, the average concentrations of xylene to which commuters may be exposed daily ranged from 90.62 to 134.75 μg/m3. The long term exposure level via inhalation was found to be very low. Collectively, no hazard was indicated by the hazard quotient and the results were found to be similar in all villages.

  11. Combined organic matter and nitrogen removal from a chemical industry wastewater in a two-stage MBBR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, S M S; Fontoura, G A T; Dezotti, M; Bassin, J P

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide-producing factories generate highly polluting wastewaters containing toxic and hazardous compounds which should be reduced to acceptable levels before discharge. In this study, a chemical industry wastewater was treated in a pre-denitrification moving-bed biofilm reactor system subjected to an increasing internal mixed liquor recycle ratio from 2 to 4. Although the influent wastewater characteristics substantially varied over time, the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved organic carbon was quite stable and mostly higher than 90%. The highest fraction of the incoming organic matter was removed anoxically, favouring a low COD/N environment in the subsequent aerobic nitrifying tank and thus ensuring stable ammonium removal (90-95%). However, during pH and salt shock periods, nitrifiers were severely inhibited but gradually restored their full nitrifying capability as non-stressing conditions were reestablished. Besides promoting an increase in the maximum nitrification potential of the aerobic attached biomass from 0.34 to 0.63 mg [Formula: see text], the increase in the internal recycle ratio was accompanied by an increase in nitrogen removal (60-78%) and maximum specific denitrification rate (2.7-3.3 mg NOx(-)--N). Total polysaccharides (PS) and protein (PT) concentrations of attached biomass were observed to be directly influenced by the influent organic loading rate, while the PS/PT ratio mainly ranged from 0.3 to 0.5. Results of Microtox tests showed that no toxicity was found in the effluent of both the anoxic and aerobic reactors, indicating that the biological process was effective in removing residual substances which might adversely affect the receiving waters' ecosystem. PMID:26086717

  12. The Effects of Chronic Lifelong Activation of the AHR Pathway by Industrial Chemical Pollutants on Female Human Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, Margherita; Nardelli, Claudia; Castegna, Alessandra; Arnesano, Fabio; Carella, Nicola; Depalo, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Environmental chemicals, such as heavy metals, affect female reproductive function. A biological sensor of the signals of many toxic chemical compounds seems to be the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Previous studies demonstrated the environmental of heavy metals in Taranto city (Italy), an area that has been influenced by anthropogenic factors such as industrial activities and waste treatments since 1986. However, the impact of these elements on female fertility in this geographic area has never been analyzed. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the AHR pathway, sex steroid receptor pattern and apoptotic process in granulosa cells (GCs) retrieved from 30 women, born and living in Taranto, and 30 women who are living in non-contaminated areas (control group), who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocol. In follicular fluids (FFs) of both groups the toxic and essential heavy metals, such as chromiun (Cr), Manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), were also analyzed. Higher levels of Cr, Fe, Zn and Pb were found in the FFs of the women from Taranto as compared to the control group, as were the levels of AHR and AHR-dependent cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1; while CYP19A1 expression was decreased. The anti-apoptotic process found in the GCs of women fromTaranto was associated with the highest levels of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), a novel progesterone receptor, the expression of which is subjected to AHR activated by its highest affinity ligands (e.g., dioxins) or indirectly by other environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals. In conclusion, decreased production of estradiol and decreased number of retrieved mature oocytes found in women from Taranto could be due to chronic exposure to heavy metals, in particular to Cr and Pb. PMID:27008165

  13. Genomic mechanisms of stress tolerance for the industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae against the major chemical classes of inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists at ARS developed tolerant industrial yeast that is able to reduce major chemical classes of inhibitors into less toxic or none toxic compounds while producing ethanol. Using genomic studies, we defined mechanisms of in situ detoxification involved in novel gene functions, vital cofactor r...

  14. Waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. 1978-June 1980 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for 1978-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-07-01

    These citations from Federally funded research cover many aspects of waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. The bibliography includes emissions, economics, control processes, pollution effects, and abatement strategies. (This updated bibliography contains 280 citations, 89 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  15. Waste water pollution and control in fine chemical industry%浅析精细化工行业废水污染及控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟民

    2015-01-01

    本文分析了精细化工废水的污染和控制问题,并提出了具体的解决策略.%This article presents the issues of waste water pollution and control in fine chemical industry to provide some solutions for reference.

  16. The Control of Volatile Organic Compounds in Chemical Industry Area%化工区域挥发性有机物污染控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周东; 何玉凤; 黄志新

    2012-01-01

    化工园区是挥发性有机物一个重要排放源,对区域空气质量产生重要影响,因此,做好化工区域挥发性有机物污染防控十分重要。根据挥发性有机物排放特点,结合上海市金山卫化工集中区环境综合整治工作,从政策法规、监测技术、环境管理、末端治理等层面,提出化工区域挥发性有机物污染控制的对策和建议。%Chemical industry park was an important source of volatile organic compound,J, which had significant im- pact on the regional air quality, therefore, the prevention and control of volatile organic compounds of chemical industry area was very important. According to the emission feature of volatile organic compounds, laking Shanghai Jinshan the second chemical industrial park as an example, from the points of policy and law, monitoring technology, environmental management and terminal treatment, countermeasures and suggestions for the control of volatile organic compounds in chemical industry area were proposed.

  17. Chemical fractionation and speciation modelling for optimization of ion-exchange processes to recover palladium from industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folens, K; Van Hulle, S; Vanhaecke, F; Du Laing, G

    2016-01-01

    Palladium is used in several industrial applications and, given its high intrinsic value, intense efforts are made to recover the element. In this hydrometallurgic perspective, ion-exchange (IEX) technologies are principal means. Yet, without incorporating the chemical and physical properties of the Pd present in real, plant-specific conditions, the recovery cannot reach its technical nor economic optimum. This study characterized a relevant Pd-containing waste stream of a mirror manufacturer to provide input for a speciation model, predicting the Pd speciation as a function of pH and chloride concentration. Besides the administered neutral PdCl2 form, both positively and negatively charged [PdCln](2-n) species occur depending on the chloride concentration in solution. Purolite C100 and Relite 2AS IEX resins were selected and applied in combination with other treatment steps to optimize the Pd recovery. A combination of the cation and anion exchange resins was found successful to quantitatively recover Pd. Given the fact that Pd was also primarily associated with particles, laboratory-scale experiments focused on physical removal of the Pd-containing flow were conducted, which showed that particle-bound Pd can already be removed by physical pre-treatment prior to IEX, while the ionic fraction remains fully susceptible to the IEX mechanism.

  18. Assessment of the toxicity of wastewater from the metalworking industry treated using a conventional physico-chemical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Rodrigo Matuella; Monteggia, Luiz Olinto; Arenzon, Alexandre; Curia, Ana Cristina

    2016-06-01

    This article presents results from a toxicity reduction evaluation program intended to describe wastewater from the metalworking industry that was treated using a conventional physico-chemical process. The toxicity of the wastewater for the microcrustacean Daphnia magna was predominantly expressive. Alkaline cyanide wastewater generated from electroplating accounted for the largest number of samples with expressive toxicity. When the raw wastewater concentrations in the batches were repeated, inexpressive toxicity variations were observed more frequently among the coagulated-flocculated samples. At the coagulation-flocculation step, 22.2 % of the treatments had reduced acute toxicity, 30.6 % showed increased toxicity, and 47.2 % remained unchanged. The conductivity and total dissolved solids contents of the wastewater indicated the presence of salts with charges that were inappropriate for the survival of daphnid. The wastewaters treated by neutralization and coagulation-flocculation had average metallic compound contents that were greater than the reference toxic concentrations reported in other studies, suggesting that metals likely contributed to the toxic effects of the wastewater on freshwater microcrustaceans. Thus, alternative coagulants and flocculants should be assessed, and feasible doses should be determined to improve wastewater treatment. In addition, advanced treatment processes should be assessed for their abilities to remove dissolved toxic salts and ions. PMID:27230425

  19. 化工园区循环经济发展的规划构建%Construction and planning of circular economy for Chemical Industry Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪红兵; 康德礼; 刘利民; 曹智启

    2016-01-01

    Along with the improvement of Chinese environment requirements of chemical industry, Chemical Industry Park,concentrative areas of chemical industry,should develop circular economy as soon as possible. Following the “3R principle”,“reduce,reuse,recycle”,circular economy employing recycling technology and waste resource utilization technology must reduce the pollutant and toxic emission. Beside,developing circular economy will urge Chemical Industry Park to develop potential of resources,promote value and increase utilize of fossil resources. The characteristic of industry chain is analyzed and two parts of developing circular economic for Chemical Industry Park are given. One is to fabricate circular economic industry chain based on the original industry chain and the other is to optimize the service system. During the construction of circular economy industry chain,an industrial metabolism analysis should be employed to determine the interface of industry,and risk evaluation technique should be used to control industry chain risk by importing. Establishing circular economic information platform for Chemical Industry Park to extend circular industry chain without geographical limitation should be especially emphasized in the service system.%随着国家对化工行业环境保护和生态建设方面的要求越来越高,化工园区作为化工行业的聚集地和发展趋势,响应国家政策构建循环经济是当务之急。循环经济利用再循环技术和废弃物资源化技术,贯彻“减量化、再使用、再循环”的“3R原则”,降低有毒有害物质向环境的排放;同时构建循环经济能够促使化工园区挖掘资源潜力,提高资源利用率,使得资源的价值能够进一步体现。本文通过分析化工园区的产业链特征,并针对性地提出了化工园区构建循环经济的两方面工作:在原有产业链的基础上构建循环经济产业链以及完善服务系统。在构建

  20. On Business Model for Industrial Application of Technology in Modern Coal Chemical Industry%现代煤化工技术产业化业务模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯大任; 方斌

    2013-01-01

      以现代煤化工产业为例,探讨如何通过不同的业务模式,将技术转化为可以投入工业化使用,并带来经济利润和社会效益的技术产品,或者工艺创新的现实生产力。分析认为,结合我国现阶段技术产业化现状,通过与全球知名跨国公司联手,建立中外合资企业,对加速国内煤化工技术产业化,推动我国煤化工产业升级,增强企业知识产权保护意识,创新管理理念具有重要的战略意义。%This paper discusses how to transform technology into technical products that can be put into use in industry with economic and social benefit, or actual productivity on process innovation through different business model, taking modern coal chemical industry for example. The analysis indicates that the establishing of sino-foreign joint venture with well-known global transnational corporation, considering the current situation of industrial application of technology at home, has significant strategic meaning to several aspects, for example: to speed up industrial application of technology on coal chemical industry at home, to implement the upgrade of coal chemical industry, to enhance protective consciousness and innovation management.

  1. Riskgov European Project. Comparative analysis of risk governance for radiological and chemical discharges of industrial installations. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the RISKGOV Project is to analyse and identify quality criteria for the governance of industrial activities giving rise to risks to people and the environment from radioactive and chemical discharges during normal operations. For this purpose, RISKGOV aims at: 1) analysing and comparing the elements contributing to the quality of governance systems associated with environmental discharges from nuclear and chemical installations; 2) providing a series of criteria to assess the quality of the governance of risk activities. In total, 8 case studies were conducted, covering radioactive and chemical releases related to local and international contexts and referring to innovative risk governance processes in France, Sweden and the United Kingdom: - The role of local liaison committees with regard to the management of discharges of installations: - France: Local liaison committee of the Gravelines Nuclear Power Plant, - Sweden: Local liaison committees of the Barsebaeck Nuclear Power Plant and the Rohm and Hass Chemical installation, - The dialogue process during the preparation of re-authorisation of radioactive discharges: - France: COGEMA-La Hague facility, - United-Kingdom: Devonport Royal Dockyard, - The dialogue process in a regional context: - France: Management of air quality around the industrial site of Etang de Berre, - The dialogue process in an international context: - Implementation of the OSPAR Convention for chemical and radioactive releases, - The abandonment of the Brent Spar offshore platform. The analysis was performed by a multidisciplinary research team and based notably on interviews with key stakeholders directly involved in these innovative risk governance processes. The following dimensions were addressed: a) The guiding principles of the decision-making process; b) The role of expertise; c) The stakeholders involvement process; d) The factors integrated into the decision-framing and decision-taking processes; e) The

  2. Processo químico industrial de extração de óleo vegetal: um experimento de química geral Chemical industrial process of vegetable oil extraction: an experiment for teaching general chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Vianna

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we describe an experimental procedure based on a chemical industrial process of soya-bean oil extraction applied in general chemistry for undergraduate students. The experiment was planned according to the Science, Technology and Society (STS approach to teach basic chemical concepts and provide grounding in the management of environmental care. The use of real life chemistry problems seems to salient the relevance of chemistry to our students and enhances their motivation to learn both the practical and theoretical components of the discipline.

  3. Chemical Industry Energy Saving and Emission Reduction Management%化工企业的节能减排管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪洋; 李文金; 杜建东

    2015-01-01

    The energy saving and emission reduction management should be a long-term strategic goals for chemical industry. Enterprise should encourage all the staffs participating actively in this management through internal promotion, training and variety of incentives. Through mass equilibrium analysis and cost analysis, the optimized direction and solve the emission issue from source could be fixed. By increasing automation controlling, the plant could also run more stability and reliability without more safety and environment incident happened. During the plant running and maintenance, we should continue to tap the potential benefits, standardize production management and catch all the details in order to do well for the energy saving and emission reduction management.%企业要做好节能减排管理,必须将其作为长期的战略目标,加强企业内部的宣传和培训,通过多种激励机制鼓励员工积极参与到节能减排管理中。生产装置要从源头进行节能减排,通过平衡分析和成本分析等手段,明确优化方向,通过提高装置运行的自动化程序,提高运行的稳定性和可靠性。在装置运行及停车检修过程中,不断挖掘潜在效益,规范生产管理,在细节上做好节能减排管理。

  4. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of PM10 and TSP in residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A K; Karar, Kakoli; Srivastava, Anjali

    2007-04-01

    Daily average PM(10) (particulate matter which passes through a size selective impactor inlet with a 50% efficiency cut-off at 10 microm aerodynamic diameter), TSP (total suspended particulate matter) and their chemical species mass concentrations were measured at residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata during November 2003-November 2004. Source apportionment using chemical mass balance model revealed that the most dominant source throughout the study period at residential site was coal combustion (42%), while vehicular emission (47%) dominates at industrial site to PM(10). Paved road, field burning and wood combustion contributed 21%, 7% and 1% at residential site, while coal combustion, metal industry and soil dust contributed 34%, 1% and 1% at industrial site, respectively, to PM(10) during the study period. The contributors to TSP included coal combustion (37%), soil dust (19%), road dust (17%) and diesel combustion (15%) at residential site, while soil dust (36%), coal combustion (17%), solid waste (17%), road dust (16%) and tyre wear (7%) at industrial site. Significant seasonal variations of the particulate matters have been observed during the study period. In the monitoring sites total carbon, organic carbon and iron were found to be the marker species of road dust, while organic carbon, total carbon, chloride and sulfate have been observed as the marker species of soil dust in TSP. PMID:16987605

  5. 纳滤膜在化工废水处理中的实际应用%Practical Application of the Nanofiltration Membrane in Chemical Industry Wastewater Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩洪晶; 刘鑫

    2014-01-01

    随着我国科学技术的不断进步,化工业中的废水处理水平也在逐步提高,各种新型技术被应用到实际生产中,其中比较典型的就是纳滤。作为一种新型的分离技术,它不仅可以有效处理化工废水,还能将其中的有效物质进行回收,提高利用率,所以在化工废水处理中的应用范围也越来越广。从纳滤膜分离技术的工作原理出发,以盐化工的废水处理为例,对纳滤膜实际应用进行了具体分析。%Along with the advance of science and technology in our country, the wastewater treatment technology in the chemical industry is also gradually increasing, various kinds of new technologies have been applied into the actual production, especially the nanofiltration technology. As a new separation technique, it not only can effectively treat chemical wastewater, but also can recover useful materials from chemical industry wastewater, so the nanofiltration technology has been widely used in chemical industry wastewater treatment. In this article, starting from the working principle of nanofiltration membrane separation technology, taking the salt chemical industry wastewater treatment as an example, the practical application of nanofiltration membrane was analyzed.

  6. Practical Application of the Nanofiltration Membrane in Chemical Industry Wastewater Treatment%纳滤膜在化工废水处理中的实际应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩洪晶; 刘鑫

    2014-01-01

    Along with the advance of science and technology in our country, the wastewater treatment technology in the chemical industry is also gradually increasing, various kinds of new technologies have been applied into the actual production, especially the nanofiltration technology. As a new separation technique, it not only can effectively treat chemical wastewater, but also can recover useful materials from chemical industry wastewater, so the nanofiltration technology has been widely used in chemical industry wastewater treatment. In this article, starting from the working principle of nanofiltration membrane separation technology, taking the salt chemical industry wastewater treatment as an example, the practical application of nanofiltration membrane was analyzed.%随着我国科学技术的不断进步,化工业中的废水处理水平也在逐步提高,各种新型技术被应用到实际生产中,其中比较典型的就是纳滤。作为一种新型的分离技术,它不仅可以有效处理化工废水,还能将其中的有效物质进行回收,提高利用率,所以在化工废水处理中的应用范围也越来越广。从纳滤膜分离技术的工作原理出发,以盐化工的废水处理为例,对纳滤膜实际应用进行了具体分析。

  7. Methods and instruments for the ecological assessment of the treatment of solvent wastes in the chemical industry; Methoden und Instrumente zur oekologischen Bewertung der Abfall-Loesungsmittelbehandlung in der chemischen Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capello, Ch.

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project which looked at the treatment of solvent wastes in the chemical industry and its ecological impact. The development of a method based on the life-cycle-analysis (LCA) approach is described. The LCA methodology is to provide support for decision-making in the area of solvent waste disposal in the chemical industry. Various methods of disposal, such as distillation or incineration are looked at. The results of calculations using a software tool called 'ecosolvent' are presented and discussed. The 15 most important solvents and their quantities as used in the 6 facilities examined, are listed. The functioning of the ecosolvent software is discussed and illustrated in a flow-diagram. Along with detailed results, a few qualitative rules of thumb are quoted for the treatment of solvent wastes.

  8. Strategic of Applying Free Chemical Usage In Purified Water System For Pharmaceutical Industry Toward CPOB (Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik) Indonesia To Reducing Environmental Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kartono R.; Basuki Y. T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the sets of model and literature review to prove that strategy of applying free chemical usage in purified water system for pharmaceutical industry would be help the existing and new pharmaceutical companies to comply with part of Natioanal Agency of Drug and Food Control / Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan (NADFC/BPOM) regulation in order to achieve “Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik” (CPOB) of Indonesia pharmaceutical industry. One of the main reasons is wh...

  9. 计算机在化工中应用的研究进展∗%Research Progress on Computer Application in Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭妍婷; 黄雪; 陈曼; 冯光炷

    2016-01-01

    The application of computer in chemical industry was mainly introduced, including the design of chemical industry, chemical production, scientific research and teaching. Present situation of the computer application of the aspects of aided drawing, chemical simulation design, data processing, chemical simulation and information retrieval was discussed. In the future, computer software will develop into intelligent and integrated tool. The researchers’ rich knowledge and experience will blend in. The computer will continuously improve the production efficiency of enterprises, promote the prosperity of the chemical industry and flourish.%主要介绍了计算机在化工中的应用,包含化工设计、化工生产、化工科研及教学等,讲述了在上述几个领域内国内外最常用的计算机软件,并讨论了计算机在辅助制图、化工模拟设计、数据处理、化工仿真、信息检索等方面的的应用现状,未来计算机软件将发展成智能、综合的工具,把研究人员丰富的知识、经验融入其中,将不断提高企业的生产效率,促进化工产业的繁荣和兴盛。

  10. Study of establishing intellectual property for chemical industrial park%面向化工园区的知识产权建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪红兵; 林名钦

    2016-01-01

    With the deepening of China's New Normal,the strategy of innovation-driven development is becoming the only way out for future Chinese economy. The industry in Chemical Industry Park is one of the main components among Chinese economy industries. Therefore, how to use intellectual property to promote the innovation and industrial upgrade in Chemical Industry Park is the target of this paper. This paper investigates the development of intellectual property for Chemical Industrial Park according to the national strategy of creative-activated development in industrial upgrading. Domestic petrochemical enterprises own not only less application amount of patent than overseas,but also poorer patent quality and usage. In the aspect of patent layout for Chemical Industry Park,the government should have global view and establish management system of intellectual property accorded with the Park; the manager should plan strategy of patent layout according to industry chain; and the enterprise should pay much more attention to patent technique and industry connection. In the aspect of patent conversion,the patent could be effectively converted by solving the value of patent and bilateral information docking. The industry upgrade for Chemical Industry Park could be motivated.%随着中国经济进入新常态,创新驱动成为未来中国经济的唯一出路。化工园区所承载的产业是中国经济产业的重要组成部分,如何利用知识产权推动化工园区的创新与产业升级是本文的研究目的。本文以国家创新推动产业升级的大战略为重要背景面向化工园区的知识产权建设进行了研究,指出我国石油化工企业不仅在专利申请量上落后于国外,在专利质量和运用方面也远不如。提出在化工园区专利布局方面,作为园区的政府部门,应具有全局观,建立一套符合化工园区的知识产权管理制度;作为化工园区的管理者,应根据园区的产业链

  11. Application of nanotechnology in the fine chemical industry%浅谈纳米技术在精细化工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程辉

    2015-01-01

    The technical features of nanotechnology are concluded in this paper on the basis of the development of fine chemical industry to set up technical schemes that meet the requirement of fine chemicals production.%本文结合我国精细化工业发展现状,总结纳米技术应用于医药化工生产的技术特点,拟定符合精细化学品生产要求的技术方案。

  12. Significant Breakthrough in Industrial Test of the "Methanol to Olefins" Process Developed by Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ A process of "Methanol or Dimethylether to Olefins" developed by Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP), designated as the DMTO process, has attained great success in industrial scaling up testing. DICP, by collaborating with the Xinxing Coal Chemical Co., Ltd. of Shaanxi Province and the Luoyang Petrochemical Engineering Co. of the SINOPEC Group, operated successfully a 50t(methanol)/d unit for the conversion of methanol to lower olefins, with a methanol conversion of close to 100%, and a selectivity to lower olefins(ethylene, propylene and butylenes) of higher than 90%. On 23rd August, the industrial test project has passed a state appraisal. The experts of the Appraisal Group, headed by Prof.

  13. The added value of the 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity test for industrial chemicals with a low (sub)acute toxicity profile in a high quality dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Katy; Andrew, David J; Rego, Laura

    2014-08-01

    A survey conducted on the EU Notification of New Substances (NONS) database suggested that for industrial chemicals with a profile of low toxicity in (sub)acute toxicity tests there is little added value to the conduct of the 90-day repeated dose study. Avoiding unnecessary animal testing is a central aim of the EU REACH chemicals legislation; therefore we sought to verify the profile using additional data. The OECD's eChemPortal was searched for substances that had both a 28-day and a 90-day study and their robust study summaries were then examined from the ECHA CHEM database. Out of 182 substances with high quality 28-day and 90-day study results, only 18 reported no toxicity of any kind in the (sub)acute tests. However, for 16 of these there were also no reported signs of toxicity at or close to the limit dose (1000mg/kgbw/d) in the 90-day study. Restricting the 'low (sub)acute toxicity in a high quality dataset' profile to general industrial chemicals of no known biological activity, whilst allowing irritant substances, increases the data set and improves the prediction to 95% (20 substances out of 21 substances). The low toxicity profile appears to be of low prevalence within industrial chemicals (10-15%), nevertheless, avoidance of the conduct of a redundant 90-day study for this proportion of the remaining REACH phase-in substances would avoid the use of nearly 50,000 animals and save industry 50million Euros, with no impact on the assessment of human health. PMID:24768988

  14. Job insecurity , work-based support, job satisfaction, organisational commitment and general health of human resources professionals in a chemical industry / by Florence Nomhlangano Rani

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Nomhlangano Florence

    2005-01-01

    The work environment in which South African employees have to function is highly demanding, offering them little in terms of job security, but simultaneously expecting them to give more in terms of inter alia flexibility, competency, and effort. Tracking and addressing chemical industry employees' functioning in areas that could affect their general health and consequent standard of service is essential. Job insecurity, work-based support, job satisfaction, organisational commitment and gener...

  15. Final Technical Report - High-Performance, Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Tubes for Production of Ethylene adn Other Industrial Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKimpson, Marvin G.

    2006-04-06

    This project was undertaken by Michigan Technological University and Special Metals Corporation to develop creep-resistant, coking-resistant oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) tubes for use in industrial-scale ethylene pyrolysis and steam methane reforming operations. Ethylene pyrolysis tubes are exposed to some of the most severe service conditions for metallic materials found anywhere in the chemical process industries, including elevated temperatures, oxidizing atmospheres and high carbon potentials. During service, hard deposits of carbon (coke) build up on the inner wall of the tube, reducing heat transfer and restricting the flow of the hydrocarbon feedstocks. About every 20 to 60 days, the reactor must be taken off-line and decoked by burning out the accumulated carbon. This decoking costs on the order of $9 million per year per ethylene plant, accelerates tube degradation, and requires that tubes be replaced about every 5 years. The technology developed under this program seeks to reduce the energy and economic cost of coking by creating novel bimetallic tubes offering a combination of improved coking resistance, creep resistance and fabricability not available in current single-alloy tubes. The inner core of this tube consists of Incoloy(R) MA956, a commercial ferritic Fe-Cr-Al alloy offering a 50% reduction in coke buildup combined with improved carburization resistance. The outer sheath consists of a new material - oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Alloy 803(R) developed under the program. This new alloy retains the good fireside environmental resistance of Alloy 803, a commercial wrought alloy currently used for ethylene production, and provides an austenitic casing to alleviate the inherently-limited fabricability of the ferritic Incoloy(R) MA956 core. To provide mechanical compatibility between the two alloys and maximize creep resistance of the bimetallic tube, both the inner Incoloy(R) MA956 and the outer ODS Alloy 803 are oxide dispersion

  16. Benefits of chemical fibre industry down evidently in the first half of 2008 Industrial production growth rate dropped slightly, imports decreased evidently while exports grew steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gracie; Guo

    2008-01-01

    Production From January to May, China’s chemical fiber production rose 7.4 percent from a year earlier to 10.04 million tons, but that was 10.49 percentage points less than the growth rate during the same five- month period last year,the China National Textile and Apparel

  17. Evaluation of environmental policy instruments - a case study of the Finnish pulp and paper and chemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research-based evaluation of environmental policy Instruments in Finland is focussed on regulatory instruments based on the Water Act, the Air Pollution Control Act and the Chemicals Act, on electricity taxation and on voluntary environmental management systems. The examined policy instruments have had several positive effects. They have directed major industrial point source polluters towards solving environmental problems. The transparency has been an important factor ensuring the success of the policy instruments and in avoiding the regulatory capture that could have thrived in a system largely based on negotiations between operators and authorities. The transparency has made it easy for Finnish firms to adopt environmental management systems and an open attitude to environmental reporting. The permit conditions have not directly resulted in innovations, but they have contributed to the diffusion of end-of-pipe technology and have contributed to innovations by expanding the market for environmentally better technical solutions. The permit systems have also indirectly contributed to innovations by creating a demand for environmental experts and environmental education. Networks have clearly developed as a consequence of and in response to regulatory instruments. These networks appear to have had their greatest significance prior to the permit procedures. The trend has been towards a greater emphasis of the communication in the networks prior to the presentation of an application in order to ensure a smoothly functioning permit process. In the networks contributing to innovations and the diffusion of innovations authorities have largely been outsiders, except when an innovation has become a de facto standard for permit conditions. The different kind of effects, the complexity of consequences and the uncertainties with respect to causes and effects mean that studies aiming at evaluating the overall worth and merit of an environmental policy instrument should

  18. Application Analysis of Nanotechnology in Chemical Industry%纳米技术在化工行业中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静霞

    2011-01-01

    随着科学技术的发展,纳米技术已经越来越多的进入到了人们的日常生活,而且化工行业作为国民经济支柱产业之一,将以纳米材料以及纳米技术为主的高新技术应用到化工生产中,必将会对其产生积极的推动作用。因此,本文针对纳米技术在化工行业中的应用进行分析。%With the development of science and technology,nanotechnology has been more and more into people's daily lives,and the chemical industry as a pillar industry of national economy,apply nano-materials and nano technology-based high-tech to chemical production,will certainly have a positive role in promoting.Therefore,this paper analyzes the application of nanotechnology in chemical industry.

  19. Detection of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in surface water, soil, and groundwater in a chemical industrial park in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Benhua; Li, Yuehua; Ma, Jianfeng; Huang, Linxian; Chen, Liang

    2016-01-01

    China is suffering from serious water and soil pollution, especially in the North China Plain. This work investigated semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in surface water, groundwater and soil within a chemical industrial park in Eastern China, for which the volatile organic compound (VOC) results have been previously reported. A total of 20 samples were collected from the field, and analyzed in the laboratory. A 100% detection frequency of SVOCs in samples from this chemical industrial park was observed (same as VOCs). Moreover, the detection frequency of 113 SVOCs in each sample reached 15.93, 12.39 and 20.35% for surface water, groundwater and soil, respectively. The most detected SVOCs in the park included N-containing SVOCs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, organic pesticides and polychlorodiphenyls. The elevated detecting frequencies and concentration levels of SVOCs identified in the groundwater were attributed to the intensive chemical production activities in the park. In addition, the agricultural activities in the area might also have contributed to the SVOCs to the groundwater. The results of VOCs and SVOCs from this and previous studies suggest that the groundwater in this industrial park has been severely contaminated, and the contamination likely spreads beyond the park. Imminent hydrogeological assessments and remedial actions are warranted to eliminate the source and mitigate the potential plume expansion beyond the park boundary. PMID:26942541

  20. Chemical amendment and phytostabilization of an industrial residue contaminated with Zn and Cd Correção química e fitoestabilização de um resíduo industrial contaminado com Zn e Cd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Soares dos Santos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Phytostabilisation of a contaminated soil with heavy metals is considered a very appropriate technology to reduce erosion and dispersion of contaminants. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effects of both chemical amendments (calcium silicate and brewery sludge, and phytoremediation using the grass Brachiaria decumbens, on an industrial residue contaminated with Zn and Cd (industrial residue. Industrial residue samples placed into 30 L containers were amended with 20% brewery sludge, calcium silicate (2%, 3%, and 20% of brewery sludge + calcium silicate (2.5%, 4%, and were compared to the control treatment (non-amended residue. After pH stabilization, B. decumbens plants were grown on all treatments in order to evaluate the ability of the species to tolerate high Zn and Cd concentrations from the residue. Samples were collected twice, at planting and harvesting, for pH determination and simple extractions with water, sodium nitrate, acetic acid and DTPA. Differences in Zn and Cd concentrations in extracts allowed to estimate the concentrations of these elements in the most likely chemical forms they are found in the residue. Alkaline and organic industrial amendments reduced Zn and Cd percentages, both in the soluble and exchangeable fractions, as well as caused the predominance of Zn and Cd in the most stable chemical fractions, such as complexed and precipitated compounds. B. decumbens was tolerant to Zn and Cd from the industrial residue after addition of the amendments.A fitoestabilização de solos contaminados com metais pesados é considerada uma boa alternativa para reduzir a erosão e dispersão de contaminantes no ambiente. Foi conduzido um experimento em casa-de-vegetação com o objetivo de avaliar a contenção química (silicato de cálcio e lodo do biodigestor de uma cervejaria e a fitorremediação pela Brachiaria decumbens, de um resíduo industrial contaminado com Zn e Cd, utilizando vasos de 30 L. Os tratamentos

  1. Industrial practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the industrial practices carried out by the author viewing the requirements fulfilled for obtention the academic degree in chemical engineering of the San Andres University - Bolivia

  2. A synthetic method for atmospheric diffusion simulation and environmental impact assessment of accidental pollution in the chemical industry in a WEBGIS context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Haochen; Rui, Yikang; Wang, Jiechen; Cheng, Liang

    2014-09-01

    The chemical industry poses a potential security risk to factory personnel and neighboring residents. In order to mitigate prospective damage, a synthetic method must be developed for an emergency response. With the development of environmental numeric simulation models, model integration methods, and modern information technology, many Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been established. However, existing systems still have limitations, in terms of synthetic simulation and network interoperation. In order to resolve these limitations, the matured simulation model for chemical accidents was integrated into the WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS) platform. The complete workflow of the emergency response, including raw data (meteorology information, and accident information) management, numeric simulation of different kinds of accidents, environmental impact assessments, and representation of the simulation results were achieved. This allowed comprehensive and real-time simulation of acute accidents in the chemical industry. The main contribution of this paper is that an organizational mechanism of the model set, based on the accident type and pollutant substance; a scheduling mechanism for the parallel processing of multi-accident-type, multi-accident-substance, and multi-simulation-model; and finally a presentation method for scalar and vector data on the web browser on the integration of a WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS) platform. The outcomes demonstrated that this method could provide effective support for deciding emergency responses of acute chemical accidents.

  3. A synthetic method for atmospheric diffusion simulation and environmental impact assessment of accidental pollution in the chemical industry in a WEBGIS context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Haochen; Rui, Yikang; Wang, Jiechen; Cheng, Liang

    2014-09-01

    The chemical industry poses a potential security risk to factory personnel and neighboring residents. In order to mitigate prospective damage, a synthetic method must be developed for an emergency response. With the development of environmental numeric simulation models, model integration methods, and modern information technology, many Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been established. However, existing systems still have limitations, in terms of synthetic simulation and network interoperation. In order to resolve these limitations, the matured simulation model for chemical accidents was integrated into the WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS) platform. The complete workflow of the emergency response, including raw data (meteorology information, and accident information) management, numeric simulation of different kinds of accidents, environmental impact assessments, and representation of the simulation results were achieved. This allowed comprehensive and real-time simulation of acute accidents in the chemical industry. The main contribution of this paper is that an organizational mechanism of the model set, based on the accident type and pollutant substance; a scheduling mechanism for the parallel processing of multi-accident-type, multi-accident-substance, and multi-simulation-model; and finally a presentation method for scalar and vector data on the web browser on the integration of a WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS) platform. The outcomes demonstrated that this method could provide effective support for deciding emergency responses of acute chemical accidents. PMID:25198686

  4. A Synthetic Method for Atmospheric Diffusion Simulation and Environmental Impact Assessment of Accidental Pollution in the Chemical Industry in a WEBGIS Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haochen Ni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical industry poses a potential security risk to factory personnel and neighboring residents. In order to mitigate prospective damage, a synthetic method must be developed for an emergency response. With the development of environmental numeric simulation models, model integration methods, and modern information technology, many Decision Support Systems (DSSs have been established. However, existing systems still have limitations, in terms of synthetic simulation and network interoperation. In order to resolve these limitations, the matured simulation model for chemical accidents was integrated into the WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS platform. The complete workflow of the emergency response, including raw data (meteorology information, and accident information management, numeric simulation of different kinds of accidents, environmental impact assessments, and representation of the simulation results were achieved. This allowed comprehensive and real-time simulation of acute accidents in the chemical industry. The main contribution of this paper is that an organizational mechanism of the model set, based on the accident type and pollutant substance; a scheduling mechanism for the parallel processing of multi-accident-type, multi-accident-substance, and multi-simulation-model; and finally a presentation method for scalar and vector data on the web browser on the integration of a WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS platform. The outcomes demonstrated that this method could provide effective support for deciding emergency responses of acute chemical accidents.

  5. APPLICATION OF ELECTROCHEMICAL METHODS FOR DECREASING OF CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD) AND TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID (TSS) OF TOFU INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

    OpenAIRE

    Suyata; Irmanto; Undri Rastuti

    2015-01-01

    Tofu industrial wastewater has high COD and TSS level, which it cause an environmental pollution. Therefore, it is necessary to decrease the value of COD and TSS of tofu industrial wastewater before discharge into the water body. Decreasing of COD and TSS values can be carried out using an electrochemical method. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of potential, electrode distance, pH, and time to decrease of COD and TSS value of the tofu industrial wastewater. The experi...

  6. Environmental justice: frequency and severity of US chemical industry accidents and the socioeconomic status of surrounding communities

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, M.; Wang, Y.; Lowe, R; Kleindorfer, P

    2004-01-01

    Study objectives: The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires that chemical facilities in the US with specified quantities of certain toxic or flammable chemicals file a five year history of accidents. This study considers the relation between the reported accidents and surrounding community characteristics.

  7. LongTerm Energy Efficiency Analysis Requires Solid Energy Statistics: The case of the German Basic Chemical Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saygin, D.; Worrell, E.; Tam, C.; Trudeau, N.; Gielen, D.J.; Weiss, M.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing the chemical industry’s energy use is challenging because of the sector’s complexity and the prevailing uncertainty in energy use and production data. We develop an advanced bottom-up model (PIE-Plus) which encompasses the energy use of the 139 most important chemical processes. We apply t

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 136 - Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... “Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories,”American Chemical Society Publication, Committee on Chemical... Sample Containers and for Preservation of Organic Constituents,” American Society for Testing and... Practices for Sampling Water,” American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia. 9. “Methods...

  9. Asymmetric catalysis in Brazil: development and potential for advancement of Brazilian chemical industry; Catalise assimetrica no Brasil: desenvolvimento e potencialidades para o avanco da industria quimica brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Antonio Luiz, E-mail: braga.antonio@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Luedtke, Diogo Seibert; Schneider, Paulo Henrique [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Andrade, Leandro Helgueira [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Paixao, Marcio Weber [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2013-07-01

    The preparation of enantiomerically pure or enriched substances is of fundamental importance to pharmaceutical, food, agrochemical, and cosmetics industries and involves a growing market of hundreds of billions of dollars. However, most chemical processes used for their production are not environmentally friendly because in most cases, stoichiometric amounts of chiral inductors are used and substantial waste is produced. In this context, asymmetric catalysis has emerged as an efficient tool for the synthesis of enantiomerically enriched compounds using chiral catalysts. More specifically, considering the current scenario in the Brazilian chemical industry, especially that of pharmaceuticals, the immediate prospect for the use of synthetic routes developed in Brazil in an enantioselective fashion or even the discovery of new drugs is practically null. Currently, the industrial production of drugs in Brazil is primarily focused on the production of generic drugs and is basically supported by imports of intermediates from China and India. In order to change this panorama and move forward toward the gradual incorporation of genuinely Brazilian synthetic routes, strong incentive policies, especially those related to continuous funding, will be needed. These incentives could be a breakthrough once we establish several research groups working in the area of organic synthesis and on the development and application of chiral organocatalysts and ligands in asymmetric catalysis, thus contributing to boost the development of the Brazilian chemical industry. Considering these circumstances, Brazil can benefit from this opportunity because we have a wide biodiversity and a large pool of natural resources that can be used as starting materials for the production of new chiral catalysts and are creating competence in asymmetric catalysis and related areas. This may decisively contribute to the growth of chemistry in our country. (author)

  10. 工业双戊烯在精细化学品制备中的应用%Application of industrial dipentene in preparation of fine chemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗雨欣; 蒋丽虹; 王昊; 王亚明

    2011-01-01

    介绍了工业双戊烯的来源、组成和物理化学性质.从双戊烯合成香料、催化加氢合成对盖烷、双戊烯合成萜烯马来酸酐加合物、双戊烯脱氢合成对伞花烃等4个方面综述了工业双戊烯在精细化学品制备中的应用情况;分析总结了国内外的研究进展、合成方法及反应条件;并提出了解决双戊烯工业化问题的有效途径.%Sources, composition, as well as physical and chemical properties of industrial dipentene were described. Applications of industrial dipentene in manufacture of fine chemicals were summarized as four categories, namely: synthesis of aroma compounds, synthesis of p - menthane through catalytic hydrogenation,preparation of terpene maleic anhydride adducts and synthesis of p- eymene through dipentene dehydrogenation. Progress in research work with respect to methods for synthesis and reaction conditions for making the above mentioned products were presented. Effective way to get industrial dipentene on a commercial scale was proposed.

  11. The Chemistry Scoring Index (CSI: A Hazard-Based Scoring and Ranking Tool for Chemicals and Products Used in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Verslycke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A large portfolio of chemicals and products is needed to meet the wide range of performance requirements of the oil and gas industry. The oil and gas industry is under increased scrutiny from regulators, environmental groups, the public, and other stakeholders for use of their chemicals. In response, industry is increasingly incorporating “greener” products and practices but is struggling to define and quantify what exactly constitutes “green” in the absence of a universally accepted definition. We recently developed the Chemistry Scoring Index (CSI which is ultimately intended to be a globally implementable tool that comprehensively scores and ranks hazards to human health, safety, and the environment for products used in oil and gas operations. CSI scores are assigned to products designed for the same use (e.g., surfactants, catalysts on the basis of product composition as well as intrinsic hazard properties and data availability for each product component. As such, products with a lower CSI score within a product use group are considered to have a lower intrinsic hazard compared to other products within the same use group. The CSI provides a powerful tool to evaluate relative product hazards; to review and assess product portfolios; and to aid in the formulation of products.

  12. 能源化工产业节能减排新模式%New mode of energy saving and emission reduction in energy chemical industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大鹏

    2012-01-01

    The status of energy chemical industry in Northern Shaanxi is briefly introduced. The development situation of a variety of comprehensive utilization of resources and the carbon dioxide capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) industry which are implemented by Yanchang Petroleum Group is presented in detail. The advantages of Jingbian Project about raising the utilization rate of resources and saving energy and reducing emission are illustrated. Yanchang Petroleum group is exploring the new pattern of energy saving and emission reduction in energy and chemical industry, and walking a new path of economic construction and environmental protection coordinated development.%简述了陕北地区能源化工产业的现状,详细介绍了延长石油实施多种资源综合利用及二氧化碳的捕获、利用与封存(CCUS)产业的发展情况,重点介绍了靖边项目在提高资源利用率和节能减排方面的优势.对能源化工产业节能减排新模式进行了探索,走经济建设和环境保护协调发展的产业道路.

  13. Application of chemical, biological and membrane separation processes in textile industry with recourse to zero effluent discharge--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, T; Dhodapkar, R S; Pophali, G R; Kaul, S N; Devotta, S

    2005-09-01

    Environmental concerns associated with textile processing had placed the textile sector in a Southern State of India under serious threat of survival. The textile industries were closed under the orders of the Statutory Board for reason of inadequate compliance to environmental discharge norms of the State for the protection of the drinking water source of the State capital. In compliance with the direction of the Board for zero effluent discharge, advanced treatment process have been implemented for recovery of boiler feed quality water with recourse to effluent recycling/reuse. The paper describes to a case study on the adequacy assessment of the full scale effluent treatment plant comprising chemical, biological and filtration processes in a small scale textile industry. In addition, implementation of measures for discernable improvement in the performance of the existing units through effective operation & maintenance, and application of membrane separation processes leading to zero effluent discharge is also highlighted. PMID:16196413

  14. The Application of Membrane Separation Technology in Chemical Industry%膜分离技术在化学工业中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少兵; 王厚朋

    2016-01-01

    阐述了膜分离技术在化学工业过程中的部分应用,如用于合成氨中的氢气回收、有机蒸汽的分离回收、催化裂化中的富氧再生、海水淡化、卤水提炼及工业废水处理等工艺过程中,并对膜分离技术的强化和未来进行了展望。%In this paper, the application of membrane separation process in the processes of chemical industry is illustrated, such as for synthetic ammonia hydrogen recovery, organic vapor separation, oxygen enrichment regeneration in catalytic cracking, desalination of sea water, brine refining and industrial wastewater treatment process. And the strengthening and the future of the membrane separation technology are forecasted.

  15. In silico prediction of toxicity of non-congeneric industrial chemicals using ensemble learning based modeling approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensemble learning approach based decision treeboost (DTB) and decision tree forest (DTF) models are introduced in order to establish quantitative structure–toxicity relationship (QSTR) for the prediction of toxicity of 1450 diverse chemicals. Eight non-quantum mechanical molecular descriptors were derived. Structural diversity of the chemicals was evaluated using Tanimoto similarity index. Stochastic gradient boosting and bagging algorithms supplemented DTB and DTF models were constructed for classification and function optimization problems using the toxicity end-point in T. pyriformis. Special attention was drawn to prediction ability and robustness of the models, investigated both in external and 10-fold cross validation processes. In complete data, optimal DTB and DTF models rendered accuracies of 98.90%, 98.83% in two-category and 98.14%, 98.14% in four-category toxicity classifications. Both the models further yielded classification accuracies of 100% in external toxicity data of T. pyriformis. The constructed regression models (DTB and DTF) using five descriptors yielded correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.945, 0.944 between the measured and predicted toxicities with mean squared errors (MSEs) of 0.059, and 0.064 in complete T. pyriformis data. The T. pyriformis regression models (DTB and DTF) applied to the external toxicity data sets yielded R2 and MSE values of 0.637, 0.655; 0.534, 0.507 (marine bacteria) and 0.741, 0.691; 0.155, 0.173 (algae). The results suggest for wide applicability of the inter-species models in predicting toxicity of new chemicals for regulatory purposes. These approaches provide useful strategy and robust tools in the screening of ecotoxicological risk or environmental hazard potential of chemicals. - Graphical abstract: Importance of input variables in DTB and DTF classification models for (a) two-category, and (b) four-category toxicity intervals in T. pyriformis data. Generalization and predictive abilities of the constructed

  16. Assessment of Semi-Quantitative Health Risks of Exposure to Harmful Chemical Agents in the Context of Carcinogenesis in the Latex Glove Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, Saeed; Fallah Asadi, Ayda; Varmazyar, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    Excessive exposure to chemicals in the workplace can cause poisoning and various diseases. Thus, for the protection of labor, it is necessary to examine the exposure of people to chemicals and risks from these materials. The purpose of this study is to evaluate semi-quantitative health risks of exposure to harmful chemical agents in the context of carcinogenesis in a latex glove manufacturing industry. In this cross-sectional study, semi-quantitative risk assessment methods provided by the Department of Occupational Health of Singapore were used and index of LD50, carcinogenesis (ACGIH and IARC) and corrosion capacity were applied to calculate the hazard rate and the biggest index was placed as the basis of risk. To calculate the exposure rate, two exposure index methods and the actual level of exposure were employed. After identifying risks, group H (high) and E (very high) classified as high-risk were considered. Of the total of 271 only 39 (15%) were at a high risk level and 3% were very high (E). These risks only was relevant to 7 materials with only sulfuric acid placed in group E and 6 other materials in group H, including nitric acid (48.3%), chromic acid (6.9%), hydrochloric acid (10.3%), ammonia (3.4%), potassium hydroxide (20.7%) and chlorine (10.3%). Overall, the average hazard rate level was estimated to be 4 and average exposure rate to be 3.5. Health risks identified in this study showed that the manufacturing industry for latex gloves has a high level of risk because of carcinogens, acids and strong alkalisand dangerous drugs. Also according to the average level of risk impact, it is better that the safety design strategy for latex gloves production industry be placed on the agenda. PMID:27165227

  17. THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ASSESSMENT OF THE FETEASCĂ NEAGRĂ GRAPE POMACE AND ITS FRACTIONS OBTAINED FROM WINE INDUSTRY IN DIFFERENT YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascariu Mariana Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the hereby study was to analyze and to compare the chemical content of the grape pomace and its fractions: skins and seeds from the red grape variety Fetească neagră (from Iași area, obtained in different years 2013 and 2014 respectively, from the winemaking process. Measurements targeted the dry matter content (DM%, organic matter (OM%, crude ash (CA%, crude protein (CP%, crude fat (EE%, crude fiber (CF%, neazotate extractive substances (SEN%, total polyphenols (TP% and tannins (Ta%. The results obtained showed significant differences in the chemical composition in favour of the grape pomace obtained in the 2014 climatic conditions: in the case of the seed for the content of DM%, SEN%, TP% and Ta%, in the case of the skins for the content of DM%, OM%, CF%, TP%, Ta% and in the case of the grape pomace for the content of DM%, OM%, CF%, SEN%, TP%, and Ta%. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition showed an annual variation of the chemical components, which may be due to climatic conditions and winemaking process. Therefore, an annual chemical quality assessment of the grape pomace is necessary, for the efficient use in the animal feed.

  18. A comprehensive review of the evolving and cumulative nature of eco-innovation in the chemical industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López, F.J.D.; Montalvo, C.

    2015-01-01

    Different bodies of literature have attempted to explain what factors and events drive industries throughout processes of environmental change. The latter is a gradual, historical process of evolution from lower to higher degrees of development. Based on concepts derived from evolutionary economics,

  19. 浅议陕西煤化集团并购重组工作%Discussion of mergers and acquisitions work in Shaanxi Coal and Chemical Industry Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹贵武

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduced the main methods of mergers and acquisitions work , summarized the experiences of mergers and acquisitions work and analyzed the effects of mergers and acquisitions work during the development process of Shaanxi Coal and Chemical Industry Group .%介绍了陕煤化集团在发展过程中,实施并购重组工作的主要做法,总结了开展并购重组工作经验,并以具体实例说明了集团实施并购重组工作的效果。

  20. 热管技术在化工领域中的应用综述%Overview of Heat Pipe Technology and Its Application in Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔桂芝

    2011-01-01

    The sketch of development history, working theory and advantages of heat pipe technology were given, and its application in chemical industry and latest development were discussed.%时热管的发展历史、工作原理及其优点作了简单的阐述,主要介绍了热管技术在化工领城的几个方面的应用情况,并探讨了热管技术最新的发展方向.

  1. Alliance between chemical industry Astral Calcining, India, and energy company E.On Benelux; Verbond chemie en energie [tussen Astral Calcining, India en E.On Benelux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggen, M. (ed.)

    2003-03-01

    The Indian chemical concern Astral Calcining (produces carbon for the aluminium industry) will supply high-pressure steam to the energy company E.ON Benelux, to be used by Lyondell Bayer (producer of propylene oxide). In exchange, Astral will receive electricity from E.On Benelux. This is a unique co-operation between companies with different production processes and cultures. [Dutch] Het Indiase chemieconcern Astral gaat aan E.ON Benelux hogedruk stoom leveren die bestemd is voor Lyondell Bayer. In ruil daarvoor ontvangt Astral elektriciteit. Een unieke samenwerking tussen concerns met totaal andere productieprocessen en uiteenlopende culturen.

  2. The Present Situation and Development Trend of Japan Chemical Fiber Industry%日本化纤业的现状和发展方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辅庭

    2012-01-01

    The present situation and development trend of Japan chemical fiber industry is reviewed. The development of functional fiber and high performance fiber especilly aramid fiber, carbon fiber and reinforced composite fiber, etc, is introduced.%综述了日本化纤业的发展现状及发展方向,对其主要发展的功能性纤维材料、高性能纤维材料,特别是芳香族聚酰胺纤维、碳纤维增强复合材料等进行了介绍.

  3. Analysis of Influential Factors in Ecological Chemical Industrial Development-- Taking the Chemical Industry in Shandong Province as an Example%生态化工产业发展影响因素分析--以山东省化工行业为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王政; 黄耀国; 罗公利

    2014-01-01

    在收集和分析对生态工业发展研究的文献基础上,将影响生态化工产业发展的因素归纳为3大因素:直接因素、间接因素和机制性因素,6个二级指标,分别是自然因素、经济因素、技术因素、产业因素、社会因素、政策法规,同时针对全国第一化工大省山东省不同类型、不同地域的11家化工企业进行了实地调研,并对问卷调研数据进行了基于SPSS软件的克朗巴哈α系数的信度分析以及主成分分析,结果表明问卷具有良好的信度,并按各二级指标中所含因素的重要程度确定了影响生态化工产业发展的12个主要因素,在此基础上提出了化工产业生态化发展的建议,为化工产业生态化建设提供相应的理论支撑。%In this paper, on the basis of collection and analysis of the literatures related to researches of ecological industrial development, 3 key factors and 6 secondary indicators influencing the development of ecological chemical engineering industry are concluded. The key factors include direct factors, indirect factors and institutional factors. The secondary indictors consist of natural factors, economic factors, technical factors, industrial factors, social factors and policy and regulation factors. Simultaneously, field investigations are conducted in 11 chemical enterprises of different types in different areas of Shandong Province which is ranked as the first chemical engineering province in China. Then, reliability analysis and principal component analysis are conducted towards the questionnaires by use of Cronbach's coefficient based on SPSS software. The results show that reliability of the questionnaire is good and 12 main influential factors in ecological chemical industrial development are identified according to the significance level of the factors contained in the secondary indicators. Therefore, suggestions of eco-development of chemical engineering industry are

  4. Air pollution around the Keihin heavy chemical industrial zone, and living environment and health injury in the inhabitants therein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, I.

    1975-08-01

    A survey of air pollution levels and the health of high school pupils and their parents was conducted in a heavily industrialized area of Kawasaki, Japan. The concentration of sulfur oxides in 1974 was about half of that in 1970 (0.029 ppM). The concentration of nitrogen oxides ranged from 0.030 to 0.040 ppM. There was a correlation between the concentrations of oxides of sulfur nitrogen. According to questionnaires, about 32 percent of the inhabitants showed concern about air pollution and photochemical smog. About 22 percent of the inhabitants complained of symptoms such as cold, rhinitis, and pharyngitis; and there was a correlation between total subjective symptoms and concentration of sulfur oxides. Near roadsides the concentration of nitrogen oxides was very high. Green plants are gradually disappearing from the heavily polluted area. Further industrialization in this area appears to be very dangerous for man and other living things.

  5. Research on safety guarantee system for chemical industrial parks%化工园区安全保障体系探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国华; 贾梅生; 黄庭枫

    2013-01-01

    This paper is inclined to introduce and synthesize some new ideas and research results about safety control and secure engineering technology in running chemical industrial parks.As is well known,chemical industrial parks involve more safety and security problems for their own particular nature.Yet,there is still shortage of a systematic framework and comprehensive measures to ensure their regular production practice.To meet the actual need,we would like to bring forward a set of safety production and management warranty including three strategies.The first one deals with a set of inherent safety-ensuring strategies through eliminating or getting rid of likely hazards to prevent likely accidents.In our suggested framework,the inherent safety strategy is supposed to include three key techniques,i.e.optimized layout of management goals,idealistic chain of their industrial products and safety and security controlling power.As a rule,the operating goals should be oriented to guide the stage of designing a new chemical industrial park or the stage of introducing a new chemical plant to a well managed chemical park so that the park is always in a position to keep on its successful production and implement the most effective measures for accident prevention.The second strategy of the framework is to make sure successful risk control with the so-called four key techniques thoroughly carried out,i.e.identifying and recognizing hidden hazards,analyzing and controlling Domino effect accidents,early-warning and always aware of community emergencies.The said risk control strategy should be oriented to decrease the accident frequency or alleviating the accident detrimental influence.PDCA is needed for this strategy to heighten the safety control rate of the chemical industrial parks.And,now,the last strategy is to establish necessary institutions and cuhivate safety culture.There exists a vast need for the chemical industrial parks to ask for the managers and workers to display

  6. Polycyclic organic material (POM) in urban air. Fractionation, chemical analysis and genotoxicity of particulate and vapour phases in an industrial town in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyysalo, Heikki; Tuominen, Jari; Wickström, Kim; Skyttä, Eija; Tikkanen, Leena; Salomaa, Sisko; Sorsa, Marja; Nurmela, Tuomo; Mattila, Tiina; Pohjola, Veijo

    Polycyclic organic material (POM) was collected by high-volume sampling on filter and on XAD-2 resin from the air of a small industrial town in Finland. Concurrent chemical analysis and the assays for genotoxic activity were performed on the particulate and the vapour phases of ambient air POM and their chemical fractions. Furthermore, correlations between seasonal meteorological parameters and POM concentrations were studied to reveal characteristic POM profiles for various emission sources. The range of total POM concentrations varied from 115 to 380 ng m -3 in late spring and from 17 to 83 ng m -3 in early winter. No direct correlation of ambient POM was seen with the temperature, but rather with the wind direction from various emission sources. Especially the low molecular weight compounds were associated with wind direction from industrial sources. Genotoxic activity, as detected by the Ames Salmonella/microsome test and the SCE assay in CHO cells, was found not only in the paniculate phase samples but also in the vapour phase. The polar fractions of some of the samples showed genotoxic activity, and also direct mutagenicity was observed with both the assay systems; these facts support the significance of compounds other than conventional polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the samples.

  7. 涡街流量计在石油化工行业中的应用%The Application of Vortex Street Flowmeter in Petroleum & Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广新

    2012-01-01

    Vortex street flowmeter was one of the most important implements of flow measuring in modern petroleum & chemical industry. The measuring principle and primary excellence of vortex street flowmeter was introduced, and di- rective suggestion about the selection, installation, application and maintenance were proposed. Through standard design, reasonable selection, the correct installation and maintenance, vortex street flowmeter played a bigger role in petroleum & chemical industry.%涡街流量计是现代石油化工行业中测量流量的重要工具之一;简述了涡街流量计的测量原理和主要优点,提供了涡街流量计的选型、安装、使用和维护的建议;通过规范设计、合理选型、正确的安装和维护,让涡街流量计在石油化工行业中发挥更大的作用。

  8. Effect of storage temperature at 7°C on the physical-chemical and microbiological quality of industrialized cooked chicken breast meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandriane Pizato

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of storage temperature at 7°Con the physical-chemical and microbiological quality of industrialized cooked chicken breast meat was analyzed. Frozen cooked breast meat supplied from a poultry-processing industry was used. Fillets were stored at a prescribed temperature (7°C for 15-17 days and the sample’s chemical composition and initial pH was determined. Color, texture and microbiology were analyzed to determine the shelf-life of the cooked chicken breast meat. Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli were not detected. The highest values of Chroma a* were observed at 312 and 360 hours, exhibiting an intense red color resulting from meat deterioration. Chroma b* failed to show any significant difference between the first and last day of storage. Lightness (L* was decreased with storage time and revealed a darker color caused by microbial spoilage. Texture decreased from 2.93 to 1.12 kgf. It may be concluded that shelf-life attended to expectations with regard to texture, color and microbiology of cooked chicken breast meat stored at7°C during 13 days.

  9. The organization of industry-science collaboration in the Dutch chemical industry : an exploratory study on the organizational arrangements applied for knowledge transfer in industrial R&D-projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, M.J.G.M. van

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, industry-science collaboration is a hot topic. A main reason is that both universities and public research institutes are considered to be able to act as an external source of new skills and knowledge that firms can use as input in their innovation processes. There are many possibilities (

  10. 新世纪化工发展方向——对我国化工“十五”计划的思考%Trend for developing chemical industry in the new century ——a thinking about “Tenth Five-year Plan”of the national chemical industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邝生鲁

    2001-01-01

    新世纪第一个五年计划必需有一个明确的发展目标:适度增长的速度和相应的综合效益与结构调整指标。它是一个柔性的指导计划,并需建立宏观控制机制。其发展战略是:以创新为动力;利用高新技术发展化工;实现传统化工向精细化工的战略转移;实现化工向绿色化学和清洁化工生产转变;并用高技术改造传统化工。%The first“Five-year Plan” of the new century needs an explicit aim for development,that is an appropriate growth rate,the suitable comprehensive benefit and the index of readjustment of structure.The plan is a flexible guiding plan for development and it is necessary to establish a macroscopically controlling mechanism.The strategy of development is as follows:taking the innovation as promoting force,adopting new and high-level technique to realize the transfer strategically from the traditional chemical industry into the fine chemical industry and from the chemical industry into the green chemistry and the cleaner production.The traditional chemical industry needs to be transformed with high-level technique.

  11. Lessons learned from non-medical industries: root cause analysis as culture change at a chemical plant

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, J; J. Rudolph; Hatakenaka, S

    2002-01-01

    

 Root cause analysis was introduced to a chemical plant as a way of enhancing performance and safety, exemplified by the investigation of an explosion. The cultural legacy of the root cause learning intervention was embodied in managers' increased openness to new ideas, individuals' questioning attitude and disciplined thinking, and a root cause analysis process that provided continual opportunities to learn and improve. Lessons for health care are discussed, taking account of differences b...

  12. A quantitative chemical industry area risk assessment model%化工园区区域定量风险评价及其应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马月鹏; 李竹霞; 倪凯; 杨柳

    2012-01-01

    讨论了化工园区域定量风险评价的基本程序和评价指标,提出了定量风险计算的个人风险和社会风险计算模型.利用SAFETI软件对碳一分公司进行定量风险计算,得出碳一分公司区域的个人风险等值线图和社会风险曲线图.依据计算结果分析碳一分公司化工园区域的风险现状.%The present paper aims to introduce our work in developing the quantitative chemical industry zone risk assessment model. As is known, with the ever-increasing rate of chemical works accidents, such as fire, explosion and toxic diffusion, it has become more and more urgent to enhance the research on how to analyze such disastrous accidents and prevent them more effectively, particularly, close attention to the study of the hazards taking place in industrial zones. As a matter of fact, most risk evaluation methods concerning the safety distance between the industrial zones and the human residential areas. Such research and evaluation items have been remarkably valuable due to their high subjective factors. On the contrary, industrial area quantitative risk assessment (IAQRA) is generally regarded as an effective method for evaluating the risks of chemical industry parks. It is just for the purpose of such research of the IAQRA, this paper has introduced the procedures of IAQRA and its evaluation criteria along with the calculation model of personal and social insurance risks. To increase the reliability of the evaluation results, we have done investigations over all the accidental scenarios concerning the e-valuation model and accumulate large amounts of related data from the actual process of the realistic disasters. Since the evaluation involves huge amounts of calculation in the IAQRA model, we have accomplished the whole work via computer-aided processing. In addition, we have also adopted SAFETI software developed by DNV for the risk assessment. With the help of SAFETI software, both the standards of the personal

  13. Caracterização físico-química da erva mate: influência das etapas do processamento industrial Effects of industrial processing steps on the physico-chemical characteristics of mate tea leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Esmelindro

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A erva-mate é uma matéria-prima de grande importância para a região Sul do Brasil, sendo que a produção anual é de aproximadamente 650.000 toneladas de folhas. Atualmente, problemas com o excesso de oferta têm incentivado pesquisadores e empresários a buscar alternativas para a utilização da erva-mate como matéria-prima para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos bem como promover melhorias no processamento industrial visando a obtenção de características organolépticas desejáveis. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo realizar a caracterização físico-química da erva-mate em função das etapas do processamento industrial (sapeco, secagem e tempo de cancheamento e verificar como estas etapas influem nos teores de cinzas, fibras, gorduras, proteínas, glicose, sacarose e cafeína presentes na matéria-prima. Os resultados obtidos permitiram verificar que as etapas do processamento industrial influem diretamente nos teores dos compostos citados, mostrando a relevância em se analisar estes resultados quando o objetivo é utilizar esta matéria-prima para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos alimentícios que podem exigir características específicas.Mate tea leaves is a raw material of great importance to Southern Brazil, considering its annual production of approximately 650,000 tons of leaves. Currently the excess of mate tea leaves supply in the market has encouraged researchers and entrepreneurs to search for alternatives involving the application of this raw material in the development of new products, as well as the improvement the industrial process, seeking to obtain desirable organoleptic properties. Thus, the present work performed the physical-chemical characterization of mate tea leaves, correlating its qualities to the industrial processing steps ("sapeco", drying and time of "cancheamento". The effect of these steps on the content of ash, fiber, fat, protein, glucose, sucrose and caffeine in the raw

  14. Characterization and environmental risk assessment of heavy metals in construction and demolition wastes from five sources (chemical, metallurgical and light industries, and residential and recycled aggregates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaofeng; Gu, Yilu; Xie, Tian; Zhen, Guangyin; Huang, Sheng; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-06-01

    Total concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Ni) were measured among 63 samples of construction and demolition (C&D) wastes collected from chemical, metallurgical and light industries, and residential and recycled aggregates within China for risk assessment. The heavy metal contamination was primarily concentrated in the chemical and metallurgical industries, especially in the electroplating factory and zinc smelting plant. High concentrations of Cd were found in light industry samples, while the residential and recycled aggregate samples were severely polluted by Zn. Six most polluted samples were selected for deep research. Mineralogical analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry and X-ray diffraction (XRD), combined with element speciation through European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction, revealed that a relatively slight corrosion happened in the four samples from electroplating plants but high transfer ability for large quantities of Zn and Cu. Lead arsenate existed in the acid extractable fraction in CI7-8 and potassium chromium oxide existed in the mobility fraction. High concentration of Cr could be in amorphous forms existing in CI9. The high content of sodium in the two samples from zinc smelter plants suggested severe deposition and erosion on the workshop floor. Large quantities of Cu existed as copper halide and most of the Zn appeared to be zinc, zinc oxide, barium zinc oxide, and zincite. From the results of the risk assessment code (RAC), the samples from the electroplating factory posed a very high risk of Zn, Cu, and Cr, a high risk of Ni, a middle risk of Pb, and a low risk of Cd. The samples from the zinc smelting plant presented a high risk of Zn, a middle risk of Cu, and a low risk of Pb, Cr, Cd, and Ni. PMID:25601613

  15. Onset of industrial pollution recorded in Mumbai mudflat sediments, using integrated magnetic, Chemical, sup(210) Pb dating, and microscopic methods

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Blaha, U.; Basavaiah, N.; Deenadayalan, K.; Borole, D.V.; Mohite, R.D.

    . This material is available free of charge via the Internet at http://pubs.acs.org. Literature Cited (1) Strzyszcz, Z.; Magiera, T.; Heller, F. The influence of industrial emissions on the magnetic susceptibility of soils in Upper Silesia. Stud. Geophys. Geod... using an England and Wales database. Environ. Pollut. 2009, 157, 2878–2890. (8) GOI. Census of India-2001, Office of Registrar General, Delhi. Web site www.censusindia.net (accessed 07/26/2010). (9) MCGM. The environmental status report of Mumbai, 2002...

  16. Analysis on the health status in chemical industry workers%化工行业工人健康状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宾

    2012-01-01

    The main features of occupational health in chemical workers were analyzed on the basis of references review in this paper, which indicating that the important impact factors on those features includes: environmental and biological factors, psychological and behavior factors, lifestyle factors, health services, etc. While the main characteristics of occupational health in chemical workers included serious occupational hazard in the chemical industry, low knowing rate on occupational hazards, high industrial accident incidence in young and poor educated workers, obvious mal-effect on female reproduction function, the main impact factor of health is chronic non-communicable diseases, lower psychological health status, lack of good health service etc. Facing these problems, the paper also offers the way on workplace health promotion.%通过复习文献,对化工行业工人职业健康状况的特点进行分析.表明影响化工行业工人健康状况的因素包括环境、生物学、心理行为与生活方式、卫生服务等方面.化工行业工人职业健康状况的特点主要是:职业危害程度重、劳动者职业病危害知识总知晓率低、年轻劳动者和文化程度较低者工伤事故频率高、女工生殖机能影响较为明显、慢性非传染性疾病是影响健康的主要因素、劳动者心理健康状态普遍较低、卫生服务不够全面等,文章对存在的问题提出工作场所健康促进办法.

  17. Energy efficiency analysis method based on fuzzy DEA cross-model for ethylene production systems in chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEA (data envelopment analysis) has been widely used for the efficiency analysis of industrial production process. However, the conventional DEA model is difficult to analyze the pros and cons of the multi DMUs (decision-making units). The DEACM (DEA cross-model) can distinguish the pros and cons of the effective DMUs, but it is unable to take the effect of the uncertainty data into account. This paper proposes an efficiency analysis method based on FDEACM (fuzzy DEA cross-model) with Fuzzy Data. The proposed method has better objectivity and resolving power for the decision-making. First we obtain the minimum, the median and the maximum values of the multi-criteria ethylene energy consumption data by the data fuzzification. On the basis of the multi-criteria fuzzy data, the benchmark of the effective production situations and the improvement directions of the ineffective of the ethylene plants under different production data configurations are obtained by the FDEACM. The experimental result shows that the proposed method can improve the ethylene production conditions and guide the efficiency of energy utilization during ethylene production process. - Highlights: • This paper proposes an efficiency analysis method based on FDEACM (fuzzy DEA cross-model) with data fuzzification. • The proposed method is more efficient and accurate than other methods. • We obtain an energy efficiency analysis framework and process based on FDEACM in ethylene production industry. • The proposed method is valid and efficient in improvement of energy efficiency in the ethylene plants

  18. Wood and cellulose-paper industries; 1 : 2 000 000; Metal production, machinery production, electrical engineering, and motor vehicle production; 1 : 2 000 000; Food industry; 1 : 2 000 000; Chemical and rubber industry; 1 : 2 000 000; Textile and clothing industries; 1 : 2 000 000; Other industrial production; 1 : 2 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of maps, the aim of which was a more detailed presentation of size and spatial distribution of the main industrial branches as a rule divided into sub-branches. The majority of them represent the shares of districts (in the individual industries) in the total production of the particular industry all over Slovakia. The size of centres is represented by the number of workers or by production size in natural indices. (authors)

  19. Chlorinated and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental samples from an electronic waste recycling facility and a chemical industrial complex in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Horii, Yuichi; Cheng, Jinping; Wang, Wenhua; Wu, Qian; Ohura, Takeshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-02-01

    Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CIPAHs) are a class of halogenated contaminants found in the urban atmosphere; they have toxic potential similar to that of dioxins. Information on the sources of CIPAHs is limited. In this study, concentrations of 20 CIPAHs and 16 parent PAHs were measured in electronic wastes, workshop-floor dust, vegetation, and surface soil collected from the vicinity of an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant), and agricultural areas in central and eastern China. High concentrations of SigmaCIPAHs were found in floor dust (mean, 103 ng/g dry wt), followed in order of decreasing concentration by leaves (87.5 ng/g drywt), electronic shredder waste (59.1 ng/g dry wt), and soil (26.8 ng/g dry wt) from an e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou. The mean concentration of SigmaCIPAHs in soil from the chemical industrial complex (88 ng/g dry wt) was approximately 3-fold higher than the concentration in soil from e-waste recycling facilities. The soils from e-waste sites and industrial areas contained mean concentrations of SigmaCIPAHs 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations in agricultural soils (ND-0.76 ng/g), suggesting that e-waste recycling and chlorine-chemical industries are potential emission sources of CIPAHs. The profiles of CIPAHs in soil and dust were similar to a profile that has been reported previously for fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (6-CIBaP was the predominant compound), but the profiles in vegetation and electronic shredder waste were different from those found in fly ash. Concentrations of 16 parent PAHs were high (150-49,700 ng/g) in samples collected from the e-waste recycling facility. Significant correlation between SigmaCIPAH and SigmaPAH concentrations suggests that direct chlorination of parent PAHs is the major pathway of formation of

  20. Compositional Simulation of a Refinery Coker Furnace - An Industrial Example of Two-Phase Flow with Chemical Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurd Skogestad

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available A computer program (KOKSOVN has been developed for compositional steady-state simulation of a refinery delayed coker furnace. The main objective of this work has been to establish a tool for studying the effects that influence the deposition of coke on the inside walls of the tubes in order to maximize the time of operation (cycle time between each cleaning of the tubes with a resulting stop in production. The program basically consists of a standard integration package which steps along the reactor (or pipeline while solving the vapour-liquid equilibrium (VLE and estimating physical properties for each step. Using a modular approach in the development, the resulting computer program has some general features which make it a possible simulation tool for any non-adiabatic plug flow reactor with two-phase flow. Depending on the chemical system, the routines for thermophysical and transport properties, phase equilibria and chemical reaction may be replaced by other methods. The program may also be used to simulate a pipeline with one or two-phase flow. Since, however, the total composition in this case is constant, it would probably be more efficient to use tables based on the pressure values, instead of performing tedious VLE calculations along the pipeline as is done in the present program.

  1. 不确定条件下煤化工技术经济评价方法%Techno-economic assessment method under uncertainty in coal chemical industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文戟; 朱兵; 费维扬

    2009-01-01

    To develop coal chemical industry would enable taking full advantage of China's coal resource,and has great significance for national energy security.Howeve,huge uncertainty is faced by coal chemical industry,which is not only reflected by deepening market-oriented reform but also by constraint from policies regarding environmental and climate issues.This paper introduces the application of real options analysis(ROA) into techno-economic appraisal of energy utilization technologies,involving analysis of uncertain factors,modeling and solving techniques.Based on review of current research status,in combination with development background for China's coal chemical industry,the necessity and feasibility of application of the ROA theory is analyzed,indicating that the ROA theory has much potential for application.%发展煤化工对保障我国能源安全,充分利用煤炭资源有重大的意义.但我国煤化工行业发展存在较大的不确定性.这种不确定性不仅体现在原料,市场的迅速变化和工程技术的发展趋势,也体现在环境政策和应对气候变化的约束性要求.本文介绍了不确定条件下的投资决策理论(real options analysis,简称为ROA)的基本原理,不确定因素分析方法、建模和求解及其应用于能源利用技术投资领域的研究进展.在此基础上,结合我国煤化工产业发展背景,分析了该理论方法应用于我国煤化工领域相关投资决策和行业发展政策研究的必要性、可行性和应用前景.

  2. Present Status of Growth of Domestic Chemical Fertilizer Industry from View Point of Trend in World Chemical Fertilizer Structure%从世界化肥结构动态看我国化肥行业发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱东方; 何建芳; 陈明良

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of the growth trend in fertilizers of world developed nations, an analysis is done of the present status of development of the domestic compound fertilizer industry, fertilizer utilization ratio, fertilizer application based on soil analysis and formulation, pollution from application of chemical fertilizers, and new types of fertilizers. Based on the development status of domestic chemical fertilizers, suggestions for sustained growth are proposed, viz., the compound fertilizer industry should improve the product quality, lower the cost; the nitrogenous fertilizer industry should change the present pattern of urea alone taking the greatest share and may vigorously increase nitric acid and ammonia-based nitrogenous fertilizer; however, the phosphatic fertilizer industry, in the light of the domestic conditions and the limitation of the mineral resources, should continue to produce low-analysis phosphatic fertilizers, and slow down the growth of high-analysis ones; and it should attach great importance to developing organic fertilizers, especially organic-inorganic compound fertilizers.%根据世界发达国家肥料发展的趋势,对我国复合混肥行业、肥料利用率、测土配方施肥、化肥施用污染、新型肥料的发展现状等进行了分析.根据我国化肥行业的发展现状,提出了可持续发展的建议,即:复合肥行业应提升产品品质,降低成本;氮肥行业应改变目前尿素独大的格局,可大力发展硝酸氨基氮肥;而磷肥行业应根据我国的国情和矿产资源的有限性,应保留低浓度磷肥,减缓高浓度磷肥的发展;重视有机肥的开发,尤其是有机-无机复混肥.

  3. The organization of industry-science collaboration in the Dutch chemical industry : an exploratory study on the organizational arrangements applied for knowledge transfer in industrial R&D-projects

    OpenAIRE

    Gils, M.J.G.M. van

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, industry-science collaboration is a hot topic. A main reason is that both universities and public research institutes are considered to be able to act as an external source of new skills and knowledge that firms can use as input in their innovation processes. There are many possibilities (e.g. consortia, contract R&D, research joint venture) to organize this interaction. This variety of arrangements is convenient, since the R&D-projects running within firms are not similar as well. ...

  4. Pollutant removal from industrial discharge water using individual and combined effects of adsorption and ion-exchange processes: Chemical abatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémie Charles

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, adsorption-oriented processes for pollutant removal from metal polycontaminated surface-finishing discharge water were applied individually as well as in combination with ion-exchange treatment to remove the remaining metal ions and organic load. Several materials were compared using batch experiments, namely an activated carbon, three ion-exchange resins (IRA 402Cl, IR 120H and TP 207, and two non-conventional cross-linked polysaccharide-based biosorbents (starch and cyclodextrin. This article presents the abatements obtained in chemical pollution as monitored by complete chemical analysis. For the same experimental conditions (similar discharge water, pollutant concentrations, stirring rate, contact time, and initial pH, the highest levels of pollutant removal were attained with the combined use of two materials, an activated carbon and a mixture of two ion-exchange resins. This physicochemical treatment effectively lowered the main pollutants present in the discharge water such as Cu, Ni and COD, by more than 96%, 79% and 74% respectively (average values for three samples, while the treatment with carbon alone lowered them by 58%, 9% and 70%, and resins alone by 85%, 61% and 16%. Similar interesting results were obtained with the cyclodextrin-based adsorbent and its use alone was sufficient to obtain decreases in Cu, Ni and COD of more than 94%, 77% and 67% respectively. The adsorption-oriented process using cyclodextrin polymer could be an advantageous approach for removing organic and metallic pollutants from metal surface-finishing discharge water due to the non-toxic character of CD to humans and the environment.

  5. 浅谈煤化工企业的安全管理措施%Safety management in coal chemical industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管吉峰

    2015-01-01

    Coal chemical enterprises face great security risks,so it is crucial to do good job in safety management,improve the security level of the enterprise,and to ensure the safety of employees and their health in safe and stable development of the industry.%煤化工企业在安全上存在很大的风险,所以如何做好安全的管理工作,真正的提升企业的本质安全水平、最大限度的保障员工生命安全以及他们的身体健康是保证企业能够持续健康稳定发展的重要环节。

  6. Application of PLC Control System in the Energy Chemical Industry%浅析PLC控制系统在能源化工的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡青龙

    2015-01-01

    Different models of Siemens PLC control system are introduced in the energy chemical industry, the application of detailed Siemens S7-200 PLC and FS300 Modbus RTU communication program between gas alarm controller, and Siemens S7-200 and S7-300 DP communication between partial sent procedures,simple and convenient system programming,reliable operation.%介绍西门子不同型号的PLC控制系统在能源化工中的应用,详细叙述西门子S7-200PLC与FS300气体报警控制器之间的Modbus RTU通讯程序以及西门子S7-200与S7-300之间DP通讯分批发送程序,系统编程简单方便,运行可靠。

  7. The chemical, coal and petroleum products, and rubber industries in Italy's regions, 1861-1913: time-series estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlo Ciccarelli; Stefano Fenoaltea

    2007-05-15

    The paper presents time-series estimates of the output of chemicals and related products in post-Unification Italy, disaggregated by region and industry. In the large, one observes a growing concentration of production, accompanied by a northward shift. The star regional performers were Piedmont and Lombardy from the early 1870s to the early 1890s, and then, from the turn of the century, Liguria, Tuscany, and (thanks to its electrochemicals) Umbria. The Southern regions were leading producers at Unification; their output steadily increased, but at growth rates that fell short of the national average, and by 1913 their share of the total had been halved. 16 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs., 5 apps.

  8. Removal of color and chemical oxygen demand using a coupled coagulation-electrocoagulation-ozone treatment of industrial wastewater that contains offset printing dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial offset printing processes generate wastewater with highly colored obtaining values of 5 x 106Pt-Co units and great values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) 5.3 x 10-5 mg L-1. Thus, conventional technologies such as biologicals treatment fail in reaching the discharge limits. In this research, a sequential treatment was applied: coagulation with aluminum hydroxychloride (AHC), electrocoagulation with Al anodes and finally ozonation. Optimal conditions are found when adding 20 mg L-1 AHC, followed by electrocoagulation at 4 A for 50 min, and finally alkaline ozonation for 15 min, resulting in an overall color removal of 99.99% color and 99.35 COD. The sludge generated by the coagulation process was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis. (Author)

  9. Toxic State–Corporate Crimes, Neo-liberalism and Green Criminology: The Hazards and Legacies of the Oil, Chemical and Mineral Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Ruggiero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses examples from the history and practices of multi-national and large companies in the oil, chemical and asbestos industries to examine their legal and illegal despoiling and destruction of the environment and impact on human and non-human life. The discussion draws on the literature on green criminology and state-corporate crime and considers measures and arrangements that might mitigate or prevent such damaging acts. This paper is part of ongoing work on green criminology and crimes of the economy. It places these actions and crimes in the context of a global neo-liberal economic system and considers and critiques the distorting impact of the GDP model of ‘economic health’ and its consequences for the environment.

  10. Application of the Automatic Fire Extinguishing Equipment in Chemical Industry Enterprises%化工企业自动灭火装置的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丹宇

    2009-01-01

    The automatic fire extinguishing equipment is driven by nitrogen under atmospheric pressure without noise,it may be used in local protection,also used in all drowned protection. In this paper,applications of the automatic fire extinguishing equipment in chemical industry enterprises were introduced.%自动灭火装置采用氮气驱动,无声常压,即可局部保护,又可实现类气体全淹没保护,即可单具使用,又可多具联动组成无管网灭火系统.对自动灭火装置在化工企业中的应用进行了详细的阐述.

  11. Removal of color and chemical oxygen demand using a coupled coagulation-electrocoagulation-ozone treatment of industrial wastewater that contains offset printing dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa M, G.; Barrera D, C.; Balderas H, P.; Zaldumbide O, F. [Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable UAEM-UNAM, Km 14.5 Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, 50200 San Cayetano-Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Reyes P, H. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Paseo Colon y Paseo Tollocan s/n, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Bilyeu, B., E-mail: groam@uaemex.mx [Xavier University of Louisiana, Department of Chemistry, 1 Drexel Drive, New Orleans, LA 70125 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Industrial offset printing processes generate wastewater with highly colored obtaining values of 5 x 10{sup 6}Pt-Co units and great values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) 5.3 x 10{sup -5} mg L{sup -1}. Thus, conventional technologies such as biologicals treatment fail in reaching the discharge limits. In this research, a sequential treatment was applied: coagulation with aluminum hydroxychloride (AHC), electrocoagulation with Al anodes and finally ozonation. Optimal conditions are found when adding 20 mg L{sup -1} AHC, followed by electrocoagulation at 4 A for 50 min, and finally alkaline ozonation for 15 min, resulting in an overall color removal of 99.99% color and 99.35 COD. The sludge generated by the coagulation process was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis. (Author)

  12. Insight into professionals building mechanism in chemical industry park%化工园区专业人才队伍构建机制的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴欣; 纪红兵

    2015-01-01

    化工园区是化学工业的必不可少的载体,是由当地政府及企业组成的一个专业复杂系统,其运行中需要大量具有专业知识的领导干部、企业经营管理人才、专业技术专业人才及高级技能人才。这些人才作为化工园区发展的最重要资源,其引进机制、培育机制以及激励机制在本文进行了探索,认为化工园区专业人才的引进机制应注重岗位与人才相匹配,项目引进与人才建设并举,不断优化专业人才引进体系;化工园区专业人才的培育机制要坚持理论与实践培训相结合,采用“走出去,引进来”等多形式、开放性的人才培育体系,全面提升园区专业人才综合素养;化工园区的激励机制应坚持物质与精神激励相结合,不断提升专业人才的社会影响力,创造专业人才“扎根”化工园区的良好环境。%As the essential carrier for nowadays chemical industry,chemical industry park is a complex system consisting of local governments and companies,in which human resources of leading cadres, enterprise managers,specialized technical professionals and people with high-level skills are required. Human resource is the most important resource in the development of chemical industry park,and the introduction mechanism,cultivation mechanism,and motivation mechanism are discussed in this paper. The matching of position and abilities,introducing projects and professionals simultaneously and constantly optimizing the introduction system are very important for the professionals’ introduction. In order to build a reasonable cultivation mechanism,the chemical industry park should combine theoretical with practical training,adopt different and opening cultivation forms to improve the comprehensive abilities of professionals. It is good to motivate professionals by combining material and spiritual incentives,enhancing the influence of professionals and creating favorable

  13. Physico-chemical characteristics of topsoil for contrasted forest, agricultural, urban and industrial land uses in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joimel, S; Cortet, J; Jolivet, C C; Saby, N P A; Chenot, E D; Branchu, P; Consalès, J N; Lefort, C; Morel, J L; Schwartz, C

    2016-03-01

    Soil quality is related to soil characteristics such as fertility and contamination. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of land use on these soil characteristics and to confirm the following anthropisation gradient: (i) forest, (ii) grassland, (iii) cultivated, (iv) orchard and vineyard, (v) urban vegetable garden, and (vi) SUITMA (urban, industrial, traffic, mining and military areas). A database comprising the characteristics of 2451 soils has been constituted. In order to compare the topsoils from six contrasting land uses, a principal components analysis (PCA) was performed on nine geochemical variables (C, N, pH, POlsen, total Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn). The first axis of the PCA is interpreted as a global increase of topsoil metallic elements along the anthropisation gradient. Axis 2 reflects the variability of fertility levels. Human activity increases the pressure on soils along the proposed gradient according to six different distribution patterns. This better knowledge of topsoil quality and its dependence on current land use should therefore help to manage and preserve the soil mantle. PMID:26745291

  14. Effect of alkalinity on nitrite accumulation in treatment of coal chemical industry wastewater using moving bed biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Baolin; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Zhuang, Haifeng; Zhao, Qian; Xu, Peng

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen removal via nitrite (the nitrite pathway) is more suitable for carbon-limited industrial wastewater. Partial nitrification to nitrite is the primary step to achieve nitrogen removal via nitrite. The effect of alkalinity on nitrite accumulation in a continuous process was investigated by progressively increasing the alkalinity dosage ratio (amount of alkalinity to ammonia ratio, mol/mol). There is a close relationship among alkalinity, pH and the state of matter present in aqueous solution. When alkalinity was insufficient (compared to the theoretical alkalinity amount), ammonia removal efficiency increased first and then decreased at each alkalinity dosage ratio, with an abrupt removal efficiency peak. Generally, ammonia removal efficiency rose with increasing alkalinity dosage ratio. Ammonia removal efficiency reached to 88% from 23% when alkalinity addition was sufficient. Nitrite accumulation could be achieved by inhibiting nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) by free ammonia (FA) in the early period and free nitrous acid in the later period of nitrification when alkalinity was not adequate. Only FA worked to inhibit the activity of NOB when alkalinity addition was sufficient.

  15. 中国磷化工行业现状和发展方向%Present status and developmental direction of phosphorus chemical industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶俊法; 杨建中

    2011-01-01

    从产业布局、产品品种、节能降耗、"三废"及伴生资源的综合利用4个方面总结了中国磷化工行业的现状,提出了"继续嗣绕基础产品的生产开展节能、降耗、减排,实施清洁生产和循环经济,提升中间产品的品质,大力发展高端、精细、专用产品"的发展方向,并举例说明了黄磷、二水法磷酸和三聚磷酸钠生产中未来需要优先解决的技术问题,以及高端电子级产品、磷系阻燃剂和有机磷药物中的部分产品.%Present status of China's phosphorus chemical industry in terms of the industrial distribution, product variety,energy conservation and consumption reduction,and the comprehensive utilization of the three wastes and associated resources was summarized.Development direction that continue to carry out energy conservation, consumption and emission reduction, and implement cleaner production and recycling economy in terms of the production of basic products,improve the quality of intermediate products, vigorously develop high-end, fine, and special products was proposed.Some technological problems that have priority to be solved in future production of yellow phosphorus, dihydrate wet-process phosphoric acid,and sodium tripolyphosphate were exemplified.In addition, some products in respect of high-tech electronic phosphorus chemical materials,phosphorus flame retardants, and organophosphorous drugs were discussed as well.

  16. Production of synthetic liquid fuel from run-of-mine oil shales, brown coals and waste of petrochemical and chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern and perspective technologies have been developed for processing run-of-mine oil shales into liquid products foreseen for producing motor fuels and chemical feedstock. Baltic run-of-mine oil shales, high-sulfur oil shales of the Volga basin, brown coals of Kansk-Atchinsk basin, as well as heavy crude oils and oil-bearing sands, solid waste of petrochemical and chemical industry may be processed. The proposed high-efficiency technology enables to produce high yields of naphtha (gasoline fraction) and diesel fuel fraction, feedstock for catalytic and hydro cracking processes, electrode coke, different adhesive materials, refractories, anodic mass, phenols, individual hydrocarbons, Ni- and V- concentrates. The process proposed is carried out using oil shales. Their organic matter has unique hydrogen donor properties which enable them to activate the thermal conversion of brown coals, high-boiling waste of petrochemical industry etc. This complex technology is based on the thermochemical conversion process of oil shales in the hydro carbonic solvent at 333-440 deg C, under the pressure of 3-5 MPa, and volumetric rate 3-6 h-1. A paste-forming substance boiling between 200-340 deg C is used as the medium. The process runs with a deficiency (up to 30 %) of regenerated paste-forming substance and therefore respective measures have been worked out to intensify the process. It enabled to close the process with respect to regenerated paste-forming substance and to design new routes for thermochemical processing of oil shales. These procedures have the following essential advantages: 1.There is no need for previous separation of asphaltenes and metals (Ni, V) from heavy petrochemical feedstock as they precipitate on the mineral part of oil shales and are discharged together with liquid products of the process. 2. Thermal cracking is carried out without molecular hydrogen and thermal hydro cracking without catalysts. 3. Raw material is considerably desulfurized.(author)

  17. Hydrolysis technology for producing sugars from biomass as raw material for the chemical industry- SugarTech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallioinen, A.; Hytoenen, E.; Haekkinen, M. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), email: anne.kallioinen@vtt.fi (and others)

    2011-11-15

    In the SugarTech project, spruce, forest residue, birch and sugar cane bagasse have been studied as raw materials for production of sugars to be processed further to ethanol or other chemicals. These raw materials, containing high proportion of carbohydrates have been analysed and pretreated for enzymatic hydrolysis by steam explosion and oxidative methods. The pretreated materials have been studied in respect to yield and enzymatic hydrolysability. Small carboxylic acids were an interesting side product from oxidation pretreatment. For feasibility study, 8 process cases have been selected and will be compared. Optimal enzyme mixtures have been determined for hydrolysis of pretreated materials. Results show that optimal enzyme composition depends clearly on the raw material and the pretreatment method. Pretreated raw materials were also hydrolysed efficiently in high dry matter conditions with commercial enzymes. Enzyme adsorption and desorption were studied with lignocellulosic substrates aiming at recycling of enzymes in the hydrolysis process. After enzymatic hydrolysis, a major part of the enzymes remained bound to substrate in spite of high degree of hydrolysis. Desorption of enzymes could only be detected with catalytically oxidised spruce. In addition, the induction of hydrolytic system of Trichoderma reesei, which is a widely used fungus for cellulase enzyme production, has been studied in the presence of different substrates. The substrate and the pretreatment method had clear effects on gene expression profile. (orig.)

  18. Hydrolysis technology for producing sugars from biomass as raw material for the chemical industry - SugarTech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallioinen, A.; Haekkinen, M.; Pakula, T. (and others) (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), Email: anne.kallioinen@vtt.fi

    2010-10-15

    In SugarTech project, spruce, forest residue, birch and sugar cane bagasse have been studied as a raw material for production of sugars to be processed further to ethanol and other chemicals. These raw materials containing high proportion of carbohydrates have been analysed and pretreated for enzyme hydrolysis by steam explosion and oxidative methods. The pretreated materials have been studied in respect to yield and enzymatic hydrolysability. Birch and bagasse could easily be pretreated with steam explosion. Catalytic and alkaline oxidation treatment of spruce produced material with superior hydrolysability to steam exploded material. Enzyme adsorption and desorption were studied with lignocellulosic substrates aiming at recycling of enzymes in the hydrolysis process. After enzymatic hydrolysis, a major part of the enzymes remained bound to substrate in spite of high degree of hydrolysis. Desorption of enzymes could be detected only with catalytically oxidised spruce. In addition, the hydrolytic system of Trichoderma reesei, which is a widely used fungus for cellulase enzyme production, has been studied in the presence of different substrates. The substrate and the pretreatment method had clear effects on gene expression profile. (orig.)

  19. Treatment of textile industry effluents using orange waste: a proposal to reduce color and chemical oxygen demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Farias Silva, Carlos Eduardo; da Silva Gonçalves, Andreza Heloiza; de Souza Abud, Ana Karla

    2016-01-01

    Various agricultural residues have been tested as biosorbents due to their low cost, high surface area, and favorable surface chemistry. In this work, a sweet orange albedo was tested as a biosorbent for treatment of real textile effluents. The orange albedo powder was prepared by drying the residue at 50 °C and milling to 30 mesh, and then used for dye adsorption from a alkaline (pH = 10.71) effluent. The adsorption process was studied in batch experiments at 30 °C by measuring color removal and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The color removal was found not to be significantly altered when the effluent was used in its raw state, while COD increased probably due to albedo degradation. For the effluent diluted to 60% (Veffluent VH2O(-1)), color and COD removal percentages of approximately 89% were obtained. It was found that pH played a very significant role on the adsorption process, as the treated albedo displayed a relative pHPZC* of 4.61, and the highest dye removal efficiencies were reached at pH lower than 2. The COD was strongly influenced by the effluent dilution. The effectiveness in eliminating color and COD shows that orange albedo can be potentially used as a biosorbent to treat textile wastewater. PMID:27533873

  20. Aspects Regarding the Gross Chemical Composition and Fatty Acids Content of Some By-Products Obtained from the Biofuel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Colibar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Samples of by-products, obtained from the production of biofuels were collected. These products were introduced in different proportions in feed rations of fattening lambs. Gross chemical composition of feed was analyzed and compared with mean reference values. Ash and cellulose content does not influence the results. The percentage of raw protein, specific for each feed, is correlated with the body weight gain. Fat quantity of rape meal is the closest to that of granulated feed and also the highest compared with the other groups, so that it can justify the higher productive performance achieved by group 1, who received rape meal in ratio. The concentration of fatty acids was determined from analyzed feed after oils extraction, their saponification and their reading with a HPLC. The data showed that the fatty acid level is relatively close to that specified in the literature. Euricic acid, that is responsible for the toxic potential of the rape, has been found in rape meal.

  1. Comparison the Physico-Chemical Model of Ferrosilicon Smelting Process with Results Observations of the Process under the Industrial Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machulec B.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the minimum Gibbs Free Enthalpy algorithm (FEM, model of the ferrosilicon smelting process has been presented. It is a system of two closed isothermal reactors: an upper one with a lower temperature T1, and a lower one with a higher temperature T2. Between the reactors and the environment as well as between the reactors inside the system, a periodical exchange of mass occurs at the moments when the equilibrium state is reached. The condensed products of chemical reactions move from the top to the bottom, and the gas phase components move in the opposite direction. It can be assumed that in the model, the Reactor 1 corresponds to the charge zone of submerged arc furnace where heat is released as a result of resistive heating, and the Reactor 2 corresponds to the zones of the furnace where heat is produced by electric arc. Using the model, a series of calculations was performed for the Fe-Si-O-C system and was determined the influence of temperatures T1, T2 on the process. The calculation results show a good agreement model with the real ferrosilicon process. It allows for the determination of the effects of temperature conditions in charge zones and arc zones of the ferrosilicon furnace on the carbothermic silica reduction process. This allows for an explanation of many characteristic states in the ferrosilicon smelting process.

  2. Identifying the origins of local atmospheric deposition in the steel industry basin of Luxembourg using the chemical and isotopic composition of the lichen Xanthoria parietina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace metal atmospheric contamination was assessed in one of the oldest European industrial sites of steel production situated in the southern part of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Using elemental ratios as well as Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic compositions as tracers, we found preliminary results concerning the trace metal enrichment and the chemical/isotopic signatures of the most important emission sources using the lichen Xanthoria parietina sampled at 15 sites along a SW-NE transect. The concentrations of these elements decreased with increasing distance from the historical and actual steel-work areas. The combination of the different tracers (major elements, Rare Earth Element ratios, Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes) enabled us to distinguish between three principal sources: the historical steel production (old tailings corresponding to blast-furnace residues), the present steel production (industrial sites with arc electric furnace units) and the regional background (baseline) components. Other anthropogenic sources including a waste incinerator and major roads had only weak impacts on lichen chemistry and isotopic ratios. The correlation between the Sr and Nd isotope ratios indicated that the Sr-Nd isotope systems represented useful tools to trace atmospheric emissions of factories using scrap metal for steel production

  3. Iranian wheat flours from rural and industrial mills: Exploitation of the chemical and technology features, and selection of autochthonous sourdough starters for making breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontonio, Erica; Nionelli, Luana; Curiel, José Antonio; Sadeghi, Alireza; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at describing the main chemical and technology features of eight Iranian wheat flours collected from industrial and artisanal mills. Their suitability for bread making was investigated using autochthonous sourdough starters. Chemical analyses showed high concentration of fibers and ash, and technology aptitude for making breads. As shown through 2-DE analyses, gliadin and glutenin subunits were abundant and varied among the flours. According to the back slopping procedure, type I sourdoughs were prepared from Iranian flours, and lactic acid bacteria were typed and identified. Strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella cibaria, Weissella confusa, and Leuconostoc citreum were the most abundant. Based on the kinetics of growth and acidification, quotient of fermentation and concentration of total free amino acids, lactic acid bacteria were selected and used as sourdough mixed starters for bread making. Compared to spontaneous fermentation, sourdoughs fermented with selected and mixed starters favored the increase of the concentrations of organic acids and total free amino acids, the most suitable quotient of fermentation, and the most intense phytase and antioxidant activities. Although the high concentration of fibers, selected and mixed starters improved the textural features of the breads. This study might had contribute to the exploitation of the potential of Iranian wheat flours and to extend the use of sourdough, showing positive technology, nutritional and, probably, economic repercussions.

  4. A indústria de processamento químico no Brasil: suas motivações para pesquisa e desenvolvimento e suas interfaces com as políticas governamentais The chemical process industry in Brazil: its motivations for research and development and its interfaces with public policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ramy Mansur

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available As the Chemical Science is an experimental one a Chemical Industry require technical people in all its staff level: from Directors and Managers to Operators. This chemical and chemical engineering based education is the foundation of the innovate process and motivation. The paper discusses this and the role of Public Policies to improve the R&D and innovation in the Brazilian Chemical Industry.

  5. Chemical composition of scales generated from oil industry and correlation to radionuclide contents and gamma-ray measurements of (210)Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Attar, Lina; Safia, Bassam; Abdul Ghani, Basem

    2016-03-01

    Scale generated from the maintenance of equipment contaminated by naturally occurring radioactive materials may contain also chemical components that cause hazardous pollution to human health and the environment. This study spotlights the characterisation of chemical pollutants in scales in relation to home-made comparison samples as no reference material for such waste exists. Analysis by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence, with accuracy and precision better than 90%, revealed that barium was the most abundant element in scale samples, ranging from 1.4 to 38.2%. The concentrations of the toxic elements such as lead and chromium were as high as 2.5 and 1.2% respectively. Statistically, high correlation was observed between the concentration of Ba and Sr, sample density, radionuclide contents ((210)Pb and (226)Ra) and self-attenuation factor used for the radio-measurements. However, iron showed a reverse correlation. Interpretation of data with regards to the mineralogical components indicated that (226)Ra and (210)Pb co-precipitated with the insoluble salt Ba0.75Sr0.25SO4. Since both Ba and Sr have high Z, samples of high density (ρ) were accompanied with high values of self-attenuation correction factors (Cf) for the emitted radiation; correlation matrix of Pearson reached 0.935 between ρ and Cf. An attempt to eliminate the effect of the elemental composition and improve gamma measurements of (210)Pb activity concentration in scale samples was made, which showed no correction for self-attenuation was needed when sample densities were in the range 1.0-1.4 g cm(-3). For denser samples, a mathematical model was developed. Accurate determinations of radionuclide and chemical contents of scale would facilitate future Environmental Impact Assessment for the petroleum industry. PMID:26741561

  6. Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2016-09-01

    Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure.

  7. Freshwater Microcosms-Based Assessment of Eco-toxicological Effects of a Chemical Effluent from the Pilcam Industry in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Djomo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the acute toxicity of a raw effluent from a battery manufacturing plant (Pilcam in Douala, Cameroon, to a freshwater fish (Oreochromis niloticus, and subsequently evaluated its sub-acute effects on water quality and the biota in freshwater microscosms. The acute toxicity test was based on 96 hrs static renewal bioassays that resulted in 96-h LC50 and LC90 values of 16 and 20.7% (v/v, respectively. The sub-acute experiments were conducted by exposing several species of aquatic organisms (plankton, macro-invertebrates and mollusks to lower effluent concentrations [1.6%, 8.0%, 16% (v/v] for six weeks, and monitoring their survival rates, as well as the physical and chemical characteristics of water. These concentrations were based on 10%, 50%, and 100% of the 96 h - median lethal concentrations (LC50 of the effluent to the freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Significant effects on functional parameters, such as, chlorophyll-a and total protein could not be demonstrated. However, the activity of alkaline phosphatase was significantly inhibited at all concentrations tested. Phytoplankton, zooplankton, macro-invertebrate communities and snails were negatively affected by the effluent application at concentrations ≥ 8% (v/v, with chlorophyta, ciliates, ostracoda, annelida, planaria and snails being the most sensitive groups. The snails were eliminated after 24 h exposure from microcosms treated with effluent at concentration ≥ 8% (v/v. Effluent exposure also caused significant effects on water quality parameters (DO, pH, hardness, conductivity, color, turbidity, ammonia in general at concentrations ≥ 8% (v/v. Temperature and alkalinity were not significantly affected. Overall, data from this research indicate that a dilution of the Pilcam effluent down to 1.6% does not provide protection against chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms. Further studies are needed to determine the no observable adverse

  8. Petrochemical Industrial Development Flourishes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Cangzhou to construct world·class chemical industrial park To make full use of its advantages in coastline and harbors,local industries, traffic conditions and land use, Cangzhou City, Hebei Province, planned to construct the largest chemical industrial park in North China - Lingang Chemical Industrial Park, which has already captured attention of the Chinese and foreign chemicals enterprises.

  9. Estudo termoanalítico, CLAE e francionamento físico e químico do subproduto industrial do milho Thermoalytical study, HPLC and physical and chemical cracking from corn industry co-product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheila G. Mothé

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O fracionamento do farelo de milho desengordurado (fubá grosso, subproduto do processamento industrial do milho, para obtenção de frações de amido, proteínas e fibras, utilizando métodos físicos e químicos, foi investigado. O fracionamento do fubá grosso por meio de tratamento químico com soluções de bissulfito de sódio e de etanol, foi satisfatório, pois produziu fração de amido com aceitável rendimento; já o fracionamento físico não foi muito eficiente, visto que não produziu fração enriquecida de proteínas e amido. Tanto o fubá grosso como as frações obtidas, foram caracterizados por meio de CLAE (Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência e Análise Térmica (TG, DTG e DSC. O fubá grosso possui mais de 50% de amido (CLAE, e perda de 52% de sua massa entre 270 e 450ºC (TG e DTG. O estudo cinético, a partir de curvas DSC, mostrou que os processos de gelatinização da fração de amido e de desnaturação da fração de proteínas são eventos endotérmicos, com diferentes valores de entalpia e de energia de ativação.The cracking of the defatted corn germ (thick corn meal, co-product from corn industry processing, to obtain starch, proteins and fiber fractions using physical and chemical methods has been investigated. The chemical separation of the thick corn meal with sodium disulfide and ethanol solutions was satisfactory, since it had product starch fraction with acceptable yield. However, the physical separation (boll mill was not successful, because it has not yielded enriched fractions of starch and proteins. Both thick corn meal and all the fractions obtained were characterized by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Thermal Analysis (TG, DTG and DSC. The thick corn meal is composed of more than 50% of starch (CLAE. It has showed mass loss of 52% between 270 - 450ºC (TG and DTG. The kinetic parameters from DSC curves exhibited for gelatinization process of the starch fractions and

  10. Electric power supply 2. Energy industry and climate protection, electricity industry, deregulation, power plant technology and alternative power supply strategies, chemical energy storage. 3. rev. ed.; Elektrische Energieversorgung 2. Energiewirtschaft und Klimaschutz, Elektrizitaetswirtschaft, Liberalisierung, Kraftwerktechnik und alternative Stromversorgung, chemische Energiespeicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crastan, Valentin

    2012-07-01

    The third edition of this comprehensive textbook and reference manual for students and engineers of electrical energy engineering contains many enhancements and additional information, so that the former volume 2 was split up into volume 2 and 3. All three volumes combine theoretical fundamentals of electric power supply with direct practical information. They support understanding and training by means of exercises, examples, and simulations. The authors have long years of experience in energy supply and also in teaching as university professors. The third edition of volume 2 discusses energy industry and climate protection, electric power supply and deregulation aspects, power plant engineering, alternative power generation technologies, and chemical energy storage. [German] Der zweite Band dieses umfassenden Lehr- und Nachschlagewerkes fuer Studenten und Ingenieure in der elektrischen Energietechnik wurde in dieser dritten Auflage wegen der vielen Erweiterungen in zwei Teile aufgespalten, die fortan als Band 2 und 3 erscheinen. Die drei Baende der ''elektrischen Energieversorgung'' zeichnen sich durch die Synthese von theoretischer Fundierung und unmittelbarem Praxisbezug aus und unterstuetzen das Verstaendnis und den Lernerfolg mit Uebungsaufgaben, Modellbeispielen und Simulationen. Die Autoren schoepfen inhaltlich aus ihrer langjaehrigen Erfahrung auf dem Gebiet der Energieversorgung sowie didaktisch aus ihrer Lehrtaetigkeit als Professoren. Der vorliegende zweite Band behandelt in der dritten Auflage die Themen Energiewirtschaft und Klimaschutz, Elektrizitaetswirtschaft und damit verbundenen Liberalisierungsfragen, Kraftwerktechnik, alternative Stromerzeugung und chemische Energiespeicherung. (orig.)

  11. The Influence of Industrial Processing on the Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Lipid and Antioxidant Contents of Rice Bran; Influencia del procesado industrial sobre las caracteristicas quimico-fisicas y contenido en lipidos y antioxidantes del salvado de arroz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, V. R.; Zambiazi, R.; Mendonca, C. R. B.; Bruscatto, M. H.; Ramis-Ramos, G.

    2009-07-01

    A comparative study of the physico-chemical characteristics of rice bran during the successive steps of its industrial processing was carried out and included white and parboiled rice brans and pelletized and defatted rice brans. Moisture, acidity and peroxide index were determined. Using extracts in petroleum ether and gas chromatography, the total fat contents and the profiles of the fatty acids were established. The tocopherols and {gamma}-oryzanol were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The bran of parboiled rice showed the largest fat content and the lowest acidity, indicating that parboiling is the most effective process for bran stabilization. Oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids predominated in all the samples. Pelletization did not produce a loss in lipids, tocopherols or {gamma}-oryzanol. All the samples showed higher contents of {alpha}-tocopherol, intermediate contents of {gamma}-tocopherol and much lower concentrations of {delta}-tocopherol. Nine components of {gamma}- oryzanol were detected, with a major proportion of the component that eluted in the fourth position, probably ferulate of 24-methylene cycloartenol. Pelletized rice bran showed the highest tocopherol content, whereas parboiled rice bran yielded the largest {gamma}-oryzanol content. (Author) 31 refs.

  12. Comparison of Poly Aluminum Chloride and Chlorinated Cuprous for Chemical Oxygen Demand and Color Removal from Kashan Textile Industries Company Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseindoost Gh.1 MSPH,

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims Textile wastewaters are the most important health and environmental problems in Kashan. This research was aimed to compare the poly aluminum chloride and chlorinated cuprous efficiency for removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and color from Kashan Textile Industries Company wastewater. Materials & Methods This experimental bench scale study in a batch system was conducted on 20 composed wastewater samples collected from Kashan Textile Industries Company raw wastewater. During 5 months, in the beginning of every week a day was selected randomly and in the day a composed sample was taken and studied. PAC at the doses of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50mg.l-1 and chlorinated cuprous at the doses of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500mg.l-1 were applied. The optimum pH also optimum concentration of PAC and chlorinated cuprous were determined using Jar test. The data was analyzed by SPSS 16 using descriptive statistics and Fisher Exact test. Findings The average concentration of COD in the raw textile wastewater was 2801.56±1398.29mg.l-1. The average COD concentration has been decreased to 1125.47±797.55mg.l-1. There was a significant difference between the effects of these two coagulants efficiency (p<0.05. The average COD removal efficiency for chlorinated cuprous and PAC was 58.52% and 72.56%, respectively. Also, the average color removal efficiency by chlorinated cuprous and PAC were 17.23 and 64.45%, respectively. Conclusion PAC is more efficient than chlorinated cuprous for both COD and color removal from KTIC wastewater.

  13. Antagonistic activity of Bacillus sp. obtained from an Algerian oilfield and chemical biocide THPS against sulfate-reducing bacteria consortium inducing corrosion in the oil industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gana, Mohamed Lamine; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Touzi, Abdelkader; Zorgani, Mohamed Amine; Pauss, André; Lounici, Hakim; Mameri, Nabil

    2011-03-01

    The present study enlightens the role of the antagonistic potential of nonpathogenic strain B21 against sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) consortium. The inhibitor effects of strain B21 were compared with those of the chemical biocide tetrakishydroxymethylphosphonium sulfate (THPS), generally used in the petroleum industry. The biological inhibitor exhibited much better and effective performance. Growth of SRB in coculture with bacteria strain B21 antagonist exhibited decline in SRB growth, reduction in production of sulfides, with consumption of sulfate. The observed effect seems more important in comparison with the effect caused by the tested biocide (THPS). Strain B21, a dominant facultative aerobic species, has salt growth requirement always above 5% (w/v) salts with optimal concentration of 10-15%. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain B21 is a member of the genus Bacillus, being most closely related to Bacillus qingdaonensis DQ115802 (94.0% sequence similarity), Bacillus aidingensis DQ504377 (94.0%), and Bacillus salarius AY667494 (92.2%). Comparative analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene sequence data plus physiological, biochemical, and phenotypic features of the novel isolate and related species of Bacillus indicated that strain B21 may represent a novel species within the genus Bacillus, named Bacillus sp. (EMBL, FR671419). The results of this study indicate the application potential of Bacillus strain B21 as a biocontrol agent to fight corrosion in the oil industry.

  14. A Study on Environmental Risk Classification for Chemical Industry in Jinan City%济南市企业环境风险分级研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡绳

    2016-01-01

    According to environmental risk substances, risk control levels and the sensitivity of environmental risk receptors, industrial environmental risk levels were determined. The results showed that there were 42 significant risk sources and 58 high risk sources in Jinan, accounting for 43.48% of the total evaluated enterprises. Most of significant risk and high risk sources belonged to manufactures of chemical materials and products which situated in Zhangqiu and Licheng. Finally, the risk control countermeasures were proposed for the primary environmental risk districts, such as Zhangqiu and Licheng. For Zhangqiu, measures like reducing industrial environmental risks and preventing chemical transportation vehicle accidents were advised to be taken. For Licheng, some should be carried out to improve the enterprises' risks control and protect the environmental sensitive points.%在综合考虑企业环境风险物质、环境风险控制水平和环境风险受体敏感性的基础上,对济南市企业进行了环境风险等级评估。结果显示,全市有重大环境风险源42家,较大环境风险源58家,二者占企业总数的43.48%,主要是化学原料及化学制品制造业企业,集中存在于章丘市、历城区。针对环境风险较大的区域,提出章丘市要从降低企业固有风险和防范化学品运输车辆事故方面采取措施,历城区要从提高企业风险控制水平和保护环境敏感目标方面采取措施。

  15. 浅议低碳背景下的煤化工发展%On Development of Coal Chemical Industry Under Background of Low Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉泉

    2013-01-01

    People are aware of the source of carbon dioxide emissions, mainly coal, itself, constituted by carbon fossil fuels, so in the current advocacy to reduce carbon emissions, energy conservation appeal, as more carbon emissions in China, also increasing emphasis on the concept of low-carbon economy. According to China's actual use of coal production, in order to achieve the goal of low-carbon economy, we need to enhance the utilization of coal and recovery. This article will be under the conditions of a low -carbon economy to achieve the efficient development of coal chemical issues, pointed out that the concept of a variety of industrial symbiosis in detail, combined with state-of-the-art scientific and technological means, efforts to build a modern coal chemical industry, to achieve low-carbon development prospects for the road.%人们都了解CO2排放量的来源,主要是煤这种自身由碳元素构成的化石原料,所以当前在倡导减少碳排放、节能减排呼吁下,作为碳排量较多的中国,也越来越重视低碳经济的概念了。根据我国实际使用煤生产的情况,要想实现低碳经济目标,就需要提升煤炭的利用率以及回收率。文章就将以低碳经济条件下,实现煤化工的高效发展为课题,详细指出多种产业化共生的理念,再结合先进的科技手段,努力构建现代煤化工,实现低碳发展的道路前景。

  16. 化工行业“安全观察与沟通”的初步探索%Safety Observation and Communication Exploration on Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵林; 王述存; 孟力

    2016-01-01

    安全观察与沟通是落实有感领导、展现领导承诺的一种有效手段[1]。通过对杜邦公司安全文化体系的认知,深刻剖析在化工危险作业中应该如何做好安全观察与沟通。结合当前在化工生产中的重点应用及注意事项,本文分别对安全观察与沟通的概况、内容及应用等,进行了较详细的分析与阐述。在工作中倡导并积极开展安全观察与沟通,将达到较好的安全管理效果。%Security Watch is to implement felt leadership and communication, as a means to show leadership commitments. Through the perception of the state company's safety culture system, a profound analysis of the chemical industry should be how to do dangerous work safety observation and communication. Combined with the current focus on the application and precautions in chemical production, the significance of safety observation and communication, content and applications were carried on for a more detailed exposition and analysis. Advocacy at work and actively carrying out safety observation and communication will achieve better security management effectiveness.

  17. Physico-chemical characteristics of activated carbons based on a copolymer of furfural and mineral raw materials of the Republic of Kazakhstan and their application in extracting gold from industrial solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanagat Kishibayev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons are widely used in different industries for cleaning a variety of natural objects from of technogenic pollutants. In the article presents the results of physico-chemical investigations of activated carbons. The investigations on the sorption of gold in cyanide solutions activated sorbent based on furfural and sorbent based on shungit.

  18. Characterization of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition-Physical Vapor Deposition transparent deposits on textiles to trigger various antimicrobial properties to food industry textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Textiles for the food industry were treated with an original deposition technique based on a combination of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition and Physical Vapor Deposition to obtain nanometer size silver clusters incorporated into a SiOCH matrix. The optimization of plasma deposition parameters (gas mixture, pressure, and power) was focused on textile transparency and antimicrobial properties and was based on the study of both surface and depth composition (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), as well as Transmission Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, SIMS depth profiling and XPS depth profiling on treated glass slides). Deposition conditions were identified in order to obtain a variable and controlled quantity of ∼ 10 nm size silver particles at the surface and inside of coatings exhibiting acceptable transparency properties. Microbiological characterization indicated that the surface variable silver content as calculated from XPS and ToF-SIMS data directly influences the level of antimicrobial activity.

  19. Investigation into the analysis method of total ecobalance in chemical industry products. 3; Kagaku kogyo seihin ni okeru total eko balance no bunseki shuho ni kansuru chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing a total life-cycle ecobalance analysis (LCA) method, the paper studied making of a general computer program for chemical industry products. The study has been made on general-purpose plastics (PET/PSP (polystyrene paper)) since fiscal 1993 aiming at making the CO2 emission computing program covering the entire process of production from extraction of raw materials through waste disposal. In fiscal 1995, the following were conducted for enhancement of generalization of the method: expansion of environmental load items and increase in validity of the concept, and expansion of database. Notice was taken of not only CO2 but SOx, NOx and water quality load items. The survey was made on the recycling situation in Japan and abroad and the PET recycling plant , and environmental load item data are collected to expand database. The program was verified by analyzing an example of reusing PET bottle to carpet, and one-step development can be made toward the establishment of the method. Moreover, an analysis was made for the environmental assessment of the related programs abroad, and a tentative original plan can be proposed for the standardization of environmental load analysis and the integrated assessment method. 39 refs., 130 figs., 76 tabs.

  20. The Status Quo and Development History of the Industry of Water Treatment Chemicals in China%中国水处理剂行业的现状和发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严瑞瑄

    2012-01-01

    From a larger field of vision, this article describes and analyses the development history, the status quo, the market conditions, the characteristics and the existent problems of the industry of the water treatment chemicals. The article also offers a wide range of data of the production and marketing of the industry, and consequently gives some suggestions regarding the strategic adjustment of the industry of water treatment chemicals.%该文从水处理大宽度视野对水处理剂的发展历程、现状、市场、特征、存在问题等进行了描述和分析.提供了大量的生产和使用市场的数据,并对水处理剂的战略调整提出了明确的看法.

  1. 化学工业4.0新范式及其关键技术%New Paradigm and Key Technologies of Chemical Industry 4.0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉旭; 许娟娟; 卫柯丞; 唐盛伟

    2015-01-01

    Following the trend towards the networking of manufacturing industries, a new paradigm of chemical industry, called chemical industry 4.0, was proposed, which is characterized by the integration of supply chain network,flexibility, serviceability and intellectualization. Chemical industry 4.0 helps enterprises to make accurate judgments and real-time response to the complex and changeable condition of the daily production and operation, by means of unimpeded information exchanging between people and people, people and machines, machines and machines on the platform of Cyber-Physical System (CPS). Then the key technologies of Chemical industry 4.0 were discussed, including the CPS architecture of chemical industry, the flexible chemical manufacturing system, the digital technology for the chemical CPS and knowledge management system based on CPS. As an example, the structure of a smart distillation unit based on CPS was proposed.%全球化背景下,为应对化学工业绿色和可持续发展挑战,提出了化学工业4.0新范式。核心是通过人与人、人与机器和机器与机器间无障碍的信息交换,帮助企业对生产经营中复杂多变的状况做出精准判断和实时反应,其特点是“供应链网”整合、柔性化、服务化和智能化。进而讨论了化学工业4.0的关键性技术,包括化学工业的信息物理系统架构(Cyber - Physical System,CPS)、基于CPS的柔性化生产体系、CPS的数字化技术和基于CPS的知识管理体系,作为例,分析了基于CPS的智能化精馏单元架构。

  2. Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2016-09-01

    Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure. PMID:27209118

  3. Leuconostoc bacteriophages from blue cheese manufacture: long-term survival, resistance to thermal treatments, high pressure homogenization and chemical biocides of industrial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujato, Silvina A; Guglielmotti, Daniela M; Ackermann, Hans-W; Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Quiberoni, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    chemical treatments for inactivating phages in industrial plants and laboratory environments.

  4. Investigation on mosquito and fly species in the port of Shanghai Chemical Industry Park%上海化工区口岸蚊蝇调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙义涛; 郭光亮; 曹敏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To know the composition and distribution of mosquito and fly species through field investigation in the port of Shanghai Chemical Industry Park,so as to provide scientific evidence for the prevention and treatment of biological vectors.Methods Lamp-baiting and scooping method were used for the investigation of mosquitoes,and cage-trap method was used for the catching of flies.Results During the investigation from 2009 to 2011,10 species of mosquitoes belonging to 6 genera were monitored,with Culex tritaeniorhynchus being the dominant specie.The ecological wetland was the prime breeding place of mosquitoes,and its peak time of activity was from June to August.Coquillettidia ochracea and Ochlerotatus dorsalis,which were rarely found in Shanghai,were also collected during the investigation there.Fifty-nine species of flies belonging to 31 genera of 5 families were monitored,with Chrysomya megacephala,Hemipyrellia liqurriens and Atherigona oryzae being the dominant species,and its peak time of activity was from June to September.Population distribution displayed the feature of diversification.Conclusions Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Chrysomya megacephala were the dominant species in the port of Shanghai Chemical Industry Park and were the prime vectors for prevention and control,and comprehensive prevention and control measures should be taken in accordance with their breeding habits and features,as well as changes in seasons of a year.%目的 调查上海化工区口岸蚊蝇,了解本区域蚊蝇种群的组成和分布,为口岸病媒防治工作提供科学依据.方法 蚊类调查采用灯诱法和捞勺法,蝇类采用诱蝇笼法.结果 2009-2011年,化工区口岸蚊类有6属10种,三带喙库蚊为优势种群,活动高峰在6-8月,生态湿地周围是蚊虫主要孳生地,捕获到上海地区较少见的黄色轲蚊和背点骚扰蚊;蝇类有5科31属59种,优势蝇种为大头金蝇、瘦叶带绿蝇和芒蝇,6-9月是活动高峰,种群分

  5. 化工事故处置中消防污水产生的原因及防控对策%Manage of Fire Waste Water in the Disposition of Chemical Industry Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王媛原

    2013-01-01

    If there is fire disaster or dangerous chemical leakage accident in chemical industry enterprise, harmful material often leaks. Water was used to dispose such accidents and it is easy to mix with leaking materials and products of chemical industry. This paper introduced the characteristics of fire waste water in chemical industry accident, and proposed the prevention and control measures to reduce the pollution of environment.%  化工企业一旦发生火灾或危险化学品泄漏事故,物料就会泄漏出来。消防部队在化工事故处置中都离不开水,这些水落地后极易与泄漏的化工原料、化工产品混合后形成消防污水。本文通过阐明化工事故处置中消防污水的特点,提出了消防污水的预防控制对策,以减少对环境中水体的污染。

  6. 多变量统计过程监控:进展及其在化学工业的应用%Multivariate Statistical Process Monitoring and Control: Recent Developments and Applications to Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁军; 钱积新

    2003-01-01

    Multivariate statistical process monitoring and control (MSPM&C) methods for chemical process monitoring with statistical projection techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) are surveyed in this paper. The four-step procedure of performing MSPM&C for chemical process, modeling of processes, detecting abnormal events or faults, identifying the variable(s) responsible for the faults and diagnosing the source cause for the abnormal behavior, is analyzed. Several main research directions of MSPM&C reported in the literature are discussed, such as multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) for batch process, statistical monitoring and control for nonlinear process, dynamic PCA and dynamic PLS, and on-line quality control by inferential models. Industrial applications of MSPM&C to several typical chemical processes, such as chemical reactor, distillation column, polymerization process, petroleum refinery units, are summarized. Finally, some concluding remarks and future considerations are made.

  7. Industrial diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Estimated 2012 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2012, natural industrial diamonds were produced in at least 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 12 countries. About 99 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Belarus, China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. During 2012, China was the world’s leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by the United States and Russia. In 2012, the two U.S. synthetic producers, one in Pennsylvania and the other in Ohio, had an estimated output of 103 million carats, valued at about $70.6 million. This was an estimated 43.7 million carats of synthetic diamond bort, grit, and dust and powder with a value of $14.5 million combined with an estimated 59.7 million carats of synthetic diamond stone with a value of $56.1 million. Also in 2012, nine U.S. firms manufactured polycrystalline diamond (PCD) from synthetic diamond grit and powder. The United States government does not collect or maintain data for either domestic PCD producers or domestic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond producers for quantity or value of annual production. Current trade and consumption quantity data are not available for PCD or for CVD diamond. For these reasons, PCD and CVD diamond are not included in the industrial diamond quantitative data reported here.

  8. Network structure of inter-industry flows

    CERN Document Server

    McNerney, James; Silverberg, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    We study the structure of inter-industry relationships using networks of money flows between industries in 20 national economies. We find these networks vary around a typical structure characterized by a Weibull link weight distribution, exponential industry size distribution, and a common community structure. The community structure is hierarchical, with the top level of the hierarchy comprising five industry communities: food industries, chemical industries, manufacturing industries, service industries, and extraction industries.

  9. 煤制油化工基地式一体化建设模式思考%On the Base-integration Construction Mode of Coal Liquefaction Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万国杰

    2011-01-01

    Considering the industrial properties of coal liquefaction chemical industry, referring to the other country's exploration of the construction model on coal liquefaction chemical industry, together with the successful experience of domestic constructing demonstration projects on coal liquefaction chemical industry and national reality of diverse energy resources, various techniques and products are synthetically integrated from the systemic view, focus on the coal liquefaction chemical industry to build a circulating eco-industrial park of the base-integration with step conversion of coal to various of products and step utilization of the energy, in the end, to achieve the optimum of integrated ener- gy system. Through the overall planning of the coal mine, processing of coal, coal gasification (including paralysis), syngas processing, IGCC, coal chemical industry, fuels production from coal, byproducts processing and products deep processing, system of public works, system of public logistics and public service systems, with the form of co-production as well as mutual supply on variety of products, taking the advan- tage of the base-integration, while producing dimensions beneficial result, diversify and fine the products are pursued, and economic benefit, products competition, environmental benefit, social benefit are organically combined with the country's industrial policies. An integrated coal liquefaction chemical industry base is to be built with the highest energy efficiency, the best system benefits, refining division, the professional management, large-scale operation, harmonious relationship between local government and coal mining enterprise, and the environment friendly nature.%鉴于煤制油化工的产业特点,借鉴国际上对煤制油化工建设模式的探索,结合我国煤制油化工示范工程建设的成功经验和我国能源结构及分布的国情,从系统的角度综合集成各种技术和产品组合,围绕煤制

  10. 煤化工反渗透浓盐水处理和回用的探讨%On the Coal Chemical iIndustry of Reverse Osmosis Concentrated Water Treatment and Reuse of

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海斌

    2012-01-01

      This paper explores how to study for coal chemical reverse osmosis concentrated brine was effective for treatment and reuse of wastewater, further improve the comprehensive reuse rate, greatly reduce discharge of wastewater and waste water discharged together with the chemical oxygen demand (COD)aggregates, which for the coal chemical industry and long-term development has important sense.%  研究探讨如何针对煤化工反渗透浓盐水进行有效处理回用,进一步提高废水的综合回用率,大幅度减少废水排放量以及随废水一同排放的化学耗氧量(COD)总量,这对于煤化工行业的长远发展具有重要意义。

  11. Biofuels And Chemicals Production From Renewable Raw-Materials. Exploiting yeasts diversity to bridge the gap between the proof-of-concept and industrial success

    OpenAIRE

    Signori, L

    2016-01-01

    The success of the biorefinery concept will require efficient, robust and versatile cell factories. Currently, the major part of industrial microorganisms are used because of historical grounds, rather than being selected for a specific application. Additionally, demands for increased productivity, wider substrate range utilization, and production of nonconventional compounds lead to a great interest in further improving the currently used industrial workhorses (hosts) and the selection or de...

  12. Industries and environment - 2014 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a general overview of the French economic context (composition of the French industry, the manufacturing industry, industry production and trade balance), this report presents industrial installations with risks: installations classified for the protection of the environment and submitted to industrial authorizations (ICPEA), basic nuclear installations, Seveso industrial facilities, IPPC industrial installations. The next part analyzes the various pressures exerted by the industry on the environment: material production and consumption, water taking, consumption of energetic products, release of pollutants in waters of industrial ICPE, releases in the air, greenhouse gas emissions, production of wastes, accidents and incidents with environmental consequences, polluted sites and soils, hazardous chemical products in the industry, industrial companies involved in nano-technologies and nano-materials. The last part proposes an overview of responses to these issues: implementation of environmental management system, corporate societal responsibility, investments and expenditures for the protection of the environment, industrial eco-activities, eco-labelled products manufactured by the industry

  13. Comparative analysis of pharmaceuticals versus industrial chemicals acute aquatic toxicity classification according to the United Nations classification system for chemicals. Assessment of the (Q)SAR predictability of pharmaceuticals acute aquatic toxicity and their predominant acute toxic mode-of-action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Thomsen, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    a comprehensive database based on OECD's standardized measured ecotoxicological data and to evaluate if there is generally cause of greater concern with regards to pharmaceutical aquatic toxicological profiles relative to industrial chemicals. Comparisons were based upon aquatic ecotoxicity classification under...... data. Pharmaceuticals were found to be more frequent than industrial chemicals in GHS category III. Acute toxicity was predictable (>92%) using a generic (Q)SAR ((Quantitative) Structure Activity Relationship) suggesting a narcotic MOA. Analysis of model prediction error suggests that 68......Pharmaceuticals have been reported to be ubiquitously present in surface waters prompting concerns of effects of these bioactive substances. Meanwhile, there is a general scarcity of publicly available ecotoxicological data concerning pharmaceuticals. The aim of this paper was to compile...

  14. Trend of the strategy of European and American chemical industry in the restructuring; Obei kagaku sangyo no saihen ni miru senryaku no doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimi, M.; Yamabe, T.

    1999-12-01

    The business of life science is the cover products which connect directly with life such as medical supplies, functional food, nutriments, agricultural chemicals or seeds. The wave of the reorganization of enterprises in the life science field also spread to the integration of the medicine specialty enterprises, and new association trees mainly on medical supplies such as Novartis in Switzerland, Zeneca, Astra Zeneca and Glaxo Wellcome in England were born. Many major chemistry manufacturers are also agricultural chemical manufacturers. Though agricultural chemicals were being shifted to one which being effective at the low use owing to the environmental problems, with the advance of the popularization of gene recombination crops, sales decreased on the agricultural chemical business more, and participation and restructuring to the seed business were accelerated. In this paper, the outline of business restructuring and strengthening the basic strategy in the main chemistry enterprises in Europe and the U.S.A. are described. As a trend of the restructuring, some examples on Du Pont, Dow chemical, Monsanto, ICI, Akzo Nobel, Novartis, Shell Chemicals, BASF, Hoechst and Bayer are introduced. (NEDO)

  15. A suggested approach to the selection of chemical and biological protective clothing--meeting industry and emergency response needs for protection against a variety of hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Jeffrey O

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a comprehensive decision logic for selection and use of biological and chemical protective clothing (BCPC). The decision logic recognizes the separate areas of BCPC use among emergency, biological, and chemical hazards. The proposed decision logic provides a system for type classifying BCPC in terms of its compliance with existing standards (for emergency applications), the overall clothing integrity, and the material barrier performance. Type classification is offered for garments, gloves, footwear, and eye/face protection devices. On the basis of multiple, but simply designed flowcharts, the type of BCPC appropriate for specific biological and chemical hazards can be selected. The decision logic also provides supplemental considerations for choosing appropriate BCPC features. PMID:15377412

  16. The Development and Application of Coal Chemical Technology in the Iron and Steel Industry%煤化工技术在钢铁行业的发展与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏亚杰; 梁文阁; 田波; 王建杰; 周国富

    2013-01-01

    The application of coal chemical technology in the iron and steel industry can achieve efficient and high value added utilization of the hydrocarbon resources,for instance,recycling the hydrocarbon resources from the coke oven,the blast furnace and converter to produce chemical products; the technology of coal-to-reducing gas has been applied in the non-blast furnace ironmaking,which is used for reducing iron or that which can produce direct reduction iron or molten iron.The author summarizes on the basis of the long-term study that the reducing gas produced from coal for ironmaking can replace part of the blast furnace gas and the chemical products produced therefrom by adopting the coal chemical technology can improve energy efficiency and implement clean production in the iron and steel industry.%从钢铁行业的转炉煤气、焦炉煤气生产甲醇出发,总结了部分煤化工技术在钢铁领域的发展和应用.具体分析了固定床煤制气与气基法直接还原铁工艺、煤制气流化床与FINEX熔融还原铁技术、固定床与流化床结合的COREX熔融还原炼铁工艺、粗煤气余热冶炼直接还原铁工艺等,指出借助煤化工技术,可以提高能源利用效率,推动钢铁工业清洁生产.

  17. Industrial applications of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, W J; Stoessel, P R; Wohlleben, W; Hafner, A

    2015-08-21

    Research efforts in the past two decades have resulted in thousands of potential application areas for nanoparticles - which materials have become industrially relevant? Where are sustainable applications of nanoparticles replacing traditional processing and materials? This tutorial review starts with a brief analysis on what makes nanoparticles attractive to chemical product design. The article highlights established industrial applications of nanoparticles and then moves to rapidly emerging applications in the chemical industry and discusses future research directions. Contributions from large companies, academia and high-tech start-ups are used to elucidate where academic nanoparticle research has revolutionized industry practice. A nanomaterial-focused analysis discusses new trends, such as particles with an identity, and the influence of modern instrument advances in the development of novel industrial products.

  18. 矿产资源型产业集群的风险分析及政策选择--以陕北能源化工基地为例%Risk Analysis and Policy Selection on Mineral Resource-based Industrial Cluster:a Case of Energy Chemical Industry of North Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白嘉

    2013-01-01

    矿产资源型产业集群具有资源诅咒效应显著、产业链短、产业结构单一、可持续性差等风险。陕北能源化工产业在自然资源优势、政策优势和科教优势的基础上,已初步形成以煤炭、石油和天然气开采、加工、利用为核心的矿产资源型产业集群。但由于区位环境和体制因素的影响,陕北矿产资源型产业集群面临自主创新能力弱,产业结构与布局不合理以及环境成本高三种风险。根据陕北地区的实际情况,可以通过提高区域自主创新能力,优化产业结构以及建立循环经济产业园来推动陕北矿产资源型产业集群的持续发展。%Mineral resource-based industrial cluster is confronted with risk of resource curse, short industrial chain, single industrial structure and poor sustainability. On the basis of advantages of natural resource, policy, science and technology, and education, energy chemical industry of north Shaanxi has come into being mineral resource-based industrial clusters with characteristics of exploitation, processing and utilization of coal, petroleum and natural gas. Nevertheless, mineral resource -based industrial clusters of north Shaanxi faces risk of inferior capability of independent innovation, unreasonableness of structure and layout of industries, and high cost of environment. According to current situation of north Shaanxi, policies of enhancing capability of regional independent innovation, optimizing industrial structure and establishing industrial park based on cyclic economy can be adopted to propel sustained development of mineral resource-based industrial clusters of north Shaanxi.

  19. Key Technology R&D Program of Rubber Chemicals Industry in the "11th Five-year Plan" Passed National Acceptance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Tao

    2012-01-01

    As a project under National Key Technology R&D Program in the "11th Five-year Plan", "Develop- ment of Rubber Chemicals Cleaning Technology and Special Functional Products" passed the acceptance of the Ministry of Science and Technology recently.

  20. Comparison between bioconcentration factor (BCF) data provided by industry to the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) and data derived from QSAR models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petoumenou, Maria I; Pizzo, Fabiola; Cester, Josep; Fernández, Alberto; Benfenati, Emilio

    2015-10-01

    The bioconcentration factor (BCF) is the ratio of the concentration of a chemical in an organism to the concentration in the surrounding environment at steady state. It is a valuable indicator of the bioaccumulation potential of a substance. BCF is an essential environmental property required for regulatory purposes within the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals (REACH) and Globally Harmonized System (GHS) regulations. In silico models for predicting BCF can facilitate the risk assessment for aquatic toxicology and reduce the cost and number of animals used. The aim of the present study was to examine the correlation of BCF data derived from the dossiers of registered chemicals submitted to the European Chemical Agency (ECHA) with the results of a battery of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR). After data pruning, statistical analysis was performed using the predictions of the selected models. Results in terms of R(2) had low rating around 0.5 for the pruned dataset. The use of the model applicability domain index (ADI) led to an improvement of the performance for compounds falling within it. The variability of the experimental data and the use of different parameters to define the applicability domain can influence the performance of each model. All available information should be adapted to the requirements of the regulation to obtain a safe decision.

  1. 化工企业中自动化仪表的设计探究%Research on the Design of Automatic Instrument in Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠伟亚

    2015-01-01

    The production and operation environment of chemical enterprises is high pressure, high temperature, vacuum and other special environment, but in this special environment, automatic instrument plays a very important role. Therefore, we must do a good job in the design of chemical enterprise automation instrument; improve the stability and reliability of the automation instrument. Through the analysis of common chemical enterprise automatic instrument classification and instrument design selection, this paper describes the chemical enterprise automation instrument design technology, for reference.%化工企业的生产运营环境多是高压、高温、真空等特殊环境,而在这种特殊环境中,自动化仪表发挥着非常重要的作用.因此,必须做好化工企业的自动化仪表设计工作,提高自动化仪表的稳定性和可靠性.通过分析常见的化工企业自动化仪表分类和仪表设计选型,阐述了化工企业自动化仪表设计技术,以供参考.

  2. Investigation of Environmental Pollution around Fluoride Chemical Industrial Park%某氟化学工业园对当地食物及环境的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴叶; 范家林; 王冬月; 沈明珠

    2011-01-01

    Objectlve To understand the environmental pollution level around the fluoride industrial park. Methods A fluoride industrial park and a control area were selected, and the fluoride content of the air, soil, water and foods were compared. Results The mean fluoride content of vegetables and freshwater fish collected from the area around the fluoride industrial park were more than the standard limits, and the fluoride content of the soil, water, vegetables between the two investigated areas had significant differences. Fluorine content of rice was linearly correlated with the distance (r=-0.364 ,P= 0.032). Conclusion Fluoride industrial park may have caused environmental fluoride pollution in the investigated area.%目的 了解某氟化工业园对周边环境造成的污染.方法 于2007年5月至2009年3月期间,选择某氟化工业园所在地周边4 km范围内的7个村及一对照地区,对两地空气、土壤、水、食物(大米、蔬菜)中氟含量进行比较.结果 暴露区蔬菜和淡水鱼类氟含量过标准限值,且土壤、河水、蔬菜中氟含量高于对照区,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),并且大米氟含量与距污染源距离呈负相关(r=-0.364,P=0.032).结论 本次调查地区存在氟化学工业园对当地周边地区造成氟污染的可能.

  3. Network structure of inter-industry flows

    OpenAIRE

    McNerney, J.; B. D. Fath; Silverberg, G

    2012-01-01

    We study the structure of inter-industry relationships using networks of money flows between industries in 20 national economies. We find these networks vary around a typical structure characterized by a Weibull link weight distribution, exponential industry size distribution, and a common community structure. The community structure is hierarchical, with the top level of the hierarchy comprising five industry communities: food industries, chemical industries, manufacturing industries, servic...

  4. Mixture effects at very low doses with combinations of anti-androgenic pesticides, antioxidants, industrial pollutant and chemicals used in personal care products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Frances; Ermler, Sibylle; Kugathas, Subramaniam [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Rosivatz, Erika [Institute of Chemical Biology, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Scholze, Martin [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Kortenkamp, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.kortenkamp@brunel.ac.uk [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    Many xenobiotics have been identified as in vitro androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, but information about their ability to produce combined effects at low concentrations is missing. Such data can reveal whether joint effects at the receptor are induced at low levels and may support the prioritisation of in vivo evaluations and provide orientations for the grouping of anti-androgens in cumulative risk assessment. Combinations of 30 AR antagonists from a wide range of sources and exposure routes (pesticides, antioxidants, parabens, UV-filters, synthetic musks, bisphenol-A, benzo(a)pyrene, perfluorooctane sulfonate and pentabromodiphenyl ether) were tested using a reporter gene assay (MDA-kb2). Chemicals were combined at three mixture ratios, equivalent to single components' effect concentrations that inhibit the action of dihydrotesterone by 1%, 10% or 20%. Concentration addition (CA) and independent action were used to calculate additivity expectations. We observed complete suppression of dihydrotestosterone effects when chemicals were combined at individual concentrations eliciting 1%, 10% or 20% AR antagonistic effect. Due to the large number of mixture components, the combined AR antagonistic effects occurred at very low concentrations of individual mixture components. CA slightly underestimated the combined effects at all mixture ratios. In conclusion, large numbers of AR antagonists from a wide variety of sources and exposure routes have the ability of acting together at the receptor to produce joint effects at very low concentrations. Significant mixture effects are observed when chemicals are combined at concentrations that individually do not induce observable AR antagonistic effects. Cumulative risk assessment for AR antagonists should apply grouping criteria based on effects where data are available, rather than on criteria of chemical similarity. - Highlights: • Mixtures of AR antagonists at low individual concentrations cause complete inhibition

  5. Control of risks: comparative evaluation between the different kind of approach in industrial area. Relative focalization to nuclear and chemical sectors. Phase two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research made here for the Ministry of Environment, aims the probabilistic approach, to examine its differences with the determinist approach in the frame of risk management, and to know if the both approaches are inducted by the nature of dangers, the quality of data, the theoretical knowledge or the kind of problem to mange ( monitoring of installations, functioning agreements, and so on). The nuclear activities, the chemical installations and the transports of dangerous materials illustrate the present purpose. (N.C.)

  6. Sustainability in the Chemical Industry. By Eric Johnson, Springer, 2012; 173 pages. Price CHF 133.50, ISBN 978-94-007-3834-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It’s the new rock and roll. It’s the new black. Sustainability is trendy, and not just among hipsters and pop stars. The uncool chemical sector helped pioneer it, and today, companies inside and outside the sector have embraced it. But what have they embraced? Surely not the Brundtland definition of meeting “the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”

  7. Mixture effects at very low doses with combinations of anti-androgenic pesticides, antioxidants, industrial pollutant and chemicals used in personal care products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many xenobiotics have been identified as in vitro androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, but information about their ability to produce combined effects at low concentrations is missing. Such data can reveal whether joint effects at the receptor are induced at low levels and may support the prioritisation of in vivo evaluations and provide orientations for the grouping of anti-androgens in cumulative risk assessment. Combinations of 30 AR antagonists from a wide range of sources and exposure routes (pesticides, antioxidants, parabens, UV-filters, synthetic musks, bisphenol-A, benzo(a)pyrene, perfluorooctane sulfonate and pentabromodiphenyl ether) were tested using a reporter gene assay (MDA-kb2). Chemicals were combined at three mixture ratios, equivalent to single components' effect concentrations that inhibit the action of dihydrotesterone by 1%, 10% or 20%. Concentration addition (CA) and independent action were used to calculate additivity expectations. We observed complete suppression of dihydrotestosterone effects when chemicals were combined at individual concentrations eliciting 1%, 10% or 20% AR antagonistic effect. Due to the large number of mixture components, the combined AR antagonistic effects occurred at very low concentrations of individual mixture components. CA slightly underestimated the combined effects at all mixture ratios. In conclusion, large numbers of AR antagonists from a wide variety of sources and exposure routes have the ability of acting together at the receptor to produce joint effects at very low concentrations. Significant mixture effects are observed when chemicals are combined at concentrations that individually do not induce observable AR antagonistic effects. Cumulative risk assessment for AR antagonists should apply grouping criteria based on effects where data are available, rather than on criteria of chemical similarity. - Highlights: • Mixtures of AR antagonists at low individual concentrations cause complete inhibition

  8. Biotechnology for renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg;

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the industrial organic chemicals are derived from fossil sources. With the oil and gas resources becoming limiting, biotechnology offers a sustainable alternative for production ofchemicals from renewable feedstocks. Yeast is an attractive cell factory forsustainable production...

  9. Valorization of GaN based metal-organic chemical vapor deposition dust a semiconductor power device industry waste through mechanochemical oxidation and leaching: A sustainable green process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Lee, Chan Gi; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Kun-Jae

    2015-07-01

    Dust generated during metal organic vapor deposition (MOCVD) process of GaN based semiconductor power device industry contains significant amounts of gallium and indium. These semiconductor power device industry wastes contain gallium as GaN and Ga0.97N0.9O0.09 is a concern for the environment which can add value through recycling. In the present study, this waste is recycled through mechanochemical oxidation and leaching. For quantitative recovery of gallium, two different mechanochemical oxidation leaching process flow sheets are proposed. In one process, first the Ga0.97N0.9O0.09 of the MOCVD dust is leached at the optimum condition. Subsequently, the leach residue is mechanochemically treated, followed by oxidative annealing and finally re-leached. In the second process, the MOCVD waste dust is mechanochemically treated, followed by oxidative annealing and finally leached. Both of these treatment processes are competitive with each other, appropriate for gallium leaching and treatment of the waste MOCVD dust. Without mechanochemical oxidation, 40.11 and 1.86 w/w% of gallium and Indium are leached using 4M HCl, 100°C and pulp density of 100 kg/m(3,) respectively. After mechanochemical oxidation, both these processes achieved 90 w/w% of gallium and 1.86 w/w% of indium leaching at their optimum condition.

  10. Analysis of the Chemical Composition of Industrial Dipentenes from 3 Different Sources%3种不同来源工业双戊烯的化学成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘培娟; 郑德勇; 罗成木

    2014-01-01

    The Dipentene A,B and C chemical composition of the 3 industrial dipetenne camphor,Alpha-Terpineol and fir oil was an-alyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The results showed that,there were 27,29 and 33 compositions which was the relative mass fraction more than 0.1%,and the total relative mass fraction were 98.98%,98.12% and 96.34% in the industrial dipentene A,B and C,respectively.The 3 industrial dipentene enriched with monoterpene compounds,and its chemical compositions had close relationship with its origin source.The industrial dipentene B had a lot of eucalyptol,and the industrial dipen-tene C had higher content of Open-loop terpene compounds and Aromatic substances.The 3 industrial dipentene could be produced into dipentene,terpinolene and p-cymene by distillation,or could be the raw material of synthesis p-cymene.Eucalyptol could be ex-tracted from the industrial dipentene B,and 3,4-dimethyl-2,4-Octatriene could be extracted from the industrial dipentene C.%采用气相色谱-质谱联用技术( GC-MS)对樟脑、松油醇和杉木油这3种不同生产过程中产生的副产品工业双戊烯A、B、C的化学成分进行分析。结果表明:工业双戊烯A、B、C中已鉴定出相对质量分数大于0.1%的成分分别为27、29、33个,其相对质量分数总和分别为98.98%、98.12%、96.34%;3个工业双戊烯样品富含单萜烯类化合物,其组成特征与其来源关系密切,工业双戊烯B含有丰富的桉叶素,而工业双戊烯C中的开环萜烯类和芳香族类物质的含量较高;3个工业双戊烯样品可通过精馏单离出双戊烯、萜品油烯和对伞花烃等产品,还可经适当分离后用作对生产伞花烃原料;此外,工业双戊烯B可提取桉叶油素,工业双戊烯C可提取3,4-二甲基-2,4,6-辛三烯。

  11. Chemical industry, how to adapt and invest facing new regulations; Chimie, comment s`adapter et investir face aux nouvelles regles?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paules, B. [Elf Atochem, 92 - Puteaux (France). Direction Technique

    1997-12-31

    In order to reduce NOx emission levels from a fuel oil or gas burning boiler for a chemical plant, a system using injection of gaseous ammoniacal compounds in fumes combined to hydrogen injection for controlling reaction kinetics, is presented (Thermal De-NOx process from Exxon Research and Engineering); its implementation in a cogeneration plant (gas and fuel oil) is described. NOx, NH{sub 3} and oxygen are combined to form nitrogen and water. The process equipment and control system are presented. Emission levels are compared to limit values according to the system configuration (boiler or turbine) and to post-combustion operation

  12. Qualidade físico-química da carne bovina in natura aprovada na recepção de restaurante industrial / Physical and chemical quality of vacuum packed beef approved at reception in industrial restaurant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marizete Oliveira de Mesquita

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os parâmetros físico-químicos da carne bovina in na-tura, embalada a vácuo, por meio de métodos analíticos de rápida execução. O estudo ocorreu em restaurante universitário de uma Instituição Federal de Ensino Superior, du-rante maio e junho de 2012. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas logo após a recep-ção das amostras. Os cortes utilizados foram os músculos: Coxão duro (Bíceps femoris; Contrafilé (Longissimus dorsi; Coxão mole (Semimembranosus; Patinho (Quadriceps femoris; Lagarto (Semitendinosus, fornecidos por frigoríficos. Na análise dos dados utilizou-se estatística descritiva (frequência e média e o teste Exato de Fisher para comparação entre variáveis categóricas. O perfil bioquímico indicou 40,0% das amostras consideradas em bom estado de conservação de acordo com o teste de resazurina, 53,3% apresentaram resultado negativo para prova de cocção, 16,7% foram consideradas como carne fresca pela prova de filtração, 90% apresentaram resultado negativo na prova de Nessler e 13,3% com pH 5,8-6,2. Conclui-se que o perfil físico-químico das carnes rece-bidas neste serviço de alimentação não apresenta plena conformidade com as normas do Ministério da Agricultura para carne in natura (não embalada. Considerando que a estabilidade das moléculas em produtos embalados a vácuo é alterada, sugere-se o desenvolvimento de normas específicas. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical parameters of fresh beef, packaged under vacuum, through fast analytical methods. The study took place at a university restaurant of a Federal Institution of Higher Education, during May and June of 2012. Physical and chemical analyses were made upon receipt. The mus-cles cuts used were: Biceps femoris; Longissimus dorsi; Semimembranosus; Quadriceps femoris; Semitendinosus

  13. Valorization of GaN based metal-organic chemical vapor deposition dust a semiconductor power device industry waste through mechanochemical oxidation and leaching: A sustainable green process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dust generated during metal organic vapor deposition (MOCVD) process of GaN based semiconductor power device industry contains significant amounts of gallium and indium. These semiconductor power device industry wastes contain gallium as GaN and Ga0.97N0.9O0.09 is a concern for the environment which can add value through recycling. In the present study, this waste is recycled through mechanochemical oxidation and leaching. For quantitative recovery of gallium, two different mechanochemical oxidation leaching process flow sheets are proposed. In one process, first the Ga0.97N0.9O0.09 of the MOCVD dust is leached at the optimum condition. Subsequently, the leach residue is mechanochemically treated, followed by oxidative annealing and finally re-leached. In the second process, the MOCVD waste dust is mechanochemically treated, followed by oxidative annealing and finally leached. Both of these treatment processes are competitive with each other, appropriate for gallium leaching and treatment of the waste MOCVD dust. Without mechanochemical oxidation, 40.11 and 1.86 w/w% of gallium and Indium are leached using 4 M HCl, 100 °C and pulp density of 100 kg/m3, respectively. After mechanochemical oxidation, both these processes achieved 90 w/w% of gallium and 1.86 w/w% of indium leaching at their optimum condition. - Highlights: • Waste MOCVD dust is treated through mechanochemical leaching. • GaN is hardly leached, and converted to NaGaO2 through ball milling and annealing. • Process for gallium recovery from waste MOCVD dust has been developed. • Thermal analysis and phase properties of GaN to Ga2O3 and GaN to NaGaO2 is revealed. • Solid-state chemistry involved in this process is reported

  14. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil, vegetation, workshop-floor dust, and electronic shredder residue from an electronic waste recycling facility and in soils from a chemical industrial complex in eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing Ma; Rudolf Addink; Sehun Yun; Jinping Cheng; Wenhua Wang; Kurunthachalam Kannan [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China). School of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2009-10-01

    In this study, 11 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDD/Fs and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were determined in electronic shredder waste, workshop-floor dust, soil, and leaves (of plants on the grounds of the facility) from a large-scale electronic wastes (e-waste) recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical-industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) as well as agricultural areas in eastern China. Total PBDD/F concentrations in environmental samples were in the range of 113-818 pg/g dry wt (dw) for leaves, 392-18,500 pg/g dw for electronic shredder residues, 716-80,0000 pg/g dw for soil samples, and 89,600-14,3000 pg/g dw for workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility and in a range from nondetect (ND) to 427 pg/g dw in soil from the chemical-industrial complex. The highest mean concentrations of total PBDD/Fs were found in soil samples and workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility. The dioxin-like toxic equivalent (measured as TEQ) concentrations of PBDD/Fs were greater than the TEQs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) reported in our previous study for the same set of samples. The concentrations of PBDFs were several orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations of PBDDs in samples from the e-waste facility or from soil from the chemical-industrial complex. A significant correlation was found between the concentrations of {Sigma}PBDD/Fs and {Sigma}PBDEs (r = 0.769, p < 0.01) and between SPBDD/Fs and the previously reported SPCDD/F concentrations (r = 0.805, p < 0.01). The estimated daily human intakes of TEQs contributed by PBDD/Fs via soil/dust ingestion and dermal exposures in e-waste recycling facilities were higher than the intakes of TEQs contributed by PCDD/Fs, calculated in our previous study. 45 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Industrial waste pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics and effects of industrial waste pollution in the Chesapeake Bay are discussed. The sources of inorganic and organic pollution entering the bay are described. The four types of pollutants are defined as: (1) inorganic chemical wastes, (2) naturally occurring organic wastes, (3) synthetic organic wastes (exotics) and (4) thermal effluents. The ecological behavior of industrial wastes in the surface waters is analyzed with respect to surface film phenomena, interfacial phenomena, and benthis phenomena

  16. The physics of plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition for large-area coating: industrial application to flat panel displays and solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Designing plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) reactors to coat large-area glass plates (∼1 m2) for flat panel display or solar cell manufacturing raises challenging issues in physics and chemistry as well as mechanical, thermal, and electrical engineering, and material science. In such reactive glow discharge plasma slabs, excited at RF frequency (from 13.56 MHz up to ∼100 MHz), the thin-film deposition uniformity is determined by the gas flow distribution, as well as the RF voltage distribution along the electrodes, and by local plasma perturbations at the reactor boundaries. All these aspects can be approached by analytical and numerical modelling. Moreover, the film properties are largely determined by the plasma chemistry involving the neutral radicals contributing to film growth, the effect of ion bombardment, and the formation and trapping of dust triggered by homogeneous nucleation. This paper will review progress in this field, with particular emphasis on modelling developments. (author)

  17. 地面火炬在煤化工装置的工业化应用%Industrialized Application of Ground Flare in Coal Chemical Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓方; 孙少文

    2015-01-01

    介绍了地面火炬系统的工艺特点,并结合煤化工装置在生产过程中出现的相关问题,给出处理措施及相关建议。通过3年多的摸索,地面火炬系统整体运行情况良好。%The process features of ground flare system are introduced,in connection with problems of coal chemical plant in production,treatment measures and relevant suggestions are proposed.Through exploration for more than 3 years,the operation condition of the ground flare system is good on the whole.

  18. Welding of stainless and nickel based materials in the chemical industry. Consumables and procedures. Soldadura de aceros inoxidables y de materiales de base niquel en la industria quimica. Consumibles y procedimientos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stromberg, J.; Budgifvars, S. (The ESA Grouo, Geoteborg (Sweden))

    1994-01-01

    In the chemical and petrochemical process industry a large range of various stainless and nickel based materials are used to meet high demands on corrosion resistance for optimum service performance. These materials include standard stainless steels, duplex and super duplex steels, super austenitic steels and nickel based alloys. Many components are being welded in the construction stage or may later on have to be repaired by welding. The design of components also often calls for joining or cladding of dissimilar materials to optimize the use of the material properties and for economical reasons to reduce the amount of expensive materials. Consumables and procedures have been developed to give weld metals to match the corrosion and strength requirements of the materials. There is a wide selection of MM electrodes with different coatings available and new types of stainless flux cored wires are being introduced. Especially for cladding of large surfaces the submerged arc strip cladding process offer high productivity solutions. (Author) 6 ref.

  19. Caracterização química do "pitch" em indústria de celulose e papel de Eucalyptus Chemical characterization of pitch in Eucalyptus pulp and paper industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariluze P. Cruz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical analysis of the acetone, chloroform, toluene and methanol extracts of a pitch sample was carried out by IR and GC-MS, leading to the identification of sixty nine compounds, including fatty acids, alcohols and hydrocarbons. Analysis of the acetone extractive of a eucalyptus wood used in Brazil for pulp production was also carried out, resulting in identification of fifty nine compounds, including mainly fatty acids, phenolic compounds, beta-sitosterol and other steroids. This analysis showed that pitch formation had a contribution from wood extractives and other sources of contamination. The results obtained and the methodology applied can be used by the pulp industry to develop new methods of pitch control.

  20. 化工企业成批烧伤患者致伤因素与防范措施%Countermeasures of Wounding Factors for Mass Burn in Chemical Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李传吉; 邓兴旺; 李俊; 吴少军; 张龙; 金少华

    2012-01-01

      Objective To analyze the wounding factors for mass burn in the chemical industries along Ningxia and Mongolia Region and to explore the first aid measures and countermeasures. Methods Between Jan. , 2007 and Nov. , 2011, 195 patients in 12 accidents affecting 9 ~ 12 patients each were classified properly following the leader’s instruction. The preventive tracheotomy, systemic and topical treatment, surgical skin grafting and other interventions were performed to rescue the patients. Professional knowledge trainings on self-rescue, escape, transferring were given to more than 12000 staffs of the chemical industries, during which corresponding countermeasures were proposed. Results Among the 195 pa-tients, 186 were cured with a curative rate of 95. 36% and 9 died with a mortality of 4. 61% . After the trainings, mass and individual burn victims of the chemical industries can perform the correct first aid and transferring immediately on the spot. Conclusion Early-time performance of the scheduled rescue plan on mass burn can improve work efficiency and the trained staff in the chemical industries can carry out the correct first aid and transferring measures on the spot, which can help win much more precious time for hospital rescue and treatment.%  目的分析宁蒙周边化工企业成批烧伤患者致伤因素,探讨早期救治方法与应对措施.方法将2007年1月至2011年11月收治的9~21例/批的成批烧伤患者12批共195例,按组织领导,合理分类,行预防性气管切开,全身与局部治疗,手术植皮等方法治疗.深入化工企业对12000余人做自救、逃生、转送的专业知识培训,提出了相应的应对措施.结果本组病例治愈186例(治愈率95.36%);死亡9例(死亡率4.61%).经过培训的企业发生群体和个体烧伤时,现场均能正确施救与转送.结论对成批烧伤患者早期执行预定救治方案处理,可提高救治成功率,经过专业培训的工人、干