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Sample records for chemical industry analisis

  1. Risk analysis in the chemical industry; Analisis de riesgos en la industria quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rea Soto, Rogelio; Sandoval Valenzuela, Salvador [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas has a group of risk analysis (GAR), specialized in the most advanced methodologies to apply them in diverse industries of the productive sector, such as the nuclear, the oil and the chemical industries. In this work the integrated methodology that the GAR uses to make risk analysis in the chemical and oil industries is described. These analyses have as an objective to make a meticulous evaluation of the system design, the operation practices, the maintenance and inspection policies and the emergency plans. [Spanish] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas cuenta con un grupo de analisis de riesgo (GAR), especializado en las metodologias mas avanzadas para aplicarlas en diversas industrias del sector productivo, como lo son la nuclear, la petrolera y la quimica. En este trabajo se describe la metodologia integrada que el GAR utiliza para realizar analisis de riesgos en las industrias quimica y petrolera. Estos analisis tienen como objetivo realizar una minuciosa evaluacion del diseno del sistema, las practicas de operacion, las politicas de mantenimiento e inspeccion y los planes de emergencia.

  2. Analisis Industri Ritel Di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Soliha, Euis

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an overview the analisys of retail industry in Indonesia.Retail industry in Indonesia grow rapidly. Industrial presence of modern retailbasically exploits public shopping pattern especially middle-weight and to which donot want to mill around in traditional market. Analysis Five Forces is used toanalysis retail industry. Analysis five force is bargaining power of buyers,bargaining power of suppliers, threat of new entrants, threat of new substituteproducts, and rivalry a...

  3. Analisis Value Chain Di Industri Otomotif

    OpenAIRE

    Hendri, Hendri

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini untuk menganalisis industri otomotif. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis dan mengetahui aktivitas dan kondisi internal proses industri manufaktur dengan menggunakan value chain guna masukan dimasa akan datang bagi industri otomotif secara khusus. Value Chain merupakan rantai nilai yang dapat mengetahui kekuatan Perusahaan, keuntungan dan kesuksesan dari rantai aktivitas dalam Perusahaan atau industri manufaktur.Metode analisis menggunakan Statistika Deskript...

  4. INDUSTRI KREATIF INDONESIA: PENDEKATAN ANALISIS KINERJA INDUSTRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kamil

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the Department of Commerce of the Republic of Indonesia has launched a creative economic development documents interpreted the 2025 Indonesia became the starting point and guide the development of the creative economy in Indonesia. With the existence of this document, the industry and its stakeholders or other stakeholders can readily develop the creative economy in Indonesia. Economic development in the direction of the creative industries is one manifestation of optimism aspiration to support the Master Plan for the Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesia's Economic Development in realizing the vision of Indonesia are being developed nation. The main objective of this study is the first to analyze the role of the creative industries in Indonesia for labor, value added and productivity, secondly, to analyze the performance trend of the creative industries sector, and third, to analyze the factors affecting the performance of the creative industries sector in Indonesia. Under Indonesia Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC and codes 151-372 (manufacturing industries category identified 18 industry groups belonging to the creative industries, showed that the performance of the national creative industries has been relatively high (in terms of trend analysis of the performance of the industrial creative. Furthermore, regression analysis of panel data (econometrics indicates that company size (SIZE, wages for workers (WAGE and the content of local inputs (LOCAL has a significant impact on the performance of Indonesia's creative industry. Meanwhile, the concentration ratio (CR4 no consequences but have koresi significantly positive effect on the performance of Indonesia’s creative industry.

  5. INDUSTRI KREATIF INDONESIA: PENDEKATAN ANALISIS KINERJA INDUSTRI

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Kamil

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the Department of Commerce of the Republic of Indonesia has launched a creative economic development documents interpreted the 2025 Indonesia became the starting point and guide the development of the creative economy in Indonesia. With the existence of this document, the industry and its stakeholders or other stakeholders can readily develop the creative economy in Indonesia. Economic development in the direction of the creative industries is one manifestation of optimism aspiration...

  6. ANALISIS PENGARUH KINERJA LINGKUNGAN TERHADAP KINERJA INDUSTRI KECIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukirman -

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian adalah mengidentifikasi, menganalisis praktik pengelolaan lingkungan pada sentra industri kecil dibandingkan best practices dalam upaya meningkatkan kinerja lingkungan di Kabupaten Pati. Kajian difokuskan pada pengelolaan lingkungan secara efektif dengan melibatkan variabel inisiatif lingkungan, keterlibatan karyawan, dan integrasi dengan supplier. Populasinya adalah seluruh perusahaan Industri Kecil di Kabupaten Pati. Sampel berjumlah 97 perusahaan. Teknik sampling menggunakan kluster sampling, dengan sampel pada sentra industri kecil di Kabupaten Pati.  Analisis menggunakan analisis deskriptif dan analisis komparatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan praktik pengelolaan lingkungan pada sentra industri kecil di Kabupaten Pati belum dilaksanakan secara optimal. Sementara itu, variabel integrasi supplier berpengaruh langsung terhadap kinerja perusahaan.The purpose of this study is to identify and to analyze an environmental management practice which is compared to the best practices in order to improve environmental performance in the industrial centers in Pati District. This study focuses on managing the environment effectively by involving environmental initiative variables, employee involvement, and integration of suppliers. Population in this study was all small industrial enterprises in Pati regency which has 97 companies as data samples. Data were collected by using cluster sampling techniques, and samples were taken from small industrial centers in the District of Pati. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and comparative methods. Results of this study showed that environmental management practices in small industrial centers had not been implemented optimally. Meanwhile, supplier integration variables influenced directly toward corporate performance.

  7. Chemicals Industry Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  8. Analisis Usaha Industri Advertising di Kota Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    Aqualo, Nobel; Indrawati, Toti; Setiawan, Fery

    2014-01-01

    Advertising industry has a good prospects when compared with the past and the present. This research is done for look at the feasibility of the advertising industry with Break Even Point analysis. This study consists of 48 advertising industry existing Pekanbaru in 2012. As for the resulting product is silk screening, billboard, banner, and advertismenrt (web line advertising). The results of the study showed that the total production which is derived from business advertising to average prod...

  9. ANALISIS TINGKAT PERSAINGAN INDUSTRI PERBANKAN DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    romauli manurung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the structure of the banking industry and the level of competition of banking institutions in Indonesia. In measuring and analyzing the model used Panzar-Rosse built on indicators of competition, called H-Stats, which provide a quantitative assessment of the competitive nature of the market. H-statistics calculated from equation reduction in revenue and the size of the total revenue elasticity with respect to changes in input factor prices. Panzar and Rosse show that with certain assumptions, comparison of the static nature of the type of the equation provides a replacement for the overall level of competition prevailing in the market. By using secondary data issued by Bank Indonesia (BI, this study used pooled the data (data panel is to combine data from year 2010 to 2014 on 9 banking institutions. The results showed that the level of competition in the Indonesian banking industry generally contain the elements of nature and the nature of the market monopoly of perfect competition or are in a situation of monopolistic competition (monopolistic competitions

  10. The renewable chemicals industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Rass-Hansen, J.; Marsden, Charlotte Clare

    2008-01-01

    per kilogram of desired product to illustrate in which processes the use of renewable resources lead to the most substantial reduction of CO2 emissions. The steps towards a renewable chemicals industry will most likely involve intimate integration of biocatalytic and conventional catalytic processes......The possibilities for establishing a renewable chemicals industry featuring renewable resources as the dominant feedstock rather than fossil resources are discussed in this Concept. Such use of biomass can potentially be interesting from both an economical and ecological perspective. Simple...

  11. Chemical and petrochemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna

    2018-03-01

    The potential sources of various metals in chemical and petrochemical processes are discussed. Special emphasis is put on the catalysts used in the industry. Their main applications, compositions, especially metal contents are presented both for fresh and spent ones. The focus is on the main types of metals used in catalysts: the platinum-group metals, the rare-earth elements, and the variety of transition metals. The analysis suggested that chemical and petrochemical sectors can be considered as the secondary source of metals. Because the utilization of spent refinery catalysts for metal recovery is potentially viable, different methods were applied. The conventional approaches used in metal reclamation as hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy, as well as new methods include bioleaching, were described. Some industrial solutions for metal recovery from spent solution were also presented.

  12. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-12-01

    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  13. ANALISIS SISTEM PENGEMBANGAN KAWASAN INDUSTRI TERPADU BERWAWASAN LINGKUNGAN: STUDI KASUS DI PT. KAWASAN INDUSTRI MEDAN (Analysis System of Integrated Industrial Estate Ecodevelopment Case Study: At PT. Medan Industrial Estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Febrina Kodrat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Tujuan utama penelitian adalah menganalisis kinerja pengembangan kawasan industri terpadu berwawasan lingkungan. Cakupan aspek penelitian disinkronkan dengan konsep pembangunan berkelanjutan sekaligus dijadikan sebagai batasan kajian, yakni mempersekutukan aspek ekonomi, ekologi dan sosial. Data diperoleh dengan menggunakan metode survei melalui observasi, wawancara mendalam, dan pendapat pakar. Metodologi penelitian menggunakan metode survei dengan menggunakan perpaduan antara hard system (analisis sistem dinamis dan soft system (analisis prospektif. Dari hasil uji statistik chi square (α = 0,01 diperoleh bahwa kelompok masyarakat yang bekerja di dalam PT. KIM mempunyai hubungan yang sangat signifikan dengan kelompok masyarakat yang bekerja di luat PT. KIM terhadap tingkat pendapatan, tingkat pendidikan dan faktor usia. Berdasarkan hasil analisis kualitas limbah cair unit IPAL PT. KIM terdapat 5 parameter yang masih berada diatas nilai baku mutu KepMenLHNo.51/1997, yaitu: BOD, COD, TSS, klorida dan amoniak. Tingkat efisiensi pengolahan limbah cair unit IPAL PT. KIM rata-rata 53,07%. Hasil analisis ketergantungan antar faktor dengan menggunakan Analisis Prospektif diperoleh sebanyak 5 faktor strategis masa depan yang mempengaruhi pengembangan kawasan industri terpadu berwawasan lingkungan, yaitu: jumlah industri, permintaan lahan, kebijakan pemerintah, model pengembangan, dan iklim investasi yang kondusif. Pengembangan kawasan industri terpadu berwawasan lingkungan dapat dilakukan dengan strategi moderat dengan kebijakan mencakup jumlah industri bertambah secara bertahap dengan meningkatnya permintaan lahan serta kebijakan pemerintah yang memfasilitasi peningkatan modal pengembangan dan didukung oleh iklim investasi yang kondusif. ABSTRACT The main purpose of the research is to study environmental aspect of industrial estate development. The scope of the research aspects is synchronized with sustainable development concepts, namely

  14. ANALISIS POSISI BERSAING UNTUK MENENTUKAN STRATEGI PEMASARAN INDUSTRI KRIPIK TEMPE DI KOTA MALANG

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    Rusno Rusno

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Industri kripik tempe di desa Sanan Malang merupakan bagian dari UMKM mengalami perkembang-an yang cukup baik. Hingga akhir tahun 2013 kemarin berjumlah kurang lebih 65 pengrajin, bahkan saat ini Sanan sudah menjadi sentra industri kecil penghasil kripik tempe dan menjadi salah satu pro-duk unggulan kota Malang. Namun dalam perjalanannya industri ini banyak mengalami masalah diantaranya banyak pesaing yang terus masuk dalam bisnis ini. Hal ini mengakibatkan persaingan yang semakin ketat sehingga para pelaku harus dapat menentukan strategi untuk dapat memenangkan persaingan, maka Tujuan dalam penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui bagaimana posisi bersaing dan penetapan strategi pemasaran produsen kripik tempe di kota Malang. Jenis penelitian ini adalah confirmatory research. Sebagai populasinya adalah pengusaha kripik tempe yang berlokasi di kecamatan Blimbing kota Malang yang berjumlah 65 pemilik home industri. Sampel dilakukan dengan teknik Simple random sampling berjumlah 33 pengusaha industri kripik tempe. Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan kuesioner, dan teknik analisis data dengan teknik deskriptif dan tabulasi silang. Berdasarkan analisis data didapatkan hasil penelitian bahwa posisi bersaing industri kripik tempe di Sanan terdapat 4 cluster yang terbagi dalam : Cluster 1 (pemimpin pasar/market leader beranggota-kan 1 perusahaan. Cluster 2(penceruk pasar/market nicher beranggotakan 13 perusahaan, Cluster 3 (penantang pasar/market challenger beranggotakan 8 perusahaan dan cluster 4 (pengikut pasar /market follower beranggotakan 11 perusahaan. 

  15. The chemical industry of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, I.N.

    1995-01-01

    This work deals with the chemical industry of Ukraine and more particularly with the restructuring proposed by the Ministry of Industry. After having presented some generalities the author focuses on the restructuring programme which includes the improvement of the fertilizers supply for agriculture, the development of facilities for basic organic synthesis, the increase of petroleum based chemicals production, the increase of consumer products production and the reorientation of the chemical industry to more accessible and alternative sources of raw materials such as black and brown coal, oil shale, coke, oil-refining gases, plant raw materials... (O.L.)

  16. Analisis Strategi Peningkatan Produksi Mebel di Sentra Industri Kayu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunida Sofiana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the latest couple years, both public and private sectors are doing some efforts and innovations to promote several arts and furniture in Indonesia; through media, cooperation program and exhibitions all over the world. However, this is not effective enough to increase furniture production to better level, especially regarding micro central industry. The micro central industry, especially wood central industry in several areas in Java, mostly has stagnant condition in both local and international. Based on the research in wood central industry in Java, there are factors as the effects: the scarcity and quality of wood material, technology dominance of limited woods, less innovation in designing, unintegrated promotion and marketing and also less strategic planning from the government to develop minor industry. This needs to be analysed according to the condition and need of minor central industry

  17. Analisis Permintaan Energi Listrik Pada Industri Mebel Di Kota Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    ', Permansyah; Chalid, Nursiah; ', Taryono

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of the furniture industry costumers and the value of production of the electric energy demand in the furniture industry in Pekanbaru and to determine the most dominant variable affecting the demand for electrical energy on the furniture industry in the City of Pekanbaru, Riau. The analysis of the data used in this research is quantitative deskriptive model of multiple linear regression model. Result of this study were obtained from questioner (primary) ...

  18. Analisis Industri Bisnis Jasa Online Ride Sharing di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berto Mulia Wibawa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of Online Ride Sharing Business Industry in IndonesiaInnovation in transportation sector with sharing economy principal has create new service sector which is named online ride sharing service. There are a lot of online ride-sharing service players in Indonesia such as Go-Jek, Grab, and Uber. Nowadays, government also have rules on changing the condition of online ride-sharing. Therefore, industry analysis is needed to be analyze further to know the industry attractiveness of the online-ride sharing service. This study aims to analyze the level of attractiveness in online ride-sharing industry in Indonesia. This study used descriptive-explorative method on identifying Porter’s Five Forces as tools in industry analysis. Data collection is using ghost interview method to the selected driver. The conclusion is online-ride sharing industry in Indonesia is quite attractive to be developed in the future because the number of customers has not reached the maximum point, moreover the industry may offer a very diverse product differentiationDOI: 10.15408/ess.v8i1.5739

  19. ANALISIS STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN INDUSTRI JAMU TRADISIONAL DI KABUPATEN BANGKALAN - MADURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Dewi Munica

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Data of Disperindag Bangkalan Regency (2015, shows that Bangkalan Regency has 20 herbal medicine industries. After doing research survey there are some herbal medicine industries that have been inactive, so that this research is conducted to find out alternative strategy that can be used as an effort to develop herbal medicine industry in Bangkalan Regency. This research used analysis of internal environment (IFE and external (EFE, External-internal matrix (IE, SWOT and QSPM matrix (Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix. There are 16 internal factors and 11 external factors. As for alternative strategy there are 5 alternatives obtained from SWOT matrix and IE matrix. In the QSPM matrix, the priority of strategy is 1. Maintain and improve product quality, 2. Increase promotional activities and expand the marketing area,3. Improving relationships with government and other agencies, 4. Maintain company image, and 5. Develop cooperation with other industries outside the region

  20. Analisis Loyalitas Pelanggan Industri Jasa Pengiriman Menggunakan Structural Equation Modeling

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    Sarika Zuhri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer loyalty is important for both product and service industries. A loyal customer keeps using the company’s product and services. For a shipping service company, retaining existing customers in order to remain faithful will certainly be very crucial. This study was to determine relationship between variables affecting customer loyalty at PT. Pos Indonesia-Banda Aceh, a shipping service industry. The research used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM and with samples of 153 questionnaires obtained through a non-probability sampling technique. By using AMOS software, it can be concluded that the perceived quality does affect customer satisfaction, perceived value has influence on the customer satisfaction, the customer satisfaction is influential to trust and the trust itself has positive influence on customer loyalty.

  1. ANALISIS PERBANDINGAN KEMAMPUAN PREDIKSI KEBANGKRUTAN ANTARA ANALISIS ALTMAN, ANALISIS OHLSON DAN ANALISIS ZMIJEWSKI PADA SEKTOR INDUSTRI TEKSTIL YANG GO PUBLIC DI BURSA EFEK INDONESIA PERIODE 2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethani Suryawardani

    2016-03-01

      Abstrak - Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan antara Altman Modifikasi Model, Model Zmijewski dan Model Ohlson dalam memprediksi kebangkrutan pada perusahaan Tekstil dan Garment yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia dari tahun 2008 sampai 2012. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah deskriptif komparatif untuk menjelaskan dan membandingkan tiga metode untuk prediksi kebangkrutan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa Metode Ohlson (O-Score terbukti lebih akurat dalam memprediksi kebangkrutan (kesulitan keuangan, terutama untuk Industri Tekstil dan Garmen karena memiliki akurasi yang lebih tinggi yaitu dengan tingkat probabilitas akurasi 97,8%, itu dibuktikan dengan hasil perhitungan, dimana hanya perusahaan HDTX pada tahun 2011 yang tidak diprediksi bangkrut di masa depan. Sedangkan metode Altman Modifikasi (Z" Score hanya dapat memprediksi kondisi kesulitan keuangan (financial distress untuk perusahaan dengan akurasi 73,3%. Model Zmijewski (X-Score dapat memprediksi kebangkrutan bagi perusahaan sebesar 60% selama periode penelitian.   Kata Kunci: Kebangkrutan, Altman Modifikasi, Ohlson, Zmijewski, Kesulitan Keuangan

  2. ANALISIS BAURAN PEMASARAN KENDARAAN RODA TIGA MEREK KAISAR PADA PT KAISAR MOTORINDO INDUSTRI PEKANBARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Suroto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Banyaknya perusahaan atau operator yang melayani jaringan internet secara otomatis akan timbul suatu proses yang dinamakan pemasaran. Di dalam dunia usaha, pemasaran merupakan salah satu fungsi penting didalam suatu perusahaan, karena dalam pemasaran mencakup beberapa hal kegiatan penting yang kita kenal dengan marketing mix yang diantaranya adalah perencanaan produk (product, penetapan harga (price, program promosi (promotion, sangat penting dalam keberhasilan suatu perusahaan namun ada satu hal yang perlu diperhatikan dan perlu dianalisis apabila perusahaan menginginkan atau mempunyai daur hidup atau life cycle produk yang lebih lama, maka perusahaan harus melakukan analisis perilaku pelanggan. Selain kegiatan pemasaran yang sangat penting perusahaan juga tidak boleh mengabaikan apa yang dibutuhkan oleh seorang konsumen, faktor apa saja yang dapat merangsang pelanggan untuk melakukan pembelian suatu barang, serta mengapa konsumen mempunyai banyak kebutuhan dalam waktu yang relatif singkat dan tentunya hal itu semua menggambarkan arti penting sebuah kegiatan analisis perilaku konsumen. Keluhan yang dirasakan konsumen atau pelanggan adalah promosi yang diberikan atau ditawarkan terkadang sering tidak sesuai dengan kenyataan yang ada di lapangan, seperti akses internet yang lama, dan jaringan yang sering terputus karena adanya gangguan dan sistem perbaikan jaringan. Masalah dalam penelitian ini adalah faktor-faktor apakah yang menyebabkan tidak tercapainya target pemasaran pemasangan jaringan internet speedy pada PT.Kaisar Motorindo Industri Pekanbaru. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah dengan menggunakan metode deskriptif, yaitu menggunakan analisis data kualitatif serta analisis data dengan menghubungkan antara teori dan permasalahan yang diteliti. Hasil penelitian diperoleh variabel produk, dalam hal ini merupakan kombinasi barang dan jasa yang ditawarkan oleh perusahaan kepada pasar sasaran terhadap pemasaran jaringan

  3. Analisis Industri pada Ritel Convenience Store: Kasus 7-Eleven (Sevel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Wandrial

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available 7-Eleven, a Japanese retailer is very popular and loved in Jakarta. 7-Eleven or commonly abbreviated to Sevel is now reaping a lot of fans because of the concept of 7-Eleven Indonesia, found only in Indonesia. With the rising middle classes in Indonesia, 7-Eleven becomes a luxurious place for hanging-out but affordable. Consequently, it is attracting the interest of investors to make such a kind of convenience store like Sevel, and it is likely the competition in this sector will be increasingly fierce. PT. Modern’s initial plans are to focus onopening stores in Jakarta, targeting densely-populated commercial and office areas, to offer Indonesian workersa convenient place to shop for lunch, snacks, and emergency items. The company’s goal is to focus on opening stores in Jakarta in its first years of operation. Other major cities, such as Bandung, Semarang, and Surabaya offer for future expansion opportunities. The objective of this article is to describe the competitive condition in convenience store industries using Porter’s Five Forces model. Although the competition is fierce andunfavorable industry condition, Sevel is still leading and dominating the convenience store market in Indonesia.

  4. ANALISIS KOMPETENSI KEWIRAUSAHAAN, ORIENTASI KEWIRAUSAHAAN, DAN KINERJA INDUSTRI MEBEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzakar ISA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to analyze the influence of competency aspects of entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial orientation on the performance of the furniture industry in Klaten, and analyze the impact of entrepreneurship on performance orientation furniture industry in Klaten. The data used are the primary data, taken in cross section through direct interviews with the owners of the furniture business by using a list of questions. The Sample is 182 funiture businesses or 10% of the population. Testing the validity of using Confirmatory Factor Analysis analyzes (CFA, and reliability testing using Cronbach Alpha. Analysis tool used hierarchical regression analysis. Based on the analysis concluded that (1 model 1 is the best model to explain the relationship between entrepreneurial competencies (skills, and entrepreneurship orientation on the performance of SMEs, (2 entrepreneurial competence (Initiative and enterprises, Planninng and Organizing, technology as well as influential entrepreneurial orientation has positive and significant impact on performance, and (3 entrepreneurship orientation variable proved to mediate the relationship between entrepreneurial competencies and business performance in Klaten furniture.

  5. Analisis Kompetensi Kewirausahaan Industri Kecil Suku Cadang di Kota Padang

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    Prima Fithri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As economic development and current technology, there tends to SMEs have been reversed there is some effort to close down due to lack of existing orders in the business. Therefore, the government made efforts to assist existing SMEs to be able to survive in the face of global crisis is happening right now. These efforts may include providing small loans and may include training services in accordance with its business. One of the materials provided in the training is about entrepreneurship so that SMEs are expected to compete with similar companies. The low ability entrepreneur pointed out as one of the reasons SMEs are not able to compete with large companies, such as SI (Small Industry Spare Parts in the city of Padang. The failure to penetrate IK Parts of competition to supply spare parts in the PT. Semen Padang because of its low ability entrepreneur is owned by SI. With no indicator of entrepreneur ability, there are some problems for governments about policies that will be taken for judge the SI. Therefore, the entrepreneur ability should be decided to helps government in decisions making of policies, so that SI can be competing with larger companies. The method that been used in this study is the Quality Function Deployment (QFD and the recommendations for policies that can be used by the government by using SWOT analysis. QFD is used to identify consumer needs and its association with the characteristic techniques provided by the government, so that the final results are the critical competencies that should be developed first. The linkage between the needs of consumers with technical characteristics reflected in the House of Quality (HOQ. While the results of the SWOT analysis are four types of strategies which can be used later by using the strategy outlined in the strategy implementation architecture for 10 years. This research resulted in 25 indicators of entrepreneurial competencies that include Human Resources (HR, financial, and

  6. Chemical products and industrial materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    A compilation of all universities, industrial and governmental agencies in Quebec which are actively involved in research and development of chemical products and industrial materials derived from biomass products, was presented. Each entry presented in a standard format that included a description of the major research activities of the university or agency, the principal technologies used in the research, available research and analytical equipment, a description of the research personnel, names, and addresses of contact persons for the agency or university. Thirty entries were presented. These covered a wide diversity of activities including biotechnological research such as genetic manipulations, bioconversion, fermentation, enzymatic hydrolysis and physico-chemical applications such as bleaching, de-inking, purification and synthesis. tabs

  7. Applying industrial symbiosis to chemical industry: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hua; Liu, Changhao

    2017-08-01

    Chemical industry plays an important role in promoting the development of global economy and human society. However, the negative effects caused by chemical production cannot be ignored, which often leads to serious resource consumption and environmental pollution. It is essential for chemical industry to achieve a sustainable development. Industrial symbiosis is one of the key topics in the field of industrial ecology and circular economy, which has been identified as a creative path leading to sustainability. Based on an extensively searching for literatures on linking industrial symbiosis with chemical industry, this paper aims to review the literatures which involves three aspects: (1) economic and environmental benefits achieved by chemical industry through implementing industrial symbiosis, (2) chemical eco-industrial parks, (3) and safety issues for chemical industry. An outlook is also provided. This paper concludes that: (1) chemical industry can achieve both economic and environmental benefits by implementing industrial symbiosis, (2) establishing eco-industrial parks is essential for chemical industry to implement and improve industrial symbiosis, and (3) there is a close relationship between IS and safety issues of chemical industry.

  8. Chemical sensors for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanasekaran, K.I.

    2012-01-01

    Development of chemical sensors for detection of gases at trace levels for applications in nuclear industry will be highlighted. The sensors have to be highly sensitive, reliable and rugged with long term stability to operate in harsh industrial environment. Semiconductor and solid electrolyte based electrochemical sensors satisfy the requirements. Physico-chemical aspects underlying the development of H 2 sensors in sodium and in cover gas circuit of the Fast breeder reactors for its smooth functioning, NH 3 and H 2 S sensors for use in Heavy water production industries and NO x sensors for spent fuel reprocessing plants will be presented. Development of oxygen sensors to monitor the oxygen level in the reactor containments and sodium sensors for detection of sodium leakages will also be discussed. The talk will focus the general aspects of identification of the sensing material for the respective analyte species, development of suitable chemical route for preparing them as fine powders, the need for configuring them in thick film or thin film geometries and their performance. Pulsed laser deposition method, an elegant technique to prepare the high quality thin films of multicomponent oxides is demonstrated for preparation of nanostructured thin films of complex oxides and its use in tailoring the morphology of the complex sensing material in the desired form by optimizing the in-situ growth conditions. (author)

  9. Chemical Industry Waste water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, F.A.; Doma, H.S.; El-Shafai, S.A.; Abdel-HaJim, H.S.

    2004-01-01

    Treatment of chemical industrial wastewater from building and construction chemicals factory and plastic shoes manufacturing factory was investigated. The two factories discharge their wastewater into the public sewerage network. The results showed the wastewater discharged from the building and construction chemicals factory was highly contaminated with organic compounds. The average values of COD and BOD were 2912 and 150 mg O 2 /l. Phenol concentration up to 0.3 mg/l was detected. Chemical treatment using lime aided with ferric chloride proved to be effective and produced an effluent characteristics in compliance with Egyptian permissible limits. With respect to the other factory, industrial wastewater was mixed with domestic wastewater in order to lower the organic load. The COD, BOD values after mixing reached 5239 and 2615 mg O 2 /l. The average concentration of phenol was 0.5 mg/l. Biological treatment using activated sludge or rotating biological contactor (RBe) proved to be an effective treatment system in terms of producing an effluent characteristic within the permissible limits set by the law

  10. ANALISIS PRODUKSI INDUSTRI RUMAH TANGGA PENGHASIL PAHAT BATU DI KECAMATAN MUNTILAN KABUPATEN MAGELANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agastya Dwi Sukmarani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak ___________________________________________________________________ Produksi industri produsen domestik Scraft batu ukiran di Subdistristrict Muntilan Kabupaten Magelang, adalah aresult industri dalam negeri yang dapat ditemukan di sepanjang jalan Magelang-Jogja. Bahan yang melimpah tetapi sulit untuk memasarkan produksi mereka karena sistem ijon ijon yang menyebabkan industri dalam negeri untuk berkembang. Produksi industri dalam negeri dari batu carvingcan menjadi faktor affectedmany. Inthis studyusing variabel modal kerja, dan tenaga kerja. The purpuse penelitian ini adalah untuk menemukan mengetahui pengaruh modal kerja, lama usaha dan tenaga kerja di industri dalam negeri dalam batu Districtof ukiran Kabupaten Muntilan Magelang. Metode yang digunakan dalam mengumpulkan data sekunder dan data primer dengan metode purposive sampling yang menggunakan sampel 79 responden. Analisis yang digunakan adalah regresi linier berganda dengan output (Y sebagai variabel dependen dan tiga variabel independen, modal kerja (X1, dan tenaga kerja (X2. Hasil uji penyimpangan asumsi klasik menunjukkan data yang tidak normaliy didistribusikan dan tidak diperoleh penyimpangan. Berdasarkan theresults penelitian menunjukkan bahwa modal dan significane efek kerja yang positif, tenaga kerja dan efek positif yang signifikan. Variabel modal kerja dan buruh di industri rumah tangga di kawasan Muntilan harus dapat excersise pengaruh signifikan dalam rangka menjaga stabilitas produk mereka dan produk yang dihasilkan meningkat konsumen populer. Abstract ___________________________________________________________________ Industrial production of domestic producers scraft of stone carving in Subdistristrict Muntilan Magelang District, is aresult of domestic industry which can be found along the way Magelang-Jogja. Materials are abundant but difficult to market their production due to the bonded labor ijon system that causes the domestic industry to thrive. Domestic

  11. Analisis Kesiapan Industri Manufaktur Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi (TIK Dalam Negeri Untuk Mendukung Implementasi Green-ICT Pada Sektor Telekomunikasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Yuniarti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Industri TIK merupakan bagian dari industri masa depan yang terdiri atas industri perangkat, infrastruktur/jaringan dan aplikasi/konten. Akhir-akhir ini, aspek lingkungan menjadi pertimbangan dalam menciptakan kesinambungan industri, termasuk industri TIK atau yang dikenal dengan istilah TIK hijau. Implementasi TIK Hijau pada penyelenggara telekomunikasi masih menemui beberapa kendala yaitu efisiensi rendah dan investasi tinggi pada penggunaan perangkat TIK berbasis energi alternatif. Selain itu, rencana implementasi TIK Hijau di lembaga pemerintah maupun swasta masih dibayangi isu terkait kekuatan industri dalam negeri. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengukur kesiapan industri manufatur TIK dalam negeri untuk mendukung implementasi TIK Hijau pada sektor telekomunikasi. Pendekatan penelitian menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif berdasarkan indikator attitude, policy, practice, technology dan governance yang dimodifikasi pada Green IT Readiness Model oleh Molla, Alemayehu, et.al. Berdasarkan analisis LSR, secara umum lima responden industri manufaktur dikategorikan memiliki sikap positif. Indikator yang perlu mendapatkan perhatian dari responden yang tergolong memiliki sikap negatif adalah indikator policy dan governance.

  12. MODEL PENDETEKSIAN KECURANGAN LAPORAN KEUANGAN OLEH AUDITOR SPESIALIS INDUSTRI DENGAN ANALISIS FRAUD TRIANGLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reskino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Model Pendeteksian Kecurangan Laporan Keuangan dengan Analisis Fraud Triangle. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat model dalam mendeteksi kecurangan laporan keuangan. Penelitian ini menguji variabel fraud triangle dan auditor spesialis industri dengan kecurangan laporan keuangan. Sampel penelitian adalah 30 perusahaan fraud dan 30 perusahaan non-fraudyang listing di Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI serta terkena sanksi dan kasus oleh Otoritas Jasa Keuangan (OJK. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan financial targetsdapat mendeteksi kecurangan laporan keuangan, sedangkan financial stabililty tidak dapat mendeteksi kecurangan laporan keuangan. Abstract: Financial Statement Fraud Detection Model with Fraud Triangle Analysis. The research purposes is to create a model to detect financial statement fraud. This research examines the variable of fraud triangle and auditor industry specialization with financial statement fraud. Samples were 30 companies of fraud and 30 non-fraud companies that were listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX and sanctioned by the Financial Services Authority (FSA. The result shows the financial targets can be detect financial statement fraud, while financial stability can’t be detect financial statement fraud.

  13. Analisis Hubungan Kluster Industri dengan Penentuan Lokasi Pelabuhan: Studi Kasus Pantai Utara Pulau Jawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulana Prasetya Simbolon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Proses distribusi barang merupakan suatu rangkaian proses yang terkait dalam upaya penguasaan areal pasar terluas melalui maksimisasi penjualan dan minimisasi biaya produksi (transportasi. Sebagian contoh nyata di beberapa wilayah, proses distribusi barang tidak didasarkan pada aspek minimisasi biaya transportasi/trucking (teori lokasi tradisional dimana pengiriman barang tidak melalui pelabuhan muat yang dekat dengan lokasi industri. Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk mengetahui keterkaitan hubungan antara industri dengan penentuan lokasi pelabuhan serta faktor yang mempengaruhinya. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode komparasi hasil perhitungan model deterministik (Linear Programming dan Gravitasi dengan Pembatas Tunggal dengan data yang ada, serta analisis korelasi (model uji kebebasan dan Crammer’s-Coefficient of Association dalam mengukur keeratan hubungan faktor-faktor yang berpengaruh dalam penentuan lokasi pelabuhan. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan adanya hubungan/ korespondensi antara lokasi pelabuhan dengan lokasi industri dimana lokasi kluster industri terlebih dahulu ada dan diikuti lokasi pelabuhan. Faktor utama yang berpengaruh dalam penentuan lokasi pelabuhan adalah jumlah kunjungan kapal. Prosentase hasil komparasi (selisih hasil perhitungan model gravitasi dengan data yang ada untuk variabel jumlah kunjungan kapal (2,2%; daya tampung gudang/CY (2,3%; biaya transportasi/trucking (12,7%. Nilai koefisien korelasi variabel jumlah kunjungan kapal = 0,866 (keeratan hubungan: kuat/tinggi, daya tampung gudang/CY = 0,878 (kuat/tinggi, biaya transportasi (inland = 0,699 (sedang/cukup. Persebaran muatan (ekspor dari: Jawa Timur ke pelabuhan Tanjung Perak (97%, Tanjung Emas (1%, Tanjung Priok (2%; Jawa Tengah & D.I.Yogyakarta ke pelabuhan Tanjung Emas (72%, Tanjung Perak (15%, Tanjung Priok (13%; Jawa Barat ke pelabuhan Tanjung Priok (97,2%, Tanjung Emas (1,5%, Tanjung Perak (1,3%; DKI Jakarta & Banten ke pelabuhan Tanjung Priok (99

  14. Analisis Ekosistem TIK Indonesia Untuk Mendorong Perkembangan Industri Local dan Ekonomi Kreatif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyantina Heppy Anandhita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak             Sektor TIK merupakan pendorong utama pertumbuhan ekonomi sehingga kondisi ekosistem TIK menjadi faktor penting dalam pembangunan. Model New ICT Ecosystem dirumuskan Profesor Martin Fransman  membagi ekosistem TIK menjadi 4 layer yaitu elemen jaringan (layer1, jaringan (layer2, platform, konten dan aplikasi (layer3 dan konsumen final (layer 4. Studi ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peluang dan tantangan bagi pelaku industri ekosistem TIK Indonesia serta rekomendasi strategi pemerintah untuk mendukung pertumbuhan industri TIK local dan ekonomi kreatif. Studi ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif, pengumpulan data melalui FGD dan dept interview dengan narasumber pakar TIK, MIKTI, Kementerian Kominfo, Kementerian Perindustrian dan Detiknas. Dari hasil studi, peluang terbesar Indonesia untuk bersaing dalam industri TIK berada dalam layer 3 yaitu industri konten dan aplikasi. Sedangkan melalui analisis SWOT disimpulkan bahwa untuk mendorong pertumbuhan industri local dan ekonomi kreatif diperlukan strategi antara lain kerjasama sektor pemerintah dan swasta untuk membangun inkubasi TIK dan technopark, kebijakan pemerintah memberikan insentif, proteksi maupun promosi kepada industri TIK domestik. Strategi yang dapat dilakukan Pemerintah untuk mengurangi ketergantungan komponen LN dari industri elektronika dan telekomunikasi dengan pelaksanaan rencana aksi peraturan TKDN industri TIK dan fasilitasi akses finansial/pembiayaan bagi industri. Strategi lainnya adalah peningkatan kualitas tenaga kerja TIK dengan fasilitasi sertifikasi kompetensi (SKKNI bidang kominfo.   Abstract The ICT sector is an important driver of economic growth. “New ICT Ecosystem” model was formulated by Professor Martin Fransman divides ICT Ecosystem in  4 layers, networked element (layer1,: networks (layer2, platform, content and application (layer3, and final consumer.  The purpose of  the study  was to understand the opportunities and

  15. An outline of the Dutch chemical industry and petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heesen, Th.J.; Terwoert, J.; Hoefnagels, F.

    1996-03-01

    An overview is given of the most important processes and products of the chemical and petrochemical industry in the Netherlands. Also attention is paid to the material balance and the energy balance of those industries. refs

  16. The future of the chemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinnar, R.

    1991-01-01

    As Lincoln, we first must ask where we are before we ask whither. I'd therefore like to define where our industry is and how it got there before we look at the challenges facing us. If we view the chemical and petroleum industries through the glass of macroeconomics, they look very healthy. Let's start with size. Table 1 shows that these two industries each provide about 10% of the total U.S. manufacturing output. This paper shows the fraction of the total GNP contributed by the chemical industry and by the petroleum industry and compares them with total manufacturing. The authors note that total manufacturing grew more slowly than the total GNP, whereas over the last 40 years, the chemical industry grew close to the rate of the GNP. For a large industry, this is the best we can hope for. The chemical industry is one of the very few major industries that has consistently maintained a positive trade balance

  17. Industrial chemical exposure: guidelines for biological monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lauwerys, Robert R; Hoet, Perrine

    2001-01-01

    .... With Third Edition of Industrial Chemical Exposure you will understand the objectives of biological monitoring, the types of biological monitoring methods, their advantages and limitations, as well...

  18. Economic Aspects of the Chemical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleske, Joseph V.

    Within the formal disciplines of science at traditional universities, through the years, chemistry has grown to have a unique status because of its close correspondence with an industry and with a branch of engineering—the chemical industry and chemical engineering. There is no biology industry, but aspects of biology have closely related disciplines such as fish raising and other aquaculture, animal cloning and other facets of agriculture, ethical drugs of pharmaceutical manufacture, genomics, water quality and conservation, and the like. Although there is no physics industry, there are power generation, electricity, computers, optics, magnetic media, and electronics that exist as industries. However, in the case of chemistry, there is a named industry. This unusual correspondence no doubt came about because in the chemical industry one makes things from raw materials—chemicals—and the science, manufacture, and use of chemicals grew up together during the past century or so.

  19. Education-industry partnership: the chemical industry experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricknell, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The European Chemical Industry and the Nuclear Power Industry share similar problems and hopefully can share similar solutions to them. A recent survey of public opinion conducted on behalf of the chemical industry has shown that the general public knows little about the industry and does not trust it to behave responsibly. The industry is responding in two ways: firstly to demonstrate that it is a responsible member of the community by operating to the highest safety and environmental standards and by being open in its dealings with the public on such matters. Secondly the industry is working with the education system to ensure that the public has the opportunity to gain a good education in science, is able to make rational judgments about risks and benefits and is better able to understand and accept the role of the chemical industry in society

  20. Control in the Chemical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses various control techniques used in chemical processes, including measuring devices, controller functions, control valves, and feedforward and feedback actions. Applications of control to a real chemical plant are exemplified. (CC)

  1. International Trade of Croatian Chemical Industry Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Buturac

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Croatian chemical industry in international trade is analyzed by applying k-means cluster method. The work is oriented toward the role and contribution of individual product groups in total trade patterns of chemical industry. The RCA indicator, GL index, RUV indicator and the share of individual chemical products in the total export of chemical industry are used as variables. The products at the fourdigit level of the SITC are used as objects. The cluster of chemical products in which Croatia has comparative advantages contributes significantly in export structure. At the same time this cluster consists of a few product types thus indicating strong export concentration of Croatian chemical industry. Regarding of the value of RUV indicator, Croatian chemical industry benefits most in the international trade with antibiotics and medicines that contain antibiotics. Beside fertilizers, these two products have the greatest share in the export structure. The great majority of the chemical products have the low level of intra-industry trade specialization.

  2. Transformation Leadership in Chemical Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Alsherehy, Fahad A.

    2018-01-16

    SABIC is a global leader in diversified chemicals headquartered in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It manufactures on a global scale in the Americas, Europe, Middle East and Asia Pacific, making distinctly different kinds of products: chemicals, commodity and high performance plastics, agri-nutrients and metals. The company has more than 35,000 employees worldwide and operates in more than 50 countries, with innovation hubs in five key geographies ヨ USA, Europe, Middle East, South East Asia and North East Asia.

  3. Transformation Leadership in Chemical Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Alsherehy, Fahad A.

    2018-01-01

    SABIC is a global leader in diversified chemicals headquartered in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It manufactures on a global scale in the Americas, Europe, Middle East and Asia Pacific, making distinctly different kinds of products: chemicals, commodity and high performance plastics, agri-nutrients and metals. The company has more than 35,000 employees worldwide and operates in more than 50 countries, with innovation hubs in five key geographies ヨ USA, Europe, Middle East, South East Asia and North East Asia.

  4. Advisory expert system for energy analysis in industrial boilers; Sistema experto asesor en el analisis energetico de calderas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper Valverde, Nicolas; Lara Rosano, Felipe; Vazquez Nava, Rodolfo [Laboratorio de Inteligencia Artificial, Instituto de Ingenieria UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents an expert system for the operational analysis of industrial boilers, estimating the potential of heat recovery, in the small and medium size industry. The package is friendly, practical, flexible easy to maintain and expandable to take into consideration the user`s specific requirements and allows the analysis of the energy losses in the combustion, feed water, drains, and insulation, identifying the enhancements and estimating the saving potential, in energy as well as economical. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta un sistema experto para analizar la operacion de calderas industriales estimando el potencial de recuperacion de calor, en la pequena y mediana industria. El paquete es amigable, practico, flexible, facil en su mantenimiento y expandible para tomar en consideracion los requerimientos especificos de los usuarios y permite el analisis de las perdidas de energia en la combustion, agua de alimentacion, purgas y aislamientos, identificando las mejoras y estimando ahorros potenciales, tanto energeticos como economicos.

  5. Beyond petrochemicals: The renewable chemicals industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennestrøm, P.N.R.; Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Christensen, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    From petroleum to bioleum: Since biomass is a limited resource, it is necessary to consider its best use. The production of select chemicals from biomass, rather than its use as fuel, could effectively replace the use of petroleum in the chemical industry, but the inherent functionality of biomas...

  6. Job Relocation is High in Chemical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The chances of an employee being relocated are higher in the chemical and plastics industries than in U.S. business as a whole. But the benefits provided by chemical and plastics companies to employees shifted to other locations are generally better than average. (Author/BB)

  7. The modern alchemy: The chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia Giraldo, Asdrubal

    2002-01-01

    A brief history is presented on the development of chemistry from the antiquity, through alchemy, iatrochemistry, electrochemistry, atomic theory and the XVII, XVIII, XIX and X X centuries discoveries up to modern chemistry, fine chemistry, chemical engineering and the modern chemical industry with all of its consequences

  8. Nuclear industry - challenges in chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Sunder Rajan, N.S.; Balu, K.; Garg, R.K.; Murthy, L.G.K.; Ramani, M.P.S.; Rao, M.K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.; Venkat Raj, V.

    1978-01-01

    As chemical engineering processes and operations are closely involved in many areas of nuclear industry, the chemical engineer has a vital role to play in its growth and development. An account of the major achievements of the Indian chemical engineers in this field is given with view of impressing upon the faculty members of the Indian universities the need for taking appropriate steps to prepare chemical engineers suitable for nuclear industry. Some of the major achievements of the Indian chemical engineers in this field are : (1) separation of useful minerals from beach sand, (2) preparation of thorium nitrate of nuclear purity from monazite, (3) processing of zircon sand to obtain nuclear grade zirconium and its separation from hafnium to obtain zirconium metal sponge, (4) recovery of uranium from copper tailings, (5) economic recovery of nuclear grade uranium from low grade uranium ores found in India, (6) fuel reprocessing, (7) chemical processing of both low and high level radioactive wastes. (M.G.B.)

  9. Chemicals Industry New Process Chemistry Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-08-01

    The Materials Technology I workshop was held in November 1998 to address future research needs for materials technology that will support the chemical industry. Areas covered included disassembly, recovery, reuse and renewable technology; new materials; and materials measurement and characterization. The Materials Technology II workshop was held in September 1999 and covered additives, modeling and prediction and an additional segment on new materials. Materials Technology Institute (MTI) for the Chemical Process Industries, Inc. and Air Products & Chemicals lead the workshops. The Materials Technology Roadmap presents the results from both workshops.

  10. Wireless sensor networks in chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minhas, A.A.; Jawad, S.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in wireless technology are a clear indication of the commercial promise of wireless networks. Industrial wireless sensing has now become more economical, efficient and secure as compared to traditional wired sensing. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are successfully being used for process monitoring and control of many industrial plants. This paper explores how Chemical Industry in particular can benefit from the application of WSN technology. Various examples of successful implementation are cited. In order to address the industrial requirements, we propose a low power and low cost solution for process monitoring by implementing WSN. (author)

  11. The chemical industry - friend to the environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    ''The Chemical Industry - Friend to the Environment?'' was a symposium organised by the North East Region committee of the Industrial Division of the Royal Society of Chemistry. This volume contains typescripts from all the lectures given at the symposium. The general public appreciate the material comforts the Chemical Industry provides, for example textiles, ceramics, steel, speciality chemicals, drugs, prosthetics etc. However, for many their comfort is spoiled by the chemical poisoning of the environment through slag heaps, beaches and countryside littered with non-biodegradable unsightly plastic containers, poor air quality through NO x , CO 2 and chlorofluorocarbon emissions, and of course, nuclear waste. The occasional spillage of hazardous chemicals through road, rail and sea accidents do nothing to improve the Industry's image. The majority of these topics were discussed, though no one presumed to know how to remove the problems entirely but many suggestions were put forward as to how this might be achieved. Of the 13 papers presented three were specifically concerned with recycling of plastics, 9 with the environmental impacts of chemicals and one, which is indexed separately, was concerned with radioactive discharges into the environment from the Sellafield reprocessing plant. (Author)

  12. Nuclear techniques in coal and chemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbern, A.W.; Leal, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The use of nuclear techniques for the determination of important parameters in industrial installations is exemplified; advantages of these techniques over other methods conventionally used are pointed out. The use of radiotracers in the study of physical and chemical phenomena occurring in the chemical industry is discussed. It is also shown that, using certain radioisotopes, it is possible to construct devices which enable, for example, the determination of the ash content in coal samples. These devices are economical and easy to be installed for the on-line control during coal transportation. (C.L.B.) [pt

  13. Research and chemical industry in 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapasso, I.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of research with respect to changes taking place within the chemical industry. Specific areas having a significant impact on the future evolution of the industry are identified. The chemical industry is highly R ampersand D intensive with respect to its overall sales volume, as well as, to R ampersand D levels in other industries; and R ampersand D has been a dominant factor influencing the restructuring, on a global scale, of this industry. In the 90's, the industry is expected to have a supply model which is based on the production of marketable high-technology products and integrated systems, developed through coordinated research in multi-disciplinary scientific fields. The optimum strategic and organizational strategies which are to be adopted by the industry during this decade are discussed with reference to the directions being taken by a large multi-national firm in developing strategies in various areas, e.g., new prime materials, environmental protection, pharmacology, and biotechnology. A look is given at recent developments in the sector of advanced polymers, with attention given to processes involving polymer genetics, new products with a wide range of applications and those offering a high level of environmental compatibility. A review of new materials development includes an assessment of prospects for biodegradable plastics based on natural carbohydrates

  14. Safety Considerations in the Chemical Process Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Stanley M.

    There is an increased emphasis on chemical process safety as a result of highly publicized accidents. Public awareness of these accidents has provided a driving force for industry to improve its safety record. There has been an increasing amount of government regulation.

  15. ANALISIS KETIGGIAN MEJA KERJA YANG IDEAL TERHADAP POSTUR PEKERJA DIVISI CUTTING INDUSTRI GARMEN DENGAN POSTURE EVALUATION (PEI PADA VIRTUAL ENVIROMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boy Nurtjahyo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini mencoba untuk mengimplementasikan suatu metodologi untuk mempelajari, dalam lingkungan virtual, aspek ergonomi dari suatu tempat kerja di industri garmen. Variabel tempat kerja yang diteliti dalam penelitian ini adalah ketinggian meja kerja. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mendapatkan konfigurasi ketinggian meja yang ideal bagi pekerja divisi cutting industri garmen. Tool yang digunakan dalam menyelesaikan skripsi ini adalah Posture Evaluation Index yang mengintegrasikan skor Low Back Analysis (LBA, Ovako Working Posture (OWAS, dan Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA. Penentuan konfigurasi yang ideal dilakukan dengan mempertimbangkan jenis pekerjaan dan posisi kerja ketika melakukan pekerjaan tersebut, apakah dalam posisi duduk atau berdiri. Analisis dilakukan dengan menggunakan model manusia digital yang disediakan software Jack pada virtual environment. Hasil penelitian dapat digunakan sebagai referensi dalam merancang tempat kerja yang lebih baik secara ergonomis. Kata kunci : Ergonomi, Virtual Environment, Divisi Cutting  Industri Garmen, Posture Evaluation Index   Abstract   The research deals with the implementation of a methodology in order to study, in a virtual environment, the ergonomics of a work cell in garment industry. The work cell’s variable studied in this research is table height. The goal of this research is to determine an ideal table height for the workers of cutting division in garment industry. The tool to conduct this research is called Posture Evaluation Index (PEI which integrates the score of Low Back Analysis (LBA, Ovako Working Posture (OWAS, dan Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA. The Determination of table height configuration is based on type of work and work position (standing or sitting. The research uses digital human model form Jack software in a virtual environment. The result from this research can be a reference for future work cell design. Keywords: Ergonomics, Virtual Environment, Cutting

  16. Industrial emerging chemicals in the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojinović-Miloradov Mirjana B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent time, considerable interest has grown concerning the presence of the emerging industrial chemicals, EmIC. They are contaminants that have possible pathway to enter to the environment and they are dominantly released by industrial and anthropogenic activities. EmIC are applied in different fields using as industrial chemicals (new and recently recognized, global organic contaminants (flame retardant chemicals, pharmaceuticals (for both human and animal uses, endocrine-modulating compounds, biological metabolites, personal care products, household chemicals, nanomaterial (energy storage products, lubricants, anticorrosive and agriculture chemicals and others that are applied to a wide variety of everyday items such as clothing, upholstery, electronics and automobile interiors. NORMAN (Network of reference laboratories for monitoring of emerging environmental pollutants has established an open, dynamic, list of emerging substances and pollutants. EmIC have been recently detected in the environment due to their long-term presence, pseudo-persistence and increased use. Improvements in sophisticated analytical methods and time integrative passive sampling have enabled the identification and quantification of EmIC, in very low concentrations (ppb, ppt and lower, which likely have been present in all environmental mediums for decades. Passive technology is an innovative technique for the time-integrated measurement of emerging contaminants in water, sediment, soil and air. Passive samplers are simple handling cost-effective tool that could be used in environmental monitoring programmes. These devices are now being considered as a part of an emerging strategy for monitoring a range of emerging industrial chemicals and priority pollutants in the aquatic environment. EmIC are substances that are not included in the routine monitoring programmes and whose fate, behaviour and (ecotoxicological effects are still not well understood. Emerging

  17. Nuclear industry - challenges in chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Sunder Rajan, N.S.; Balu, K.; Garg, R.K.; Murthy, L.G.K.; Ramani, M.P.S.; Rao, M.K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.; Venkat Raj, V.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical engineering processes and operations are closely involved in every step of the nuclear fuel cycle. Starting from mining and milling of the ore through the production of fuel and other materials and their use in nuclear reactors, fuel reprocessing, fissile material recycle and treatment and disposal of fission product wastes, each step presents a challenge to the chemical engineer to evolve and innovate processes and techniques for more efficient utilization of the energy in the atom. The requirement of high recovery of the desired components at high purity levels is in itself a challenge. ''Nuclear Grade'' specifications for materials put a requirement which very few industries can satisfy. Recovery of uranium and thorium from low grade ores, of heavy water from raw water, etc. are examples. Economical and large scale separation of isotopes particularly those of heavy elements is a task for which processess are under various stages of development. Further design of chemical plants such as fuel reprocessing plants and high level waste treatment plants, which are to be operated and maintained remotely due to the high levels of radio-activity call for engineering skills which are being continually evolved. In the reactor, analysis of the fluid mechanics and optimum design of heat removal system are other examples where a chemical engineer can play a useful role. In addition to the above, the activities in the nuclear industry cover a very wide range of chemical engineering applications, such as desalination and other energy intensive processes, radioisotope and radiation applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. (auth.)

  18. Analisis Risiko Pajanan PM2,5 di Udara Ambien Siang Hari terhadap Masyarakat di Kawasan Industri Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Novirsa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu dampak negatif industri pabrik semen terhadap kesehatan masyarakat adalah peningkatan risiko penyakit saluran pernapasan. Risiko tersebut banyak disebabkan oleh pajanan partikulat di udara, khususnya partikulat berukuran di bawah 2,5 mikron (PM2,5. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis risiko pajanan PM2,5 di udara ambien siang hari pada masyarakat di kawasan industri semen. Risiko dihitung dengan metode Analisis Risiko Kesehatan Lingkungan berdasarkan metode Louvar yang menghasilkan nilai Intake pajanan yang diterima individu per hari berdasarkan nilai konsentrasi pajanan, pola aktivitas individu, dan nilai antropometri. Konsentrasi PM2,5 di lingkungan diukur pada 10 titik dengan radius 500 meter antartitik dari pusat pabrik, sedangkan pola aktivitas dan nilai antropometri diukur dengan menggunakan kuesioner pada 92 responden dewasa di kawasan pabrik. Hasil perhitungan risiko yang diterima seumur hidup (lifetime menunjukkan terdapat tiga area berisiko dengan nilai RQ > 1, yaitu Ring 2 (500 – 1.000 m, Ring 4 (1.500 – 2.000 m, dan Ring 5 (2.000 – 2.500 m. Daerah paling aman yang dapat dihuni oleh masyarakat di kawasan industri semen adalah di atas 2,5 km dari pusat industri dengan konsentrasi paling aman 0,028 mg/m3. Kata kunci: Industri semen, infeksi saluran pernapasan, partikulat PM2,5 Abstract One of the negative impacts of cement industry to public health is an increased risk of respiratory disease. These risks are caused by exposure to particulate matter in air, especially fine particulate matter which is smaller than 2,5 microns (PM2,5. This study aimed to analyze the risks of PM2,5 exposure in ambien air at noon on people around cement industry. Risk was calculated using Environmental Health Risk Analysis Method that generates value of individual exposure intake received per day. This value was generated based on the concentration of exposure, individual activity patterns, and anthropometric values. PM2,5 concentrations

  19. Analisis Swot pada Industri Jagung Manis di Kota Payakumbuh (Studi Kasus : Jagung Manis F1aina)

    OpenAIRE

    Ningsih, Dea Gita; Sari, Lapeti; Setiawan, Deny

    2017-01-01

    The success of Industrial and trading sector have given big contribution in creating national economic structure. One of food industries in Payakumbuh city that have vase growth is F1 Aina corn industry. This study aims to determine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the development of Sweet Corn Industry F1Aina. Knowing the industry development strategy F1Aina Sweet Corn. The analytical method used is the SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, opportunites, Threats). This...

  20. Analisis Tingkat Efisiensi Industri Tekstil Dan Produk Tekstil di Indonesia Kurun Waktu 2007 - 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Ruchba, Sarastri mumpuni; Permana, Billy Didik

    2015-01-01

    In the manufacturing industry, textile and textile products (TPT) industry become one of the biggest contributors to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Indonesia, while the manufacturing industry itself is the largest contributor to GDP. However, the Indonesian textile industry in recent years has many problems, among others, the raw material (cotton) were 99.5% imported, textile machinery production average age was 20 years and over, and port charges are expensive. Therefore, this paper aim...

  1. Vacuum technology in the chemical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Jorisch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Based on the very successful German edition and a seminar held by the German Engineers` Association (VDI) on a regular basis for years now, this English edition has been thoroughly updated and revised to reflect the latest developments. It supplies in particular the special aspects of vacuum technology, applied vacuum pump types and vacuum engineering in the chemical, pharmaceutical and process industry application-segments. The text includes chapters dedicated to latest European regulations for operating in hazardous zones with vacuum systems, methods for process pressure control and regulati

  2. Menemukan Strategi Pengembangan Kawasan Industri Melalui Analisis Sektor Unggulan Kota Binjai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessy Eresina Pinem

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing industry is a leading sector that has potentials for promoting rapid growth in a region. The growth that relies on the industrial sector is driven by the sales of production, employment, and other multiplier effects so that many districts or cities in North Sumatra are eager to developing this sector. The types of industry that can be developed are supposed to be appropriate to the industry potentials and local resources in order to boost an optimal growth in the region. In the spatial planning (RTRW of Binjai City 2011 - 2030, the North Binjai District designated as an industrial area. The type of industry which is planned to be developed is a high-tech industry. However, the problem is whether the type specified in the RTRW is suitable to the potentials of local resources? This paper aims to find out the suitable industry to be developed in compliance with the local potentials, especially in the North Binjai District. The analyses applied are LQ, shift share and SWOT to discover the potentials and advantages of the city in comparison to those industries endorsed in the RTRW. The results show that the industrial sector is neither the leading nor potential sector in Binjai. Meanwhile, the results of LQ and shift share analyses show that the sector with the potentials to be developed in Binjai is the construction sector, finance, and services. The similarity to the RTRW policy is only in the service sector. It shows that the service sector can be developed while the computer industry, multimedia, publishing, and printing mismatch the local potentials. However, if the government still wants to develop the industrial sector in North Binjai, there should be diversification strategies to promoting the leading sectors such as building materials and mining industries.

  3. Analisis Lingkungan Industri Kakkk, Ayam Geprek Surabaya Menggunakan Porter's Five Forces Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey, Charles Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis lingkungan industri Kakkk, Ayam Geprek, yaitu industri restoran berdasarkan Porter's Five Forces Model. Tinggi rendahnya masing-masing kekuatan Porter's Five Forces Model dinilai berdasarkan Porter's Five Forces Scorecard. Kemudian, hasil dari Porter's Five Scorecard akan dijadikan patokan bobot dalam External Factor Evaluation (EFE) Matrix untuk mengevaluasi kemampuan Kakkk, Ayam Geprek dalam menghadapi peluang dan ancaman di dalam industri. Jenis ...

  4. SOVT analysis of the nuclear industry in Mexico; Analisis FODA de la industria nuclear en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez R, E.; Hernandez B, M. C., E-mail: edelmiraf@yahoo.com [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Av. Instituto Tecnologico s/n, Ex-rancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    In this work the analysis of strengths, opportunities, vulnerabilities and threats (SOVT) of the nuclear industry in Mexico is presented. This industry presents among its strengths that Mexico is a highly electrified country and has a good established normative mark of nuclear security. Although the Secretaria de Energia in Mexico, with base to the exposed in the Programa Sectorial de Energia 2007-2012, is analyzing the convenience of the generation starting from this source, considering the strong technological dependence of the exterior and the limited federal budget dedicated to this field. As a result of the analysis of the SOVT matrix, were found a great number of strengths that threats, although the vulnerabilities list is major to the strengths, the opportunities list is the bigger. Therefore, the nuclear industry can be a sustainable industry, taking the necessary decisions and taking advantage of the detected opportunities. (Author)

  5. ANALISIS INDUSTRI RUMAH TANGGA GULA SEMUT UNTUK EKSPOR DI KABUPATEN KULON PROGO DAN PURWOREJO

    OpenAIRE

    Prihtanto, Fransisca Nugraheni Putri; Irham, Irham; Suryantini, Any

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to: 1) measure the feasibility of granular brown sugar household industry for export in Kulon Progo and Purworejo districts, 2) determine the value added of the granular brown sugar, 3) determine differences in income, profits, and value added of both industries, 4) determine the factors that affect value added of granular brown sugar, ·5) analyze the sensitivity of the breakeven point with input, output, and exchange rate. The results indicatesthat the granular brown sugar ho...

  6. Analisis Penyerapan Tenaga Kerja pada Industri Kecil Perabot Rumah Tangga dari Kayu (Studi Kasus Kabupaten Klaten)

    OpenAIRE

    Pradana, Venty Oviartha; Pujiyono, Arif

    2014-01-01

    Home industry of household ware made of wood has a potential to decrease the number of unemployed citizens because will recruits many labor. This industry that in Klaten has increased production value. Unfortunately, this increasing was not balanced with the increasing of investment value, material, and the number of employee. The purpose of this research is to analyze the in influance of wage capital and production value to word labor demand. This research use the concept of elasticity of d...

  7. Carbon source in the future chemical industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Peter; Heinrich Krauch, Carl

    1982-11-01

    Rising crude oil prices favour the exploitation of hitherto unutilised energy carriers and the realisation of new technologies in all sectors where carbon is used. These changed economic constraints necessitate both savings in conventional petrochemistry and a change to oil-independent carbon sources in the chemical industry. While, in coal chemistry, the synthesis and process principles of petrochemistry — fragmentation of the raw material and subsequent buildup of molecular structures — can be maintained, the raw material structure largely remains unchanged in the chemistry of renewable raw materials. This lecture is to demonstrate the structural as well as the technological and energy criteria of the chemistry of alternative carbon sources, to forecast the chances of commercial realization and to discuss some promising fields of research and development.

  8. Ultrasonic filtration of industrial chemical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosma, T.

    1974-01-01

    The practical results obtained as a result of filtering industrial chemical solutions under continuous flow conditions with the aid of an ultrasonic filter are presented. The main part of the assembly consists of an ultrasonic generator with an output power of about 400 W and the filtration assembly, in which there is a magnetostrictive amplifier constructed for 20.5 kHz. In addition to ensuring a continuous flow of filtered solution, ultrasonic filters can be replaced or cleaned at intervals of time that are 8-10 times greater than in the case of mechanical filters. They yield considerably better results as far as the size of the filtered particles is concerned. The parameters on which filtration quality depends are also presented.

  9. ANALISIS VARIABEL YANG BERPENGARUH TERHADAP SPREAD HARGA SAHAM PADA INDUSTRI MANUFAKTUR DI BURSA EFEK JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI UTAMI ADY

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Spread adalah selisih harga jual dan harga beli saham di pasar modal. Harga jual dan harga beli ditentukan oleh Broker. Besar kecilnya spread dipengaruhi oleh dua faktor yaitu ketidakseimbangan informasi dan persaingan di antara pelaku pasar. Semakin tinggi ketidakseimbangan informasi diantara pelaku pasar maka semakin besar spread. Dan semakin kuat persaingan di pasar modal maka harga jual semakin rendah dan harga beli semakin tinggi sehingga spread mengecil. Pengumuman dividen diharapkan dapat memberikan informasi ke pasar modal dan mengurangi informasi asimetri sehingga spread mengecil. Sebagai proxy dari informasi digunakan variabel kapitalisasi pasar dan lama terdaftar. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui : (1 pengaruh dari variabel-variabel dividend yield, volume perdagangan, varian return, harga saham, kapitalisasi pasar dan lama terdaftar terhadap spread baik secara simultan ataupun parsial. (2 Manakah diantara variabel-variabel tersebut yang paling berpengaruh terhadap spread Penelitian dilakukan pada 25 perusahaan manufaktur yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Jakarta (BEJ sebagai sampel penelitian. Teknik pengambilan sampel yang digunakan adalah purposive, yaitu pada perusahaan manufaktur yang membayarkan cash dividend dan aktif diperdagangkan pada tahun 1999. Penelitian menggunakan data harian saham di Bursa Efek Jakarta (BEJ pada periode Januari sampai dengan Desember 1999, metode analisis yang digunakan adalah Regresi Linier Berganda. Hasil penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa : (1 Variabel dividend yield dan volume perdagangan mempunyai pengaruh negatif signifikan, varian return berpengaruh positif signifikan. (2 Harga saham berpengaruh negatif tidak signifikan dan lama terdaftar berpengaruh positif signifikan. (3 Terdapat multikolinier antara volume perdagangan dan kapitalisasi pasar sehingga kapitalisasi pasar dikeluarkan dari model. (4 Varian return adalah variabel yang paling berpengaruh terhadap spread. Kemungkinan hasil

  10. On the Influence of the Industrialization Genesis on Modern Strategy of Industrial Policy in Russia: History and Economic Analisys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina G. Vaskina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine the industrialization process in Russia for more than a hundred years, the duration and quality parameters associated with its institutional features. The authors also focus on the relevance of the chosen theme because of the formation of new industrial policy institutions. The hypothesis of the study is based on identifying a set of basis factors of building effective institutions: system, decentralization mechanism, clustering, given a set of groups of interests of subjects of industrial policy implementation. Institutions of new industrial policy implementation in contemporary Russia are focused on achieving multifaceted tasks on a temporary basis, the level of implementation, the degree of relevance, therefore, the conclusion regarding the effective implementation of the strategy of economic development of modern Russia, which should include the following institutions: government programs, effective transparent public procurement, institutional design through the creation of specialized, diversified institutions of industrial-innovative development. Named structural elements must be systematically subordinated to the interests of macro-, meso- and micro levels of economic system. Special importance must have experience of building the institutional system of the new industrial policy, which gives effective results on the social-economic development.

  11. Using game theory to improve safety within chemical industrial parks

    CERN Document Server

    Reniers, Genserik

    2013-01-01

    Though the game-theoretic approach has been vastly studied and utilized in relation to economics of industrial organizations, it has hardly been used to tackle safety management in multi-plant chemical industrial settings. Using Game Theory for Improving Safety within Chemical Industrial Parks presents an in-depth discussion of game-theoretic modelling which may be applied to improve cross-company prevention and -safety management in a chemical industrial park.   By systematically analyzing game-theoretic models and approaches in relation to managing safety in chemical industrial parks, Using Game Theory for Improving Safety within Chemical Industrial Parks explores the ways game theory can predict the outcome of complex strategic investment decision making processes involving several adjacent chemical plants. A number of game-theoretic decision models are discussed to provide strategic tools for decision-making situations.   Offering clear and straightforward explanations of methodologies, Using Game Theor...

  12. ANALISIS PAKET TEKNOLOGI LOKAL DALAM PENGELOLAAN PRODUKSI MADU ORGANIK UNTUK PASAR GLOBAL DAN INDUSTRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Hilmanto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Production of honey conventionally by community do generate constraint at marketing to global market and industry. Model local technological packet is hoped improve the value sell honey commodity to go in global market and industry. Activity of production organic honey use local technological packet is hoped able to face Free Trade Agreement (FTA for local farmer. Local Technological packet at activity produce honey commodity, is expected be able to develop and strengthen production quality commodity. The objective of this research was to analyse the local technological packet at activity produce organic honey commodity to industrial and the global market in the form of technological model of management produce honey. The research method use Knowledge Base Creation constructively computer program of Agroekological Knowledge Toolkit 5 (AKT5. Result of research indicate that application local technological packet at activity produce organic honey had to watched five activity, namely: (a system agroforestry as source of nectar and pollen; (b to improve the stock honeybee; (c select, breeder, making bee hive honey; (d give meal artificial (e time and technique of cropping, till the product was sold. The result of reseach showed that the responder group applying activity produce honey organic at species Apis cerana yield 2,5 kg each stup, rate moisture content 20%, not turbid, and cleared at yielded honey. Result Interpretation was showed fulfill ideal technology management target

  13. The chemical industry of uranium in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1955-01-01

    The actual CEA program is concerned with the construction of two large graphite reactors, each of those containing at least one hundred tons of uranium metal with nuclear purity. The uranium for these two reactors will be regularly supplied by new resources discovered in France and Madagascar in the last five years. The working and treatment of such ore have led to the creation of an important french industry of which the general outline and principle are described. The operated ores have got different natures and concentration, individual characteristics are described for the main ores.The most high-grade ore are transported to a central plant in Bouchet near Paris; the low-grade ore are concentrated by physical methods or chemical processes of which principles and economy are studied with constancy. The acid processes are the only used until now, although the carbonated alkaline processes has been studied in France. The next following steps after the acid process until the obtention of uranium rich concentrate are described. The purification steps of uranium compounds to nuclear purity material are described as well as the steps to elaborate metal of which the purity grade will be specify. Finally, the economic aspects of uranium production difficulty will be considered in relation with technical progresses which we can expect to achieve in the future. (M.P.)

  14. Interventions to Encourage and Facilitate Greener Industrial Chemicals Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Faulkner, David

    2017-01-01

    Despite their ubiquity in modern life, industrial chemicals are poorly regulated in the United States. Statutory law defines industrial chemicals as chemicals that are not foods, drugs, cosmetics, nor pesticides, but may be used in consumer products, and this distinction places them under the purview of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), which received a substantial update when the US congress passed a revision of the act in 2016. The revised law, the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety...

  15. ANALISIS VARIABEL YANG MEMPENGARUHI EARNINGS PER SHARE PADA INDUSTRI FOOD AND BAVERAGES YANG GO PUBLIC DI BURSA EFEK JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUTEJO - -

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Ide penelitian ini didasarkan pada kenyataan bahwa para investor bersedia melakukan investasi, kalau obyek investasi tersebut mampu menghasilkan keuntungan yang lebih tinggi dari obyek investasi lainya, sehingga perusahaan yang go public harus menarik bagi calon investor. Earnings per share merupakan salah satu indikator utama yang digunakan investor dalam melihat daya tarik suatu saham. Informasi ini akan bermanfaat bagi pengambilan keputusan di bidang keuangan pada industri food and baverages yang menjual sahamnya di Bursa Efek Jakarta. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi pengaruh variabel-variabel return on equity (X1, net sales (X2, current ratio (X3, debt to equity (X4, inventory turnover (X5, total assets turnover (X6, dan net profit margin (X7 terhadap earnings per share, baik secara simultan maupun secara partial. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan mengambil keseluruhan elemen populasi industri food and baverages yang go public di Bursa Efek Jakarta, mulai tahun 1992 sampai dengan tahun 1996 dengan rincian sebagai berikut: tahun 1992 berjumlah 9 perusahaan, tahun 1993 berjumlah 15 perusahaan, tahun 1994 berjumlah 19 perusahaan, tahun 1995 berjumlah 20 perusahaan dan tahun 1996 berjumlah 20 perusahaan. Analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah analisis regresi berganda, dengan hasil sebagai berikut : Pertama, return on equity (X1, net sales (X2, current ratio (X3, debt to equity (X4, inventory turnover (X5, total assets turnover (X6, dan net profit margin (X7 secara simultan berpengaruh dalam menentukan variabilitas earnings per share. Kedua, diantara berbagai variabel bebas tersebut hanya inventory turnover (X5 yang tidak berpengaruh secara signifikan dalam menentukan variabilitas earnings per share, hal ini tentunya tidak terlepas dari kenyataan pada industri food and baverages di Indonesia, dimana untuk menjamin kelancaran dan kualitas bahan baku yang dibeli, perusahaan harus memberikan bantuan teknis

  16. ANALISIS PERAMALAN PENJUALAN PRODUK KERIPIK PISANG KEMASAN BUNGKUS (Studi Kasus : Home Industry Arwana Food Tembilahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Wardah

    2017-01-01

    Forecasting is a method to estimate a value of the future using past data. This research was conducted at the Home Industry Arowana Food. In this study, the authors discuss the analysis of product sales forecasting banana chips for this type of packaging wrap. Forecasting that do use traditional three methods are methods Moving Average, Exponential Smoothing method with Trend and Trend Anayisis method by comparing the level of errors (error the smallest, then the selected forecasting method is the method of Trend Analysis, with a value of 161.3539 MAD, MSE of 55744 , 16, and the standard error of 242.947. From the analysis of data processing that has been carried out based on the method chosen forecasting, sales forecasting for products banana chips are as many types of packaging wrap 1121.424 or 1 122 packs / month, meaning the Home Industry Arowana Food Tembilahan must provide products banana chips wrapped packs is as much as 1122 wrap for each month.

  17. Chemicals-Industry of the Future; Industrial Partnerships: Advancing Energy and Environmental Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE Office of Industrial Technologies

    2001-01-01

    This tri-fold brochure describe the partnering activities of the Office of Industrial Technologies' (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) for Chemicals. Information on what works for the Chemicals industry, examples of successful partnerships, and benefits of partnering with OIT are included

  18. Biobased chemicals: the convergence of green chemistry with industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, Jim C; Ritchie, Rachael J; Allan, Jacqueline E M

    2013-04-01

    Policy issues around biobased chemicals are similar to those for biobased plastics. However, there are significant differences that arise from differences in production volumes and the more specific applications of most chemicals. The drivers for biobased chemicals production are similar to those for biobased plastics, particularly the environmental drivers. However, in Europe, biobased chemical production is further driven by the need to improve the competitiveness of the chemicals industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. EKONOMI INDUSTRI PULP DAN KERTAS INDONESIA: ANALISIS SIMULASI KEBIJAKAN DAN TEKANAN INTERNASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Widyantoro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The objectives of this study are to evaluate the impacts of relevant policy alternatives and international pressure for Indonesian pulp and paper industries on the domestic economy. Ten policy alternatives set for period 1993-2003 are simulated with a simultaneous econometric model. The two-stage least squares method was used to estimate the parameters of the behavioral equations in the model.  Using income distribution and welfare criterias, the results indicate that the objective of decreasing pulp price will  improve the welfare of Indonesian society. It is essential that the policies would avoid a monopsony of  pulpmills for the timber-estate and a monopoly for the papermills.  Not significantly, the distribution of replanting fund  will improve in a little of the domestic economy.  Since the distribution of the fund be stopped, then producers' surplus will decline and the highest income distribution will be received by small-log producers, and the income transfer effects result a net welfare gain to Indonesian society. Stock dictation will be the domestic economy worse-off, but that would not be a case in the export embargo. Indonesia will loss in foreign exchange receipts because of the decreasing interest rate and international pressures. The domestic economy will decline due to this policies and pressure, so the net transfer effects are a welfare loss to Indonesian society as a whole

  20. Three-dimensional analysis of the airflow in an industrial nozzle; Analisis tridimensional del flujo de aire en tobera industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigueras Zuniga, M. O.; Santos Nunez, C.; Bolado Estandia, R. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    This work presents an estimation of the aerodynamics' effects produced by the air flow velocity in the inlet of an industrial oven. The research was based on a combustor chamber installed at the Laboratorio de Sistemas de Combustion del Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Veracruz, Mexico. The results showed the numerical simulations of the three-dimensional effects of the air flow. The range of the velocity air flow (0 to 1.5 m/s) resulted that the flow behaviour and the recirculation zone were symmetric from the axial axis. On the other hand, the range of the velocity flow (1.5 to 3.8 m/s) resulted that the recirculation was not uniform and it was observed that the flow was directed to the top region of the chamber wall. This information was compared with experimental data recorded in a previous test. Finally, this work demonstrated that the flow velocity range of 1.5 to 3.8 m/s produced three-dimensional effects and changed the flame position. For that reason, it is important to correct this problem to improve the combustion process. [Spanish] El siguiente trabajo presenta una estimacion de los efectos aerodinamicos producidos por la velocidad del flujo de aire en la garganta de admision de un horno industrial. Para esta investigacion se considero la actual configuracion del horno instalado en el Laboratorio de Sistemas de Combustion del Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo en Veracruz, Mexico. Los resultados fueron obtenidos a partir de la creacion de un modelo de simulacion numerica que permitio estudiar los efectos tridimensionales del flujo de aire. Basados en los resultados de la simulacion, se determino que el rango de 0 a 1.5 m/s (velocidad del flujo de aire) se comporta de forma simetrica respecto al eje axial central. Para un rango de velocidades mayor a 1.5 m/s el flujo de aire se comporta no uniforme con una tendencia de direccion a la parte superior de la camara de combustion. La informacion obtenida del modelo fue comparada con datos experimentales

  1. Computer integrated manufacturing in the chemical industry : Theory & practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Teelen, A.; Selen, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the possibilities of implementing Computer Integrated Manufacturing in the process industry, and the chemical industry in particular. After presenting some distinct differences of the process industry in relation to discrete manufacturing, a number of focal points are discussed.

  2. Chemical industrial areas and their dynamic danger behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Genserik L L; Audenaert, Amaryllis; Dullaert, W.; Soudan, K.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical industrial areas or so-called chemical clusters consist of various companies situated next to each other. Such areas are composed of hundreds of chemical installations exhibiting danger to a certain degree for initiating or continuing knock-on effects. In this paper, a methodology to model

  3. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Products It Makes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    This section of the annual report on the chemical industry presents data on these areas of chemical production: growth rates, man-made fibers; the 50 largest volume chemicals, major inorganics and organics, plastics, drugs, magnesium, and paint. Includes production figures for 1961, 1969, 1970, 1971 and percent change for 1970-71 and for 1961-71.…

  4. Milestones in 150 years of the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, P.J.T.; Campbell, W.A.; Roberts, H.L.

    1991-01-01

    Milestones in 150 years of the Chemical Industry charts the history of the industry in its crucial role of meetings basic human needs. The book provides on overview of developments in the industry in the fields of health, clothing, energy, materials and information technology and sets the information in an historical context. It will be of interest to chemists in industry, academic, business and to the lay public. (author)

  5. Resilience of chemical industrial areas through attenuation-based security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reniers, G.L.L.; Sörensen, K.; Khan, F.; Amyotte, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of attenuation-based security within chemical industrial areas. Representing chemical industrial areas as mathematical networks, we prove by case-study that the resilience to disaster of such areas may follow a power-law distribution. Furthermore, we examine what happens to the network when highly hazardous installations would be intelligently protected against malicious acts: the network disintegrates into separate smaller networks. Hence, islands are formed with no escalation danger in between. We conclude that it is possible to protect chemical industrial areas in such a way that they are more resilient against terrorism

  6. Vulnerability assessment of chemical industry facilities in South Korea based on the chemical accident history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, S.; Lee, W. K.; Jong-Ryeul, S.; Kim, M. I.

    2016-12-01

    The use of chemical compounds are keep increasing because of their use in manufacturing industry. Chemical accident is growing as the consequence of the chemical use increment. Devastating damages from chemical accidents are far enough to aware people's cautious about the risk of the chemical accident. In South Korea, Gumi Hydrofluoric acid leaking accident triggered the importance of risk management and emphasized the preventing the accident over the damage reducing process after the accident occurs. Gumi accident encouraged the government data base construction relate to the chemical accident. As the result of this effort Chemical Safety-Clearing-house (CSC) have started to record the chemical accident information and damages according to the Harmful Chemical Substance Control Act (HCSC). CSC provide details information about the chemical accidents from 2002 to present. The detail informations are including title of company, address, business type, accident dates, accident types, accident chemical compounds, human damages inside of the chemical industry facilities, human damage outside of the chemical industry facilities, financial damages inside of the chemical industry facilities, and financial damages outside of the chemical industry facilities, environmental damages and response to the chemical accident. Collected the chemical accident history of South Korea from 2002 to 2015 and provide the spatial information to the each accident records based on their address. With the spatial information, compute the data on ArcGIS for the spatial-temporal analysis. The spatial-temporal information of chemical accident is organized by the chemical accident types, damages, and damages on environment and conduct the spatial proximity with local community and environmental receptors. Find the chemical accident vulnerable area of South Korea from 2002 to 2015 and add the vulnerable area of total period to examine the historically vulnerable area from the chemical accident in

  7. Creative research in the chemical industry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These efforts have involved several collaborators including many from other institutions and offered multitudinous challenges calling for continuous creativity in industrial setups. I was fortunate to have had a conducive environment to be able to respond to these challenges. I attempt to offer the readers in the ensuing pages ...

  8. Biobased industrial chemicals from glutamic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    In dit onderzoek is op zoek gegaan naar routes om van glutaminezuur vier producten te maken die van waarde zijn voor de industrie, die nu uit olie gemaakt worden. Dat zijn grondstoffen voor allerlei soorten kunststof, zoals nylon en rubbers. Het onderzoek laat zien dat alle vier die producten

  9. Sublethal effects of industrial chemicals on fish fingerlings (Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-22

    Mar 22, 2010 ... Key words: Tilapia guineensis, industrial chemical, bioaccumulation, surfactants. ... product that has acceptable stability in oil pipelines. (Patton, 1995). .... assays were assessed with the two-factor ANOVA (analysis of.

  10. Membrane technology: in the chemical industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nunes, S. P; Peinemann, K. V

    2001-01-01

    ... terephthalate) 15 22 23 32 37 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Surface Modification of Membranes Chemical Oxidation 39 Plasma Treatment 40 Classical Organic Reactions 41 Polymer Grafting 41 39VI Contents 6 6.1 ...

  11. Accidents in chemical industry: are they foreseeable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnemans, P.J.M.; Körvers, P.M.W.

    2006-01-01

    ‘Accidents recur,’ which is what Kletz [Kletz T. (1993). Lessons from disasters, how organisations have no memory and accidents recur. UK: Institution of Chemical Engineers] wrote in 1993. Indeed, despite all measures taken accidents may re-occur, but ‘disruptions’ in a process reoccur much more

  12. Olefin Recovery from Chemical Industry Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.R. Da Costa; R. Daniels; A. Jariwala; Z. He; A. Morisato; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans

    2003-11-21

    The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process to separate olefins from paraffins in waste gas streams as an alternative to flaring or distillation. Flaring these streams wastes their chemical feedstock value; distillation is energy and capital cost intensive, particularly for small waste streams.

  13. Employment in the U.S. Chemical Industry. Chemical Work Force Tops 1.1 Million.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The annual census of industrial employment, production workers, women, the workweek, scientists and engineers, chemical employment, wages, and productivity in the chemical industry is presented. Trends in the numbers of workers, productivity, and unit labor costs are illustrated in graphs. (CW)

  14. The Industrial Toxics Project: Targeting chemicals for environmental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    In September, 1990, the Administrator of the US Environmental Protection Agency committed the Agency to a program of targeting chemicals for multi-media risk reduction activities through pollution prevention. The Industrial Toxics Project will place emphasis on obtaining voluntary commitments from industry to reduce releases of toxic chemicals to the air, water, and land with a goal of reducing releases nationwide by 33% by 1992 and 50% by 1995. An initial list of 18 chemicals have been selected based on recommendations from each Agency program. The chemicals selected are subject to reporting under the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Program which will provide the basis for tracking progress. The chemicals are characterized by high production volume, toxicity and releases and present the potential for significant risk reduction through pollution prevention. This presentation will discuss the focus and direction of this new initiative

  15. Advances in chemical engineering in nuclear and process industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    Symposium on Advances in Chemical Engineering in Nuclear and Process Industries dealt with a wide spectrum of areas encompassing various industries such as nuclear, fertilizer, petrochemical, refinery and cement. The topics covered in the symposium dealt with the advancements in the existing fields of science and technologies as well as in some of the emerging technologies such as membrane technology, bio-chemical and photo-chemical engineering etc. with a special emphasis on nuclear related aspects. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately.

  16. Advances in chemical engineering in nuclear and process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Symposium on Advances in Chemical Engineering in Nuclear and Process Industries dealt with a wide spectrum of areas encompassing various industries such as nuclear, fertilizer, petrochemical, refinery and cement. The topics covered in the symposium dealt with the advancements in the existing fields of science and technologies as well as in some of the emerging technologies such as membrane technology, bio-chemical and photo-chemical engineering etc. with a special emphasis on nuclear related aspects. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  17. Risk management programs in the chemical industry from Bhopal onward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, J.J.; Greenberg, H.R.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical process safety has long been a consideration in industry but the tragedy at Bhopal in late 1984 resulted in significantly increased attention from industry, government, and the public. Whereas Bhopal had a major effect on regulations in the US, two earlier, highly publicized accidents affected regulations in the United Kingdom and Europe. A 1974 cyclohexane explosion at a chemical manufacturing plant in Flixborough, England, caused a number of fatalities, while a 1976 runaway reaction at a chemical works near Sevesco, Italy, contaminated surrounding farmland and water supplies with dioxin. Although the public's interest can be fickle, the residual concern from all these incidents has been sufficient to affect important regulatory and industry initiatives in the US and abroad. The development of the most important of the US initiatives are reviewed here. Common elements in various process safety management programs are noted and the latest regulatory developments reported. Application can be made to the nuclear industry

  18. News from Online: Industrial Chemicals and Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney Judd, Carolyn

    1999-02-01

    of the American Chemical Society Divisions of Polymer Chemistry and Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering and General Electric Corporation. The POLYED site, http:/ /chemdept.uwsp.edu/polyed/index.htm, is hosted by the University of Wisconsin at Stevens Point. This National Center for Polymer Education is another good place to go for information. More education is available at the Ziegler Research Group Home Page at http://www.chem.ucalgary.ca/groups/ziegler/index.html . Go to Metallocene as Olefin Polymerization Catalysis: An Introduction ( http://www.chem.ucalgary.ca/groups/ziegler/met_intro.html ) for historical accounts of metallocene and Ziegler-Natta catalysts. Movies are available here too. This Canadian site is well-documented and educational. Back at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, The Why Files site at http://whyfiles.news.wisc.edu helps bring important chemical and technology news to the public. Go to the archived files of October 1997 ( http://whyfiles.news.wisc.edu/shorties/catalyst.html ) to find information about the importance of low-temperature metallocene catalysts. The Why Files received funding from the National Science Foundation. Go here for science information in an easy-to-read format. One of the driving forces toward better catalysis is the attempt to reach 100% product, combining efficiency with lowered pollution. Companies can look to the Environmental Protection Agency for information: Environsense at http://es.epa.gov/ is pledged to offer "Common Sense Solutions to Environmental Problems". So where can we get these polymers? The American Chemical Society can help. Go to Chemcylopedia at http://pubs.acs.org/chemcy99/ for great information. Both purchasers and users of chemicals can benefit from this site. Searches can be made on the chemical or on the supplier. Information provided includes CAS Registry Numbers and special shipping requirements as well as potential applications. Do you remember that we started with paper? Let

  19. The Asia/Pacific chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tattum, L.

    1993-01-01

    The year of the Rooster may herald interesting change for the Asia/Pacific region. Local dynamics are shifting away from Japan, the traditional motor of the region, now in recession toward China, which is increasingly catching the imagination of investors. Japan's lead in major petrochemicals has eroded since restructuring of domestic industry. Ten years ago Japan was the location for 76% of Asian ethylene capacity, according to Chem Systems. It also held 89% of styrene capacity, 69% of polyolefins, and 62% of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Today it accounts for only 46% of Asian ethylene, 53% of styrene, 40% of polyolefin, and 37% of PVC capacity. Another country to watch is Vietnam many companies are waiting for sanctions to lift on US investment. When they do, this country of rich oil reserves but per capita income of only $200, will look to petrochemicals as a source of foreign investment

  20. Occupational chemical exposures in artificial organic fiber industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guirguis, S S; Cohen, M B

    1984-05-01

    This review discusses artificial organic fibers that are produced from materials of natural origin such as rayons, cellulose triacetates and proteins; or made from polymerised chemicals such as polyamides, polyesters, polyvinyls, modacrylics, carbon fibers, polyolefins, polyurethane and polytetrafluoroethylene. Chemicals involved include monomers, solvents, flame retardants, pigments and other additives. Occupational exposure to chemicals in the production stages are discussed and also the potential health hazards involved are reviewed. Current exposure levels, engineering controls and work practices for some of the chemicals used in the Ontario artificial fiber industry are discussed. Recommendations are made for areas that need further study and/or investigation.

  1. ANALISIS MANFAAT DAN BIAYA SOSIAL LIMBAH INDUSTRI TAHU DAN LIMBAH PETERNAKAN DI DAERAH PEDESAAN (Benefit and Social Cost Analysis of Tofu Industry and Livestock Waste Product in Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Anggraeni Kusumastuti

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Desa Sumber Mulyo, Kabupaten Gunung Kidul dikenal sebagai pusat industri tahu, dan berpotensi sebagai penyedia pakan ternak yang berasal dari limbah industri tahu. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui biaya dan manfaat sosial pemanfaatan limbah terhadap total pendapatan rumah tangga. Data primer diperoleh dari produsen tahu dan non-produsen tahu, masing-masing 18 dan 22 responden dari produsen non-tahu. Analisis input-output digunakan untuk analisis penghasilan total rumah tangga. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kontribusi penggunaan limbah tahu dan pupuk terhadap penghasilan rumah tangga adalah kecil. Penghitungan depresiasi dengan pengukuran kualitas air menunjukkan penghasilan produsen tahu turun dari Rp.56.241.540,-/tahun menjadi 48.750.320,-/tahun. Hal tersebut mengindikasikan bahwa peternak sapi dan produsen tahu masih berada dalam usaha tradisional. Dampak negatif dari faktor eksternal dari usaha mereka tidak diperhitungkan.   ABSTRACT Sumber Mulyo Village, Gunung Kidul district is wellknown as the center of tofu industry and potential for feedlot raising. This is supported by the use of tofu waste as feedlot feed. The objective of the research was to find out the amount of social cost and benefit of the waste use towards total household income. Primary data were collected from 18 respondents of tofu producers and 22 respondents of non tofu producers. Input-Output analysis was used for total household income analysis. The results of the study showed that the contribution of the use of tofu waste and the manure of feedlot towards total household income were small. The counting of cost depreciation by water quality measurements causes the income of tofu producers decreases from 56.241.540 rupiah per year to 48.750.320 rupiah per year. This indicated that cattle farmers and tofu producers still on the traditional effort. The impact of negative externality from theur effort was not counted.

  2. Coal chemical industry and its sustainable development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Kechang; Li, Wenying; Zhao, Wei

    2010-01-01

    China is rich in coal resource, which is vital for energy security in this country. In early 21st century, the coal chemical industry in China will be oriented to the development of high efficiency, safety, cleanliness, and optimum utilization. In this review, the authors present an introduction to the utilization status of primary energy production and consumption in China. Since 2005, fundamental research studies, supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Chinese National Basic Research Program, have been carried out at Taiyuan University of Technology. The Ministry stresses that the new coal chemical industry should be developed in a sustainable manner to realize effective utilization of energy. Moreover, upgrading the high technology to improve actively the recycling processes of coal chemical engineering is of strategic importance to realize the modern coal chemical engineering.

  3. The chemical industry - a danger to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigtsberger, P.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear power stations could contaminate large areas with radioactivity when destroyed by strong external influences. In Germany, authorities try to cope with this danger firstly by making certain demands on the strength of the reactor shell and secondly by imposing strict safety regulations on dangerous industrial plants in the surroundings of the reactor. In the case of chemical industry, this means: If a chemical plant and a nuclear reactor lie closely together, special stress is given to explosion pretection measures in the form of primary explosion protection, e.g. strong sealing of inflammable gases and liquids handled in the immediate neighbourhood of the reactor. (orig.) [de

  4. Chemical investigation of the effluents of selected chemical industries in NWFP (Pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, M.R.; Shah, J.; Shah, H.

    2002-01-01

    Samples of effluents were collected from the waste water drains of selected chemical industries, located at small industries estate Kohat Road Peshawar on monthly basis from November 1994 to October 1995. These samples were studied for physico chemical properties and heavy metals like Pb, Ag, Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Cd, Mn and Ni using spectroscopic techniques. The results of our investigation are presented and discussed. (author)

  5. Industrial hygiene survey. CF Chemicals, Inc., Bartow, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, F.; Cassady, M.

    1977-10-01

    An industrial hygiene survey was conducted by NIOSH at CF Chemicals, Bartow, Florida on August 9-12, 1976 as part of a study of the phosphate industry. A description is given of the plant, and the medical, safety, and industrial hygiene programs. During the study, 8-hour time weighted averages were determined for exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, vanadium, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid for workers involved in cleaning out phosphoric acid reactor vessels. General area samples were collected for fluorides, radon, and uranium. The results came within the OSHA standards except for two fluoride samples

  6. Industrial hygiene survey. IMC, Phosphate Chemical Complex, New Wales, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, F.; Cassady, M.

    1977-10-01

    An industrial hygiene survey was conducted by NIOSH at IMC Phosphate Chemical Complex, New Wales, Florida, on June 7-11, 1976, as part of a study of the phosphate industry. Phosphate fertilizer manufacturing, the plant, and the medical, safety, and industrial hygiene programs are described. During the study 8-hour time weighted averages were determined for exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, vanadium, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid for workers involved in cleaning out phosphoric acid reactor vessels. General area samples were collected for fluorides, radon, and uranium. Several samples were above the NIOSH recommended levels for arsenic and chromium

  7. Metallurgical engineering and inspection practices in the chemical process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moller, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    The process industries, in particular the petroleum refining industry, adopted materials engineering and inspection (ME and I) practices years ago and regularly updated them because they were faced with the handling and refining of flammable, toxic, and corrosive feed stocks. These industries have a number of nonproprietary techniques and procedures, some of which may be applicable in the nuclear power generation field. Some specific inspection and engineering techniques used by the process industries within the framework of the guidelines for inspections and worthy of detailed description include the following: (1) sentry drilling or safety drilling of piping subject to relatively uniform corrosion, such as feedwater heater piping, steam piping, and extraction steam piping; (2) on-stream radiography for thickness measurement and detection of unusual conditions - damaged equipment such as valve blockage; (3) critical analysis of the chemical and refining processes for the relative probability of corrosion; (4) communication of valuable experience within the industry; (5) on-stream ultrasonic thickness testing; and (6) on-stream and off-stream crack and flaw detection. The author, trained in the petroleum refining industry but versed in electric utilities, pulp and paper, chemical process, marine, mining, water handling, waste treatment, and geothermal processes, discusses individual practices of these various industries in the paper

  8. Analisi matematica

    CERN Document Server

    Canuto, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Il presente testo intende essere di supporto ad un secondo insegnamento di Analisi Matematica in quei corsi di studio (quali ad esempio Ingegneria, Informatica, Fisica) in cui lo strumento matematico parte significativa della formazione dell'allievo. I concetti e i metodi fondamentali del calcolo differenziale ed integrale in più variabili, le serie di funzioni e le equazioni differenziali ordinarie sono presentati con l'obiettivo primario di addestrare lo studente ad un loro uso operativo, ma critico. L'impostazione didattica dell'opera ricalca quella usata nel testo parallelo di Analisi Matematica I. La modalità di presentazione degli argomenti ne permette un uso flessibile e modulare. Lo stile adottato privilegia la chiarezza e la linearità dell'esposizione. Il testo organizzato su due livelli di lettura. Uno, più essenziale, permette allo studente di cogliere i concetti indispensabili della materia, di familiarizzarsi con le relative tecniche di calcolo e di trovare le giustificazioni dei principali r...

  9. Fifty-Year Trends in the Chemical Industry: What Do They Mean for Chemical Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Chadwick A.; Parshall, George W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes major changes that have occurred in the chemical industry over the last 50 years including trends in the development of products and processes, changes in chemical manufacturing, the globalization of business, and modifications of research laboratory practices. Discusses implications for chemistry education and predictions for future…

  10. Metal-organic frameworks for the removal of toxic industrial chemicals and chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbitt, N Scott; Mendonca, Matthew L; Howarth, Ashlee J; Islamoglu, Timur; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K; Snurr, Randall Q

    2017-06-06

    Owing to the vast diversity of linkers, nodes, and topologies, metal-organic frameworks can be tailored for specific tasks, such as chemical separations or catalysis. Accordingly, these materials have attracted significant interest for capture and/or detoxification of toxic industrial chemicals and chemical warfare agents. In this paper, we review recent experimental and computational work pertaining to the capture of several industrially-relevant toxic chemicals, including NH 3 , SO 2 , NO 2 , H 2 S, and some volatile organic compounds, with particular emphasis on the challenging issue of designing materials that selectively adsorb these chemicals in the presence of water. We also examine recent research on the capture and catalytic degradation of chemical warfare agents such as sarin and sulfur mustard using metal-organic frameworks.

  11. Radiation protection in the pharmaceutical-chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesser, R.

    1992-01-01

    Some aspects of the use of ionizing radiation in research in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries will be discussed, the emphasis being placed on the handling of open radioactive materials in research laboratories. The compliance with official regulations and the preparation of company internal radiation protection regulations are described. 1 tab., 9 refs

  12. Near miss reporting in the chemical process industry: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, van der T.W.

    1995-01-01

    The research programme described in this paper focuses on the human component of system failure in general, and more specifically on the design and implementation of information systems for registration and analysis of so called near misses (or: near accidents) in the chemical process industry. Its

  13. The chemical composition and industrial quality of Barite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... that the mineralization is of high industrial quality and compares favourably with the Azara barite deposits of the Benue Trough. The quality of the barite meets American Petroleum institute (API) requirements for use as drilling mud. KEYWORDS: Barite, mineralization, quality, chemical composition, southeastern Nigeria.

  14. Problems the chemical industry of Japan faces and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Shin' ichi

    1989-01-01

    Industry proceeds for the fiscal 1988 are expected to increase remarkably as they did in the previous year with 4.9% increase in revenue and 18.8% increase in profit (ordinary profit) from the previous year. The conditions of material industry are especially favorable and chemical industry is also expected to prosper as it did in the previous year. Problems this prospering chemical industry is facing are introduced in this report. Firstly, it is necessary to improve productivity by adopting more information and promoting factory automation in order to strengthen competition. The future of chemical industry depends on the introduction of information. Secondly, as demands of users are becoming more diversified, and cycles of products shorter, shortening of development terms is essential. It is necessary, therefore, to predict the demands of users in advance and seek after custom products. Thirdly, selection of product bases is required; it might be necessary to consider producing some product items abroad. Moreover, it is desirable to increase investments in investigation and pursue creativity putting much stress on basic investigations. 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson

    2005-04-01

    Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

  16. [Occupational digestive diseases in chemical industry workers of West Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomytkina, T E; Pershin, A N

    2010-01-01

    The high incidence of chronic digestive diseases is recorded in chemical industry workers exposed to the isolated action of noxious substances. The aim of the investigation was to make a hygienic assessment of the risk for occupational digestive diseases in chemical industry workers exposed to a combination of noxious drugs. The working conditions and the prevalence of digestive diseases were studied in 4120 workers engaged in chemical and auxiliary processes. Under the isolated action of noxious substances, the workers had an average of 35% increase in the incidence of digestive diseases than unexposed ones (p 4.0-11.1 and 3.5-10.7 times higher, respectively (p < 0.05) than in the unexposed subjects.

  17. Analisis Beban Kerja untuk Menentukan Jumlah Optimal Karyawan dan Pemetaan Kompetensi Karyawan Berdasar Pada Job Description (Studi Kasus : Jurusan Teknik Industri, ITS, Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raras Mayang Arsi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Beban kerja yang harus ditanggung dalam suatu unit organisasi erat kaitannya dengan efisiensi dan efektivitas suatu perusahaan. Hal ini dikarenakan beban kerja tersebut termasuk pada pengaturan sumber daya manusia yang merupakan sumber daya penting dalam perusahaan. Banyak cara yang dapat dilakukan dalam hal efisiensi sumber daya manusia, antara lain adalah dengan lebih mengoptimalkan jumlah karyawan agar melakukan aktivitas secara tepat. ITS Surabaya, sebagai salah satu perguruan tinggi terkemuka di Indonesia, juga tidak lepas dari permasalahan beban kerja ini. Adanya empat kali perubahan statuta dan penyesuaian mengenai Organisai Tata Kelola (OTK, membuat pihak ITS harus melakukan reformasi birokrasi dan reformasi organisai untuk mengembangkan ITS kedepannya. Hal ini berdampak pada banyaknya perubahan job description yang dilakukan oleh bidang-bidang yang ada di ITS, termasuk yang menjadi objek penelitian ini yaitu Jurusan Teknik Industri ITS, sehingga beban kerja yang ditanggung oleh setiap karyawan di setiap bidang tidak sesuai dengan jumlah karyawan pada bidang itu sendiri. Oleh karena itu diperlukan suatu analisis pengukuran beban kerja untuk menentukan jumlah optimal karyawan yang seharusnya dibutuhkan oleh setiap bidang. Pada penelitian ini nantinya, yang akan digunakan adalah metode perhitungan beban tugas per jabatan sesuai dengan KEP/75/M.PAN/7/2004 dan NASA-TLX.

  18. CO2 emissions and reduction potential in China's chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Bing; Zhou, Wenji; Hu, Shanying; Li, Qiang; Griffy-Brown, Charla; Jin, Yong

    2010-01-01

    GHG (Increasing greenhouse gas) emissions in China imposes enormous pressure on China's government and society. The increasing GHG trend is primarily driven by the fast expansion of high energy-intensive sectors including the chemical industry. This study investigates energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in the processes of chemical production in China through calculating the amounts of CO 2 emissions and estimating the reduction potential in the near future. The research is based on a two-level perspective which treats the entire industry as Level one and six key sub-sectors as Level two, including coal-based ammonia, calcium carbide, caustic soda, coal-based methanol, sodium carbonate, and yellow phosphorus. These two levels are used in order to address the complexity caused by the fact that there are more than 40 thousand chemical products in this industry and the performance levels of the technologies employed are extremely uneven. Three scenarios with different technological improvements are defined to estimate the emissions of the six sub-sectors and analyze the implied reduction potential in the near future. The results highlight the pivotal role that regulation and policy administration could play in controlling the CO 2 emissions by promoting average technology performances in this industry.

  19. Enhanced formulations for neutralization of chemical, biological and industrial toxants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D [Albuqueque, NM

    2008-06-24

    An enhanced formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The enhanced formulation according to the present invention is non-toxic and non-corrosive and can be delivered by a variety of means and in different phases. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator and water.

  20. Bentonite chemical modification for use in industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laranjeira, E.; Pinto, M.R.O.; Rodrigues, D.P.; Costa, B.P.; Guimaraes, P.L.F.

    2010-01-01

    The present work aims at synthesizing organoclays using a layered silicate of regional importance, bentonite clay, for the treatment of industrial effluents. The choice of clay to be organophilized was based on cation exchange capacity (CEC). Bentonite with higher CTC was called AN 35 (92 meq/100 g), and therefore was the one that suffered the chemical modification with salt cetyl trimethyl ammonium Cetremide, provided by Vetec.The unmodified and modified clays were characterized by FTIR and XDR. The data obtained through the characterizations confirmed the acquisition of bentonite organoclay thus suggesting its subsequent application in the treatment of industrial effluents. (author)

  1. Implementation of high-dose chemical dosimetry for industrial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, Cirilo Cezar Sant'Anna da

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the implementation of methodology for high dose measurements using chemical dosimeters in liquid phase, traceable to the international metrology system, and make available in the country, the standard of high-dose to industrial irradiation facilities and research irradiators, trough the quality program with comparative measurements and direct use of the standard dosimeters in routine. The use of these low cost dosimetry systems in industrial irradiation facilities, assists to the certification requirements and it can reduce the costs with dosimetry for approximately 20% of the total dosimetry costs, using these systems in routine measurements and validation process, largely substituting the imported PMMA dosimeters, among others. (author)

  2. A new material for chemical industry - wood polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majali, A.B.; Patil, N.D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper outlines the advantages of the radiation cured wood-polymer composites (WPC) for application in certain critical areas of chemical industry. The wood-polymer composite made filterpress frames and plates were tested in a chemical plant. The entire exercise is elaborated. The radiation cured wood exhibited a considerably extended useful life in alkaline and acidic solutions. Composites based on teak wood showed a remarkable improvement with a nominal polymer loading of 10%. The reports of accelerated aging test of WPC are also presented. (auth.)

  3. Probabilistic safety assessment in the chemical and nuclear industries

    CERN Document Server

    Fullwood, Ralph R

    2000-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) determines the probability and consequences of accidents, hence, the risk. This subject concerns policy makers, regulators, designers, educators and engineers working to achieve maximum safety with operational efficiency. Risk is analyzed using methods for achieving reliability in the space program. The first major application was to the nuclear power industry, followed by applications to the chemical industry. It has also been applied to space, aviation, defense, ground, and water transportation. This book is unique in its treatment of chemical and nuclear risk. Problems are included at the end of many chapters, and answers are in the back of the book. Computer files are provided (via the internet), containing reliability data, a calculator that determines failure rate and uncertainty based on field experience, pipe break calculator, event tree calculator, FTAP and associated programs for fault tree analysis, and a units conversion code. It contains 540 references and many...

  4. Reactive formulations for a neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D [Albuqueruqe, NM; Betty, Rita G [Rio Rancho, NM

    2006-10-24

    Decontamination formulations for neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals, and methods of making and using same. The formulations are effective for neutralizing malathion, hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, butyl isocyanate, carbon disulfide, phosgene gas, capsaicin in commercial pepper spray, chlorine gas, anhydrous ammonia gas; and may be effective at neutralizing hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, methyl bromide, boron trichloride, fluorine, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, phosphorous trichloride, arsine, and tungsten hexafluoride.

  5. Metabolic engineering is key to a sustainable chemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Annabel C

    2011-08-01

    The depletion of fossil fuel stocks will prohibit their use as the main feedstock of future industrial processes. Biocatalysis is being increasingly used to reduce fossil fuel reliance and to improve the sustainability, efficiency and cost of chemical production. Even with their current small market share, biocatalyzed processes already generate approximately US$50 billion and it has been estimated that they could be used to produce up to 20% of fine chemicals by 2020. Until the advent of molecular biological technologies, the compounds that were readily accessible from renewable biomass were restricted to naturally-occurring metabolites. However, metabolic engineering has considerably broadened the range of compounds now accessible, providing access to compounds that cannot be otherwise reliably sourced, as well as replacing established chemical processes. This review presents the case for continued efforts to promote the adoption of biocatalyzed processes, highlighting successful examples of industrial chemical production from biomass and/or via biocatalyzed processes. A selection of emerging technologies that may further extend the potential and sustainability of biocatalysis are also presented. As the field matures, metabolic engineering will be increasingly crucial in maintaining our quality of life into a future where our current resources and feedstocks cannot be relied upon.

  6. [Exposure to hazardous chemical substances in furniture industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pośniak, Małgorzata; Kowalska, Joanna; Makhniashvili, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the exposure to organic solvents in plants of the furniture industry. Studies were conducted in five furniture plants. Hazardous chemicals present in the air at workposts were determined by capillary gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection. The analysis of air samples collected at the workposts allowed to identify the following chemicals occurring during varnishing and cleaning of furniture surface elements: acetone, butan-2-one, ethyl, isobutyl and methoxypropyl acetate, 4-methylpentan-2-on, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes. Indices characteristic of combined exposure ranged from 0.13 to 1.67 and exceeded the limit value at 21% of workposts. The results of the study indicate that chemicals present at representative workposts during the furniture production are harmful to health of workers, especially those involved in varnishing and cleaning of furniture elements.

  7. Analisis Determinan Perilaku Pimpinan Industri Kecil Tahu – Tempe Dalam Mengolah Air Limbah di Wilayah Kecamatan Candisari, Kota Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukamto Sukamto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACK Background : Industrial sector has a big role in performing standard of health. The environmental quality decresed mostly happened in several places, notably in big cities, because of the bad behavior of industrial-waste banishment. The district of Candisari is one of nine districts in the City of Semarang, where  70 small industries crushed-soybeans and fermented- soybeans products exits; the most are in the city. The result of the preliminary study revealed that the waste water volume from each industry ranges from 800 liters to 1000 liters per day. Generally, these amounts of waste-water were wasted directly into the river of Kalibajak without pre treatment. Mean while, reviewing toward several member of society, who lived around the river, revealed that there were complaints of unpleasant smell and river shallowness supposed to result from the sedimentation of Industrial waste of crushed-soybeans and fermented-soybeans products. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the factors affected the practice of waste-water processing by the performers of small industry of crushed-soybeans products. Methods : This is an explanatory study using survey method with Cross Sectional design. The study took place in the district of Candisari, Semarang. The subjects of the study were all of the performers of small industry of crushed-soybeans and fermented-soybeans products in the district, which were 70 persons. As for crosscheck, Deep-seated interviews were carried out in triangulation manner towards 12 public figures, one health officer, and  one officer of the Regional Body of Environmental Impact Control (Bapedalda, City of Semarang. The data would be analyzed using Chi-Square technique, and multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression test. Results : The results of the logistic regression with backward stepwise method study reveals that the effect of the level of education on practice is 2.297 times, the

  8. EUROPEAN CHEMICAL INDUSTRY COMPETITIVENESS: HISTORICAL TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Gladkykh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyze historical trends and development prospects of the European chemical industry competitiveness. It is concluded that the chemical industry is one of the EU’s most successful spheres, boasting €527 billion in sales in 2013, making it the second-largest global manufacture. Methodology. To explain the competitiveness of the EU chemical branch in the global market, it is proposed the constant-market share methodology to chemical exports coupled with econometric analysis. Results. The constant market share (CMS approach to assessing competitiveness, developed in the 1970 s for analysis of trade, is based on the principle that changes in the geographic and product structures of exports will affect a country’s export growth relative to that of the world, and that is way its global export market share. There were analyzed the EU biggest exporters (Germany, France, Italy, UK, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Poland, the USA, Japan; China, India, Saudi Arabia, Brazil. Practical implication. The analysis presents the results of competitiveness assessment in a different way, showing the average annual growth rate of EU and world chemical exports in the top section and then decomposing the gap between the two into that thanks to growth dynamics (structure effect and competitive effect. It is defined a lot of factors that are important to industrial competitiveness. On the cost side, in many industries labor is a large enough share of overall production costs that international differences in salaries can have a large bearing on competitiveness. Costs are also affected by a variety of government policies. It is also defined that innovation is one of the most important factors, which opens up new opportunities both in terms of new products and more efficient processes for manufacturing existing products. Value/originality. Given analysis helps to understand the causes and factors that have an impact on the European

  9. Energy Saving Potential, Costs and Uncertainties in the Industry: A Case Study of the Chemical Industry in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Guminski, Andrej; Gruber, Anna

    2017-01-01

    In Germany, 19.6 % of the industrial final energy consumption (FEC) can be allocated to the chemical industry. Energy efficiency measures with focus on the chemical industry could thus significantly contribute to reaching the German goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80 % in 2050 compared...

  10. [The pharmaceutical industry in the industrial chemical group: the National Union of Chemical-Pharmaceutical Laboratories (1919-1936)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozal, Raúl Rodríquez

    2011-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry associations, as it happened with other businesses, had a significant rise during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and II Republic. The 'Cámara Nacional de Industrias Químicas', in Barcelona, represented the national chemical industry to its ultimate assimilation by the 'Organización Sindical' in 1939. In this association, matters relating to pharmaceutical products -- which we will especially deal with in this work -- were managed by the 'Unión Nacional de Laboratorios Químico-Farmacéuticos', which defended the interests of pharmaceutical companies in the presence of government authorities, using the resources and mechanisms also managed by business pressure groups. The inclusion of industrial pharmacy in the Chemical lobby separated the pharmaceutical industry from traditional exercise and its corporate environment. this created ups and downs, conflicts of interests and finally, love and hate relationships with their colleagues of the pharmacy work placement and, of course, with the association that represented them: the 'Unión Farmacéutica Nacional'.

  11. Mercapturic acids as biomarkers of exposure to electrophilic chemicals: applications to environmental and industrial chemicals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, B.M.; Commandeur, J.N.M.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.

    1998-01-01

    The use of mercapturic acids (N-acetyl-L-cysteine S-conjugates, MAs) in the biological monitoring of human exposure to environmental and industrial chemicals is receiving more and more attention. Mercapturic acids (MAs) are formed from glutathione (GSH) S-conjugates via the MA-pathway. Although this

  12. Analysis of historical series of industrial demand of energy; Analisi delle serie storiche dei consumi energetici dell`industria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moauro, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1995-03-01

    This paper reports a short term analysis of the Italian demand for energy fonts and a check of a statistic model supposing the industrial demand for energy fonts as a function of prices and production, according to neoclassic neoclassic micro economic theory. To this pourpose monthly time series of industrial consumption of main energy fonts in 6 sectors, industrial production indexes in the same sectors and indexes of energy prices (coal, natural gas, oil products, electricity) have been used. The statistic methodology refers to modern analysis of time series and specifically to transfer function models. These ones permit rigorous identification and representation of the most important dynamic relations between dependent variables (production and prices), as relation of an input-output system. The results have shown an important positive correlation between energy consumption with prices. Furthermore, it has been shown the reliability of forecasts and their use as monthly energy indicators.

  13. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt

    2001-01-01

    The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis. In this respect there is a

  14. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  15. Nanotechnology in the Chemical Industry - Opportunities and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Qiuzhao; Boxman, Arthur; Chowdhry, Uma

    2003-01-01

    The traditional chemical industry has become a largely mature industry with many commodity products based on established technologies. Therefore, new product and market opportunities will more likely come from speciality chemicals, and from new functionalities obtained from new processing technologies as well as new microstructure control methodologies. It is a well-known fact that in addition to its molecular structure, the microstructure of a material is key to determining its properties. Controlling structures at the micro- and nano-levels is therefore essential to new discoveries. For this article, we define nanotechnology as the controlled manipulation of nanomaterials with at least one dimension less than 100nm.Nanotechnology is emerging as one of the principal areas of investigation that is integrating chemistry and materials science, and in some cases integrating these with biology to create new and yet undiscovered properties that can be exploited to gain new market opportunities. In this article market opportunities for nanotechnology will be presented from an industrial perspective covering electronic, biomedical, performance materials, and consumer products. Manufacturing technology challenges will be identified, including operations ranging from particle formation, coating, dispersion, to characterization, modeling, and simulation. Finally, a nanotechnology innovation roadmap is proposed wherein the interplay between the development of nanoscale building blocks, product design, process design, and value chain integration is identified. A suggestion is made for an R and D model combining market pull and technology push as a way to quickly exploit the advantages in nanotechnology and translate these into customer benefits

  16. Irradiation of starches for industrial uses: Chemical and physical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Maria E.

    1999-01-01

    Corn and cassava starches have been irradiated with gamma doses from 10 to 180 kGy and pastes have been prepared by boiling the starches in water. The rheological properties of the pastes have been determined showing that the 10 kGy dose reduces sharply the viscosity of the aqueous pastes. The solubility of the irradiated starches has been also studied. The cassava starch irradiated with 180 kGy is soluble in boiling water and remains soluble at room temperature. After some considerations on the chemical effects of the irradiation it is concluded that the irradiation technique is suitable to replace the chemical treatment in many industrial applications of the starch. (author)

  17. How the chemical industry can benefit from PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guymer, P.; Kaiser, G.D.; Mc Kelvey, T.W.; Hannaman, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is a method of quantifying the frequency of occurrence and the magnitude of the consequences of accidents in systems that contain hazardous materials such as radioactive fission products, and toxic, flammable or explosive chemicals. The frequency and the magnitude of the consequences are the basic elements of any definition or risk, which is often simply expressed as the product of frequency and magnitude, summed over all accident sequences. PRA is now a mature technique that has been used to estimate risk for a number of industrial facilities. In this paper the author gives examples of beneficial uses of PRA

  18. Survey on the Use of LCA in European Chemical Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving

    1999-01-01

    During 1997 a questionnaire was sent to 40 European chemical manufacturers representing different positions in the supply chain. 25 companies (62.5%) responded, of which 23 had been involved in LCA to some degree. The questionnaire consisted of 30 questions divided into four parts dealing...... industry has taken up the LCA methodology and is testing its applicability for their purposes, although they still feel the methodology is a bit immature. The resources devoted to LCA depends to a great extent on the company's position in the supply chain and on the size of the company. Many of the LCA...

  19. Analisis Laporan Keuangan Dalam Menilai Kinerja Perusahaan Pada Kelompok Industri Alas Kaki Yang Terdaftar Di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Yasmi Chadijah

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to know whether the finance performance in footwear industry that licency in BEI has reached the safety situation or not yet. The writer restricted the evaluation of finance performance by using ten finance ratios. The finance ratios consist of Current Ratio, Quick Ratio, Debt to Equity Ratio, Inventory Turnover, Total Asset Turnover, Gross Profit Margin, Net Profit Margin, Return on Investment, Return on Equity, dan PER. The finance performance is evalua...

  20. ANALISIS PROSPEK INDUSTRI PENGOLAHAN KERUPUK IKAN PATIN ”INTAN SARI” DI MARTAPURA, KABUPATEN BANJAR (PROSPECT ANALYSIS OF CATFISH CRACKERS PROCESSING INDUSTRY "INTAN SARI" IN MARTAPURA, BANJAR DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ariyani Sofia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui: (1 proses pembuatan kerupuk ikan patin, (2 besarnya keuntungan dan tingkat efisiensi usaha, (3 kelayakan usaha, (4 pemasaran produk, (5 tingkat kelemahan, kekuatan, peluang, dan ancaman (6 prospek dalam pengembangan usaha.  Hasil penelitian ini adalah  (1 proses pembuatan kerupuk ikan patin terdiri penyiangan ikan, pelumatan daging ikan, pengadonan, pengukusan, pengirisan, dan penjemuran, serta pengemasan; (2 Keuntungan yang diperoleh pada usaha ini adalah Rp 1.213.011,00/tahun dan nilai R/C Ratio yaitu sebesar 1,18; (3 Usaha kerupuk ikan patin secara finansal layak untuk diteruskan dengan waktu pengembalian modal investasi cukup pendek (lebih kurang 4 bulan; (4 Saluran distribusi kerupuk ikan patin dengan cara semi-langsung dan daerah pemasaran meliputi Kabupaten Banjar, Banjarmasin, Palangkaraya dan Kapuas (Kalimantan Tengah, dan Samarinda (Kalimantan Timur: (5 Manajemen yang ada pada usaha kerupuk ikan patin ini dilakukan oleh satu orang dan dibantu oleh bawahannya untuk masing-masing bagian sehingga belum ada pembagian tugas yang mendasar antara berbagai fungsi; (6 Hasil dari analisis faktor internal dan faktor eksternal, yaitu antara lain: penambahan kapasitas produksi, perluasan pasar, peningkatan pelayanan jasa, harga produk yang bersaing, perbaikan manajemen usaha, serta pengetahuan tentang selera konsumen. The purpose of this research is to determine: (1 the process of making fish crackers catfish, (2 the level of profits and business efficiency, (3 the feasibility of the business, (4 marketing the product, (5 the level of weaknesses, strengths, opportunities, and threat (6 to improve their business prospects. The results of this research are (1 the process of making fish crackers weeding catfish consists of fish, to grind the fish meat, mixed, steaming, slicing, and drying, and packaging; (2 The profit in this business is IDR 1,213,011.00/year and the value of R/C ratio in the

  1. Toxic industrial chemicals and chemical weapons: exposure, identification, and management by syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoni, Anthony J; French, Robert N E; Walter, Frank G

    2015-02-01

    Toxidromes aid emergency care providers in the context of the patient presenting with suspected poisoning, unexplained altered mental status, unknown hazardous materials or chemical weapons exposure, or the unknown overdose. The ability to capture an adequate chemical exposure history and to recognize toxidromes may reduce dependence on laboratory tests, speed time to delivery of specific antidote therapy, and improve selection of supportive care practices tailored to the etiologic agent. This article highlights elements of the exposure history and presents selected toxidromes that may be caused by toxic industrial chemicals and chemical weapons. Specific antidotes for toxidromes and points regarding their use, and special supportive measures, are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. ANALISIS VARIABEL YANG MEMPENGARUHI EARNINGS PER SHARE PADA INDUSTRI FOOD AND BAVERAGES YANG GO PUBLIC DI BURSA EFEK JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutejo - -

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi pengaruh variabel-variabel return on equity (X1, net sales (X2, current ratio (X3, debt to equity (X4, inventory turnover (X5, total assets turnover (X6, dan net profit margin (X7 terhadap earnings per share, baik secara simultan maupun secara partial. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan mengambil keseluruhan elemen populasi industri food and baverages yang go public di Bursa Efek Jakarta, mulai tahun 1992 sampai dengan tahun 1996 dengan rincian sebagai berikut: tahun 1992 berjumlah 9 perusahaan, tahun 1993 berjumlah 15 perusahaan, tahun 1994 berjumlah 19 perusahaan, tahun 1995 berjumlah 20 perusahaan dan tahun 1996 berjumlah 20 perusahaan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa return on equity (X1, net sales (X2, current ratio (X3, debt to equity (X4, inventory turnover (X5, total assets turnover (X6, dan net profit margin (X7 secara simultan berpengaruh dalam menentukan variabilitas earnings per share. Variabel inventory turnover (X5 tidak mempengaruhi variabilitas earnings per share, hal ini tentunya tidak terlepas dari kenyataan pada industri food and baverages di Indonesia, dimana untuk menjamin kelancaran dan kualitas bahan baku yang dibeli, perusahaan harus memberikan bantuan teknis maupun modal kerja kepada para supplier lokal, sehingga perusahaan harus menyediakan modal atau kredit lunak dalam rangka kerja sama yang saling menguntungkan. Di sisi lain bahan baku industri food and baverages dalam prakteknya dipengaruhi oleh keberhasilan dan kegagalan panen para supplier, sehingga dari berbagai kendala yang dihadapi industri food and baverages tersebut sebagai akibatnya kadang-kadang bahan baku melimpah dan tidak jarang mengalami kekurangan atau menghadapi kelangkaan. Oleh karena itu tingginya tingkat perputaran persediaan tidak dapat menunjukan efisiensi perusahaan. Diantara variabel bebas yang berpengaruh signifikan tersebut net sales (X2, dan current ratio (X3 mempunyai pengaruh

  3. ANALISIS PENGARUH EVA DAN MVA TERHADAP RETURN SAHAM PADA INDUSTRI PROPERTI DI BURSA EFEK INDONESIA PERIODE 2007-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Pahlawan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui dan menganalisis: (1 pengaruh Economic Value Added (EVA terhadap return saham (2 pengaruh Market Value Added (MVA terhadap return saham (3 pengaruh Economic Value Added (EVA dan Market Value Added (MVA terhadap return saham antara variabel kinerja keuangan industri properti di Bursa Efek Indonesia pada periode 2007-2012. Kegunaan teoritis adalah untuk memberikan kontribusi tentang pengetahuan manajemen keuangan, yang dapat digunakan sebagai acuan untuk penelitian berikutnya kinerja keuangan terutama tentang industri properti di Bursa Efek Indonesia. Kegunaan praktis adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh tingkat Economic Value Added (EVA dan Market Value Added (MVA terhadap kinerja keuangan untuk kontribusi memberi kepada manajemen properti umum dalam mengelola variabel kinerja industri properti Bursa Efek Indonesia.Penelitian ini menggunakan data sekunder yang dikumpulkan dari data Bursa Efek Indonesia, dan Departemen Riset menurut sifat laporan keuangan pada periode 2007-2012. Sampel adalah 54 variabel dan dianalisis dengan regresi berganda metode statistik linier. Total nilai determinasi adalah 0,368, artinya ini adalah 36,8% informasi dalam data dapat dijelaskan oleh model dan 63,2% di bawah variabel lain dan error. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah: (1 Variabel Economic Value Added (EVA berpengaruh positif terhadap return saham; (2 Variabel Market Value Added (MVA memiliki pengaruh negatif terhadap Return Saham; Mengacu pada kesimpulan penelitian diatas maka disarankan adalah: (1 Dioptimalkan Economic Value Added (EVA untuk mencapai pendapatan dan keuntungan dari return saham (2 Mengelola Variabel Market Value Added (MVA pada kondisi baik untuk menjaga stabilitas keuangan dan mendapatkan dipercaya dari investor Bursa Efek Indonesia (3 Fokus ke Manajemen Risiko, Jasa, perusahaan Visi & Misi, dan Active keterampilan dan pengetahuan karyawan perusahaan yang lebih tinggi untuk

  4. Analisis Faktor Risiko kadar debu Organik di udara terhadap Gangguan fungsi Paru pada Pekerja Industri Penggilingan Padi di Demak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Nugraheni S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Industry will not only increase the prosperity of society, but also could bring on an effect of pollution, included rice mill industry at Demak Regency. The effect is air pollution, in which it would take along a disturbance on lung’s function of, especially, workers of the industry. The aim of this research is to find out risk factor of dust’s amount on air at working area to lung’s function of the workers inside, and also to measure the prevalence ratio of dust exposure’s effect to the disturbance of lung’s function on workers. Disturbance of lung’s function, on this research, is limited on lung function parameter, which are FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio and all are classified as dichotomy. Methods: This research is classified as survey analitic research with cross sectional approach. The population is workers on industry at Demak Regency. Research is carried on by measuring lung’s function parameter using Spirometer. The samples are 45 peoples of 3 (three rice mill industry. They are taken by Simple Random Sampling method of 85 existing workers. Results: The result shows that 34 of 45 respondents are working indoor with the amount of dust is bigger than Limiting Value. From the Statistical Test, we get that the incidence of disturbance of lung’s function on workers is influenced by the amount of dust on air at working area (p value = 0,002, and also strengthened by working duration (p value = 0,000, smoking habit (p value = 0,001, and the existence of history of lung disease (p value = 0,001. The prevalence ratios of each independent variables to the incidence of disturbance of lung’s function are : the amoung of organic dust on air (PR = 3,018, p value = 0.039, and also strengthened by the existence of history of lung disease (PR = 3.535, p value = 0.021, working duration (PR = 4.130, p value = 0.024. Meanwhile, the utilization of masker is proven not influencing in decreasing the incidence of

  5. Perspektif Six Sigma dalam Analisis Manajemen Kualitas Kasus Produksi Fish Fillet di PT Dharma Samudra Fishing Industry, Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Farmayanti, Narni; ., Dinarwan; S, I I Fithri Yunindari

    2006-01-01

    Fish fillet is a superior commodity for the company of PT Dharma Samudra Fishing Industry (DSFI), and having the highest production and demand. The product of fish fillet giving a big opportunity for defect level of fish fillet and it´s caused from some mistakes that happen in process production. Hence, the optimalization of input process of fish fillet production is related with six sigma methods application which try to eliminate or minimize mistakes and wastes of time and money. It is hope...

  6. An operational centre for managing major chemical industrial accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiranoudis, C T; Kourniotis, S P; Christolis, M; Markatos, N C; Zografos, K G; Giannouli, I M; Androutsopoulos, K N; Ziomas, I; Kosmidis, E; Simeonidis, P; Poupkou, N

    2002-01-28

    The most important characteristic of major chemical accidents, from a societal perspective, is their tendency to produce off-site effects. The extent and severity of the accident may significantly affect the population and the environment of the adjacent areas. Following an accident event, effort should be made to limit such effects. Management decisions should be based on rational and quantitative information based on the site specific circumstances and the possible consequences. To produce such information we have developed an operational centre for managing large-scale industrial accidents. Its architecture involves an integrated framework of geographical information system (GIS) and RDBMS technology systems equipped with interactive communication capabilities. The operational centre was developed for Windows 98 platforms, for the region of Thriasion Pedion of West Attica, where the concentration of industrial activity and storage of toxic chemical is immense within areas of high population density. An appropriate case study is given in order to illuminate the use and necessity of the operational centre.

  7. Analisis Pemajanan Benzena terhadap Kadar Fenol dalam Urin dan Status Anemia pada Pekerja Sektor Industri Pengolahan Petroleum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnita Ayu Kusuma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background : Benzene is known to cause blood disorders. The concentration of benzene in the workplace was above REL NIOSH, 0.1 ppm, so the workers of the  petroleum refining industry were the population at risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML when exposed to low level benzene (0.05, but there was a significant correlation between smoking habit and urinary phenol level         (r-Kendall=-0.539 ; p=0.001. There was also a significant difference (p-Mann Whitney=0.001 for urinary phenol concentration between smokers and non-smokers. Analysis using multiple logistic regression showed smoking habit had potential effect to urinary phenol concentration ³ 10 mg/L (ATSDR 1998 normality standard, with OR=1.198 (95%CI:0.612-8.856. Conclusion : at low level exposure to benzene (<1 ppm, smoking may be regarded as the major source of benzene intake. Suppresion in hematological value (i.e. decreasing in amount of haemoglobin/anemia had not seen yet in 3-16 years in jobs. Although no statistical significance results (except for smoking habit, annual medical surveillance is necessary to anticipate  adverse effect of exposure to low level benzene. Keywords : benzene, urinary phenol concentration, anemia, petroleum refinery industry.

  8. Evolution of nuclear chemical industry in France; Evolution de l'industrie chimique nucleaire en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fould, M H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The present characteristics can be summarized in one word: expansion. Impelled by the CEA, but also by such organisations as the Electricite de France and the Merchant Marine, the French nuclear effort for the years 1957-1961 reaches about 600 thousand millions francs; over half this sum will be spent by chemical industry on research, pilot installations, construction of plants and delivery. The aim is to work efficiently, quickly and profitably. This is achieved through close collaboration between the big state organisations and private industry. It is chiefly along the following lines that this large scale effort is carried on: - thorough chemical treatment of increasing tonnages of ores from the French Union, with the aim of producing pure, plentiful and cheap uranium. - careful preparation of nuclear fuels, economical and perfectly adapted to the various types of reactor in operation or under construction. - Further treatment of irradiated fuels to extract the plutonium completely, as well as the uranium and certain fission products. industrial manufacture of material of nuclear purity or corrosion resistant required by the technology of energy producing or research reactors. - Supply to the many foreign or French users of isotopes and radioactive tracers required by medicine, industry and agriculture in ever-increasing numbers. - Meticulous chemical treatment of gaseous or liquid effluent in strictly controlled stations in order that reactors and their annexes will be perfectly safe to use. This account shows the great extent of the effort laid out by a young, energetic chemical industry in full swing. Having made sure of its techniques and set up numerous installations it is fully in a position to confront the French atomic programme. In addition it is able and anxious to associate with the developments of foreign atomic industry, especially EURATOM and Eurochemic. (author) [French] Un mot en resume les caracteristiques presentes: l'expansion. Sous l

  9. The pharmaceutical industry in the industrial chemical group: The National Union of Chemical-Pharmaceutical Laboratories (1919-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Nozal, Raúl

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industry associations, as it happened with other businesses, had a significant rise during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and II Republic. The Cámara Nacional de Industrias Químicas, in Barcelona, represented the national chemical industry to its ultimate assimilation by the Organización Sindical in 1939. In this association, matters relating to pharmaceutical products —which we will specially deal with in this work— were managed by the Unión Nacional de Laboratorios Químico-Farmacéuticos, which defended the interests of pharmaceutical companies in the presence of government authorities, using the resources and mechanisms also managed by business pressure groups. The inclusion of industrial pharmacy in the Chemical lobby separated the pharmaceutical industry from traditional exercise and its corporate environment. This created ups and downs, conflicts of interests and finally, love and hate relationships with their colleagues of the pharmacy work placement and, of course, with the association that represented them: the Unión Farmacéutica Nacional.

    El asociacionismo farmacéutico industrial, al igual que ocurriera con otras actividades empresariales, experimentó un notable auge durante la Dictadura de Primo de Rivera y la II República. La Cámara Nacional de Industrias Químicas, desde Barcelona, representó a la industria química nacional hasta su asimilación definitiva por la Organización Sindical franquista, en 1939. Dentro de esta asociación, los asuntos relacionados con los productos farmacéuticos, a los que prestaremos especial atención en este trabajo, fueron gestionados por la Unión Nacional de Laboratorios Químico- Farmacéuticos, que defendió los intereses de los productores de medicamentos industriales ante las autoridades gubernamentales, utilizando para ello recursos y mecanismos también manejados por otros grupos empresariales de presión. La inclusión de la farmacia industrial

  10. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Department

    2001-07-01

    The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis

  11. Probabilistic analysis of safety in industrial irradiation plants; Analisis probabilistico de seguridad en plantas industriales de irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderete, F.; Elechosa, C. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. del Libertador 8250 - Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: falderet@sede.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    The Argentinean Nuclear Regulatory Authority is carrying out the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) of the two industrial irradiation plants existent in the country. The objective of this presentation is to show from the regulatory point of view, the advantages of applying this tool, as well as the appeared difficulties; for it will be made a brief description of the facilities, of the method and of the normative one. Both plants are multipurpose facilities classified as 'industrial irradiator category IV' (panoramic irradiator with source deposited in pool). Basically, the execution of an APS consists of the following stages: 1. Identification of initiating events. 2. Modeling of Accidental Sequences (Event Trees). 3. Analysis of Systems (Fault trees). 4. Quantification of Accidental Sequences. The argentine normative doesn't demand to these facilities the realization of an APS, however the basic standard of Radiological Safety establishes that in the design of this type of facilities in the cases that is justified, should make sure that the annual probability of occurrence of an accidental sequence and the resulting dose in a person gives as result an radiological risk inferior to the risk limit adopted as acceptance criteria. On the other hand the design standard specifies for these irradiators it demands a maximum fault rate of 10{sup -2} for the related components with the systems of radiological safety. In our case, the possible initiating events have been identified that carried out to not wanted situations (about people exposure, radioactive contamination). Then, for each one of the significant initiating events, the corresponding accidental sequences were modeled and the safety systems that intervene in this sequences by means of fault trees were analyzed, for then to determine the fault probabilities of the same ones. At the moment they are completing these fault trees, but the difficulty resides in the impossibility of obtaining real data

  12. The patterns of energy use in the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmeyer, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper was sculpted from a report commissioned by the Department of Energy to assess the impact of proposed energy taxes on energy use by the US chemical industry. The discussion of energy taxes is eliminated here, however the broader discussion of the impact of energy prices on energy use is retained. The US chemical industry is currently the world leader by many important measures, such as technology contributions and employment. This leadership traces to a slate of advantages: science base, low cost energy, large market and economic/political stability. The focus of this paper is on the patterns of energy use: (1) There is an optimum economic trade of capital against energy. Industry optimizes this trade to lower its costs. For the large volume chemicals which dominate energy use, this tradable capital cost exceeds energy cost by a factor of 1.5. (2) The capital/energy trade follows clearly defined rules. The basic rules are rooted in thermodynamics. (3) An increase in energy prices would result in a drop in process energy use: a doubling of process energy prices would cut process energy use by approximately 1/3 but the capital cost would be in excess of $100 billion if driven into a short time span, such as 5 years. This is because of the long useful lifetime of capital facilities. (4) Process energy is about half the total energy use, with feedstock being the balance. Feedstock use is much less sensitive to price. Restated, the doubling of energy price will result in roughly a 1/6 reduction in total energy use. (5) Technology progress will also reduce energy use. This reduction is distinct from the impact of energy price. Technological progress will be at least as important in reducing energy use as will energy pricing, for the foreseeable future. (6) Technology progress can be sorted into two themes: (a) Learning curve improvements, which are almost inherent in the production process and the nature of competition; and (b) Breakthroughs that happen in a

  13. Analisis Statistika dengan SPSS

    OpenAIRE

    Mustari, Kahar

    2012-01-01

    Buku ini membahas tentang berbagai model analisis statistika yang dapat digunakan dalam berbagai bidang penelitian. Pembahasan buku ini dilengkapi pula dengan penerapan analisis statistika yang menggunakan program SPSS versi 20 sehingga memudahkan pembaca untuk menerapkannya. Oleh karena itu, buku ini penting dibaca oleh mahasiswa atau peneliti yang melakukan pengolahan data penelitian.

  14. Analisis Faktor-Faktor yang Memengaruhi Dividend Payout Ratio pada Perusahaan Sektor Industri yang Terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunaryo Sunaryo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this research is to learn the effect among return on assets (ROA, current ratio (CR, debt to equity ratio (DER, debt to total assets (DTA, and net income after tax (NIAT with dividend payout ratio (DPR, either partially or simultaneously. Research used qualitative method with secondary data collected by purposive sampling from industrial companies sector listed in IDX and preceding journals of scientific articles. Research used simple regression to test the hypothesis simultaneously with F test and t test for testing the partial hypothesis. Results of this research describe that return on assets (ROA and net income aftar tax (NIAT have significant effects to dividend payout ratio, but current ratio (CR, debt to equity ratio (DER, and debt to total assets do not have significant effects to dividend payout ratio. It is recommended to further research that the topic of this reseach can be continued using merchandising and distribution company groups, or service company groups either general or special, like: hotels, insurances, hospitals, and banks.

  15. Analysis for making a regulatory decision to equipment of industrial gammagraphy in Argentin; Analisis para la toma de decision regulatoria sobre equipos de gammagrafia industrial en Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermacora, Marcela G.; Vidal, Dora N.; Alonso, Maria T., E-mail: mermacora@arn.gob.ar, E-mail: dvidal@arn.gob.ar, E-mail: malonso@arn.gob.ar [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-10-01

    Industrial gammagraphy is a practice widely used as a nondestructive testing technique in Argentina. Experience worldwide has shown the need for an improvement in the intrinsic safety of the equipment used in this lab. In response to this reason, the board of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) has considered a proposal to withdraw service movement and much of the equipment inventory scan belonging to industrial facilities nationwide. The main objective of this paper is to present the results of the analysis performed to support the above proposal. The main elements of evaluation can be summarized as follows: I) the teams that do not conform to international recommendations regarding compliance with key safety requirements of international standards such as ISO 3999:2004 (E) {sup R}adiation protection - Industrial Apparatus for gamma radiography - Specifications for performance, design and tests {sup ;} II) the decision by some manufacturers to discontinue production of certain models of equipment and the provision of spare parts, and III) the validity of certificates bulk type B (U) for transport. In conclusion, it highlights the importance of a regulatory decision supplementary to the Standard AR 7.9.1 concerning the operation of scan equipment industry, based on current international recommendations and Argentina's commitment to good practice and safety culture which can lead to a positive impact on radiation safety in this art.

  16. Analisis Faktor Risiko Paparan Debu Kayu Terhadap Gangguan Fungsi Paru Pada Pekerja Industri Pengolahan Kayu PT. Surya Sindoro Sumbing Wood Industry Wonosobo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meta Suryani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Background: One of the negative impacts of wood processing industry is air pollution caused by wood ash that occurred during the process or as the output of the industry. The wood ash will contaminate the industry area as well as the environment so not only the workers, but also the people living around the factory will be exposed to ash from raw material, added material, and the output, thus causing lung function disturbance.  The aim of this research is to measure the risk of factors that causes lung function disturbance to the workers in wood processing industry at PT Surya Sindoro Sumbing Wood Industry Wonosobo. Method : This is an observational research using cross-sectional design. The samples are workers that fulfill the criteria inclusively and exclusively as many as 70 persons. This research was done in February 2005 and the data collection was done using wood ash content measurement in Furniture Component (FC and Wood Working Area (WWA sections, lung function capacity measurement, body height and body weight measurements, as well as interview with the respondents. Result : This research showed that the amount of the wood ash in WWA and FC of 6.1452mg/m3 and 4.0101mg/m3 respectively; and the average of lung function capacity on the workers is 92.04% FEV1/FVC with standard deviation of 6.68 with the lowest and the highest rate of 66% FEV1/FVC and 100% FEV1/FVC respectively. The data analysis in this research used chi-square test, Independent   t Test,while the multivariat analysis used logistic regression test with enter method. The statistics test showed that there was a relationship between the working period and the smoking habit with lung function capacity (p0.05. Conclusions : The working period and the smoking habit at the same time can become the risk factor of the lung function disturbance. As such, smoking prohibition during working hours in the wood processing industry should be applied in order to avoid lung

  17. Application of large radiation sources in chemical processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, K.

    1977-01-01

    Large radiation sources and their application in chemical processing industry are described. A reference has also been made to the present developments in this field in India. Radioactive sources, notably 60 Co, are employed in production of wood-plastic and concrete-polymer composites, vulcanised rubbers, polymers, sulfochlorinated paraffin hydrocarbons and in a number of other applications which require deep penetration and high reliability of source. Machine sources of electrons are used in production of heat shrinkable plastics, insulation materials for cables, curing of paints etc. Radiation sources have also been used for sewage hygienisation. As for the scene in India, 60 Co sources, gamma chambers and batch irradiators are manufactured. A list of the on-going R and D projects and organisations engaged in research in this field is given. (M.G.B.)

  18. Chemical analysis for waste management in paint industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, Z.; Naveed, S.; Shiekh, N.A.; Sagheer, K.

    2005-01-01

    The chemical analysis of paint industries waste has been carried out; the main emission sources are the heating of raw materials and lacquer. Also the waste from other applications and production contains high concentration of heavy metals, VOC's, COD, TDS with notable acidity and alkalinity. Based on the analysis it was observed that the major losses of production could be minimized. Further toxic effects of the waste material can be minimized. In this reference measures to minimize production losses should be adopted along with the proper management. These laboratory results also lead to the areas of emissions and waste production during manufacturing process. Solutions have been proposed for process development and integrated waste minimization. (author)

  19. Materials of 44. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Scientific assemblies of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry are the most important chemical meeting organised annually in Poland. Basic as well as application studies in all chemical branches have been extensively presented. The next subjects was proposed as scientific sessions and symposia topics: solid state chemistry; didactics of chemistry; electrochemistry; biologically active compounds; geochemistry; organic chemistry; physical chemistry; environment quality and protection; coordination chemistry; chemical technology; polymers; explosive materials; analytical chemistry; theoretical chemistry

  20. Insect-gene-activity detection system for chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Ryan S.; Schilling, Amanda S.; Lopez, Arturo M.; Rayms-Keller, Alfredo

    2002-02-01

    Detection of multiple chemical and biological weapons (CBW) agents and/or complex mixtures of toxic industrial chemicals (TIC) is imperative for both the commercial and military sectors. In a military scenario, a multi-CBW attack would create confusion, thereby delaying decontamination and therapeutic efforts. In the commercial sector, polluted sites invariably contain a mixture of TIC. Novel detection systems capable of detecting CBW and TIC are sorely needed. While it may be impossible to build a detector capable of discriminating all the possible combinations of CBW, a detection system capable of statistically predicting the most likely composition of a given mixture is within the reach of current emerging technologies. Aquatic insect-gene activity may prove to be a sensitive, discriminating, and elegant paradigm for the detection of CBW and TIC. We propose to systematically establish the expression patterns of selected protein markers in insects exposed to specific mixtures of chemical and biological warfare agents to generate a library of biosignatures of exposure. The predicting capabilities of an operational library of biosignatures of exposures will allow the detection of emerging novel or genetically engineered agents, as well as complex mixtures of chemical and biological weapons agents. CBW and TIC are discussed in the context of war, terrorism, and pollution.

  1. Chemical Industry R&D Roadmap for Nanomaterials By Design. From Fundamentals to Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2003-12-01

    Vision2020 agreed to join NNI and the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE/EERE) in sponsoring the "Nanomaterials and the Chemical Industry Roadmap Workshop" on September 30-October 2, 2002. This roadmap, Chemical Industry R&D Roadmap for Nanomaterials By Design: From Fundamentals to Function, is based on the scientific priorities expressed by workshop participants from the chemical industry, universities, and government laboratories.

  2. A methodology for overall consequence modeling in chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunraj, N.S.; Maiti, J.

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment in chemical process industry is a very important issue for safeguarding human and the ecosystem from damages caused to them. Consequence assessment is an integral part of risk assessment. However, the commonly used consequence estimation methods involve time-consuming complex mathematical models and simple assimilation of losses without considering all the consequence factors. This lead to the deterioration of quality of estimated risk value. So, the consequence modeling has to be performed in detail considering all major losses with optimal time to improve the decisive value of risk. The losses can be broadly categorized into production loss, assets loss, human health and safety loss, and environment loss. In this paper, a conceptual framework is developed to assess the overall consequence considering all the important components of major losses. Secondly, a methodology is developed for the calculation of all the major losses, which are normalized to yield the overall consequence. Finally, as an illustration, the proposed methodology is applied to a case study plant involving benzene extraction. The case study result using the proposed consequence assessment scheme is compared with that from the existing methodologies.

  3. STANDARD CALCULATION PER PRODUCT IN THE CHEMICAL FERTILIZER INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Ionescu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the research is to present a way of organising the managerial accounting of totally and semi finished product obtained in chemical fertilizer industry entities. For this study, we analyzed the current principle of managerial accounting to an entity in the studied area, in order to emphasize the need of organizing and implementing a modern accounting management to control the cost and increase the performance of the entities in this area, starting from the premise that there are sufficient similarities between entities in the field. Research carried out has revealed that currently, the costing is organized in terms of using traditional methods and that it is necessary to organize and implement an accounting management based on the use of modern methods, namely the method of standard costs combined with the method of centres of costs. The major implications of the proposed system for the investigated field consist of determining a relevant cost-oriented management entity, highlighting the shortcomings of traditional methods of cost

  4. Calculation of the actual cost in the chemical fertilizer industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Ionescu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the research is to present a way of organising the managerial accounting of totally and semi finished product obtained in chemical fertilizer industry entities. For this study, we analyzed the current principle of managerial accounting to an entity in the studied area, in order to emphasize the need of organizing and implementing a modern accounting management to control the cost and increase the performance of the entities in this area, starting from the premise that there are sufficient similarities between entities in the field. The research has highlighted the fact that, nowadays, the cost calculation is organized using traditional methods, which focus on the monthly determination of the actual unit cost per product (semi-fabric and that it is necessary to organize and implement a managerial accounting, based on the use of a modern method, namely the standard cost method combined with cost centre method. The major implications of the proposed system for the researched field are the monthly calculation of actual costs per cost centres, the calculation of the actual cost per product, as the final cost carrier, to be performed over longer periods of time, usually, quarterly.

  5. Summaries of the 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Annual 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry has been held in Gdansk on 22-26 September 1997. The most valuable scientific results obtained in Polish Laboratories have been presented in 22 main sections and 7 symposia directed especially at following subjects: analytical chemistry, biochemistry, solid state chemistry and material science, physical chemistry, heteroorganic and coordination chemistry, medical and pharmaceutical chemistry, metalorganic chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry, polymers chemistry, chemistry and environment protection, theoretical chemistry, chemical didactics, photochemistry, radiation chemistry and chemical kinetics, chemical engineering, catalysis, crystallochemistry, chemical technology, electrochemistry, and instrumental methods

  6. Potential applications of carbon dioxide in chemical industry; Moegliche Nutzungen von Kohlendioxid in der chemischen Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behr, Arno; Neuberg, Stefan [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Up to now, the use of carbon dioxide as a renewable C. carbon source plays in the current public debate on CCS technology only a minor role. Though, the chemical utilization of the generally unreactive classified molecule provides same very interesting synthesis routes, which take place without toxic starting materials like phosgene. In this review a number of syntheses using CO{sub 2}, which are currently in development, will be briefly presented. Although most of them have only been investigated on laboratory or miniplant scale and require further development, they demonstrate the high potential of carbon dioxide in industrial syntheses far beyond the traditional applications such as urea or salicylic acid syntheses. Concepts for the synthesis of formic acid and a {delta}-lactone, as well as developments in photosynthesis will be presented. A crucial role in nearly all these conversions plays the catalytic activation of carbon dioxide. (orig.)

  7. Fate of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Barlaz, Morton A; Knappe, Detlef R U; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2006-07-01

    One component of preparedness for a chemical attack is planning for the disposal of contaminated debris. To assess the feasibility of contaminated debris disposal in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, the fate of selected chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in MSW landfills was predicted with a mathematical model. Five blister agents [sulfur mustard (HD), nitrogen mustard (HN-2), lewisite (L), ethyldichloroarsine (ED), and phosgene oxime (CX)], eight nerve agents [tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), GE, GF, VX, VG, and VM], one riot-control agent [CS], and two TICs [furan and carbon disulfide] were studied. The effects of both infiltration (climate) and contaminant biodegradability on fate predictions were assessed. Model results showed that hydrolysis and gas-phase advection were the principal fate pathways for CWAs and TICs, respectively. Apart from CX and the TICs, none of the investigated compounds was predicted to persist in a landfill for more than 5 years. Climate had little impact on CWA/TIC fate, and biodegradability was only important for compounds with long hydrolysis half-lives. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess the influence of uncertainty in model input parameters on CWA/TIC fate predictions. Correlation analyses showed that uncertainty in hydrolysis rate constants was the primary contributor to variance of CWA fate predictions, while uncertainty in the Henry's Law constant and landfill gas-production rate accounted for most of the variance of TIC fate predictions. CWA hydrolysates were more persistent than the parent CWAs, but limited information is available on abiotic or biotic transformation rates for these chemicals.

  8. Methodology for national risk analysis and prioritization of toxic industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxell, Piia; Engström, Kerstin; Tuovila, Juha; Söderström, Martin; Kiljunen, Harri; Vanninen, Paula; Santonen, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    The identification of chemicals that pose the greatest threat to human health from incidental releases is a cornerstone in public health preparedness for chemical threats. The present study developed and applied a methodology for the risk analysis and prioritization of industrial chemicals to identify the most significant chemicals that pose a threat to public health in Finland. The prioritization criteria included acute and chronic health hazards, physicochemical and environmental hazards, national production and use quantities, the physicochemical properties of the substances, and the history of substance-related incidents. The presented methodology enabled a systematic review and prioritization of industrial chemicals for the purpose of national public health preparedness for chemical incidents.

  9. Chemical, procedural and economical evaluation of carbon dioxide as feedstock in the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The utilisation of CO 2 as feedstock in the chemical industry represents an alternative to the geological storage, which is legally limited and socially debated. Generally, scientific publications about the utilisation of CO 2 in chemical reactions typically address the feasibility of the syntheses without paying attention to the CO 2 reduction potential or the economy in contrast to the conventional process of production. The aim of this doctoral thesis is to identify chemical reactions with CO 2 as feedstock, which have the potential to reduce CO 2 emissions. These reactions are evaluated concerning the industrial realization, CO 2 balance and economy compared to the conventional processes. To achieve this, 123 reactions from the literature were collected and evaluated with the help of selection criteria developed specifically for this application. The criteria consider both, the quantitative potential to reduce CO 2 and possible economical interests in these reactions. Additional to the process of the evaluation of the reactions, a CO 2 reduction potential of 1.33 % of the greenhouse gas emissions within the European Union could be calculated. For the chemicals formic acid, oxalic acid, formaldehyde, methanol, urea and dimethyl ether, which most fully satisfy the selection criteria, a direct comparison of the CO 2 based process with the conventional process is performed. By literature data, process designs, and simulations, it has been shown that the highest reductions of CO 2 emissions can be achieved for methanol with 1.43 kg CO2 /kg MeOH and dimethyl ether with 2.17 kg CO2 /kg DME , but only with the assumption that the necessary hydrogen for the CO 2 based reaction is produced by electrolysis operated with renewable energy. Overall, the CO 2 based production processes of methanol and dimethyl ether could reduce 0.059 % of the greenhouse gas emissions of the European Union (EU) if all conventional processes are substituted in the EU. Finally, for the CO 2

  10. A FLUORESCENCE BASED ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the reported effects for exposure to many of the toxic industrial chemicals is DNA damage. The present study describes a simple, rapid and innovative assay to detect DNA damage resulting from exposure of surrogate DNA to toxic industrial chemicals (acrolein, allylamine, ch...

  11. Designing continuous safety improvement within chemical industrial areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, G.L.L.; Ale, B. J.M.; Dullaert, W.; Soudan, K.

    This article provides support in organizing and implementing novel concepts for enhancing safety on a cluster level of chemical plants. The paper elaborates the requirements for integrating Safety Management Systems of chemical plants situated within a so-called chemical cluster. Recommendations of

  12. Chemical reactor development : from laboratory synthesis to industrial production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoenes, D.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical Reactor Development is written primarily for chemists and chemical engineers who are concerned with the development of a chemical synthesis from the laboratory bench scale, where the first successful experiments are performed, to the design desk, where the first commercial reactor is

  13. Abstracts Book of 42. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry is the most important chemical forum of Polish chemists organised annually. The state of art of many fundamental and applied investigations have been presented and discussed. The following scientific sessions and microsymposia have been proposed: plenary session, analytical chemistry, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, chemistry and environment, chemistry and technology of polymers, chemistry didactics, electrochemistry, young scientists forum, chemical technology, chemical engineering, high energetics materials, computers in research and teaching of chemistry, structure modelling and polymer properties, silicon-organic compounds

  14. Abstracts Book of Jubilee Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Scientific Assemblies of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry are most important chemical discussion forum organised annually in Poland. Basic as well as application studies in all chemical branches have been extensively presented. The next subjects was proposed as sections and symposia topics: organic chemistry, physical chemistry (chemical kinetics, catalysis, thermodynamics), membranes and membrane processes, biological chemistry, biotechnology, metalorganic compounds and complexes, polymer chemistry, crystallochemical study, spectroscopy in nowadays chemistry, supramolecular chemistry, chemistry and technology of coal, high-energetic materials, environment protection, didactics in chemistry, radiation chemistry, photochemistry, electrochemistry, chemistry and technology of carbohydrates, theoretical and computer chemistry, young scientists forum, history of chemistry

  15. Environmental profiles on chemicals (EPC): A substitution tool i.a. used in the textile industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, John; Laursen, Søren E.

    2002-01-01

    When dealing with cleaner technology and product development within industries using a lot of different chemicals, substitution is essential. In many cases substitution of hazardous chemicals with less hazardous ones will diminish the environmental impact from the industry in question. But among...... many different chemicals it can be difficult to prioritize and evaluate areas for substitution. The EPC-tool was thus developed and it has been used successfully within the Danish printing industry and the Polish textile industry. The EPC tool combines key emission and key consumption figures...... with hazard assessments of the chemicals used in production and thus creates an environmental profile of the industry, process or product in question. The preceding EPCs are used for pointing out hazardous chemicals used in relatively high quantities and therefore candidates for substitution. The EPCs created...

  16. Antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Cameron S; Day, Brian J

    2016-01-15

    The continuing horrors of military conflicts and terrorism often involve the use of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Many CWA and TIC exposures are difficult to treat due to the danger they pose to first responders and their rapid onset that can produce death shortly after exposure. While the specific mechanism(s) of toxicity of these agents are diverse, many are associated either directly or indirectly with increased oxidative stress in affected tissues. This has led to the exploration of various antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC exposures. Studies have been performed across a wide array of agents, model organisms, exposure systems, and antioxidants, looking at an almost equally diverse set of endpoints. Attempts at treating CWAs/TICs with antioxidants have met with mixed results, ranging from no effect to nearly complete protection. The aim of this commentary is to summarize the literature in each category for evidence of oxidative stress and antioxidant efficacy against CWAs and TICs. While there is great disparity in the data concerning methods, models, and remedies, the outlook on antioxidants as medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC management appears promising. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A future perspective on the role of industrial biotechnology for chemicals production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodley, John; Breuer, Michael; Mink, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The development of recombinant DNA technology, the need for renewable raw materials and a green, sustainable profile for future chemical processes have been major drivers in the implementation of industrial biotechnology. The use of industrial biotechnology for the production of chemicals is well...... established in the pharmaceutical industry but is moving down the value chain toward bulk chemicals. Chemical engineers will have an essential role in the development of new processes where the need is for new design methods for effective implementation, just as much as new technology. Most interesting...

  18. Best practices in incident investigation in the chemical process industries with examples from the industry sector and specifically from Nova Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Lisa M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will summarize best practices in incident investigation in the chemical process industries and will provide examples from both the industry sector and specifically from NOVA Chemicals. As a sponsor of the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS), an industry technology alliance of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, NOVA Chemicals participates in a number of working groups to help develop best practices and tools for the chemical process and associated industries in order to advance chemical process safety. A recent project was to develop an update on guidelines for investigating chemical process incidents. A successful incident investigation management system must ensure that all incidents and near misses are reported, that root causes are identified, that recommendations from incident investigations identify appropriate preventive measures, and that these recommendations are resolved in a timely manner. The key elements of an effective management system for incident investigation will be described. Accepted definitions of such terms as near miss, incident, and root cause will be reviewed. An explanation of the types of incident classification systems in use, along with expected levels of follow-up, will be provided. There are several incident investigation methodologies in use today by members of the CCPS; most of these methodologies incorporate the use of several tools. These tools include: timelines, sequence diagrams, causal factor identification, brainstorming, checklists, pre-defined trees, and team-defined logic trees. Developing appropriate recommendations and then ensuring their resolution is the key to prevention of similar events from recurring, along with the sharing of lessons learned from incidents. There are several sources of information on previous incidents and lessons learned available to companies. In addition, many companies in the chemical process industries use their own internal databases to track recommendations from

  19. 15 CFR 710.4 - Overview of scheduled chemicals and examples of affected industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... examples of affected industries. 710.4 Section 710.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... REGULATIONS (CWCR) § 710.4 Overview of scheduled chemicals and examples of affected industries. The following provides examples of the types of industries that may be affected by the CWCR (parts 710 through 729 of...

  20. Security risk assessment and protection in the chemical and process industry

    OpenAIRE

    Reniers, Genserik; van Lerberghe, Paul; van Gulijk, Coen

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a security risk assessment and protection methodology that was developed for use in the chemical- and process industry in Belgium. The approach of the method follows a risk-based approach that follows desing principles for chemical safety. That approach is beneficial for workers in the chemical industry because they recognize the steps in this model from familiar safety models .The model combines the rings-of-protection approach with generic security practices including...

  1. Review on Chemical treatment of Industrial Waste Water * OPSAHU

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    water is used and lot of wastewater generated from industries due their processes and washing purpose. A large ..... for coagulation–precipitation of cosmetic wastewater industry (Aloui ..... Gregor, J.E., Nokes, C.J., Fenton, E., 1997. Optimising ...

  2. Research on the competitiveness and development strategy of china's modern coal chemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Han, Y. J.; Yu, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    China's modern coal chemical industry has grown into a certain scale after over a decade of development, and remarkable progress has been made in key technologies. But as oil price collapsed since 2015, the economic benefit of the industry also slumped, with loud controversies in China over the necessity of modern coal chemical industry. The research believes that the modern coal chemical industry plays a positive role in the clean and sustainable exploitation of coal in China. It makes profit when oil price is no lower than 60/bbl, and outperforms petrochemical in terms of cost effectiveness when the price is between 60/bbl and 80/bbl. Given the low oil price and challenges posed by environmental protection and water restraints, we suggest that the state announce a guideline quickly, with adjusted tax policies and an encouragement to technological innovation, so that the modern coal chemical industry in China can grow sound and stable.

  3. Globalization : the challenge of the 1990s for the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcock, D.

    1992-01-01

    The challenges facing the chemical industry in Canada were discussed. In recent years, Canada has scored low in polls measuring public confidence in the chemical industry. The industry is also suffering from continuing recession, global competition, increased environmental demands and strict legislation. The impact of globalization, total quality management, free trade, environmental concerns, and government policies on the chemical industry were reviewed. In the view of this author (President and CEO of Dow Chemicals) globalization is not a matter of choice, it is an industry imperative. Survival in the globalized economy will require not only to be successful competitors, but even more importantly to be successful cooperators with other stakeholders, and successful in forming partnerships with customers

  4. A multi-attribute Systemic Risk Index for comparing and prioritizing chemical industrial areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reniers, G.L.L.; Sörensen, K.; Dullaert, W.

    2012-01-01

    Measures taken to decrease interdependent risks within chemical industrial areas should be based on quantitative data from a holistic (cluster-based) point of view. Therefore, this paper examines the typology of networks representing industrial areas to formulate recommendations to more effectively protect a chemical cluster against existing systemic risks. Chemical industrial areas are modeled as two distinct complex networks and are prioritized by computing two sub-indices with respect to existing systemic safety and security risks (using Domino Danger Units) and supply chain risks (using units from an ordinal expert scale). Subsequently, a Systemic Risk Index for the industrial area is determined employing the Borda algorithm, whereby the systemic risk index considers both a safety and security network risk index and a supply chain network risk index. The developed method allows decreasing systemic risks within chemical industrial areas from a holistic (inter-organizational and/or inter-cluster) perspective. An illustrative example is given.

  5. Chemical processes of coal for use in power plants. Part 1: Approximate analysis and associated indexes of pulverized coal; Procesos quimicos del carbon para su uso en centrales termoelectricas. Parte 1: Analisis aproximado e indices asociados del carbon pulverizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altamirano-Bedolla, J. A.; Manzanares-Papayanopoulos, E.; Herrera-Velarde, J. R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: emp@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    The usage of hydrocarbons, such as natural gas, oil products and coal, will be the main source of energy to the mankind for next generations. Therefore, the actual research and technological developments point out to employ with high efficiency those fuels. The main interests are to release most of the energy as possible and to guide the combustion reactions. It is well known that during the combustion process of coal, the chemical energy is converted to thermal energy, which it allows the steam production, and therefore to produce energy through an electric generator. The main interest of the work presented here is to study the behavior of the coal combustion processes in function of the approximate analysis and some associate indices of that analysis, to point out the optimization of the coal usage as main fuel in electrical power generation plants. [Spanish] El uso de hidrocarburos como son el gas natural, los derivados del petroleo y el carbon mineral, continuara siendo en las proximas decadas la principal fuente de energia de la humanidad. Por consiguiente, la investigacion cientifica y los desarrollos tecnologicos actualmente se enfocan en emplear de manera mas eficiente dichos combustibles, satisfaciendo entre otros factores, dos intereses principales: liberar la mayor cantidad de energia, reduciendo al minimo el material combustible no quemado, y direccionar las reacciones del proceso de combustion para minimizar la cantidad de productos no deseados resultantes de la reaccion. A traves de los procesos quimicos de combustion del carbon, se transforma la energia quimica a energia termica, lo que permite la produccion de vapor para a su vez impulsar una turbina la cual esta acoplada a un generador electrico. El objetivo del presente trabajo es el estudio del comportamiento de los procesos quimicos que se llevan a cabo durante las reacciones de combus-tion del carbon en funcion del analisis aproximado y de los indices asociados resultantes de dicho analisis; lo

  6. On Study of Teaching Reform of Organic Chemistry Course in Applied Chemical Industry Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunshen

    2017-11-01

    with the implementation of new curriculum reform, the education sees great changes in teaching methods. Teaching reform is profound in organic chemistry course in applied chemical industry technology. However, many problems which have never been noticed before occur when reform programs are implemented which harm students’ ability for learning and enthusiasm in side face. This paper proposes reform measures like combining theory and practice, improving professional quality, supplementing professional needs and integrating teaching into life after analyzing organic chemistry course teaching in applied chemical industry technology currently, hoping to play a role of reference for organic chemistry course teaching reform in applied chemical industry technology.

  7. Profile of the chemicals industry in California: Californiaindustries of the future program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) established the Industries of the Future (IOF) program to increase energy efficiency, reduce waste production and to improve competitiveness, currently focusing on nine sectors. The IOF is a partnership strategy involving industry, the research community and the government, working together to identify technology needs, promote industrial partnerships and implement joint measures with all partners involved. The State Industries of the Future (SIOF) program delivers the accomplishments of the national Industries of the Future strategy to the local level, to expand the technology opportunities to a larger number of partners and reach smaller businesses and manufacturers that were not initially involved in the IOF effort. The state programs bring together industry, academia, and state agencies to address the important issues confronting industry in the state. These public-private coalitions facilitate industry solutions locally and enhance economic development. California has started a State Industries of the Future effort, in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy. The California Energy Commission (CEC) is leading the SIOF program in California, as part of many other programs to improve the energy efficiency and performance of industries in California. The California State IOF program aims to build a network of participants from industry, academia and government in four selected industrial sectors as a basis for the development of a strategic partnership for industrial energy efficient technology in the state. In California the IOF effort focuses petroleum refining, chemical processing, food processing and electronics. As part of this effort, the SIOF program will develop roadmaps for technology development for the selected sectors. On the basis of the roadmap, the program will develop successful projects with co-funding from state and federal government, and promote industry

  8. Abstracts Book of 41. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry is the most important scientific forum of Polish Chemists. The state of the art in many basic, fundamental and applied investigations has been presented and discussed. The following scientific sessions and microsymposia have been proposed: theoretical chemistry; molecular interactions; metal compounds - chemical, physical, electronic and biological aspects; catalysis and surface physico-chemistry; polymers - radiochemistry, modifications, physics and analytical methods; organic and bioorganic chemistry; physico-chemistry of condensed matter; chemical metallurgy; environmental protection; inorganic technology; chemistry and technology of coal; radiation chemistry; analytical chemistry; chemical engineering; young scientists forum; chemical didactics; petrochemistry; energetic materials; membranes and membrane processes; medical chemistry

  9. Progress of environmental management and risk assessment of industrial chemicals in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Yan, Zhen-Guang; Li, Hong; Yang, Ni-Yun; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Wang, Yi-Zhe; Yu, Ruo-Zhen; Zhang, Lai; Wang, Wan-Hua; Jiao, Cong-Ying; Liu, Zheng-Tao

    2012-06-01

    With China's rapid economic growth, chemical-related environmental issues have become increasingly prominent, and the environmental management of chemicals has garnered increased attention from the government. This review focuses on the current situation and the application of risk assessment in China's environmental management of industrial chemicals. The related challenges and research needs of the country are also discussed. The Chinese government promulgated regulations for the import and export of toxic chemicals in 1994. Regulations for new chemical substances came into force in 2003, and were revised in 2010 based on the concept of risk management. In order to support the implementation of new regulations, Guidance for Risk Assessment of Chemicals is under development in an attempt to provide the concepts and techniques of risk assessment. With increasing concern and financial support from Chinese government, China is embarking on the fast track of research and development in environmental management of industrial chemicals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Carcinogenicity tests of certain environmental and industrial chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisburger, E.K.; Ulland, B.M.; Nam, J.; Gart, J.J.; Weisburger, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Fourteen chemicals of varied uses were tested for carcinogenicity by oral administration in male and female Charles River CD rats. Under the conditions of the tests, propane sultone, propylene imine, and ethylenethiourea, in addition to the positive control N-2-fluorenylacetamide, were carcinogenic. Avadex, bis(2-chloroethyl) ether, the potassium salt of bis(2-hydroxyethyl) dithiocarbamic acid, ethylene carbonate, and semicarbazide hydrochloride were not carcinogenic under the test conditions. Dithiooxamide, glycerol alpha-monochlorohydrin, and thiosemicarbazide gave somewhat ambiguous results, though administered at high enough dose levels to be toxic. An inadequate number of animals survived treatments with sodium azide, sodium bisulfide, and vinylene carbonate, or the animals may not have received sufficiently high doses of the test chemicals to provide maximum test sensitivity. However, there were no indications that these three chemicals were carcinogenic under the test conditions

  11. the chemical composition and industrial quality of barite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    important properties when considering the suitability of barite for non-drilling applications. Barite has various uses. For instance, high purity grades of barite with fine and well-sorted particles are used as fillers in marine and industrial paints, in brake lining/friction materials and in plastics. A specialized use of barite based on ...

  12. Implementation Plan for Chemical Industry R&D Roadmap for Nanomaterials by Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this effort is to develop an implementation plan to realize the vision and goals identified in the Chemical Industry R&D Roadmap for Nanomaterials By Design: From Fundamentals to Function.

  13. Factors Influencing the Spatial Distribution of Organochlorine Pesticides in Soils surrounding Chemical Industrial Parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; Lu, Y.L.; Wang, T.Y.; Zhang, X.; Han, J.Y.; Luo, W.; Shi, Y.J.; Li, J.; Jiao, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    Topsoil samples (n = 105) were collected to Study the distribution of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) residues in the vicinity of chemical industrial parks in Tianjin, China. The occurrence and distribution of target organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were mapped

  14. Health Risk Assessment of Harmful Chemicals: Case Study in a Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Motovagheh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims In the most chemical process industries, workers are exposed to various chemicals and working with these chemicals without considering safety and health considerations can lead to different harmful symptoms. For deciding about control measures and reducing risk to acceptable level , it is necessary to assess the health risk of exposing to harmful chemicals by aid of specific risk assessment techniques in the process industries. The purpose of this study was to assess the health risks arising from the exposures to chemicals in a petrochemical industry.  methods A simple and applied method was used for health risk assessment of chemicals in a petrochemical industry. Firstly job tasks and work process were determined and then different chemicals in each tasks identified and risk ranking was calculated in each job task by aid of hazard and exposure rate.   Results The result showed that workers are exposed to 10 chemicals including Methyl ethyl ketone, Epichlorohydrin, Sulfuric acid, Phenol, Chlorobenzene, Toluene, Isopropanol, Methylene chloride, Chlorideric Acid and Acetone during their work in plant. From these chemicals, the highest risk level was for Epichlorohydrin in the jobs of tank and utility operations and maintenance workers. The next high risk level was for Epichlorohydrin in technical inspecting and Methyl ethyl ketone in Tank and utility operations operator.     Conclusion Hazard information and monitoring data of chemical agents in the chemical industries can be used for assessing health risks from exposures to chemicals and ranking jobs by their risk level. These data can be used for resource allocation for control measures and reducing risk level to acceptable level.    

  15. Public perception and attitude towards chemical industry park in Dalian, Bohai Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guizhen; Chen, Chunci; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yonglong

    2018-04-01

    Recent decade has witnessed accelerating expansion of chemical industry and increasing conflicts between the local citizens, governmental authorities and project developers, especially in some coastal and port cities in China. Development and transformation of chemical industrial parks has been adopted as a national initiative recently. However, there is a paucity of research examining public perspectives on chemical industrial parks and their risks. Aiming to understand public perception, attitude, and response and the factors underlying the support/acceptance of chemical industry park, this paper investigated 418 residents neighboring to two chemical industrial parks, Dalian in Bohai Rim through face-to-face questionnaire survey. The results showed the knowledge of the respondents on the chemical industrial parks development was very limited. The respondents had complex perceptions on the environmental impacts, risks control, social-economic benefits, and problem awareness. The current levels of information disclosure and public participation were very low. The central governmental official (44.3%) was the most trustworthy group by the respondents. Only 5.5% and 23.2% of the respondents supported the construction of a new CIP nearby and far away their homes, whilst 13% thought new CIP project as acceptable. The spearman correlation analysis results showed a strong NIMBY effect (Not In My Backyard). Factor analysis results demonstrated five latent factors: knowledge, benefit, information, trust, and participation. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated how socio-demographic differences and five latent factors might impact on the support/acceptance of the chemical industrial parks. Education level, trust, information, and participation were significant predictors of public support/acceptance level. This study contributes to our limited knowledge and understanding of public sentiments to the chemical industry parks in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  16. Possibilities for recovery and prospects of the Serbian chemical industry in the light of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Petar M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous dilemmas related to the meaning of common terms associated with modern economic sectors, and especially the ones concerning industry. Chemical industry is a typical example of a term which changes rapidly and qualitatively, exactly with the pace of changing of the very technology based on knowledge, procedure, processes, raw materials, energy, as well as on the products themselves and on the way of their use. Numerous difficulties caused by huge changes in global market, by transition of command economies towards market system, as well as by the latest global economic-financial crisis, have brought the chemical industry in modern Serbia to an unenviable position. We cannot generally claim that chemical industry is collapsing, but the recovery of the whole chemical industry, as well as of the industry in general, necessitates many favourable presumptions from the environment, as well as strategic, systemic and operative measures, of the state within the so-called industry policy, as well as of the very companies which deal with chemical industry. The re-industrialization strategy, adopted officially during the first crisis blow, but to the full extent only during the prolonged crisis period in Serbia (2009-2013 should not be based on direct state incentives, but above all on the institutional infrastructure and business environment improvement which will lead to the investments in technological reconstruction and re-organization of the entire sector. However, chemical industry cannot be observed as a chance for economic growth per se, nor it can lead to higher employment rate in such a short period of time, but above all to productive use of profession, or of growth potential based on knowledge factor. This is why a proper evolution and prosperity of the Serbian chemical industry can be comprehended, not only through contribution of one separate sector, but as complementary and useful technologies within many other industries

  17. Chemical and Physical Sensing in the Petroleum Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disko, Mark

    2008-03-01

    World-scale oil, gas and petrochemical production relies on a myriad of advanced technologies for discovering, producing, transporting, processing and distributing hydrocarbons. Sensing systems provide rapid and targeted information that can be used for expanding resources, improving product quality, and assuring environmentally sound operations. For example, equipment such as reactors and pipelines can be operated with high efficiency and safety with improved chemical and physical sensors for corrosion and hydrocarbon detection. At the interface between chemical engineering and multiphase flow physics, ``multi-scale'' phenomena such as catalysis and heat flow benefit from new approaches to sensing and data modeling. We are combining chemically selective micro-cantilevers, fiber optic sensing, and acoustic monitoring with statistical data fusion approaches to maximize control information. Miniaturized analyzers represent a special opportunity, including the nanotech-based quantum cascade laser systems for mid-infrared spectroscopy. Specific examples for use of these new micro-systems include rapid monocyclic aromatic molecule identification and measurement under ambient conditions at weight ppb levels. We see promise from emerging materials and devices based on nanotechnology, which can one day be available at modest cost for impact in existing operations. Controlled surface energies and emerging chemical probes hold the promise for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions for current fuels and future transportation and energy technologies.

  18. Strategy of Construction and Demolition Waste Management after Chemical Industry Facilities Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkinova, I. N.; Batrakova, G. M.; Vaisman, Ya I.

    2017-06-01

    Mixed waste products are generated in the process of irrelevant industrial projects’ removal if conventional techniques of their demolition and dismantling are applied. In Russia the number of unused chemical industry facilities including structures with high rate of wear is growing. In removing industrial buildings and production shops it is used conventional techniques of demolition and dismantling in the process of which mixed waste products are generated. The presence of hazardous chemicals in these wastes makes difficulties for their use and leads to the increasing volume of unutilized residues. In the process of chemical industry facilities’ removal this fact takes on special significance as a high level of hazardous chemicals in the waste composition demands for the realization of unprofitable measures aimed at ensuring environmental and industrial safety. The proposed strategy of managing waste originated from the demolition and dismantling of chemical industry facilities is based on the methodology of industrial metabolism which allows identifying separate material flows of recycled, harmful and ballast components, performing separate collection of components during removal and taking necessary preventive measures. This strategy has been tested on the aniline synthesis plant being in the process of removal. As a result, a flow of 10 wt. %, subjected to decontamination, was isolated from the total volume of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste). The considered approach allowed using the resource potential of more than 80wt. % of waste and minimizing the disposed waste volume.

  19. A FLUORESCENCE-BASED SCREENING ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY GENOTOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The possibility of deliberate or accidental release of toxic chemicals in industrial, commercial or residential settings has indicated a need for rapid, cost-effective and versatile monitoring methods to prevent exposures to humans and ecosystems. Because many toxic industrial c...

  20. Physio-Chemical Analysis of Industrial Effluents in parts of Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physio-Chemical Analysis of Industrial Effluents in parts of Edo States Nigeria. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... particularly, surface water results from all activities of man involving indiscriminate waste disposal from industry such as effluents into waterways, waste, agricultural waste, and all ...

  1. Accidents, often the result of an 'uncontrolled business process' - a study in the (Dutch) chemical industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnemans, P.J.M.; Körvers, P.M.W.; Brombacher, A.C.; Beek, van P.C.; Reinders, J.E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Often companies in the (petro-) chemical industry claim that all possible countermeasures against potential accidents have been taken and therefore accidents are unforeseeable. In this paper we question this statement by analysing the pre-warning signals (precursors) preceding a number of industrial

  2. Urinary screening for potentially genotoxic exposures in a chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlborg, G. Jr.; Bergstroem, B.H.; Hogstedt, C.; Einistoe, P.S.; Sorsa, M.

    1985-10-01

    Mutagenic activity, measured by the bacterial fluctuation assay and thioether concentration in urine from workers at a chemical plant producing pharmaceuticals and explosives, was determined before and after exposure. Of 12 groups only those exposed to trinitrotoluene (n = 14) showed a significant increase in mutagenic activity using Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 without any exogenous metabolic system. The same strain responded only weakly when the S-9 mix was used; with Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA no effect of exposure was observed. Urinary thioether concentration was higher among smokers than among non-smokers, but occupational exposure had no effect. Urinary mutagenicity testing may be a useful tool for screening potentially genotoxic exposures in complex chemical environments.

  3. Potential Applications of Peroxidases in the Fine Chemical Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Luigi; Monzani, Enrico; Nicolis, Stefania

    A description of selected types of reactions catalyzed by heme peroxidases is given. In particular, the discussion is focused mainly on those of potential interest for fine chemical synthesis. The division into subsections has been done fromthe point of view of the enzyme action, i.e., giving emphasis to themechanismof the enzymatic reaction, and from that of the substrate, i.e., analyzing the type of transformation promoted by the enzyme. These two approaches have several points in common.

  4. Forecasting global developments in the basic chemical industry for environmental policy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeren, M.L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371687438; Saygin, D.; Patel, M.K.

    The chemical sector is the largest industrial energy user, but detailed analysis of its energy use developments lags behind other energy-intensive sectors. A cost-driven forecasting model for basic chemicals production is developed, accounting for regional production costs, demand growth and stock

  5. Management of change: Lessons learned from staff reductions in the chemical process industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Gort, J.; Steijger, N.; Moonen, C.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing global competition and shareholder pressure are causing major changes in the chemical industry. Over the last decade companies have been continuously improving staff efficiency. As a result, most modern chemical plants can be regarded as lean. Plans to further reduce the number of staff

  6. Value chain management for commodities: a case study from the chemical industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kannegiesser, M.; Günther, H.O.; Beek, van P.; Grunow, M.; Habla, C.

    2009-01-01

    We present a planning model for chemical commodities related to an industry case. Commodities are standard chemicals characterized by sales and supply volatility in volume and value. Increasing and volatile prices of crude oil-dependent raw materials require coordination of sales and supply

  7. Technology Roadmap: Energy and GHG reductions in the chemical industry via catalytic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The chemical industry is a large energy user; but chemical products and technologies also are used in a wide array of energy saving and/or renewable energy applications so the industry has also an energy saving role. The chemical and petrochemical sector is by far the largest industrial energy user, accounting for roughly 10% of total worldwide final energy demand and 7% of global GHG emissions. The International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) has partnered with the IEA and DECHEMA (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology) to describe the path toward further improvements in energy efficiency and GHG reductions in the chemical sector. The roadmap looks at measures needed from the chemical industry, policymakers, investors and academia to press on with catalysis technology and unleash its potential around the globe. The report uncovers findings and best practice opportunities that illustrate how continuous improvements and breakthrough technology options can cut energy use and bring down greenhouse gas (GHG) emission rates. Around 90% of chemical processes involve the use of catalysts – such as added substances that increase the rate of reaction without being consumed by it – and related processes to enhance production efficiency and reduce energy use, thereby curtailing GHG emission levels. This work shows an energy savings potential approaching 13 exajoules (EJ) by 2050 – equivalent to the current annual primary energy use of Germany.

  8. Workshop on Indian Chemical Industry: perspectives on safety, cleaner production and environment production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    A Workshop on "Indian Chemical Industry: Perspectives on Safety, Cleaner Production and Environmental Protection" was held on 3, 4 and 5 January 1996, in Bombay, India. The main objective of the workshop, which was organised jointly by the Government of India, UNIDO/UNDP and the Indian Chemical

  9. Essentials of water systems design in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Alireza; Boyd, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Essentials of Water Systems Design in the Oil, Gas and Chemical Processing Industries provides valuable insight for decision makers by outlining key technical considerations and requirements of four critical systems in industrial processing plants—water treatment systems, raw water and plant water systems, cooling water distribution and return systems, and fire water distribution and storage facilities. The authors identify the key technical issues and minimum requirements related to the process design and selection of various water supply systems used in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries. This book is an ideal, multidisciplinary work for mechanical engineers, environmental scientists, and oil and gas process engineers.

  10. Land-use planning risk estimates for a chemical industrial park in China - A longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Xinsheng; Wu, Zongzhi; Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2018-01-01

    A chemical industrial park (CIP) can centralize the management of companies and facilitate mutual communication between different businesses. Due to these advantages, an increasing number of chemical companies are forced into CIP, especially in developing countries such as China. Thus, the land......-site risk levels are still low and within the acceptable region, the study concludes that the authorities should review carefully and monitor the risk level in case of future development activities around and within the chemical industrial park, e.g. preserving a buffer zone should be considered. For future...

  11. Radiation chemical technology of industrial polymer reagents development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudaibergenov, S.; Nurkeeva, Z.; Mun, G.; Sigitov, V.; Maltzeva, R.; Petukhov, V.; Tchekushin, A.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop the technology of producing of polymeric reagents from the raw materials of Kazakstan for application in medicine, agriculture, enhanced oil recovery and ecology. To achieve the objectives the next technological lines or operations (Blocks) should be realized: 1. Rectification column and distilling apparatus for purification of monomers and solvents including analytical equipment to control the quality of the final product; 2. Irradiation of reaction mixture by either gamma-irradiation source Co-60; 3. Purification of polymer reagents; 4. Producing of commercial products. It is supposed that the power irradiation devices for producing of hydrogels will be mounted on the research atomic reactor of the Almaty Branch of the Institute of Atomic Energy of the National Nuclear Center. There are high qualification personal which has much experience in radioactive materials operating. Irradiation technologies will provide the low cost of hydrogels, approximately 250-300 US$ per 1 ton. Expected results. One can expect that the realization of this project allows to produce hydrogels in industrial scale to cover partly the requirements of medicine, agriculture, oil industry and ecology

  12. Research progress on catalytic denitrification technology in chemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yezhi

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, due to the rising emission of NOx annually, attention has been aroused widely by people on more and more severe environmental problems. This paper first discusses applying NOx removal and control technologies and relating chemical principles. Of many technologies, selective reduction reaction (SCR) is the most widely used. Catalysts, the concentration of NOx at the entrance of SCR catalytic reactor, reaction temperature, NH3/NOx mole ratio and NH3 slip rate analyzed later contributes to the removal efficiency of NOx. Finally, the processing and configuration of SCR de-NOx system are briefly introduced.

  13. Determinants of job stress in chemical process industry: A factor analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Balagopal G; Praveensal, C J; Madhu, G

    2015-01-01

    Job stress is one of the active research domains in industrial safety research. The job stress can result in accidents and health related issues in workers in chemical process industries. Hence it is important to measure the level of job stress in workers so as to mitigate the same to avoid the worker's safety related problems in the industries. The objective of this study is to determine the job stress factors in the chemical process industry in Kerala state, India. This study also aims to propose a comprehensive model and an instrument framework for measuring job stress levels in the chemical process industries in Kerala, India. The data is collected through a questionnaire survey conducted in chemical process industries in Kerala. The collected data out of 1197 surveys is subjected to principal component and confirmatory factor analysis to develop the job stress factor structure. The factor analysis revealed 8 factors that influence the job stress in process industries. It is also found that the job stress in employees is most influenced by role ambiguity and the least by work environment. The study has developed an instrument framework towards measuring job stress utilizing exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.

  14. Research, climate, energy : Questions of destiny for the chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastinen, A., email: aimo.kastinen@chemind.fi

    2010-07-01

    Registration for the first phase of Reach finishes at the end of November. Then we will see whether the standard of legislation has been set correctly in respect of the EU's operational ability. If it isn't, significant problems will result for the community's treatment of materials and the EU's competitiveness, and Reach's value as a global model will become questionable. Also, the CLP regulation concerning classification, labelling and packaging of chemicals will start to come into effect as from the beginning of December. In the first phase, the question is one of classification of substances, and gradually the requirements will be applied to mixtures too. At the same time, Safety Data Sheets shall be renewed in accordance with their own transition period. The current product legislation concerning chemicals shall be fully revised by the mid-point of the decade, but before then company safety officers will have to do lots of work to change the previous routines

  15. Chemical studies on some radionuclides in industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.F.A.

    2006-01-01

    in this thesis, there is much concern about the technologically enhanced-naturally occurring radioactive materials (TE-NORM) associated with phosphate fertilizers and chemical materials production in abu Zaabal Company, Egypt. the phosphogypsum (PG)wastes associated with the phosporic acid produced was found to contain high concentrations of radioactivity than that exists naturally (i.e., background). this chapter includes sufficient information about the different sources of the environmental radioactivities as well as TE-NORM associated with phosphate fertilizers and oil and gas production facilities . it includes also, information about the history, methods used in detection and measurements, limits, trials of TE-NORM treatment . it contains some aspects on the chemistry and radiochemistry of radium and radon. also, this chapter includes the aim of the present work.this chapter includes preparation of all required samples for analysis, as well as chemicals and reagents used in the experimental work .it includes also, description of the different spectroscopic instruments used. which are: HPGe γ-ray spectrometry,α-spectrometry, X-ray diffraction(XRD), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), and IR-spectrometry. the energy and efficiency calibrations of both γ and α-spectrometry are also presented

  16. Alternative routes for the chemical industry regarding US shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneissel, B. [Stratley AG, Koeln (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Cracking ethane from wet shale gas in North America sets a bench mark to global ethylene production costs. Regarding very attractive ethane prices from extraction of low cost wet shale gas we suggest in North America ethylene production costs will roughly vary between 400 and 600 $/ t. As in other parts of the world, except Middle East, the availability of ethane seems to be more limited other sources for ethylene, such as methane, coal and biomass are investigated. Oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) has its limits and may only lead to competitive production costs for large scale operations. Coal converted to ethylene via calcium carbide and subsequent hydrogenation may hardly be a viable answer. Ethylene derived by dehydration of ethanol from fermentation of corn sugar may be an answer for very low crop prices. Further research on the conversion of methane with emphasis on its industrial implementation as a major carbon resource is recommended. (orig.)

  17. Lipids: From Chemical Structures, Biosynthesis, and Analyses to Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Nakamura, Yuki; Harwood, John

    2016-01-01

    Lipids are one of the major subcellular components, and play numerous essential functions. As well as their physiological roles, oils stored in biomass are useful commodities for a variety of biotechnological applications including food, chemical feedstocks, and fuel. Due to their agronomic as well as economic and societal importance, lipids have historically been subjected to intensive studies. Major current efforts are to increase the energy density of cell biomass, and/or create designer oils suitable for specific applications. This chapter covers some basic aspects of what one needs to know about lipids: definition, structure, function, metabolism and focus is also given on the development of modern lipid analytical tools and major current engineering approaches for biotechnological applications. This introductory chapter is intended to serve as a primer for all subsequent chapters in this book outlining current development in specific areas of lipids and their metabolism.

  18. Hydrogen fluoride (HF) substance flow analysis for safe and sustainable chemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junbeum; Hwang, Yongwoo; Yoo, Mijin; Chen, Sha; Lee, Ik-Mo

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the chemical substance flow of hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, HF) in domestic chemical industries in 2014 was analyzed in order to provide a basic material and information for the establishment of organized management system to ensure safety during HF applications. A total of 44,751 tons of HF was made by four domestic companies (in 2014); import amount was 95,984 tons in 2014 while 21,579 tons of HF was imported in 2005. The export amount of HF was 2180 tons, of which 2074 ton (China, 1422 tons, U.S. 524 tons, and Malaysia, 128 tons) was exported for the manufacturing of semiconductors. Based on the export and import amounts, it can be inferred that HF was used for manufacturing semiconductors. The industries applications of 161,123 tons of HF were as follows: manufacturing of basic inorganic chemical substance (27,937 tons), manufacturing of other chemical products such as detergents (28,208 tons), manufacturing of flat display (24,896 tons), and manufacturing of glass container package (22,002 tons). In this study, an analysis of the chemical substance flow showed that HF was mainly used in the semiconductor industry as well as glass container manufacturing. Combined with other risk management tools and approaches in the chemical industry, the chemical substance flow analysis (CSFA) can be a useful tool and method for assessment and management. The current CSFA results provide useful information for policy making in the chemical industry and national systems. Graphical abstract Hydrogen fluoride chemical substance flows in 2014 in South Korea.

  19. Co-Exposure with Fullerene May Strengthen Health Effects of Organic Industrial Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehto, M.; Karilainen, T.; Rog, T.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro toxicological studies together with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations show that occupational co-exposure with C-60 fullerene may strengthen the health effects of organic industrial chemicals. The chemicals studied are acetophenone, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, m-cresol, and toluene...... which can be used with fullerene as reagents or solvents in industrial processes. Potential co-exposure scenarios include a fullerene dust and organic chemical vapor, or a fullerene solution aerosolized in workplace air. Unfiltered and filtered mixtures of C-60 and organic chemicals represent different...... co-exposure scenarios in in vitro studies where acute cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of C-60 and organic chemicals are tested together and alone by using human THP-1-derived macrophages. Statistically significant co-effects are observed for an unfiltered mixture of benzaldehyde and C-60 that is more...

  20. Progress of environmental management and risk assessment of industrial chemicals in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hong; Yan Zhenguang; Li Hong; Yang Niyun; Leung, Kenneth M.Y.; Wang Yizhe; Yu Ruozhen; Zhang Lai; Wang Wanhua; Jiao Congying

    2012-01-01

    With China’s rapid economic growth, chemical-related environmental issues have become increasingly prominent, and the environmental management of chemicals has garnered increased attention from the government. This review focuses on the current situation and the application of risk assessment in China’s environmental management of industrial chemicals. The related challenges and research needs of the country are also discussed. The Chinese government promulgated regulations for the import and export of toxic chemicals in 1994. Regulations for new chemical substances came into force in 2003, and were revised in 2010 based on the concept of risk management. In order to support the implementation of new regulations, Guidance for Risk Assessment of Chemicals is under development in an attempt to provide the concepts and techniques of risk assessment. With increasing concern and financial support from Chinese government, China is embarking on the fast track of research and development in environmental management of industrial chemicals. - This paper reviews the current situation of industrial chemical management in China, and discusses the application of risk assessment and further research needs in this field.

  1. Education in petrochemical industry as prevention from chemical terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesaric, B.; Habek, R.; Loncarevic, M.

    2009-01-01

    Technical and technological accidents in petrochemical industry, with possible catastrophic consequences, caused by anthropogenic activity (technical or technological malfunction, terror, or war destruction ), usually accompanied by great human losses and material damage and high intensity of events in a relatively short period of time, which requires a quick action of emergency responders, process personnel and the high degree of self-organized endangered population for treatment in these kind of accidents. This implies a high qualification and skills for the treatment of accidents of all factors of rescue and protection such as: process personnel, emergency responders (fire-fighters, technical services), other workers as well as the endangered population. Managing the system of protection and rescue in communities with such risks requires maximum responsibility of local authorities and management of petrochemical plants. Petrokemija Kutina, with its many years of experience as a target for military and terrorist attacks, actively participated in the creation of laws and systems of protection and rescue in the Republic of Croatia, and also in creating standard operating procedures on local and regional level, and is also ready to share its own experiences with other similar factories using toxic substances in the production processes.(author)

  2. Federal agencies active in chemical industry-related research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-29

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 calls for a program to further the commercialization of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies for the industrial sector.. The primary objective of the Office of Industrial Technologies Chemical Industry Team is to work in partnership with the US chemical industry to maximize economic, energy, and environmental benefits through research and development of innovative technologies. This document was developed to inventory organizations within the federal government on current chemical industry-related research and development. While an amount of funding or number of projects specifically relating to chemical industry research and development was not defined in all organizations, identified were about 60 distinct organizations representing 7 cabinet-level departments and 4 independent agencies, with research efforts exceeding $3.5 billion in fiscal year 1995. Effort were found to range from less than $500 thousand per year at the Departments of Agriculture and the Interior to over $100 million per year at the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and Health and Human Services and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The total number of projects in these programs exceeded 10,000. This document is complete to the extent that agencies volunteered information. Additions, corrections, and changes are encouraged and will be incorporated in future revisions.

  3. Process Equipment Failure Mode Analysis in a Chemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nasl Seraji

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Prevention of potential accidents and safety promotion in chemical processes requires systematic safety management in them. The main objective of this study was analysis of important process equipment components failure modes and effects in H2S and CO2  isolation from extracted natural gas process.   Methods   This study was done in sweetening unit of an Iranian gas refinery. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA used for identification of process equipments failures.   Results   Totally 30 failures identified and evaluated using FMEA. P-1 blower's blade breaking and sour gas pressure control valve bearing tight moving had maximum risk Priority number (RPN, P-1 body corrosion and increasing plug lower side angle of reach DEAlevel control valve  in tower - 1 were minimum calculated RPN.   Conclusion   By providing a reliable documentation system for equipment failures and  incidents recording, maintaining of basic information for later safety assessments would be  possible. Also, the probability of failures and effects could be minimized by conducting preventive maintenance.

  4. Emergency planning and preparedness for the deliberate release of toxic industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, David; Simpson, John

    2010-03-01

    Society in developed and developing countries is hugely dependent upon chemicals for health, wealth, and economic prosperity, with the chemical industry contributing significantly to the global economy. Many chemicals are synthesized, stored, and transported in vast quantities and classified as high production volume chemicals; some are recognized as being toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Chemical accidents involving chemical installations and transportation are well recognized. Such chemical accidents occur with relative frequency and may result in large numbers of casualties with acute and chronic health effects as well as fatalities. The large-scale production of TICs, the potential for widespread exposure and significant public health impact, together with their relative ease of acquisition, makes deliberate release an area of potential concern. The large numbers of chemicals, together with the large number of potential release scenarios means that the number of possible forms of chemical incident are almost infinite. Therefore, prior to undertaking emergency planning and preparedness, it is necessary to prioritize risk and subsequently mitigate. This is a multi-faceted process, including implementation of industrial protection layers, substitution of hazardous chemicals, and relocation away from communities. Residual risk provides the basis for subsequent planning. Risk-prioritized emergency planning is a tool for identifying gaps, enhancing communication and collaboration, and for policy development. It also serves to enhance preparedness, a necessary prelude to preventing or mitigating the public health risk to deliberate release. Planning is an iterative and on-going process that requires multi-disciplinary agency input, culminating in the formation of a chemical incident plan complimentary to major incident planning. Preparedness is closely related and reflects a state of readiness. It is comprised of several components, including training and exercising

  5. Towards consistent and reliable Dutch and international energy statistics for the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neelis, M.L.; Pouwelse, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Consistent and reliable energy statistics are of vital importance for proper monitoring of energy-efficiency policies. In recent studies, irregularities have been reported in the Dutch energy statistics for the chemical industry. We studied in depth the company data that form the basis of the energy statistics in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2004 to find causes for these irregularities. We discovered that chemical products have occasionally been included, resulting in statistics with an inconsistent system boundary. Lack of guidance in the survey for the complex energy conversions in the chemical industry in the survey also resulted in large fluctuations for certain energy commodities. The findings of our analysis have been the basis for a new survey that has been used since 2007. We demonstrate that the annual questionnaire used for the international energy statistics can result in comparable problems as observed in the Netherlands. We suggest to include chemical residual gas as energy commodity in the questionnaire and to include the energy conversions in the chemical industry in the international energy statistics. In addition, we think the questionnaire should be explicit about the treatment of basic chemical products produced at refineries and in the petrochemical industry to avoid system boundary problems

  6. The association of the original OSHA chemical hazard communication standard with reductions in acute work injuries/illnesses in private industry and the industrial releases of chemical carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinick, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    OSHA predicted the original chemical Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) would cumulatively reduce the lost workday acute injury/illness rate for exposure events by 20% over 20 years and reduce exposure to chemical carcinogens. JoinPoint trend software identified changes in the rate of change of BLS rates for days away from work for acute injuries/illnesses during 1992-2009 for manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries for both chemical, noxious or allergenic injury exposure events and All other exposure events. The annual percent change in the rates was used to adjust observed numbers of cases to estimate their association with the standard. A case-control study of EPA's Toxic Release Inventory 1988-2009 data compared carcinogen and non-carcinogens' releases. The study estimates that the HCS was associated with a reduction in the number of acute injuries/illnesses due to chemical injury exposure events over the background rate in the range 107,569-459,395 (Hudson method/modified BIC model) depending on whether the HCS is treated as a marginal or sole factor in the decrease. Carcinogen releases have declined at a substantially faster rate than control non-carcinogens. The previous HCS standard was associated with significant reductions in chemical event acute injuries/illnesses and chemical carcinogen exposures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Evaluation model for safety capacity of chemical industrial park based on acceptable regional risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guohua Chen; Shukun Wang; Xiaoqun Tan

    2015-01-01

    The paper defines the Safety Capacity of Chemical Industrial Park (SCCIP) from the perspective of acceptable regional risk. For the purpose of exploring the evaluation model for the SCCIP, a method based on quantitative risk assessment was adopted for evaluating transport risk and to confirm reasonable safety transport capacity of chemical industrial park, and then by combining with the safety storage capacity, a SCCIP evaluation model was put forward. The SCCIP was decided by the smaller one between the largest safety storage capacity and the maximum safety transport capacity, or else, the regional risk of the park will exceed the acceptable level. The developed method was applied to a chemical industrial park in Guangdong province to obtain the maximum safety transport capacity and the SCCIP. The results can be realized in the regional risk control of the park effectively.

  8. New life for the chemical industry: the significance of coal gasification. [Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Y

    1985-01-01

    The current status of the cement, petrochemical and chemical divisions of Ube Industries, Ltd. is outlined. Accounts are given of the outlook for the petrochemical division and how it is coping with the present situation; of how the application of new coal gasification technology and the resulting maintenance of the competitive power of the company's ammonia on international markets has revived the chemical division; and of how the industrial gases division is benefiting from a 20% cut in gasification costs, obtained using the new gasification process. Other topics mentioned include the increasing specialization of the chemical division; the accelerated pace of development resulting from joint efforts by industry, government and the universities; the eradication of the adverse effects of a hierarchical organizational structure; and pioneering technology development where the emphasis is not on self-completion.

  9. The application of nuclear energy to the Canadian chemical process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.F.S.

    1976-03-01

    A study has been made to determine what role nuclear energy, either electrical or thermal, could play in the Canadian chemical process industry. The study was restricted to current-scale CANDU type power reactors. It is concluded that the scale of operation of the chemical industry is rarely large enough to use blocks of electrical power (e) of 500 MW or thermal power (t) of 1500 MW. Thus, with a few predictable exceptions, the role of nuclear energy in the Canadian chemical industry will be as a general thermal/electrical utility supplier, serving a variety of customers in a particular geographic area. This picture would change if nuclear steam generators of 20 to 50 MW(t) become available and are economically competitive. (author)

  10. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-11-15

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played...... chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes....... an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine...

  12. Predicting work-related flow in the chemical industry / Erika Maree

    OpenAIRE

    Maree, Erika

    2008-01-01

    In a new world of work characterised by competitiveness, benchmarking, technological innovation and efficiency, the South African chemical industry needs to function at an optimal level to meet the demands of its stakeholders and employees. The industry needs leadership of the highest standard and an efficient, productive workforce. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between leader empowering behaviour, self-efficacy, job resources and work-related flow for empl...

  13. Emission characteristics and chemical components of size-segregated particulate matter in iron and steel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jia; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Yao, Sen; Xu, Tiebing; Zhang, Tingting; Ma, Yuetao; Wang, Hongliang; Duan, Wenjiao

    2018-06-01

    As one of the highest energy consumption and pollution industries, the iron and steel industry is regarded as a most important source of particulate matter emission. In this study, chemical components of size-segregated particulate matters (PM) emitted from different manufacturing units in iron and steel industry were sampled by a comprehensive sampling system. Results showed that the average particle mass concentration was highest in sintering process, followed by puddling, steelmaking and then rolling processes. PM samples were divided into eight size fractions for testing the chemical components, SO42- and NH4+ distributed more into fine particles while most of the Ca2+ was concentrated in coarse particles, the size distribution of mineral elements depended on the raw materials applied. Moreover, local database with PM chemical source profiles of iron and steel industry were built and applied in CMAQ modeling for simulating SO42- and NO3- concentration, results showed that the accuracy of model simulation improved with local chemical source profiles compared to the SPECIATE database. The results gained from this study are expected to be helpful to understand the components of PM in iron and steel industry and contribute to the source apportionment researches.

  14. Reducing aquatic hazards of industrial chemicals: probabilistic assessment of sustainable molecular design guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Kristin A; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina M; Kostal, Jakub; Anastas, Paul; Zimmerman, Julie B; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-08-01

    Basic toxicological information is lacking for the majority of industrial chemicals. In addition to increasing empirical toxicity data through additional testing, prospective computational approaches to drug development aim to serve as a rational basis for the design of chemicals with reduced toxicity. Recent work has resulted in the derivation of a "rule of 2," wherein chemicals with an octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) less than 2 and a difference between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital (ΔE) greater than 9 (log P9 eV) are predicted to be 4 to 5 times less likely to elicit acute or chronic toxicity to model aquatic organisms. The present study examines potential reduction of aquatic toxicity hazards from industrial chemicals if these 2 molecular design guidelines were employed. Probabilistic hazard assessment approaches were used to model the likelihood of encountering industrial chemicals exceeding toxicological categories of concern both with and without the rule of 2. Modeling predicted that utilization of these molecular design guidelines for log P and ΔE would appreciably decrease the number of chemicals that would be designated to be of "high" and "very high" concern for acute and chronic toxicity to standard model aquatic organisms and end points as defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. For example, 14.5% of chemicals were categorized as having high and very high acute toxicity to the fathead minnow model, whereas only 3.3% of chemicals conforming to the design guidelines were predicted to be in these categories. Considerations of specific chemical classes (e.g., aldehydes), chemical attributes (e.g., ionization), and adverse outcome pathways in representative species (e.g., receptor-mediated responses) could be used to derive future property guidelines for broader classes of contaminants. © 2014 SETAC.

  15. Acid-resistant organic coatings for the chemical industry: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Victor Buhl; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Frankær, Sarah Maria Grundahl

    2017-01-01

    Industries that work with acidic chemicals in their processes need to make choices on how to properly contain the substances and avoid rapid corrosion of equipment. Certain organic coatings and linings can be used in such environments, either to protect vulnerable construction materials, or......, in combination with fiber reinforcement, to replace them. However, degradation mechanisms of organic coatings in acid service are not thoroughly understood and relevant quantitative investigations are scarce. This review describes the uses and limitations of acid-resistant coatings in the chemical industry...

  16. Implementation of Responsible Care in the chemical industry: Evidence from Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelinos, K.I.; Nikolaou, I.E.; Karagiannis, A.

    2010-01-01

    The chemical industry can be held accountable for numerous large-scale accidents which have led to the release of dangerous hazardous materials, pollutants and toxic chemicals into the environment, two well-known examples being the Union Carbide Bhopal disaster and the Three Mile Island tragedy). To ensure environmental protection and the Health and Safety (H and S) of communities, the chemical industry has voluntarily adopted integrated management programs such as the Responsible Care Program. The theoretical body of relevant literature attempts to explain the origin of the Responsible Care Program (RCP) through socio-political and economic theories. At the same time, the empirical research examines the ways in which various factors affect the choice of the chemical industry in their adoption of the RCP. This paper contributes to the debate by examining the challenges and barriers faced by the Greek chemical industry when adopting RCP, the environmental and H and S issues that prevail and finally, the extent of participation of stakeholders in the planning of RCP in the sector.

  17. Energy crisis and changes in the structure of the chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedov, A G

    1980-01-01

    The effect of the energy crisis together with higher prices and inflation on the chemical industry is reviewed. One effect has been the search for more energy-efficient processes and more widely available raw materials. Measures taken by the industry have included the control of expenses and losses, utilization of secondary materials and energy resources and the development of new technological growth of the industry and has shifted emphasis to small-scale rather than large-scale chemical production. Capital has also been used more for modernizing existing equipment and facilities than for new construction, and industrialized countries have invested more heavily in developing countries. Trade relations between socialist and western countries have also improved. Improvements have been made in the production of aromatic hydrocarbons by extraction with the use of more efficient solvents, in catalytic and thermic hydrodealkylation of toluene, in the chlorine and nitrogen industries, in phosphorus and phosphoric acid production and in benzene and butadiene production. A new scheme for hydroxylamine production and a new technology for styrene and methanol production have been developed. Direct hydration of propylene has been introduced into the production of isopropanol and propylene ammonolysis has been used to obtain acrylonitrile. Changes in the chemical industry have reduced energy consumption per production unit by 14.2% in the U.S.A. in 1977 in comparison with 1972 and by 14.0% in Common Market countries during 1970-1976.

  18. An Energy Efficiency Evaluation Method Based on Energy Baseline for Chemical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Dong-mei; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Ke-feng; Zou, Tao; Wang, Dong; Qian, Xin-hua

    2016-01-01

    According to the requirements and structure of ISO 50001 energy management system, this study proposes an energy efficiency evaluation method based on energy baseline for chemical industry. Using this method, the energy plan implementation effect in the processes of chemical production can be evaluated quantitatively, and evidences for system fault diagnosis can be provided. This method establishes the energy baseline models which can meet the demand of the different kinds of production proce...

  19. The growing importance of covering payment risks in the chemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermann, M. (Michael)

    2008-01-01

    The first dark clouds are gathering on the economic horizon of the chemical industry and may cause an unattractive dip in otherwise impressive growth.With the oil price remaining high, concerns that global economic growth is cooling and ever fiercer competition, the outlook is gloomy. There is also uncertainty about the reform of the European Community Regulation on chemicals, REACH, the financial impact ofwhich is still impossible to predict formost companies. Such lists of possible causes o...

  20. Co-exposure with fullerene may strengthen health effects of organic industrial chemicals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maili Lehto

    Full Text Available In vitro toxicological studies together with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations show that occupational co-exposure with C60 fullerene may strengthen the health effects of organic industrial chemicals. The chemicals studied are acetophenone, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, m-cresol, and toluene which can be used with fullerene as reagents or solvents in industrial processes. Potential co-exposure scenarios include a fullerene dust and organic chemical vapor, or a fullerene solution aerosolized in workplace air. Unfiltered and filtered mixtures of C60 and organic chemicals represent different co-exposure scenarios in in vitro studies where acute cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of C60 and organic chemicals are tested together and alone by using human THP-1-derived macrophages. Statistically significant co-effects are observed for an unfiltered mixture of benzaldehyde and C60 that is more cytotoxic than benzaldehyde alone, and for a filtered mixture of m-cresol and C60 that is slightly less cytotoxic than m-cresol. Hydrophobicity of chemicals correlates with co-effects when secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α is considered. Complementary atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveal that C60 co-aggregates with all chemicals in aqueous environment. Stable aggregates have a fullerene-rich core and a chemical-rich surface layer, and while essentially all C60 molecules aggregate together, a portion of organic molecules remains in water.

  1. Used solid catalysts from chemical and petrochemical industries; Les catalyseurs solides uses de l`industrie chimique et du raffinage petrolier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    A comprehensive survey of the solid catalysts used in the chemical and petrochemical industries is presented; information on solid catalyst market demand prospective for 1998, the nature of solid catalysts used in the various industrial sectors and for the various chemical products production, the european catalysts manufacturers, solid catalyst poisons and inhibitors according to the various types of chemical reactions, mean compositions of used solid catalysts, an assessment of the volume of used solid catalysts generated by chemical and petrochemical industries, the various ways of solid catalyst regeneration and disposal, the potential for off-site regeneration of used catalysts, and French and European regulations, is presented

  2. Chemical composition of sewage sludge of domestic and industrial areas of Hyderabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, T.P.; Kazi, T.G.; Kazi, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    A study on chemical composition sewage sludge of domestic and industrial areas of Hyderabad city has been carried out. The sludge samples were collected from various domestic and industrial areas of Hyderabad, over a period of 3 months. Analysis of sludge samples for different micro-nutrients and toxic elements has been accomplished by reliable analytical methods using atomic absorption, UV and colorimeter. It is observed that the levels of copper, nickel, zinc, lead and cadmium are higher in sludge samples of industrial area than those of domestic areas of Hyderabad. (author)

  3. Perumusan Strategi Bersaing pada Perusahaan Ban dengan Metode Analisis Portofolio Produk (Studi Kasus: PT Multistrada Arah Sarana, Tbk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanael August Zefanya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industri ban di Indonesia mengalami perkembangan pesat dalam kurun waktu 10 tahun terakhir. Namun, terjadinya krisis ekonomi global menjadi penyebab menurunnya pendapatan, salah satunya adalah PT MASA dengan produk utamanya yaitu ban mobil Achilles dan ban motor Corsa yang digunakan sebagai objek penelitian ini. Telah diilakukan analisis PESTEL dan Porter’s Five Forces, identifikasi faktor lingkungan internal dan eksternal dengan analisis SWOT serta merumuskan alternatif strategi bersaing untuk direkomendasikan kepada PT MASA. Perumusan strategi alternatif didapat dari hasil analisis Matriks BCG dan Matriks IE sebagai analisis portofolio untuk mendapatkan tema strategi alternatif dalam pembuatan Matriks SWOT. Strategi alternatif kemudian diperingkatkan dengan QSPM dan dilanjutkan pembuatan rencana aksi bagi PT MASA dalam waktu 5 tahun ke depan. Setelah dilakukan analisis industri, diketahui bahwa ancaman terbesar datang dari pesaing produsen ban. Dari hasil analisis portofolio, PT MASA berada di kuadran I karena memiliki koordinat IFE serta EFE 3,32 dan 3,26. Dari hasil analisis Matriks IE, PT MASA direkomendasikan untuk melakukan strategi grow and build. Hasil Matriks BCG menunjukkan bahwa Achilles berada di dogs, sementara Corsa berada di question marks. Terdapat 13 strategi alternatif hasil dari formulasi strategi dengan menggunakan matriks TOWS. Dari hasil analisis QSPM, terdapat 7 alternatif strategi terbaik dan rencana aksi..

  4. The approach to risk analysis in three industries: nuclear power, space systems, and chemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrick, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    The aerospace, nuclear power, and chemical processing industries are providing much of the incentive for the development and application of advanced risk analysis techniques to engineered systems. Risk analysis must answer three basic questions: What can go wrong? How likely is it? and What are the consequences? The result of such analyses is not only a quantitative answer to the question of 'What is the risk', but, more importantly, a framework for intelligent and visible risk management. Because of the societal importance of the subject industries and the amount of risk analysis activity involved in each, it is interesting to look for commonalities, differences, and, hopefully, a basis for some standardization. Each industry has its strengths: the solid experience base of the chemical industry, the extensive qualification and testing procedures of the space industry, and the integrative and quantitative risk and reliability methodologies developed for the nuclear power industry. In particular, most advances in data handling, systems interaction modeling, and uncertainty analysis have come from the probabilistic risk assessment work in the nuclear safety field. In the final analysis, all three industries would greatly benefit from a more deliberate technology exchange program in the rapidly evolving discipline of quantitative risk analysis. (author)

  5. Genomic mechanisms of stress tolerance for the industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae against major chemical classes of inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous toxic chemical compounds liberated from lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment inhibit subsequent microbial fermentation that pose a significant challenge to a sustainable and renewable bio-based fermentation industry. Toxin removal procedures by physical or chemical means are essentially imp...

  6. Shaping a novel security approach in chemical industrial clusters to prevent large-scale domino events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Genserik L L; Dullaert, Wout; Soudan, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Two aspects are important when it comes to guaranteeing an effective and efficient security policy in a chemical industrial cluster. The first issue involves obtaining an acceptable level of collaboration between the different enterprises forming the cluster. The second topic is to ensure that an

  7. SCREENING FOR TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS USING SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES WITH RAPID TOXICITY ASSAYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A time-integrated sampling device interfaced with two toxicity-based assays is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor...

  8. VAPOR SAMPLING DEVICE FOR INTERFACE WITH MICROTOX ASSAY FOR SCREENING TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A time-integrated sampling system interfaced with a toxicity-based assay is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor...

  9. Status and direction of waste minimization in the chemical and petrochemical industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englande Junior, A.J. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an evaluation of the status and direction of toxic/hazardous waste reduction in chemical and petrochemical industries from an international perspective. In almost all cases studied savings have resulted. The importance of pollution prevention by `clean technologies` instead of remediation is stressed. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  10. Revolutionizing safety and security in the chemical and process industry: applying the CHESS concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.; Khakzad Rostami, N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that a new concept, summarized as ‘CHESS’, should be used in the chemical industry to further substantially advance safety (where we use the term in a broad sense, that is, safety and physical security, amongst others). The different domains that need to be focused upon, and where

  11. Status and direction of waste minimization in the chemical and petrochemical industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englande, Junior, A J [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents an evaluation of the status and direction of toxic/hazardous waste reduction in chemical and petrochemical industries from an international perspective. In almost all cases studied savings have resulted. The importance of pollution prevention by `clean technologies` instead of remediation is stressed. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. NONPROCESS SOLVENT USE IN THE FURNITURE REFINISHING AND REPAIR INDUSTRY: EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL STRIPPERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the feasibility of using alternatives to high volatile organic compound/hazardous air pollutant (VOC/HAP) solvent-based, chemical strippers that are currently used in the furniture repair and refinishing industry to remove both traditi...

  13. Potential Challenges Faced by the U.S. Chemicals Industry under a Carbon Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bassi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemicals have become the backbone of manufacturing within industrialized economies. Being energy-intensive materials to produce, this sector is threatened by policies aimed at combating and adapting to climate change. This study examines the worst-case scenario for the U.S. chemicals industry when a medium CO2 price policy is employed. After examining possible industry responses, the study goes on to identify and provide a preliminary evaluation of potential opportunities to mitigate these impacts. If climate regulations are applied only in the United States, and no action is taken to invest in advanced low- and no-carbon technologies to mitigate the impacts of rising energy costs, the examination shows that climate policies that put a price on carbon could have substantial impacts on the competiveness of the U.S. chemicals industry over the next two decades. In the long run, there exist technologies that are available to enable the chemicals sector to achieve sufficient efficiency gains to offset and manage the additional energy costs arising from a climate policy.

  14. Plasma for electrification of chemical industry : a case study on CO2 reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rooij, G.J.; Akse, H.N.; Bongers, W.A.; Van De Sanden, M.C.M.

    2018-01-01

    Significant growth of the share of (intermittent) renewable power in the chemical industry is imperative to meet increasingly stricter limits on CO2 exhaust that are being implemented within Europe. This paper aims to evaluate the potential of a plasma process that converts input CO2 into a pure

  15. Plasma for Electrification of Chemical Industry: a Case Study on CO2 Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, G. J.; Akse, H.; Bongers, W.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2018-01-01

    Significantly increasing the share of (intermittent) renewable power in the chemical industry is imperative to meet increasingly stricter limits on CO2 exhaust that are being implemented within Europe. This paper aims to evaluate the potential of a plasma process that converts input CO2 into a pure

  16. An Alternative Educational Approach for an Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Course in Industrial and Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Andres; Sanchez-Barba, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    We describe an alternative educational approach for an inorganic chemistry laboratory module named "Experimentation in Chemistry", which is included in Industrial Engineering and Chemical Engineering courses. The main aims of the new approach were to reduce the high levels of failure and dropout on the module and to make the content match the…

  17. Communicating CSR and Business Identity in the Chemical Industry through Mission Slogans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verboven, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the communication of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate image in the chemical industry through mission slogans. Morsing's (2006) CSR communication framework is adapted for a comparative analysis of the strategies behind mission slogans. By grouping rhetorical strategies in a mission slogan into a mission…

  18. А construction of management of enterprises charges is in chemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gura, N.; Radchenko, K.

    2010-01-01

    In the article the essence and value of conception of "administrative account" are defined, the debatable questions of constructing of administrative account and its structure are considered. The methods of charge accounting are considered at the enterprises of chemical industry. The essence of introduction and usage of modern information technologies are stated.

  19. European Union-Emission Trading Scheme: outlook for the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussy, P.; Alberola, E.

    2013-01-01

    From 2013, under the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS), Europe will cap its emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and per-fluorocarbons (PFC) from the chemical industry. Besides, 336 chemical industry facilities will be forced to limit their emissions at 45.8 million tons of CO 2 per year from 2013 to 2020. At date August 1, 2012, almost 70% of the carbon credits issued by the clean development mechanism (CDM) were carried out mainly through the destruction of hydro-fluorocarbons (HFC-23) (42%) and N 2 O (22%). The contribution of emission reductions through chemical processes in the Joint Implementation (JI) projects is smaller but still amounted to 32% of all projects. From 1 May 2013 the European Union will refuse CDM and JI credits from emission reductions of HFC-23 and N 2 O. The issues of the introduction of the chemical industry in the EU-ETS in the context of low CO 2 prices and limited validity of CDM and JI chemical projects are high. Therefore, domestic CO 2 emissions reductions from energy consumption of the chemistry sector will take a larger share. (authors)

  20. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The important environmental applications of biosurfactants include bioremediation and dispersion of oil spills, enhanced oil recovery and transfer of crude oil. The emphasis of present review shall be with reference to the commercial production, current developments and future perspectives of a variety of approaches of biosurfactant production from the micro-organisms isolated from various oil- contaminated sites and from the by-products of oleo-chemical industry wastes/ by-products viz. used edible oil, industrial residues, acid oil, deodorizer distillate, soap-stock etc. PMID:24262384

  1. Feeding a sustainable chemical industry: do we have the bioproducts cart before the feedstocks horse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E

    2017-09-21

    A sustainable chemical industry cannot exist at scale without both sustainable feedstocks and feedstock supply chains to provide the raw materials. However, most current research focus is on producing the sustainable chemicals and materials. Little attention is given to how and by whom sustainable feedstocks will be supplied. In effect, we have put the bioproducts cart before the sustainable feedstocks horse. For example, bulky, unstable, non-commodity feedstocks such as crop residues probably cannot supply a large-scale sustainable industry. Likewise, those who manage land to produce feedstocks must benefit significantly from feedstock production, otherwise they will not participate in this industry and it will never grow. However, given real markets that properly reward farmers, demand for sustainable bioproducts and bioenergy can drive the adoption of more sustainable agricultural and forestry practices, providing many societal "win-win" opportunities. Three case studies are presented to show how this "win-win" process might unfold.

  2. Radiation purification of the chemical industry effluents and possibilities of realization of this method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petryaev, E.P.; Kovalevskaya, A.M.; Shlyk, V.G.; Savushkin, I.A.; Kazazyan, V.T.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation-chemical methods for synthetic fibre industry effluents purification from cyanides, sulphides and monomers, as well as for disinfection of circulation water and improvement in sedimental and filtering properties of waste active slurry in petrochemical industry are described. Chemical plant effluents are purified by 70-90% from cyanides at the dose rate of 0,3 - 0,5 Mrad, by 60 - 70% from sulphides and monomers at the dose of 0,2 Mrad. Circulation water of petroleum processing plant is disinfected at the dose of 0,08 Mrad; the rates of filtration and sedimentation of waste active slurry increase two and three fold, correspondingly, at the dose of 0,6 Mrad. The power of radiation sources required for the industrial realization of radiation purification of liquid wastes has been calculated

  3. Undisclosed chemicals--implications for risk assessment: a case study from the mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Khareen; Oates, Christopher; Plant, Jane; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Many of the chemicals used in industry can be hazardous to human health and the environment, and some formulations can have undisclosed ingredients and hazards, increasing the uncertainty of the risks posed by their use. The need for a better understanding of the extent of undisclosed information in chemicals arose from collecting data on the hazards and exposures of chemicals used in typical mining operations (copper, platinum and coal). Four main categories of undisclosed chemicals were defined (incomplete disclosure; chemicals with unspecific identities; relative quantities of ingredients not stated; and trade secret ingredients) by reviewing material safety data sheet (MSDS) omissions in previous studies. A significant number of chemicals (20% of 957 different chemicals) across the three sites had a range of undisclosed information, with majority of the chemicals (39%) having unspecific identities. The majority of undisclosed information was found in commercially available motor oils followed by cleaning products and mechanical maintenance products, as opposed to reagents critical to the main mining processes. All three types of chemicals had trade secrets, unspecific chemical identities and incomplete disclosures. These types of undisclosed information pose a hindrance to a full understanding of the hazards, which is made worse when combined with additional MSDS omissions such as acute toxicity endpoints (LD50) and/or acute aquatic toxicity endpoints (LC50), as well as inadequate hazard classifications of ingredients. The communication of the hazard information in the MSDSs varied according to the chemical type, the manufacturer and the regulations governing the MSDSs. Undisclosed information can undermine occupational health protection, compromise the safety of workers in industry, hinder risk assessment procedures and cause uncertainty about future health. It comes down to the duty of care that industries have towards their employees. With a wide range of

  4. A calibrated energy end-use model for the U.S. chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozalp, N.; Hyman, B.

    2005-01-01

    The chemical industry is the second largest energy user after the petroleum industry in the United States. This paper provided a model for onsite steam and power generation in the chemical industry, as well as an end-use of the industrial gas manufacturing sector. The onsite steam and power generation model included the actual conversion efficiencies of prime movers in the sector. The energy end-use model also allocated combustible fuel and renewable energy inputs among generic end-uses including intermediate conversions through onsite power and steam generation. The model was presented in the form of a graphical depiction of energy flows. Results indicate that 35 per cent of the energy output from boilers is used for power generation, whereas 45 per cent goes directly to end-uses and 20 per cent to waste heat tanks for recovery in the chemical industry. The end-use model for the industrial gas manufacturing sector revealed that 42 per cent of the fuel input goes to onsite steam and power generation, whereas 58 per cent goes directly to end-uses. Among the end-uses, machine drive was the biggest energy user. It was suggested that the model is applicable to all other industries and is consistent with U.S. Department of Energy data for 1998. When used in conjunction with similar models for other years, it can be used to identify changes and trends in energy utilization at the prime mover level of detail. An analysis of the economic impact of energy losses can be based on the results of this model. Cascading of waste heat from high temperature processes to low temperature processes could be integrated into the model. 20 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs

  5. Energy use and energy intensity of the U.S. chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, E.; Phylipsen, D.; Einstein, D.; Martin, N.

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. chemical industry is the largest in the world, and responsible for about 11% of the U.S. industrial production measured as value added. It consumes approximately 20% of total industrial energy consumption in the U.S. (1994), and contributes in similar proportions to U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Surprisingly, there is not much information on energy use and energy intensity in the chemical industry available in the public domain. This report provides detailed information on energy use and energy intensity for the major groups of energy-intensive chemical products. Ethylene production is the major product in terms of production volume of the petrochemical industry. The petrochemical industry (SIC 2869) produces a wide variety of products. However, most energy is used for a small number of intermediate compounds, of which ethylene is the most important one. Based on a detailed assessment we estimate fuel use for ethylene manufacture at 520 PJ (LHV), excluding feedstock use. Energy intensity is estimated at 26 GJ/tonne ethylene (LHV), excluding feedstocks.The nitrogenous fertilizer production is a very energy intensive industry, producing a variety of fertilizers and other nitrogen-compounds. Ammonia is the most important intermediate chemical compound, used as basis for almost all products. Fuel use is estimated at 268 PJ (excluding feedstocks) while 368 PJ natural gas is used as feedstock. Electricity consumption is estimated at 14 PJ. We estimate the energy intensity of ammonia manufacture at 39.3 GJ/tonne (including feedstocks, HHV) and 140 kWh/tonne, resulting in a specific primary energy consumption of 40.9 GJ/tonne (HHV), equivalent to 37.1 GJ/tonne (LHV). Excluding natural gas use for feedstocks the primary energy consumption is estimated at 16.7 GJ/tonne (LHV). The third most important product from an energy perspective is the production of chlorine and caustic soda. Chlorine is produced through electrolysis of a salt-solution. Chlorine production is

  6. Prefeasibility analysis of a cogeneration project in the Mexican food industry; Analisis de prefactibilidad de un proyecto de cogeneracion en la industria alimenticia mexicana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gongora Gonzalez, Guillermo; Castelazo Hernandez, Arturo [Ultra Energia, S. A. de C. V. Naucalpan (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The main technical and economical results of a prefeasibility study of an industry considered of medium size in the food area, which is a subsidiary of an American industrial merger, are shown. The above mentioned facility is located in the highland zone, its installed capacity is 2,350 electrical kw and 8,519 thermal kw needed for the optimum development of the productive process. Five technically feasible cogeneration options are analyzed, comparing the advantages and disadvantages of each option. Guides and conclusions for this type of projects are presented . [Espanol] Se muestran los principales resultados tecnicos y economicos de un estudio de prefactibilidad de una industria considerada como mediana de la rama alimenticia, la cual es filial de un consorcio industrial norteamericano. La planta mencionada se encuentra localizada en la zona del altiplano, cuya capacidad instalada es de 2,350 kW electricos y 8,519 kW termicos necesarios para el desarrollo optimo del proceso productivo. Se analizan cinco alternativas de cogeneracion tecnicamente viables, comparando las ventajas y desventajas de cada alternativa. Se presentan las recomendaciones y conclusiones para este tipo de proyectos.

  7. Prefeasibility analysis of a cogeneration project in the Mexican food industry; Analisis de prefactibilidad de un proyecto de cogeneracion en la industria alimenticia mexicana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gongora Gonzalez, Guillermo; Castelazo Hernandez, Arturo [Ultra Energia, S. A. de C. V. Naucalpan (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    The main technical and economical results of a prefeasibility study of an industry considered of medium size in the food area, which is a subsidiary of an American industrial merger, are shown. The above mentioned facility is located in the highland zone, its installed capacity is 2,350 electrical kw and 8,519 thermal kw needed for the optimum development of the productive process. Five technically feasible cogeneration options are analyzed, comparing the advantages and disadvantages of each option. Guides and conclusions for this type of projects are presented . [Espanol] Se muestran los principales resultados tecnicos y economicos de un estudio de prefactibilidad de una industria considerada como mediana de la rama alimenticia, la cual es filial de un consorcio industrial norteamericano. La planta mencionada se encuentra localizada en la zona del altiplano, cuya capacidad instalada es de 2,350 kW electricos y 8,519 kW termicos necesarios para el desarrollo optimo del proceso productivo. Se analizan cinco alternativas de cogeneracion tecnicamente viables, comparando las ventajas y desventajas de cada alternativa. Se presentan las recomendaciones y conclusiones para este tipo de proyectos.

  8. Hurricane Harvey, Houston's Petrochemical Industry, and US Chemical Safety Policy: Impacts to Environmental Justice Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, G. T.; Johnson, C.; Gutierrez, A.; Declet-Barreto, J.; Berman, E.; Bergman, A.

    2017-12-01

    When Hurricane Harvey made landfall outside Houston, Texas, the storm's wind speeds and unprecedented precipitation caused significant damage to the region's petrochemical infrastructure. Most notably, the company Arkema's Crosby facility suffered a power failure that led to explosions and incineration of six of its peroxide tanks. Chemicals released into the air from the explosions sent 15 emergency responders to the hospital with severe respiratory conditions and led to the evacuation of hundreds of surrounding households. Other petrochemical facilities faced other damages that resulted in unsafe and acute chemical releases into the air and water. What impacts did such chemical disasters have on the surrounding communities and emergency responders during Harvey's aftermath? What steps might companies have taken to prevent such chemical releases? And what chemical safety policies might have ensured that such disaster risks were mitigated? In this talk we will report on a survey of the extent of damage to Houston's oil and gas infrastructure and related chemical releases and discuss the role of federal chemical safety policy in preventing and mitigating the potential for such risks for future storms and other extreme weather and climate events. We will also discuss how these chemical disasters created acute toxics exposures on environmental justice communities already overburdened with chronic exposures from the petrochemical industry.

  9. Investigating positive leadership, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life in a chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tersia Nel

    2015-11-01

    Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate whether perceived positive leadership behaviour could predict psychological empowerment, work engagement, and satisfaction with life of employees in a chemical organisation in South Africa and whether positive leadership behaviour has an indirect effect on employees work engagement and satisfaction with life by means of psychological empowerment. Motivation for the study: The motivation for this study arose from the evident gap in academic literature as well as in terms of practical implications for the chemical industry regarding positive leadership behaviour, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life of employees. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used with a convenience sample (n = 322. Structural equation modelling (SEM was used to examine the structural relationships between the constructs. Main findings: Statistically significant relationships were found between positive leadership behaviour, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life of employees. Positive leadership has an indirect effect on work engagement and satisfaction with life via psychological empowerment. Practical/managerial implications: This study adds to the lack of literature in terms of positive leadership, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life within a chemical industry. It can also assist managers and personnel within the chemical industry to understand and perhaps further investigate relationships that exist between the above mentioned concepts. Contribution/value-add: It is recommended that leadership discussions, short training programs and individual coaching about positive leadership and particularly psychological empowerment take place.

  10. Economic potential of natural gas-fired cogeneration--analysis of Brazil's chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szklo, A.S.; Soares, J.B.; Tolmasquim, M.T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper attempts to estimate the technical and economic potential for natural gas-fired cogeneration (NGCHP) in Brazil's chemical industry as well as also analyses the impacts of specific incentive policies on the economic feasibility of this potential. Currently, the NGCHP installed capacity at Brazil's chemical industry is still quite a low figure, although the chemical plants are under heavy pressures to: (1) cut costs; and (2) show a rising awareness of the importance of power service quality, underscored even more heavily by Brazil's recent power crisis. According this study, a natural gas-fired remaining technical potential of 1.4 GW is noted in the Brazilian chemical industry. Financing policies showed to be the stand-alone policy that would be most successful for ensuring the economic feasibility of this technical potential. Nevertheless, this policy proved to be affected by the economic scenario under consideration, which includes world oil prices, electricity tariff and foreign exchange ratio possible paths. Consequently, the key issue is related to the ability to assess which economic scenario is rated as more probable by possible future investors in NGCHP, and then selecting the most appropriate incentive policy

  11. Chemical and Microbiological Analysis of Certain Water Sources and Industrial Wastewater Samples in Dakahlia Governorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fadaly, H.; El-Defrawy, M.M.; El-Zawawy, F.; Makia, D.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical analysis included quantitative measurement of electrical conductivity, alkalinity , hardness sulphate, ph, total dissolved solids, chloride, as well as dissolved oxygen was carried out. The microbiological examination for different water sources and industrial wastewater samples was also conducted. some of heavy metals, Co 2+ Cu 2+ Fe 3+ and Mn 2+ were determined in fresh water, while other metals, such as Cr 6+ , Co 2+ , Zn 2+ and Ni 2+ were measured in industrial wastewater. Results of the chemical analysis showed that all measured parameters were found within the limitation either national or international law, except some samples which showed higher values than the permissible limits for some measured parameters. The microbiological analysis exhibited presence of yeasts, fungi and bacteria. Most bacterial isolates were short rod, spore formers as well as coccoid shaped bacteria. The efficiency of water treatment process on the reduction of microbial load was also calculated. Regarding the pathogenic bacteria, data showed that neither water samples nor industrial wastewater contain pathogens when using specific cultivation media for the examination. Furthermore, data proved the possibility of recycling of the tested industrial wastewater on which some microorganisms can grow. Data showed that the percent of heavy metals removal can reach to more than 70% in some cases as a result to bacterial treatment of industrial wastewater

  12. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  13. 78 FR 68461 - Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-1994-D-0007] Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti- Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds... Industry: Studies to Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds,'' and is...

  14. Environmental impact of industrial sludge stabilization/solidification products: chemical or ecotoxicological hazard evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcos A R; Testolin, Renan C; Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2011-09-15

    Nowadays, the classification of industrial solid wastes is not based on risk analysis, thus the aim of this study was to compare the toxicity classifications based on the chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of four industrial sludges submitted to a two-step stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes. To classify S/S products as hazardous or non-hazardous, values cited in Brazilian chemical waste regulations were adopted and compared to the results obtained with a battery of biotests (bacteria, alga and daphnids) which were carried out with soluble and leaching fractions. In some cases the hazardous potential of industrial sludge was underestimated, since the S/S products obtained from the metal-mechanics and automotive sludges were chemically classified as non-hazardous (but non-inert) when the ecotoxicity tests showed toxicity values for leaching and soluble fractions. In other cases, the environmental impact was overestimated, since the S/S products of the textile sludges were chemically classified as non-inert (but non-hazardous) while ecotoxicity tests did not reveal any effects on bacteria, daphnids and algae. From the results of the chemical and ecotoxicological analyses we concluded that: (i) current regulations related to solid waste classification based on leachability and solubility tests do not ensure reliable results with respect to environmental protection; (ii) the two-step process was very effective in terms of metal immobilization, even at higher metal-concentrations. Considering that S/S products will be subject to environmental conditions, it is of great interest to test the ecotoxicity potential of the contaminants release from these products with a view to avoiding environmental impact given the unreliability of ecotoxicological estimations originating from chemical analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biogeochemical features technogenic pollution of soils under the influence chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuraeva I.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical properties of soil (pH, organic matter content, cation exchange capacity. The regularities of the distribution of total and mobile forms of heavy metals in soil sediments in the territory of Shostka Sumy region under the influence of the chemical industry and in the background areas. Biogeochemical indicators obtained content of microscopic fungi and their species, the most characteristic of the study of soils, which can be used as an additional criterion for ecological and geochemical studies.

  16. Engineering modular polyketide synthases for production of biofuels and industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenlong; Zhang, Wenjun

    2018-04-01

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are one of the most profound biosynthetic factories for producing polyketides with diverse structures and biological activities. These enzymes have been historically studied and engineered to make un-natural polyketides for drug discovery, and have also recently been explored for synthesizing biofuels and industrial chemicals due to their versatility and customizability. Here, we review recent advances in the mechanistic understanding and engineering of modular PKSs for producing polyketide-derived chemicals, and provide perspectives on this relatively new application of PKSs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation of industrial chemicals by acid leaching from the koga nepheline syenite, southern Swat, lesser Himalayas-Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizami, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper encompasses the study on the preparation of industrial chemicals by acid leaching from the Koga nepheline syenite, Southern Swat, Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. These rocks have been studied in detail by many workers to exploit their industrial utility in the form of powdered rock material in glass and ceramics and steel industry. The present authors for the first time carried out acid leaching studies and prepared a number of industrial chemicals, like, alumina, aluminium sulphate, sodium and ammonium alums, sodium sulphate) and sodium bisulphate by simple chemical reactions at bench scale successfully. The developed process is simple and economically viable. It is recommended to exploit this process in cottage industry in the mountainous areas hosting these rocks for the benefit of local population. The research and development work for production of these chemicals at pilot plant and industrial scale is recommended as well. (author)

  18. Analisis Sektor/Sub Sektor Unggulan di Kabupaten Bungo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafur Gafur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study aimed to analyze the leading sectors in Bungo. The method used is Location Quotient (LQ, Dynamic Location Quotient (DLQ, specialization index, Growth Ratio Model (MRP. Based on analysis of LQ and DLQ, there are only two basis sectors at present and in the future, namely the construction sector and trade, hotels and restaurants. Based on the analysis of Specialization Index, in Bungo Regency has a concentration of the economy in the agricultural sector and the manufacturing sector. Based on MRP analysis also showed that prominent sector growth at the level of Bungo and Jambi Province, namely electricity, gas and water supply; the building sector; and trade, hotels and restaurants. Keywords : Location Quotient (LQ, Dinamic Location Quotient (DLQ, Specialization Index, Growth Ratio Model   Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis sektor unggulan di Kabupaten Bungo. Metode yang digunakan adalah analisis Location Quotient (LQ, Dinamic Location Quotient (DLQ, indeks spesialisasi, Model Rasio Pertumbuhan (MRP. Berdasarkan analisis LQ dan DLQ,  hanya ada 2 sektor yang menjadi sektor basis pada saat ini dan pada masa yang akan datang yaitu sektor bangunan dan sektor perdagangan, hotel dan restoran. Berdasarkan analisis Indeks Spesialisasi, di Kabupaten Bungo telah terjadi konsentrasi ekonomi pada sektor pertanian dan sektor industri pengolahan. Berdasarkan analisis MRP juga dapat diketahui bahwa sektor yang menonjol pertumbuhannya pada tingkat Kabupaten Bungo dan Provinsi Jambi yaitu sektor listrik, gas dan air bersih; sektor bangunan; serta sektor perdagangan, hotel dan restoran. Kata Kunci : Location Quotient (LQ, Dinamic Location Quotient (DLQ, indeks spesialisasi, Model Rasio Pertumbuhan

  19. Analisis Intensitas Pencahayaan Dan Reflektan Di Lingkungan Kerja Terhadap Kelelahan Mata Pada Tenaga Kerja Industri Bulu Mata Palsu Di PT. Sung Shim International Purbalingga.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feriyandi Feriyandi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background : There are approximately 15,000 workers in several spurious eyelash industries in Purbalingga Regency. Since objects being observed are very fine and the tasks need high accuracy, good lighting is therefore highly required. Poor lighting can lead to visual and mental fatigue, stiffness around the eyes, eye damage and the increasing of work accidents. Sufficient intensity and good management of lighting will result a comfort environment in accordance  to achieve a safe  work environment. Method : This research was conducted as  observational study with a cross sectional approach  for 45 samples of workers. Sampling was carried out by using of systematic random sampling. Data of light intensity and reflectance were collected by measurement of light using Lux Meter and assessment of visual fatigue by using Retention Timer. Other data were collected by interviewing workers with age limitation up to 33 years old. Chi Square Test was used to analyze the data of light intensity and reflectance, work years, age, work period, distance of light to object, distance of eyes to object, relative humidity and temperature, and the correlation with the rise of visual fatigue. Result : Light intensity in the knitting section was between 301.5 – 576.7 lux with reflectance of 43.1%-89.6%. Thirty wokers (66.7% suffered from mild visual fatigue and fifteen wokers, suffered (33.3% from moderate visual fatigue. Light intensity had  an influence and significant relationship  to the occurring of visual fatigue among workers in the industry of spurious eyelash of  PT. Sung Shim International  (p < 0,05 with  Odd ratio = 10.246 (95% CI : 1.147 - 91.498.  Probability of light intensity factor to cause visual fatigue measured by a regression logistic model  was  82.9% . It was caused by  poor lighting (light intensities were measured  below 500 lux while 17.1%  was caused by  other factors. Conclusion : Most of the spurious eyelash

  20. ANALISIS PEMBOBOTAN KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATOR (KPI DENGAN SCOR MODEL MENGGUNAKAN METODE ANALITICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP PRODUK KEJU MOZZARELLA DI CV BRAWIJAYA DAIRY INDUSTRY, JUNREJO KOTA BATU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariani Ariani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pembobotan Key performance Indicator dengan model SCOR menggunakan metode Analitical Hierarchy Process (AHP produk keju mozzarella di CV Brawijaya Dairy Industry. Hasil penelitian di peroleh 36 Key Performance Indicator yang disesuikan dengan model SCOR yaitu plan, source, deliver, make (process, dan return. Hasil pembobotan dengan menggunakan pembobotan AHP pada hierarki tingkat 1 yang memiliki bobot tertinggi adalah make (process dengan nilai bobot 0,534. Hal ini dikarenakan perusahaan mementingkan kualitas produk yang dipengaruhi oleh proses produksi. Pada hierarki tingkat 2 bobot tertinggi terdapat pada variabel reliability dengan total bobot 0,739. Sedangkan nilai bobot tertinggi pada hierarki tingkat 3 (Key Performance Indicator  adalah pada KPI 24 Kehandalan kinerja karyawan dalam mengolah menjadi produk jadi dengan total bobot 0,180.

  1. Application of the irradiation to the food industry and risk analysis; Aplicacion de la irradiacion a la industria alimenticia y analisis de riesgos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balderas C, R.; Nelson E, P.F. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: visubaldi@hotmail.com

    2007-07-01

    The food production at world level outlines serious problems for the supply to the big cities, distant these of the production centers of agricultural products, what take us to outline the necessity to use all the available technological alternatives to avoid the deterioration and the destruction of the products and to the same time to reduce to the minimum the considerable economic losses that this causes. In occasions to the fresh agricultural products tradesman in some countries found with the impediment of carrying out operations with other economies, because their goods don't fulfill the international requirements as for bacteriological quality its refers. One of the alternatives apparently more competitive and less polluting to achieve this, it is by means of the bacterial sterilization by means of the ionizing radiation, emitted this in a spontaneous way for such industrialized radioisotopes as the Cobalt-60 and the Cesium-137. In this work it is sought to make a comparison at level of energy use among the irradiation method against the traditional method more used at the present time, the freezing and the conservation of frozen products. At the same time a position about the risks that it bears the use of the ionizing radiation in contrast with the risks of the use of coolant industrial is presented, using for this, a part of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis methodology (APS). The use of the ionizing radiation for the sterilization of nutritious products, has as all the techniques its limitations and it doesn't provide all the solutions, for what supreme care will be had in its selection, in the design of its facilities as well as in the operation and maintenance of these. It is necessary to have in mind that the ionizing radiation has been used in Mexico for some years, although in a discreet way, but at the moment it has begun to be developed with the construction of facilities for the irradiation of nutritious products. (Author)

  2. The changing employment relationship in the chemical industry : the role of the employment- and psychological contract / Elsabé Keyser.

    OpenAIRE

    Keyser, Elsabé

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the employment relationship in the chemical industry in South Africa and organisational change within it is crucial to the understanding of the changing employment and psychological contract within this industry. This study focused on the employment- and psychological contracts, as well as employees ' work-outcomes (organisational commitment, job insecurity, job performance and intention to quit). Employees from the chemical industry were targeted and a cross-sectional survey...

  3. Value chain management for commodities: a case study from the chemical industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannegiesser, M.; Gunther, H.O.; van Beek, P.

    2009-01-01

    decisions by volume and value throughout the value chain to ensure profitability. Contract and spot demand differentiation with volatile and uncertain spot prices, spot sales quantity flexibility, spot sales price-quantity functions and variable raw material consumption rates in production are problem...... quantity, price and supply decisions throughout the value chain. A two-phase optimization approach supports robust planning ensuring minimum profitability even in case of worst-case spot sales price scenarios. Model evaluations with industry case data demonstrate the impact of elasticities, variable raw......We present a planning model for chemical commodities related to an industry case. Commodities are standard chemicals characterized by sales and supply volatility in volume and value. Increasing and volatile prices of crude oil-dependent raw materials require coordination of sales and supply...

  4. Feasibility of cogeneration systems in chemical industry; Viabilidade de sistemas de cogeracao em industria quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Moises Henrique de Andrade; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia

    1998-07-01

    The increasing penetration of natural gas in the Brazilian energetic market, some industries as pulp and paper, chemical and that ones related to the food and beverage processes are some of the ones that are more interested in the cogeneration practice based on the burning of this fossil fuel. An analysis of a photographic chemical industry consumption data revealed that combined cycles and Diesel units were the most suitable for thermal following strategy, considering that the four compression chillers must be maintained, and steam or gas cycles in the case of a complete substitution for absorption chillers and the same strategy. The economic attractiveness was done according to the internal return rate and payback, revealing that the investment can be returned in short time. (author)

  5. Technical analysis and economic effect of an industrial initiative in the photovoltaic sector; Effetto dell' analisi tecnica ed economica di una iniziativa industriale nel settore dell'energia fotovoltaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciorba, U.; Pauli, F. [ENEA, Funzione Centrale Studi, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Menna, P. [ENEA, Funzione Centrale Studi, Centro Ricerche Portici, Naples (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In this paper it is assessed the potential economic impact of an industrial initiative in the photovoltaic manufacturing sector, in terms of induced production and job creation, to be implemented in Morocco. This country exhibits indeed a high potential for photovoltaic installations as proved by the relevant number of national and international deployment programs currently underway. Solar electricity generation schemes look very promising for the relevant role they could play in the future, Co2-emission free, world energy scenarios making potentially more appealing the planning of longer-term public investments. In this study, it was described the manufacturing process providing the solar modules as final output and associate to each step of the process the corresponding costs. Then, using input-output method, it was evaluated the economic impact of the production of 5 MWp modules a year under different hypotheses. A production of 5MWp photovoltaic modules, which require an overall investment of Euro 16.3 millions increases gross domestic product of Euro 57.6 millions if cells are locally produced and only of Euro 22.3 millions when the cells are imported, creating 2570 and 489 jobs, respectively. These results outline the importance of availability of inputs in local economical context. [Italian] In questo lavoro valutiamo il potenziale impatto economico, in termini di produzione indotta e incremento di occupazione, di un' iniziativa industriale per la fabbricazione di moduli fotovoltaici in Marocco. Questo paese presenta, in effetti, un potenziale per installazioni fotovoltaiche molto interessante, come d'altra parte provano i numerosi programmi nazionali e internazionali attualmente in corso. Nel nostro studio, descriviamo, innanzitutto, il processo relativo alla produzione dei moduli, caratterizzandone ciascuna fase con i relativi costi, adattati al contesto prescelto per questo studio. Quindi, adottando la metodologia di analisi delle

  6. Host Response to Environmental Hazards: Using Literature, Bioinformatics, and Computation to Derive Candidate Biomarkers of Toxic Industrial Chemical Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    military threat chemicals with adverse health effects and clinical outcomes to improve diagnostic potential after exposure to toxic industrial...end organ injury following chemical exposures in the field. Markers of end-organ injury and toxicity and other health effects markers, particularly...Biomarkers of Toxic Industrial Chemical Exposure Major Jonathan D. Stallings *1 , Danielle L. Ippolito 1 , Anders Wallqvist 2 , B. Claire McDyre 3 , and

  7. FACTORS INFLUENCING ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE IN THE FOOD MANUFACTURING, CHEMICAL, AGRICULTURAL WHOLESALING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Maude Roucan-Kane

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify factors determining a business investment strategy (i.e., the choice of investment commitment and form of organizational structure) in the food manufacturing, chemical, agricultural wholesaling and biotechnology industries. Propositions regarding strategic alliance theories are tested on over 400 inter-firm collaborative agreements using secondary data from major US and European companies for the 1994-97 period. Results suggest that transactions with...

  8. Economic consequences of the German environmental liability act: Capital market response for the chemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bartsch, Elga

    1997-01-01

    The Environmental Liability Act (Umwelthaftungsgesetz) enacted January 1, 1991 is claimed to have substantially tightened the environmental liability regime in Germany. The economic consequences of the amendment of the German environmental liability legislation initiated by the Sandoz accident are investigated for a portfolio of firms in the chemical industry. By means of an event study it is determined whether the UmweltHG has led to a revision of expectations regarding the profitability of ...

  9. Sorption and desorption of the industrial chemical MCHM into polymer pipes, liners and activated carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Ahart, Megan Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Polyethylene pipes and epoxy or polyurethane linings are increasingly used in drinking water infrastructure. As a recent introduction to the water industry, there are still many unknowns about how polymers will behave in the distribution system specifically relating to sorption and desorption of chemical contaminants. This study is in response to a spill of 4-methylcyclohexane methanol (MCHM) that occurred in January 2014 contaminating the drinking water of nine counties in West Virginia. Thi...

  10. Data solutions for the 21st century: CEFIC's vision and intentions. The European Chemical Industry Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, C D

    2001-02-01

    Information on workplace exposures to chemicals has a role and importance that goes beyond compliance with occupational exposure limits (OELs). In particular, the increasing use of exposure data in regulatory risk assessment processes places added demands on the need to collect such information. Industry's challenge is to respond to these developments in a manner that ensures data are obtained, archived, and analyzed to standards consistent with evolving stakeholder expectations.

  11. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was develope...

  12. A combined chemical and biological assessment of industrial contamination in an estuarine system in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Sujatha, C H; Akhil, P S; Soman, Kunjupilai; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2014-07-01

    The Cochin Backwaters in India are part of the Vembanad-Kol system, which is a protected wetland and one of the largest estuarine ecosystems in South Asia. The backwaters are a major supplier of fisheries resources and are developed as tourist destination. Periyar River discharges into the northern arm of the system and receives effluents from chemical, petrochemical and metal processing industries which release huge amounts of wastewaters after little treatment. We investigated water and sediment contamination in the industrial vicinity and at one station further away including organic and inorganic contaminants. In total 83 organic contaminants were found, e.g. well known priority pollutants such as endosulfan, hexachlorobenzene, DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane and their metabolites, which likely stem from the industrial manufacturing of organochlorine pesticides. Furthermore, several benzothiazole, dibenzylamine and dicyclohexylamine derivatives were detected, which indicated inputs from rubber producing facilities. Several of these compounds have not been reported as environmental contaminants so far. A comparison of organic contaminant and trace hazardous element concentrations in sediments with reported sediment quality guidelines revealed that adverse effects on benthic species are likely at all stations. The chemical assessment was combined with an investigation of macrobenthic diversity and community composition. Benthic organisms were completely lacking at the site with the highest trace hazardous element concentrations. Highest species numbers, diversity indices and abundances were recorded at the station with the greatest distance to the industrial area. Filter feeders were nearly completely lacking, probably leading to an impairment of the filter function in this area. This study shows that a combination of chemical and biological methods is an innovative approach to achieve a comprehensive characterization of industrial contamination, to evaluate

  13. A versatile transfection assay system to evaluate the biological effects of diverse industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Shinji; Ohno, Shotaro; Otsuka, Fuminori

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression processes are now recognized as important targets of the toxic effects exerted by industrial chemicals. The transient transfection assay is a powerful tool to evaluate such effects. Thus, we developed a versatile assay system by constructing a basic reporter plasmid in which the regulatory DNA sequence to be studied can easily be substituted. To verify the performance of this system, reporter plasmids carrying any of the three distinct regulatory sequences, estrogen responsive element (ERE), glucocorticoid responsive element (GRE) and xenobiotic responsive element (XRE) were constructed. After transfection of human cells, these plasmids successfully expressed the relevant reporter genes in response to specific inducers, β-estradiol, dexamethasone and 3-methylcholanthrene, respectively. Several industrial chemicals were assayed using these reporter plasmids, and the ability of p-dimethylaminoazobenzene to elevate GRE- and XRE-mediated transcription was detected. α-Naphthylamine and o-tolidine were also observed to increase the XRE-mediated response. The transfection assay system established here will be useful to evaluate the effects of a wide variety of industrial chemicals.

  14. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on. PMID:23603866

  15. Integrated environmental risk assessment and whole-process management system in chemical industry parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

    2013-04-19

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.

  16. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.

  17. Relation Between Sustainability‑Related Communication and Competitiveness in the Chemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Hyršlová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Interests of companies in the sustainability‑related communication have risen considerably in recent years. This paper focuses on the current state of sustainability‑related reporting in chemical industry companies registered in the Association of Chemical Industry in the Czech Republic. It deals with the form and the content of reporting, the importance of different stakeholders in this process as well as benefits of the sustainability‑related communication and its impacts on competitiveness of the company. This paper summarizes the results of a research executed in the year 2014. The results of the research showed that chemical industry companies were aware of the significance of sustainability‑related communication and they utilized various types of sustainability‑related reports for this communication. Companies prefer to report on the environmental and social aspects of their activities primarily in their annual reports, or they issue separate environmental reports. The research verified the relationship between the sustainability‑related communication and competitiveness. A suitable established high quality system of communication that provides sufficient information and meets the information requirements of the key stakeholders may significantly contribute to reputation improvement, to increased attractiveness of the company as an employer and thereby to maintain, to improve respectively, the level of a company’s competitiveness.

  18. The removal of dinitrochlorobenzene from industrial residuals by liquid-liquid extraction with chemical reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. M. Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrochlorobenzenes (NCBs are very important in the chemical industry since they have been used as raw material for the manufacture of crop protection products, as active ingredients in the pharmaceutical industry, as pigments and as antioxidants as well as for other uses. In industrial processes, NCBs are produced by monochlorobenzene (MCB nitration reactions and one of the main residuals formed is dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB, which is mainly composed of the isomer 2,4DNCB. This subproduct, although of commercial interest when in its pure state, is generally incinerated due to the high costs of recovery treatment and purification. The objective of this study is to present an alternative to the treatment of industrial residuals containing DNCB. The technique consists of converting DNCB into sodium dinitrophenolate, which is very soluble in water and is also easy to reuse. For this purpose, liquid-liquid extraction with chemical reaction (alkaline hydrolysis with a rotating disc contactor (RDC is used. Experimental data on MCB nitration reactions as well as alkaline hydrolysis using a rotating disc contactor are presented.

  19. ANALISIS KEBERHASILAN PRAKTIK KERJA INDUSTRI (PRAKERIN SEBAGAI IMPLEMENTASI PENDIDIKAN SISTEM GANDA (PSG DENGAN MODEL EVALUASI CIPP (CONTEXT, INPUT, PROCESS, PRODUCT DI SMK BARDAN WASALAMAN BATANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikke Tutiana Mustiany

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Industrial Work Practices (Prakerin is a implementation of the Dual System Education. Prakerin for vocational students is very important to do, because the purpose of vocational education is to prepare students to be ready and independent in the face of the work world. The purpose of this research is to analyze the success of prakerin in vocational Bardan Wasalaman with models CIPP (Context, Input, Process, Product. This type of research used in this study is an evaluative research with quantitative descriptive analysis. This study is a population, where there are 91 respondents composed of 27 people from the accounting and 64 people from the pharmacy. And to support the respondents researchers also conducted interviews with five speakers consisting of Vice Principal of Public Relations, Chairman of Pharmacy Department, Chairman of the Accounting Studies Program, Teacher of Productive Pharmacy and Accounting. Data analysis techniques used in this study presented is the percentage descriptive statistics.The results showed that the average aspect in the context prakerin of 32.54 is included in the excellent category. Average in the input aspects of 48.07 is included in the good categories. Aspects process in prakerin showed an average of 33.65 is included in the good categories. As for the average product in prakerin aspects of 24.79 is included in the high category.

  20. ANALISIS KELAYAKAN TEKNIS DAN FINANSIAL DARI INVESTASI PENGADAAN TRAY DRYER BERBAHAN BAKAR BIOMASSA PADA USAHA ARANG TEMPURUNG KELAPA BERBASIS EKSPOR (Studi Kasus di Tropica Nucifera Industry – Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Widadie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to assess the technical and financial feasibility of procurement investment Tray Dryer fueled biomass to operations of coconut shell charcoal briquette in PT. Tropica Nucifera Industry. The result showed that investment-Tray Dryer on cocnut shell charcoal briquette bussiness was highly feasibile both the technical and financial aspects. The technical aspect was seen that the quantity-production capabilities of coconut shell charcoal briquettes using a dryer-Tray Dryer could be increased 15 percent compared the previous consdition-used of solar energy. While the quality of the charcoal briquettes produced from Tray Dryer was a much butter quality, moisture content (6.39%; ash (2.65%; carbon-bound (85.83%, compared to using sunlight, water content (15.89; ash (2.57% and carbon-bound (77.32%.The financial aspects of procurement Tray Dryer investment that its value was more feasible than previous, nothing Tray Dryer. Coconut shell charcoal briquet enterprises without using Tray Dryer was feasible to be done with NPV 1,058,928.12, IRR 63%, Payback Period 1 year and 9 moths, Net B/C 2.25 and analysis of swicthcing value reached 20 percent. And after the business using Tray Drayer, the financial analysis was much more feasible with NPV 2,285,500,498.12, IRR 113%, Payback Period 11 months, Net B/C 3.5 and analysis of switching value reached 50 percent.

  1. A Study on an Executive Technique and Activation of Clean Production in Chemical Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Seong Yong; Lee, Hee Seok; Kim, Kang Seok [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    Clean production does not only make the sustainable development possible through preventing the deterioration of the environmental pollution from the expansion of industrialization but also enhance the company's competitiveness. Clean production is required by all industrial fields but is the most important in chemical industry. The Government has made efforts to change the domestic industrial structure to the environmental-friendly structure through developing the research. However, the domestic industry has not yet activated overall except some large companies, which has concretized the activation of clean production. Especially, the medium and small companies are more sluggish due to the inferiority of capital and technology. With recognizing that the main body of clean production is a company, the effort based on the Government and the academic world, without companies' positive, will cannot help being limited in effects. Therefore, it is necessary to trigger the schemes that urge the companies' motivation to show the effects from the support that have concentrated in hardware like technology until now. It seems to be very important that the guidebook for clean production, which a company can easily adopt, is developed and spread. This report provides the guidebook for clean production that managers and engineers can easily understand and approach in a producing field and presents the scheme to promote clean production, for chemical industry that is seriously required clean production. Even if the presented contents are not perfect, they can be applied to the development of the Government's policy and the administrative activities of companies for clean production as a useful data. 53 refs., 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  2. Anaerobic baffled reactor coupled with chemical precipitation for treatment and toxicity reduction of industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laohaprapanona, Sawanya; Marquesa, Marcia; Hogland, William

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the reduction of soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs) and the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), formaldehyde (FA) and nitrogen from highly polluted wastewater generated during cleaning procedures in wood floor manufacturing using a laboratory-scale biological anaerobic baffled reactor followed by chemical precipitation using MgCI2 .6H20 + Na2HPO4. By increasing the hydraulic retention time from 2.5 to 3.7 and 5 days, the reduction rates of FA, DOC and CODs of nearly 100%, 90% and 83%, respectively, were achieved. When the Mg:N:P molar ratio in the chemical treatment was changed from 1:1:1 to 1.3:1:1.3 at pH 8, the NH4+ removal rate increased from 80% to 98%. Biologically and chemically treated wastewater had no toxic effects on Vibrio fischeri and Artemia salina whereas chemically treated wastewater inhibited germination of Lactuca sativa owing to a high salt content. Regardless of the high conductivity of the treated wastewater, combined biological and chemical treatment was found to be effective for the removal of the organic load and nitrogen, and to be simple to operate and to maintain. A combined process such as that investigated could be useful for on-site treatment of low volumes of highly polluted wastewater generated by the wood floor and wood furniture industries, for which there is no suitable on-site treatment option available today.

  3. Chemical profile of size-fractionated soils collected in a semiarid industrial area of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Del Mastro, Anabella; Pereyra, Marcelo; Londonio, Agustín; Pereyra, Victoria; Rebagliati, Raúl Jiménez; Dawidowski, Laura; Gómez, Darío; Smichowski, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the chemical profile of soil collected in Bahía Blanca (Argentina). In this industrial city, semiarid soils are affected by different industrial and agricultural activities, the presence of a saltpeter extraction facility, traffic and increasing urbanization. Sixteen soil samples (superficial and sub-superficial) were collected. Samples were sieved in two fractions (A plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Anions (Cl-, F-, SO42-) and cations (K+, Na+ and NH4+) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after an aqueous extraction. As expected, crustal elements namely, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg and Ti exhibited the highest concentrations. Mean elemental concentration ranged from Na+ ≅ SO42- > K+ > NO3-. Three indicators, namely, (i) coefficient of variation, (ii) coefficient of divergence and (iii) ratio of elemental concentration with respect to Ca were used to assess chemical, spatial and inter-profile variability. Chloride > Ca > Na+ > Mo > SO42-, dominated the variability indicating that these are key chemical markers for future assessment of crustal contribution to airborne particles in the area. The ratios Xi/Ca allowed discriminating the soil of the semi-arid region surrounding Bahía Blanca. The chemical profiles obtained in this study, particularly those of topsoil, will be a key input to characterize soil resuspension and its contribution to airborne particulate matter in a forthcoming receptor model analysis.

  4. Energy price slump and policy response in the coal-chemical industry district : a case study of Ordos with a system dynamics model

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Delu; Ma, Gang; Song, Xuefeng; Liu, Yun

    2017-01-01

    We employ system dynamics method towards a coal-chemical industry district economy evolution model, using coal industry, the coal-chemical industry, their downstream industries, and the manufacture-related service industry. Moreover, we construct energy price and policy response scenarios based on Ordos’ management experience. The results show that the energy price slump had a negative impact on the overall economic development of the coal-chemical industry district, despite promoting non-res...

  5. Toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as asymmetric weapons: the design basis threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, L.

    2009-01-01

    Asymmetric warfare concepts relate well to the use of improvised chemical weapons against urban targets. Sources of information on toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) and lists of high threat chemicals are available that point to likely choices for an attack. Accident investigations can be used as a template for attacks, and to judge the possible effectiveness of an attack using TICs. The results of a chlorine rail car accident in South Carolina, USA and the Russian military assault on a Moscow theater provide many illustrative points for similar incidents that mighty be carried out deliberately. Computer modeling of outdoor releases shows how an attack might take into consideration issues of stand-off distance and dilution. Finally, the preceding may be used to estimate with some accuracy the design basis threat posed by the used of TICs as weapons.(author)

  6. Identifiksi Sebaran Litologi berdasarkan Analisis Data Resistivitas di Gunung Wungkal

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Dzakiya; MGS. Dwiki Nugraha; Nenden L. Sidik; Trias Galena

    2017-01-01

    Analisis data untuk mengidentifikasi sebaran litologi yang memiliki potensi bahan galian industri di Daerah Gunung Wungkal Yogyakarta dengan menggunakan metode resistivitas dan survei geologi permukaan telah dilakukan. Hasil korelasi kedua data tersebut menunjukkan sebaran litologi merupakan pelapukan intrusi batuan beku yang kemudian menghasilkan material lempung (6,0-10 m), lempung pasiran (11-30 m) dan lapukan batuan diorit (30-55 m) yang berada di kedalaman berbeda. Ketebalan batuan di pe...

  7. Analisis Kebangkrutan Perusahaan dengan Menggunakan Metode Z Score (Studi Kasus pada Industri Consumer Goods di Bursa Efek Jakarta Periode 1997 – 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuning Kriesnawati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze bankruptcy using the Z score. Research done in the consumer goods industry listed in Jakarta Stock Exchange 1997-2000 period. The results found that in 2000 the value of Z score companies has decreased, this is possible because the value of the variable X3 and X4 has decreased, but in 2001 the value of Z score Integration again experienced an increase, although not as high as in 1999, this means that the company can improve its performance. PT Mandom value of Z score indicates that the company is in a good condition or not bankruptcy. Z score value of the company from 1997 to 2001 continues to increase, it suggests that good corporate performance which proved that despite the crisis the company was still able to survive even continue to increase. Analysis of the bankruptcy of PT Unilever shows that the company is in a good condition. As in PT Mandom, the company is also not affected by the crisis. Z score value of the company from 1997 to 2001 have increased constantly, this indicates that the performance is good. Analysis of the bankruptcy of the PT Procter and Gamble shows that the company is in conditions that are less stable, this is indicated by the value of Z score in 1997 shows that the company is in the condition of the gray area, in 1998 based on assessment standards of bankruptcy, the company in 1998 experienced bankruptcy, in 1999 the company experienced a slight improvement from the beginning in a state of bankruptcy changes on the condition of the gray area, in 2000 the company was in good condition or not bankrupt, this is possible because the company sells most of its fixed assets in order to operate properly. However, in 2001 the company back on the condition of the gray area, it is because the value X2 to X5 has decreased.

  8. Forecasting global developments in the basic chemical industry for environmental policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeren, M.L.M.; Saygin, D.; Patel, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical sector is the largest industrial energy user, but detailed analysis of its energy use developments lags behind other energy-intensive sectors. A cost-driven forecasting model for basic chemicals production is developed, accounting for regional production costs, demand growth and stock turnover. The model determines the global production capacity placement, implementation of energy-efficient Best Practice Technology (BPT) and global carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions for the period 2010–2030. Subsequently, the effects of energy and climate policies on these parameters are quantified. About 60% of new basic chemical production capacity is projected to be placed in non-OECD regions by 2030 due to low energy prices. While global production increases by 80% between 2010 and 2030, the OECD's production capacity share decreases from 40% to 20% and global emissions increase by 50%. Energy pricing and climate policies are found to reduce 2030 CO 2 emissions by 5–15% relative to the baseline developments by increasing BPT implementation. Maximum BPT implementation results in a 25% reduction. Further emission reductions require measures beyond energy-efficient technologies. The model is useful to estimate general trends related to basic chemicals production, but improved data from the chemical sector is required to expand the analysis to additional technologies and chemicals. - Highlights: • We develop a global cost-driven forecasting model for the basic chemical sector. • We study regional production, energy-efficient technology, emissions and policies. • Between 2010 and 2030, 60% of new chemicals capacity is built in non-OECD regions. • Global CO 2 emissions rise by 50%, but climate policies may limit this to 30–40%. • Measures beyond energy efficiency are needed to prevent increasing CO 2 emissions

  9. Asymmetric catalysis in Brazil: development and potential for advancement of Brazilian chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Antonio Luiz; Luedtke, Diogo Seibert; Schneider, Paulo Henrique; Andrade, Leandro Helgueira; Paixao, Marcio Weber

    2013-01-01

    The preparation of enantiomerically pure or enriched substances is of fundamental importance to pharmaceutical, food, agrochemical, and cosmetics industries and involves a growing market of hundreds of billions of dollars. However, most chemical processes used for their production are not environmentally friendly because in most cases, stoichiometric amounts of chiral inductors are used and substantial waste is produced. In this context, asymmetric catalysis has emerged as an efficient tool for the synthesis of enantiomerically enriched compounds using chiral catalysts. More specifically, considering the current scenario in the Brazilian chemical industry, especially that of pharmaceuticals, the immediate prospect for the use of synthetic routes developed in Brazil in an enantioselective fashion or even the discovery of new drugs is practically null. Currently, the industrial production of drugs in Brazil is primarily focused on the production of generic drugs and is basically supported by imports of intermediates from China and India. In order to change this panorama and move forward toward the gradual incorporation of genuinely Brazilian synthetic routes, strong incentive policies, especially those related to continuous funding, will be needed. These incentives could be a breakthrough once we establish several research groups working in the area of organic synthesis and on the development and application of chiral organocatalysts and ligands in asymmetric catalysis, thus contributing to boost the development of the Brazilian chemical industry. Considering these circumstances, Brazil can benefit from this opportunity because we have a wide biodiversity and a large pool of natural resources that can be used as starting materials for the production of new chiral catalysts and are creating competence in asymmetric catalysis and related areas. This may decisively contribute to the growth of chemistry in our country. (author)

  10. Role of knowledge based engineering in Heavy Water Plants and its relevance to chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonde, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    The development of heavy water technology under the Department of Atomic Energy in India is carried out based on a mission oriented programme and this was backed up by a committed and highly trained manpower with a single minded pursuit to achieve the goal of making India self-sufficient in this challenging area. The paper gives step by step methodology followed in completion of the above mission which has become a benchmark in the chemical industry. A large sized chemical industry (Heavy Water plant being once such industry) has many features which are similar. The process design typically includes design of reactors, distillation columns, heat exchange networks, fluid transfer machinery, support utility systems etc. Besides, there are other issues like safety engineering, selection of materials, commissioning strategies and operating philosophies which are quite common to almost all chemical industries. Heavy water board has engineered and set up large scale heavy water plants and the technology for production of heavy water is completely assimilated in India and this paper tries to bring about some of the strategies which were instrumental in achieving this. The story of success in this technology can most certainly be followed in development of any other process technology. The important factors in the development of this technology is based on integration of R and D, process design, engineering backup, safety features, role of good construction and project management and good operating practices. One more important fact in this technology development is continuous improvement in operation and use of knowledge based engineering for debottlenecking. (author)

  11. Maintenance Management Systems in the Czech Enterprises of Chemical and Food Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Branska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The aim of this article is to use the results of the qualitative research to describe the current form of maintenance systems used in enterprises of chemical and food industries, and then to discuss and generalize the results. Methodology/methods: The primary qualitative research was conducted in five companies, which can be regarded as typical representatives of the industries. The main objective of the primary research in individual companies was to determine how they perform the strategic and tactical operational planning of maintenance, implementation of these plans and their control. Individual interviews with respondents were used as the research method. The results of the research were processed using the content analysis method. Subsequently, comparison of the findings from individual businesses and subsequent synthesis thereof was performed, which allowed making generalizations. Scientific aim: The scientific aim of the article is to develop knowledge in the field of maintenance management by specifying the form of the maintenance systems utilized in Czech enterprises of the chemical and food industries and identifying the main opportunities for their improvement. Findings: Czech enterprises of the chemical and food industries utilize maintenance management systems. These systems are aimed at prevention, emphasizing the planning of maintenance activities in fixed periodic intervals. Also, they often utilize diagnostic maintenance. However, the maintenance systems currently used cannot be considered fully operational, with regard to the relatively large volume of after-failure repairs. Conclusions: Production equipment maintenance systems are irreplaceable in chemical and food industry enterprises, but there is great potential for improvement. Improvement should be focused on the area of strategic as well as tactical and operational planning of production equipment maintenance. In terms of strategy, the biggest

  12. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli: a sustainable industrial platform for bio-based chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianzhong; Zhou, Li; Tian, Kangming; Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Suren; Prior, Bernard A; Wang, Zhengxiang

    2013-12-01

    In order to decrease carbon emissions and negative environmental impacts of various pollutants, more bulk and/or fine chemicals are produced by bioprocesses, replacing the traditional energy and fossil based intensive route. The Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium, Escherichia coli has been studied extensively on a fundamental and applied level and has become a predominant host microorganism for industrial applications. Furthermore, metabolic engineering of E. coli for the enhanced biochemical production has been significantly promoted by the integrated use of recent developments in systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering. In this review, we focus on recent efforts devoted to the use of genetically engineered E. coli as a sustainable platform for the production of industrially important biochemicals such as biofuels, organic acids, amino acids, sugar alcohols and biopolymers. In addition, representative secondary metabolites produced by E. coli will be systematically discussed and the successful strategies for strain improvements will be highlighted. Moreover, this review presents guidelines for future developments in the bio-based chemical production using E. coli as an industrial platform. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Physico-chemical and toxicological assessment of liquid wastes from olive processing-related industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierantozzi, Pierluigi; Zampini, Catiana; Torres, Mariela; Isla, María I; Verdenelli, Romina A; Meriles, José M; Maestri, Damián

    2012-01-30

    In the last few years, agricultural uses of waste waters from olive processing-related industries have been gaining interest mainly with a view to composting or bio-fertilizers. The present work examines physico-chemical, toxicological and geno-toxicological properties of three liquid wastes, namely olive mill wastewater (OMWW), olive wet husk and olive brine. The effect of OMWW spreading on soil microbial activity and biomass was also evaluated. Data from Artemia salina and Lactuca sativa toxicity tests indicated high levels of lethality, and inhibitory effects on seed germination and seedling growth of all olive wastes. The genotoxicity assays using Allium cepa tests showed contrasting results. At high concentrations, olive wastes caused inhibition or suppression of mitosis. However, they did not produce induced anaphase aberrations. Data on reversion of Salmonella thyphimurium strains using the Ames test indicated that the olive wastes did not present mutagenic activity. Results from the field experiment showed that OMWW at a 500 m(3) ha(-1) had the highest values of both soil microbial activity and biomass after 3 months of the amendment application. This work adds new data for environmental risk assessment of olive industrial wastes. Direct use of olive wastes for agricultural purposes should be limited owing to their possible chemotoxic, phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. ANALISIS PENYEBAB BANJIR KALI JUANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Marhendi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Kali Juana yang berada di Kabupaten Pati dan Kudus serta sebagian kecil di Kabupaten Grobogan dan Blora, merupakan kawasan banjir. Kejadian banjir di Kali Juana, sudah menjadi rutinitas setiap musim hujan.Dari Januari sampai bulan Mei 2016tercatat terjadi 11 kejadian banjir dibeberapa wilayah, seperti Kecamatan Kaliwungu, Undaan dan Mejobo (Kab. Kudus serta Pati, Margorejo dan Juwana (Kab. Pati. Kali Juana merupakan bifurkasi Kali Serang pada Pintu Wilalung, yang berfungsi sebagai pintu pengatur banjir (dibangun pada zaman Belanda tahun 1918, melalui Kali Babalan menuju ke Kali Juana. Tulisan inidimaksudkan untuk menganalisis penyebab kejadian banjir di Kali Juana. Analisis dilakukan dengan melakukan kajani dan analisis hujan serta mekanisme aliran. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa kondisi Kali Juana dari pertemuan Kali Logung di pintu Wilalung sampai hilir telah mengalami pendangkalan akibat kemiringan dasar atau topografi yang landai, dan mengakibatkan mudah terjadi sedimentasi sehingga mengurangi kapasitas pengaliran. Hal ini menyebabkan luapan banjir sering menggenangi wilayah Kabupaten Kudus dan Pati.

  15. In vitro methods for hazard assessment of industrial chemicals – opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Lin eWong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD is a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction mediated by T-lymphocytes as a result of repeated exposure of an allergen primarily on skin. ACD accounts for up to 95% of occupational skin diseases (OSDs, with epoxy resins implicated as one of the most common causes of ACD. Efficient high-throughput in vitro screening for accurate identification of compounds and materials that may pose hazardous risks in the workplace is crucial. At present, the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA is the ‘method of choice’ for predicting the sensitizing potency of contact allergens. As the 3Rs principles of reduction, refinement and replacement in animal testing has gained political and economic momentum, several in vitro screening methods have been developed for identifying potential contact allergens. To date, these latter methods have been utilized primarily to assess the skin sensitizing potential of the chemical components of cosmetic products with scant research attention as to the applicability of these methods to industrial chemicals, particularly epoxy resins. Herein we review the currently utilized in vitro methods and identify the knowledge gaps with regard to assessing the generalizability of in vitro screening methods for assessing the skin sensitizing potential of industrial chemicals.

  16. Interactions Between Industrial Yeasts and Chemical Contaminants in Grape Juice Affect Wine Composition Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etjen Bizaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between four industrial wine yeast strains and grape juice chemical contaminants during alcoholic fermentation was studied. Industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (AWRI 0838, S. cerevisiae mutant with low H2S production phenotype (AWRI 1640, interspecies hybrid of S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii (AWRI 1539 and a hybrid of AWRI 1640 and AWRI 1539 (AWRI 1810 were exposed separately to fungicides pyrimethanil (Pyr, 10 mg/L and fenhexamid (Fhx, 10 mg/L, as well as to the most common toxin produced by moulds on grapes, ochratoxin A (OTA, 5 μg/L, during alcoholic fermentation of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc juice. Contaminants were found to strongly impair fermentation performance and metabolic activity of all yeast strains studied. The chemical profile of wine was analyzed by HPLC (volatile acidity, concentrations of ethanol, fructose, glucose, glycerol and organic acids and the aromatic profile was analyzed using a stable isotope dilution technique using GC/MS (ethyl esters, acetates and aromatic alcohols and Kitagawa tubes (H2S. The chemical composition of wine with added contaminants was in all cases significantly different from the control. Of particular note is that the quantity of aromatic compounds produced by yeast was significantly lower. Yeast’s capacity to remove contaminants from wine at the end of the alcoholic fermentation, and after extended contact (7 days was determined. All the strains were able to remove contaminants from the media, moreover, after extended contact, the concentration of contaminants was in most cases lower.

  17. Use of wastes in high-temperature processes of the chemical industry; Verwertung von Abfaellen in Hochtemperaturprozessen der chemischen Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany); Domschke, T.; Steinebrunner, K. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The examples presented in this paper from diverse application areas of the chemical industry serve as an illustration of the many different ways in which wastes can be used for high-temperature processes in this branch. A review of the environmentally friendly concepts implemented at BASF AG in Ludwigshafen in the course of the past five years gives an idea of the immense potential opened up by a consistent application of the four-stage model for the prevention, reduction, and utilisation of wastes. In this period it was possible to reduce waste arisings by 34%, down from a potential 2 million tons, physically recycle 51%, and convert 11.5% to energy. This left a comparatively small fraction of 3.5%, or 70,000 tons, to be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way. Furthermore, the amount of pollutants produced per tonne of products sold fell from 40.6 kg in 1987 to 6.7 kg in 1997. [Deutsch] Die Beispiele aus den unterschiedlichsten Anwendungsbereichen der chemischen Industrie koennen als Auswahl der vielfaeltigen Verwertungsmoeglichkeiten von Abfaellen in Hochtemperaturprozessen der Chemie betrachtet werden. Das immense Potential, das sich durch konsequente Anwendung des 4-Stufen-Modells zur Vermeidung, Verminderung und Verwertung von Abfaellen eroeffnet, zeigt sich in einer Fuenfjahresbilanz der umgesetzten Umweltschutzbetrachtungen in der BASF AG in Ludwigshafen. So konnten in diesem Zeitraum von potentiellen 2 Mio t Abfall/a ca. 34% vermieden und vermindert, 51% stofflich und 11,5% energetisch verwertet werden, so dass nur noch ein geringer Anteil von 3,5%, entsprechend ca. 70000 t/a, umweltgerecht entsorgt werden musste. Dies fuehrte auch zu einer drastischen Reduktion der auf der Tonne Verkaufsprodukt bezogenen Menge an umweltbelastenden Stoffen von 40,6 kg im Jahre 1987 auf 6,7 kg im Jahre 1997. (orig.)

  18. Chemical, procedural and economical evaluation of carbon dioxide as feedstock in the chemical industry; Chemische, verfahrenstechnische und oekonomische Bewertung von Kohlendioxid als Rohstoff in der chemischen Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    The utilisation of CO{sub 2} as feedstock in the chemical industry represents an alternative to the geological storage, which is legally limited and socially debated. Generally, scientific publications about the utilisation of CO{sub 2} in chemical reactions typically address the feasibility of the syntheses without paying attention to the CO{sub 2} reduction potential or the economy in contrast to the conventional process of production. The aim of this doctoral thesis is to identify chemical reactions with CO{sub 2} as feedstock, which have the potential to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. These reactions are evaluated concerning the industrial realization, CO{sub 2} balance and economy compared to the conventional processes. To achieve this, 123 reactions from the literature were collected and evaluated with the help of selection criteria developed specifically for this application. The criteria consider both, the quantitative potential to reduce CO{sub 2} and possible economical interests in these reactions. Additional to the process of the evaluation of the reactions, a CO{sub 2} reduction potential of 1.33 % of the greenhouse gas emissions within the European Union could be calculated. For the chemicals formic acid, oxalic acid, formaldehyde, methanol, urea and dimethyl ether, which most fully satisfy the selection criteria, a direct comparison of the CO{sub 2} based process with the conventional process is performed. By literature data, process designs, and simulations, it has been shown that the highest reductions of CO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved for methanol with 1.43 kg{sub CO2}/kg{sub MeOH} and dimethyl ether with 2.17 kg{sub CO2}/kg{sub DME}, but only with the assumption that the necessary hydrogen for the CO{sub 2} based reaction is produced by electrolysis operated with renewable energy. Overall, the CO{sub 2} based production processes of methanol and dimethyl ether could reduce 0.059 % of the greenhouse gas emissions of the European Union (EU) if

  19. AICD -- Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program. 1993 Annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J. [eds.

    1994-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  20. Advances of radioisotope for design, intensification and optimization of processes and operations in chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In chemical industries different processes and operations involve a variety of multiphase contacting schemes for optimal production schedule in terms of ease of handling, time and money. A number of parameters will have to be optimized for this purpose. Further more, during the operation of a process plant, a number of problems such as reduction in process efficiency, deterioration in product quality etc. are encountered due to malfunctioning of one or more components. The successful operation of an industry depends on the early detection of the problems for appropriate remedial action. These are conveniently carried out by the application of radioisotopes either directly or in sealed condition depending upon the problem to be addressed. In this talk both types of radiotracer applications are discussed by taking specific examples

  1. The impact of semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries on downstream perfluorinated chemical contamination in Taiwanese rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Lo, Chao-Chun

    2009-01-01

    This study provides the first evidence on the influence of the semiconductor and electronics industries on perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) contamination in receiving rivers. We have quantified ten PFCs, including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs: PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs: PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA) in semiconductor, electronic, and optoelectronic industrial wastewaters and their receiving water bodies (Taiwan's Keya, Touchien, and Xiaoli rivers). PFOS was found to be the major constituent in semiconductor wastewaters (up to 0.13 mg/L). However, different PFC distributions were found in electronics plant wastewaters; PFOA was the most significant PFC, contributing on average 72% to the effluent water samples, followed by PFOS (16%) and PFDA (9%). The distribution of PFCs in the receiving rivers was greatly impacted by industrial sources. PFOS, PFOA and PFDA were predominant and prevalent in all the river samples, with PFOS detected at the highest concentrations (up to 5.4 μg/L). - The semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries are the primary source of PFC contamination in downstream aqueous environments

  2. How to promote energy conservation in China’s chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Long, Houyin

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuel consumption in China’s chemical industry accounted for 19.7% of the total industrial fossil fuel consumption, and the industry has become the second highest energy intensive sector in the country. Therefore, it is extremely urgent and important to study the problems related to fossil fuel consumption in the industry. This paper adopts the factor decomposition and the EG co-integration methods to investigate the influencing factors of fossil energy consumption and measure the saving potential of fossil fuel. The paper concludes that the influencing factors can be divided into positive driving factors (labor productivity effect and sector scale effect) and negative driving factors (energy intensity effect and energy structure effect). Among them, labor productivity and energy intensity are the main factors affecting fossil fuel demand. The largest saving potentials of fossil fuels are predicted to be 23.3 Mtce in 2015 and 70.6 Mtce in 2020 under the middle scenario and 46.8 Mtce in 2015 and 100.5 Mtce in 2020 under the ideal scenario, respectively. Finally, this paper provides some policy implications on fossil fuel conservation. - Highlights: • Labor productivity and energy intensity are crucial driving factors. • The relationship among variables is co-integrated. • The result of the EG co-integration is the same as that of LMDI. • ECM displays the short-term fluctuation of fossil fuel consumption. • Under the scenario analysis, there is a huge energy saving potential

  3. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  4. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  5. Economic Value Approach to Industrial Water Demand Management, A Case Study of Chemical Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    morteza tahami pour zarandi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Limitations in water supply to meet the increasing demand have encouraged both planners and researchers to focus attention on water demand management, in which such economic tools as the water pricing system play a major role. A fundamental component of the pricing system is the estimation of the economic value of water, which reflects a firm’s maximum affordable water price or the ultimate elasticity of industrial water. The present study was conducted to estimate the economic value of water for basic chemical plants, excluding fertilizers and nitrogen compounds (code 2411, representing the four-digit ISIC industrial codes which account for about 14% of the total industrial water consumption. The econometric method of production function within the framework of panel data and the residual method were used. Data were collected from the Census of medium-sized businesses carried out by the Statistical Center of Iran over the period 1997–2013.  Results showed that one cubic meter of water allocated to the plants surveyed creates a value of 3,7071 Rials, which shows a large gap with the current purchase price of 5685 Rials. Moreover, it was found that the present water prices account for only about 1.3 percent of the total production cost of basic chemicals, excluding fertilizers and nitrogen compounds. It may, thus, be concluded that it is reasonable to increase the present water tariffs and discriminate among the various manufacturing codes by differences in tariffs in order to achieve water demand management goals. Finally, the information emerging from the study may be exploited to improve the revenues earned by water authorities or to carry out feasibility studies of industrial water development projects.

  6. Physico-chemical treatment of liquid waste on an industrial plant for electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlakar, Matej; Levstek, Marjetka; Stražar, Marjeta

    2017-10-01

    Wastewater from washing, oil separators, the metal processing and detergent industries, was tested and treated for treatment of different types of liquid waste at industrial level at Domžale-Kamnik Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP). The effect of implementing the electrocoagulation (EC) and flotation processes, respectively, is analysed and includes the duration of the EC implementation, voltage, number of electrodes, and chemical addition, as well as the pH effect and conductivity. The tests were performed not only on various types of liquid waste, but also on different mixtures of liquid waste. Laboratory analysis of the samples before and after EC have shown an effective reduction not only in organic loads in accordance with the COD (chemical oxygen demand) parameter, but also in mineral oil content, toxic metal concentration, and surfactants. The COD in liquid waste from the detergent industry was reduced by 73% and the content of surfactants by 64%. In liquid waste from the metal processing industry, the COD decreased by up to 95%, while the content of toxic metals decreased from 59 to 99%. Similar phenomena were shown in liquid waste from oil separators, where the COD was reduced to 33% and the concentration of mineral oils by 99%. Some of the liquid wastes were mixed together in the ratio 1:1, thus allowing testing of the operation of EC technology in heterogeneous liquid waste, where the final result proved to be effective cleaning as well. After treatment in the process of EC, the limit values of the treated water proved appropriate for discharge into the sewerage system.

  7. Colorimetric sensor array for determination and identification of toxic industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liang; Musto, Christopher J; Kemling, Jonathan W; Lim, Sung H; Zhong, Wenxuan; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2010-11-15

    A low-cost yet highly sensitive colorimetric sensor array for the detection and identification of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) has been developed. The sensor consists of a disposable array of cross-responsive nanoporous pigments whose colors are changed by diverse chemical interactions with analytes. Clear differentiation among 20 different TICs has been easily achieved at both their IDLH (immediately dangerous to life or health) concentration within 2 min of exposure and PEL (permissible exposure limit) concentration within 5 min of exposure with no errors or misclassifications. Detection limits are generally well below the PEL (in most cases below 5% of PEL) and are typically in the low ppb range. The colorimetric sensor array is not responsive to changes in humidity or temperature over a substantial range. The printed arrays show excellent batch to batch reproducibility and long shelf life (greater than 3 months).

  8. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Archer, John A. C.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review. PMID:25356733

  9. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2014-10-29

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  10. An Energy Efficiency Evaluation Method Based on Energy Baseline for Chemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-mei Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the requirements and structure of ISO 50001 energy management system, this study proposes an energy efficiency evaluation method based on energy baseline for chemical industry. Using this method, the energy plan implementation effect in the processes of chemical production can be evaluated quantitatively, and evidences for system fault diagnosis can be provided. This method establishes the energy baseline models which can meet the demand of the different kinds of production processes and gives the general solving method of each kind of model according to the production data. Then the energy plan implementation effect can be evaluated and also whether the system is running normally can be determined through the baseline model. Finally, this method is used on cracked gas compressor unit of ethylene plant in some petrochemical enterprise; it can be proven that this method is correct and practical.

  11. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Archer, John A.C.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  12. Testing in power plant construction as well as in the petrochemical and chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, N.; Schittko, H.

    1978-01-01

    In general, the upgrading of requirements for the most different fields of engineering is also characterized by a corresponding effort in testing. In this context especially nondestructive tests of materials are of outstanding importance. In the fields of power plant construction (among others, components for nuclear power plants) as well as petrochemical and chemical industry considered here, almost all nondestructive test methods are applied. This paper discusses not so much theoretical testing problems, but rather test objects as well as specifications and testing equipment. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Elimination of micropollutants and hazardous substances at the source in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöcher, C

    2007-01-01

    Industrial wastewater, especially from chemical and pharmaceutical production, often contains substances that need to be eliminated before being discharged into a biological treatment plant and following water bodies. This can be done within the production itself, in selected waste water streams or in a central treatment plant. Each of these approaches has certain advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, a variety of wastewater treatment processes exist that can be applied at each stage, making it a challenging task to choose the best one in economic and ecological terms. In this work a general approach for that and examples from practice are discussed.

  14. Status of chemical elements in Atlantic Forest tree species near an industrial complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.L.L.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Franca, E.J.; Bacchi, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental quality assessment studies have been conducted with tree species largely distributed in the Atlantic Forest. Leaf and soil samples were collected in the conservation unit Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM) nearby the industrial complex of Cubatao, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, and analyzed for chemical elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Results were compared to background values obtained in the Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho (PECB). The higher As, Fe, Hg and Zn mass fractions in the tree leaves of PESM indicated anthropogenic influence on this conservation unit. (author)

  15. A study of the potential of plasma processing in the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estey, P.N.; Connolly, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    This work describes a systematic approach to determine the potential for plasma processing in the United States chemical industry. A model was developed that describes the physical inputs and outputs from a plasma based processing system. Based on these mass flows and the energy flows to the processor an economic assessment of the plasma processing system is made. This economic assessment which also includes the capital costs of the processor, can be used to determine if the plasma system is competitive with the conventional system

  16. Identification and chemical characterization of industrial particulate matter sources in southwest Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Plana, Feliciano; Viana, Mar; Ruiz, Carmen R; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana; de la Rosa, Jesús; Mantilla, Enrique; García dos Santos, Saul

    2006-07-01

    A detailed physical and chemical characterization of coarse particulate matter (PM10) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the city of Huelva (in Southwestern Spain) was carried out during 2001 and 2002. To identify the major emission sources with a significant influence on PM10 and PM2.5, a methodology was developed based on the combination of: (1) real-time measurements of levels of PM10, PM2.5, and very fine particulate matter (PM1); (2) chemical characterization and source apportionment analysis of PM10 and PM2.5; and (3) intensive measurements in field campaigns to characterize the emission plumes of several point sources. Annual means of 37, 19, and 16 microg/m3 were obtained for the study period for PM10, PM2.5, and PM1, respectively. High PM episodes, characterized by a very fine grain size distribution, are frequently detected in Huelva mainly in the winter as the result of the impact of the industrial emission plumes on the city. Chemical analysis showed that PM at Huelva is characterized by high PO4(3-) and As levels, as expected from the industrial activities. Source apportionment analyses identified a crustal source (36% of PM10 and 31% of PM2.5); a traffic-related source (33% of PM10 and 29% of PM2.5), and a marine aerosol contribution (only in PM10, 4%). In addition, two industrial emission sources were identified in PM10 and PM2.5: (1) a petrochemical source, 13% in PM10 and 8% in PM2.5; and (2) a mixed metallurgical-phosphate source, which accounts for 11-12% of PM10 and PM2.5. In PM2.5 a secondary source has been also identified, which contributed to 17% of the mass. A complete characterization of industrial emission plumes during their impact on the ground allowed for the identification of tracer species for specific point sources, such as petrochemical, metallurgic, and fertilizer and phosphate production industries.

  17. The chemical industry of uranium in France; L'industrie chimique de l'uranium en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The actual CEA program is concerned with the construction of two large graphite reactors, each of those containing at least one hundred tons of uranium metal with nuclear purity. The uranium for these two reactors will be regularly supplied by new resources discovered in France and Madagascar in the last five years. The working and treatment of such ore have led to the creation of an important french industry of which the general outline and principle are described. The operated ores have got different natures and concentration, individual characteristics are described for the main ores.The most high-grade ore are transported to a central plant in Bouchet near Paris; the low-grade ore are concentrated by physical methods or chemical processes of which principles and economy are studied with constancy. The acid processes are the only used until now, although the carbonated alkaline processes has been studied in France. The next following steps after the acid process until the obtention of uranium rich concentrate are described. The purification steps of uranium compounds to nuclear purity material are described as well as the steps to elaborate metal of which the purity grade will be specify. Finally, the economic aspects of uranium production difficulty will be considered in relation with technical progresses which we can expect to achieve in the future. (M.P.)

  18. Estimates of inter-fuel substitution possibilities in Chinese chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Wesseh, Presley K.

    2013-01-01

    The chemical sector is a key driver of China's remarkable growth record and accounts for about 10% of the country's GDP. This has made the industry energy-intensive and consequently a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and other pollutants. This study has attempted to investigate the potential for inter-fuel substitution between coal, oil, natural gas and electricity in Chinese chemical sector by employing a translog production and cost function. Ridge regression procedure was adopted to estimate the parameters of the function. Estimation results show that all energy inputs are substitutes. In addition, the study produces evidence that the significant role of coal in the Chinese chemical fuel mix converges over time, albeit slowly. These results suggest that price-based policies, coupled with capital subsidy programs can be adopted to redirect technology use towards cleaner energy sources like electricity and natural gas; hence, retaining the ability to fuel the chemical sector, while also mitigating GHG emissions. Notwithstanding, one must understand that the extent to which substituting electricity for coal will be effective depends on the extent to which coal or oil is used in generating electricity. The findings of this study provide general insights and underscore the importance of Chinese government policies that focus on installed capacity of renewable electricity, energy intensity targets as well as merger of enterprises. - Highlights: • Potential for inter-fuel substitution in Chinese chemical sector is investigated. • Oil, natural gas and electricity are found to be substitutes for coal. • Coal dominance in Chinese chemical fuel mix is found to converge over time. • Price-based policies and capital-subsidies are needed to redirect technology use. • Results support policies concerning renewables, energy-intensity targets and mergers

  19. Thermodynamic properties for applications in chemical industry via classical force fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Carrion, Gabriela; Hasse, Hans; Vrabec, Jadran

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties of fluids are of key importance for the chemical industry. Presently, the fluid property models used in process design and optimization are mostly equations of state or G (E) models, which are parameterized using experimental data. Molecular modeling and simulation based on classical force fields is a promising alternative route, which in many cases reasonably complements the well established methods. This chapter gives an introduction to the state-of-the-art in this field regarding molecular models, simulation methods, and tools. Attention is given to the way modeling and simulation on the scale of molecular force fields interact with other scales, which is mainly by parameter inheritance. Parameters for molecular force fields are determined both bottom-up from quantum chemistry and top-down from experimental data. Commonly used functional forms for describing the intra- and intermolecular interactions are presented. Several approaches for ab initio to empirical force field parameterization are discussed. Some transferable force field families, which are frequently used in chemical engineering applications, are described. Furthermore, some examples of force fields that were parameterized for specific molecules are given. Molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods for the calculation of transport properties and vapor-liquid equilibria are introduced. Two case studies are presented. First, using liquid ammonia as an example, the capabilities of semi-empirical force fields, parameterized on the basis of quantum chemical information and experimental data, are discussed with respect to thermodynamic properties that are relevant for the chemical industry. Second, the ability of molecular simulation methods to describe accurately vapor-liquid equilibrium properties of binary mixtures containing CO(2) is shown.

  20. Equilibrium approach towards water resource management and pollution control in coal chemical industrial park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiuping; Hou, Shuhua; Xie, Heping; Lv, Chengwei; Yao, Liming

    2018-08-01

    In this study, an integrated water and waste load allocation model is proposed to assist decision makers in better understanding the trade-offs between economic growth, resource utilization, and environmental protection of coal chemical industries which characteristically have high water consumption and pollution. In the decision framework, decision makers in a same park, each of whom have different goals and preferences, work together to seek a collective benefit. Similar to a Stackelberg-Nash game, the proposed approach illuminates the decision making interrelationships and involves in the conflict coordination between the park authority and the individual coal chemical company stockholders. In the proposed method, to response to climate change and other uncertainties, a risk assessment tool, Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR) and uncertainties through reflecting parameters and coefficients using probability and fuzzy set theory are integrated in the modeling process. Then a case study from Yuheng coal chemical park is presented to demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the optimization model. To reasonable search the potential consequences of different responses to water and waste load allocation strategies, a number of scenario results considering environmental uncertainty and decision maker' attitudes are examined to explore the tradeoffs between economic development and environmental protection and decision makers' objectives. The results are helpful for decision/police makers to adjust current strategies adapting for current changes. Based on the scenario analyses and discussion, some propositions and operational policies are given and sensitive adaptation strategies are presented to support the efficient, balanced and sustainable development of coal chemical industrial parks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ANALISIS LITERASI EKONOMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Garlans Sina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Analysis of Economic Literacy. The aim of this research is as an effort to increase economic literacy for individuals and households who want to achieve prosperity. Therefore, the obligation of improving the economic literacy needs to be done in a well-planned manner and come from the strong intention to learn in order to improve the economic literacy. It could have an effect on the assets accumulation, a better debt management, as a protection, as well as to increase savings and managing spending intelligently.   Keyword: economic literacy, asset, debt, protection, saving, spending   Abstrak: Analisis Literasi Ekonomi. Tulisan ini bertujuan sebagai upaya meningkatkan literasi ekonomi bagi individu maupun rumah tangga yang menginginkan mencapai kesejahteraan. Oleh karena itu, kewajiban meningkatkan literasi ekonomi perlu dilakukan secara terencana dan diawali dari niat untuk belajar meningkatkan literasi ekonomi karena dapat berefek pada akumulasi aset, pengelolaan utang yang tepat, proteksi, meningkatkan tabungan dan cerdas mengelola pengeluaran.   Kata kunci: literasi ekonomi, aset, utang, proteksi, menabung, pengeluaran

  2. High-grade use of waste propane streams in the Dutch chemical industry. An exploratory study in the context of the Chemical Industry Roadmap; Hoogwaardig gebruik van reststromen propaan in de Nederlandse chemische industrie. Een verkenning binnen de Routekaart Chemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Buck, A.; Afman, M.R.; Croezen, H.J.; Van Lieshout, M.

    2012-09-15

    In the context of the Dutch chemical industry's Roadmap the industry is actively seeking concrete ways of improving the efficiency of its products and processes. One option is to make higher-grade use of current waste streams, as feedstocks for other products, for example. This study focuses on propane waste streams from the oil and gas processing industry. Today these are used partly as fuel (fuel gas) but there are no technical barriers to converting propane to propylene, which can then be used as a feedstock. Higher-grade use of this particular waste stream leads to CO2 emission reductions in the production chain. Given the high market price of propylene, such a move may also be economically attractive. The study focuses on the Rotterdam region, because propane suppliers and companies seeking propylene are in closest proximity there [Dutch] In het kader van de Routekaart Chemie is de chemische industrie actief op zoek naar concrete opties om in haar processen en producten de efficiency te verhogen. Een route is daarbij om reststromen hoogwaardiger te benutten en in te zetten als grondstof voor andere producten. Dit onderzoek richt zich op reststromen propaan uit de olie- en gasverwerkende industrie. Deze worden nu deels als brandstof (stookgas) ingezet maar technisch is het mogelijk propaan om te zetten in propeen, dat als grondstof voor de chemische industrie kan worden gebruikt. Door het hoogwaardiger benutten van deze reststroom wordt in de keten een reductie van CO2 gerealiseerd. Tegelijk kan het economisch interessant zijn, vanwege de hoge marktprijzen van propeen. De studie focust op de regio Rotterdam, omdat leveranciers van propaan en afnemers van propeen daar het meest dichtbij elkaar gevestigd zijn.

  3. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Duan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency.

  4. Economic feasibility of an energy efficiency project for a steam distribution system in a chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Melo Menezes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels majorly contributes to the increase in global warming, and it represents 93% of greenhouse gases emissions in the chemical industry. Most of the energy demand in this sector is associated with steam systems, where 1/3 of the energy efficiency opportunities are located in its distribution system. However, most of the literature focuses on the design of new systems. Those that deal with existing systems, not always use simple and available methods. Furthermore, they address energy losses of steam systems only due to thermal insulation, ignoring those due to leakages of traps. Given this context, the purpose of this paper is to determine the economic feasibility of an energy efficiency project for a steam distribution system in a chemical industry, located in the metropolitan region of Salvador, Brazil. First, the energy lost in the steam distribution system through heat insulation and steam traps was estimated by applying thermodynamic principles, and technic consulting, respectively. Then, investments were estimated using commercial prices for new thermal insulation and steam traps. Finally, an economic evaluation of the improvement project was made, through the construction of a cash flow, and calculation of economic indicators: payback time, net present value (NPV, and internal rate of return (IRR. Economic indicators showed that the project is economically viable. The NPV and IRR reached approximately 5 million reais, and 66% per year, respectively. Additionally, this project also had social and environmental benefits, such as a reduction in greenhouse gases emissions, and increased local water availability.

  5. [Technology upgrades and exposure to chemical agents: results of the PPTP study in the footwear industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoli, Enrica; Brusoni, Daniela; Cornaggia, Nicoletta; Saretto, Gianni

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the chemical compositions of the products used in shoes manufacturing are reported. The data were collected over the period 2004-2007 in 156 shoe factories in Vigevano area during a study aiming the evaluation of safety conditions and occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals of the employees. The study was part of a regional project for "Occupational cancer prevention in the footwear industry". In the first phase of the study an information form on production cycle, products used and their composition was filled during preliminary audit. In the second phase of the study an in depth qualitative/quantitative evaluation of professional exposure was conducted in 13 selected shoe factories. Data analysis showed the increase in use of water-based adhesives at expense of solvent-based adhesives, the reduction to less than 3.5 weight %, and up to 1 weight %, of n-hexane concentration in solvent mixtures, the increase in use of products containing less hazardous ketones, esters, cyclohexane and heptane. Only in very few cases, products containing from 4 to 12 weight% of toluene were used. These data attest a positive trend in workers risks prevention in shoes industry.

  6. The safety and efficacy of contact lens wear in the industrial and chemical workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyhurst, Keith; McNett, Ryan; Bennett, Edward

    2007-11-01

    The use and safety of contact lenses in the industrial and chemical workplace has often been questioned since the 1960s because of many unconfirmed reports of ocular injury resulting from contact lens wear. Because of these urban legends, contact lens wear has been banned or wearers have been required to wear additional personal protective equipment (PPE) not required of non-contact lens wearers. Literature review via Medline and Google search. Research has shown that contact lenses typically provide protective benefits that decrease the severity of ocular injury and improve worker performance. While contact lens wear contraindications do exist, in most cases, and with proper precautions, contact lens wear is still possible. Industrial and chemical companies need to establish written contact lens use policies based on current studies that have shown the safety of workplace contact lens wear when combined with the same PPE required of non-contact lens wearers. Practitioners need to discuss, with their contact lens patients, the additional responsibilities required to maintain proper lens hygiene and proper PPE in the workplace.

  7. Applicable safety-related design and operations considerations from the oil and chemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulvihill, R.J.; Deshotels, R.L.; Master, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Fluor Daniel has conducted several hazards and risk analyses on petroleum and chemical facilities. These analyses included qualitative hazards and operability (HAZOP) studies, preliminary hazards analyses, and qualitative fault-tree analysis as well as quantitative event-tree/fault-tree risk analysis. Several design-related problem areas were uncovered as a result of these analyses as well as deficiencies in operations and maintenance. Design deficiency areas include potential common-mode failures associated with redundant functions sharing a common distributed digital control (DDC) logic circuit board and failures in pressure relief systems. Many of the design weaknesses and potential operator errors discussed have a direct counterpart in nuclear fuel processing plants and nuclear power reactors. Counterparts that are discussed are common cause/common mode failures in control systems and failures in pressure relief systems. Overpressurization of piping and vessels resulting in rupture is discussed. Mitigating design features and operations procedures that have been implemented in the chemical process industry are described and their applicability to the nuclear industry is discussed

  8. Physico-chemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part I Chemical composition, solid fat content and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the primary properties of six cocoa butter samples, representative of industrial blends and cocoa butter extracted from fruits cultivated in different geographical areas in Brazil is presented. The samples were evaluated according to fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol composition, regiospecific distribution, melting point, solid fat content and consistency. The results allowed for differentiating the samples according to their chemical compositions, thermal resistance properties, hardness characteristics, as well as technological adequacies and potential use in regions with tropical climates.

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio comparativo de las propiedades primarias de mantecas de cacao, representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de diferentes zonas geográficas de Brasil. Las muestras fueron evaluadas de acuerdo a la composición de ácidos grasos, composición de triglicéridos, distribución de los ácidos grasos en las moléculas de triglicéridos, punto de fusión, contenido de grasa sólida y consistencia. Los resultados permitieron diferenciar las muestras por su composición química, propiedades de resistencia térmica, características de dureza, así como en materia de adecuaciones tecnológicas y los usos potenciales en las regiones de clima tropical.

  9. Modeling the binding affinity of structurally diverse industrial chemicals to carbon using the artificial intelligence approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shikha; Basant, Nikita; Rai, Premanjali; Singh, Kunwar P

    2015-11-01

    Binding affinity of chemical to carbon is an important characteristic as it finds vast industrial applications. Experimental determination of the adsorption capacity of diverse chemicals onto carbon is both time and resource intensive, and development of computational approaches has widely been advocated. In this study, artificial intelligence (AI)-based ten different qualitative and quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (MLPN, RBFN, PNN/GRNN, CCN, SVM, GEP, GMDH, SDT, DTF, DTB) were established for the prediction of the adsorption capacity of structurally diverse chemicals to activated carbon following the OECD guidelines. Structural diversity of the chemicals and nonlinear dependence in the data were evaluated using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. The generalization and prediction abilities of the constructed models were established through rigorous internal and external validation procedures performed employing a wide series of statistical checks. In complete dataset, the qualitative models rendered classification accuracies between 97.04 and 99.93%, while the quantitative models yielded correlation (R(2)) values of 0.877-0.977 between the measured and the predicted endpoint values. The quantitative prediction accuracies for the higher molecular weight (MW) compounds (class 4) were relatively better than those for the low MW compounds. Both in the qualitative and quantitative models, the Polarizability was the most influential descriptor. Structural alerts responsible for the extreme adsorption behavior of the compounds were identified. Higher number of carbon and presence of higher halogens in a molecule rendered higher binding affinity. Proposed QSPR models performed well and outperformed the previous reports. A relatively better performance of the ensemble learning models (DTF, DTB) may be attributed to the strengths of the bagging and boosting algorithms which enhance the predictive accuracies. The

  10. Chemical speciation of trace metals in the industrial sludge of Dhaka City, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Saiful; Al-Mamun, Md Habibullah; Feng, Ye; Tokumura, Masahiro; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess total concentration and chemical fractionation of trace metals in the industrial wastewater and sludge collected from seven different types of industries in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. The sludge from industries is either dumped on landfills or reused as secondary resources in order to preserve natural resources. Metals were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ranges of Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb in the sludges were 1.4-9,470, 4.8-994, 12.8-444, 2.2-224, 1.9-46.0 and 1.3-87.0 mg/kg, respectively. As a whole, the average concentrations of trace metals in samples were in the decreasing order of Cr > Ni > Cu > As > Pb > Cd. The results of the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction showed that the studied metals were predominantly associated with the residual fraction followed by the oxidizable fraction. The study revealed that the mobile fractions of trace metals are poorly predictable from the total content, and bioavailability of all fractions of elements tends to decrease.

  11. Chemical Manufacturing and Refining Industry Legitimacy: Reflective Management, Trust, Precrisis Communication to Achieve Community Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Robert L; Lee, Jaesub

    2016-06-01

    Calls for emergency right-to-know in the 1980s, and, in the 1990s, risk management planning, motivated U.S. chemical manufacturing and refining industries to operationalize a three-pronged approach to risk minimization and communication: reflective management to increase legitimacy, operational safety programs to raise trust, and community engagement designed to facilitate citizens' emergency response efficacy. To assess these management, operational, and communication initiatives, communities (often through Local Emergency Planning Committees) monitored the impact of such programs. In 2012, the fourth phase of a quasi-longitudinal study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of operational change and community outreach in one bellwether community. This study focuses on legitimacy, trust, and response efficacy to suggest that an industry can earn legitimacy credits by raising its safety and environmental impact standards, by building trust via that change, and by communicating emergency response messages to near residents to raise their response efficacy. As part of its campaign to demonstrate its concern for community safety through research, planning, and implementation of safe operations and viable emergency response systems, this industry uses a simple narrative of risk/emergency response-shelter-in-place-communicated by a spokes-character: Wally Wise Guy. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. The impact of semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries on downstream perfluorinated chemical contamination in Taiwanese rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Lo, Chao-Chun

    2009-04-01

    This study provides the first evidence on the influence of the semiconductor and electronics industries on perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) contamination in receiving rivers. We have quantified ten PFCs, including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs: PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs: PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA) in semiconductor, electronic, and optoelectronic industrial wastewaters and their receiving water bodies (Taiwan's Keya, Touchien, and Xiaoli rivers). PFOS was found to be the major constituent in semiconductor wastewaters (up to 0.13 mg/L). However, different PFC distributions were found in electronics plant wastewaters; PFOA was the most significant PFC, contributing on average 72% to the effluent water samples, followed by PFOS (16%) and PFDA (9%). The distribution of PFCs in the receiving rivers was greatly impacted by industrial sources. PFOS, PFOA and PFDA were predominant and prevalent in all the river samples, with PFOS detected at the highest concentrations (up to 5.4 microg/L).

  13. Justice perceptions of performance management practices in a company in the chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanasagree Govender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of corporations globally is becoming increasingly problematic. Combined with the unique challenges of an operating entity, this could potentially expose the profitability of sustainable businesses on a daily basis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate employees’ justice perceptions of performance management practices in a company in the chemical industry. The population includes all the employees in the chemical industry that was used in this study. A total of 140 questionnaires were issued to all the employees in an organisation which had undergone a performance appraisal and 102 respondents completed the surveys, giving a response rate of 72 per cent. A cross-sectional survey design was used in this study. The justice perceptions were measured according to an existing framework developed by Thurston and McNall (2010. The framework is founded on a hypothesised four-factor model constructed according to theories on organisational justice. The employees of the organisation in the chemical sector were involved in this study. Descriptive statistical analyses were used to measure perceptions of justice based on theories on organisational justice. The measuring instrument used was based on recognised models and theories. The study supports the construct validity of the measuring instrument and the reliability of the scales used. The justice constructs were used to identify specific items in the performance management practice that required improvement. The implications of the results are that continual interventions are required if employee commitment and productivity levels are to improve, resulting in a positive impact on business performance. Significant differences in perceptions by demographic groups were reported and discussed. This study explored the importance of understanding justice perceptions of performance management practices as an enabler for sustained business performance. Further, the study confirmed that

  14. Chemical compounds related to nutraceutical and industrial qualities of non-transgenic soybean genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Constanza S; Dardanelli, Julio L; Soldini, Diego O

    2014-05-01

    Information about the chemical profile of soybean seed is valuable for breeding programs aimed at obtaining value-added products to meet the demands of niche markets. The objective of this study was to determine seed composition of non-transgenic soybean genotypes with specialty characters in different environments of Argentina. Protein and oil contents ranged from 396 to 424 g kg⁻¹ and from 210 to 226 g kg⁻¹, respectively. Oleic and linolenic acid ratio, the general indicator of oil quality, varied from 2.7 to 3.8. The oil contained high levels of total tocopherols (1429-1558 mg kg⁻¹) and the meal exhibited high levels of total isoflavones (2.91-4.62 mg g⁻¹). The biplot showed that oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, γ-, δ- and total tocopherols, genistin, malonyl daidzin and genistin, acetyl daidzin and glycitin and total isoflavones allowed the greatest discrimination among the genotypes studied. Different chemical profiles of each non-transgenic genotype analyzed were established and, therefore, their identity was defined. These results are important for breeders who intend to obtain new genotypes with improved meal and oil quality, as well as for processors and exporters, who could use them directly as raw material for soyfood processing for nutraceutical purposes. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Lethal toxicity of industrial chemicals to early life stages of Tilapia guineensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezemonye, L I N; Ogeleka, D F; Okieimen, F E

    2008-08-30

    The toxic effects of industrial chemicals on three early life stages of an economically important fish, Tilapia guineensis were investigated using the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) # 203 recommended semi-static renewal bioassay. The assessment was necessary for the uncontrollable disposal of Neatex (liquid detergent) and Norust CR 486 (corrosion inhibitor) into the Niger Delta environment of Nigeria. The estimated 96-h LC(50) for 7-, 14- and 28-day-old fish in Norust CR 486 exposure was considered "more toxic" than Neatex in all life stages and was dependent on species age, exposure duration and environment. In the fresh water test, for Neatex and Norust CR 486 exposures for day 7, 14 and 28, the 96-h LC50 were 8.79, 17.10 and 82.42 mg/l and 5.55, 13.58 and 20.21 mg/l, respectively. In the brackish test, 15.42 and 46.52 mg/l, not determined (ND) and 7.35, 13.95 and 24.50mg/l were obtained. Differential toxicity was observed in the fresh and brackish water fish for the two chemicals and controls at pchemicals provides a rationale for regulatory surveillance and monitoring of both chemicals in the fragile Niger Delta environment.

  16. Sorghum as a renewable feedstock for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhuan P. Nghiem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable efforts have been made in the USA and other countries to develop renewable feedstocks for production of fuels and chemicals. Among these, sorghum has attracted strong interest because of its many good characteristics such as rapid growth and high sugar accumulation, high biomass production potential, excellent nitrogen usage efficiency, wide adaptability, drought resistance, and water lodging tolerance and salinity resistance. The ability to withstand severe drought conditions and its high water usage efficiency make sorghum a good renewable feedstock suitable for cultivation in arid regions, such as the southern US and many areas in Africa and Asia. Sorghum varieties include grain sorghum, sweet sorghum, and biomass sorghum. Grain sorghum, having starch content equivalent to corn, has been considered as a feedstock for ethanol production. Its tannin content, however, may cause problems during enzyme hydrolysis. Sweet sorghum juice contains sucrose, glucose and fructose, which are readily fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and hence is a good substrate for ethanol fermentation. The enzyme invertase, however, needs to be added to convert sucrose to glucose and fructose if the juice is used for production of industrial chemicals in fermentation processes that employ microorganisms incapable of metabolizing sucrose. Biomass sorghum requires pretreatment prior to enzymatic hydrolysis to generate fermentable sugars to be used in the subsequent fermentation process. This report reviews the current knowledge on bioconversion of sorghum to fuels and chemicals and identifies areas that deserve further studies.

  17. PENERAPAN ANALISIS SWOC DALAM RENCANA STRATEGIS PENDIDIKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardianto -

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisis SWOC merupakan salah satu langkah yang bisa diambil dalam membuat sebuah rencana strategis pendidikan. Analisis ini dilakukan untuk melihat secara mendalam situasi internal dan eksternal organisasi. Situasi internal yang dilihat adalah kekuatan (Strenghts dan kelemahan (Weaknesses organisasi pendidikan. Situasi eksternal berupa peluang (Opportinities dan tantangan (Challenges. Untuk membuat sebuah rencana strategis yang baik dapat dilakukan dengan menganalisis setiap kekuatan, kelemahan, peluang dan tantangan. Teknik kartu salju (snow card bisa digunakan dalam melakukan analisis SWOC. Hasil analisis tersebut nantinya akan melahirkan kombinasi strategi kekuatan-peluang, kekuatan-tantangan, kelemahan-peluang dan kelemahan-tantangan.

  18. ANALISIS STRATEGI PENANGANAN RISIKO KEKURANGAN PASOKAN PADA INDUSTRI PENGOLAHAN RUMPUT LAUT: KASUS DI SULAWESI SELATAN (A Risk Handling Strategy for Supply Shortage in Seaweed Agro-Industry: A Case in South Celebes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarinah Sarinah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available production processes. It is critical in the sense that it can be employed to identify any potential risks before they be used to reduce the potential shortage of dried seaweed supply needed by PT XYZ using pemasok selection. This supply chain model. The best selected suppliers were determined through assessing different assigned weights to the criteria and sub-criteria constructed in a Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP tree. PT XYZ is an alkali treated cottoni (ATC chips and SRC powder supplier network with low risk supply chain partnership. Keywords: Supplier selection, supply chain risk management, MFMEA, AHP   ABSTRAK   Strategi penanganan risiko kekurangan pasokan merupakan upaya untuk mengurangi terjadinya risiko kekurangan bahan baku rumput laut kering untuk kebutuhan industri rumput laut di PT XYZ dengan melakukan pemilih pemasok. Manajemen risiko rantai pasokan memainkan peran yang lebih penting daripada sebelumnya. Perusahaan harus fokus itu, naskah ini mengusulkan metode  risiko dari perspektif tiap risiko rantai pasokan dan memilih pemasok dengan menerapkan metode (AHP untuk menentukan bobot masing-masing kriteria dan sub-kriteria untuk pemilihan pemasok PT XYZ adalah industri pengolahan rumput laut dalam bentuk alkali treated cottonii (ATC-Chips dan SRC . Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa perusahaan memdapatkan pemasok yang lebih efektif dan pada saat yang sama mendapatkan mitra rantai pasokan yang berisiko rendah. Kata kunci: Pemilihan pemasok, manajemen risiko rantai pasok, MFMEA, AHP

  19. Assessing potential forest and steel inter-industry residue utilisation by sequential chemical extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makela, M.

    2012-10-15

    Traditional process industries in Finland and abroad are facing an emerging waste disposal problem due recent regulatory development which has increased the costs of landfill disposal and difficulty in acquiring new sites. For large manufacturers, such as the forest and ferrous metals industries, symbiotic cooperation of formerly separate industrial sectors could enable the utilisation waste-labeled residues in manufacturing novel residue-derived materials suitable for replacing commercial virgin alternatives. Such efforts would allow transforming the current linear resource use and disposal models to more cyclical ones and thus attain savings in valuable materials and energy resources. The work described in this thesis was aimed at utilising forest and carbon steel industry residues in the experimental manufacture of novel residue-derived materials technically and environmentally suitable for amending agricultural or forest soil properties. Single and sequential chemical extractions were used to compare the pseudo-total concentrations of trace elements in the manufactured amendment samples to relevant Finnish statutory limit values for the use of fertilizer products and to assess respective potential availability under natural conditions. In addition, the quality of analytical work and the suitability of sequential extraction in the analysis of an industrial solid sample were respectively evaluated through the analysis of a certified reference material and by X-ray diffraction of parallel sequential extraction residues. According to the acquired data, the incorporation of both forest and steel industry residues, such as fly ashes, lime wastes, green liquor dregs, sludges and slags, led to amendment liming capacities (34.9-38.3%, Ca equiv., d.w.) comparable to relevant commercial alternatives. Only the first experimental samples showed increased concentrations of pseudo-total cadmium and chromium, of which the latter was specified as the trivalent Cr(III). Based on

  20. Trends in the energy use in the Mexican industrial sector; Tendencias del uso de la energia en el sector industrial mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum, C. [UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Jauregui, I. [CONAE, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an analysis of the trends of the energy use for the industry in Mexico. For the various industrial branches (mining, construction, chemical, sugar, cement, paper and cellulose and glass) the changes in energy intensity (measured as the use of the energy divided by the aggregated value) and in the participation of the same in the industrial Internal Gross Product are presented. This is developed by means of the analysis of Laspeyress exchange indexes. It is found that in most of the industrial branches a reduction of the energy density has been originated. The reasons for the falling of this indicator are structural and of technological change nature, depending on the industrial branch. Nevertheless the classical analysis of the Laspeyress indexes is not sufficient to explain the changes occurred in the energy intensity in the Mexican industry for the last years. [Espanol] Este articulo presenta un analisis de las tendencias del uso de la energia para la industria en Mexico. Para las diversas ramas industriales (mineria, construccion, quimica, azucar, cemento, papel y celulosa y vidrio) se presentan los cambios en la intensidad energetica (medida como uso de la energia entre valor agregado) y en la participacion de las mismas en el Producto Interno Bruto (PIB) industrial. Esto se desarrolla por medio del analisis de indices de cambio de Laspeyress. Se encuentra que en la mayoria de las ramas industriales hubo una disminucion en la intensidad energetica. Las razones de la caida de este indicador son estructurales y de cambio tecnologico dependiendo de la rama industrial. Sin embargo el analisis clasico de los indices de Laspeyress es insuficiente para explicar los cambios ocurridos en la intensidad energetica de la industria mexicana para los ultimos anos.

  1. Trends in the energy use in the Mexican industrial sector; Tendencias del uso de la energia en el sector industrial mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum, C [UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Jauregui, I [CONAE, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents an analysis of the trends of the energy use for the industry in Mexico. For the various industrial branches (mining, construction, chemical, sugar, cement, paper and cellulose and glass) the changes in energy intensity (measured as the use of the energy divided by the aggregated value) and in the participation of the same in the industrial Internal Gross Product are presented. This is developed by means of the analysis of Laspeyress exchange indexes. It is found that in most of the industrial branches a reduction of the energy density has been originated. The reasons for the falling of this indicator are structural and of technological change nature, depending on the industrial branch. Nevertheless the classical analysis of the Laspeyress indexes is not sufficient to explain the changes occurred in the energy intensity in the Mexican industry for the last years. [Espanol] Este articulo presenta un analisis de las tendencias del uso de la energia para la industria en Mexico. Para las diversas ramas industriales (mineria, construccion, quimica, azucar, cemento, papel y celulosa y vidrio) se presentan los cambios en la intensidad energetica (medida como uso de la energia entre valor agregado) y en la participacion de las mismas en el Producto Interno Bruto (PIB) industrial. Esto se desarrolla por medio del analisis de indices de cambio de Laspeyress. Se encuentra que en la mayoria de las ramas industriales hubo una disminucion en la intensidad energetica. Las razones de la caida de este indicador son estructurales y de cambio tecnologico dependiendo de la rama industrial. Sin embargo el analisis clasico de los indices de Laspeyress es insuficiente para explicar los cambios ocurridos en la intensidad energetica de la industria mexicana para los ultimos anos.

  2. Metabolic engineering of strains: from industrial-scale to lab-scale chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Alper, Hal S

    2015-03-01

    A plethora of successful metabolic engineering case studies have been published over the past several decades. Here, we highlight a collection of microbially produced chemicals using a historical framework, starting with titers ranging from industrial scale (more than 50 g/L), to medium-scale (5-50 g/L), and lab-scale (0-5 g/L). Although engineered Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae emerge as prominent hosts in the literature as a result of well-developed genetic engineering tools, several novel native-producing strains are gaining attention. This review catalogs the current progress of metabolic engineering towards production of compounds such as acids, alcohols, amino acids, natural organic compounds, and others.

  3. Plasma for electrification of chemical industry: a case study on CO2 reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, G. J.; Akse, H. N.; Bongers, W. A.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2018-01-01

    Significant growth of the share of (intermittent) renewable power in the chemical industry is imperative to meet increasingly stricter limits on CO2 exhaust that are being implemented within Europe. This paper aims to evaluate the potential of a plasma process that converts input CO2 into a pure stream of CO to aid in renewable energy penetration in this sector. A realistic process design is constructed to serve as a basis for an economical analysis. The manufacturing cost price of CO is estimated at 1.2 kUS ton-1 CO. A sensitivity analysis shows that separation is the dominant cost factor, so that improving conversion is currently more effective to lower the price than e.g. energy efficiency.

  4. Development of an Electrolyte CPA Equation of state for Applications in the Petroleum and Chemical Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn

    to the CPA EoS in the absence of electrolytes, making it possible to extend the applicability of the CPA EoS while retaining backwards compatibility and resuing the parameters for non-electrolyte systems . There are many challenges related to thermodynamic modeling of mixtures containing electrolytes......This thesis extends the Cubic Plus Association (CPA) equation of state (EoS) to handle mixtures containing ions from fully dissociated salts. The CPA EoS has during the past 18 years been applied to thermodynamic modeling of a wide range of industrially important chemicals, mainly in relation...... rarely been applied to all types of thermodynamic equilibrium calculations relevant to electrolyte solutions. This project has aimed to determine the best recipe to deliver a complete thermodynamic model capable of handling electrolytes in mixed solvents and at a wide range of temperature and pressure...

  5. Biological conversion of carbon dioxide and hydrogen into liquid fuels and industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Aaron S; McTernan, Patrick M; Lian, Hong; Kelly, Robert M; Adams, Michael W W

    2013-06-01

    Non-photosynthetic routes for biological fixation of carbon dioxide into valuable industrial chemical precursors and fuels are moving from concept to reality. The development of 'electrofuel'-producing microorganisms leverages techniques in synthetic biology, genetic and metabolic engineering, as well as systems-level multi-omic analysis, directed evolution, and in silico modeling. Electrofuel processes are being developed for a range of microorganisms and energy sources (e.g. hydrogen, formate, electricity) to produce a variety of target molecules (e.g. alcohols, terpenes, alkenes). This review examines the current landscape of electrofuel projects with a focus on hydrogen-utilizing organisms covering the biochemistry of hydrogenases and carbonic anhydrases, kinetic and energetic analyses of the known carbon fixation pathways, and the state of genetic systems for current and prospective electrofuel-producing microorganisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ESTIMATION OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE SAFETY BY THE “CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND” INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kayshev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the indices of industrial waste safety including distillers grains is chemical oxygen demand (COD, and its value (53591÷64184 mg O/dm3 shows that it can be considered as unsustainable waste. This high value of COD is conditioned by the absence of toxins in distillers grains, and by concentration of biologically active substances after which isolation the distillers grains index lowers by 74%. This allows considering the distillers grains as environmentally safe. The results received evidence the necessity for consideration of COD index only as an index of oxidized substances, but not the criteria of waste pollution.

  7. Materials of 47. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Scientific assemblies of Polish Chemical Society are the most important chemical meeting organised annually in Poland. Basic as well as application studies in all chemical branches have been extensively presented. The next subjects was proposed as scientific sessions and symposia topics: organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, technology and chemical engineering, polymer chemistry, solid state chemistry, catalysis, biological chemistry, chemistry and technology of coal, environmental protection, didactics of chemistry, history of chemistry, young scientist forum

  8. Analisis Cadangan Devisa Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusia Bunga Uli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to determine the relationship between variables export, import, and exchange rate against Foreign Exchange Reserves in Indonesia. The data used in the empirical study of a sequence of data monthly time of year 2011.01 through 2014.12 from Bank Indonesia and the Central Statistics Agency (BPS. The analysis tool used is Auto Regression Vector Model (VAR. The results of this study indicate that the one-way relationship between the variables of foreign reserves and export. Then one-way relationship between exchange rate and exports. Lastly, there is a two-way relationship between imports and foreign exchange reserves, two-way relationship between exchange rate and foreign exchange reserves, two-way relationship between imports and exports, two-way relationship between the exchange rate and imports. The results also showed foreign exchange reserves are significantly influenced by the movement itself at a probability of 1 %. Export variable negative and not significantly affect the foreign exchange reserves. While imports of positive and not significant to the foreign exchange reserves. Foreign Exchange Reserves Indonesia is positively influenced by the exchange rate and not significant. Keywords: Foreign exchange reserves, exports, imports, exchange rate   Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui seberapa keterkaitan antar variabel ekspor, impor, dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap Cadangan Devisa Indonesia. Data yang digunakan dalam kajian empiris ini merupakan data runtutaan waktu bulanan dari tahun 2011.01 sampai 2014. 12 yang berasal dari Bank Indonesia dan Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS. Alat analisis yang digunakan yaitu Vector Autoregression Model (VAR. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa hubungan searah antara variabel cadangan devisa ke ekspor. Lalu hubungan searah antara kurs terhadap ekspor Terakhir, terdapat hubungan dua arah antara impor dan cadangan devisa, hubungan dua arah antara kurs dan cadangan

  9. Chemical properties of soils treated with biological sludge from gelatin industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Melo Guimarães

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of agro-industrial organic wastes in the environment can be reduced when used in agriculture. From the standpoint of soil fertility, residue applications can increase the organic matter content and provide nutrients for plants. This study evaluated the effect of biological sludge from gelatin industry on the chemical properties of two Ultisols (loamy sand and sandy clay and an Oxisol (clay. The experiment lasted 120 days and was carried out in laboratory in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement, combining the three soils and six biological sludge rates (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 m³ ha-1, with three replications. Biological sludge rates of up to 500 m³ ha-1 decreased soil acidity and increased the effective cation exchange capacity (CEC and N, Ca, Mg, and P availability, without exceeding the tolerance limit for Na. The increase in exchangeable base content, greater than the effective CEC, indicates that the major part of cations added by the sludge remains in solution and can be lost by leaching.

  10. The 'PROCESO' index: a new methodology for the evaluation of operational safety in the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marono, M.; Pena, J.A.; Santamaria, J.

    2006-01-01

    The acknowledgement of industrial installations as complex systems in the early 1980s outstands as a milestone in the path to operational safety. Process plants are social-technical complex systems of a dynamic nature, whose properties depend not only on their components, but also on the inter-relations among them. A comprehensive assessment of operational safety requires a systemic approach, i.e. an integrated framework that includes all the relevant factors influencing safety. Risk analysis methodologies and safety management systems head the list of methods that point in this direction, but they normally require important plant resources. As a consequence, their use is frequently restricted to especially dangerous processes often driven by compliance with legal requirements. In this work a new safety index for the chemical industry, termed the 'Proceso' Index (standing for the Spanish terms for PROCedure for the Evaluation of Operational Safety), has been developed. PROCESO is based on the principles of systems theory, has a tree-like structure and considers 25 areas to guide the review of plant safety. The method uses indicators whose respective weight values have been obtained via an expert judgement technique. This paper describes the steps followed to develop this new Operational Safety Index, explains its structure and illustrates its application to process plants

  11. Extremely Thermophilic Microorganisms as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Production of Fuels and Industrial Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Zeldes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes from extremely thermophilic microorganisms have been of technological interest for some time because of their ability to catalyze reactions of industrial significance at elevated temperatures. Thermophilic enzymes are now routinely produced in recombinant mesophilic hosts for use as discrete biocatalysts. Genome and metagenome sequence data for extreme thermophiles provide useful information for putative biocatalysts for a wide range of biotransformations, albeit involving at most a few enzymatic steps. However, in the past several years, unprecedented progress has been made in establishing molecular genetics tools for extreme thermophiles to the point that the use of these microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms has become possible. While in its early days, complex metabolic pathways have been altered or engineered into recombinant extreme thermophiles, such that the production of fuels and chemicals at elevated temperatures has become possible. Not only does this expand the thermal range for industrial biotechnology, it also potentially provides biodiverse options for specific biotransformations unique to these microorganisms. The list of extreme thermophiles growing optimally between 70 and 100°C with genetic toolkits currently available includes archaea and bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, coming from genera such as Caldicellulosiruptor, Sulfolobus, Thermotoga, Thermococcus and Pyrococcus. These organisms exhibit unusual and potentially useful native metabolic capabilities, including cellulose degradation, metal solubilization, and RuBisCO-free carbon fixation. Those looking to design a thermal bioprocess now have a host of potential candidates to choose from, each with its own advantages and challenges that will influence its appropriateness for specific applications. Here, the issues and opportunities for extremely thermophilic metabolic engineering platforms are considered with an eye towards potential technological

  12. Extremely thermophilic microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeldes, Benjamin M.; Keller, Matthew W.; Loder, Andrew J.; Straub, Christopher T.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes from extremely thermophilic microorganisms have been of technological interest for some time because of their ability to catalyze reactions of industrial significance at elevated temperatures. Thermophilic enzymes are now routinely produced in recombinant mesophilic hosts for use as discrete biocatalysts. Genome and metagenome sequence data for extreme thermophiles provide useful information for putative biocatalysts for a wide range of biotransformations, albeit involving at most a few enzymatic steps. However, in the past several years, unprecedented progress has been made in establishing molecular genetics tools for extreme thermophiles to the point that the use of these microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms has become possible. While in its early days, complex metabolic pathways have been altered or engineered into recombinant extreme thermophiles, such that the production of fuels and chemicals at elevated temperatures has become possible. Not only does this expand the thermal range for industrial biotechnology, it also potentially provides biodiverse options for specific biotransformations unique to these microorganisms. The list of extreme thermophiles growing optimally between 70 and 100°C with genetic toolkits currently available includes archaea and bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, coming from genera such as Caldicellulosiruptor, Sulfolobus, Thermotoga, Thermococcus, and Pyrococcus. These organisms exhibit unusual and potentially useful native metabolic capabilities, including cellulose degradation, metal solubilization, and RuBisCO-free carbon fixation. Those looking to design a thermal bioprocess now have a host of potential candidates to choose from, each with its own advantages and challenges that will influence its appropriateness for specific applications. Here, the issues and opportunities for extremely thermophilic metabolic engineering platforms are considered with an eye toward potential technological advantages for high

  13. Nature and prevalence of non-additive toxic effects in industrially relevant mixtures of organic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Shahid; Venkataraman, Chandra; Mukherji, Suparna

    2009-06-01

    The concentration addition (CA) and the independent action (IA) models are widely used for predicting mixture toxicity based on its composition and individual component dose-response profiles. However, the prediction based on these models may be inaccurate due to interaction among mixture components. In this work, the nature and prevalence of non-additive effects were explored for binary, ternary and quaternary mixtures composed of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs). The toxicity of each individual component and mixture was determined using the Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition assay. For each combination of chemicals specified by the 2(n) factorial design, the percent deviation of the predicted toxic effect from the measured value was used to characterize mixtures as synergistic (positive deviation) and antagonistic (negative deviation). An arbitrary classification scheme was proposed based on the magnitude of deviation (d) as: additive (50%, class-IV) antagonistic/synergistic. Naphthalene, n-butanol, o-xylene, catechol and p-cresol led to synergism in mixtures while 1, 2, 4-trimethylbenzene and 1, 3-dimethylnaphthalene contributed to antagonism. Most of the mixtures depicted additive or antagonistic effect. Synergism was prominent in some of the mixtures, such as, pulp and paper, textile dyes, and a mixture composed of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. The organic chemical industry mixture depicted the highest abundance of antagonism and least synergism. Mixture toxicity was found to depend on partition coefficient, molecular connectivity index and relative concentration of the components.

  14. Computational screening of functional groups for capture of toxic industrial chemicals in porous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Chul; Fairen-Jimenez, David; Snurr, Randall Q

    2017-12-06

    A thermodynamic analysis using quantum chemical methods was carried out to identify optimal functional group candidates that can be included in metal-organic frameworks and activated carbons for the selective capture of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in humid air. We calculated the binding energies of 14 critical TICs plus water with a series of 10 functional groups attached to a naphthalene ring model. Using vibrational calculations, the free energies of adsorption were calculated in addition to the binding energies. Our results show that, in these systems, the binding energies and free energies follow similar trends. We identified copper(i) carboxylate as the optimal functional group (among those studied) for the selective binding of the majority of the TICs in humid air, and this functional group exhibits especially strong binding for sulfuric acid. Further thermodynamic analysis shows that the presence of water weakens the binding strength of sulfuric acid with the copper carboxylate group. Our calculations predict that functionalization of aromatic rings would be detrimental to selective capture of COCl 2 , CO 2 , and Cl 2 under humid conditions. Finally, we found that forming an ionic complex, H 3 O + HSO 4 - , between H 2 SO 4 and H 2 O via proton transfer is not favorable on copper carboxylate.

  15. Physico-chemical characterization of banana varieties resistant to black leaf streak disease for industrial purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Catie Bueno de Godoy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cultivated bananas have very low genetic diversity making them vulnerable to diseases such as black-Sigatoka leaf spot. However, the decision to adopt a new banana variety needs to be based on a robust evaluation of agronomical and physical-chemical characteristics. Here, we characterize new banana varieties resistant to black-Sigatoka leaf spot and compare them to the most widely used traditional variety (Grand Naine. Each variety was evaluated for a range of physic-chemical attributes associated with industrial processing and flavor: pH, TTA, TSS/TTA, total sugars, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars, humidity, total solids and yield. The Thap Maeo variety had the highest potential as a substitute for the Grand Naine variety, having higher levels of total soluble solids, reducing sugars, total sugars and humidity. The Caipira and FHIA 2 varieties also performed well in comparison with the Grand Naine variety. Cluster analysis indicated that the Grand Naine variety was closely associated with varieties from the Gross Michel subgroup (Bucaneiro, Ambrosia and Calipso and the Caipira variety, all of which come from the same AAA genomic group. It was concluded that several of the new resistant varieties could potentially substitute the traditional variety in areas affected by black-Sigatoka leaf spot disease.

  16. Residential tap water contamination following the Freedom Industries chemical spill: perceptions, water quality, and health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Andrew J; McMillan, LaKia; Connell, Matt; Kelley, Keven M; Gill, Jeff P; White, Kevin D; Gupta, Rahul; Dey, Rajarshi; Novy, Caroline

    2015-01-20

    During January 2014, an industrial solvent contaminated West Virginia’s Elk River and 15% of the state population’s tap water. A rapid in-home survey and water testing was conducted 2 weeks following the spill to understand resident perceptions, tap water chemical levels, and premise plumbing flushing effectiveness. Water odors were detected in all 10 homes sampled before and after premise plumbing flushing. Survey and medical data indicated flushing caused adverse health impacts. Bench-scale experiments and physiochemical property predictions showed flushing promoted chemical volatilization, and contaminants did not appreciably sorb into cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipe. Flushing reduced tap water 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol (4-MCHM) concentrations within some but not all homes. 4-MCHM was detected at unflushed (waters contained less 4-MCHM than the 1000 μg/L Centers for Disease Control drinking water limit, but one home exceeded the 120 μg/L drinking water limit established by independent toxicologists. Nearly all households refused to resume water use activities after flushing because of water safety concerns. Science based flushing protocols should be developed to expedite recovery, minimize health impacts, and reduce concentrations in homes when future events occur.

  17. Sampling and chemical analysis of smoke gas components from the SP Industry Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maansson, M.; Blomqvist, P.; Isaksson, I.; Rosell, L.

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the sampling and chemical analyses of smoke gas components for combustion performed in the SP Industry Calorimeter, where continuous measurements of oxygen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are an integrated part of the Calorimeter system. On-line measurements of nitrogen oxides and total amounts of unburnt hydrocarbons were performed. Hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride and ammonia in the smoke were sampled and absorbed in impinger bottles and subsequently analyzed using wet chemical techniques. An adsorbent sampling system was designed to allow the identification and quantitative analysis of individual organic compounds in the smoke. Gas chromatography was utilized with a mass spectrometric detector for the identification and a FID for quantification of the total amounts as well as individual components. A procedure for cleaning the smoke gas duct in between the combustion experiments was designed and found to be effective. The materials studied were Nylon 66, polypropylene, polystyrene (with and without fire retardant), PVC, and chlorobenzene. A total of 19 large-scale tests were carried out. The mass of sample burnt ranged from 20 kg to 125 kg in an experiment. 14 refs, 11 tabs

  18. Pollution control in pulp and paper industrial effluents using integrated chemical-biological treatment sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bestawy, Ebtesam; El-Sokkary, Ibrahim; Hussein, Hany; Keela, Alaa Farouk Abu

    2008-11-01

    The main objective of the present study was to improve the quality of pulp and paper industrial wastewater of two local mills RAKTA and El-Ahlia, Alexandria, Egypt, and to bring their pollutant contents to safe discharge levels. Quality improvement was carried out using integrated chemical and biological treatment approaches after their optimization. Chemical treatment (alum, lime, and ferric chloride) was followed by oxidation using hydrogen peroxide and finally biological treatment using activated sludge (90 min for RAKTA and 60 min for El-Ahlia effluents). Chemical coagulation produced low-quality effluents, while pH adjustment during coagulation treatment did not enhance the quality of the effluents. Maximum removal of the tested pollutants was achieved using the integrated treatment and the pollutants recorded residual concentrations (RCs) of 34.67, 17.33, 0.13, and 0.43 mg/l and 15.0, 11.0, 0.0, and 0.13 mg/l for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), tannin and lignin, and silica in RAKTA and El-Ahlia effluents, respectively, all of which were below their maximum permissible limits (MPLs) for the safe discharge into water courses. Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) and sludge volume index (SVI) values reflect good conditions and healthy activated sludge. Based on the previous results, optimized conditions were applied as bench scale on the raw effluents of RAKTA and El-Ahlia via the batch chemical and the biological treatment sequences proposed. For RAKTA effluents, the sequence was as follows: (1) coagulation with 375 mg/l FeCl3, (2) oxidation with 50 mg/l hydrogen peroxide, and (3) biological treatment using activated sludge with 2,000 mg/l initial concentration and 90 min hydraulic retention time (HRT), while for El-Ahlia raw effluents, the sequence was (1) coagulation with 250 mg/l FeCl3, (2) oxidation with 45 mg/l hydrogen peroxide, and (3) biological treatment using activated sludge with 2,000 mg/l initial concentration and 60

  19. EDXRF applied to the chemical characterization of domestic and industrial sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Gleyce Kelly A. da; Dutra, Emmanuel Damiliano; França, Elvis J. de

    2017-01-01

    The Energy Dispersion X-ray Fluorescence – EDXRF is a low-cost, fast, non-destructible analytical technique, useful for analyzing diverse geological samples. The determination of chemical elements by EDXRF in solid urban wastes is economic and operationally feasible, since the concentration of many heavy metals can be easily monitored. Besides, chemical elements as aluminum and some minerals that compose important natural cycles add valuable information for deciding the final destination of these wastes. The objective of this work was the obtaining the analytical curves for quantifying chemical elements by EDXRF in sewage sludge. For this, analytical portions (1 g) of the certified reference materials SRM 2781 Domestic Sludge and SRM 2782 Industrial Sludge produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were transferred to polyethylene tubes and sealed at the top and bottom with polypropylene film specific for EDXRF analysis. Exactly 500 mg of each of the above SRMs were mixed by means of a ball mill for composing the SRM MIX, also analyzed for obtaining the analytical curves. All samples were analyzed in an atmosphere close to the vacuum (less than 30 Pa), with dead time less than 35%. For Al, As, Cu, Fe, K, Ni, Pb, Si, Ti and Zn, linear regressions have been fitted with respective linear coefficients higher than 0.95. To evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure, an independent test portion of the reference material SRM 2781 Sludge Domestic was used, calculating the Number En obtaining values between -1 and 1, range considered adequate for the quality assurance at the 95% confidence level. (author)

  20. [Physical and chemical characterization of industrial nixtamalized corn flour for human consumption in Central America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressani, R; Turcios, J C; Reyes, L; Mérida, R

    2001-09-01

    The objective of this study was the characterization of industrial nixtamalized maize flour for human consumption and which are marketed in Central America for some selected physical and chemical properties which may contribute to food composition information and help nutrition and micronutrient fortification programs. A total of 12 brands purchased in triplicate were obtained from supermarkets in Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras. These samples were kept under refrigeration until analyzed. The physical parameters measured and results were the following: particle size with most samples having a high percentage of particles greater than 60 mesh, pH (5.4-7.5), water absorption index (WAI) (3.4-4.0 g gel/g sample), water soluble index (WSI) (4.8-7.8 g/100 g) and flour density (0.410-0.547 g/ml). The differences were statistically significant for all parameters measured, except for WAI. The chemical characteristics included, moisture, protein, fat, ash and dietetic fiber. Differences between flour samples were statistically significant except for fat content. Protein content was low, ranging between 6.7-8.1 g/100 g and total dietary fiber varied between 7.7-12.0 g/100 g. The samples were analyzed for phytic acid with a variation from 632 to 903 mg/100 g, with statistical significant differences. The samples were also analyzed for total and soluble (pH 7.5) iron, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, zinc, copper, manganese, and magnesium. The difference in the iron and calcium content between flour samples were statistically significant. The physical and chemical variability found between flour samples of nixtamalized maize was relatively high and it is recommended to establish quality standards through raw material and process standardization for greater effectiveness of nutrition programs and activities on micronutrient fortification which may be pursued in the future.

  1. EDXRF applied to the chemical characterization of domestic and industrial sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Gleyce Kelly A. da; Dutra, Emmanuel Damiliano, E-mail: gleyce_kelly990@hotmail.com, E-mail: emmanuel.dutra@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); França, Elvis J. de, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The Energy Dispersion X-ray Fluorescence – EDXRF is a low-cost, fast, non-destructible analytical technique, useful for analyzing diverse geological samples. The determination of chemical elements by EDXRF in solid urban wastes is economic and operationally feasible, since the concentration of many heavy metals can be easily monitored. Besides, chemical elements as aluminum and some minerals that compose important natural cycles add valuable information for deciding the final destination of these wastes. The objective of this work was the obtaining the analytical curves for quantifying chemical elements by EDXRF in sewage sludge. For this, analytical portions (1 g) of the certified reference materials SRM 2781 Domestic Sludge and SRM 2782 Industrial Sludge produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were transferred to polyethylene tubes and sealed at the top and bottom with polypropylene film specific for EDXRF analysis. Exactly 500 mg of each of the above SRMs were mixed by means of a ball mill for composing the SRM MIX, also analyzed for obtaining the analytical curves. All samples were analyzed in an atmosphere close to the vacuum (less than 30 Pa), with dead time less than 35%. For Al, As, Cu, Fe, K, Ni, Pb, Si, Ti and Zn, linear regressions have been fitted with respective linear coefficients higher than 0.95. To evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure, an independent test portion of the reference material SRM 2781 Sludge Domestic was used, calculating the Number En obtaining values between -1 and 1, range considered adequate for the quality assurance at the 95% confidence level. (author)

  2. Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Soy Proteins for New Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda Fernandez, Julio Cesar

    Despite of being environmentally friendly, biocompatible, rich in chemical functionality and abundant as residual materials, soy proteins (SPs) are used for low added value applications. In this work, SPs were studied and used as potentially useful biomacromolecules for different industrial applications with high added value. Initially the effect of acid hydrolysis of soy proteins as a potential route for subsequent surface modification was studied, finding that SP hydrolysates tend to form less aggregates and to adsorb at faster rates compared with unmodified SP; nevertheless, it was also found that the amount of protein adsorbed and water contact angle of the treated surface does not change significantly. Secondly, the gel forming properties of SPs were used to produce aerogels with densities in the order of 0.1 g/cm3. To improve their mechanical properties, the reinforcement of these materials with cellulose nanofibers was studied, obtaining composite aerogels with SP loadings as high as ca. 70% that display a compression modulus of 4.4 MPa, very close to the value obtained from the pure nanofibers aerogels. The composite materials gain moisture (up to 5%) in equilibrium with 50% RH air. Futhermore, their physical integrity is unchanged upon immersion in polar and non-polar solvents, exhibiting sorption rates dependent on the aerogel composition, morphology and swelling abilities. Finally, different soy protein based products and derivatives were used to enhance the dry strength properties of wood fibers in paper production. Experiments using soy flour, soy protein isolate, soy protein isolate hydrolysates, cationized soy flour, and soy flour combined with cationic starch and chitosan were done, obtaining satisfactory results when soy protein flour was utilized in combination with conventional treatments involving cationic polymers. The current results confirm the opportunity to valorize residual soy products that are underutilized today as alternatives to oil

  3. An Integrative Model of the Strategic Management Accounting at the Enterprises of Chemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Vasilyevna Glushchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the issues of information and analytical support of strategic management enabling to take timely and high-quality management decisions, are extremely relevant. Conflicting and poor information, haphazard collected in the practice of large companies from unreliable sources, affects the effective implementation of their development strategies and carries the threat of risk, by the increasing instability of the external environment. Thus chemical industry is one of the central places in the industry of Russia and, of course, has its specificity in the formation of the informationsupport system. Such an information system suitable for the development and implementation of strategic directions, changes in recognized competitive advantages of strategic management accounting. The issues of the lack of requirements for strategic accounting information, its inconsistency in the result of simultaneous accumulation in different parts and using different methods of calculation and assessment of indicators is impossible without a well-constructed model of organization of strategic management accounting. The purpose of this study is to develop such a model, the implementation of which will allow realizing the possibility of achieving strategic goals by harmonizing information from the individual objects of the strategic account to increase the functional effectiveness of management decisions with a focus on strategy. Case study was based on dialectical logic and methods of system analysis, and identifying causal relationships in building a model of strategic management accounting that contributes to the forecasts of its development. The study proposed to implement an integrative model of organization of strategic management accounting. The purpose of a phased implementation of this model defines the objects and tools of strategic management accounting. Moreover, it is determined that from the point of view of increasing the usefulness of management

  4. Analisis Semiotik Sajak Bulang Cahaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Junaidi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan menggali makna tanda yang terdapat dalam sajak Bulang Cahaya karya Rida K Liamsi. Untuk menggali makna itu, pendekatan analisis semiotik Roland Barthes digunakan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sajak ini berisi tanda-tanda bersumber dari kosa kata Melayu lama. Sajak ini juga berisi simbol-simbol yang berkaitan dengan kehidupan orang Melayu. Penggunaan kata-kata Melayu lama dan simbol Melayu memperkuat setting Melayu dalam sajak ini. Analisis makna menunjukkan bahwa seseorang merasakan kedukaan sangat mendalam ketika cintanya harus berakhir, tetapi ia terus merasakan kerinduan dengan kekasihnya yang telah pergi. Mitos cinta yang terdapat dalam pusinya adalah orang tahu bahwa putus cinta itu menyakitkan tetapi orang tetap saja jatuh cinta.

  5. [Current status of hearing loss and related influencing factors in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S S; Yu, J N; He, C H; Mu, H X; Wang, C; Zhang, Y; Zhang, C Y; Yu, S F; Li, X L

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the current status of hearing loss and related influencing factors in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry. Methods: From August 2015 to March 2016, the investigation method of collecting the data of past occupational health examinations and measuring noise in working environment was used to enroll 8 672 male workers. Results: Of all workers, 11.6% were diagnosed with hearing loss. There were significant differences in the distribution of hearing impairment among workers exposed to noise at different ages, device types and types of work (χ(2)=17.80, 77.80 and 30.53, all P hearing loss in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry. Conclusion: The level of noise exposure and working years with noise exposure are main influencing factors for hearing loss in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry.

  6. Assessment of the impact of the European CO2 emissions trading scheme on the Portuguese chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomas, R.A.F.; Ramoa Ribeiro, F.; Santos, V.M.S.; Gomes, J.F.P.; Bordado, J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of the impact of the enforcement of the European carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions trading scheme on the Portuguese chemical industry, based on cost structure, CO 2 emissions, electricity consumption and allocated allowances data from a survey to four Portuguese representative units of the chemical industry sector, and considering scenarios that allow the estimation of increases on both direct and indirect production costs. These estimated cost increases were also compared with similar data from other European Industries, found in the references and with conclusions from simulation studies. Thus, it was possible to ascertain the impact of buying extra CO 2 emission permits, which could be considered as limited. It was also found that this impact is somewhat lower than the impacts for other industrial sectors.

  7. Physico-Chemical parameters and trace-metals concentration in effluents from various industries in vicinity of Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulfraz, M.; Ahmad, T.; Afzal, H.

    2003-01-01

    Increasing problem of pollution has become serious in almost all big cities of Pakistan. The industrial effluents (Liquid waste) discharged by different industries are drained into streams/nallahs, which ultimately join the waterways (streams, lakes, rivers or sea). The effluent samples from five industries, like Tanneries, Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals, Fertilizers and metal/electroplating, working in Lahore, Sheikhupura and Kalashahkaku were selected for analysis. The parameters, like Temperature, pH, conductivity, hardness, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, chemical oxygen demands, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, major cations (Na, K, Ca, Mg) and heavy/trace metals, were studied. The results were compared with National environmental Quality standards (NEQS). It was further observed that when effluents of industries join fresh water of stream, lakes or rivers, this causes severe water-pollution and damages the flora and fauna. Suggestions for effective control of water-pollution are also given. (author)

  8. Assessment of the impact of the European CO{sub 2} emissions trading scheme on the Portuguese chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, R.A.F. [Artenius Sines, Zona Industrial, 7520 Sines (Portugal); Ramoa Ribeiro, F.; Bordado, J.C.M. [Centro de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, IBB-Instituto de Biotecnologia e Bioengenharia, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, V.M.S. [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao, R. do Quelhas, 6, 1200-781 Lisboa (Portugal); Gomes, J.F.P. [Centro de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, IBB-Instituto de Biotecnologia e Bioengenharia, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, R. Conselheiro Emidio Navarro 1949-014 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-01-15

    This paper describes an assessment of the impact of the enforcement of the European carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions trading scheme on the Portuguese chemical industry, based on cost structure, CO{sub 2} emissions, electricity consumption and allocated allowances data from a survey to four Portuguese representative units of the chemical industry sector, and considering scenarios that allow the estimation of increases on both direct and indirect production costs. These estimated cost increases were also compared with similar data from other European Industries, found in the references and with conclusions from simulation studies. Thus, it was possible to ascertain the impact of buying extra CO{sub 2} emission permits, which could be considered as limited. It was also found that this impact is somewhat lower than the impacts for other industrial sectors. (author)

  9. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications.

  10. ANALISIS POSITIONING RESTORAN CEPAT SAJI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osa Omar Sharif

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti positioning restoran cepat saji McDonald's, Kentucky Fried Chicken, California Fried Chicken, A&W, dan Texas Chicken. Penelitian dilakukan di Kota Bandung dengan mengambil sebanyak 400 responden. Analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah analisis multidimensional scaling, analisis memberikan gambaran positioning dari restoran cepat saji yang ditampilkan dalam perceptual map. Restoran cepat saji yang memiliki layanan paling baik adalah McD dan yang memiliki layanan paling buruk adalah CFC. Restoran cepat saji yang memiliki rasa makanan paling enak adalah McD dan yang memiliki rasa makanan tidak enak adalah CFC. KFC dinilai paling ideal karena selalu berhasil menduduki peringkat satu dan dua jika dilihat dari sudut pandang restoran cepat saji yang lain. Pesaing terdekat McD adalah KFC. McD mendapatkan ranking pertama dari segi atribut layanan, kebersihan, variasi makanan, dan rasa makanan. Dengan posisi seperti ini McD seharusnya tetap menjaga kualitas layanan, kebersihan, variasi makanan, dan rasa makanan agar konsumen tetap memilih untuk datang ke McD. KFC sebaiknya tetap menjaga suasana yang membuat konsumen nyaman akan suasana di dalam atau diluar restoran

  11. Eco-chemical knowledge, behavior and engagement of workers employed in the mineral fertilizer industry in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetićanin Stanko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of environmental pollution is influenced by the knowledge, behavior and ecological engagement of both the individual and society. The mineral fertilizer industry represents a potential source of pollution. The issue examined in this study is the level of eco-chemical knowledge, behavior and ecological engagement of the workers employed in the mineral fertilizer industry in Novi Sad. We have concluded that the workers hover low level of knowledge, behavior and engagement. The results obtained could be used for the selection of methods to enhance the eco-chemical knowledge of the employees.

  12. Detection and reduction of diffuse liquid and gas emissions in chemical and petrochemical industries; Ermittlung und Verminderung diffuser fluessiger und gasfoermiger Emissionen in der chemischen und petrochemischen Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeppke, K.E. [Witten-Herdecke Univ. gGmbH, Witten (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Management; Cuhls, C. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik

    2002-09-01

    In order to improve environmental protection, VOC emissions from diffuse sources are of growing importance. For the first time in Germany the present research report gives a detailed presentation of: constructive measures for the avoidance and reduction of diffuse emissions, adequate assembling procedures for equipments and installations, technical possibilities of leak detection and, different methods for the estimation of total emissions from chemical and petrochemical production plants. On the basis of own investigations and monitoring measures taken at various plants of chemical and petrochemical industries different measuring techniques for leak detection as well as methods for the estimation of total emissions from diffuse sources are analysed and their limits are described. (orig.)

  13. Identifiksi Sebaran Litologi berdasarkan Analisis Data Resistivitas di Gunung Wungkal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Dzakiya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Analisis data untuk mengidentifikasi sebaran litologi yang memiliki potensi bahan galian industri di Daerah Gunung Wungkal Yogyakarta dengan menggunakan metode resistivitas dan survei geologi permukaan telah dilakukan. Hasil korelasi kedua data tersebut menunjukkan sebaran litologi merupakan pelapukan intrusi batuan beku yang kemudian menghasilkan material lempung (6,0-10 m, lempung pasiran (11-30 m dan lapukan batuan diorit (30-55 m yang berada di kedalaman berbeda. Ketebalan batuan di permukaan sekitar 225-231 meter berdasarkan penampang peta geologi dengan arah sebaran dari Barat Laut hingga Tenggara. Proses pelapukan dan alterasi di daerah ini intensif (alterasi argilik dengan jenis morfologi perbukitan intrusi terdenudasi dan dataran Alluvial.

  14. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  15. ANALISIS FINANSIAL DAN KELEMBAGAAN RANTAI NILAI MEBEL MAHONI JEPARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunung Parlinah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Industri mebel umumnya termasuk dalam industri kecil dan menengah. Selain berperan dalam penerimaan devisa, bisnis di bidang mebel ini juga menciptakan lapangan kerja bagi masyarakat terutama di Kabupaten Jepara. Adanya hubungan (pemberi kepercayaan - (penerima kepercayaan yang terjadi antar aktor atau pelaku di dalam rantai berpengaruh terhadap besarnya distribusi nilai tambah yang diperoleh oleh masingmasing pelaku di sepanjang rantai nilai Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengidentifikasi kelembagaan (aturan yang terjadi antar pelaku di sepanjang rantai nilai mebel mahoni Jepara dan menentukan skenario kebijakan yang dapat mendukung bagi kelestarian industri mebel Jepara. Data yang digunakan meliputi data primer dan data sekunder. Analisis data meliputi identifikasi aktor dan kelembagaan (aturan yang terjadi antar pelaku serta analisis manfaat biaya yang terdiri dari NVP, BCR dan IRR. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa (1 para pengrajin ( memproduksi mebelnya lebih didasarkan pada pesanan pembeli ( . agent principal Asymetic information yang terjadi antara pedagang kayu dan petani juga telah mengakibatkan posisi petani sebagai (2 Nilai NPV, BCRdan IRR untuk tiap pelaku berbeda-beda tetapi nilai-nilai tersebut mengindikasikan bahwa pola kemitraan yang terjadi antar pelaku dalam rantai nilai mebel mahoni saat ini sudah efektif. Skenario kebijakan yang dapat diterapkan adalah kebijakan yang bersifat insentif bagi petani hutan rakyat, peningkatan kemampuan pengrajin di bidang pemasaran; dan membangun aksi kolektif diantara pengrajin. price taker;

  16. R&D Cooperation and Knowledge Spillover Effects for Sustainable Business Innovation in the Chemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Hájek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of research and development (R&D cooperation on the creation of spillover effects for sustainable firms in the chemical industry. We explore the evidence for the origin of knowledge spillovers derived from cooperation amongst firms and universities and R&D organizations as well as to test the influence of internal/external financial support on these effects. The results confirm that when firms acquire knowledge from internal sources, this leads to increased innovation and sustainable performance. We have proved that internal expenditure results in increased internal knowledge spillovers. These findings may be specific for Central and Eastern (CEE transition countries, indicating their efforts to build path-dependent structures based on knowledge institutions and businesses as well as knowledge networks. However, this study also provides a more “global” contribution to the knowledge spillover effect theory. It shows that a firm’s cooperation both with universities and with other firms promotes different types of knowledge spillovers and can affect diverse modes of sustainable activities in innovation.

  17. Development and Field Trial of Dimpled-Tube Technology for Chemical Industry Process Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaroslav Chudnovsky; Aleksandr Kozlov

    2006-10-12

    Most approaches to increasing heat transfer rates in the convection sections of gas-fired process heaters involve the incorporation of fins, baffles, turbulizers, etc. to increase either the heat transfer surface area or turbulence or both. Although these approaches are effective in increasing the heat transfer rates, this increase is invariably accompanied by an associated increase in convection section pressure drop as well as, for heaters firing ‘dirty’ fuel mixtures, increased fouling of the tubes – both of which are highly undesirable. GTI has identified an approach that will increase heat transfer rates without a significant increase in pressure drop or fouling rate. Compared to other types of heat transfer enhancement approaches, the proposed dimpled tube approach achieves very high heat transfer rates at the lowest pressure drops. Incorporating this approach into convection sections of chemical industry fired process heaters may increase energy efficiency by 3-5%. The energy efficiency increase will allow reducing firing rates to provide the required heating duty while reducing the emissions of CO2 and NOx.

  18. Concept for Recycling Waste Biomass from the Sugar Industry for Chemical and Biotechnological Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modelska, Magdalena; Berlowska, Joanna; Kregiel, Dorota; Cieciura, Weronika; Antolak, Hubert; Tomaszewska, Jolanta; Binczarski, Michał; Szubiakiewicz, Elzbieta; Witonska, Izabela A

    2017-09-13

    The objective of this study was to develop a method for the thermally-assisted acidic hydrolysis of waste biomass from the sugar industry (sugar beet pulp and leaves) for chemical and biotechnological purposes. The distillates, containing furfural, can be catalytically reduced directly into furfurayl alcohol or tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. The sugars present in the hydrolysates can be converted by lactic bacteria into lactic acid, which, by catalytic reduction, leads to propylene glycol. The sugars may also be utilized by microorganisms in the process of cell proliferation, and the biomass obtained used as a protein supplement in animal feed. Our study also considered the effects of the mode and length of preservation (fresh, ensilage, and drying) on the yields of furfural and monosaccharides. The yield of furfural in the distillates was measured using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The content of monosaccharides in the hydrolysates was measured spectrophotometrically using enzymatic kits. Biomass preserved under all tested conditions produced high yields of furfural, comparable to those for fresh material. Long-term storage of ensiled waste biomass did not result in loss of furfural productivity. However, there were significant reductions in the amounts of monosaccharides in the hydrolysates.

  19. Physico-chemical studies of effluents and emission of ghee/edible oil industries in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.; Ali, S.; Jan, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of the effluents from various Ghee/Edible Oil Industries were collected on fortnightly basis from July 1993 to June 1994 and the emissions from January to April 1994. Parameters such as temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), total alkalinity total acidity, total hardness, chemical oxygen demand (COD). chlorides, sulphates, phosphates, silica, calcium magnesium, sodium, and iron were determined in the effluents, Trace metals like copper, manganese, nickel, and zinc were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas SO/sub 2/, CO CO/sub 2/, hydrocarbons, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and argon were examined in the flue gases by Gas Chromatography and other standard techniques such as Orsat Gas Analyzer and Dragger Detection Tubes. Remedial measures were suggested for the pollutants exceeding the National Environmental Quality Standards, (NEQS). Parameters like chlorine, ammonia, sulphides, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead and tin were also analyzed in the effluents and were found to be nil or below the detection limit, while particulate matters, HCl, chlorine, HF, H/sub 2/S, mercaptans and NH/sub 3/ were found to be nil in the flue gases. (author)

  20. A study on manufacturing technology of materials for fine chemical industry use (muscovite, sericite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jung-Il; Shin, Hee-Young; Hwang, Seon-Kook; Ahn, Ji-Hwan; Bae, Kwang-Hyun [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    For the technical development on utilization of unused mineral resources, the study was carried out on the highly purification and mineral processing of domestic Sericite and Muscovite. This study was also carried out to make the functional materials for the use of fine chemical industry. Scope and content of study: 1) A study on the high purification and mineral processing for sericite and muscovite. 2) A study on the surface treatment of fine particles of sericite and muscovite. EDAX analysis on surface treated Mica shows that absorbed area on mica surface appears about 56 wt% when reaction period of 75 min. The result on image analysis on the surface treated mica comparing with that of EDAX analysis appears that the material was stabilized when passing the 1st yielding point. The dry process of surface modification on mica was applied by using {Theta}-composer. The result shows that whiteness of the mica increases upto 91 at 20 min. grinding period. Polymer microcapsulation was carried out on the mica surface. The result shows that materials appear excellent hydrophobic property which is one of important factors for making cosmetics. Based on the applying test of mineral processing on Dong-jin mica, the result shows that high quality mica is recovered. Especially, lithium mica produced in the mine will be further studied in the next year project. (author). 26 refs., 36 tabs., 61 figs.

  1. An novel identification method of the environmental risk sources for surface water pollution accidents in chemical industrial parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jianfeng; Song, Yonghui; Yuan, Peng; Xiao, Shuhu; Han, Lu

    2013-07-01

    The chemical industry is a major source of various pollution accidents. Improving the management level of risk sources for pollution accidents has become an urgent demand for most industrialized countries. In pollution accidents, the released chemicals harm the receptors to some extent depending on their sensitivity or susceptibility. Therefore, identifying the potential risk sources from such a large number of chemical enterprises has become pressingly urgent. Based on the simulation of the whole accident process, a novel and expandable identification method for risk sources causing water pollution accidents is presented. The newly developed approach, by analyzing and stimulating the whole process of a pollution accident between sources and receptors, can be applied to identify risk sources, especially on the nationwide scale. Three major types of losses, such as social, economic and ecological losses, were normalized, analyzed and used for overall consequence modeling. A specific case study area, located in a chemical industry park (CIP) along the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province, China, was selected to test the potential of the identification method. The results showed that there were four risk sources for pollution accidents in this CIP. Aniline leakage in the HS Chemical Plant would lead to the most serious impact on the surrounding water environment. This potential accident would severely damage the ecosystem up to 3.8 km downstream of Yangtze River, and lead to pollution over a distance stretching to 73.7 km downstream. The proposed method is easily extended to the nationwide identification of potential risk sources.

  2. Chemical Industry Corrosion Management: A Comprehensive Information System (ASSET 2). Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Randy C. [Shell Global Solutions, Houston, TX (United States); Young, Arthur L. [Humberside Solutions, Toronto, ON (Canada); Pelton, Arthur D. [CRCT, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Thompson, William T. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada); Wright, Ian G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2008-10-10

    The research sponsored by this project has greatly expanded the ASSET corrosion prediction software system to produce a world-class technology to assess and predict engineering corrosion of metals and alloys corroding by exposure to hot gases. The effort included corrosion data compilation from numerous industrial sources and data generation at Shell Oak Ridge National Laboratory and several other companies for selected conditions. These data were organized into groupings representing various combinations of commercially available alloys and corrosion by various mechanisms after acceptance via a critical screening process to ensure the data were for alloys and conditions, which were adequately well defined, and of sufficient repeatability. ASSET is the largest and most capable, publicly-available technology in the field of corrosion assessment and prediction for alloys corroding by high temperature processes in chemical plants, hydrogen production, energy conversion processes, petroleum refining, power generation, fuels production and pulp/paper processes. The problems addressed by ASSET are: determination of the likely dominant corrosion mechanism based upon information available to the chemical engineers designing and/or operating various processes and prediction of engineering metal losses and lifetimes of commercial alloys used to build structural components. These assessments consider exposure conditions (metal temperatures, gas compositions and pressures), alloy compositions and exposure times. Results of the assessments are determination of the likely dominant corrosion mechanism and prediction of the loss of metal/alloy thickness as a function of time, temperature, gas composition and gas pressure. The uses of these corrosion mechanism assessments and metal loss predictions are that the degradation of processing equipment can be managed for the first time in a way which supports efforts to reduce energy consumption, ensure structural integrity of equipment

  3. Carbon emissions reduction potential in the US chemicals and pulp and paper industries by applying CHP technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.; Martin, N.; Einstein, D.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical and the pulp/paper industries combined provide 55% of CHP generation in the US industry. Yet, significant potential for new CHP capacities exists in both industries. From the present steam consumption data, the authors estimate about 50 GW of additional technical potential for CHP in both industries. The reduced carbon emissions will be equivalent to 44% of the present carbon emissions in these industries. They find that most of the carbon emissions reductions can be achieved at negative costs. Depending on the assumptions used in calculations, the economic potential of CHP in these industries can be significantly lower, and carbon emissions mitigation costs can be much higher. Using sensitivity analyses, they determine that the largest effect on the CHP estimate have the assumptions in the costs of CHP technology, in the assumed discount rates, in improvements in efficiency of CHP technologies, and in the CHP equipment depreciation periods. Changes in fuel and electricity prices and the growth in the industries' steam demand have less of an effect. They conclude that the lowest carbon mitigation costs are achieved with the CHP facility is operated by the utility and when industrial company that owns the CHP unit can sell extra electricity and steam to the open wholesale market. Based on the results of the analyses they discuss policy implications

  4. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to- Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Dougall, James [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Many U.S. manufacturing facilities generate unrecovered, low-grade waste heat, and also generate or are located near organic-content waste effluents. Bioelectrochemical systems, such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, provide a means to convert organic-content effluents into electric power and useful chemical products. A novel biochemical electrical system for industrial manufacturing processes uniquely integrates both waste heat recovery and waste effluent conversion, thereby significantly reducing manufacturing energy requirements. This project will enable the further development of this technology so that it can be applied across a wide variety of US manufacturing segments, including the chemical, food, pharmaceutical, refinery, and pulp and paper industries. It is conservatively estimated that adoption of this technology could provide nearly 40 TBtu/yr of energy, or more than 1% of the U.S. total industrial electricity use, while reducing CO2 emissions by more than 6 million tons per year. Commercialization of this technology will make a significant contribution to DOE’s Industrial Technology Program goals for doubling energy efficiency and providing a more robust and competitive domestic manufacturing base.

  5. Toxicity assessment of industrial chemicals and airborne contaminants: transition from in vivo to in vitro test methods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakand, S; Winder, C; Khalil, C; Hayes, A

    2005-12-01

    Exposure to occupational and environmental contaminants is a major contributor to human health problems. Inhalation of gases, vapors, aerosols, and mixtures of these can cause a wide range of adverse health effects, ranging from simple irritation to systemic diseases. Despite significant achievements in the risk assessment of chemicals, the toxicological database, particularly for industrial chemicals, remains limited. Considering there are approximately 80,000 chemicals in commerce, and an extremely large number of chemical mixtures, in vivo testing of this large number is unachievable from both economical and practical perspectives. While in vitro methods are capable of rapidly providing toxicity information, regulatory agencies in general are still cautious about the replacement of whole-animal methods with new in vitro techniques. Although studying the toxic effects of inhaled chemicals is a complex subject, recent studies demonstrate that in vitro methods may have significant potential for assessing the toxicity of airborne contaminants. In this review, current toxicity test methods for risk evaluation of industrial chemicals and airborne contaminants are presented. To evaluate the potential applications of in vitro methods for studying respiratory toxicity, more recent models developed for toxicity testing of airborne contaminants are discussed.

  6. ANALISIS PERBAIKAN SISTEM PENTANAHAN TELEKOMUNIKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Umar

    2015-04-01

    Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah perbaikan sistem pentanahan site Kampung Baru dengan menggunakan konfigurasi single point connection window (SPCW, untuk mengamankan sistem telekomunikasi dari kebocoran arus dan petir serta imbasnya.  Perbaikan sistem pentanahan di site Kampung Baru menggunakan banyak elektroda yang membentuk persegi dikarenakan topografi tempat di sana yang memungkinkan dan efektif adalah menggunakan sistem tersebut. Berdasarkan hasil analisis dan perhitungan perbaikan sistem di site Kampung Baru, didapatkan nilai perhitungan sistem pentanahan adalah 1.34 Ohm serta pengukurannya 1.21-1.25 Ohm.

  7. Applying the three R's: Reduce, reuse, and recycle in the chemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Mohamed K; Peters, Robert W

    2017-03-01

    Pollution prevention (P2) assessment was conducted by applying the three R's, reduce, reuse, and recycle, in a chemical industry for the purpose of reducing the amount of wastewater generated, reusing paint wastewater in the manufacture of cement bricks, recycling cooling water, and improving water usage efficiency. The results of this study showed that the annual wastewater flow generated from the paint manufacturing can be reduced from 1,100 m 3 to 488.4 m 3 (44.4% reduction) when a high-pressure hose is used. Two mixtures were prepared. The first mixture (A) contains cement, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, Addicrete BVF, and clean water. The second mixture (B) contains the same components used in the first mixture, except that paint wastewater was used instead of the clean water. The prepared samples were tested for water absorption, toxicity, reactivity, compressive strength, ignitability, and corrosion. The tests results indicated that using paint wastewater in the manufacture of the cement bricks improved the mechanical properties of the bricks. The toxicity test results showed that the metals concentration in the bricks did not exceed the U.S. EPA limits. This company achieved the goal of zero liquid discharge (ZLD), especially after recycling 2,800 m 3 of cooling water. The total annual saving could reach $42,570 with a payback period of 41 days. This research focused on improving the water usage efficiency, reducing the quantity of wastewater generated, and potentially reusing wastewater in the manufacture of cement bricks. Reusing paint wastewater in the manufacture of the bricks prevents the hazardous pollutants in the wastewater (calcium carbonate, styrene acrylic resins, colored pigments, and titanium dioxide) from entering and polluting the surface water and the environment. We think that this paper will help to find the most efficient and cost-effective way to manage paint wastewater and conserve fresh water resources. We also believe that this

  8. Chemical durability of glass and glass-ceramic materials, developed in laboratory scale, from industrial oil shale residue. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Fonseca, M.V. de; Souza Santos, P. de

    1990-01-01

    Industrial developments frequently drive to the natural resources extinction. The recycling era has come out a long time ago and it has been evident that great part of industrial work's problems are related to the pollution and the raw materials extinction. These problems should be solved, with advantages, through industrial residues recycling. This study deals with glass and glass-ceramics materials obtained from oil shale (Irati Formation-Sao Mateus do Sul-Parana State) industrialization residues. The reached results show that a controled devitrification of retorted oil shale glass improves its performance related to chemical attack. The crystallinity caracterization of the oil shales glass-ceramic was made through X-ray diffraction. (author) [pt

  9. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  10. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  11. Effect of water losses by evaporation and chemical reaction in an industrial slaker reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andreola

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic model of the slaker reactor was developed and validated for Klabin Paraná Papéis causticizing system, responsable for white liquor generation used by the plant. The model considered water losses by evaporation and chemical reaction. The model showed a good agreement with the industrial plant measures of active alkali, total titratable alkali and temperature, without the need of adjustment of any parameter. The simulated results showed that the water consumption by the slaking reaction and evaporation exerted significant influence on the volumetric flow rate of limed liquor, which imposed a decrease of 4.6% in the amount of water in reactor outlet.Foi desenvolvido e testado um modelo dinâmico do reator de apagamento do sistema de caustificação da Klabin Paraná Papéis, responsável pela geração do licor branco utilizado na planta. O modelo contempla perdas de água por evaporação e por reação química e apresentou boa concordância com dados industriais de álcali ativo, álcali total titulável e temperatura, sem a necessidade de ajuste de nenhum parâmetro. Os resultados obtidos a partir de simulações revelam que o consumo de água pela reação de apagamento, bem como pela evaporação, exercem uma influência significativa sobre a vazão volumétrica na saída do reator, impondo uma diminuição de 4,6% sobre o teor de água na corrente de saída do reator em relação à alimentação.

  12. Chemical characterization of atmospheric particles and source apportionment in the vicinity of a steelmaking industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, S.M.; Lage, J.; Fernández, B.; Garcia, S.; Reis, M.A.; Chaves, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to provide a chemical characterization of atmospheric particles collected in the vicinity of a steelmaking industry and to identify the sources that affect PM 10 levels. A total of 94 PM samples were collected in two sampling campaigns that occurred in February and June/July of 2011. PM 2.5 and PM 2.5–10 were analyzed for a total of 22 elements by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Particle Induced X-ray Emission. The concentrations of water soluble ions in PM 10 were measured by Ion Chromatography and Indophenol-Blue Spectrophotometry. Positive Matrix Factorization receptor model was used to identify sources of particulate matter and to determine their mass contribution to PM 10 . Seven main groups of sources were identified: marine aerosol identified by Na and Cl (22%), steelmaking and sinter plant represented by As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb, Sb and Zn (11%), sinter plant stack identified by NH 4 + , K and Pb (12%), an unidentified Br source (1.8%), secondary aerosol from coke making and blast furnace (19%), fugitive emissions from the handling of raw material, sinter plant and vehicles dust resuspension identified by Al, Ca, La, Si, Ti and V (14%) and sinter plant and blast furnace associated essentially with Fe and Mn (21%). - Highlights: • Emissions from steelworks are very complex. • The larger steelworks contribution to PM 10 was from blast furnace and sinter plant. • Sinter plant stack emissions contributed for 12% of the PM 10 mass. • Secondary aerosol from coke making and blast furnace contributed for 19% of the PM 10 . • Fugitive dust emissions highly contribute to PM 10 mass

  13. Chemical characterization of atmospheric particles and source apportionment in the vicinity of a steelmaking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, S.M., E-mail: smarta@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 139.7 km, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Lage, J. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 139.7 km, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Fernández, B. [Global R& D, ArcelorMittal, Avilés (Spain); Garcia, S. [Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade, Av. Prof. Dr. Cavaco Silva, 33, 2740-120 Porto Salvo (Portugal); Reis, M.A.; Chaves, P.C. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 139.7 km, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2015-07-15

    The objective of this work was to provide a chemical characterization of atmospheric particles collected in the vicinity of a steelmaking industry and to identify the sources that affect PM{sub 10} levels. A total of 94 PM samples were collected in two sampling campaigns that occurred in February and June/July of 2011. PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 2.5–10} were analyzed for a total of 22 elements by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Particle Induced X-ray Emission. The concentrations of water soluble ions in PM{sub 10} were measured by Ion Chromatography and Indophenol-Blue Spectrophotometry. Positive Matrix Factorization receptor model was used to identify sources of particulate matter and to determine their mass contribution to PM{sub 10}. Seven main groups of sources were identified: marine aerosol identified by Na and Cl (22%), steelmaking and sinter plant represented by As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb, Sb and Zn (11%), sinter plant stack identified by NH{sub 4}{sup +}, K and Pb (12%), an unidentified Br source (1.8%), secondary aerosol from coke making and blast furnace (19%), fugitive emissions from the handling of raw material, sinter plant and vehicles dust resuspension identified by Al, Ca, La, Si, Ti and V (14%) and sinter plant and blast furnace associated essentially with Fe and Mn (21%). - Highlights: • Emissions from steelworks are very complex. • The larger steelworks contribution to PM{sub 10} was from blast furnace and sinter plant. • Sinter plant stack emissions contributed for 12% of the PM{sub 10} mass. • Secondary aerosol from coke making and blast furnace contributed for 19% of the PM{sub 10}. • Fugitive dust emissions highly contribute to PM{sub 10} mass.

  14. Semiotika Teks: Sebuah Pendekatan Analisis Teks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasraf Amir Piliang

    2004-12-01

    tanda-tanda yang membentuk apa yang disebut sebagai ‘teks’. Analisis teks, menurut Roland Barthes, akan menghasilkan makna denotatif, yakni makna tanda yang bersifat eksplisit, dan makna konotatif, yaitu makna tanda lapis kedua yang bersifat implisit.

  15. One year online chemical speciation of submicron particulate matter (PM1) sampled at a French industrial and coastal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shouwen; Riffault, Véronique; Dusanter, Sébastien; Augustin, Patrick; Fourmentin, Marc; Delbarre, Hervé

    2015-04-01

    The harbor of Dunkirk (Northern France) is surrounded by different industrial plants (metallurgy, petrochemistry, food processing, power plant, etc.), which emit gaseous and particulate pollutants such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and sulfur (SO2), and submicron particles (PM1). These emissions are poorly characterized and their impact on neighboring urban areas has yet to be assessed. Studies are particularly needed in this type of complex environments to get a better understanding of PM1sources, especially from the industrial sector, their temporal variability, and their transformation. Several instruments, capable of real-time measurements (temporal resolution ≤ 30 min), were deployed at a site located downwind from the industrial area of Dunkirk for a one-year duration (July 2013-September 2014). An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and an Aethalometer monitored the main chemical species in the non-refractory submicron particles and black carbon, respectively. Concomitant measurements of trace gases and wind speed and direction were also performed. This dataset was analyzed considering four wind sectors, characteristics of marine, industrial, industrial-urban, and urban influences, and the different seasons. We will present a descriptive analysis of PM1, showing strong variations of ambient concentrations, as well as evidences of SO2 to SO4 gas-particle conversion when industrial plumes reached the monitoring site. The organic fraction measured by ACSM (37% of the total mass on average) was analyzed using a source-receptor model based on Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to identify chemical signatures of main emission sources and to quantify the contribution of each source to the PM1 budget given the wind sector. Four main factors were identified: hydrocarbon organic aerosol (HOA), oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA), biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) and cooking-like organic aerosol (COA). Overall, the total PM

  16. Risk analysis; Analisis de riesgos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, J H; Nunez McLeod, J; Rivera, S S [Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza (Argentina). Instituto de Capacitacion Especial y Desarrollo de Ingenieria Asistida por Computadora (CEDIAC)

    1997-07-01

    This book contains a selection of research works performed in the CEDIAC Institute (Cuyo National University) in the area of Risk Analysis, with specific orientations to the subjects of uncertainty and sensitivity studies, software reliability, severe accident modeling, etc. This volume presents important material for all those researches who want to have an insight in the risk analysis field, as a tool to solution several problems frequently found in the engineering and applied sciences field, as well as for the academic teachers who want to keep up to date, including the new developments and improvements continuously arising in this field. [Spanish] Este libro contiene una seleccion de trabajos de investigacion realizados dentro del Instituto de Capacitacion Especial y Desarrollo de la Ingenieria Asistida por Computadora en el area del analisis de riesgos, con una orientacion hacia el estudio de incertidumbres y sensibilidad, confiabilidad de software, modelacion de accidentes severos, etc. Este volumen recoge un material de indudable importancia e interes para todos aquellos investigadores y profesionales que desean incursionar en este campo del analisis de riesgos como herramienta para la solucion de problemas frecuentemente encontrados en la ingenieria y las ciencias aplicadas, asi como para los academicos que desean mantenerse al dia, conociendo los nuevos desarrollos y tecnicas que constantemente aparecen en su area.

  17. Analisis Kebijakan dan Efektivitas Organisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Syarifudin Kiwang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Penerapan Peraturan Gubernur Nusa Tenggara Timur Nomor 8 Tahun 2011 tentang Organisasi dan Tata Kerja Unit Pelaksana Teknis Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Koperasi dan Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah pada Dinas Koperasi dan Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur adalah dalam rangka untuk meningkatkan efektivitas kerja organisasi pada UPT Diklat Koperasi dan UMKM. Penelitian ini berusaha untuk melihat dampak kebijakan organisasi terhadap efektivitas organisasi dengan menggunakan enam elemen variabel dari kebijakan dan praktik manajemen. Keenam elemen tersebut adalah penetapan tujuan strategis, pencarian dan pemanfaatan sumber daya, lingkungan prestasi, proses komunikasi, kepemimpinan dan pengambilan keputusan, serta adaptasi dan inovasi organisasi. Penelitian kualitatif ini menggunakan pendekatan studi kasus. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis data model Miles dan Huberman, yang terdiri atas reduksi data, display/penyajian data, dan kesimpulan/verifikasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa efektivitas organisasi pada UPT Diklat koperasi dan UMKM belum berjalan secara baik, hal ini dapat dilihat dari beberapa hal antara lain, belum adanya tenaga spesialisasi pengelola diklat dan tenaga khusus (sarjana di bidang perkoperasian dan kondisi lingkungan kerja (lingkungan prestasi pada UPT Diklat koperasi dan UMKM yang belum efektif. Penempatan pegawai juga belum tepat, mutasi ke UPT Diklat Koperasi dan UMKM tidak memperhatikan latar belakang pendidikan dan spesialisasi/keahlian pegawai sehingga membutuhkan waktu dalam proses penyesuaian serta menurunkan jumlah pelaksanaan diklat dikarenakan keterbatasan alokasi dana.

  18. ANALISIS DAYA SAING KEDELAI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwono Sarwono

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage index of soybean in Indonesia from 1983 up to 2013 is less than one, mostly. It means that the competitiveness of soybean in Indonesia is low. The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors influence the soybean competitiveness. OLS (Ordinary Least Square was used as the analysis method. Hypotheses test based on that analysis model is not bias, so that, classic divergence test is needed. It is for getting the Best Linier Unbiased Estimator (BLUE appraisal. T statistic and F statistic were also applied. The result of this research shows that production and export have positive and significant influence. In addition, exchange rate and government policy do not influence the Indonesia soybean competitiveness.Indeks RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage kedelai Indonesia dari tahun 1983-2013 kecenderungan bernilai kurang dari satu yang berarti daya saing kedelai Indonesia rendah.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi daya saing kedelai Indonesia.Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah Ordinary Least Square (OLS.Pengujian hipotesis berdasarkan model analisis tersebut tidak bias maka perlu dilakukan uji penyimpangan klasik yang tujuannya agar diperoleh penaksiran yang bersifat Best Linier Unbiased Estimator (BLUE.Pengujian statistik menggunakan uji t statistikdan uji f statistik.Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa produksi dan ekspor berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan terhadap daya saing kedelai Indonesia. Nilai tukar rupiah dan kebijakan pemerintah tidak berpengaruh terhadap daya saing kedelai Indonesia.

  19. The future of discovery chemistry: quo vadis? Academic to industrial--the maturation of medicinal chemistry to chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Torsten; Bishop, Cheryl

    2010-04-01

    At Roche, we set out to think about the future role of medicinal chemistry in drug discovery in a project involving both Roche internal stakeholders and external experts in drug discovery chemistry. To derive a coherent strategy, selected scientists were asked to take extreme positions and to derive two orthogonal strategic options: chemistry as the traditional mainstream science and chemistry as the central entrepreneurial science. We believe today's role of medicinal chemistry in industry has remained too narrow. To provide the innovation that industry requires, medicinal chemistry must play its part and diversify at pace with our increasing understanding of chemical biology and network pharmacology. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analisis Harmonisa Inverter PWM Satu Fasa

    OpenAIRE

    Rejeki Simanjorang

    2008-01-01

    Pada tesis ini dianalisis harmonisa inverter PWM satu fasa. Inverter PWM satu fasa yang akan ditinjau adalah inverter satu fasa jembatan penuh (konvensional) dan inverter komposit. Analisis difokuskan pada penentuan pola penyaklaran yang optimum agar pembangkitan harmonisa dan switching losses inverter rendah. Untuk menentukan pola penyaklaran optimum maka dilakukan analisis yang berbasis pada rangkaian ekivalen harmonisa inverter satu fasa. Dengan menggunakan pola penyaklaran optimum, kedua ...

  1. Physical, chemical and radioactive characterization of co-products from titanium dioxide industry for valorization in the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazquez, M.J.; Mantero, J.; Bolivar, J.P.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Vaca, F.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the raw materials (ilmenite and slag), waste (red gypsum) and several co-products (sulphate monohydrate and sulphate heptahydrated) form the titanium dioxide industry in relation to their elemental composition (major, minor and trace elements), granulometry, mineralogy, microscopic morphology, physical composition and radioactive content in order to apply this knowledge in the valorization of the co-products in the fields such a as construction, civil engineering, etc. In particular, the main properties of cements produced with different proportions of red gypsum were studied, and the obtained improvements, in relation to Ordinary Portland Cements (OPC) were evaluated. It was also demonstrated that the levels of pollutants and the radioactive content in the produced RG cements, remain within the regulated safety limits. (Author). 38 refs.

  2. Top five industries resulting in injuries from acute chemical incidents—Hazardous Substance Emergency Events Surveillance, nine states, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ayana R; Wu, Jennifer

    2015-04-10

    Because industries using and/or producing chemicals are located in close proximity to populated areas, U.S. residents are at risk for unintentional chemical exposures. 1999-2008. The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system was operated by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry during January 1991-September 2009 to collect data that would enable researchers to describe the public health consequences of chemical releases and to develop activities aimed at reducing the harm from such releases. This report summarizes data for the top five industries resulting in injuries from an acute chemical incident (lasting truck transportation, educational services, chemical manufacturing, utilities, and food manufacturing) accounted for approximately one third of all incidents in which persons were injured as a result of unintentional release of chemicals; the same five industries were responsible for approximately one third of all persons injured as a result of such releases. Acute chemical incidents in these five industries resulted in serious public health implications including the need for evacuations, morbidity, and mortality. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS: Targeting chemical incident prevention and preparedness activities towards these five industries provides an efficient use of resources for reducing chemical exposures. A variety of methods can be used to minimize chemical releases in industries. One example is the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's hierarchy of controls model, which focuses on controlling exposures to occupational hazards. The hierarchy includes elimination, substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment.

  3. Genome-wide Escherichia coli stress response and improved tolerance towards industrially relevant chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rau, Martin Holm; Calero Valdayo, Patricia; Lennen, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Economically viable biobased production of bulk chemicals and biofuels typically requires high product titers. During microbial bioconversion this often leads to product toxicity, and tolerance is therefore a critical element in the engineering of production strains. Here, a systems biology...... approach was employed to understand the chemical stress response of Escherichia coli, including a genome-wide screen for mutants with increased fitness during chemical stress. Twelve chemicals with significant production potential were selected, consisting of organic solvent-like chemicals (butanol......, hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone, 1,4-butanediol, furfural), organic acids (acetate, itaconic acid, levulinic acid, succinic acid), amino acids (serine, threonine) and membrane-intercalating chemicals (decanoic acid, geraniol). The transcriptional response towards these chemicals revealed large overlaps...

  4. IMPLEMENTATION OF A SAFETY PROGRAM FOR THE WORK ACCIDENTS’ CONTROL. A CASE STUDY IN THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Cesar de Faria Nogueira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study related to the implementation of a Work Safety Program in a chemical industry, based on the Process Safety Program, PSP, of a huge energy company. The research was applied, exploratory, qualitative and with and data collection method through documentary and bibliographical research. There will be presented the main practices adopted in order to make the Safety Program a reality inside a chemical industry, its results and contributions for its better development. This paper proposes the implementation of a Safety Program must be preceded by a diagnosis of occupational safety and health management system and with constant critical analysis in order to make the necessary adjustments.

  5. Proceedings of the 3. International conference on waste management in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Volume 1 and 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Francisco F.; Pereira Filho, Francisco A.; Almeida, Sergio A.S. [eds.

    1993-12-31

    To produce without pollution is today a mandate for the preservation of our society. To produce cleaner means to conserve energy and natural resources, to reduce the use of toxic substances, to invest in the evolution of products and production processes towards a minimum of residues. The Third International Conference on Waste Minimization in the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries addresses these challenging questions regarding waste minimization

  6. Proceedings of the 3. International conference on waste management in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Volume 1 and 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Francisco F; Pereira Filho, Francisco A; Almeida, Sergio A.S. [eds.

    1994-12-31

    To produce without pollution is today a mandate for the preservation of our society. To produce cleaner means to conserve energy and natural resources, to reduce the use of toxic substances, to invest in the evolution of products and production processes towards a minimum of residues. The Third International Conference on Waste Minimization in the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries addresses these challenging questions regarding waste minimization

  7. Physical-chemical characteristics of an eco-friendly binder using ternary mixture of industrial wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen, Hoang-Anh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the physical-chemical characteristics of paste and mortar with an eco-friendly binder named as SFC cement, produced by a ternary mixture of industrial waste materials of ground granulated blast furnace slag (S, Class F fly ash (FFA, and circulating fluidized bed combustion fly ash (CFA. To trigger the hydration, the CFA, which acted as an alkaline-sulfate activator, was added to the blended mixture of slag and FFA. The water to binder ratio (W/B, curing regime, and FFA addition significantly affected the engineering performances and shrinkage/expansion of the SFC pastes and mortars. The SFC mortars had higher workability than that of ordinary Portland cement (OPC. With similar workability, the SFC mortars had compressive strengths and expansions comparable to OPC mortars. The main hydration products of the hardened SFC cement were ettringite (AFt and C-S-H/C-A-S-H. The transformation of the AFt to the monosulfates was observed as the hydration time increased.Este trabajo estudia las características fisicoquímicas de pastas y morteros con un ligante eco-amigable llamado cemento SFC, producido por una mezcla ternaria de materiales a partir de residuos industriales tales como escorias granuladas de alto horno (S, ceniza volante clase F (FFA, y cenizas volantes de combustión en lecho fluidizado circulante (CFA. Para desencadenar la hidratación, el CFA que actuó como un activador alcalino-sulfato se añadió a la mezcla combinada de escoria y FFA. La relación de agua/ligante (W/B, el tipo de curado, y la adición de FFA afectaron significativamente a las prestaciones mecánicas así como a la retracción/expansión de pastas y morteros de SFC. Los morteros SFC presentaron una trabajabilidad mayor que los correspondientes de cemento de Portland (OPC. Con una trabajabilidad similar, los morteros SFC presentaron resistencias mecánicas y expansión comparables a los morteros de OPC. Los principales productos de hidratación del

  8. Applications of Neutron Scattering in the Chemical Industry: Proton Dynamics of Highly Dispersed Materials, Characterization of Fuel Cell Catalysts, and Catalysts from Large-Scale Chemical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Peter W.; Parker, Stewart F.

    The attractiveness of neutron scattering techniques for the detailed characterization of materials of high degrees of dispersity and structural complexity as encountered in the chemical industry is discussed. Neutron scattering picks up where other analytical methods leave off because of the physico-chemical properties of finely divided products and materials whose absorption behavior toward electromagnetic radiation and electrical conductivity causes serious problems. This is demonstrated by presenting typical applications from large-scale production technology and industrial catalysis. These include the determination of the proton-related surface chemistry of advanced materials that are used as reinforcing fillers in the manufacture of tires, where interrelations between surface chemistry, rheological properties, improved safety, and significant reduction of fuel consumption are the focus of recent developments. Neutron scattering allows surface science studies of the dissociative adsorption of hydrogen on nanodispersed, supported precious metal particles of fuel cell catalysts under in situ loading at realistic gas pressures of about 1 bar. Insight into the occupation of catalytically relevant surface sites provides valuable information about the catalyst in the working state and supplies essential scientific input for tailoring better catalysts by technologists. The impact of deactivation phenomena on industrial catalysts by coke deposition, chemical transformation of carbonaceous deposits, and other processes in catalytic hydrogenation processes that result in significant shortening of the time of useful operation in large-scale plants can often be traced back in detail to surface or bulk properties of catalysts or materials of catalytic relevance. A better understanding of avoidable or unavoidable aspects of catalyst deactivation phenomena under certain in-process conditions and the development of effective means for reducing deactivation leads to more energy

  9. Energy price slump and policy response in the coal-chemical industry district: A case study of Ordos with a system dynamics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Delu; Ma, Gang; Song, Xuefeng; Liu, Yun

    2017-01-01

    We employ system dynamics method towards a coal-chemical industry district economy evolution model, using coal industry, the coal-chemical industry, their downstream industries, and the manufacture-related service industry. Moreover, we construct energy price and policy response scenarios based on Ordos’ management experience. The results show that the energy price slump had a negative impact on the overall economic development of the coal-chemical industry district, despite promoting non-resource industries. Furthermore, policies had different effects on the industry's output value and profit. In the long-term, developing alternative industries (AI) helps increase the industrial output value and profit. Decreasing value added tax (VAT) has immediate results and a distinctive effect on industrial short-term production value and profit, its long-term effect being limited. The effect of production limit (PL) on industrial profit is stronger than output value, and financial support (FS) is more conducive to improve the latter. However, coal mining and coal-chemical loan increases decrease the gross industrial profit level. Technology innovation (TI) has the best individual policy overall effect on production value and profits. Furthermore, the simultaneous implementation of PL, TI and AI can generate the synergy effect for each of them. And the simultaneous implementation of VAT and one or couple of other policies will generate the crowding-out effect both for VAT and other policies. - Highlights: • A system dynamics model of the coal-chemical industry district economy evolution in Ordos is constructed. • The impact of coal and oil prices slump on the output value and profit of each industry is revealed. • The differences in the effects especially cumulative effects of different response policies are clarified. • The crowding-out and synergy effects of policy implementation are analyzed.

  10. B827 Chemical Synthhesis Project - Industrial Control System Integration - Statement of Work & Specification with Attachments 1-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, F. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-21

    The Chemical Synthesis Pilot Process at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 827 Complex will be used to synthesize small quantities of material to support research and development. The project will modernize and increase current capabilities for chemical synthesis at LLNL. The primary objective of this project is the conversion of a non-automated hands-on process to a remoteoperation process, while providing enhanced batch process step control, stored recipe-specific parameter sets, process variable visibility, monitoring, alarm and warning handling, and comprehensive batch record data logging. This Statement of Work and Specification provides the industrial-grade process control requirements for the chemical synthesis batching control system, hereafter referred to as the “Control System” to be delivered by the System Integrator.

  11. Industrial Scale Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes Via Fluidized Bed Chemical Vapor Deposition: A Senior Design Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, York R.; Fuchs, Alan; Meyyappan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Senior year chemical engineering students designed a process to produce 10 000 tonnes per annum of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and also conducted bench-top experiments to synthesize SWNTs via fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition techniques. This was an excellent pedagogical experience because it related to the type of real world design…

  12. Industrialization of hot wire chemical vapor deposition for thin film applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schropp, Ruud

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of implementing a Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) chamber into an existing in-line or roll-to-roll reactor are described. The hardware and operation of the HWCVD production reactor is compared to that of existing roll-to-roll reactors based on Plasma Enhanced Chemical

  13. Evaluating exposures to complex mixtures of chemicals during a new production process in the plastics industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, T.; Burstyn, I.; Wendel de Joode, B. van; Posthumus, M.A.; Kromhout, H.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to monitor emission of chemicals at a factory where plastics products were fabricated by a new robotic (impregnated tape winding) production process. Stationary and personal air measurements were taken to determine which chemicals were released and at what concentrations.

  14. Evaluating Exposures to Complex Mixtures of Chemicals During a New Production Process in the Plastics Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, T.; Burstyn, I.; Wendel de Joode, van B.; Posthumus, M.A.; Kromhout, H.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to monitor emission of chemicals at a factory where plastics products were fabricated by a new robotic (impregnated tape winding) production process. Stationary and personal air measurements were taken to determine which chemicals were released and at what concentrations.

  15. ANALISIS DAYA SAING EKSPOR SEKTOR UNGGULAN DI JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwit Santi Wahyuningsih

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi industri unggulan yang ada di Jawa Tengah, dan kemudian industri unggulan tersebut diidentifikasi mana saja yang mempunyai daya saing ekspor. Penelitian ini menggunakan data PDRB Jawa Tengah dan PDB Tahun 2010-2015, Tabel Input Output Jawa Tengah Tahun 2013, serta data Ekspor-Impor Jawa Tengah Tahun 1997-2015. Data tersebut diperoleh dari data sekunder, yaitu dengan memanfaatkan data yang telah tersedia pada instansi terkait. Penelitian ini mengunakan alat analisis Indeks Daya Penyebaran (IDP, Indeks Derajat Kepekaan (IDK dan Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA. Dari hasil IDP dan IDK terdapat 9 industri unggulan di Jawa Tengah yaitu industri pengolahan dan pengawetan ikan, industri minyak dan lemak, industri penggilingan padi, industri tepung terigu dan tepung lainnya, industri makanan ternak, industri pemintalan, industri tekstil, industri kayu dan bahan bangunan dari kayu, serta industri karet dan barang dari karet. Tetapi dari 9 industri unggulan tersebut yang memiliki daya saing ekspor tinggi hanya ada 3 industri yaitu industri dengan IDP>1, IDK>1 dan RCA>1 yang meliputi industri pemintalan, industri tekstil, dan industri kayu dan bahan bangunan dari kayu. Dari penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa sektor industri yang dapat diandalkan untuk meningkatkan pertumbuhan ekonomi melalui ekspor dan memiliki daya saing ekspor yang sangat bagus serta memilki harga jual tinggi yaitu hanya industri pemintalan, industri tekstil, dan industri kayu dan bahan bangunan dari kayu. Maka dari itu sebaiknya kebijakan pemerintah lebih ditekankan pada sektor hulu dan sektor hilir dari industri-industri tersebut. This research’s aim is to identify the leading manufactures in central Java then identify which of those industries have the export competitiveness. This study used data of Central Java’s Gross Domestic Regional Product (GDRP and Gross National Product (GNP on 2010-2015, Input Output Table on 2013, as

  16. Analisis Nilai Perusahaan pada Implementasi Program Kepemilikan Saham pada Karyawan/Manajemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitya Aribawa

    2016-12-01

      Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis economic value added (EVA sebelum dan sesudah implementasi program kepemilikan saham pada karyawan/ manajemen dengan objek penelitian ini adalah perusahaan publik yang menggunakan kebijakan ESOP/MSOP sebagai sarana benefit/incentive berupa pembagian sebagian saham untuk karyawan/ manajemen. Variabel yang digunakan sebagai indikator nilai perusahaan adalah EVA. Nilai EVA dianggap sebagai indikator yang kompleks dan mempertimbangkan faktor resiko (beta dari perusahaan. Perusahaan yang dianalisis adalah perusahaan yang listing di Bursa Efek Indonesia. Terdapat 17 perusahaan yang layak untuk dilakukan analisis berdasarkan kriteria yang ditentukan peneliti. Pengumpulan dan data dianalisis secara pooling, hal ini melihat dari tidak dibedakannya perusahaan berdasarkan industri (multi industri. Paired sample test digunakan untuk menguji hipotesis pada penelitian dan sebelumnya dilakukan uji normalitas data. Hasil analisis bahwa hasil perbandingan rata-rata EVA sebelum dan sesudah implementasi program kepemilikan saham pada karyawan/manajemen terdapat perbedaan yag signifikan.

  17. Risk perception of aquatic pollution originated from chemical industry clusters in the coastal area of Jiangsu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Liu, Bo; You, Zhen; Zhao, Li

    2018-02-01

    According to "the Layout Scheme of the Chemical Industry in Jiangsu Province From 2016 to 2030" and "the Development Planning in the Coastal Area of Jiangsu Province, China," several chemical industry clusters will be located in the coastal area of Jiangsu province, China, and the risk of surface water pollution will be inevitably higher in the densely populated region. To get to know the risk acceptance level of the residents near the clusters, public perception was analyzed from the five risk factors: the basic knowledge about the pollution, the negative effects on aquatic environment imposed by the clusters, the positive effects brought by the clusters, the trust of controlling aquatic pollution, and the acceptance of the clusters. Twenty-four statements were screened out to describe the five factors, and about 600 residents were covered in three typical clusters surveyed. On the whole, the youth showed a higher interest on the survey, and middle-aged people were likely to be more concerned about aquatic pollution incident. There was no significant difference on risk perception of the three clusters. The respondents investigated had good knowledge background on aquatic pollution and the residents identified with the benefits brought by the clusters. They were weak in risk awareness of pollution originated from the chemical enterprises' groups. Although the respondents regarded that chemical industry clusters did not expose all points of pollutants' generation to the public, they inclined to trust the administration agencies on controlling the pollution and welcome the construction of chemical clusters in their dwelling cities. Besides, risk perception showed obvious spatial distribution. The closer were the samples' sites to the clusters and the rivers receiving pollutants, the higher were the residents' perceived risk, benefit, and trust. However, there was no identical spatial difference on risk acceptance, which might be comprehensively influenced by various

  18. Treatment of food-agro (sugar industry wastewater with copper metal and salt: Chemical oxidation and electro-oxidation combined study in batch mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Tiwari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugar industry is one of the major industries which have been included in the polluting industries list by the World Bank. Different pollution monitoring agencies like State and National Pollution Control Boards have been made compulsory for each industry to set up a waste water treatment plants. In treatment system, single treatments of effluent are not effective to manage the dischargeable limit. So an attempted has been made to treat sugar industry wastewater with electrochemical and chemical process by using copper as electrode and chemical. Electrochemical process shows 81% chemical oxygen demand and 83.5% color reduction at pH 6, electrode distance 20 mm, current density 178 A m−2 and 120 min treatment time. The combined treatment results show 98% chemical oxygen demand and 99.5% color removal at 8 mM mass loading and pH 6 with copper sulphate.

  19. ANALISIS IMPOR BERAS DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Kumala Sari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak ___________________________________________________________________ Salah satu kebijakan pemerintah untuk memenuhi kebutuhan beras yaitu dengan menggenjot produksi beras dalam negeri. Namun dengan semakin meningkatnya jumlah penduduk akan meningkatkan permintaan terhadap beras dan upaya peningkatan produktivitas dalam negeri tidak dapat memenuhi kebutuhan beras dalam negeri. Sehingga untuk menutupi kekurangan tersebut pemerintah mengambil keputusan untuk melakukan impor beras dari negara lain. Akan tetapi pada kenyataannya impor beras dilakukan ketika data statistik menunjukkan bahwa Indonesia sedang mengalami surplus beras. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor apa saja yang mempengaruhi impor beras di Indonesia. Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah analisis regresi linier berganda dengan model Error Correction Model (ECM. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian disimpulkan bahwa secara parsial maupun secara bersama-sama produksi beras, konsumsi beras, harga beras dalam negeri dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dollar AS berpengaruh dan signifikan terhadap impor beras di Indonesia. Abstract ___________________________________________________________________ One of the government’s policy to fulfill the need of rice is to boost the domestic production. However, by increasing the population, the demand of rice will also increase and the effort of increasing the domestic productivity cannot supply domestic rice need. So, to cover the shortage the government make decision to import rice from other countries. Yet, in fact importing rice is occurred when the statistical data showed that the supply of rice in Indonesia is surplus. The purpose of this research is necessary to study the factors which influence the import of rice in Indonesia. The analysis method used is multiple linear regression analysis model with Error Correction Model (ECM. Based on the research proven that partially or jointly the production, the consumption, the

  20. The impact of conventional and nuclear industries on the population A comparative study of the radioactive and chemical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Coulon, R; Anguenot, F

    1988-01-01

    This study was carried out to make it possible to assess and localize in an objective manner the extent of the hazards and associated detrimental effects which are inherent in nuclear and non-nuclear industrial activities, among all the hazards to which the population of a given region is exposed. Rather than carry out a purely theoretical and speculative study a region was chosen as a basis to carry out a full- scale exercise, taking into account the existing real situation. The region chosen is situated in the south-east of France (Greater Rhone Delta) where almost all industrial activities can be found: electricity generating industries (thermal and nuclear power stations), the activities associated with them (extraction, processing, storage of waste, etc.) and industrial activities which are sources of pollution (refineries, chemical industries, etc.). To put the risks of all these activities (to workers, the public and the environment) in perspective, the case of other sources of risk, such as certain ag...

  1. Application of the natural cellulosic supports modified chemically for the treatment of the industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassale, A.; Elbariji, S.; Lacherai, A.; Elamine, M.; Kabli, H.; Albourine, A.

    2009-01-01

    The process of purification and discoloration of industrial waters (and particularly effluents of the textile industry) can meet major difficulties: certain dyes agents get through the devices of purge without being to stop. the cost of equipment and products of purification is prohibitive. Finally, in many cases, the discoloration can be only partial because waters to be treated containing mixtures of dyes of different nature, the material of purification can be effective only screw/screw of some of them. (Author)

  2. Trends in the location of the European car industry from an analysis of trade in parts and components; Tendencias en la localizacion de la industria Europea de automocion. Un analisis a partir del comercio de partes y componentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazquez Gomez, L.; Diaz Mora, C.; Gandoy Juste, R.

    2010-07-01

    The object of this paper is to study the changes in location and specialization in the European automotive industry since the mid-nineties. The analysis is based on the examination of trade flows, distinguishing between final goods and parts and components, and on the delimitation of revealed comparative advantages for those countries leading the European industry. The results show the significance of the European production networks and the increasing new Eastern member countries role in them. Besides, they allow us to establish the main participant countries competitive position in those networks. As far as the Spanish industry is concerned, two aspects must be pointed out. On the one hand, the decrease in the advantages in cars assembly although the specialization in industrial motor vehicles maintains. And on the other hand, the competitive capacity showed by some auxiliary car industries. (Author) 22 refs.

  3. Toxic Industrial Chemical Tests of Resistance to Permeation by Protective Suits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klemperer, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    A Natick program to select and test protective materials for soldiers and first responders who face a threat from chemical accidents or terrorist attacks was applied under Congressional legislation...

  4. Quantitative Exposure Assessment of Various Chemical Substances in a Wafer Fabrication Industry Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunhee Park

    2011-03-01

    Conclusion: Benzene, a known human carcinogen for leukemia, and arsine, a hematologic toxin, were not detected in wafer fabrication sites in this study. Among reproductive toxic substances, n-butyl acetate was not detected, but fluorides and PGMEA existed in small amounts in the air. This investigation was focused on the air-borne chemical concentrations only in regular working conditions. Unconditional exposures during spills and/or maintenance tasks and by-product chemicals were not included. Supplementary studies might be required.

  5. Towards benchmarking of multivariable controllers in chemical/biochemical industries: Plantwide control for ethylene glycol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Bialas, Dawid Jan; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a simple yet realistic benchmark plant for evaluation and comparison of advanced multivariable control for chemical and biochemical processes. The benchmark plant is based on recycle-separator-recycle systems for ethylene glycol production and implemented in Matlab...... for education purposes (operator training, student education, etc) as well as scientific research into chemical process control where it enables rapid evaluation and comparison of advanced multivariable controllers as demonstrated in this study....

  6. Evolution of camel CYP2E1 and its associated power of binding toxic industrial chemicals and drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeel, Mahmoud; Altaher, Abdullah; Kitade, Yukio; Abdelaziz, Magdi; Alnazawi, Mohamed; Elshazli, Kamal

    2016-10-01

    Camels are raised in harsh desert environment for hundreds of years ago. By modernization of live and the growing industrial revolution in camels rearing areas, camels are exposed to considerable amount of chemicals, industrial waste, environmental pollutions and drugs. Furthermore, camels have unique gene evolution of some genes to withstand living in harsh environments. In this work, the camel cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is compromised to detect its evolution rate and its power to bind with various chemicals, protoxins, procarcinogens, industrial toxins and drugs. In comparison with human CYP2E1, camel CYP2E1 more efficiently binds to small toxins as aniline, benzene, catechol, amides, butadiene, toluene and acrylamide. Larger compounds were more preferentially bound to the human CYP2E1 in comparison with camel CYP2E1. The binding of inhalant anesthetics was almost similar in both camel and human CYP2E1 coinciding with similar anesthetic effect as well as toxicity profiles. Furthermore, evolutionary analysis indicated the high evolution rate of camel CYP2E1 in comparison with human, farm and companion animals. The evolution rate of camel CYP2E1 was among the highest evolution rate in a subset of 57 different organisms. These results indicate rapid evolution and potent toxin binding power of camel CYP2E1. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Engineering propionibacteria as versatile cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals: advances, challenges, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ningzi; Zhuge, Xin; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Wu, Jing; Shi, Zhongping; Liu, Long

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacteria are actinobacteria consisting of two principal groups: cutaneous and dairy. Cutaneous propionibacteria are considered primary pathogens to humans, whereas dairy propionibacteria are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Increasing attention has been focused on improving the performance of dairy propionibacteria for the production of industrially important chemicals, and significant advances have been made through strain engineering and process optimization in the production of flavor compounds, nutraceuticals, and antimicrobial compounds. In addition, genome sequencing of several propionibacteria species has been completed, deepening understanding of the metabolic and physiological features of these organisms. However, the metabolic engineering of propionibacteria still faces several challenges owing to the lack of efficient genome manipulation tools and the existence of various types of strong restriction-modification systems. The emergence of systems and synthetic biology provides new opportunities to overcome these bottlenecks. In this review, we first introduce the major species of propionibacteria and their properties and provide an overview of their functions and applications. We then discuss advances in the genome sequencing and metabolic engineering of these bacteria. Finally, we discuss systems and synthetic biology approaches for engineering propionibacteria as efficient and robust cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals.

  8. Long-term energy efficiency analysis requires solid energy statistics: The case of the German basic chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saygin, D.; Worrell, E.; Tam, C.; Trudeau, N.; Gielen, D.J.; Weiss, M.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing the chemical industry’s energy use is challenging because of the sector’s complexity and the prevailing uncertainty in energy use and production data. We develop an advanced bottom-up model (PIE-Plus) which encompasses the energy use of the 139 most important chemical processes. We apply this model in a case study to analyze the German basic chemical industry’s energy use and energy efficiency improvements in the period between 1995 and 2008. We compare our results with data from the German Energy Balances and with data published by the International Energy Agency (IEA). We find that our model covers 88% of the basic chemical industry’s total final energy use (including non-energy use) as reported in the German Energy Balances. The observed energy efficiency improvements range between 2.2 and 3.5% per year, i.e., they are on the higher side of the values typically reported in literature. Our results point to uncertainties in the basic chemical industry’s final energy use as reported in the energy statistics and the specific energy consumption values. More efforts are required to improve the quality of the national and international energy statistics to make them useable for reliable monitoring of energy efficiency improvements of the chemical industry. -- Highlights: ► An advanced model was developed to estimate German chemical industry’s energy use. ► For the base year (2000), model covers 88% of the sector’s total final energy use. ► Sector’s energy efficiency improved between 2.2 and 3.5%/yr between 1995 and 2008. ► Improved energy statistics are required for accurate monitoring of improvements.

  9. Recent advances of pore system construction in zeolite-catalyzed chemical industry processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Wang, Yangdong; Yang, Weimin; Tang, Yi; Xie, Zaiku

    2015-12-21

    The kaleidoscopic applications of zeolite catalysts (zeo-catalysts) in petrochemical processes has been considered as one of the major accomplishments in recent decades. About twenty types of zeolite have been industrially applied so far, and their versatile porous architectures have contributed their most essential features to affect the catalytic efficiency. This review depicts the evolution of pore models in zeolite catalysts accompanied by the increase in industrial and environmental demands. The indispensable roles of modulating pore models are outlined for zeo-catalysts for the enhancement of their catalytic performances in various industrial processes. The zeolites and related industrial processes discussed range from the uni-modal micropore system of zeolite Y (12-ring micropore, 12-R) in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), zeolite ZSM-5 (10-R) in xylene isomerization and SAPO-34 (8-R) in olefin production to the multi-modal micropore system of MCM-22 (10-R and 12-R pocket) in aromatic alkylation and the hierarchical pores in FCC and catalytic cracking of C4 olefins. The rational construction of pore models, especially hierarchical features, is highlighted with a careful classification from an industrial perspective accompanied by a detailed analysis of the theoretical mechanisms.

  10. The development and application of dynamic operational risk assessment in oil/gas and chemical process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaole; Mannan, M. Sam

    2010-01-01

    A methodology of dynamic operational risk assessment (DORA) is proposed for operational risk analysis in oil/gas and chemical industries. The methodology is introduced comprehensively starting from the conceptual framework design to mathematical modeling and to decision making based on cost-benefit analysis. The probabilistic modeling part of DORA integrates stochastic modeling and process dynamics modeling to evaluate operational risk. The stochastic system-state trajectory is modeled according to the abnormal behavior or failure of each component. For each of the possible system-state trajectories, a process dynamics evaluation is carried out to check whether process variables, e.g., level, flow rate, temperature, pressure, or chemical concentration, remain in their desirable regions. Component testing/inspection intervals and repair times are critical parameters to define the system-state configuration, and play an important role for evaluating the probability of operational failure. This methodology not only provides a framework to evaluate the dynamic operational risk in oil/gas and chemical industries, but also guides the process design and further optimization. To illustrate the probabilistic study, we present a case-study of a level control in an oil/gas separator at an offshore plant.

  11. Studies on the utilization of agricultural residues in the manufacture of pulp and paper, and industrial chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, V.S.; Kamath, G.P.; Basu, S.

    1980-03-15

    While demand for pulp and paper products in India is increasing at the annual rate of 7 to 8%, availability of cellulosic raw material to meet the ever increasing demand is becoming a serious problem. It has been estimated that bamboo, the traditional source of cellulosic raw material in India, even after ensuring the most scientific and best possible exploitation, could provide less than 50% of the requirement. In a big agricultural country like India, agri-residues like straws and bagasse, along with jute sticks, available in huge quantity, could provide substantial amount of cellulosic resources to the pulp and paper industry. Realizing the importance of agri-residue utilization in Indian economy, a series of research projects have been initiated and completed during the last 15 years to study the techno-economic feasibility of manufacturing pulp, paper, and industrial chemicals, based on rice and wheat straws, bagasse, and jute sticks. The economic advantages of the mechano-chemical pulping process, as compared to the conventional pressure, pulping process, for the conversion of agri-residues into pulp and paer is evaluated. For highlighting the importance of agri-residues in the field of useful chemical recovery possibilities, experimental data are given on the saccarification of agri-residues into reducing sugars by the simple acid hydrolysis method with the help of concentrated sulfuric acid.

  12. Solvation phenomena in association theories with applications to oil & gas and chemical industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Folas, Georgios; Muro Sunè, Nuria

    2008-01-01

    Association theories e.g. those belonging to the SAFT family account explicitly for self- and cross-association (solvation) phenomena. Such phenomena are of great practical importance as they affect, often dramatically, the phase behaviour of many mixtures of industrial relevance. From the scient......Association theories e.g. those belonging to the SAFT family account explicitly for self- and cross-association (solvation) phenomena. Such phenomena are of great practical importance as they affect, often dramatically, the phase behaviour of many mixtures of industrial relevance. From...

  13. Impact analysis of the implemented quality management system on business performances in pharmaceutical-chemical industry in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Valentina D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available International quality management standard (QMS ISO 9001 became widely accepted as a framework for product and/or services quality improvement. There are recent research conducted in order to define relationships and effects between the applied QMS and financial and/or non-financial business parameters. The effects of the applied pharmaceutical quality system (PQS on the business performances in Serbian pharmaceutical-chemical industry are analyzed in this paper using multivariate linear regression analysis. The empirical data were collected using a survey that was performed among experts from Serbian pharmaceutical-chemical industrial sector during 2010. An extensive questionnaire was used in the survey, grouping the questions in eight groups: Implementation of pharmaceutical quality system (AQ, Quality/strategy planning (QP, Human resource management (HR, Supply management (SM, Customer focus (CF, Process management (PM, Continuous improvement (CI, and Business results (BR. The primary goal of the research was to analyze the effects of the elements of first seven groups (AQ, QP, HR, SM, CF, PM, and CI that present various aspects of the implementation of PQS, on the elements of business results (BR. Based on empirical data, regression relations were formed to present the effects of all considered elements of PQS implementation on the business performance parameters (BR. The positive effects of PQS implementation on the business performances such as the assessment of performance indicators, continual products and/or services quality improvement, and efficient problem solving, are confirmed in the presented research for the Serbian pharmaceutical-chemical industrial sector. The results of the presented research will create a room for the improvement of the existing models in application, and for attracting interested parties that aim to commence this business standardization process. Hence, implementation of PQS is not only the regulatory

  14. EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SOIL IN VILLAGE DINGI, DISTRICT HARIPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Asghar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present report is an outcome of research work conducted in Dingi village, District Haripur in 2012. The research aimed to assess and analyze the effects of industrial effluents on the soil fertility of the village, investigate contributing factors responsible for soil pollution and underlying causes creating the problems. Data analysis revealed that area had problems pertaining to water and soil quality. The key factors affecting soil fertility were the careless discharge of the untreated industrial effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate (HIE into the natural stream passing through village. The results were compared with the soil standards set by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF and European Committee Commission (ECC and all of these were exceeding the permissible limits and affecting the soil fertility. The soils were found not fit for agriculture. The investigation highlighted the need to take some effective steps to manage the monitoring program set for checking of industries by the government according to set rules and regulation.

  15. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 13: CHEMICAL INJECTION PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  16. Utilisation of fly ash for the management of heavy metal containing primary chemical sludge generated in a leather manufacturing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekaran, G.; Rao, B.P.; Ghanamani, A.; Rajamani, S. [Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai (India). Dept. of Environmental Technology

    2003-07-01

    The present study aims at disposal of primary chemical sludge generated in the tanning industry by solidification and stabilization process using flyash generated from thermal power plant along with binders and also on evaluating the leachability of heavy metal from the solidified product. The primary chemical sludge containing heavy metals iron and chromium were obtained from a garment leather manufacturing company at Chennai in India. The sludge was dried in open environment and it was powdered to fine size in a grinder. Binding increases stabilization of heavy metal in calcined sludge with refractory binders such as clay, fly ash, lime and ordinary Portland cement. Fly ash can be considered as the additional binder for producing stronger bricks, with high metal fixation efficiency, and minimum rate of removal of heavy metal and minimum diffusion co-efficient. 15 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. VOC removal and deodorization of effluent gases from an industrial plant by photo-oxidation, chemical oxidation, and ozonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeño, Celia; Rodríguez-Lafuente, Angel; Martos, J M; Bilbao, Rafael; Nerín, Cristina

    2010-04-01

    The efficiency of photo-oxidation, chemical oxidation by sodium hypochlorite, and ozonization for the industrial-scale removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odors from gaseous emissions was studied by applying these treatments (in an experimental system) to substances passing through an emission stack of a factory producing maize derivatives. Absorption and ozonization were the most efficient treatment, removing 75% and 98% of VOCs, respectively, while photo-oxidation only removed about 59%. The emitted chemical compounds and odors were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (in full-scan mode). In addition to presenting the results, their implications for selecting optimal processes for treating volatile emissions are discussed.

  18. National symposium on commissioning and operating experiences in heavy water plants and associated chemical industries [Preprint volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    A symposium on commissioning and operating experiences in heavy water plants and associated chemical industries (SCOPEX-92) was organised to share the experience and exchange the ideas among plant operators, designers, consultants and vendors in the areas of operation, commissioning and equipment performance. This pre-print volume has been brought out as an integrated source of information on commissioning and operation of heavy water plants. The following aspects of heavy water plants are covered: commissioning and operation, instrumentation and control, and safety and environment. (V.R.)

  19. Review of the impact of the Ukraine-EU free trade agreement on manufacturing industries (mechanical engineering, chemical and light industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Usenko

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a definition to the concept of ‘deep integration’ taken by the Ukrainian Government as a framework concept for the establishment of a Ukraine-EU free trade area. The paper uses the term ‘deep free trade’ or ‘free trade area +’. It offers a review of the Ukrainian economy and its readiness to open such industries as mechanical engineering, chemical and light industry to free trade with the EU. It examines which cooperative steps might be taken in the sectors in question in the framework of a free trade area by identifying specific features of those sectors in Ukraine and the EU through SWOT analysis and review of certain provisions in relevant agreements between the EU and other countries. It proposes to forecast the possible impact of a free trade area on stakeholders’ position regarding the agreement by using the ‘stakeholder approach’ (identifying and classifying interest groups and the European Commission’s method of ‘impact assessment’. Based on the results of this research, conclusions are made concerning the fundamental negotiation principles for talks between Ukraine and the EU as to the economic and trade component of the new ‘enhanced agreement.

  20. Impacts of acute exposure of industrial chemicals and pesticides on the survival of fish (Tilapia guineensis and earthworms (Aporrectodea longa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris F. Ogeleka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecotoxicological effects of industrial chemicals (Rig wash, Oil eater, Nalco, Glycol™ and pesticides (Propoxur, Deltamethrin, Atrazine, Furadan on Tilapia guineensis (fish and Aporrectodea longa (earthworms were tested using the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD # 203 and 207 protocols. The water and soil ratings indicate that the test chemicals were toxic to the organisms. The estimated 96 hour lethal concentration LC50 values for Rig wash, Oil eater, Nalco EC1304A/COT 505, Glycol, Propoxur, and Deltamethrin were 26.34±0.46, 6.02±0.30, 3.07±0.14, 1.31±0.01, 20.91±0 and 0.01±0 mg/l respectively. In the earthworm bioassay, the estimated 14-day LC50 values for Rigwash, Oil eater, Nalco EC1304A/COT 505, Glycol, Atrazine and Furadan were 80.05±3.5, 151.55±10.7, 172.63±14.2, 63.72±2.43, 4.97±0 and 0.29±0 mg/kg respectively. Safety factors are arbitrarily built in around the LC50 values in order to arrive at environmentally tolerable concentrations. The concentration of a chemical in the receiving environment should not exceed 10% of the L50. The organisms exposed to the test chemicals showed significant difference when compared with the levels measured in the control group. The observed sensitivity of the test organisms to the chemicals indicates that adherence to standard safety limits/measures should be maintained during use and disposal of hazardous chemicals. This would ensure that the biotic components of the Nigerian Niger Delta ecosystem are prudently protected.

  1. Ethylene vinyl acetate polymer as a tool for passive sampling monitoring of hydrophobic chemicals in the salmon farm industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucca, Felipe; Moya, Heriberto; Barra, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The samplers allow the detection of hydrophobic chemicals in the marine environment. • The samplers reach equilibrium quickly, with days of deployment in the field. • The samplers have low costs and easy manipulation for monitoring programs. • A way to collect chemicals in the aquatic environment without human effort. - Abstract: Current monitoring programs are focused on hydrophobic chemicals detection in aquatic systems, which require the collection of high volumes of water samples at a given time. The present study documents the preliminary use of the polymer ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) as a passive sampler for the detection of a hydrophobic chemical used by salmon industries such as cypermethrin. Initially, an experimental calibration in laboratory was performed to determine the cypermethrin equilibrium between sampler and aquatic medium, which was reached after seven days of exposure. A logarithm of partitioning coefficient EVA–water (log K EVA–W ) of 5.6 was reported. Field deployment of EVA samplers demonstrated average concentrations of cypermethrin in water to be 2.07 ± 0.7 ng L −1 close to salmon cages, while near-shore was 4.39 ± 0.8 ng L −1 . This was a first approach for assessing EVA samplers design as a tool of monitoring in water for areas with salmon farming activity

  2. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1B. Control technologies. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents discussions of control technologies used in the industry and the costs of those technologies

  3. Preventing external domino accidents : A framework for enhancing cooperation in the Chemical Process Industry (CPI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, G.; Dullaert, W.; Soudan, K.

    2005-01-01

    Empirical research on major accident safety in the second largest chemical cluster worldwide, the Antwerp port area, supports the design of a meta-technical framework for optimizing external domino prevention. First, the majority of Seveso top tier companies have expressed a willingness to cooperate

  4. Environmental stress-corrosion cracking of fiberglass: Lessons learned from failures in the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, T.J.; Kytoemaa, H.K.; Smith, T.R.

    2007-01-01

    Fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) composite materials are often used to construct tanks, piping, scrubbers, beams, grating, and other components for use in corrosive environments. While FRP typically offers superior and cost effective corrosion resistance relative to other construction materials, the glass fibers traditionally used to provide the structural strength of the FRP can be susceptible to attack by the corrosive environment. The structural integrity of traditional FRP components in corrosive environments is usually dependent on the integrity of a corrosion-resistant barrier, such as a resin-rich layer containing corrosion resistant glass fibers. Without adequate protection, FRP components can fail under loads well below their design by an environmental stress-corrosion cracking (ESCC) mechanism when simultaneously exposed to mechanical stress and a corrosive chemical environment. Failure of these components can result in significant releases of hazardous substances into plants and the environment. In this paper, we present two case studies where fiberglass components failed due to ESCC at small chemical manufacturing facilities. As is often typical, the small chemical manufacturing facilities relied largely on FRP component suppliers to determine materials appropriate for the specific process environment and to repair damaged in-service components. We discuss the lessons learned from these incidents and precautions companies should take when interfacing with suppliers and other parties during the specification, design, construction, and repair of FRP components in order to prevent similar failures and chemical releases from occurring in the future

  5. Determination of Methylmercury Traces in Biological Matrix: Chemical Extraction and Nuclear Quantification with the Neutron Activation Analysis Technique; Determinacion de Trazas de Metilmercurio en Matriz Biologica: Extracion Quimica y Cuantificacion Mediante la Tecnica Nuclear de Analisis por Activacion Neutronica (AANI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldati, A L [Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina)

    2002-07-01

    Mercury is present in the environment as a result of the human and natural activities.The total amount of Hg present in the biosphere has been incremented three times since the industrial era, and now it is affecting in a global sense all the ecosystem.One of the main entrance of Hg in the human diet is the consumption of fish and other marine creatures.Most of the ingested Hg is mono methylmercury (MeHg), which is one of the most toxic forms in which this element could be found because it crosses membranes.Since the toxicity levels are low, the determination of concentrations of total Hg and Me Hg require very careful sampling, sample conditioning and analytical procedures to prevent either losses or contamination, or the degradation of the Hg species.In this work, we implemented a chemical Me Hg extraction procedure, using a ionic exchange resin, with three different types of fish tissue: muscle, liver and hepato pancreas.After Me Hg extraction, the determination and quantification was made by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, by measuring the {sup 197} Au, y el {sup 203} Tl deexcitation s, created through the radioactive decay of the isotopes {sup 197} Hg y {sup 203} Hg.The influence of several parameters on the overall extraction process, such as velocity of passage through the ionic exchange column and the acid concentration used in the extraction was evaluated.Regarding the INAA determinations, a choice was made for the irradiation, decay and counting times, neutron and gamma doses, and the counting geometry The detection limit found for this technique (dry weight) is 140 pg MeHg/g. The Hg contents of the muscle samples were measured with the 279 keV emission of the product of the {sup 202} Hg(n,g){sup 203} Hg reaction, with a recovery of (100 {+-} 13)%. Liver and Hepato pancreas samples were measured with the 77 keV gamma emission of the {sup 197} Hg, checking this result with the 67 y 69 keV X emissions from the same isotope.The liver samples needed

  6. Chemical pretreatment of continuous galvanized steel sheet in the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhm, P.

    2013-01-01

    Since several years, new products appeared on the market replacing classic phosphate – based conversioncoatings. This presentation will focus on the replacement of tricationic zinc phosphating systems for theautomotive industry. The basic chemistry and coating properties are presented.In the second part of the presentation, an outlook will be given on anti-corrosion packages for the comingdecade. An example of a very lean automotive paint shop will be discussed.

  7. Utilization of process heat from the HTRM in the chemical and related industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schad, M.; Barnert, H.; Candeli, R.

    1990-01-01

    Lurgi investigated the feasibility of supplying industrial processes with heat and energy from a Module High Temperature Reactor in an extensive study. This study shows that there are several processes suitable for coupling with the HTRM almost immediately and only require that the layouts are tested. The most interesting process in this respect with high market potential are aluminium oxide production and crude oil refining. (author)

  8. Carbon Dioxide Separation Technology: R&D Needs for the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2007-11-01

    This report, the second in a series, is designed to summarize and present recommendations for improved CO2 separation technology for industrial processes. This report provides an overview of 1) the principal CO2 producing processes, 2) the current commercial separation technologies and 3) emerging adsorption and membrane technologies for CO2 separation, and makes recommendations for future research.

  9. The impact of the Almalyk Industrial Complex on soil chemical and biological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukurov, Nosir; Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav; Steinberger, Yosef

    2005-01-01

    The effect of heavy metals on soil free-living nematodes, microbial biomass (C mic ) and basal respiration (BR) was studied along a 15 km downwind deposition gradient, originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex. Soil samples from 0-10 and 10-20 cm layers were collected at 5 km intervals. A significant decrease in heavy metal deposition was found going from the source in the downwind direction and with depth. The soil microbial biomass, basal respiration and derived microbial indices for soil samples from the Almalyk industrial area were analysed. The lowest soil microbial biomass and total number of free-living nematodes were found in soil samples near the industrial complex, with a high heavy metal and weak total organic carbon (C org ) content. The highest C mic was found in the soil samples collected 15 km from the pollution source. BR displayed similar results. The derived indices, metabolic quotient (qCO 2 ) and microbial ratio (C mic /C org ), revealed significant differences with distance, confirming environmental stress in the first and second locations. The present study elucidates the importance of soil nematode and microbial populations as suitable tools for bio-monitoring the effect of heavy metals on soil systems. - Soil nematodes and microbes are suitable biomonitors for metals in soils

  10. Management of evacuation in case of fire accidents in chemical industrial areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reniers, G.L.L.; Pauwels, N.; Audenaert, A.; Ale, B.J.M.; Soudan, K.

    2007-01-01

    Trade-offs between economic and safety arguments exist in the operation of chemical installations, should knock-on calamities induced by fire accidents occur: a sudden installation shutdown might result in substantial economic losses, but may be needed to ensure safety. Due to the very rare nature of domino effect risks induced decision problems an adequate evacuation decision aid model to be used by plant safety management does, to the best of the authors' knowledge, not exist. This paper develops a tentative approach to calculate the economic gains and/or losses linked to the decision problem whether or not, and when, to evacuate chemical installation(s) threatened by possible domino effect risks. The proposed model is illustrated by a case-study based on empirical data

  11. Neurodevelopmental toxicity risks due to occupational exposure to industrial chemicals during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julvez, Jordi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to neurotoxic chemicals is of particular concern when it occurs during early development. The immature brain is highly vulnerable prenatally and is therefore at risk due to occupational exposures incurred by pregnant women. A systematic search of the literature has been performed...... by occupational health researchers and practitioners from the need to protect pregnant workers. Due to the vulnerability of the brain during early development, a precautionary approach to neurodevelopmental toxicity needs to be applied in occupational health....

  12. Aspects of optical fibers and spectrometric sensors in chemical process and industrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisde, G.; Perez, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    For on-line control, the two alternatives of automatic sample transfer and in situ remote analysis are discussed. New concepts are emerging from the possibilities offered by optical fibers. Absorption in the visible, UV and IR, fluorescence and Raman spectrometric techniques are examined. The state of the art of optodes and devices in chemical process control are given, with some examples of applications in nuclear plants

  13. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in occupational toxicology: a novel approach to the study of biotransformation of industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manini, Paola; Andreoli, Roberta; Niessen, Wilfried

    2004-11-26

    Biological monitoring and biomarkers are used in occupational toxicology for a more accurate risk assessment of occupationally exposed people. Appropriate and validated biomarkers of internal dose, like urinary metabolites, besides to be positively correlated with external exposure, have a predictive value to the risk of adverse effects. The application of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in occupational and environmental toxicology, although relatively recent, has been demonstrated valid in the determination of traditional biomarkers of exposure, as well as in metabolism studies aimed at investigating minor metabolic routes and new more specific biomarkers. This review presents selected applications of LC-MS to the study of the metabolism of industrial chemicals, like n-hexane, benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons, styrene and other monomers employed in plastic industry, as well as to other chemicals used in working environments, like pesticides used by farmers, and antineoplastic agents prepared by hospital personnel. Analytical and pre-analytical factors, which affect quantitative determination of urinary metabolites, i.e. sample preparation, matrix effect, ion suppression, use of internal standards, and calibration, are emphasized.

  14. Peak expiratory flow rate in asymptomatic male workers exposed to chemical fumes, in various industries of Hyderabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padaki Samata K, Dambal Amrut , Kokiwar Prashant

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: The prevalence of occupational health hazards and mortality has been reported to be unusually high among people of India. Although developed countries are very much careful about the health in occupations it is quite neglected in the developing countries like India. Aims: To record PEFR in asymptomatic male workers exposed to chemical fumes for more than 2 years and compare the results with age matched unexposed, healthy male controls. Methods and Material: This was a comparative study between 50 asymptomatic male workers exposed to chemical fumes for more than 2 years in various industries located at Jeedimetla Industrial Area and 50 unexposed healthy male individuals from general population. The sampling was done by simple random sampling (lottery method. The data was collected in the Research Laboratory of Physiology. Anthropometry like weight, height, was measured and the PEFR test was performed in the standing position by taking a deep inspiration and then blowing out as hard and as quickly as possible with their nose closed. Data was analyzed by using SPSS package and was expressed in terms of mean ± SD. Results: It was observed that mean PEFR was statistically highly significant in cases (p = 0.0001, and PEFR decreased with increase in duration of exposure. Conclusions: Thus, it can be concluded that apparently healthy individuals may also have abnormal PEFR findings. Hence, a regular check on these parameters will help them in reducing the chances of its manifestation at a future date.

  15. Pilot-industrial plant for radiation-chemical finishing of textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burov, V.K.; Vanyushkin, B.M.; Voskoboev, A.E.

    1976-01-01

    A pilot technological radiational-chemical line for liquid-phase radiational-chemical finish of fabrics is described, which is being mounted at the Glukhov cotton group of enterprises now. It is designed primarily for the anti-microbe finish of cotton fabrics by grafting copper polyacrylate. The technological scheme is built on the principle of direct (combined) irradiation of the fabric impregnated by a monomer solution. Graft of the monomer to the fabric is performed by the radiational method. As source of radiation, an electron accelerator with the beam power of 0.4-0.7 Mev and with a biological protection has been employed. Depending on the thickness of the material irradiated and irradiation conditions, the fabric drive mechanism permits to change a number of irradiated fabric layers from 1 to 9 and by this to utilize in the most complete manner the energy of the accelerated electron beam. The nominal width of the irradiated material is 1000 m, the transportation velocity can vary in the range from 10 through 100 m/min. The radiational-chemical method of fabric finish is economical, highly productive and easily controllable

  16. Default values for assessment of potential dermal exposure of the hands to industrial chemicals in the scope of regulatory risk assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, H.; Warren, N.D.; Laitinen, J.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2006-01-01

    Dermal exposure needs to be addressed in regulatory risk assessment of chemicals. The models used so far are based on very limited data. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a large number of new measurements on dermal exposure to industrial chemicals in various work situations, together with

  17. Risk based inspection experience from the European chemical- and petrochemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristensen, Hans; Jeppesen, Leif; Larsen, Bjarne; Kim, Na Yon

    2001-01-01

    As an inspection vendor with 60 years of experience and with more than 25 years of experience as manufacturer of the Automated Ultrasonic NDT systems, the P-scan systems, FORCE Institute is continuously analysing the market for NDT. This is done to assure that both the equipment product line and the service mix provided by FORCE Institute are meeting the requirements from the industry today and in the future. The concept of Risk Based Inspection Programmes were adopted early by the offshore industry and has in the recent years been adopted by many other industries as a reliable and cost efficient way of maintaining a production facility. A Risk/Reliability Based Inspection Programme is a 'living organism' that constantly needs information if it shall be of any value and NDT information is only one type of information that is required. The NDT information required is normally related to corrosion/base material information and weld integrity information. NDT as an integrated part of a plants maintenance system is, in Europe, currently influenced by the following tendencies which all are related to 'Risk Based Inspection': · Increased use of Base-Line Inspections · Reduction in the use of repeated inspections(qualitative- instead of quantitative Inspections). · Inspection results are fed directly into the plant maintenance system. · Fitness-for-Purpose acceptance criteria instead of conventional acceptance criteria. As repeatability and accuracy is a key issue for the data, automated ultrasonic inspection is increasingly used as an alternative to manual ultrasonic inspection, but due to the physical size of most automated ultrasonic inspection systems the gain in productivity has not been as significant as the gain in repeatability and accuracy. In this paper some of FORCE Institute's practical experiences with examinations carried out in connection with Risk Based Inspection is used to illustrate the above described tendencies. Not only examples using automated

  18. A comparision of industrial and homemade bulgur in Turkey in terms of physical, chemical and nutritional properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertaş Nilgün

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of functional and nutritional properties of bulgur is of paramount importance for the growth of healthy generations. In this study, physical, chemical, nutritional and sensorial qualities of bulgur produced at the industrial, homemade and laboratory scale in Turkey were determined and the results were compared. The ash content of bulgur samples was determined between 1.04 and 1.81%, the total protein contents of the samples were found between 11.90 and 14.47%. Evaluation of nutritional status of bulgur; the total phenolic contents value varied 449.82 to 1047.09 μg/g, the phytic acid values were found between 422.14 and 1173.56 mg/100 g. The mineral contents of the samples were analyzed, and all the bulgur samples contained lower amounts of cadmium and lead than JECFA limits. Homemade bulgur samples had a more aromatic taste and smell than industrially produced bulgur samples, and also industrially produced bulgur samples had lighter color than homemade bulgur.

  19. Plant seeds as sources of potential industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and pest control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Richard G

    2009-03-27

    Investigations of natural products isolated from seeds have resulted in a remarkable variety of compounds having unusual structures. Seeds of many plant species contain uncommon fatty acids and lipids, some of which have found uses in the cosmetic industry or as renewable (non-petroleum based) industrial raw materials. In addition to proteins and energy storage substances such as carbohydrates and lipids, seeds generally contain, or have the ability to produce, protective compounds that are active as plant growth regulators, fungicides, insecticides, and repellents of herbivores; seeds occasionally contain compounds that are toxic to most other organisms. These compounds may also be present in other plant parts, but often are found at higher concentrations in seeds. Other compounds of interest have been associated with plant-endophyte interactions that are of mutual benefit to both organisms. Tests of seed extracts for cytotoxic and antitumor activity, toxicity to insects, and relationships to several animal disease syndromes have been revealing. Examples of compounds isolated from plant seeds that have served as lead compounds for additional research, or that continue to be of interest to researchers in multiple areas, are reviewed.

  20. Physical, microscopic and chemical characterisation of industrial rye and wheat brans from the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal-Eldin, A; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2009-01-01

    , compared to wheat bran, regarding structure and content of nutrients as well as a number of presumably bioactive compounds. Design: Six different rye brans from Sweden, Denmark and Finland were analysed and compared with two wheat brans regarding colour, particle size distribution, microscopic structures...... and chemical composition including proximal components, vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds. Results: Rye brans were generally greener in colour and smaller in particle size than wheat brans. The rye brans varied considerably in their starch content (13.2-28.3%), which reflected variable inclusion...

  1. Joint Project Manager (JPM) Chemical Biological Individual and Collective Protection Industry Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-22

    ANSWER: The SBA operates the Office of Women’s B i O hi Th OWBO t thus ness wners p. e promo es e growth of women owned businesses through programs...TIC prioritization focused on a h i i k t f h tcompre ens ve r s managemen o w a we do not know: Absolute global production levels Absolute global...Modeling (For operational analyses) 2. Breakthrough Levels 3 D t ti A h. e ec on pproac es Multiple species may be present 4. Chemical Class Analysis

  2. In silico prediction of Tetrahymena pyriformis toxicity for diverse industrial chemicals with substructure pattern recognition and machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feixiong; Shen, Jie; Yu, Yue; Li, Weihua; Liu, Guixia; Lee, Philip W; Tang, Yun

    2011-03-01

    There is an increasing need for the rapid safety assessment of chemicals by both industries and regulatory agencies throughout the world. In silico techniques are practical alternatives in the environmental hazard assessment. It is especially true to address the persistence, bioaccumulative and toxicity potentials of organic chemicals. Tetrahymena pyriformis toxicity is often used as a toxic endpoint. In this study, 1571 diverse unique chemicals were collected from the literature and composed of the largest diverse data set for T. pyriformis toxicity. Classification predictive models of T. pyriformis toxicity were developed by substructure pattern recognition and different machine learning methods, including support vector machine (SVM), C4.5 decision tree, k-nearest neighbors and random forest. The results of a 5-fold cross-validation showed that the SVM method performed better than other algorithms. The overall predictive accuracies of the SVM classification model with radial basis functions kernel was 92.2% for the 5-fold cross-validation and 92.6% for the external validation set, respectively. Furthermore, several representative substructure patterns for characterizing T. pyriformis toxicity were also identified via the information gain analysis methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Operational and biological analyses of branched water-adjustment and combined treatment of wastewater from a chemical industrial park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Cao, Jiashun; Li, Chao; Tu, Yong; Wu, Haisuo; Liu, Weijing

    2018-01-01

    The combined biological processes of branched water-adjustment, chemical precipitation, hydrolysis acidification, secondary sedimentation, Anoxic/Oxic and activated carbon treatment were used for chemical industrial wastewater treatment in the Taihu Lake Basin. Full-scale treatment resulted in effluent chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, NH 3 -N and total phosphorus of 35.1, 5.20, 3.10 and 0.15 mg/L, respectively, with a total removal efficiency of 91.1%, 67.1%, 70.5% and 89.3%, respectively. In this process, short-circuited organic carbon from brewery wastewater was beneficial for denitrification and second-sulfate reduction. The concentration of effluent fluoride was 6.22 mg/L, which also met the primary standard. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis revealed that many types of refractory compounds were present in the inflow. Microbial community analysis performed in the summer by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and MiSeq demonstrated that certain special functional bacteria, such as denitrificans, phosphorus-accumulating bacteria, sulfate- and perhafnate-reducing bacteria, aromatic compound-degrading bacteria and organic fluoride-degrading bacteria, present in the bio-tanks were responsible for the acceptable specific biological pollutant reduction achieved.

  4. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  5. Energy saving actions in the Italian industry : An analysis on the energetic and environmental consequences; Interventi di razionalizzazione energetica nell`industria italiana analisi delle ricadute energetico-ambientali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Franco, N [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia; Faberi, S [ISIS, Istituto di Studio per l` Informatica e i Sistemi, Rome (Italy)

    1996-08-01

    In this work the consequences of an energetic diagnoses campaign, lead by ENEA in about 600 small-medium Italian factories, have been analysed. The goal of the study is to determine the amount of global energy saving that the national industry can achieve, and, in addition, to specify the most efficacious actions for every productive field. Besides economic and energetic savings, positive environmental consequences owing to energetic diagnoses have been considered. Payback times, in spite of low present prices of energy, are interesting (about 2/3 years for the most important enterprises). Global energy savings have been calculated; they show an amount of about 6-8 Mtep per year, that corresponds to 20-27 % of total energetic consumptions of Italian industry.

  6. Chemical and microbiological characteristics of Lebanese cheeses made by local industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dib, H.; Hajj Semaan, E.; Noureddine, Z.

    2008-01-01

    In order to characterize, protect dairy products and develop new probiotics, a survey was conducted amongst 37 dairy factories. Chemical (pH, acidity, DM, protein, fat, soluble nitrogen and free fatty acid) and microbiological (total aerobic bacteria, Coliforms, E. coli, Salmonella, Listeria, and Staphylococcus aureus) analysis were carried out on samples collected from factories (7 Baladi, 22 Akkawi, 18 Double creme and 22 Halloum) of different regions. These cheeses are made by 73% of visited factories. Chemical analysis showed low acidity (0.18 to 0.26%), variable levels of moisture (54 to 70%) protein (19 to 24%) and fat (12 to 18%) except Double creme (3.26 ± 1.78%). Except 8%, Good Hygienic and Manufacturing Practices (GHP/GMP) are not applied in visited factories. This is confirmed with the high levels of Coliforms, detectable in most varieties at an alarming level (72 to 86%). Besides, 23-71% of samples were contaminated with E. coli. However, all samples were found free of staphylococcus aureus; Halloum cheese was the only one free of Listeria and Salmonella. The highest off standard for these bacteria was noticed in Baladi cheese where 29% were contaminated with Listeria and Salmonella. Listeria was also found in 10% of Akkawi and 17% of Double creme. These results show a violation of the Good Hygienic and Manufacturing Practices (GHP/GMP) by most factories in all visited regions. (author)

  7. Inhalation toxicology of industrial plutonium and uranium oxide aerosols I. Physical chemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidson, A.F.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    In the fabrication of mixed plutonium and uranium oxide fuel, large quantities of dry powders are processed, causing dusty conditions in glove box enclosures. Inadvertent loss of glove box integrity or failure of air filter systems can lead to human inhalation exposure. Powdered samples and aerosol samples of these materials obtained during two fuel fabrication process steps have been obtained. A regimen of physical chemical tests of properties of these materials has been employed to identify physical chemical properties which may influence their biological behavior and dosimetry. Materials to be discussed are 750 deg. C heat-treated, mixed uranium and plutonium oxides obtained from the ball milling operation and 1750 deg. C heat-treated, mixed uranium and plutonium oxides obtained from the centerless grinding of fuel pellets. Results of x-ray diffraction studies have shown that the powder generated by the centerless grinding of fuel pellets is best described as a solid solution of UO x and PuO x consistent with its temperature history. In vitro dissolution studies of both mixed oxide materials indicate a generally similar dissolution rate for both materials. In one solvent, the material with the higher temperature history dissolves more rapidly. The x-ray diffraction and in vitro dissolution results as well as preliminary results of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses will be compared and the implications for the associated biological studies will be discussed. (author)

  8. Possible penetration of nuclear power in fuel and power demand structure in chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balajka, J.

    1985-01-01

    The possibilities are indicated of the technological applications of high temperature reactors in chemical operations. Nuclear heating may be applied to such processes whose temperature does not 850 degC and pressure is approximately equal to the pressure of helium in the primary circuit of the reactor. The following processes may be implemented: the production of ammonia and methanol, the reduction of iron ore, the implementation of the system of long-distance heat transmission in chemically bound form, etc. The diagram has been designed for the production of ammonia and methanol by steam reforming of methane. The natural gas which enters the process is distributed in the technological and power branches. In the technological branch it is preheated and desulphurized, then mixed with steam and entered the reactor.The outlet mixture of CO, CO 2 , H 2 and Csub(n)Hsub(m) is oxidized with air and following further catalyses a mixture is obtained of N 2 and H 2 in the 1:3 ratio. The power balances and variants are calculated of the distribution of reactor power and its effect on the basic parameters of the technology of the production of NH 3 . (M.D.)

  9. Analysis of Innovation and Its Environmental Impacts on the Chemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Schreiber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of the economy and the need to achieve competitiveness drive organizations to invest in technology and in innovation, in order to find solutions that will provide advantages in an ever-more competitive market. The conflict between dwindling natural resources and the demand for economic growth has created a growing need to find means for making environmental conservation compatible with economic growth. The objective of this study is to contribute to the debate by analyzing the innovations implemented by chemical companies in the Sinos Valley region, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and by identifying the motivations that drive them to develop environmental technologies. The study is exploratory and descriptive, with a quantitative data collection component in the form of a survey sent to all chemical companies in the Sinos Valley region, listed in a local business association database. The study results indicate that development of innovations is predominantly of an incremental nature and that novelty is generally restricted to the new-for-firm level. The environmental technologies implemented are generally designed to prevent or remedy environmental damage and are primarily motivated by the need to comply with environmental standards and legislation.

  10. Analisis Fundamental Menggunakan Price Earning Ratio (Per) Untuk Menilai Kewajaran Harga Saham Sebagai Dasar Pengambilan Keputusan Investasi (Studi Pada Sektor Industri Barang Konsumsi Yang Listing Di Bei Periode 2012-2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Anggraini, Elina Amelia; Topowijono,; Sulasmiyati, Sri

    2016-01-01

    This research suggests an analysis of the reasonableness of the price of the stock using fundamental anlysis with approach of Price Earning Ratio (PER) as the basis for making investment decisions an investor. Fundamental's factors that affect stock prices quoted will affect investment decisions an investor. Increasingly of sectoral stock's price index is the reason of this research using population in the form of shares of the Consumer Goods Industry Sector listing on the Indonesian's Stock ...

  11. Effect of an industrial chemical waste on the uptake of cations by green oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HORTENSIA RADULESCU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate, obtained as a waste in the industrial manufacture of magnesium carbonate and magnesium oxide from dolomites, can be applied in agriculture. The appreciable amounts of calcium and magnesium in this waste, together with impurities such as iron, zinc, manganese, chromium and copper compounds can be useful in soil amendment and plant nutrition. This paper presents preliminary results of the testing of several waste doses on soil, pursuing their effect on the uptake of cations by green oat (Avena sativa L.. The obtained results show an increase in the amount of calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper found in green oat plants, as well as a decrease of the content of iron and manganese with increasing waste dose. These results may be explained by lower absorptions of iron andmanganese because of the antagonistic effect created by high amounts of calcium and magnesium, as well as by the presence of copper and zinc.

  12. A scheme for the classification of explosions in the chemical process industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Tasneem; Pasman, H J; Abbasi, S A

    2010-02-15

    All process industry accidents fall under three broad categories-fire, explosion, and toxic release. Of these fire is the most common, followed by explosions. Within these broad categories occur a large number of sub-categories, each depicting a specific sub-type of a fire/explosion/toxic release. But whereas clear and self-consistent sub-classifications exist for fires and toxic releases, the situation is not as clear vis a vis explosions. In this paper the inconsistencies and/or shortcomings associated with the classification of different types of explosions, which are seen even in otherwise highly authentic and useful reference books on process safety, are reviewed. In its context a new classification is attempted which may, hopefully, provide a frame-of-reference for the future.

  13. ANALISIS KESELAMATAN TERMOHIDROLIK BULK SHIELDING REAKTOR KARTINI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizul Khakim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK ANALISIS KESELAMATAN TERMOHIDROLIK BULK SHIELDING REAKTOR KARTINI. Bulk shielding merupakan fasilitas yang terintegrasi dengan reaktor Kartini yang berfungsi sebagai penyimpanan sementara bahan bakar bekas. Fasilitas ini merupakan fasilitas yang termasuk dalam struktur, sistem dan komponen (SSK yang penting bagi keselamatan. Salah satu fungsi keselamatan dari sistem penanganan dan penyimpanan bahan bakar adalah mencegah kecelakaan kekritisan yang tak terkendali dan membatasi naiknya temperatur bahan bakar. Analisis keselamatan paling kurang harus mencakup analisis keselamatan dari sisi neutronik dan termo hidrolik Bulk shielding. Analisis termo hidrolik ditujukan untuk memastikan perpindahan panas dan proses pendinginan bahan bakar bekas berjalan baik dan tidak terjadi akumulasi panas yang mengancam integritas bahan bakar. Code tervalidasi PARET/ANL digunakan untuk analisis pendinginan dengan mode konveksi alam. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa mode pendinginan konvekasi alam cukup memadai dalam mendinginkan panas sisa tanpa mengakibatkan kenaikan temperatur bahan bakar yang signifikan. Kata kunci: Bulk shielding, bahan bakar bekas, konveksi alam, PARET.   ABSTRACT THERMAL HYDRAULIC SAFETY ANALYSIS OF BULK SHIELDING KARTINI REACTOR. Bulk shielding is an integrated facility to Kartini reactor which is used for temporary spent fuels storage. The facility is one of the structures, systems and components (SSCs important to safety. Among the safety functions of fuel handling and storage are to prevent any uncontrolable criticality accidents and to limit the fuel temperature increase. Safety analyses should, at least, cover neutronic and thermal hydraulic calculations of the bulk shielding. Thermal hydraulic analyses were intended to ensure that heat removal and the process of the spent fuels cooling takes place adequately and no heat accumulation that challenges the fuel integrity. Validated code, PARET/ANL was used for analysing the

  14. Threshold of toxicological concern values for non-genotoxic effects in industrial chemicals: re-evaluation of the Cramer classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhof, H; Herzler, M; Stahlmann, R; Gundert-Remy, U

    2012-01-01

    The TTC concept employs available data from animal testing to derive a distribution of NOAELs. Taking a probabilistic view, the 5th percentile of the distribution is taken as a threshold value for toxicity. In this paper, we use 824 NOAELs from repeated dose toxicity studies of industrial chemicals to re-evaluate the currently employed TTC values, which have been derived for substances grouped according to the Cramer scheme (Cramer et al. in Food Cosm Toxicol 16:255-276, 1978) by Munro et al. (Food Chem Toxicol 34:829-867, 1996) and refined by Kroes and Kozianowski (Toxicol Lett 127:43-46, 2002), Kroes et al. 2000. In our data set, consisting of 756 NOAELs from 28-day repeated dose testing and 57 NOAELs from 90-days repeated dose testing, the experimental NOAEL had to be extrapolated to chronic TTC using regulatory accepted extrapolation factors. The TTC values derived from our data set were higher than the currently used TTC values confirming the safety of the latter. We analysed the prediction of the Cramer classification by comparing the classification by this tool with the guidance values for classification according to the Globally Harmonised System of classification and labelling of the United Nations (GHS). Nearly 90% of the chemicals were in Cramer class 3 and assumed as highly toxic compared to 22% according to the GHS. The Cramer classification does underestimate the toxicity of chemicals only in 4.6% of the cases. Hence, from a regulatory perspective, the Cramer classification scheme might be applied as it overestimates hazard of a chemical.

  15. To the partnership in Kanegafuchi Chemical Industry and solar cell; Kaneka, taiyo denchi de teikei he

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Kanegafuchi Chemical Ind. clarified that the consultation was advanced in the direction in which the business cooperates with BP Amoco Corp. in international oil majors on the solar cell business on 11 th capital. In full amount fund subsidiary of the bell pool chemistry, the solar cell making and selling company is established in the joint venture in Europe and America, Asia, when the BP Amoco Corp. does capital participation in money mosquito solar tech which is the production marketer of solar cell. The plan which develops the amorphous solar cell of low cost which the bell pool chemistry developed in the world. The consultation of the partnership is also arranging prospect in the end June, and it seems to greatly jump by uniting with the BP Amoco Corp. of the largest hand. (translated by NEDO)

  16. Subjective and objective measurement of websites quality in a chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Jillbert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the Website of a chemical company, Deza, relative to strategy and Website quality. In an attempt to obtain both an objective and subjective measure of the quality of the Deza website, two assessment methods have been used. Firstly, a subjective assessment was conducted based on the WebQual survey instrument proposed by Barnes and Vidgen (2000. Secondly, a more objective assessment was conducted via an “informational content analysis”, based on the work of Carlson et. al. (2001. Analysis of the results of the WebQual survey suggest that overall, the Deza Website is perceived by the user as being of a higher quality than the Koppers Website, but a lower quality then the Nalon Website. The Information content analysis also ranks the Deza website as being superior to Koppers and inferior to Nalon.

  17. Possible penetration of nuclear power in fuel and energy demand structure in chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balajka, J.

    1986-01-01

    Three basic technologies based on methane steam reforming using nuclear heating were assessed with respect of a simplified diagram of a link between a high temperature reactor and chemical technology. They included the technologies of production of methanol, hydrogen and ammonia which differ in the gradually increasing exothermal character of the fission gas processing into the resulting synthesis gas (methanol, ammonia) or the gaseous product (hydrogen). In dependence on the degree of available power from the high temperature reactor for steam reforming, the efficiency of the cycle of the synthesis gas preparation, the power demand, and the balance of the associated electric power generation and the capacity of the production unit were evaluated. (author)

  18. The Northwest Infrared (NWIR) gas-phase spectral database of industrial and environmental chemicals: Recent updates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauer, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Blake, Thomas A.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Sams, Robert L.; Tonkyn, Russell G.

    2014-05-22

    With continuing improvements in both standoff- and point-sensing techniques, there is an ongoing need for high-quality infrared spectral databases. The Northwest Infrared Database (NWIR) contains quantitative, gas-phase infrared spectra of nearly 500 pure chemical species that can be used for a variety of applications such as atmospheric monitoring, biomass burning studies, etc. The data, recorded at 0.1 cm-1 resolution, are pressure broadened to one atmosphere (N2) in order to mimic atmospheric conditions. Each spectrum is a composite composed of multiple individual measurements. Recent updates to the database include over 60 molecules that are known or suspected biomass-burning effluents. Examples from this set of measurements will be presented and experimental details will be discussed in the context of the utility of NWIR for environmental applications.

  19. Industrialization of Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition for thin film applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schropp, R.E.I., E-mail: r.e.i.schropp@tue.nl

    2015-11-30

    The consequences of implementing a Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) chamber into an existing in-line or roll-to-roll reactor are described. The hardware and operation of the HWCVD production reactor is compared to that of existing roll-to-roll reactors based on Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition. The most important consequences are the technical consequences and the economic consequences, which are both discussed. The technical consequences are adaptations needed to the hardware and to the processing sequences due to the different interaction of the HWCVD process with the substrate and already deposited layers. The economic consequences are the reduced investments in radio frequency (RF) supplies and RF components. This is partially offset by investments that have to be made in higher capacity pumping systems. The most mature applications of HWCVD are moisture barrier coatings for thin film flexible devices such as Organic Light Emitting Diodes and Organic Photovoltaics, and passivation layers for multicrystalline Si solar cells, high mobility field effect transistors, and silicon heterojunction cells (also known as heterojunction cells with intrinsic thin film layers). Another example is the use of Si in thin film photovoltaics. The cost perspective per unit of thin film photovoltaic product using HWCVD is estimated at 0.07 €/Wp for the Si thin film component. - Highlights: • Review of consequences of implementing Hot Wire CVD into a manufacturing plant • Aspects of scaling up to large area and continuous manufacturing are discussed • Economic advantage of introducing a HWCVD process in a production system is estimated • Using HWCVD, the cost for the Si layers in photovoltaic products is 0.08 €/Wp.

  20. Industrialization of Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition for thin film applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schropp, R.E.I.

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of implementing a Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) chamber into an existing in-line or roll-to-roll reactor are described. The hardware and operation of the HWCVD production reactor is compared to that of existing roll-to-roll reactors based on Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition. The most important consequences are the technical consequences and the economic consequences, which are both discussed. The technical consequences are adaptations needed to the hardware and to the processing sequences due to the different interaction of the HWCVD process with the substrate and already deposited layers. The economic consequences are the reduced investments in radio frequency (RF) supplies and RF components. This is partially offset by investments that have to be made in higher capacity pumping systems. The most mature applications of HWCVD are moisture barrier coatings for thin film flexible devices such as Organic Light Emitting Diodes and Organic Photovoltaics, and passivation layers for multicrystalline Si solar cells, high mobility field effect transistors, and silicon heterojunction cells (also known as heterojunction cells with intrinsic thin film layers). Another example is the use of Si in thin film photovoltaics. The cost perspective per unit of thin film photovoltaic product using HWCVD is estimated at 0.07 €/Wp for the Si thin film component. - Highlights: • Review of consequences of implementing Hot Wire CVD into a manufacturing plant • Aspects of scaling up to large area and continuous manufacturing are discussed • Economic advantage of introducing a HWCVD process in a production system is estimated • Using HWCVD, the cost for the Si layers in photovoltaic products is 0.08 €/Wp.