WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical hazards database

  1. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  2. Chemical hazards database and detection system for Microgravity and Materials Processing Facility (MMPF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Jimmy; Smith, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    The ability to identify contaminants associated with experiments and facilities is directly related to the safety of the Space Station. A means of identifying these contaminants has been developed through this contracting effort. The delivered system provides a listing of the materials and/or chemicals associated with each facility, information as to the contaminant's physical state, a list of the quantity and/or volume of each suspected contaminant, a database of the toxicological hazards associated with each contaminant, a recommended means of rapid identification of the contaminants under operational conditions, a method of identifying possible failure modes and effects analysis associated with each facility, and a fault tree-type analysis that will provide a means of identifying potential hazardous conditions related to future planned missions.

  3. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRAMS, W.H.

    2000-12-28

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from the results of the hazard evaluations, and (2) Hazard Topography Database: Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  4. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GAULT, G.W.

    1999-10-13

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved TWRS Authorization Basis (AB). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the TWRS FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The TWRS Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The database supports the preparation of Chapters 3,4, and 5 of the TWRS FSAR and the USQ process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Evaluation Database--Data from the results of the hazard evaluations; and (2) Hazard Topography Database--Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  5. Natural Hazards Image Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photographs and other visual media provide valuable pre- and post-event data for natural hazards. Research, mitigation, and forecasting rely on visual data for...

  6. Chemical process hazards analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  7. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant safety document ICPP hazardous chemical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwood, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of a hazardous chemical evaluation performed for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). ICPP tracks chemicals on a computerized database, Haz Track, that contains roughly 2000 individual chemicals. The database contains information about each chemical, such as its form (solid, liquid, or gas); quantity, either in weight or volume; and its location. The Haz Track database was used as the primary starting point for the chemical evaluation presented in this report. The chemical data and results presented here are not intended to provide limits, but to provide a starting point for nonradiological hazards analysis.

  8. Chemical Kinetics Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 17 NIST Chemical Kinetics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemical Kinetics Database includes essentially all reported kinetics results for thermal gas-phase chemical reactions. The database is designed to be searched for kinetics data based on the specific reactants involved, for reactions resulting in specified products, for all the reactions of a particular species, or for various combinations of these. In addition, the bibliography can be searched by author name or combination of names. The database contains in excess of 38,000 separate reaction records for over 11,700 distinct reactant pairs. These data have been abstracted from over 12,000 papers with literature coverage through early 2000.

  9. Accessing and using chemical databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Pavlov, Todor; Niemelä, Jay Russell

    2013-01-01

    Computer-based representation of chemicals makes it possible to organize data in chemical databases-collections of chemical structures and associated properties. Databases are widely used wherever efficient processing of chemical information is needed, including search, storage, retrieval......, and dissemination. Structure and functionality of chemical databases are considered. The typical kinds of information found in a chemical database are considered-identification, structural, and associated data. Functionality of chemical databases is presented, with examples of search and access types. More details...

  10. How to control chemical hazards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Improving protection against chemical hazards is one of the 2012 CERN safety objectives identified by the Director General. Identifying and drawing up a complete inventory of chemicals, and assessing the associated risks are important steps in this direction.   The HSE Unit has drawn up safety rules, guidelines and forms to help you to meet this objective. We would like to draw your attention to: • safety guidelines C-0-0-1 and C-1-0-2 (now also available in French), which deal with the identification of hazardous chemicals and the assessment of chemical risk; • safety guideline C-1-0-1, which deals with the storage of hazardous chemicals. All safety documents can be consulted at: cern.ch/regles-securite The HSE Unit will be happy to answer any questions you may have. Write to us at: safety-general@cern.ch The HSE Unit

  11. Countermeasures to Hazardous Chemicals,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    of any effective community awareness and emergency response program is an informed public familiar with the operations of local chemical plants. Such a...protection systems. 2. Booklel, ’Protecting People and the Environment.’ - A concise booklet developed to familiarize the public with chemical operations and...Jefe, Seccion de Estudios y Planificacion 102. Civil Defense Administation c/Evaristo San Miguel, 8 Ministry of Interior Madrid-8 Ankara ESPANA

  12. Toxic hazard assessment of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, M.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Retrieval of data; Verification of data; Interpretation of data; Risk assessment and case histories; and Legislation on chemicals. This work is to provide basic guidance on means of retrieving, validating, and interpreting data in order to make a toxicological hazard assessment upon a chemical.

  13. CHRIS: Hazardous Chemical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    SYNONYM COMPOUND NAME MIDDLEDXL -CARBOLIC OIL MIDDL OI EHYL ISOBUTYL i.ETOPiE MILD MECRPHOIE*,ECUROUS CHIORICE MILK AC RY CH OR D LACTIC ACID MIKAI...hya plnnrctan,9 c large Amount% of milk . etit It- Act and get nrcdiaal help inireialoli. no spocila utldoics’no-n t15- .5iron ediali Saab %tti beds 01...s* Uht ,, A-1 , Pi Ims, SELECTED MANUFACTURER’ _,-J16nip WP.. -k-5..2 Fifelfi t~ IInr~I % AM 7 CHEMICAL REArIIVTTY %nIN4.s \\ %.u~~ b- N 5.n,5n5* ’qt

  14. Schools Remove Hazardous Chemicals from Labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes safety committee (New York section, American Chemical Society) survey of college chemistry facilities to assess hazards and make recommendations, and a cooperative project in Iowa to identify and remove hazardous chemicals from college/secondary school classrooms. Includes a partial list of hazardous chemicals identified by the Iowa…

  15. Database for Safety-Oriented Tracking of Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, Jacob; Carr, Sandra; Plumlee, Debrah; Slater, Andy; Samson, Thomas M.; Holowaty, Toby L.; Skeete, Darren; Haenz, Mary Alice; Hershman, Scot; Raviprakash, Pushpa

    2010-01-01

    SafetyChem is a computer program that maintains a relational database for tracking chemicals and associated hazards at Johnson Space Center (JSC) by use of a Web-based graphical user interface. The SafetyChem database is accessible to authorized users via a JSC intranet. All new chemicals pass through a safety office, where information on hazards, required personal protective equipment (PPE), fire-protection warnings, and target organ effects (TOEs) is extracted from material safety data sheets (MSDSs) and recorded in the database. The database facilitates real-time management of inventory with attention to such issues as stability, shelf life, reduction of waste through transfer of unused chemicals to laboratories that need them, quantification of chemical wastes, and identification of chemicals for which disposal is required. Upon searching the database for a chemical, the user receives information on physical properties of the chemical, hazard warnings, required PPE, a link to the MSDS, and references to the applicable International Standards Organization (ISO) 9000 standard work instructions and the applicable job hazard analysis. Also, to reduce the labor hours needed to comply with reporting requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the data can be directly exported into the JSC hazardous- materials database.

  16. Toxics Release Inventory Chemical Hazard Information Profiles (TRI-CHIP) Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Chemical Hazard Information Profiles (TRI-CHIP) dataset contains hazard information about the chemicals reported in TRI. Users can use this XML-format dataset to create their own databases and hazard analyses of TRI chemicals. The hazard information is compiled from a series of authoritative sources including the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The dataset is provided as a downloadable .zip file that when extracted provides XML files and schemas for the hazard information tables.

  17. Hazardous Chemical Discharge Prevention and Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    Agency. - Hazardous Mlaterials - Other chemicals, dangerous articles or coimodities regulated by the U.S. Coast Guard by such laws as the Tank Vessel...Act and the Dangerous Cargo Act. - Hazardous Chemicals - A generic term encompassing all of the above and any other hazardous chemicals not included in... Lait 4151.3.1 cae As -0mig L~een study Sub Week~ imit 4151.3.1.1 1~bWal Limi 411 3 1.31. fiVIediang Syst* Walk Lbit 4151.3.3 O1IS List Pumaebility

  18. Chemical Hazards Emergency Medical Management (CHEMM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardell, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The Chemical Hazards Emergency Medical Management (CHEMM) website from the National Library of Medicine is designed for first responders and medical providers who are planning for and responding to chemical hazards events. It includes pages tailored to the individual interests of specific groups, including first responders, health care providers, mental health professionals, toxicologists, and more. The featured decision support system CHEMM Intelligent Syndromes Tool allows users to identify the chemical a patient was exposed to in a mass casualty event. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  19. Occupational hazards of chemical carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indulski, J.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.

    1984-01-01

    Current problems are presented resulting from the evaluation of occupational risk of chemical carcinogens in the national economy. In addition, conditions and activities facilitating the actual evaluation of exposure, i.e. one of the indirect purposes of the control program of work-induced cancer, undertaken within the Government Program PR-6 ''Cancer Control'', the problem ''Work Environment Cancerogenesis'', have been indicated. The numbers of those occupationally exposed to specific carcinogens, based on the data from sanitary-epidemiological stations, demonstrated great differences in professional preparation and technological capabilities of regional supervision authorities in the field concerned.

  20. The CARLSBAD database: a confederated database of chemical bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Stephen L; Hines-Kay, Jarrett; Yang, Jeremy J; Zahoransky-Kohalmi, Gergely; Bologa, Cristian G; Ursu, Oleg; Oprea, Tudor I

    2013-01-01

    Many bioactivity databases offer information regarding the biological activity of small molecules on protein targets. Information in these databases is often hard to resolve with certainty because of subsetting different data in a variety of formats; use of different bioactivity metrics; use of different identifiers for chemicals and proteins; and having to access different query interfaces, respectively. Given the multitude of data sources, interfaces and standards, it is challenging to gather relevant facts and make appropriate connections and decisions regarding chemical-protein associations. The CARLSBAD database has been developed as an integrated resource, focused on high-quality subsets from several bioactivity databases, which are aggregated and presented in a uniform manner, suitable for the study of the relationships between small molecules and targets. In contrast to data collection resources, CARLSBAD provides a single normalized activity value of a given type for each unique chemical-protein target pair. Two types of scaffold perception methods have been implemented and are available for datamining: HierS (hierarchical scaffolds) and MCES (maximum common edge subgraph). The 2012 release of CARLSBAD contains 439 985 unique chemical structures, mapped onto 1,420 889 unique bioactivities, and annotated with 277 140 HierS scaffolds and 54 135 MCES chemical patterns, respectively. Of the 890 323 unique structure-target pairs curated in CARLSBAD, 13.95% are aggregated from multiple structure-target values: 94 975 are aggregated from two bioactivities, 14 544 from three, 7 930 from four and 2214 have five bioactivities, respectively. CARLSBAD captures bioactivities and tags for 1435 unique chemical structures of active pharmaceutical ingredients (i.e. 'drugs'). CARLSBAD processing resulted in a net 17.3% data reduction for chemicals, 34.3% reduction for bioactivities, 23% reduction for HierS and 25% reduction for MCES, respectively. The CARLSBAD database

  1. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakulska, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extreiely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest, concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction.

  2. Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Pakulska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extremely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction. Med Pr 2015;66(1:99–117

  3. Database for potential hazards from future volcanic eruptions in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Melissa N.; Ramsey, David W.; Miller, C. Dan

    2011-01-01

    More than 500 volcanic vents have been identified in the State of California. At least 76 of these vents have erupted, some repeatedly, during the past 10,000 yr. Past volcanic activity has ranged in scale and type from small rhyolitic and basaltic eruptions through large catastrophic rhyolitic eruptions. Sooner or later, volcanoes in California will erupt again, and they could have serious impacts on the health and safety of the State's citizens as well as on its economy. This report describes the nature and probable distribution of potentially hazardous volcanic phenomena and their threat to people and property. It includes hazard-zonation maps that show areas relatively likely to be affected by future eruptions in California. This digital release contains information from maps of potential hazards from future volcanic eruptions in the state of California, published as Plate 1 in U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1847. The main component of this digital release is a spatial database prepared using geographic information systems (GIS) applications. This release also contains links to files to view or print the map plate, main report text, and accompanying hazard tables from Bulletin 1847. It should be noted that much has been learned about the ages of eruptive events in the State of California since the publication of Bulletin 1847 in 1989. For the most up to date information on the status of California volcanoes, please refer to the U.S. Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program website.

  4. 77 FR 41300 - Hazardous Chemical Reporting: Revisions to the Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory Forms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... utility and telecommunication industry stated that their substations or cell towers may be unmanned. Thus... should be marked ``optional'' since certain locations, such as a cell tower with a hut at its base with... locations, such as a cell tower where hazardous chemicals may be stored could be unstaffed and therefore may...

  5. The effects of seasonal variation on hazardous chemical releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Laura I; Lima, Raquel; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Marcozzi, David

    2008-02-28

    Accidental and intentional chemical releases are an increasing threat to our society. These events occur year around under different seasonal circumstances. A number of papers using the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events database (HSEES) have found some evidence that season may be an important variable affecting the number of hazardous chemical releases (HCRs). To the authors' knowledge, no analyses specifically focused on seasonal variation of HCRs. Significant effects of season are useful to further HCR prevention efforts and improve preparation and training of first responders, community evacuation, and hospital preparedness. Seasonal variation is a factor in transportation HCRs, but not fixed facility HCRs. There is an overall seasonal effect for the cause of the event. There is also seasonal variation of HCRs with respect to geographical area, with more incidents in the South. The substances released also demonstrate seasonal variation with summer having more incidents involving acids, ammonia, chlorine, pesticides, paints and dyes. The number of victims treated at hospitals resulting from HCRs did not display seasonal variation. This new additional information involving seasonal changes of HCRs adds to the literature on HCRs and may indirectly have implications for the prevention of incidents, training of personnel responding to HCRs, community planning, and local hazard vulnerability analyses and finally hospital preparedness.

  6. 46 CFR 189.25-47 - Chemical and explosive hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical and explosive hazards. 189.25-47 Section 189.25... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-47 Chemical and explosive hazards. (a) The marine inspector shall inspect every chemistry laboratory, scientific laboratory, and chemical storeroom...

  7. Prediction and Prevention of Chemical Reaction Hazards: Learning by Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Mordechai; Brauner, Neima; Cutlip, Michael B.

    2001-01-01

    Points out that chemical hazards are the major cause of accidents in chemical industry and describes a safety teaching approach using a simulation. Explains a problem statement on exothermic liquid-phase reactions. (YDS)

  8. Assessment of Hazardous Chemicals Risk in Fur Industry in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Birutė Vaitelytė; Jolanta Dvarionienė

    2010-01-01

    The article describes the research on the possibilities of hazardous chemicals replacement with less hazardous substances. This issue has become of special importance to industrial companies after the adoption of the REACH Regulation. The article examines fur industry and traditional chemicals used in it, namely, sodium dichromate, formaldehyde, and naphthalene. Because of their properties these chemicals are pretending to be included in the REACH Regulation lists of the authorised chemicals....

  9. Using chemical categories to fill data gaps in hazard assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, K. van; Schultz, T.W.; Henry, T.; Diderich, B.; Veith, G.D.

    2009-01-01

    Hazard assessments of chemicals have been limited by the availability of test data and the time needed to evaluate the test data. While available data may be inadequate for the majority of industrial chemicals, the body of existing knowledge for most hazards is large enough to permit reliable

  10. Truck Transport of Hazardous Chemicals : Acetone

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The transport of hazardous materials by all modes is a major concern of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Estimates place the total amount of hazardous materials transported in the U.S. in excess of 1.5 billion tons per year. Highway, water, and...

  11. Controlling organic chemical hazards in food manufacturing: a hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, K; Beck, A J

    2002-08-01

    Hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment and control of hazards. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all hazards, i.e., chemical, microbiological and physical. However, to-date most 'in-place' HACCP procedures have tended to focus on the control of microbiological and physical food hazards. In general, the chemical component of HACCP procedures is either ignored or limited to applied chemicals, e.g., food additives and pesticides. In this paper we discuss the application of HACCP to a broader range of chemical hazards, using organic chemical contaminants as examples, and the problems that are likely to arise in the food manufacturing sector. Chemical HACCP procedures are likely to result in many of the advantages previously identified for microbiological HACCP procedures: more effective, efficient and economical than conventional end-point-testing methods. However, the high costs of analytical monitoring of chemical contaminants and a limited understanding of formulation and process optimisation as means of controlling chemical contamination of foods are likely to prevent chemical HACCP becoming as effective as microbiological HACCP.

  12. Hazard assessment of hydraulic fracturing chemicals using an indexing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangji; Liu, Tianyi; Hager, James; Hewage, Kasun; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-11-14

    The rapid expansion of unconventional natural gas production has triggered considerable public concerns, particularly regarding environmental and human health (EHH) risks posed by various chemical additives used in hydraulic fracturing (HF) operations. There is a need to assess the potential EHH hazards of additives used in real-world HF operations. In this study, HF additive and fracturing fluid data was acquired, and EHH hazards were assessed using an indexing approach. The indexing system analyzed chemical toxicological data of different ingredients contained within additives and produced an aggregated EHH safety index for each additive, along with an indicator describing the completeness of the chemical toxicological data. The results show that commonly used additives are generally associated with medium-level EHH hazards. In each additive category, ingredients of high EHH concern were identified, and the high hazard designation was primarily attributed to ingredients' high aquatic toxicity and carcinogenic effects. Among all assessed additive categories, iron control agents were identified as the greatest EHH hazards. Lack of information, such as undisclosed ingredients and chemical toxicological data gaps, has resulted in different levels of assessment uncertainties. In particular, friction reducers show the highest data incompleteness with regards to EHH hazards. This study reveals the potential EHH hazards associated with chemicals used in current HF field operations and can provide decision makers with valuable information to facilitate sustainable and responsible unconventional gas production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A novel approach: chemical relational databases, and the role of the ISSCAN database on assessing chemical carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benigni, Romualdo; Bossa, Cecilia; Richard, Ann M; Yang, Chihae

    2008-01-01

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity databases are crucial resources for toxicologists and regulators involved in chemicals risk assessment. Until recently, existing public toxicity databases have been constructed primarily as "look-up-tables" of existing data, and most often did not contain chemical structures. Concepts and technologies originated from the structure-activity relationships science have provided powerful tools to create new types of databases, where the effective linkage of chemical toxicity with chemical structure can facilitate and greatly enhance data gathering and hypothesis generation, by permitting: a) exploration across both chemical and biological domains; and b) structure-searchability through the data. This paper reviews the main public databases, together with the progress in the field of chemical relational databases, and presents the ISSCAN database on experimental chemical carcinogens.

  14. Chemical hazards analysis of resilient flooring for healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Tom; Silas, Julie; Vallette, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses resilient flooring, evaluating the potential health effects of vinyl flooring and the leading alternatives-synthetic rubber, polyolefin, and linoleum-currently used in the healthcare marketplace. The study inventories chemicals incorporated as components of each of the four material types or involved in their life cycle as feedstocks, intermediary chemicals, or emissions. It then characterizes those chemicals using a chemical hazard-based framework that addresses persistence and bioaccumulation, human toxicity, and human exposures.

  15. A Novel Approach: Chemical Relational Databases, and the Role of the ISSCAN Database on Assessing Chemical Carcinogenity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity databases are crucial resources for toxicologists and regulators involved in chemicals risk assessment. Until recently, existing public toxicity databases have been constructed primarily as "look-up-tables" of existing data, and most often did no...

  16. Chemical Data Reporting: Factors to Consider When Using the Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2012 Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) database provides non-confidential information on the manufacture, import, processing, and use of chemicals in commerce at national and regional levels. This fact sheet highlights factors to consider.

  17. GLIDA: GPCR-ligand database for chemical genomic drug discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Okuno, Yasushi; Yang, Jiyoon; Taneishi, Kei; Yabuuchi, Hiroaki; Tsujimoto, Gozoh

    2005-01-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent one of the most important families of drug targets in pharmaceutical development. GPCR-LIgand DAtabase (GLIDA) is a novel public GPCR-related chemical genomic database that is primarily focused on the correlation of information between GPCRs and their ligands. It provides correlation data between GPCRs and their ligands, along with chemical information on the ligands, as well as access information to the various web databases regarding GPCRs. Thes...

  18. Chemical hazards in health care: high hazard, high risk, but low protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, Melissa A

    2006-09-01

    It is counter-intuitive that the healthcare industry, whose mission is the care of the sick, is itself a "high-hazard" industry for the workers it employs. Possessing every hazard class, with chemical agents in the form of pharmaceuticals, sterilants, and germicidals in frequent use, this industry sector consistently demonstrates poor injury and illness statistics, among the highest in the United States, and in the European Union (EU), 34% higher than the average work-related accident rate. In both the United States and the EU, about 10% of all workers are employed in the healthcare sector, and in developing countries as well, forecasts for the increasing need of healthcare workers (HCW) suggests a large population at potential risk of health harm. The explosion of technology growth in the healthcare sector, most obvious in pharmaceutical applications, has not been accompanied by a stepped up safety program in hospitals. Where there is hazard recognition, the remedies are often voluntary, and often poorly enforced. The wrong assumption that this industry would police itself, given its presumed knowledge base, has also been found wanting. The healthcare industry is also a significant waste generator threatening the natural environment with chemical and infectious waste and products of incineration. The ILO has recommended that occupational health goals for industrial nations focus on the hazards of new technology of which pharma and biopharma products are the leaders. This unchecked growth cannot continue without a parallel commitment to the health and safety of workers encountering these "high tech" hazards. Simple strategies to improve the present state include: (a) recognizing healthcare as a "high-hazard" employment sector; (b) fortifying voluntary safety guidelines to the level of enforceable regulation; (c) "potent" inspections; (d) treating hazardous pharmaceuticals like the chemical toxicants they are; and (e) protecting HCWs at least as well as workers in

  19. Chemical incidents resulted in hazardous substances releases in the context of human health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pałaszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Czerczak, Sławomir; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2017-02-21

    The research purpose was to analyze data concerning chemical incidents in Poland collected in 1999-2009 in terms of health hazards. The data was obtained, using multimodal information technology (IT) system, from chemical incidents reports prepared by rescuers at the scene. The final analysis covered sudden events associated with uncontrolled release of hazardous chemical substances or mixtures, which may potentially lead to human exposure. Releases of unidentified substances where emergency services took action to protect human health or environment were also included. The number of analyzed chemical incidents in 1999-2009 was 2930 with more than 200 different substances released. The substances were classified into 13 groups of substances and mixtures posing analogous risks. Most common releases were connected with non-flammable corrosive liquids, including: hydrochloric acid (199 cases), sulfuric(VI) acid (131 cases), sodium and potassium hydroxides (69 cases), ammonia solution (52 cases) and butyric acid (32 cases). The next group were gases hazardous only due to physico-chemical properties, including: extremely flammable propane-butane (249 cases) and methane (79 cases). There was no statistically significant trend associated with the total number of incidents. Only with the number of incidents with flammable corrosive, toxic and/or harmful liquids, the regression analysis revealed a statistically significant downward trend. The number of victims reported was 1997, including 1092 children and 18 fatalities. The number of people injured, number of incidents and the high 9th place of Poland in terms of the number of Seveso establishments, and 4 times higher number of hazardous industrial establishments not covered by the Seveso Directive justify the need for systematic analysis of hazards and their proper identification. It is advisable enhance health risk assessment, both qualitative and quantitative, by slight modification of the data collection system so as

  20. Chemical incidents resulted in hazardous substances releases in the context of human health hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pałaszewska-Tkacz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The research purpose was to analyze data concerning chemical incidents in Poland collected in 1999–2009 in terms of health hazards. Material and Methods: The data was obtained, using multimodal information technology (IT system, from chemical incidents reports prepared by rescuers at the scene. The final analysis covered sudden events associated with uncontrolled release of hazardous chemical substances or mixtures, which may potentially lead to human exposure. Releases of unidentified substances where emergency services took action to protect human health or environment were also included. Results: The number of analyzed chemical incidents in 1999–2009 was 2930 with more than 200 different substances released. The substances were classified into 13 groups of substances and mixtures posing analogous risks. Most common releases were connected with non-flammable corrosive liquids, including: hydrochloric acid (199 cases, sulfuric(VI acid (131 cases, sodium and potassium hydroxides (69 cases, ammonia solution (52 cases and butyric acid (32 cases. The next group were gases hazardous only due to physico-chemical properties, including: extremely flammable propane-butane (249 cases and methane (79 cases. There was no statistically significant trend associated with the total number of incidents. Only with the number of incidents with flammable corrosive, toxic and/or harmful liquids, the regression analysis revealed a statistically significant downward trend. The number of victims reported was 1997, including 1092 children and 18 fatalities. Conclusions: The number of people injured, number of incidents and the high 9th place of Poland in terms of the number of Seveso establishments, and 4 times higher number of hazardous industrial establishments not covered by the Seveso Directive justify the need for systematic analysis of hazards and their proper identification. It is advisable enhance health risk assessment, both qualitative and

  1. Assessment of the atmospheric hazards and risks of new chemicals: procedures to estimate "hazard potentials"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw FAAM

    1993-01-01

    In this report a procedure for the assessment of atmospheric hazards and risks of newly introduced chemicals is discussed. However, an assessment of direct effects caused by exposure to expected ambient concentrations or by deposition is not discussed ; here emphasis is on the role which new

  2. A refined QSAR model for prediction of chemical asthma hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, J; Seed, M J; Stocks, S J; Agius, R M

    2015-11-01

    A previously developed quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model has been extern ally validated as a good predictor of chemical asthma hazard (sensitivity: 79-86%, specificity: 93-99%). To develop and validate a second version of this model. Learning dataset asthmagenic chemicals with molecular weight (MW) chemicals for which no reported case(s) of occupational asthma had been identified were selected at random from UK and US occupational exposure limit tables. MW banding was used in an attempt to categorically match the control group for MW distribution of the asthmagens. About 10% of chemicals in each MW category were excluded for use as an external validation set. An independent researcher utilized a logistic regression approach to compare the molecular descriptors present in asthmagens and controls. The resulting equation generated a hazard index (HI), with a value between zero and one, as an estimate of the probability that the chemical had asthmagenic potential. The HI was determined for each compound in the external validation set. The model development sets comprised 99 chemical asthmagens and 204 controls. The external validation showed that using a cut-point HI of 0.39, 9/10 asthmagenic (sensitivity: 90%) and 23/24 non-asthmagenic (specificity: 96%) compounds were correctly predicted. The new QSAR model showed a better receiver operating characteristic plot than the original. QSAR refinement by iteration has resulted in an improved model for the prediction of chemical asthma hazard. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Chemical Contaminants Associated with Palm Wine from Nigeria Are Potential Food Safety Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogueri Nwaiwu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent analysis of palm wine, a traditional drink fermented mainly by yeasts, revealed the presence of several chemicals that were not products of yeast fermentation. The chemicals included styrene, benzene, trimethyldioxolane, dichloromethane, methylene fluoride, dichloroethanol, benzylisoquinoline and tetraacetyl-d-xylonic nitrile. A review of the concentrations of these compounds in palm wine found that the benzene concentrations in all samples reviewed ranged from 56–343 ppm and were within permissible limits, whereas the styrene values (1505–5614 ppm in all the palm wine samples evaluated were well over the recommended concentration that is immediately dangerous to life or health. Other chemical compounds evaluated varied according to location or sample source. The concentrations obtained are estimates only and a quantitative study needs to be carried out before the impact of these chemicals on health is evaluated. A search on The PubChem Project, the open chemical database, showed the description, properties and uses of these chemicals. Further searches carried out within other databases like PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar, using each chemical’s name as a search term, showed possible hazards and adverse health conditions caused by these chemicals, especially styrene, benzene and dichloromethane. The point at which the chemicals are introduced into the drink is still not clear and requires further investigation. The chemicals can be hazardous to humans and there is need to establish and maintain a system that can guarantee permissible levels in the drink. This can be carried out using concentrations of the chemicals that are already known to be immediately dangerous to life or health as a reference point.

  4. Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, J.M.; McKone, T.E.; Sherman, M. H.; Singer, B.C.

    2010-05-10

    Identifying air pollutants that pose a potential hazard indoors can facilitate exposure mitigation. In this study, we compiled summary results from 77 published studies reporting measurements of chemical pollutants in residences in the United States and in countries with similar lifestyles. These data were used to calculate representative mid-range and upper bound concentrations relevant to chronic exposures for 267 pollutants and representative peak concentrations relevant to acute exposures for 5 activity-associated pollutants. Representative concentrations are compared to available chronic and acute health standards for 97 pollutants. Fifteen pollutants appear to exceed chronic health standards in a large fraction of homes. Nine other pollutants are identified as potential chronic health hazards in a substantial minority of homes and an additional nine are identified as potential hazards in a very small percentage of homes. Nine pollutants are identified as priority hazards based on the robustness of measured concentration data and the fraction of residences that appear to be impacted: acetaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; 1,3-butadiene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; formaldehyde; naphthalene; nitrogen dioxide; and PM{sub 2.5}. Activity-based emissions are shown to pose potential acute health hazards for PM{sub 2.5}, formaldehyde, CO, chloroform, and NO{sub 2}.

  5. Toxics Release Inventory Chemical Hazard Information Profiles (TRI-CHIP) Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Chemical Hazard Information Profiles (TRI-CHIP) dataset contains hazard information about the chemicals reported in TRI. Users can...

  6. Fact Sheet: EPCRA Amendments to Emergency Planning and Notification; Emergency Release Notification and Hazardous Chemical Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008 minor revisions to the emergency planning and emergency release notification sections; as well as the revisions to hazardous chemical reporting regulations covering the Tier I and Tier II forms, and how to report hazardous chemicals in a mixture.

  7. National information network and database system of hazardous waste management in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Hongchang [National Environmental Protection Agency, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    Industries in China generate large volumes of hazardous waste, which makes it essential for the nation to pay more attention to hazardous waste management. National laws and regulations, waste surveys, and manifest tracking and permission systems have been initiated. Some centralized hazardous waste disposal facilities are under construction. China`s National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA) has also obtained valuable information on hazardous waste management from developed countries. To effectively share this information with local environmental protection bureaus, NEPA developed a national information network and database system for hazardous waste management. This information network will have such functions as information collection, inquiry, and connection. The long-term objective is to establish and develop a national and local hazardous waste management information network. This network will significantly help decision makers and researchers because it will be easy to obtain information (e.g., experiences of developed countries in hazardous waste management) to enhance hazardous waste management in China. The information network consists of five parts: technology consulting, import-export management, regulation inquiry, waste survey, and literature inquiry.

  8. Integrative Chemical-Biological Read-Across Approach for Chemical Hazard Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Yen; Sedykh, Alexander; Fourches, Denis; Golbraikh, Alexander; Whelan, Maurice; Rusyn, Ivan; Tropsha, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Traditional read-across approaches typically rely on the chemical similarity principle to predict chemical toxicity; however, the accuracy of such predictions is often inadequate due to the underlying complex mechanisms of toxicity. Here we report on the development of a hazard classification and visualization method that draws upon both chemical structural similarity and comparisons of biological responses to chemicals measured in multiple short-term assays (”biological” similarity). The Chemical-Biological Read-Across (CBRA) approach infers each compound's toxicity from those of both chemical and biological analogs whose similarities are determined by the Tanimoto coefficient. Classification accuracy of CBRA was compared to that of classical RA and other methods using chemical descriptors alone, or in combination with biological data. Different types of adverse effects (hepatotoxicity, hepatocarcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and acute lethality) were classified using several biological data types (gene expression profiling and cytotoxicity screening). CBRA-based hazard classification exhibited consistently high external classification accuracy and applicability to diverse chemicals. Transparency of the CBRA approach is aided by the use of radial plots that show the relative contribution of analogous chemical and biological neighbors. Identification of both chemical and biological features that give rise to the high accuracy of CBRA-based toxicity prediction facilitates mechanistic interpretation of the models. PMID:23848138

  9. GLIDA: GPCR-ligand database for chemical genomic drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Yasushi; Yang, Jiyoon; Taneishi, Kei; Yabuuchi, Hiroaki; Tsujimoto, Gozoh

    2006-01-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent one of the most important families of drug targets in pharmaceutical development. GPCR-LIgand DAtabase (GLIDA) is a novel public GPCR-related chemical genomic database that is primarily focused on the correlation of information between GPCRs and their ligands. It provides correlation data between GPCRs and their ligands, along with chemical information on the ligands, as well as access information to the various web databases regarding GPCRs. These data are connected with each other in a relational database, allowing users in the field of GPCR-related drug discovery to easily retrieve such information from either biological or chemical starting points. GLIDA includes structure similarity search functions for the GPCRs and for their ligands. Thus, GLIDA can provide correlation maps linking the searched homologous GPCRs (or ligands) with their ligands (or GPCRs). By analyzing the correlation patterns between GPCRs and ligands, we can gain more detailed knowledge about their interactions and improve drug design efforts by focusing on inferred candidates for GPCR-specific drugs. GLIDA is publicly available at http://gdds.pharm.kyoto-u.ac.jp:8081/glida. We hope that it will prove very useful for chemical genomic research and GPCR-related drug discovery.

  10. An updated active structure database of Taiwan for seismic hazard assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, J. B. H.; Chuang, Y. R.; Chen, Y. L.; Lee, Y.; Cheng, T. C. T.

    2014-12-01

    In order to build a complete seismogenic source model to assess future seismic hazards in Taiwan, we have constructed an updated active structure database for the island. We reviewed existing active structure databases, and obtained new information for structures that have not been thoroughly analyzed before. For example, the Central Geological Survey of Taiwan has published a comprehensive database of active faults in Taiwan, including all of the historically ruptured faults. Many other active structures, such as blind faults or folds that can be identified from geomorphic or structural analysis, have also been mapped and reported in several previous investigations. We have combined information from these existing databases to build an updated and digitized three-dimensional active structure map for Taiwan. Furthermore, for detailed information of individual structure such as long-term slip rates and potential recurrence intervals, we have collected the data from existing publications, as well as calculated from results of our own field surveys and investigations. We hope this updated database would become a significant constraint for the calculations of seismic hazard assessments in Taiwan, and would provide important information for engineers and hazard mitigation agencies.

  11. ChemProt: a disease chemical biology database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Nielsen, Sonny Kim; Audouze, Karine; Weinhold, Nils; Edsgärd, Daniel; Roque, Francisco S; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene; Bora, Alina; Curpan, Ramona; Jensen, Thomas Skøt; Brunak, Søren; Oprea, Tudor I

    2011-01-01

    Systems pharmacology is an emergent area that studies drug action across multiple scales of complexity, from molecular and cellular to tissue and organism levels. There is a critical need to develop network-based approaches to integrate the growing body of chemical biology knowledge with network biology. Here, we report ChemProt, a disease chemical biology database, which is based on a compilation of multiple chemical-protein annotation resources, as well as disease-associated protein-protein interactions (PPIs). We assembled more than 700,000 unique chemicals with biological annotation for 30,578 proteins. We gathered over 2-million chemical-protein interactions, which were integrated in a quality scored human PPI network of 428,429 interactions. The PPI network layer allows for studying disease and tissue specificity through each protein complex. ChemProt can assist in the in silico evaluation of environmental chemicals, natural products and approved drugs, as well as the selection of new compounds based on their activity profile against most known biological targets, including those related to adverse drug events. Results from the disease chemical biology database associate citalopram, an antidepressant, with osteogenesis imperfect and leukemia and bisphenol A, an endocrine disruptor, with certain types of cancer, respectively. The server can be accessed at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/ChemProt/.

  12. Assessment of hazard of chemical accidental releases triggered by floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonova, M.; Danihelka, P.

    2009-04-01

    Recently, the number of accidents happened, when floods trigger the releases of hazardous materials and following environment contamination. Baia Mare (Romania), Spolana Neratovice (Czech Republic) and hurricane Katrina (USA) are well known examples. The importance of this kind of phenomenon as a type of so called NATECH events is expressed among others in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which reorganises water conservation in Europe. It requires programmes of protection measures to be drawn up not later than 2009, and in sub-article 11 (3) l b) to prevent and/or reduce the impact of accidental pollution incidents, for example as a result of floods. Effective measures demand the assessment of hazard and risk of accidental release triggered by floods and there is a need for the method which can be used for these purposes. Such a method is still missing and this is why the basic method for hazard assessment has been developed. Simple indexes-based method is composed of three segments (natural risks, technological risks and combined risk) and it has flexible, modular structure. First segment estimates the probability of flooding of installation, the second, based on the reference scenarios estimates the possibility of release of chemicals and the third classify consequences. The work on refining of parameters and method continues. Method can be used in prevention of major accidents in the framework of the Council Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances (Seveso II directive) and can help to complete the safety studies in classified establishments.

  13. ChemProt: a disease chemical biology database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Nielsen, Sonny Kim; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure

    2011-01-01

    Systems pharmacology is an emergent area that studies drug action across multiple scales of complexity, from molecular and cellular to tissue and organism levels. There is a critical need to develop network-based approaches to integrate the growing body of chemical biology knowledge with network...... biology. Here, we report ChemProt, a disease chemical biology database, which is based on a compilation of multiple chemical-protein annotation resources, as well as disease-associated protein-protein interactions (PPIs). We assembled more than 700 000 unique chemicals with biological annotation for 30...... 578 proteins. We gathered over 2-million chemical-protein interactions, which were integrated in a quality scored human PPI network of 428 429 interactions. The PPI network layer allows for studying disease and tissue specificity through each protein complex. ChemProt can assist in the in silico...

  14. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Blakley; W. D. Schofield

    2007-09-10

    This final hazard categorization (FHC) document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the commitments for the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks Remediation Project. The remediation activities analyzed in this FHC are based on recommended treatment and disposal alternatives described in the Engineering Evaluation for the Remediation to the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks (BHI 2005e).

  15. [Comprehension of hazard pictograms of chemical products among cleaning workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí Fernández, Francesc; van der Haar, Rudolf; López López, Juan Carlos; Portell, Mariona; Torner Solé, Anna

    2015-01-01

    To assess the comprehension among cleaning workers of the hazard pictograms as defined by the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of the United Nations, concerning the classification, labeling and packaging of substances and mixtures. A sample of 118 workers was surveyed on their perception of the GHS hazard pictograms. Comprehensibility was measured by the percentage of correct answers and the degree to which they reflected International Organization for Standardization and American National Standards Institute standards for minimum level of comprehension. The influence of different variables to predict comprehension capacity was assessed using a logistic regression model. Three groups of pictograms could be distinguished which were statistically differentiated by their comprehensibility. Pictograms reflecting "acute toxicity" and "flammable", were described correctly by 94% and 95% of the surveyed population, respectively. For pictograms reflecting "systemic toxicity", "corrosive", "warning", "environment" and "explosive" the frequency of correct answers ranged from 48% to 64%, whereas those for pictograms "oxidizing" and "compressed gas" were interpreted correctly by only 7% of respondents. Prognostic factors for poor comprehension included: not being familiar with the pictograms, not having received training on safe use of chemical products, being an immigrant and being 54 years of age or older. Only two pictograms exceeded minimum standards for comprehension. Training, a tool proven to be effective to improve the correct interpretation of danger symbols, should be encouraged, especially in those groups with greater comprehension difficulties. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  16. Development and application of indices using large volcanic databases for a global hazard and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sarah; Auker, Melanie; Cottrell, Elizabeth; Delgado Granados, Hugo; Loughlin, Sue; Ortiz Guerrero, Natalie; Sparks, Steve; Vye-Brown, Charlotte; Taskforce, Indices

    2015-04-01

    The Global Volcano Model (GVM) and IAVCEI were commissioned by the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction to produce a global assessment of volcanic hazard and risk for the Global Assessment Report 2015 (GAR15). This involved presenting both an introduction to volcanology and developing indices to assess hazard and risk on a global scale. To this end two open-access databases were of utmost importance: the Global Volcanism Program's Volcanoes of the World (http://www.volcano.si.edu) and the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions database (LaMEVE; http://www.bgs.ac.uk/vogripa/). Indices were developed to enable a relative global assessment cognisant of data uncertainty and availability to broadly identify how hazard and risk varies around the world, the extent of monitoring and strengths and limitations in knowledge. The accessibility of both physical (e.g. volcano, eruption) and social data is crucial to our understanding of past behaviour, forecasting probable future behaviour and the potential impacts on communities. Such data is regionally highly variable and the eruption record worsens back in time. The Volcanic Hazard Index (VHI) was designed to quantify hazard levels globally, based on the Holocene eruption record. Vulnerability to eruptions was measured using the Population Exposure Index, which weights the population within 100 km of volcanoes by area and historical fatalities. The combination of these indices provides an indicator of population risk at individual volcanoes. The VHI was also combined with the total populations living within 30 km of volcanoes in each country to develop an understanding of the global distribution of volcano threat, and to rank countries by this measure. About half of the historically active volcanoes have insufficient information to adequately calculate VHI and these are highlighted as requiring future research. A database currently in development, GLOVOREMID, collates monitoring data to understand

  17. Exploring Chemical Space for Drug Discovery Using the Chemical Universe Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Herein we review our recent efforts in searching for bioactive ligands by enumeration and virtual screening of the unknown chemical space of small molecules. Enumeration from first principles shows that almost all small molecules (>99.9%) have never been synthesized and are still available to be prepared and tested. We discuss open access sources of molecules, the classification and representation of chemical space using molecular quantum numbers (MQN), its exhaustive enumeration in form of the chemical universe generated databases (GDB), and examples of using these databases for prospective drug discovery. MQN-searchable GDB, PubChem, and DrugBank are freely accessible at www.gdb.unibe.ch. PMID:23019491

  18. Survey of knowledge of hazards of chemicals potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, R.O.; Kirkscey, K.A.; Randolph, M.L.

    1979-09-01

    Hazards of chemical potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes are estimated based on open literature references. The tentative quantity of each chemical associated with the processes and the toxicity of the chemical are used to estimate this hazard. The chemicals thus estimated to be the most potentially hazardous to health are fluorine, nitric acid, uranium metal, uranium hexafluoride, and uranium dust. The estimated next most hazardous chemicals are bromine, hydrobromic acid, hydrochloric acid, and hydrofluoric acid. For each of these chemicals and for a number of other process-associated chemicals the following information is presented: (1) any applicable standards, recommended standards and their basis; (2) a brief discussion to toxic effects including short exposure tolerance, atmospheric concentration immediately hazardous to life, evaluation of exposures, recommended control procedures, chemical properties, and a list of any toxicology reviews; and (3) recommendations for future research.

  19. 75 FR 77760 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources. Among the... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources on October 29, 2009. 40 CFR... major source that had installed a control device on a chemical manufacturing process unit after November...

  20. The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects database (CAFE), a tool that supports assessments of chemical spills in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Adriana C; Farr, James K; Jenne, Polly; Chu, Valerie; Hielscher, Al

    2016-06-01

    The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects (CAFE) database is a centralized repository that allows for rapid and unrestricted access to data. Information in CAFE is integrated into a user-friendly tool with modules containing fate and effects data for 32 377 and 4498 chemicals, respectively. Toxicity data are summarized in the form of species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) with associated 1st and 5th percentile hazard concentrations (HCs). An assessment of data availability relative to reported chemical incidents showed that CAFE had fate and toxicity data for 32 and 20 chemicals, respectively, of 55 chemicals reported in the US National Response Center database (2000-2014), and fate and toxicity data for 86 and 103, respectively, of 205 chemicals reported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2003-2014). Modeled environmental concentrations of 2 hypothetical spills (acrylonitrile, 625 barrels; and denatured ethanol, 857 barrels) were used to demonstrate CAFE's practical application. Most species in the 24-h SSD could be potentially impacted by acrylonitrile and denatured ethanol during the first 35 min and 15 h post spill, respectively, with concentrations falling below their HC5s (17 mg/L and 2676 mg/L) at 45 min and 60 h post spill, respectively. Comparisons of CAFE-based versus published HC5 values for 100 chemicals showed that nearly half of values were within a 2-fold difference, with a relatively small number of comparisons exceeding a 10-fold difference. The development of CAFE facilitates access to relevant environmental information, with potential uses likely expanding beyond those related to assessment of spills in aquatic environments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1576-1586. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  1. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Brown, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs.

  2. Chemical Preparations Industry: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    National emissions standards for control of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from the chemical preparations area source category. Includes rule history, Federal Registry citations, implementation information, and additional resources.

  3. Technical Work Plan for: Thermodynamic Database for Chemical Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.F. Jovecolon

    2006-09-07

    The objective of the work scope covered by this Technical Work Plan (TWP) is to correct and improve the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) thermodynamic databases, to update their documentation, and to ensure reasonable consistency among them. In addition, the work scope will continue to generate database revisions, which are organized and named so as to be transparent to internal and external users and reviewers. Regarding consistency among databases, it is noted that aqueous speciation and mineral solubility data for a given system may differ according to how solubility was determined, and the method used for subsequent retrieval of thermodynamic parameter values from measured data. Of particular concern are the details of the determination of ''infinite dilution'' constants, which involve the use of specific methods for activity coefficient corrections. That is, equilibrium constants developed for a given system for one set of conditions may not be consistent with constants developed for other conditions, depending on the species considered in the chemical reactions and the methods used in the reported studies. Hence, there will be some differences (for example in log K values) between the Pitzer and ''B-dot'' database parameters for the same reactions or species.

  4. A decision analysis framework for estimating the potential hazards for drinking water resources of chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Erin E; Stanek, John; Burgoon, Lyle D

    2017-01-01

    Despite growing concerns over the potential for hydraulic fracturing to impact drinking water resources, there are limited data available to identify chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluids that may pose public health concerns. In an effort to explore these potential hazards, a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) framework was employed to analyze and rank selected subsets of these chemicals by integrating data on toxicity, frequency of use, and physicochemical properties that describe transport in water. Data used in this analysis were obtained from publicly available databases compiled by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of a larger study on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water. Starting with nationwide hydraulic fracturing chemical usage data from EPA's analysis of the FracFocus Chemical Disclosure Registry 1.0, MCDAs were performed on chemicals that had either noncancer toxicity values (n=37) or cancer-specific toxicity values (n=10). The noncancer MCDA was then repeated for subsets of chemicals reported in three representative states (Texas, n=31; Pennsylvania, n=18; and North Dakota, n=20). Within each MCDA, chemicals received scores based on relative toxicity, relative frequency of use, and physicochemical properties (mobility in water, volatility, persistence). Results show a relative ranking of these chemicals based on hazard potential, and provide preliminary insight into chemicals that may be more likely than others to impact drinking water resources. Comparison of nationwide versus state-specific analyses indicates regional differences in the chemicals that may be of more concern to drinking water resources, although many chemicals were commonly used and received similar overall hazard rankings. Several chemicals highlighted by these MCDAs have been reported in groundwater near areas of hydraulic fracturing activity. This approach is intended as a preliminary analysis, and represents one

  5. Materials released from spill incidents reported to Iowa DNR and tracked in the Hazardous Substance Incident database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Materials released from spill incidents reported to Iowa DNR and tracked in the Hazardous Substance Incident database. These Emergency Release Notifications are...

  6. Application of a hazard and operability study method to hazard evaluation of a chemical unit of the power station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, E; Zare, M; Barkhordari, A; Mirmohammadi, Sj; Halvani, Ghh

    2008-12-28

    The aim of this study was to identify the hazards, evaluate their risk factors and determine the measure for promotion of the process and reduction of accidents in the chemical unit of the power station. In this case and qualitative study, HAZOP technique was used to recognize the hazards and problems of operations on the chemical section at power station. Totally, 126 deviations were documented with various causes and consequences. Ranking and evaluation of identified risks indicate that the majority of deviations were categorized as "acceptable" and less than half of that were "unacceptable". The highest calculated risk level (1B) related to both the interruption of acid entry to the discharge pumps and an increased density of the acid. About 27% of the deviations had the lowest risk level (4B). The identification of hazards by HAZOP indicates that it could, systemically, assess and criticize the process of consumption or production of acid and alkali in the chemical unit of power plant.

  7. 77 FR 65135 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ89 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule; stay. SUMMARY: On... provisions in the final National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing...

  8. 16 CFR 1500.231 - Guidance for hazardous liquid chemicals in children's products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... hazardous chemicals, such as mercury, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, methanol, methylene chloride... poisoning from ingestion of the chemicals, pneumonia from aspiration of the chemicals into the lungs, and... poisoning and/or chemical pneumonia from aspiration. This determination resulted in recalls or in the...

  9. Carotenoids Database: structures, chemical fingerprints and distribution among organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuzaki, Junko

    2017-01-01

    To promote understanding of how organisms are related via carotenoids, either evolutionarily or symbiotically, or in food chains through natural histories, we built the Carotenoids Database. This provides chemical information on 1117 natural carotenoids with 683 source organisms. For extracting organisms closely related through the biosynthesis of carotenoids, we offer a new similarity search system 'Search similar carotenoids' using our original chemical fingerprint 'Carotenoid DB Chemical Fingerprints'. These Carotenoid DB Chemical Fingerprints describe the chemical substructure and the modification details based upon International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) semi-systematic names of the carotenoids. The fingerprints also allow (i) easier prediction of six biological functions of carotenoids: provitamin A, membrane stabilizers, odorous substances, allelochemicals, antiproliferative activity and reverse MDR activity against cancer cells, (ii) easier classification of carotenoid structures, (iii) partial and exact structure searching and (iv) easier extraction of structural isomers and stereoisomers. We believe this to be the first attempt to establish fingerprints using the IUPAC semi-systematic names. For extracting close profiled organisms, we provide a new tool 'Search similar profiled organisms'. Our current statistics show some insights into natural history: carotenoids seem to have been spread largely by bacteria, as they produce C30, C40, C45 and C50 carotenoids, with the widest range of end groups, and they share a small portion of C40 carotenoids with eukaryotes. Archaea share an even smaller portion with eukaryotes. Eukaryotes then have evolved a considerable variety of C40 carotenoids. Considering carotenoids, eukaryotes seem more closely related to bacteria than to archaea aside from 16S rRNA lineage analysis. : http://carotenoiddb.jp.

  10. Hemijski udesi i procena rizika / Chemical accidents and hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Biočanin

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Brojni su udesi vezani za transport i upotrebu hemijskih materija. Ova činjenica je važna i zbog toga što se naša zemlja nalazi na raskrsnici značajnih svetskih komunikacija kojima se ovakvi tereti prevoze. Veliki broj vrsta hemijskih materija može znatno da naruši životnu sredinu za duži period. Ovaj rad, kroz različite parametre, nastoji da prouči takvu mogućnost i ukaže na načine za prevenciju sličnih događaja i zaštitu stanovništva u miru i tokom ratnih dejstava. Ostvarenje projekta jedinstvenog sistema ABHO daje mogućnost da se, korišćenjem savremene opreme za komunikaciju i efikasnih jedinica za brzo reagovanje u realnom vremenu, uspešno obavi monitoring opasnosti, uzbunjivanje, zaštita i dekontaminacija. / There is a growing number of accidents involving hazardous chemical substances during transportation. Serbia and Montenegro are at the crossroads of numerous important European transport links where a lot of such transports pass through. A great number of such substances can considerably damage environment for a very long period of time. This paper studies such events applying different parameters; it tries to point at successful prevention and protection from this threat at peace, as well as during war operations. The realization of the universal and united system of the NBCD of the Army of Serbia and Montenegro, together with modern communication equipment and very effective mobile units, enables on - time reaction and successful monitoring, alarming, protection and decontamination.

  11. A New Database Dedicated to Volcanic Hazards and Risks: The atlas of Merapi Volcano, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Franck; Surono, Dr; Mei, Estuning; de Belizal, Edouard; Cholik, Noer; Picquout, Adrien; Komorowski, Jean-Christophe; Morin, Julie; sri Hadmoko, Danang

    2014-05-01

    Merapi volcano is one of the most active volcanoes worldwide. Approximately 1.3 million people live within a radius 20 km from the summit. In the framework of both, the FP7 MIA VITA Project, and the SEDIMER Project funded by AXA Research Fund, we have built a database at the village scale, which includes the elements at risk and the local resources. This unique geospatial database was used to build a series of maps at the scale of the volcano, providing the core of the Merapi atlas. Designed by the French Laboratory of Physical Geography in Meudon (France) and the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazards Mitigation in Bandung (Indonesia), this atlas provides a state of the art synthesis of knowledge on Merapi, from the reconstruction of past eruptions and assessment of volcanic hazards to the quantification of vulnerability and capacities. It is pertinent to a broad audience ranging from volcanologists to the Indonesian population interested to learn about their sacred volcano. The primary goal of this Atlas is to provide an essential blueprint for planners and public officials involved in long-term development as well as risk and crisis management. The atlas contains 63 color plates gathered in 6 chapters: the introduction summarises the geological context as well as the environmental and human context of Merapi volcano. The second chapter pertains to the geology, the past activity, and the volcanic hazards at Merapi. The third chapter is dedicated to the resources offered by the volcano, including agriculture, livestock, and sand mining activities. The fourth chapter focuses on vulnerability and capacities. The fifth chapter provides a reconstruction of the 2010 VEI 4 eruption of Merapi and its environmental consequences. The sixth chapter summarises the socio-economical impact of the eruption, including mapping of casualties, evacuation, building damage, and an assessment of air traffic disturbance. The seventh chapter focuses on rain-triggered lahar

  12. Machine learning of chemical reactivity from databases of organic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Gonçalo V S M; Gupta, Sunil; Aires-de-Sousa, João

    2009-07-01

    Databases of chemical reactions contain knowledge about the reactivity of specific reagents. Although information is in general only explicitly available for compounds reported to react, it is possible to derive information about substructures that do not react in the reported reactions. Both types of information (positive and negative) can be used to train machine learning techniques to predict if a compound reacts or not with a specific reagent. The whole process was implemented with two databases of reactions, one involving BuNH2 as the reagent, and the other NaCNBH3. Negative information was derived using MOLMAP molecular descriptors, and classification models were developed with Random Forests also based on MOLMAP descriptors. MOLMAP descriptors were based exclusively on calculated physicochemical features of molecules. Correct predictions were achieved for approximately 90% of independent test sets. While NaCNBH3 is a selective reducing reagent widely used in organic synthesis, BuNH2 is a nucleophile that mimics the reactivity of the lysine side chain (involved in an initiating step of the mechanism leading to skin sensitization).

  13. Chemical hazard evaluation of material disposal area (MDA) B closure project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laul, Jagdish C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-04-19

    TA-21, MDA-B (NES) is the 'contaminated dump,' landfill with radionuclides and chemicals from process waste disposed in 1940s. This paper focuses on chemical hazard categorization and hazard evaluation of chemicals of concern (e.g., peroxide, beryllium). About 170 chemicals were disposed in the landfill. Chemicals included products, unused and residual chemicals, spent, waste chemicals, non-flammable oils, mineral oil, etc. MDA-B was considered a High hazard site. However, based on historical records and best engineering judgment, the chemical contents are probably at best 5% of the chemical inventory. Many chemicals probably have oxidized, degraded or evaporated for volatile elements due to some fire and limited shelf-life over 60 yrs, which made it possible to downgrade from High to Low chemical hazard site. Knowing the site history and physical and chemical properties are very important in characterizing a NES site. Public site boundary is only 20 m, which is a major concern. Chemicals of concern during remediation are peroxide that can cause potential explosion and beryllium exposure due to chronic beryllium disease (CBD). These can be prevented or mitigated using engineering control (EC) and safety management program (SMP) to protect the involved workers and public.

  14. Chemical-induced asthma and the role of clinical, toxicological, exposure and epidemiological research in regulatory and hazard characterization approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Melissa J; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Basketter, David; LaKind, Judy S; Dotson, G Scott; Maier, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Uncertainties in understanding all potential modes-of-action for asthma induction and elicitation hinders design of hazard characterization and risk assessment methods that adequately screen and protect against hazardous chemical exposures. To address this challenge and identify current research needs, the University of Cincinnati and the American Cleaning Institute hosted a webinar series to discuss the current state-of-science regarding chemical-induced asthma. The general consensus is that the available database, comprised of data collected from routine clinical and validated toxicological tests, is inadequate for predicting or determining causal relationships between exposures and asthma induction for most allergens. More research is needed to understand the mechanism of asthma induction and elicitation in the context of specific chemical exposures and exposure patterns, and the impact of population variability and patient phenotypes. Validated tools to predict respiratory sensitization and to translate irritancy assays to asthma potency are needed, in addition to diagnostic biomarkers that assess and differentiate allergy versus irritant-based asthmatic responses. Diagnostic methods that encompass the diverse etiologies of asthmatic responses and incorporate robust exposure measurements capable of capturing different temporal patterns of complex chemical mixtures are needed. In the absence of ideal tools, risk assessors apply hazard-based safety assessment methods, in conjunction with active risk management, to limit potential asthma concerns, proactively identify new concerns, and ensure deployment of approaches to mitigate asthma-related risks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of XXI Century Disasters in the National Geophysical Data Center Historical Natural Hazard Event Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; McCullough, H. L.

    2011-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) maintains a global historical event database of tsunamis, significant earthquakes, and significant volcanic eruptions. The database includes all tsunami events, regardless of intensity, as well as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that caused fatalities, moderate damage, or generated a tsunami. Event date, time, location, magnitude of the phenomenon, and socio-economic information are included in the database. Analysis of the NGDC event database reveals that the 21st century began with earthquakes in Gujarat, India (magnitude 7.7, 2001) and Bam, Iran (magnitude 6.6, 2003) that killed over 20,000 and 31,000 people, respectively. These numbers were dwarfed by the numbers of earthquake deaths in Pakistan (magnitude 7.6, 2005-86,000 deaths), Wenchuan, China (magnitude 7.9, 2008-87,652 deaths), and Haiti (magnitude 7.0, 2010-222,000 deaths). The Haiti event also ranks among the top ten most fatal earthquakes. The 21st century has observed the most fatal tsunami in recorded history-the 2004 magnitude 9.1 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami that caused over 227,000 deaths and 10 billion damage in 14 countries. Six years later, the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami, although not the most fatal (15,000 deaths and 5,000 missing), could cost Japan's government in excess of 300 billion-the most expensive tsunami in history. Volcanic eruptions can cause disruptions and economic impact to the airline industry, but due to their remote locations, fatalities and direct economic effects are uncommon. Despite this fact, the second most expensive eruption in recorded history occurred in the 21st century-the 2010 Merapi, Indonesia volcanic eruption that resulted in 324 deaths, 427 injuries, and $600 million in damage. NGDC integrates all natural hazard event datasets into one search interface. Users can find fatal tsunamis generated by earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. The user can then link to information about the related runup

  16. Review and Comparison of the Search Effectiveness and User Interface of Three Major Online Chemical Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Neelam; Leonard, Michelle; Singh, Shailendra

    2016-01-01

    Online chemical databases are the largest source of chemical information and, therefore, the main resource for retrieving results from published journals, books, patents, conference abstracts, and other relevant sources. Various commercial, as well as free, chemical databases are available. SciFinder, Reaxys, and Web of Science are three major…

  17. NOAA's Office of Response and Restoration: Historical Oil and Chemical Spill Incidents Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Historical Incidents database contains reports and images from oil and chemical spills that occurred between 1968 and 2002. The database includes reports on...

  18. Risk ranking of chemical hazards in food - A case study on antibiotics in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van E.D.; Spiegel, van der M.; Noordam, M.Y.; Pikkemaat, M.G.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Part of risk based control is the prioritization of hazard-food combinations for monitoring food safety. The aim of the current study was to develop a method for risk ranking of chemical food safety hazards using a structured and transparent approach. The method established is semi-quantitative and

  19. Development of hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) procedures to control organic chemical hazards in the agricultural production of raw food commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, Karl; Ferguson, Andrew; Beck, Angus J

    2003-01-01

    Hazard Analysis by Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards in the food chain. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all chemical microbiological, and physical hazards. However, current procedures focus primarily on microbiological and physical hazards, while chemical aspects of HACCP have received relatively little attention. In this article we discuss the application of HACCP to organic chemical contaminants and the problems that are likely to be encountered in agriculture. We also present generic templates for the development of organic chemical contaminant HACCP procedures for selected raw food commodities, that is, cereal crops,raw meats, and milk.

  20. Two Springfield, Mass. Facilities Agree to Improve Handling and Reporting of Hazardous Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two facilities located in Springfield, Mass. have agreed with the U.S. EPA to come into compliance with federal requirements designed to protect the public and first responders from exposure to hazardous chemicals.

  1. Organochlorine chemical hazards for sturgeon larvae in the Middle Mississippi River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We conducted an ecological risk assessment to characterize organochlorine chemical hazards for sturgeon larvae in the Middle Mississippi River National Wildlife...

  2. Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.

    This guide recommends procedures for safe handling and disposal of hazardous substances, along with broad recommendations for developing comprehensive laboratory safety programs. Although specific information is provided, general principles which can be adapted to activities in any laboratory are emphasized. Section 1 focuses on procedures for…

  3. Sea-dumped chemical weapons: environmental risk, occupational hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, M I; Sexton, K J; Vearrier, D

    2016-01-01

    Chemical weapons dumped into the ocean for disposal in the twentieth century pose a continuing environmental and human health risk. In this review we discuss locations, quantity, and types of sea-dumped chemical weapons, related environmental concerns, and human encounters with sea-dumped chemical weapons. We utilized the Ovid (http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com) and PubMed (http://www.pubmed.org) search engines to perform MEDLINE searches for the terms 'sea-dumped chemical weapons', 'chemical warfare agents', and 'chemical munitions'. The searches returned 5863 articles. Irrelevant and non-English articles were excluded. A review of the references for these articles yielded additional relevant sources, with a total of 64 peer-reviewed articles cited in this paper. History and geography of chemical weapons dumping at sea: Hundreds of thousands of tons of chemical munitions were disposed off at sea following World War II. European, Russian, Japanese, and United States coasts are the areas most affected worldwide. Several areas in the Baltic and North Seas suffered concentrated large levels of dumping, and these appear to be the world's most studied chemical warfare agent marine dumping areas. Chemical warfare agents: Sulfur mustard, Lewisite, and the nerve agents appear to be the chemical warfare agents most frequently disposed off at sea. Multiple other type of agents including organoarsenicals, blood agents, choking agents, and lacrimators were dumped at sea, although in lesser volumes. Environmental concerns: Numerous geohydrologic variables contribute to the rate of release of chemical agents from their original casings, leading to difficult and inexact modeling of risk of release into seawater. Sulfur mustard and the organoarsenicals are the most environmentally persistent dumped chemical agents. Sulfur mustard in particular has a propensity to form a solid or semi-solid lump with a polymer coating of breakdown products, and can persist in this state on the ocean floor

  4. Chemical Safety Alert: Hazards of Delayed Coker Unit (DCU) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and OSHA jointly publish this Chemical Safety Alert/Safety and Health Information Bulletin (CSA/SHIB) to increase awareness. DCU is a severe form of thermal cracking requiring high temperatures for long periods, for refining crude oils.

  5. Hazardous substances data bank (HSDB) as a source of environmental fate information on chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonger, G C

    1995-11-30

    The Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB), a factual data bank on the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) TOXNET (Toxicology Data Network) online system, provides information in areas such as chemical substance identification, chemical and physical properties, safety and handling, toxicology, pharmacology, environmental fate and transformation, regulations, and analytical methodology. This article discusses how environmental fate data is handled in HSDB.

  6. Concept Attainment Teaching Methodology (CATM)--An Effective Approach for Training Workers on Chemicals Health Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Abdulqadir Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Workers handling chemicals need to understand the risk to health involved in their work, and this requires training. In this study effectivity of concept attainment teaching methodology (CATM) as training strategy for cleaning workers was assessed. CATM was used to train workers on chemicals information and health hazards. Pictures, illustrations,…

  7. Physical, chemical and biological hazards in veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaretnam, J; Jones, H

    2000-11-01

    To identify major occupational hazards encountered by veterinarians and their staff in practice in Australia. A literature search of Medical (MEDLINE), Occupational Health and Safety (OSHRAM) and Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) electronic data bases plus continual monitoring utilising the Uncover alerting system using the key words, 'occupational injury', 'occupational disease' and 'safety' linked with use of the word 'veterinarians' has found relevant articles. Personal communication with people who have undertaken studies on occupational safety in veterinarians elicited further information. Veterinarians often sustain animal-related injuries, the most common of which are dog and cat bites, cat scratches and being hit or crushed by large animals. The most costly to treat include strains and back injuries. Most veterinarians treat themselves. There is no single reporting system for injuries or disease in veterinarians and reported cases may greatly underestimate the total. There is a need to assess accurately the occupational hazards in veterinary practice, to determine the actual occurrence of injuries and to develop strategies to prevent them.

  8. Hazards of chemical weapons release during war: new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, S

    1999-01-01

    The two major threat classes of chemical weapons are mustard gas and the nerve agents, and this has not changed in over 50 years. Both types are commonly called gases, but they are actually liquids that are not remarkably volatile. These agents were designed specifically to harm people by any route of exposure and to be effective at low doses. Mustard gas was used in World War I, and the nerve agents were developed shortly before, during, and after World War II. Our perception of the potency of chemical weapons has changed, as well as our concern over potential effects of prolonged exposures to low doses and potential target populations that include women and children. Many of the toxicologic studies and human toxicity estimates for both mustard and nerve agents were designed for the purpose of quickly developing maximal casualties in the least sensitive male soldier. The "toxicity" of the chemical weapons has not changed, but our perception of "toxicity" has. PMID:10585902

  9. [Chemical hazards in the workplace environment of painting restorer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezewska, Anna; Szewczyńska, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the identification of chemical substances present in the air in the workplace of painting restorer. Identification tests were carried out in university and museum easel paintings conservation studios. Air samples were taken for testing at various stages of restoration works. In the qualitative analysis chemical substances in the air samples were measured by GC-MSD and HPLC-DAD methods. In the air samples collected during the cleaning of paintings, such substances as aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, acetone, ethanol and terpenes were mainly identified. While the painting was doubled toluene and while varnished, propan-2-ol, propane, butane and substances derived from turpentine and white spirit were mainly emitted. During the course of painting conservation numerous chemical substances that may pose a threat to the worker's health were identified in their breathing zone.

  10. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and Guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how a generator of wastes can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste. 9 figs.

  11. Review of the Literature on Determinants of Chemical Hazard Information Recall among Workers and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathar, Farzana; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel; Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2016-05-31

    In many low and middle income countries (LMIC), workers' and consumers' only access to risk and hazard information in relation to the chemicals they use or work with is on the chemical label and safety data sheet. Recall of chemical hazard information is vital in order for label warnings and precautionary information to promote effective safety behaviors. A literature review, therefore, was conducted on determinants of chemical hazard information recall among workers and consumers globally. Since comprehension and recall are closely linked, the determinants of both were reviewed. Literature was reviewed from both online and print peer reviewed journals for all study designs and countries. This review indicated that the level of education, previous training and the inclusion of pictograms on the hazard communication material are all factors that contribute to the recall of hazard information. The influence of gender and age on recall is incongruent and remains to be explored. More research is required on the demographic predictors of the recall of hazard information, the effect of design and non-design factors on recall, the effect of training on the recall among low literate populations and the examining of different regions or contexts.

  12. Review of the Literature on Determinants of Chemical Hazard Information Recall among Workers and Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Sathar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In many low and middle income countries (LMIC, workers’ and consumers’ only access to risk and hazard information in relation to the chemicals they use or work with is on the chemical label and safety data sheet. Recall of chemical hazard information is vital in order for label warnings and precautionary information to promote effective safety behaviors. A literature review, therefore, was conducted on determinants of chemical hazard information recall among workers and consumers globally. Since comprehension and recall are closely linked, the determinants of both were reviewed. Literature was reviewed from both online and print peer reviewed journals for all study designs and countries. This review indicated that the level of education, previous training and the inclusion of pictograms on the hazard communication material are all factors that contribute to the recall of hazard information. The influence of gender and age on recall is incongruent and remains to be explored. More research is required on the demographic predictors of the recall of hazard information, the effect of design and non-design factors on recall, the effect of training on the recall among low literate populations and the examining of different regions or contexts.

  13. Toxic hazard and chemical analysis of leachates from furfurylated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilgard, A.; Treu, A.; Zeeland, van A.N.T.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Westin, M.

    2010-01-01

    The furfurylation process is an extensively investigated wood modification process. Furfuryl alcohol molecules penetrate into the wood cell wall and polymerize in situ. This results in a permanent swelling of the wood cell walls. It is unclear whether or not chemical bonds exist between the furfuryl

  14. The substitution of hazardous chemicals in the international context - Opportunity for promoting sustainable chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, R.; Lissner, L.; Fantke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    While a wide range of sustainable/green chemicals for various applications is available, often only certain types of hazardous or unsustainably produced chemicals are continued to be used out of different reasons (“lock-in problem”)1,2. One challenge is that policy makers and industries in particular in developing and transition countries do not know about more sustainable and green alternatives for a chemical in a particular application. Methodologies and tools are, hence, needed for the com...

  15. Environmental and health hazard ranking and assessment of plastic polymers based on chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lithner, Delilah, E-mail: delilah.lithner@gmail.com; Larsson, Ake; Dave, Goeran

    2011-08-15

    Plastics constitute a large material group with a global annual production that has doubled in 15 years (245 million tonnes in 2008). Plastics are present everywhere in society and the environment, especially the marine environment, where large amounts of plastic waste accumulate. The knowledge of human and environmental hazards and risks from chemicals associated with the diversity of plastic products is very limited. Most chemicals used for producing plastic polymers are derived from non-renewable crude oil, and several are hazardous. These may be released during the production, use and disposal of the plastic product. In this study the environmental and health hazards of chemicals used in 55 thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers were identified and compiled. A hazard ranking model was developed for the hazard classes and categories in the EU classification and labelling (CLP) regulation which is based on the UN Globally Harmonized System. The polymers were ranked based on monomer hazard classifications, and initial assessments were made. The polymers that ranked as most hazardous are made of monomers classified as mutagenic and/or carcinogenic (category 1A or 1B). These belong to the polymer families of polyurethanes, polyacrylonitriles, polyvinyl chloride, epoxy resins, and styrenic copolymers. All have a large global annual production (1-37 million tonnes). A considerable number of polymers (31 out of 55) are made of monomers that belong to the two worst of the ranking model's five hazard levels, i.e. levels IV-V. The polymers that are made of level IV monomers and have a large global annual production (1-5 million tonnes) are phenol formaldehyde resins, unsaturated polyesters, polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate, and urea-formaldehyde resins. This study has identified hazardous substances used in polymer production for which the risks should be evaluated for decisions on the need for risk reduction measures, substitution, or even phase out

  16. Haz-Map: information on hazardous chemicals and occupational diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

    2004-01-01

    Haz-Map is a newWeb-based information resource, available on the National Library of Medicine's TOXNET system. It contains information on the epidemiology of occupational or job task related diseases. Haz-Map also provides links to information about industrial hygiene related to occupational exposure to a specific list of toxic chemicals. Background information, search hints, and a content description of Haz-Map are provided.

  17. Modeling Exposure to Persistent Chemicals in Hazard and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E.; McLachlan, Michael S.; Arnot, Jon A.; MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Wania, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Fate and exposure modeling has not thus far been explicitly used in the risk profile documents prepared to evaluate significant adverse effect of candidate chemicals for either the Stockholm Convention or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. However, we believe models have considerable potential to improve the risk profiles. Fate and exposure models are already used routinely in other similar regulatory applications to inform decisions, and they have been instrumental in building our current understanding of the fate of POP and PBT chemicals in the environment. The goal of this paper is to motivate the use of fate and exposure models in preparing risk profiles in the POP assessment procedure by providing strategies for incorporating and using models. The ways that fate and exposure models can be used to improve and inform the development of risk profiles include: (1) Benchmarking the ratio of exposure and emissions of candidate chemicals to the same ratio for known POPs, thereby opening the possibility of combining this ratio with the relative emissions and relative toxicity to arrive at a measure of relative risk. (2) Directly estimating the exposure of the environment, biota and humans to provide information to complement measurements, or where measurements are not available or are limited. (3) To identify the key processes and chemical and/or environmental parameters that determine the exposure; thereby allowing the effective prioritization of research or measurements to improve the risk profile. (4) Predicting future time trends including how quickly exposure levels in remote areas would respond to reductions in emissions. Currently there is no standardized consensus model for use in the risk profile context. Therefore, to choose the appropriate model the risk profile developer must evaluate how appropriate an existing model is for a specific setting and whether the assumptions and input data are relevant in the context of the application

  18. Environmental and health hazard ranking and assessment of plastic polymers based on chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithner, Delilah; Larsson, Ake; Dave, Göran

    2011-08-15

    Plastics constitute a large material group with a global annual production that has doubled in 15 years (245 million tonnes in 2008). Plastics are present everywhere in society and the environment, especially the marine environment, where large amounts of plastic waste accumulate. The knowledge of human and environmental hazards and risks from chemicals associated with the diversity of plastic products is very limited. Most chemicals used for producing plastic polymers are derived from non-renewable crude oil, and several are hazardous. These may be released during the production, use and disposal of the plastic product. In this study the environmental and health hazards of chemicals used in 55 thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers were identified and compiled. A hazard ranking model was developed for the hazard classes and categories in the EU classification and labelling (CLP) regulation which is based on the UN Globally Harmonized System. The polymers were ranked based on monomer hazard classifications, and initial assessments were made. The polymers that ranked as most hazardous are made of monomers classified as mutagenic and/or carcinogenic (category 1A or 1B). These belong to the polymer families of polyurethanes, polyacrylonitriles, polyvinyl chloride, epoxy resins, and styrenic copolymers. All have a large global annual production (1-37 million tonnes). A considerable number of polymers (31 out of 55) are made of monomers that belong to the two worst of the ranking model's five hazard levels, i.e. levels IV-V. The polymers that are made of level IV monomers and have a large global annual production (1-5 million tonnes) are phenol formaldehyde resins, unsaturated polyesters, polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate, and urea-formaldehyde resins. This study has identified hazardous substances used in polymer production for which the risks should be evaluated for decisions on the need for risk reduction measures, substitution, or even phase out. Copyright

  19. Molecule database framework: a framework for creating database applications with chemical structure search capability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kiener, Joos

    2013-01-01

    .... The involved scientists must be able to store this data and search it by chemical structure. There are commercial solutions for common needs like chemical registration systems or electronic lab notebooks...

  20. Filter-based chemical sensors for hazardous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Kevin J.; Ewing, Kenneth J.; Poutous, Menelaos K.; Sanghera, Jasbinder S.; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.

    2014-05-01

    The development of new techniques for the detection of homemade explosive devices is an area of intense research for the defense community. Such sensors must exhibit high selectivity to detect explosives and/or explosives related materials in a complex environment. Spectroscopic techniques such as FTIR are capable of discriminating between the volatile components of explosives; however, there is a need for less expensive systems for wide-range use in the field. To tackle this challenge we are investigating the use of multiple, overlapping, broad-band infrared (IR) filters to enable discrimination of volatile chemicals associated with an explosive device from potential background interferants with similar chemical signatures. We present an optical approach for the detection of fuel oil (the volatile component in ammonium nitrate-fuel oil explosives) that relies on IR absorption spectroscopy in a laboratory environment. Our proposed system utilizes a three filter set to separate the IR signals from fuel oil and various background interferants in the sample headspace. Filter responses for the chemical spectra are calculated using a Gaussian filter set. We demonstrate that using a specifically chosen filter set enables discrimination of pure fuel oil, hexanes, and acetone, as well as various mixtures of these components. We examine the effects of varying carrier gasses and humidity on the collected spectra and corresponding filter response. We study the filter response on these mixtures over time as well as present a variety of methods for observing the filter response functions to determine the response of this approach to detecting fuel oil in various environments.

  1. Acute chemical incidents surveillance—Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance, nine states, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Maureen F; Wu, Jennifer; Sloop, Sue L

    2015-04-10

    Although they are infrequent, acute chemical incidents (i.e., uncontrolled or illegal release or threatened release of hazardous substances lasting inherently safer design, developing geographic mapping of chemically vulnerable areas, and adopting the principles of green chemistry (design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the generation of hazardous substances). Because the more populous states such as New York and Texas had the most incidents, areas with high population density should be carefully assessed for preparedness and prevention measures. NTSIP develops estimated incident numbers for states that do not collect data to help with state and national planning. NTSIP also collects more detailed data on chemical incidents with mass casualties. HSEES and NTSIP data can be used by public and environmental health and safety practitioners, worker representatives, emergency planners, preparedness coordinators, industries, emergency responders, and others to prepare for and prevent chemical incidents and injuries.

  2. An approach in building a chemical compound search engine in oracle database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Volarath, P; Harrison, R

    2005-01-01

    A searching or identifying of chemical compounds is an important process in drug design and in chemistry research. An efficient search engine involves a close coupling of the search algorithm and database implementation. The database must process chemical structures, which demands the approaches to represent, store, and retrieve structures in a database system. In this paper, a general database framework for working as a chemical compound search engine in Oracle database is described. The framework is devoted to eliminate data type constrains for potential search algorithms, which is a crucial step toward building a domain specific query language on top of SQL. A search engine implementation based on the database framework is also demonstrated. The convenience of the implementation emphasizes the efficiency and simplicity of the framework.

  3. Prioritization of the Percutaneous Hazard of Industrial Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    IPR 16872-11-0 11.88 5.00 0.50 17.38 9 Methyl bromide SUB 74-83-9 12.38 4.00 0.50 16.88 10 Boron trifluoride R and as 40% HF 7637-07-2 12.38 4.00 0.00...25 Trimethylamine-** 75-50-3 10.50 3.00 0.00 13.50 26 Dichloroethyl ether R 111-44-4 10.25 3.00 0.00 13.25 27 Nitrogen trifluoride IPR 7783-54-2...hydrogen chloride, and also chlorine , fluorine, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone. • Reducers: This class of compounds consists of chemicals that readily

  4. Application of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) to organic chemical contaminants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, K; Beck, A J

    2002-03-01

    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards that was developed as an effective alternative to conventional end-point analysis to control food safety. It has been described as the most effective means of controlling foodborne diseases, and its application to the control of microbiological hazards has been accepted internationally. By contrast, relatively little has been reported relating to the potential use of HACCP, or HACCP-like procedures, to control chemical contaminants of food. This article presents an overview of the implementation of HACCP and discusses its application to the control of organic chemical contaminants in the food chain. Although this is likely to result in many of the advantages previously identified for microbiological HACCP, that is, more effective, efficient, and economical hazard management, a number of areas are identified that require further research and development. These include: (1) a need to refine the methods of chemical contaminant identification and risk assessment employed, (2) develop more cost-effective monitoring and control methods for routine chemical contaminant surveillance of food, and (3) improve the effectiveness of process optimization for the control of chemical contaminants in food.

  5. Conversion of hazardous plastic wastes into useful chemical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Mohammad Nahid

    2009-08-15

    Azoisobutylnitrile (AIBN) initiator was used in the treatment of most widely used domestic plastics in lieu of catalysts. The pyrolysis of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS) plastics with azoisobutylnitrile was carried out individually under nitrogen atmosphere. A series of single (plastic/AIBN) and binary (mixed plastics/AIBN) reactions were carried out in a 25-cm(3) micro-autoclave reactor. The optimum conditions selected for this study were: 5% AIBN by weight of total plastics, 60 min, 650 psi and 420 degrees C. It was found that HDPE, LDPE, PP underwent to a maximum cracking and produced highest amounts of liquid and gaseous products. Pyrolysis of PET and PS plastics with AIBN afforded comparatively significant amount of insoluble organic materials. In other reactions, fixed ratios of mixed plastics were pyrolyzed with AIBN that afforded excellent yields of liquid hydrocarbons. This result shows a very significant increase in the liquid portions of the products on using AIBN in the pyrolysis of plastics. The use of AIBN in the pyrolysis of plastics is seems to be feasible and an environmental friendly alternative to catalytic process for maximizing the liquid fuels or chemical feed stocks in higher amounts.

  6. Chemical-agnostic hazard prediction: statistical inference of in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicity pathways have been defined as normal cellular pathways that, when sufficiently perturbed as a consequence of chemical exposure, lead to an adverse outcome. If an exposure alters one or more normal biological pathways to an extent that leads to an adverse toxicity outcome, a significant correlation must exist between the exposure, the extent of pathway alteration, and the degree of adverse outcome. Biological pathways are regulated at multiple levels, including transcriptional, post-transcriptional, post-translational, and targeted degradation, each of which can affect the levels and extents of modification of proteins involved in the pathways. Significant alterations of toxicity pathways resulting from changes in regulation at any of these levels therefore are likely to be detectable as alterations in the proteome. We hypothesize that significant correlations between exposures, adverse outcomes, and changes in the proteome have the potential to identify putative toxicity pathways, facilitating selection of candidate targets for high throughput screening, even in the absence of a priori knowledge of either the specific pathways involved or the specific agents inducing the pathway alterations. We explored this hypothesis in vitro in BEAS-2B human airway epithelial cells exposed to different concentrations of Ni2+, Cd2+, and Cr6+, alone and in defined mixtures. Levels and phosphorylation status of a variety of signaling pathway proteins and cytokines were

  7. TM-MC: a database of medicinal materials and chemical compounds in Northeast Asian traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Kyun; Nam, SeJin; Jang, Hyunchul; Kim, Anna; Lee, Jeong-Ju

    2015-07-09

    In traditional medicine, there has been a great deal of research on the effects exhibited by medicinal materials. To study the effects, resources that can systematically describe the chemical compounds in medicinal materials are necessary. In recent years, numerous databases on medicinal materials and constituent compounds have been constructed. However, because these databases provide differing information and the sources of such information are unclear or difficult to verify, it is difficult to decide which database to use. Moreover, there is much overlapping information. The aim of this study was to construct a database of medicinal materials and chemical compounds in Northeast Asian traditional medicine (TM-MC), for which medicinal materials are listed in the Korean, Chinese, and Japanese pharmacopoeias and information on the compound names of medicinal materials can easily be confirmed online. To provide information on the chemical compounds of medicinal materials, chromatography articles from MEDLINE and PubMed Central were searched. After chemical compounds of medicinal materials were extracted by manually investigating the full-text of articles, a database of information on about 14,000 compounds from 536 medicinal materials was built. The database also provides links to the articles from which each medicinal material and chemical compound were extracted. TM-MC database provides information on medicinal materials and their chemical compounds from chromatography articles in MEDLINE and PubMed Central. Researchers can easily check relevant information through the links to articles.

  8. Environmental impact of industrial sludge stabilization/solidification products: chemical or ecotoxicological hazard evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcos A R; Testolin, Renan C; Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2011-09-15

    Nowadays, the classification of industrial solid wastes is not based on risk analysis, thus the aim of this study was to compare the toxicity classifications based on the chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of four industrial sludges submitted to a two-step stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes. To classify S/S products as hazardous or non-hazardous, values cited in Brazilian chemical waste regulations were adopted and compared to the results obtained with a battery of biotests (bacteria, alga and daphnids) which were carried out with soluble and leaching fractions. In some cases the hazardous potential of industrial sludge was underestimated, since the S/S products obtained from the metal-mechanics and automotive sludges were chemically classified as non-hazardous (but non-inert) when the ecotoxicity tests showed toxicity values for leaching and soluble fractions. In other cases, the environmental impact was overestimated, since the S/S products of the textile sludges were chemically classified as non-inert (but non-hazardous) while ecotoxicity tests did not reveal any effects on bacteria, daphnids and algae. From the results of the chemical and ecotoxicological analyses we concluded that: (i) current regulations related to solid waste classification based on leachability and solubility tests do not ensure reliable results with respect to environmental protection; (ii) the two-step process was very effective in terms of metal immobilization, even at higher metal-concentrations. Considering that S/S products will be subject to environmental conditions, it is of great interest to test the ecotoxicity potential of the contaminants release from these products with a view to avoiding environmental impact given the unreliability of ecotoxicological estimations originating from chemical analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of environmentally relevant chemicals in bibliographic databases: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegaard, Ole; Wallin, Johan A

    2013-12-01

    Valid and reliable information on the use and effects of chemicals is a key factor in the industry and not least within many regulatory agencies. Identification data from lists of substances sometimes leads to incomplete bibliographic analysis in the major chemical databases. The present study takes as its starting point environmentally important chemicals and the retrieval of selectively chosen substances in the four databases: SciFinder, Web of Science (WoS), Scopus and Google Scholar. The way chemical data are stored in the databases plays a major role in the recovery process but differences in coverage, sometimes major, are still found. No single database records all publications about a substance. Inspection of individual titles is necessary when performing a complete count of references. Special care is taken in order to make data from the different databases comparable using the same journals and time periods (2000-2009). A number of nomenclature as well as problems related to the chemical structure and function, often inherent in quantitative or qualitative bibliographic studies of chemicals, are discussed. The practical implications for registration of chemicals in different databases are demonstrated.

  10. Assessing food safety concepts on the dairy farm: the case of chemical hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Adaptive conjoint analysis was used to elicit farmers' and experts' preferences for attributes of improving food safety with respect to chemical hazards on the dairy farm. Groups of respondents were determined by cluster analysis based on similar farmers' and experts' perceptions of food safety

  11. Prioritization of chemical hazards in spices and herbs for European monitoring programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, Van E.D.; Banach, J.L.; Fels, van der Ine

    2018-01-01

    Monitoring programs are preferably risk-based, which allows focusing on the most relevant human health risks. In this study, a risk matrix was used to identify those chemical hazards that have the highest human health risk for the following spices and herbs: paprika/chilli powder, black pepper,

  12. Hazard Assessment on Chlorine Distribution Use of Chemical Transportation Risk Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Gon [Hanwha Chemical Ulsan Site, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hun Soo [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Chlorine is one of the most produced and most used non-flammable chemical substances in the world even though its toxicity and high reactivity cause the ozone layer depletion. However, in modern life, it is impossible to live a good life without using Chlorine and its derivatives since they are being used as an typical ingredient in more than 40 percent of the manufactured goods including medicines, detergents, deodorant, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and plastic, etc. Even if Chlorine has been handled and distributed in various business (small and medium-sized businesses, water purification plants, distribution company, etc.), there have been few researches about its possible health hazard and transportation risks. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to make a detailed assessment of Chlorinerelated risks and to model an index of chemicals transportation risks that is adequate for domestic circumstances. The assessment of possible health hazard and transportation risks was made on 13 kinds of hazardous chemicals, including liquid chlorine. This research may be contributed to standardizing the risk assessment of Chlorine and other hazardous chemicals by using an index of transportation risks.

  13. How synergistic or antagonistic effects may influence the mutual hazard ranking of chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Carlsen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of various agents, including humic materials, nanomaterials, microplastics, or simply specific chemical compounds, may cause changes in the apparent persistence, bioaccumulation, and/or toxicity (PBT of a chemical compound leading to an either increased or decreased PBT characteristics and thus an increased or decreased hazard evaluation. In the present paper, a series chloro-containing obsolete pesticides is studied as an illustrative example. Partial order methodology is used to quantify how changed P, B, or T characteristics of methoxychlor (MEC influences the measure of the hazard of MEC, relative to the other 11 compounds in the series investigated. Not surprisingly, an increase in one of the three indicators (P, B, or T lead to an increased average order and thus an increased relative hazard as a result of a synergistic effect. A decrease in one of the indicator values analogously causes a decreased average order/relative hazard through an antagonistic effect; the effect, however, being less pronounced. It is further seen that the effect of changing the apparent value of the three indicators is different. Thus, persistence apparently is more important that bioaccumulation which again appears more important than toxicity, which is in agreement with previous work. The results are discussed with reference to the European chemicals framework on registration, evaluation and authorization of chemicals (REACH framework.

  14. 77 FR 75739 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... ``hazardous waste treatment'' and to allow for hard piping of wastewater streams to a point of transfer to...(c)(3) and 112(k)(3)(B). The nine area source categories are Agricultural Chemicals and Pesticides... metal HAP is not subject to any requirements for wastewater systems or heat exchange systems. Only...

  15. Rapid detection of chemical hazards (toxins, dioxins, and PCBs) in seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Kotsanopoulos, Konstantinos V; Papadopoulou, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Among the various hazards occurring in fish and seafood chemical hazards and in particular toxins (ciguatera, scombroid fish poisoning, paralytic shellfish poisoning, neurotoxic (brevetoxic) shellfish poisoning, puffer fish poisoning, diarrhetic shellfish poisoning) have an important place in food poisoning cases. On the other hand, some of the chemical hazards are often due to the pollution of the environment (heavy metals, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons) and their detection is neither rapid nor facile. As a result there was a great need for developing new rapid and effective methods toward the chemical hazards determination mainly because of their high toxicity. The aim of this review is to provide the information about the new up-to-date detection techniques (Immunological, Chemical and Biochemical, and Molecular assays) in conjunction with detection limits. The latter is made possible by means of inclusion of seven comprehensive and, in most case cases, very extended tables. A reference is also made on the risk characterization of toxins as regards their importance to food contamination or poisoning.

  16. 76 FR 13514 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ89 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is issuing this final rule to stay the requirement for certain affected sources to comply with the title V...

  17. Building a database on geological hazards in karst: some considerations about certainty, accuracy and reliability in the collection of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Mario; Vennari, Carmela

    2015-04-01

    Sinkholes are definitely the most typical geohazard affecting karst territories. Even though typically their formation is related to an underground cave, and the related subterranean drainage, sinkholes can also be observed on non-soluble deposits such as alluvial and/or colluvial materials. Further, the presence of cavities excavated by man (for different purposes, and in different ages) may be at the origin of other phenomena of sinkholes, the so-called anthropogenic sinkholes, that characterize many historical centres of built-up areas. In Italy, due to the long history of the country, these latter, too, are of great importance, being those that typically involve human buildings and infrastructures, and cause damage and losses to society. As for any other geohazard, building a database through collection of information on the past events is a mandatory step to start the analyses aimed at the evaluation of susceptibility, hazard, and risk. The Institute of Research for the Hydrological Protection (IRPI) of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) has been working in the last years at the construction of a specific chronological database on sinkholes in the whole country. In the database, the natural and anthropogenic sinkholes are treated in two different subsets, given the strong differences existing as regards both the causal and triggering factors, and the stabilization works as well. A particular care was given in the database to the precise site and date of occurrence of the events, as crucial information for assessing, respectively, the susceptibility and the hazard related to the particular phenomenon under study. As a requirement to be included in the database, a temporal reference of the sinkhole occurrence must be therefore known. Certainty in the geographical position of the event is a fundamental information to correctly locate the sinkhole, and to develop geological and morphological considerations aimed at performing a susceptibility analysis

  18. PACSY, a relational database management system for protein structure and chemical shift analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Woonghee, E-mail: whlee@nmrfam.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison, and Biochemistry Department (United States); Yu, Wookyung [Center for Proteome Biophysics, Pusan National University, Department of Physics (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suhkmann [Pusan National University, Department of Chemistry and Chemistry Institute for Functional Materials (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Iksoo [Center for Proteome Biophysics, Pusan National University, Department of Physics (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Weontae, E-mail: wlee@spin.yonsei.ac.kr [Yonsei University, Structural Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry (Korea, Republic of); Markley, John L., E-mail: markley@nmrfam.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison, and Biochemistry Department (United States)

    2012-10-15

    PACSY (Protein structure And Chemical Shift NMR spectroscopY) is a relational database management system that integrates information from the Protein Data Bank, the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank, and the Structural Classification of Proteins database. PACSY provides three-dimensional coordinates and chemical shifts of atoms along with derived information such as torsion angles, solvent accessible surface areas, and hydrophobicity scales. PACSY consists of six relational table types linked to one another for coherence by key identification numbers. Database queries are enabled by advanced search functions supported by an RDBMS server such as MySQL or PostgreSQL. PACSY enables users to search for combinations of information from different database sources in support of their research. Two software packages, PACSY Maker for database creation and PACSY Analyzer for database analysis, are available from http://pacsy.nmrfam.wisc.eduhttp://pacsy.nmrfam.wisc.edu.

  19. PACSY, a relational database management system for protein structure and chemical shift analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woonghee; Yu, Wookyung; Kim, Suhkmann; Chang, Iksoo

    2012-01-01

    PACSY (Protein structure And Chemical Shift NMR spectroscopY) is a relational database management system that integrates information from the Protein Data Bank, the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank, and the Structural Classification of Proteins database. PACSY provides three-dimensional coordinates and chemical shifts of atoms along with derived information such as torsion angles, solvent accessible surface areas, and hydrophobicity scales. PACSY consists of six relational table types linked to one another for coherence by key identification numbers. Database queries are enabled by advanced search functions supported by an RDBMS server such as MySQL or PostgreSQL. PACSY enables users to search for combinations of information from different database sources in support of their research. Two software packages, PACSY Maker for database creation and PACSY Analyzer for database analysis, are available from http://pacsy.nmrfam.wisc.edu. PMID:22903636

  20. Host-enhanced chemical indexing in technical databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, E W; Siems, C D

    1989-11-01

    Many files that index engineering, physics, or other technical literature contain references to chemical compounds. Complex chemical formulas in the title or abstract often contain special characters, for example, (,), [,], +, -, degrees, and %. Upper and lower case letters often are also included. A search of these formulas and symbols in the basic index is next to impossible because the terms in this field are usually parsed to all alphanumeric characters without sensitivity to case. It is possible for an online host to use a character-recognition algorithm to scan the title and abstract data for special characters or character strings and place them in a separate index field when such files are loaded. Such an algorithm has been designed by Fachinformationszentrun Energie, Physik, Mathematik GmbH in Karlsruhe, West Germany (FIZ Karlsruhe), the European service center of STN International, the scientific and technical information network. This algorithm recognizes and analyzes chemical formulas, material descriptions, alloys, and eutectic systems as well as nuclear reactions and dopings that appear in the title, abstract, or other fields. These character strings are converted into a standardized form and placed in a new field (the element terms field) which is supplied by the online host during the loading process. A checklist of allowed terms (symbols and chemical formulas) is used to prevent irrelevant terms from being mistaken for legitimate chemical symbols. For instance, the algorithm can recognize that CPU (central processing unit) is not a legitimate chemical formula. It is easy to demonstrate the utility this additional index supplies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. ChemProt: A disease chemical biology database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Oprea, Tudor I.

    2013-01-01

    The integration of chemistry, biology, and informatics to study drug actions across multiple biological targets, pathways, and biological systems is an emerging paradigm in drug discovery. Rather than reducing a complex system to simplistic models, fields such as chemogenomics and translational...... chemical biology, drug repurposing, and off-target effects prediction....

  2. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Public Health Command; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Bock, Robert Eldon [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  3. [Smoking as an additional risk factor for the staff of chemically hazardous production facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, T V; Arzhavkina, L G; Sinyachkin, D A; Yazenok, A V; Kryuchkova, A S

    2014-01-01

    One of the factors that increase the risk of genotoxic effects in the staff of chemically hazardous production facilities is smoking. There was performed the cytogenetic study in 104 males working with highly toxic chemicals, 71 people out of which were smokers and 33--non-smokers. No statistically significant differences were revealed between groups of smokers and nonsmokers. Among smokers 39 males smoked more than 15 cigarettes per day and were referred to the group of "heavy smokers", 32 cases were light smokers (less than 15 cigarettes per day). The level of chromatid exchanges and exchange of chromosomal aberrations (dicentric and ring chromosomes, atypical atypical monocentrics) in the group of "heavy smokers" were shown to be significant higher than in non-smokers and light smokers groups. Our data confirm the synergistic effect of smoking and the factors of increased chemical hazards.

  4. Mercury and Hazardous Chemicals in Schools: A Manual for Students in Southeast Asia. EPA 747-R-08-002

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Children and adolescents, up to approximately age 20, are more susceptible than adults to potential health risks from chemicals and environmental hazards. Hazardous chemicals can interrupt or alter the normal development of a child's body, leading to lasting damage. Since children are smaller than adults, similar levels of exposure to toxic…

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations 1 Table 1 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63—Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of...

  6. Development of a consumer product ingredient database for chemical exposure screening and prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, M-R; Grulke, C M; Brooks, R D; Transue, T R; Tan, Y M; Frame, A; Egeghy, P P; Edwards, R; Chang, D T; Tornero-Velez, R; Isaacs, K; Wang, A; Johnson, J; Holm, K; Reich, M; Mitchell, J; Vallero, D A; Phillips, L; Phillips, M; Wambaugh, J F; Judson, R S; Buckley, T J; Dary, C C

    2014-03-01

    Consumer products are a primary source of chemical exposures, yet little structured information is available on the chemical ingredients of these products and the concentrations at which ingredients are present. To address this data gap, we created a database of chemicals in consumer products using product Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) publicly provided by a large retailer. The resulting database represents 1797 unique chemicals mapped to 8921 consumer products and a hierarchy of 353 consumer product "use categories" within a total of 15 top-level categories. We examine the utility of this database and discuss ways in which it will support (i) exposure screening and prioritization, (ii) generic or framework formulations for several indoor/consumer product exposure modeling initiatives, (iii) candidate chemical selection for monitoring near field exposure from proximal sources, and (iv) as activity tracers or ubiquitous exposure sources using "chemical space" map analyses. Chemicals present at high concentrations and across multiple consumer products and use categories that hold high exposure potential are identified. Our database is publicly available to serve regulators, retailers, manufacturers, and the public for predictive screening of chemicals in new and existing consumer products on the basis of exposure and risk. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. [CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS IN WORKERS OF CHEMICALLY HAZARDOUS ENTERPRISES WITH THE DIFFERENT HEALTH STATUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, T V; Arzhavkina, L G; Siniachkin, D A; Yazenok, A V

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Chromosomal aberrations (CAs) are the one of the most sensitive biomarikers of biological effects from the hazardous environmental exposure. In this relation the comparison of cytogenetical indices in persons, exposed to the complex of factors of chemically hazard enterprises, with the presence of occupationally caused diseases seems to be very perspective for the understanding of the role of the contribution of genotoxical impact of occupational factors into staff morbidity. METHODS. Cytogenetical analysis was performed in 138 employees of chemically hazardous enterprises, including 84 patients, who need for establishment of the causation of diseases with the work in conditions of chemical plant and 54 persons without need for hospitalization according to results of the previous examination. Comparison group was consisted of 55 persons. There was performed the comparison of cytogenetical indices and commensuration of ratios of persons with individual high CAs levels and also carriers of exchange aberrations of chromosomal type in different groups of examined cases. RESULTS. There was shown statistically significant increase of the rate of CAs level including unexpectedly high level of dicentric and ring chromosomes in the group of 84 hospitalized patients. There was revealed statistically significant gain in the share of persons with CAs rate more then 5% (p chronosomes (p < 0.5) in this group. It is possible to suggest that genotoxical impact plays a significant role in the mechanism of appearance of diseases etiologically related with the work on the enterprise of the high chemical risk.

  8. Identification of environmentally relevant chemicals in bibliographic databases: a comparative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Ole; Wallin, Johan Albert

    2013-01-01

    but differences in coverage, sometimes major, are still found. No single database records all publications about a substance. Inspection of individual titles is necessary when performing a complete count of references. Special care is taken in order to make data from the different databases comparable using...... the same journals and time periods (2000-2009). A number of nomenclature as well as problems related to the chemical structure and function, often inherent in quantitative or qualitative bibliographic studies of chemicals, are discussed. The practical implications for registration of chemicals in different...

  9. Reducing aquatic hazards of industrial chemicals: probabilistic assessment of sustainable molecular design guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Kristin A; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina M; Kostal, Jakub; Anastas, Paul; Zimmerman, Julie B; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-08-01

    Basic toxicological information is lacking for the majority of industrial chemicals. In addition to increasing empirical toxicity data through additional testing, prospective computational approaches to drug development aim to serve as a rational basis for the design of chemicals with reduced toxicity. Recent work has resulted in the derivation of a "rule of 2," wherein chemicals with an octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) less than 2 and a difference between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital (ΔE) greater than 9 (log P9 eV) are predicted to be 4 to 5 times less likely to elicit acute or chronic toxicity to model aquatic organisms. The present study examines potential reduction of aquatic toxicity hazards from industrial chemicals if these 2 molecular design guidelines were employed. Probabilistic hazard assessment approaches were used to model the likelihood of encountering industrial chemicals exceeding toxicological categories of concern both with and without the rule of 2. Modeling predicted that utilization of these molecular design guidelines for log P and ΔE would appreciably decrease the number of chemicals that would be designated to be of "high" and "very high" concern for acute and chronic toxicity to standard model aquatic organisms and end points as defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. For example, 14.5% of chemicals were categorized as having high and very high acute toxicity to the fathead minnow model, whereas only 3.3% of chemicals conforming to the design guidelines were predicted to be in these categories. Considerations of specific chemical classes (e.g., aldehydes), chemical attributes (e.g., ionization), and adverse outcome pathways in representative species (e.g., receptor-mediated responses) could be used to derive future property guidelines for broader classes of contaminants. © 2014 SETAC.

  10. Critically Evaluated Database of Environmental Properties: The Importance of Thermodynamic Relationships, Chemical Family Trends, and Prediction Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockbank, Sarah A.; Russon, Jenna L.; Giles, Neil F.; Rowley, Richard L.; Wilding, W. Vincent

    2013-11-01

    A database containing Henry's law constants, infinite dilution activity coefficients, and solubility data of industrially important chemicals has been compiled for aqueous systems. These properties are important in predicting the fate and transport of chemicals in the environment. The structure of this database is compatible with the existing 801 database and DIADEM interface, and data are included for a subset of compounds found in the 801 database. Thermodynamic relationships, chemical family trends, and predicted values were carefully considered when designating recommended values.

  11. Practical management of chemicals and hazardous wastes: An environmental and safety professional`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhre, W.L.

    1995-08-01

    This book was written to help the environmental and safety student learn about the field and to help the working professional manage hazardous material and waste issues. For example, one issue that will impact virtually all of these people mentioned is the upcoming environmental standardization movement. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is in the process of adding comprehensive environmental and hazardous waste management systems to their future certification requirements. Most industries worldwide will be working hard to achieve this new level of environmental management. This book presents many of the systems needed to receive certification. In order to properly manage hazardous waste, it is important to consider the entire life cycle, including when the waste was a useful chemical or hazardous material. Waste minimization is built upon this concept. Understanding the entire life cycle is also important in terms of liability, since many regulations hold generators responsible from cradle to grave. This book takes the life-cycle concept even further, in order to provide additional insight. The discussion starts with the conception of the chemical and traces its evolution into a waste and even past disposal. At this point the story continues into the afterlife, where responsibility still remains.

  12. Effectuality of Cleaning Workers' Training and Cleaning Enterprises' Chemical Health Hazard Risk Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulqadir M. Suleiman

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Training of cleaning workers lacks the prerequisite for suitability and effectiveness to counter risks of chemical health hazards. There is dereliction of duty by management in the sector resulting in a lack of competence among the cleaning workers. Instituting acceptable easily attainable safety competence level for cleaners will conduce to risk reduction, and enforcement of attainment of the competence level would be a positive step.

  13. Controlling chemical hazards. Fundamentals of the management of the toxic chemicals. Book chapter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, D.F.; Cote, R.P.; Wells, P.G.

    1994-01-01

    The chapter describes control strategies and technologies used to reduce environmental risk from toxic chemicals. It includes an overview of legislative infrastructure supporting the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. It describes the factors contributing to the complexity of the toxic control problem and the regulatory methods to establish control limits. The chapter also presents four important treatment approaches and examines the advantages and disadvantages of each. The four treatment approaches are biological degradation, chemical degradation, separation processes and containment. The chapter presents representative treatment technologies and evaluates current limitations of the treatment state-of-the-art.

  14. An overview of computational life science databases & exchange formats of relevance to chemical biology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalter Hall, Aaron; Shan, Yunfeng; Lushington, Gerald; Visvanathan, Mahesh

    2013-03-01

    Databases and exchange formats describing biological entities such as chemicals and proteins, along with their relationships, are a critical component of research in life sciences disciplines, including chemical biology wherein small information about small molecule properties converges with cellular and molecular biology. Databases for storing biological entities are growing not only in size, but also in type, with many similarities between them and often subtle differences. The data formats available to describe and exchange these entities are numerous as well. In general, each format is optimized for a particular purpose or database, and hence some understanding of these formats is required when choosing one for research purposes. This paper reviews a selection of different databases and data formats with the goal of summarizing their purposes, features, and limitations. Databases are reviewed under the categories of 1) protein interactions, 2) metabolic pathways, 3) chemical interactions, and 4) drug discovery. Representation formats will be discussed according to those describing chemical structures, and those describing genomic/proteomic entities.

  15. Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Ryan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Databases are deeply embedded in archaeology, underpinning and supporting many aspects of the subject. However, as well as providing a means for storing, retrieving and modifying data, databases themselves must be a result of a detailed analysis and design process. This article looks at this process, and shows how the characteristics of data models affect the process of database design and implementation. The impact of the Internet on the development of databases is examined, and the article concludes with a discussion of a range of issues associated with the recording and management of archaeological data.

  16. [List of hazardous and extremely hazardous chemicals at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant]. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act Section 311

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, R.A.; Martin, K.J.

    1997-03-01

    The information reflects changes in the lists of hazardous chemicals present at this facility in amounts equal to or greater than 10,000 pounds and extremely hazardous chemicals present in amounts equal to or greater than 500 pounds or its Threshold Planning Quantity, whichever was less. These lists represent the following: (1) List of materials last reported in March 1996 (reference Y/TS-l482); (2) Materials to be deleted from list; (3) Materials to be added to list; and (4) Revised list of materials.

  17. Environmental Product Development Combining the Life Cycle Perspective with Chemical Hazard Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askham, Cecilia

    Concerns regarding the short- and long-term detrimental effects of chemicals on human health and ecosystems have made the minimisation of chemical hazards a vitally important issue. If sustainable development is to be achieved, environmental efficient products (and product life cycles...... for the life cycle of products meant that systems theory and systems engineering principles were important in this work. Life cycle assessment methodology was important for assessing environmental impacts for case products. The new European regulation for chemicals (REACH) provided the main driver......) are essential. Many life cycle assessments of product systems are performed without the inclusion of toxicity data and indicators. Ecodesign processes for products are often based upon just one, or very few, environmental indicators. Regulatory issues are sometimes addressed in an ad hoc fashion, often late...

  18. The substitution of hazardous chemicals in the international context - Opportunity for promoting sustainable chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, R.; Lissner, L.; Fantke, Peter

    and phase-out of hazardous chemicals, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), on international level like under the Stockholm Convention, might provide one promising mechanism to mainstream more sustainable and greener chemicals and other alternative solutions aiming at eliminating or at least......-Phase-Out a publication has been developed compiling information on POPs-phase out and alternatives. In the conclusions and recommendation of this document “Sustainable and Green Chemistry” is highlighted as a guiding principle for alternatives assessment. This could be an entry point of Sustainable Chemistry...... in the alternatives assessment process on international level. The POPs phase out document links also to the web-platform SUBSPORT (www.subsport.eu) which has been developed in the frame of an EU project for safer alternatives to toxic chemicals. In this presentation the Stockholm Convention alternatives assessment...

  19. 77 FR 66638 - The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous... the Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals. DATES: Comments must be... elements of the standard; completing a compilation of written process safety information; performing a...

  20. European alerting and monitoring data as inputs for the risk assessment of microbiological and chemical hazards in spices and herbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, J.L.; Stratakou, I.; Fels, van der Ine; Besten, den H.M.W.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Food chains are susceptible to contaminations from food-borne hazards, including pathogens and chemical contaminants. An assessment of the potential product-hazard combinations can be supported by using multiple data sources. The objective of this study was to identify the main trends of food

  1. Physical and ergonomic hazards in the textile, chemical, food, metal products, and woodworking industries in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soytas, Ugur

    2006-01-01

    Questionnaires were administered in 272 textile, chemical, food, metal products and woodworking firms in ten cities in industry-dense areas to assess the general OHS situation in Turkey. This paper explores the portion related to exposures of workers to physical and ergonomic hazards. OHS experts where available, firm owners, partners, or engineers responsible for safety were asked to answer structured questions regarding percentages of workers exposed to specific hazards. About 65% of respondents reported exposures to noise risks among at least some percentage of employees; 26.3% reported more than 50% of employees were so exposed. In more than 60% of the firms employees were exposed to ergonomic risks related to the need to meet production quotas and the need to maintain constant posture. The most prevalent risk factors in five industries and the relative frequencies of exposed employees are described.

  2. A scalable machine-learning approach to recognize chemical names within large text databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wren Jonathan D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motivation The use or study of chemical compounds permeates almost every scientific field and in each of them, the amount of textual information is growing rapidly. There is a need to accurately identify chemical names within text for a number of informatics efforts such as database curation, report summarization, tagging of named entities and keywords, or the development/curation of reference databases. Results A first-order Markov Model (MM was evaluated for its ability to distinguish chemical names from words, yielding ~93% recall in recognizing chemical terms and ~99% precision in rejecting non-chemical terms on smaller test sets. However, because total false-positive events increase with the number of words analyzed, the scalability of name recognition was measured by processing 13.1 million MEDLINE records. The method yielded precision ranges from 54.7% to 100%, depending upon the cutoff score used, averaging 82.7% for approximately 1.05 million putative chemical terms extracted. Extracted chemical terms were analyzed to estimate the number of spelling variants per term, which correlated with the total number of times the chemical name appeared in MEDLINE. This variability in term construction was found to affect both information retrieval and term mapping when using PubMed and Ovid.

  3. Notification: FY 2012 Management Challenges and Internal Control Weaknesses for the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    February 1, 2012. The EPA Office of Inspector General is beginning work to update our list of areas we consider to be the key management challenges confronting the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board.

  4. Notification: Preliminary Research on the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board's Management of Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    June 3, 2013. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Inspector General plans to begin preliminary research on the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board’s management of contracts.

  5. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part I: QSAR models of skin sensitization and their application to identify potentially hazardous compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Vinicius M. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Muratov, Eugene [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry, A.V. Bogatsky Physical-Chemical Institute NAS of Ukraine, Odessa 65080 (Ukraine); Fourches, Denis [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole [ILS/Contractor Supporting the NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM), P.O. Box 13501, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Andrade, Carolina H. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Tropsha, Alexander, E-mail: alex_tropsha@unc.edu [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Repetitive exposure to a chemical agent can induce an immune reaction in inherently susceptible individuals that leads to skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been reported as skin sensitizers, there have been very few rigorously validated QSAR models with defined applicability domains (AD) that were developed using a large group of chemically diverse compounds. In this study, we have aimed to compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset related to chemically-induced skin sensitization, use this data to generate rigorously validated and QSAR models for skin sensitization, and employ these models as a virtual screening tool for identifying putative sensitizers among environmental chemicals. We followed best practices for model building and validation implemented with our predictive QSAR workflow using Random Forest modeling technique in combination with SiRMS and Dragon descriptors. The Correct Classification Rate (CCR) for QSAR models discriminating sensitizers from non-sensitizers was 71–88% when evaluated on several external validation sets, within a broad AD, with positive (for sensitizers) and negative (for non-sensitizers) predicted rates of 85% and 79% respectively. When compared to the skin sensitization module included in the OECD QSAR Toolbox as well as to the skin sensitization model in publicly available VEGA software, our models showed a significantly higher prediction accuracy for the same sets of external compounds as evaluated by Positive Predicted Rate, Negative Predicted Rate, and CCR. These models were applied to identify putative chemical hazards in the Scorecard database of possible skin or sense organ toxicants as primary candidates for experimental validation. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin sensitization dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin sensitization. • Developed models have higher prediction accuracy than OECD QSAR Toolbox. • Putative

  6. ChemProt-2.0: visual navigation in a disease chemical biology database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Sonny Kim; Wich, Louis; Kringelum, Jens Vindahl

    2013-01-01

    ChemProt-2.0 (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/ChemProt-2.0) is a public available compilation of multiple chemical-protein annotation resources integrated with diseases and clinical outcomes information. The database has been updated to > 1.15 million compounds with 5.32 millions bioactivity...

  7. Drainage basin security of hazardous chemical fluxe in the Yodo River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, S

    2004-01-01

    The Yodo River basin consists of three major tributary basins (and other small river basins) namely Uji, Katsura and Kizu, which overlap respectively Shiga, Kvoto and Nara prefectures' administrative areas. Lake Biwa, the largest lake in Japan, drains water through the Uji river. The water quality of the lake, in terms of BOD, continuously improved over the last decade. However, the quality in terms of COD did not show any improvement in spite of a large amount of infrastructure finance being introduced. Eutrophication of the lake still continues, showing no improvement in the nitrogen concentration level. Non-point as well as point source control is not strong enough. There is a gap between BOD and COD evaluations of the lake water quality. Hazardous chemical fluxes are estimated based upon PRTR reports of Japan (2001). PCBs are still discharged into the lake, although the report of Shiga Prefecture showed zero discharge. Dace fish monitoring clearly showed that PCB contamination of the fish had not changed since the 1980s in spite of a ban on use and production of PCBs in the 1970s. There is still leakage of PCBs into the lake. The major exposure of dioxins to Japanese is fish rather than meat and eggs. The risk of water contamination must take into consideration not only drinking water safety but also ecological magnification of food chains in water. The ecological health aspect of hazardous chemicals is also important, such as organotins with imposex of sea snails. Finally, public participation in hazardous chemical management is very important using the method of risk communication based upon the annual report of PRTR in Japan.

  8. Perchlorate on Mars: a chemical hazard and a resource for humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Alfonso F.; Willson, David; Coates, John D.; McKay, Christopher P.

    2013-10-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4 -) is widespread in Martian soils at concentrations between 0.5 and 1%. At such concentrations, perchlorate could be an important source of oxygen, but it could also become a critical chemical hazard to astronauts. In this paper, we review the dual implications of ClO4 - on Mars, and propose a biochemical approach for removal of perchlorate from Martian soil that would be energetically cheap, environmentally friendly and could be used to obtain oxygen both for human consumption and to fuel surface operations.

  9. Structural, morphological and sensing properties of layered polyaniline nanosheets towards hazardous phenol chemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyung-Kee; Ameen, Sadia; Akhtar, M Shaheer; Shin, Hyung Shik

    2013-01-30

    Reliable sensing properties towards hazardous phenol chemical were detected by the novel working electrode of layered polyaniline (PANI) nanosheets. The layered PANI nanosheets were synthesized by the chemical polymerization of aniline monomer in the presence of hydrochloric acid and ammonium persulphate at 5 °C. The morphological, structural, optical, electrical and electrochemical properties of layered PANI nanosheets were extensively studied. The electrochemical behavior of layered PANI nanosheets based electrode was demonstrated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclovoltametry (CV) measurements. The layered PANI nanosheets electrode showed reasonably good electrocatalytic activity towards the detection of phenol chemical, which resulted from the high redox current and low RCT. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were used to elucidate the sensing parameters of the fabricated phenol chemical sensor with layered PANI nanosheets electrode. The fabricated phenol chemical sensor with layered PANI nanosheets electrode significantly attained the high sensitivity of ~1485.3 μA mM(-1)cm(-2) and the detection limit of ~4.43 μM with correlation coefficient (R) of ~0.9981 and short response time (10 s). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Challenges with managing hazardous chemicals in the international frame - opportunity for educating on sustainable chemistry and alternatives assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, R.; Fantke, Peter

    Introduction Within international chemicals management treaties like the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) or the Vienna Convention/Montreal Protocol on Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) the phase out and management of hazardous chemicals is addressed globally. Decades...... of experiences have unveiled how difficult and expensive the management of listed chemicals is in particular the end of life. Method Past failures and on-going challenges to manage hazardous chemicals in the international context in particular the Stockholm Convention were assessed with considerations of a way...... forward. Results and Discussion The assessment shows the challenge with managing organohalogen compounds (chlorinated, brominated and fluorinated) in their life-cycle in particular in developing countries. In the past, often certain types of hazardous or unsustainable chemicals are continued to be used...

  11. Numerical Simulations as Tool to Predict Chemical and Radiological Hazardous Diffusion in Case of Nonconventional Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Ciparisse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations are widely used nowadays to predict the behaviour of fluids in pure research and in industrial applications. This approach makes it possible to get quantitatively meaningful results, often in good agreement with the experimental ones. The aim of this paper is to show how CFD calculations can help to understand the time evolution of two possible CBRNe (Chemical-Biological-Radiological-Nuclear-explosive events: (1 hazardous dust mobilization due to the interaction between a jet of air and a metallic powder in case of a LOVA (Loss Of Vacuum Accidents that is one of the possible accidents that can occur in experimental nuclear fusion plants; (2 toxic gas release in atmosphere. The scenario analysed in the paper has consequences similar to those expected in case of a release of dangerous substances (chemical or radioactive in enclosed or open environment during nonconventional events (like accidents or man-made or natural disasters.

  12. Tunable machine vision-based strategy for automated annotation of chemical databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungkap; Rosania, Gus R; Saitou, Kazuhiro

    2009-08-01

    We present a tunable, machine vision-based strategy for automated annotation of virtual small molecule databases. The proposed strategy is based on the use of a machine vision-based tool for extracting structure diagrams in research articles and converting them into connection tables, a virtual "Chemical Expert" system for screening the converted structures based on the adjustable levels of estimated conversion accuracy, and a fragment-based measure for calculating intermolecular similarity. For annotation, calculated chemical similarity between the converted structures and entries in a virtual small molecule database is used to establish the links. The overall annotation performances can be tuned by adjusting the cutoff threshold of the estimated conversion accuracy. We perform an annotation test which attempts to link 121 journal articles registered in PubMed to entries in PubChem which is the largest, publicly accessible chemical database. Two cases of tests are performed, and their results are compared to see how the overall annotation performances are affected by the different threshold levels of the estimated accuracy of the converted structure. Our work demonstrates that over 45% of the articles could have true positive links to entries in the PubChem database with promising recall and precision rates in both tests. Furthermore, we illustrate that the Chemical Expert system which can screen converted structures based on the adjustable levels of estimated conversion accuracy is a key factor impacting the overall annotation performance. We propose that this machine vision-based strategy can be incorporated with the text-mining approach to facilitate extraction of contextual scientific knowledge about a chemical structure, from the scientific literature.

  13. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical waste to LBL`s Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). Hazardous chemical waste is a necessary byproduct of LBL`s research and technical support activities. This waste must be handled properly if LBL is to operate safely and provide adequate protection to staff and the environment. These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of hazardous chemical waste, can meet LBL`s acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical waste.

  14. Managing expectations: assessment of chemistry databases generated by automated extraction of chemical structures from patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senger, Stefan; Bartek, Luca; Papadatos, George; Gaulton, Anna

    2015-12-01

    First public disclosure of new chemical entities often takes place in patents, which makes them an important source of information. However, with an ever increasing number of patent applications, manual processing and curation on such a large scale becomes even more challenging. An alternative approach better suited for this large corpus of documents is the automated extraction of chemical structures. A number of patent chemistry databases generated by using the latter approach are now available but little is known that can help to manage expectations when using them. This study aims to address this by comparing two such freely available sources, SureChEMBL and IBM SIIP (IBM Strategic Intellectual Property Insight Platform), with manually curated commercial databases. When looking at the percentage of chemical structures successfully extracted from a set of patents, using SciFinder as our reference, 59 and 51 % were also found in our comparison in SureChEMBL and IBM SIIP, respectively. When performing this comparison with compounds as starting point, i.e. establishing if for a list of compounds the databases provide the links between chemical structures and patents they appear in, we obtained similar results. SureChEMBL and IBM SIIP found 62 and 59 %, respectively, of the compound-patent pairs obtained from Reaxys. In our comparison of automatically generated vs. manually curated patent chemistry databases, the former successfully provided approximately 60 % of links between chemical structure and patents. It needs to be stressed that only a very limited number of patents and compound-patent pairs were used for our comparison. Nevertheless, our results will hopefully help to manage expectations of users of patent chemistry databases of this type and provide a useful framework for more studies like ours as well as guide future developments of the workflows used for the automated extraction of chemical structures from patents. The challenges we have encountered

  15. Familiarity and Understanding of Chemical Hazard Warning Signs Among Select College Students of De La Salle Lipa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo C. Lunar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory classes have become crucial parts of teaching science subjects. Most of the laboratories in natural science fields widely use chemicals of different types and hazard levels. Using descriptive- evaluative method of research, the study was carried out to assess students’ familiarity and comprehension of chemical hazard warning signs. Data were collected from randomly selected 150 student respondents enrolled in Chemistry and Biology Laboratory Classes during the second semester of SY 2012- 2013. A structured questionnaire was used for the data collection. The collected data were analysed using simple quantitative analysis. The results of the study revealed that the majority of the respondents were familiar with hazard signs of laboratory chemicals. After getting information on their level of awareness about potential hazards of laboratory chemicals, the respondents were also requested to match chemicals properties with the corresponding labels or pictograms. The results indicate that familiarity and understanding of hazard warning signs is low among the students. It also surveyed the preferred labelling technique which revealed that majority favoured the use of both colors and signs. An action plan was drafted as an output of the study aimed at putting forward corrective measures to address the laboratory related problems identified in the study.

  16. In vitro methods for hazard assessment of industrial chemicals – opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Lin eWong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD is a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction mediated by T-lymphocytes as a result of repeated exposure of an allergen primarily on skin. ACD accounts for up to 95% of occupational skin diseases (OSDs, with epoxy resins implicated as one of the most common causes of ACD. Efficient high-throughput in vitro screening for accurate identification of compounds and materials that may pose hazardous risks in the workplace is crucial. At present, the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA is the ‘method of choice’ for predicting the sensitizing potency of contact allergens. As the 3Rs principles of reduction, refinement and replacement in animal testing has gained political and economic momentum, several in vitro screening methods have been developed for identifying potential contact allergens. To date, these latter methods have been utilized primarily to assess the skin sensitizing potential of the chemical components of cosmetic products with scant research attention as to the applicability of these methods to industrial chemicals, particularly epoxy resins. Herein we review the currently utilized in vitro methods and identify the knowledge gaps with regard to assessing the generalizability of in vitro screening methods for assessing the skin sensitizing potential of industrial chemicals.

  17. EDCs DataBank: 3D-Structure database of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Grajales, Diana; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2015-01-02

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are a group of compounds that affect the endocrine system, frequently found in everyday products and epidemiologically associated with several diseases. The purpose of this work was to develop EDCs DataBank, the only database of EDCs with three-dimensional structures. This database was built on MySQL using the EU list of potential endocrine disruptors and TEDX list. It contains the three-dimensional structures available on PubChem, as well as a wide variety of information from different databases and text mining tools, useful for almost any kind of research regarding EDCs. The web platform was developed employing HTML, CSS and PHP languages, with dynamic contents in a graphic environment, facilitating information analysis. Currently EDCs DataBank has 615 molecules, including pesticides, natural and industrial products, cosmetics, drugs and food additives, among other low molecular weight xenobiotics. Therefore, this database can be used to study the toxicological effects of these molecules, or to develop pharmaceuticals targeting hormone receptors, through docking studies, high-throughput virtual screening and ligand-protein interaction analysis. EDCs DataBank is totally user-friendly and the 3D-structures of the molecules can be downloaded in several formats. This database is freely available at http://edcs.unicartagena.edu.co. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Ranking transitive chemical-disease inferences using local network topology in the comparative toxicogenomics database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Benjamin L; Davis, Allan Peter; Rosenstein, Michael C; Wiegers, Thomas C; Mattingly, Carolyn J

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to chemicals in the environment is believed to play a critical role in the etiology of many human diseases. To enhance understanding about environmental effects on human health, the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; http://ctdbase.org) provides unique curated data that enable development of novel hypotheses about the relationships between chemicals and diseases. CTD biocurators read the literature and curate direct relationships between chemicals-genes, genes-diseases, and chemicals-diseases. These direct relationships are then computationally integrated to create additional inferred relationships; for example, a direct chemical-gene statement can be combined with a direct gene-disease statement to generate a chemical-disease inference (inferred via the shared gene). In CTD, the number of inferences has increased exponentially as the number of direct chemical, gene and disease interactions has grown. To help users navigate and prioritize these inferences for hypothesis development, we implemented a statistic to score and rank them based on the topology of the local network consisting of the chemical, disease and each of the genes used to make an inference. In this network, chemicals, diseases and genes are nodes connected by edges representing the curated interactions. Like other biological networks, node connectivity is an important consideration when evaluating the CTD network, as the connectivity of nodes follows the power-law distribution. Topological methods reduce the influence of highly connected nodes that are present in biological networks. We evaluated published methods that used local network topology to determine the reliability of protein-protein interactions derived from high-throughput assays. We developed a new metric that combines and weights two of these methods and uniquely takes into account the number of common neighbors and the connectivity of each entity involved. We present several CTD inferences as case studies to

  19. Ranking transitive chemical-disease inferences using local network topology in the comparative toxicogenomics database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L King

    Full Text Available Exposure to chemicals in the environment is believed to play a critical role in the etiology of many human diseases. To enhance understanding about environmental effects on human health, the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; http://ctdbase.org provides unique curated data that enable development of novel hypotheses about the relationships between chemicals and diseases. CTD biocurators read the literature and curate direct relationships between chemicals-genes, genes-diseases, and chemicals-diseases. These direct relationships are then computationally integrated to create additional inferred relationships; for example, a direct chemical-gene statement can be combined with a direct gene-disease statement to generate a chemical-disease inference (inferred via the shared gene. In CTD, the number of inferences has increased exponentially as the number of direct chemical, gene and disease interactions has grown. To help users navigate and prioritize these inferences for hypothesis development, we implemented a statistic to score and rank them based on the topology of the local network consisting of the chemical, disease and each of the genes used to make an inference. In this network, chemicals, diseases and genes are nodes connected by edges representing the curated interactions. Like other biological networks, node connectivity is an important consideration when evaluating the CTD network, as the connectivity of nodes follows the power-law distribution. Topological methods reduce the influence of highly connected nodes that are present in biological networks. We evaluated published methods that used local network topology to determine the reliability of protein-protein interactions derived from high-throughput assays. We developed a new metric that combines and weights two of these methods and uniquely takes into account the number of common neighbors and the connectivity of each entity involved. We present several CTD inferences as case

  20. Results of Hazardous and Mixed Waste Excavation from the Chemical Waste Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, S. G.; Schofield, D. P.; Kwiecinski, D.; Edgmon, C. L.; Methvin, R.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes the results of the excavation of a 1.9-acre hazardous and mixed waste landfill operated for 23 years at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Excavation of the landfill was completed in 2 1/2 years without a single serious accident or injury. Approximately 50,000 cubic yards of soil contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organics, metals, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and radioactive constituents was removed. In addition, over 400 cubic yards of buried debris was removed, including bulk debris, unknown chemicals, compressed gas cylinders, thermal and chemical batteries, explosive and ordnance debris, pyrophoric materials and biohazardous waste. Removal of these wastes included negotiation of multiple regulations and guidances encompassed in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and risk assessment methodology. RCRA concepts that were addressed include the area of contamination, permit modification, emergency treatment provision, and listed waste designation. These regulatory decisions enabled the project to overcome logistical and programmatic needs such as increased operational area, the ability to implement process improvements while maintaining a record of decisions and approvals.

  1. Development of algal interspecies correlation estimation models for chemical hazard assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Jessica L; Belanger, Scott E; Chaney, Joel G; Dyer, Scott D; Raimondo, Sandy; Barron, Mace G; Pittinger, Charles A

    2016-09-01

    Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (ICE) is an application developed to predict the acute toxicity of a chemical from 1 species to another taxon. Web-ICE models use the acute toxicity value for a surrogate species to predict effect values for other species, thus potentially filling in data gaps for a variety of environmental assessment purposes. Web-ICE has historically been dominated by aquatic and terrestrial animal prediction models. Web-ICE models for algal species were essentially absent and are addressed in the present study. A compilation of public and private sector-held algal toxicity data were compiled and reviewed for quality based on relevant aspects of individual studies. Interspecies correlations were constructed from the most commonly tested algal genera for a broad spectrum of chemicals. The ICE regressions were developed based on acute 72-h and 96-h endpoint values involving 1647 unique studies on 476 unique chemicals encompassing 40 genera and 70 species of green, blue-green, and diatom algae. Acceptance criteria for algal ICE models were established prior to evaluation of individual models and included a minimum sample size of 3, a statistically significant regression slope, and a slope estimation parameter ≥0.65. A total of 186 ICE models were possible at the genus level, with 21 meeting quality criteria; and 264 ICE models were developed at the species level, with 32 meeting quality criteria. Algal ICE models will have broad utility in screening environmental hazard assessments, data gap filling in certain regulatory scenarios, and as supplemental information to derive species sensitivity distributions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2368-2378. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public

  2. High-risk facilities. Emergency management in nuclear, chemical and hazardous waste facilities; Hochrisikoanlagen. Notfallschutz bei Kernkraft-, Chemie- und Sondermuellanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloepfer, Michael (ed.) [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The book on emergency management in high-risk facilities covers the following topics: Change in the nuclear policy, risk management of high-risk facilities as a constitutional problem - emergency management in nuclear facilities, operational mechanisms of risk control in nuclear facilities, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for nuclear facilities, operational mechanism of the risk control in chemical plants, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for chemical facilities, operational mechanisms of the risk control in hazardous waste facilities, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for hazardous waste facilities, civil law consequences in case of accidents in high-risk facilities, criminal prosecution in case of accidents in high-risk facilities, safety margins as site risk for emission protection facilities, national emergency management - strategic emergency management structures, warning and self-protection of the public in case of CBRN hazards including aspects of the psych-social emergency management.

  3. A Course in Hazardous Chemical Spills: Use of the CAMEO Air Dispersion Model to Predict Evacuation Distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations (CAMEO) model and its use in the classroom as a training tool in the "Hazardous Chemical Spills" course. Presents six problems illustrating classroom use of CAMEO. Lists 16 references. (YP)

  4. SWEETLEAD: an in silico database of approved drugs, regulated chemicals, and herbal isolates for computer-aided drug discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Novick

    Full Text Available In the face of drastically rising drug discovery costs, strategies promising to reduce development timelines and expenditures are being pursued. Computer-aided virtual screening and repurposing approved drugs are two such strategies that have shown recent success. Herein, we report the creation of a highly-curated in silico database of chemical structures representing approved drugs, chemical isolates from traditional medicinal herbs, and regulated chemicals, termed the SWEETLEAD database. The motivation for SWEETLEAD stems from the observance of conflicting information in publicly available chemical databases and the lack of a highly curated database of chemical structures for the globally approved drugs. A consensus building scheme surveying information from several publicly accessible databases was employed to identify the correct structure for each chemical. Resulting structures are filtered for the active pharmaceutical ingredient, standardized, and differing formulations of the same drug were combined in the final database. The publically available release of SWEETLEAD (https://simtk.org/home/sweetlead provides an important tool to enable the successful completion of computer-aided repurposing and drug discovery campaigns.

  5. Use of short-term test systems for the prediction of the hazard represented by potential chemical carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, L.R.; Jones, T.D.; Easterly, C.E.; Walsh, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that results from short-term bioassays will ultimately provide information that will be useful for human health hazard assessment. Historically, the validity of the short-term tests has been assessed using the framework of the epidemiologic/medical screens. In this context, the results of the carcinogen (long-term) bioassay is generally used as the standard. However, this approach is widely recognized as being biased and, because it employs qualitative data, cannot be used to assist in isolating those compounds which may represent a more significant toxicologic hazard than others. In contrast, the goal of this research is to address the problem of evaluating the utility of the short-term tests for hazard assessment using an alternative method of investigation. Chemicals were selected mostly from the list of carcinogens published by the International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (IARC); a few other chemicals commonly recognized as hazardous were included. Tumorigenicity and mutagenicity data on 52 chemicals were obtained from the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) and were analyzed using a relative potency approach. The data were evaluated in a format which allowed for a comparison of the ranking of the mutagenic relative potencies of the compounds (as estimated using short-term data) vs. the ranking of the tumorigenic relative potencies (as estimated from the chronic bioassays). Although this was a preliminary investigation, it offers evidence that the short-term tests systems may be of utility in ranking the hazards represented by chemicals which may contribute to increased carcinogenesis in humans as a result of occupational or environmental exposures. 177 refs., 8 tabs.

  6. Modeling of non-additive mixture properties using the Online CHEmical database and Modeling environment (OCHEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprisiu Ioana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Online Chemical Modeling Environment (OCHEM, http://ochem.eu is a web-based platform that provides tools for automation of typical steps necessary to create a predictive QSAR/QSPR model. The platform consists of two major subsystems: a database of experimental measurements and a modeling framework. So far, OCHEM has been limited to the processing of individual compounds. In this work, we extended OCHEM with a new ability to store and model properties of binary non-additive mixtures. The developed system is publicly accessible, meaning that any user on the Web can store new data for binary mixtures and develop models to predict their non-additive properties. The database already contains almost 10,000 data points for the density, bubble point, and azeotropic behavior of binary mixtures. For these data, we developed models for both qualitative (azeotrope/zeotrope and quantitative endpoints (density and bubble points using different learning methods and specially developed descriptors for mixtures. The prediction performance of the models was similar to or more accurate than results reported in previous studies. Thus, we have developed and made publicly available a powerful system for modeling mixtures of chemical compounds on the Web.

  7. Modeling of non-additive mixture properties using the Online CHEmical database and Modeling environment (OCHEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprisiu, Ioana; Novotarskyi, Sergii; Tetko, Igor V

    2013-01-15

    The Online Chemical Modeling Environment (OCHEM, http://ochem.eu) is a web-based platform that provides tools for automation of typical steps necessary to create a predictive QSAR/QSPR model. The platform consists of two major subsystems: a database of experimental measurements and a modeling framework. So far, OCHEM has been limited to the processing of individual compounds. In this work, we extended OCHEM with a new ability to store and model properties of binary non-additive mixtures. The developed system is publicly accessible, meaning that any user on the Web can store new data for binary mixtures and develop models to predict their non-additive properties.The database already contains almost 10,000 data points for the density, bubble point, and azeotropic behavior of binary mixtures. For these data, we developed models for both qualitative (azeotrope/zeotrope) and quantitative endpoints (density and bubble points) using different learning methods and specially developed descriptors for mixtures. The prediction performance of the models was similar to or more accurate than results reported in previous studies. Thus, we have developed and made publicly available a powerful system for modeling mixtures of chemical compounds on the Web.

  8. Engineering Rugged Field Assays to Detect Hazardous Chemicals Using Spore-Based Bacterial Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Daniel; Deo, Sapna; Daunert, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial whole cell-based biosensors have been genetically engineered to achieve selective and reliable detection of a wide range of hazardous chemicals. Although whole-cell biosensors demonstrate many advantages for field-based detection of target analytes, there are still some challenges that need to be addressed. Most notably, their often modest shelf life and need for special handling and storage make them challenging to use in situations where access to reagents, instrumentation, and expertise are limited. These problems can be circumvented by developing biosensors in Bacillus spores, which can be engineered to address all of these concerns. In its sporulated state, a whole cell-based biosensor has a remarkably long life span and is exceptionally resistant to environmental insult. When these spores are germinated for use in analytical techniques, they show no loss in performance, even after long periods of storage under harsh conditions. In this chapter, we will discuss the development and use of whole cell-based sensors, their adaptation to spore-based biosensors, their current applications, and future directions in the field. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Investigation on the application of GBZ/T 229.2-2010--classification of occupational hazards at workplaces Part 2: occupational exposure to chemicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Zhang, M; Zhou, Z J

    2017-11-20

    Objective: To investigate the application and effectiveness evaluation of the standard of GBZ/T 229.2-2010 in practice, and to explore the applicability, aiming to provide technical evidence for the re-vision of GBZ/T 229.2-2010. Methods: There were 2 questionnaire surveys carried out in the study, including general survey and specific survey. Databases were established and data were input with Excel 2010 and Epi-data version 3.1 software. SPSS version 19.0 software was used for data cleaning and statistical analysis. Results: In total, the general survey received 100 questionnaires, with 59 from occupational health technical ser-vice organizations held by government, and 11 from colleges and universities. The leading three jobs using GBZ/T 229.2-2010 were the occupational hazards evaluation for constructive project (65.0%), lecturing/train-ing (50.0%), occupational hazards monitoring (43.0%), respectively. In the results of feasibility, scores of the fourth part "classification" , the fifth part "the principles of classification management" , annex A "the correct use instructions" were 3.4, 3.3, 3.5 respectively. In total, the specific survey received 27 questionnaires, with 18 from the employers and 9 from occupational health technical service organizations. The awareness rate of GBZ/T 229.2-2010 among occupational health professionals was 72.2%. In the results of feasibility, scores of the level of chemical hazards, occupational exposure ratio, physical labor intensity level, classification of expo-sure to industrial toxicants, principles of classification management, annex A "the correct use instructions" were 3.2, 3.7, 4.3, 4.1, 3.2, 3.2, respectively Conclusions: The results indicates that each part of GBZ/T 229.2-2010 is feasible and practical. But there are still some problems, such as classification of different kinds of chemicals at workplace, and the interaction of occupational exposure to chemicals and other hazards at work-place, etc. We suggest that

  10. Advancing Exposure Science through Chemical Data Curation and Integration in the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, Cynthia J; Davis, Allan Peter; Wiegers, Thomas C; King, Benjamin L; Wiegers, Jolene A; Reif, David M; Hoppin, Jane A; Mattingly, Carolyn J

    2016-10-01

    Exposure science studies the interactions and outcomes between environmental stressors and human or ecological receptors. To augment its role in understanding human health and the exposome, we aimed to centralize and integrate exposure science data into the broader biological framework of the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD), a public resource that promotes understanding of environmental chemicals and their effects on human health. We integrated exposure data within the CTD to provide a centralized, freely available resource that facilitates identification of connections between real-world exposures, chemicals, genes/proteins, diseases, biological processes, and molecular pathways. We developed a manual curation paradigm that captures exposure data from the scientific literature using controlled vocabularies and free text within the context of four primary exposure concepts: stressor, receptor, exposure event, and exposure outcome. Using data from the Agricultural Health Study, we have illustrated the benefits of both centralization and integration of exposure information with CTD core data. We have described our curation process, demonstrated how exposure data can be accessed and analyzed in the CTD, and shown how this integration provides a broad biological context for exposure data to promote mechanistic understanding of environmental influences on human health. Curation and integration of exposure data within the CTD provides researchers with new opportunities to correlate exposures with human health outcomes, to identify underlying potential molecular mechanisms, and to improve understanding about the exposome. Grondin CJ, Davis AP, Wiegers TC, King BL, Wiegers JA, Reif DM, Hoppin JA, Mattingly CJ. 2016. Advancing exposure science through chemical data curation and integration in the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database. Environ Health Perspect 124:1592-1599; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP174.

  11. Top five chemicals resulting in injuries from acute chemical incidents—Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance, nine states, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ayana R

    2015-04-10

    The Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Substance Inventory lists >84,000 chemicals used in commerce (http://www.epa.gov/oppt/existingchemicals/pubs/tscainventory/basic.html). With chemicals having a multitude of uses, persons are potentially at risk daily for exposure to chemicals as a result of an acute chemical incident (lasting chemical, exposure can result in morbidity and, in some cases, mortality. 1999-2008. The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system was operated by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry during January 1991-September 2009 to collect data that would enable researchers to describe the public health consequences of chemical incidents and to develop activities aimed at reducing the harm from such incidents. This report identifies the top five chemicals that caused injuries in the nine states (Colorado, Iowa, Minnesota, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin) that participated in HSEES during its last 10 full years of data collection (1999-2008). Of the 57,975 incidents that were reported, 54,989 (95%) involved the release of only one chemical. The top five chemicals associated with injury were carbon monoxide (2,364), ammonia (1,153), chlorine (763), hydrochloric acid (326), and sulfuric acid (318). Carbon monoxide and ammonia by far caused the most injuries, deaths, and evacuations. Chlorine, while not in the top 10 chemicals released, was in the top five chemicals associated with injury because of its hazardous properties. Multiple measures can be taken to prevent injuries associated with the top five chemicals. Because many carbon monoxide releases occur in residential settings, use of carbon monoxide detectors can prevent injuries. Substituting chemicals with less lethal alternatives can result in mitigating injuries associated with ammonia. Routine maintenance of equipment and engineering controls can reduce injuries associated with chlorine and sulfuric acid, and proper

  12. Risk assessment of chemicals in food and diet: Hazard identification by methods of animal-based toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlow, S. M.; Greig, J. B.; Bridges, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    identification of chemicals in food and diet is discussed. The importance of first applying existing technical and chemical knowledge to the design of safety testing programs for Food chemicals is emphasised. There is consideration of the presently available and commonly used toxicity testing approaches...... and methodologies, including acute and repeated dose toxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity and food allergy. They are considered from the perspective of whether they are appropriate tor assessing food chemicals and whether them are adequate......, on hazard identification for food chemicals, such as new measurement techniques, the use of transgenic animals, assessment of hormone balance and the possibilities for conducting studies in which common human diseases have been modelled. is also considered. (C) 2002 ILSI. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd...

  13. The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD): A Cross-Species Resource for Building Chemical-Gene Interaction Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mattingly, Carolyn J.; Rosenstein, Michael C; Davis, Allan Peter; Colby, Glenn T.; Forrest, John N.; Boyer, James L.

    2006-01-01

    Chemicals in the environment play a critical role in the etiology of many human diseases. Despite their prevalence, the molecular mechanisms of action and the effects of chemicals on susceptibility to disease are not well understood. To promote understanding of these mechanisms, the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; http://ctd.mdibl.org/) presents scientifically reviewed and curated information on chemicals, relevant genes and proteins, and their interactions in vertebrates and invert...

  14. Evaluation of hazardous chemicals in edible insects and insect-based food intended for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Giulia; Cuykx, Matthias; Amato, Elvio; Calaprice, Chiara; Focant, Jean Francois; Covaci, Adrian

    2017-02-01

    Due to the rapid increase in world population, the waste of food and resources, and non-sustainable food production practices, the use of alternative food sources is currently strongly promoted. In this perspective, insects may represent a valuable alternative to main animal food sources due to their nutritional value and sustainable production. However, edible insects may be perceived as an unappealing food source and are indeed rarely consumed in developed countries. The food safety of edible insects can thus contribute to the process of acceptance of insects as an alternative food source, changing the perception of developed countries regarding entomophagy. In the present study, the levels of organic contaminants (i.e. flame retardants, PCBs, DDT, dioxin compounds, pesticides) and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn) were investigated in composite samples of several species of edible insects (greater wax moth, migratory locust, mealworm beetle, buffalo worm) and four insect-based food items currently commercialized in Belgium. The organic chemical mass fractions were relatively low (PCBs: 27-2065 pg/g ww; OCPs: 46-368 pg/g ww; BFRs: up to 36 pg/g ww; PFRs 783-23800 pg/g ww; dioxin compounds: up to 0.25 pg WHO-TEQ/g ww) and were generally lower than those measured in common animal products. The untargeted screening analysis revealed the presence of vinyltoluene, tributylphosphate (present in 75% of the samples), and pirimiphos-methyl (identified in 50% of the samples). The levels of Cu and Zn in insects were similar to those measured in meat and fish in other studies, whereas As, Co, Cr, Pb, Sn levels were relatively low in all samples (insect species with no additional hazards in comparison to the more commonly consumed animal products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Conversion of radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes into borosilicate glass using the glass material oxidation and dissolution system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.; Elam, K.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A new vitrification process has been invented. The Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS) allows direct conversion of radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes to borosilicate glass. GMODS directly converts metals, ceramics and amorphous solids to glass, oxidizes organics with the residue converted to glass, and converts halides (such as chlorides) to borosilicate glass and a secondary sodium halide stream. The glass is designed to meet EPA criteria for chemically non-hazardous waste forms. Laboratory work has demonstrated the conversion of stainless steel, aluminum, cerium (a plutonium surrogate), uranium, Zircaloy, multiple oxides and other materials to glass. Equipment options have been identified for processing rates between 1 and 100,000 t/y. Significant work, including a pilot plant, is required to develop GMODS for applications at an industrial scale.

  16. Visualisation and subsets of the chemical universe database GDB-13 for virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Lorenz C; van Deursen, Ruud; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2011-07-01

    The chemical universe database GDB-13, which enumerates 977 million organic molecules up to 13 atoms of C, N, O, S and Cl following simple chemical stability and synthetic feasibility rules, represents a vast reservoir for new fragments. GDB-13 was classified using the MQN-system discussed in the preceding paper for the analysis of PubChem fragments. Two hundred and fifty-five subsets of GDB-13 were generated by the combinatorial use of eight restrictive criteria, including fragment-like ("rule of three") and scaffold-like (no acyclic carbon atoms) filters. Virtual screening for analogs of 15 commercial drugs of 13 non-hydrogen atoms or less shows that retrieving MQN-neighbors of a query molecule from GDB-13 or its subsets provides on average a 38-fold enrichment in structural analogs (Daylight-type substructure fingerprint Tanimoto T (SF) > 0.7), and a 75-fold enrichment in shape-similar analogs (ROCS TanimotoCombo score > 1.4). An MQN-searchable version of GDB-13 is provided at www.gdb.unibe.ch .

  17. Occupational health hazards of hospital staff nurses. Part II: Physical, chemical, and biological stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triolo, P K

    1989-07-01

    Physical and environmental hazards commonly found in hospitals include slippery floors, electrical hazards, noise, poor lighting, and inadequate ventilation. Describing the extent of musculoskeletal injury in nurses, one survey showed that nurses lost 750,000 working days a year as a result of back pain, which is twice the national average. Most workplace exposures do not result in disease, because either the biohazard is not transmitted by the airborne route or because the agent is present in too low of a dose. The more nurses know about potential occupational health and safety hazards, the more successful they will be in reducing risks, avoiding accidents, and minimizing occupational stressor outcomes.

  18. Control banding for risk management of source chemical agents and other occupational hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupka, Stephanie

    2010-09-01

    In the absence of occupational exposure limits, control banding may be a useful strategy for assessing and controlling occupational hazards as part of a comprehensive safety and health program. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Assessment of local wood species used for the manufacture of cookware and the perception of chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with their use in Kumasi, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Historical proven wood species have no reported adverse health effect associated with its past use. Different historical proven species have traditionally been used to manufacture different wooden food contact items. This study uses survey questionnaires to assess suppliers’, manufacturers’, retailers’ and consumers’ (end-users’) preferences for specific wood species, to examine the considerations that inform these preferences and to investigate the extent of awareness of the chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with wooden food contact material use. Methods Through the combined use of a cross sectional approach and a case study design, 25 suppliers, 25 manufacturers, 25 retailers and 125 consumers (end-users) of wooden food contact materials in four suburbs in Kumasi Metropolitan Area (Anloga junction, Ahinsan Bus Stop, Ahwia-Pankrono and Race Course) and Ashanti Akyim Agogo in the Ashanti Akyim North District of the Ashanti Region were administered with closed ended questionnaires. The questionnaires were prepared in English, but local language, Twi, was used to translate and communicate the content of the questionnaire where necessary. Results Suppliers’, manufacturers’ and retailers’ preferences for specific wood species for most wooden cookware differed from that of consumers (end-users). But all respondent groups failed to indicate any awareness of chemical benefits or chemical hazards associated with either the choice of specific wood species for specific wooden cookware or with the general use of wooden food contact materials. The lack of appreciation of chemical benefits or hazards associated with active principles of wooden cookware led to heavy reliance of consumers (end-users) on the wood density, price, attractive grain pattern and colour or on the judgement of retailers in their choice of specific species for a wooden cookware. Conclusion This study contributes some practical suggestions to guide national policy

  20. Assessment of local wood species used for the manufacture of cookware and the perception of chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with their use in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, John Kenneth; Adei, Evans; Adei, Dina; Owusu Ansah, Gwendolyn

    2012-12-18

    Historical proven wood species have no reported adverse health effect associated with its past use. Different historical proven species have traditionally been used to manufacture different wooden food contact items. This study uses survey questionnaires to assess suppliers', manufacturers', retailers' and consumers' (end-users') preferences for specific wood species, to examine the considerations that inform these preferences and to investigate the extent of awareness of the chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with wooden food contact material use. Through the combined use of a cross sectional approach and a case study design, 25 suppliers, 25 manufacturers, 25 retailers and 125 consumers (end-users) of wooden food contact materials in four suburbs in Kumasi Metropolitan Area (Anloga junction, Ahinsan Bus Stop, Ahwia-Pankrono and Race Course) and Ashanti Akyim Agogo in the Ashanti Akyim North District of the Ashanti Region were administered with closed ended questionnaires. The questionnaires were prepared in English, but local language, Twi, was used to translate and communicate the content of the questionnaire where necessary. Suppliers', manufacturers' and retailers' preferences for specific wood species for most wooden cookware differed from that of consumers (end-users). But all respondent groups failed to indicate any awareness of chemical benefits or chemical hazards associated with either the choice of specific wood species for specific wooden cookware or with the general use of wooden food contact materials. The lack of appreciation of chemical benefits or hazards associated with active principles of wooden cookware led to heavy reliance of consumers (end-users) on the wood density, price, attractive grain pattern and colour or on the judgement of retailers in their choice of specific species for a wooden cookware. This study contributes some practical suggestions to guide national policy development on improvement in quality of available

  1. A procedure to select ground-motion time histories for deterministic seismic hazard analysis from the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Duruo; Du, Wenqi; Zhu, Hong

    2017-10-01

    In performance-based seismic design, ground-motion time histories are needed for analyzing dynamic responses of nonlinear structural systems. However, the number of ground-motion data at design level is often limited. In order to analyze seismic performance of structures, ground-motion time histories need to be either selected from recorded strong-motion database or numerically simulated using stochastic approaches. In this paper, a detailed procedure to select proper acceleration time histories from the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) database for several cities in Taiwan is presented. Target response spectra are initially determined based on a local ground-motion prediction equation under representative deterministic seismic hazard analyses. Then several suites of ground motions are selected for these cities using the Design Ground Motion Library (DGML), a recently proposed interactive ground-motion selection tool. The selected time histories are representatives of the regional seismic hazard and should be beneficial to earthquake studies when comprehensive seismic hazard assessments and site investigations are unavailable. Note that this method is also applicable to site-specific motion selections with the target spectra near the ground surface considering the site effect.

  2. A procedure to select ground-motion time histories for deterministic seismic hazard analysis from the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In performance-based seismic design, ground-motion time histories are needed for analyzing dynamic responses of nonlinear structural systems. However, the number of ground-motion data at design level is often limited. In order to analyze seismic performance of structures, ground-motion time histories need to be either selected from recorded strong-motion database or numerically simulated using stochastic approaches. In this paper, a detailed procedure to select proper acceleration time histories from the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA database for several cities in Taiwan is presented. Target response spectra are initially determined based on a local ground-motion prediction equation under representative deterministic seismic hazard analyses. Then several suites of ground motions are selected for these cities using the Design Ground Motion Library (DGML, a recently proposed interactive ground-motion selection tool. The selected time histories are representatives of the regional seismic hazard and should be beneficial to earthquake studies when comprehensive seismic hazard assessments and site investigations are unavailable. Note that this method is also applicable to site-specific motion selections with the target spectra near the ground surface considering the site effect.

  3. How can we avoid the lock-in problem in the substitution of hazardous chemicals used in consumer products?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheringer, Martin; Fantke, Peter; Weber, R.

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of chemical substances is used in consumer products for various purposes, including plastic softeners, dyestuffs and colorants, flame retardants, impregnation agents, antioxidants and UV absorbers, preservation agents and biocides, and many others. Among these chemicals, there is a c......A wide range of chemical substances is used in consumer products for various purposes, including plastic softeners, dyestuffs and colorants, flame retardants, impregnation agents, antioxidants and UV absorbers, preservation agents and biocides, and many others. Among these chemicals......, there is a certain fraction of substances with hazardous properties such as persistence, bioaccumulation potential and toxicity (PBT properties) or the ability to interfere with the hormonal system (endocrine disrupting chemicals, EDCs). Large-scale screening exercises have shown that there may be several hundreds...... of chemicals with PBT properties among the several tens of thousands of substances on the market. There are some groups of chemicals that have raised particular concerns such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) or long-chain poly and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs). These substances have been...

  4. Ingested plastic transfers hazardous chemicals to fish and induces hepatic stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Hoh, Eunha; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Teh, Swee J

    2013-01-01

    .... Here, we show that fish, exposed to a mixture of polyethylene with chemical pollutants sorbed from the marine environment, bioaccumulate these chemical pollutants and suffer liver toxicity and pathology...

  5. Estimating the extent of the health hazard posed by high-production volume chemicals.

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, A.R.; Rosenkranz, H S

    2001-01-01

    We used structure-activity relationship modeling to estimate the number of toxic chemicals among the high-production volume (HPV) group. We selected 200 chemicals from among the HPV chemical list and predicted the potential of each for its ability to induce a variety of adverse effects including genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, developmental, and systemic toxicity. We found a significantly less than expected proportion of toxic chemicals among the HPV sample when compared to a reference set of ...

  6. Rapid screening and identification of chemical hazards in surface and drinking water using high resolution mass spectrometry and a case-control filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaserzon, Sarit L; Heffernan, Amy L; Thompson, Kristie; Mueller, Jochen F; Gomez Ramos, Maria Jose

    2017-09-01

    Access to clean, safe drinking water poses a serious challenge to regulators, and requires analytical strategies capable of rapid screening and identification of potentially hazardous chemicals, specifically in situations when threats to water quality or security require rapid investigations and potential response. This study describes a fast and efficient chemical hazard screening strategy for characterising trace levels of polar organic contaminants in water matrices, based on liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry with post-acquisition 'case-control' data processing. This method allowed for a rapid response time of less than 24 h for the screening of target, suspect and non-target unknown chemicals via direct injection analysis, and a second, more sensitive analysis option requiring sample pre-concentration. The method was validated by fortifying samples with a range of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (n = 46); with >90% of target compounds positively screened in samples at 1 ng mL-1, and 46% at 0.1 ng mL-1 when analysed via direct injection. To simulate a contamination event samples were fortified with compounds not present in the commercial library (designated 'non-target compounds'; fipronil and fenitrothion), tentatively identified at 0.2 and 1 ng mL-1, respectively; and a compound not included in any known commercial library or public database (designated 'unknown' compounds; 8Cl- perfluorooctanesulfonic acid), at 0.8 ng mL-1. The method was applied to two 'real-case' scenarios: (1) the assessment of drinking water safety during a high-profile event in Brisbane, Australia; and (2) to screen treated, re-circulated drinking water and pre-treated (raw) water. The validated workflow was effective for rapid prioritisation and screening of suspect and non-target potential hazards at trace levels, and could be applied to a wide range of matrices and investigations where comparison of organic contaminants between

  7. The association of the original OSHA chemical hazard communication standard with reductions in acute work injuries/illnesses in private industry and the industrial releases of chemical carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinick, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    OSHA predicted the original chemical Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) would cumulatively reduce the lost workday acute injury/illness rate for exposure events by 20% over 20 years and reduce exposure to chemical carcinogens. JoinPoint trend software identified changes in the rate of change of BLS rates for days away from work for acute injuries/illnesses during 1992-2009 for manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries for both chemical, noxious or allergenic injury exposure events and All other exposure events. The annual percent change in the rates was used to adjust observed numbers of cases to estimate their association with the standard. A case-control study of EPA's Toxic Release Inventory 1988-2009 data compared carcinogen and non-carcinogens' releases. The study estimates that the HCS was associated with a reduction in the number of acute injuries/illnesses due to chemical injury exposure events over the background rate in the range 107,569-459,395 (Hudson method/modified BIC model) depending on whether the HCS is treated as a marginal or sole factor in the decrease. Carcinogen releases have declined at a substantially faster rate than control non-carcinogens. The previous HCS standard was associated with significant reductions in chemical event acute injuries/illnesses and chemical carcinogen exposures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Occupational hazards in hospitals: accidents, radiation, exposure to noxious chemicals, drug addiction and psychic problems, and assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestal, J J

    1987-01-01

    Except for infectious diseases all the main occupational hazards affecting health workers are reviewed: accidents (explosions, fires, electrical accidents, and other sources of injury); radiation (stochastic and non-stochastic effects, protective measures, and personnel most at risk); exposure to noxious chemicals, whose effects may be either local (allergic eczema) or generalised (cancer, mutations), particular attention being paid to the hazards presented by formol, ethylene oxide, cytostatics, and anaesthetic gases; drug addiction (which is more common among health workers than the general population) and psychic problems associated with promotion, shift work, and emotional stress; and assault (various types of assault suffered by health workers, its causes, and the characterisation of the most aggressive patients). PMID:3307896

  9. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

  10. Notification: FY 2017 Update of Proposed Key Management Challenges and Internal Control Weaknesses Confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan 5, 2017. The EPA OIG is beginning work to update for fiscal year 2017 its list of proposed key management challenges and internal control weaknesses confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB).

  11. Ingested plastic transfers hazardous chemicals to fish and induces hepatic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Chelsea M.; Hoh, Eunha; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Teh, Swee J.

    2013-01-01

    Plastic debris litters aquatic habitats globally, the majority of which is microscopic (plastic and accumulated pollutants are largely unknown. Here, we show that fish, exposed to a mixture of polyethylene with chemical pollutants sorbed from the marine environment, bioaccumulate these chemical pollutants and suffer liver toxicity and pathology. Fish fed virgin polyethylene fragments also show signs of stress, although less severe than fish fed marine polyethylene fragments. We provide baseline information regarding the bioaccumulation of chemicals and associated health effects from plastic ingestion in fish and demonstrate that future assessments should consider the complex mixture of the plastic material and their associated chemical pollutants. PMID:24263561

  12. Chemicals present in automobile traffic tunnels and the possible community health hazards: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuykendall, Jim R; Shaw, Stephanie L; Paustenbach, Dennis; Fehling, Kurt; Kacew, Sam; Kabay, Victor

    2009-08-01

    Dozens of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds can be detected in vehicle exhaust, along with numerous metals and oxides of sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon. While the adverse effects of these chemicals have been extensively studied surrounding open roadways, the hazards to local residents and commuters resulting from the presence of tunnel emission chemicals are less well known. Commuters and workers within tunnels are also exposed to tunnel atmospheres, and the risks have only been evaluated to a limited extent. Approximately 50 studies conducted at more than 35 different international traffic tunnels were reviewed in order to characterize the potential health impact on individuals residing near these tunnels. One objective of this article is to identify those chemicals that deserve further study in order to understand the hazards to humans who work in these tunnels, as well as the risks to those in the surrounding community. The second objective is to present the available information regarding the hazards to those living near these tunnels. The published information, for the most part, indicates that the concentration of most toxicants detected in communities exposed to tunnel emissions are below those concentrations that are generally considered to pose either a significant acute or chronic health hazard. However, there have been no comprehensive studies that have evaluated the concentration of all of the relevant toxicants on a real-time basis or using repetitive time-weighted average sampling. Based on our analysis of the existing information appearing in peer-reviewed literature and government reports, additional information on the variation of concentrations of various chemicals over time near the tunnel exits would be helpful. Optimally, these would be better if evaluated in conjunction with traffic magnitude and vehicle type. It would also be useful to further characterize acute exposures to commuters or tunnel workers during times of heavy volume or

  13. CHARACTERIZATION AND USES OF THE “QUALITATIVE TECHNIQUES" FOR HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusebio V. Ibarra-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper determines and studies, analyzes and elaborates and classifies and categorizes the main qualitative techniques for hazards identification and assessment in chemical industrial processes. It specifies that these techniques base their effectiveness both, on analytical estimation processes and on the safety managers-engineers ability. It enumerates also those that present a bigger use frequency as well as the dangers that identify and the results that they give. Their use is linked, in function of the complexity level of the analysis technique, with the different stages of the life of industrial projects / processes.

  14. Colour quantitation for chemical spot tests for a controlled substances presumptive test database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Kelly M; Weghorst, Alex C; Quinn, Alicia A; Acharya, Subrata

    2017-02-01

    Crime scene investigators (CSIs) often encounter unknown powders, capsules, tablets, and liquids at crime scenes, many of which are controlled substances. Because most drugs are white powders, however, visual determination of the chemical identity is difficult. Colourimetric tests are a well-established method of presumptive drug identification. Positive tests are often reported differently, however, because two analysts may perceive colour or record colourimetric results in different ways. In addition to perceiving colour differently, it is very common for there to be poor visibility conditions (e.g. rain, darkness) while performing these tests, further obscuring the results. In order to address these concerns and to create uniformity in the reporting of on-site colourimetric test results, this study has evaluated two of the state-of-the-art apps (ColorAssist® and Colorimeter®) for reporting the colour test results quantitatively in red-green-blue (RGB) format. The compiled library database of presumptive test results contains over 3300 data points including over 800 unique drug/test combinations. Variations observed between test replicates, from performing a test on different days, recording with a different device type (e.g. iPod Touch, iPhone models 4, 5c, 5s, or 6), and using different quantities of drug are discussed. Overall, the least variation in Euclidian norm was observed using ColorAssist® with the camera light (25.1±22.1) while the variation between replicates and data recorded using different devices was similar. The resulting library is uploaded to a smartphone application aimed to aid in identifying and interpreting suspected controlled substance evidence. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Areal location of hazardous atmospheres simulation on toxic chemical release: A scenario-based case study from Ray, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Farin; Ardalan, Ali; Aguirre, Benigno; Mansouri, Nabiollah; Mohammadfam, Iraj

    2017-10-01

    Chemical accidents cause significant danger for residents living close to chemical facilities. For this reason, this study assessed the impacts of a simulated chemical accident on surrounding residents in the city of Ray, Iran. In this scenario-based case study in 2015, the Areal Location of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA) model was applied to simulate a toxic chemical release from a chlorine warehouse in Shourabad, Ray, Iran. The population of the area was calculated based on the latest census in Iran, 2011. The atmospheric variables included were wind speed, air temperature, and relative humidity. We also included data on pollution source such as diameter, length and volume, and condition of chemicals. The simulation was repeated for each seasonal period. The simulated threat zones were mapped using Geographical Information System. The percentage of residents sustaining injuries and death was calculated using probit. The maximum and minimum simulated threat zones by chlorine release are during summer and winter at 8.8 and 6.4 kilometers respectively. The total affected population was estimated at approximately 30,000 people. The greater percent of injuries and death was estimated to occur in the winter and autumn, compared to summer and spring, because of greater climatic instability. The number of individuals affected by chlorine release in the spring, summer, autumn and winter at 8.3, 8.8, 7.6 and 6.4 kilometers, are estimated at 22,500, 25,000, 28,100 and 27,500, respectively. Populations located in hot and warm zones of toxic chemical releases should have access to medical resources. The results showed that relevant factors impact human vulnerability, and these should be examined to mitigate the harmful consequences of chemical accidents. Establishing a multi-level Emergency Response Program is also recommended in the area under study.

  16. Development of an Environmental Monitoring Program. Volume 1. Marine Hazardous Chemical Worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    reluctant to shave them off. However, the OSHA Standard 1910.134 states that respirators shall not be worn when conditions (such as a growth of beard...equipment was used or immediately available in the area. The inspector was dressed in cloth overalls and leather work shoes. (1) Chemical Data Guide for...drip tray 0 Clothing and Protective Equipment Worn: - Coveralls - Chemical goggles - Neoprene gloves - Hard hat - Leather shoes . - Life vest when on

  17. A Medical Monitoring Program for the Marine Hazardous Chemical Worker. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    SwRI Toxicology Dr. J. A. Schack, NMC Marine Occupational Medic’ne Or. R. A. Wise, UTSPH Occupational Medicine The occupational physicians on the...MONITORING - VENTILATION REQUIREMENT - PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT --- ARD HAT -CHEMICAL GOGGLES -HEARING PROTECTION -- GLOVES -CHEMICAL RESISTANT CLOTHING...Dressure or slick How tmeny ciGars or pouches a wioeek’ 19 Kidney trouble if YES. 20 Lung trouble How many Years have Y’tu sImroked’ 21 Some other

  18. [Cytogenetical alterations in the workers of higher chemical hazard enterprises in accordance with duration of the employment period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, T V; Arzhavkina, L G; Sinyachkin, D A; Yazenok, A V

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetical examination was performed in 135 workers of higher chemical hazard enterprises with the duration of the employment period from 1 to 23 years. Weak, but statistically significant correlations were observed between indices: the total rate of chromosome aberrations (CA) (Tau = 0.14, p chronosomes (Tau= 0.12, p = 0.04), the rate of double fragments (Tau = 0.13, p = 0.02), the rate of chromosomal exchange aberrations of chromosome type (Tau = 0.13, p < 0.03) and "the rate of multiaberrant metaphases" (Tau = 0.2, p = 0.0008) and the duration of the employment period at the higher chemical hazard enterprises. The rates of all types of CA was significantly higher in the group with duration of the employment period more than 5 years the significant exceedance of the control level was observed only for the total rate of CA and the rate of single fragments. Other CA types do not significantly exceed control indices. The ratio of carriers of CA of exchange type in the long standing group was significantly higher than in the short standing group, in that ring chromosomes were observed in the long standing group. Differences in the ratio of persons with the normal and increased levels of CA were statistically significant.

  19. Potential hazards to embryo implantation: A human endometrial in vitro model to identify unwanted antigestagenic actions of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, L.; Deppert, W.R. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Pfeifer, D. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Stanzel, S.; Weimer, M. [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Hanjalic-Beck, A.; Stein, A.; Straßer, M.; Zahradnik, H.P. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Schaefer, W.R., E-mail: wolfgang.schaefer@uniklinik-freiburg.de [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    Embryo implantation is a crucial step in human reproduction and depends on the timely development of a receptive endometrium. The human endometrium is unique among adult tissues due to its dynamic alterations during each menstrual cycle. It hosts the implantation process which is governed by progesterone, whereas 17β-estradiol regulates the preceding proliferation of the endometrium. The receptors for both steroids are targets for drugs and endocrine disrupting chemicals. Chemicals with unwanted antigestagenic actions are potentially hazardous to embryo implantation since many pharmaceutical antiprogestins adversely affect endometrial receptivity. This risk can be addressed by human tissue-specific in vitro assays. As working basis we compiled data on chemicals interacting with the PR. In our experimental work, we developed a flexible in vitro model based on human endometrial Ishikawa cells. Effects of antiprogestin compounds on pre-selected target genes were characterized by sigmoidal concentration–response curves obtained by RT-qPCR. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1) was identified as the most responsive target gene by microarray analysis. The agonistic effect of progesterone on SULT1E1 mRNA was concentration-dependently antagonized by RU486 (mifepristone) and ZK137316 and, with lower potency, by 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin. The negative control methyl acetoacetate showed no effect. The effects of progesterone and RU486 were confirmed on the protein level by Western blotting. We demonstrated proof of principle that our Ishikawa model is suitable to study quantitatively effects of antiprogestin-like chemicals on endometrial target genes in comparison to pharmaceutical reference compounds. This test is useful for hazard identification and may contribute to reduce animal studies. -- Highlights: ► We compare progesterone receptor-mediated endometrial effects of chemicals and drugs. ► 4-Nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin exert weak

  20. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  1. A Review on Mutagenicity Testing for Hazard Classification of Chemicals at Work: Focusing on in vivo Micronucleus Test for Allyl Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Taek Rim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical mutagenicity is a major hazard that is important to workers' health. Despite the use of large amounts of allyl chloride, the available mutagenicity data for this chemical remains controversial. To clarify the mutagenicity of allyl chloride and because a micronucleus (MN test had not yet been conducted, we screened for MN induction by using male ICR mice bone marrow cells. The test results indicated that this chemical is not mutagenic under the test conditions. In this paper, the regulatory test battery and several assay combinations used to determine the genotoxic potential of chemicals in the workplace have been described. Further application of these assays may prove useful in future development strategies of hazard evaluations of industrial chemicals. This study also should help to improve the testing of this chemical by commonly used mutagenicity testing methods and investigations on the underlying mechanisms and could be applicable for workers' health.

  2. 29 CFR 1910.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the Chemical Hygiene Plan (22, 24). Do not discharge to the sewer concentrated acids or bases (231... interpreted by comparing the color reaction to a color chart supplied by the manufacturer of the test strip.... Laboratory scale means work with substances in which the containers used for reactions, transfers, and other...

  3. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Chemical Waste Management of NJ in Newark, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical Waste Management of NJ is located at 100 Lister Avenue in Newark, New Jersey. This section of Newark has been industrial since the late 1800s when the marshlands of the Passaic River were filled in with a mixture of coal ash, construction debris

  4. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Occidental Chemical Corporation in Niagara Falls, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Occidental Chemical Corporation’s (OCC) Buffalo Avenue facility is located at 4700 Buffalo Avenue in Niagara Falls, New York, on the east bank of the Niagara River between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. The plant occupies approximately 115 acres, employs

  5. Hazard classification of chemicals inducing haemolytic anaemia: An EU regulatory perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, A.; Jacobsen, Helene; Healy, E.

    2006-01-01

    Haemolytic anaemia is often induced following prolonged exposure to chemical substances. Currently, under EU Council Directive 67/548/EEC, substances which induce such effects are classified as dangerous and assigned the risk phrase R48 'Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure! W...

  6. Conformationally selective multidimensional chemical shift ranges in proteins from a PACSY database purged using intrinsic quality criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsching, Keith J., E-mail: kfritzsc@brandeis.edu [Brandeis University, Department of Chemistry (United States); Hong, Mei [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry (United States); Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus, E-mail: srohr@brandeis.edu [Brandeis University, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2016-02-15

    We have determined refined multidimensional chemical shift ranges for intra-residue correlations ({sup 13}C–{sup 13}C, {sup 15}N–{sup 13}C, etc.) in proteins, which can be used to gain type-assignment and/or secondary-structure information from experimental NMR spectra. The chemical-shift ranges are the result of a statistical analysis of the PACSY database of >3000 proteins with 3D structures (1,200,207 {sup 13}C chemical shifts and >3 million chemical shifts in total); these data were originally derived from the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank. Using relatively simple non-parametric statistics to find peak maxima in the distributions of helix, sheet, coil and turn chemical shifts, and without the use of limited “hand-picked” data sets, we show that ∼94 % of the {sup 13}C NMR data and almost all {sup 15}N data are quite accurately referenced and assigned, with smaller standard deviations (0.2 and 0.8 ppm, respectively) than recognized previously. On the other hand, approximately 6 % of the {sup 13}C chemical shift data in the PACSY database are shown to be clearly misreferenced, mostly by ca. −2.4 ppm. The removal of the misreferenced data and other outliers by this purging by intrinsic quality criteria (PIQC) allows for reliable identification of secondary maxima in the two-dimensional chemical-shift distributions already pre-separated by secondary structure. We demonstrate that some of these correspond to specific regions in the Ramachandran plot, including left-handed helix dihedral angles, reflect unusual hydrogen bonding, or are due to the influence of a following proline residue. With appropriate smoothing, significantly more tightly defined chemical shift ranges are obtained for each amino acid type in the different secondary structures. These chemical shift ranges, which may be defined at any statistical threshold, can be used for amino-acid type assignment and secondary-structure analysis of chemical shifts from intra

  7. Urban Area Recovery Planning with Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Hazards: Lessons Learned from Seattle and Denver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    City of San Francisco, at janell.myhre@sfgov.org or (415) 353-5244. I I I I I I I I I ’ I \\ \\ \\ \\ \\ \\ ’ ’ ’ County Water Distr ict ...working with subject matter experts ( SMEs ). In this appendix, we will discuss how recovery from a chemical, biological or radiological incident may...to Guide Development In addition to the core team, CBR subject matter experts will need to be identified. These SMEs may be included as part of

  8. Quantum Isostere Database: a web-based tool using quantum chemical topology to predict bioisosteric replacements for drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Mike; Popelier, Paul L A; McLay, Iain M

    2009-06-01

    This paper introduces the 'Quantum Isostere Database' (QID), a Web-based tool designed to find bioisosteric fragment replacements for lead optimization using stored ab initio data. A wide range of original geometric, electronic, and calculated physical properties are stored for each fragment. Physical descriptors with clear meaning are chosen, such as distribution of electrostatic potential energy values across a fragment surface and geometric parameters to describe fragment conformation and shape from ab initio structures. Further fundamental physical properties are linked to broader chemical characteristics relevant to biological activity, such as H-bond donor and acceptor strengths. Additional properties with less easily interpretable links to biological activity are also stored to allow future development of QSAR/QSPR models for quantities such as pK(a) and solubility. Conformational dependence of the ab initio descriptors is explicitly dealt with by storing properties for a variety of low-energy conformers of each fragment. Capping groups are used in ab initio calculations to represent different chemical environments, based on background research into transferability of electronic descriptors [J. Comput. Chem. 2009, 30, 1300-1318]. The resulting database has a Web interface that allows medicinal chemists to enter a query fragment, select important chemical features, and retrieve a list of suggested replacements with similar chemical characteristics. Examples of known bioisosteric replacements correctly identified by the QID tool are given.

  9. Using Patent Classification to Discover Chemical Information in a Free Patent Database: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha¨rtinger, Stefan; Clarke, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Developing skills for searching the patent literature is an essential element of chemical information literacy programs at the university level. The present article creates awareness of patents as a rich source of chemical information. Patent classification is introduced as a key-component in comprehensive search strategies. The free Espacenet…

  10. Chemical stability of salt cake in the presence of organic materials. [Detonation hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1976-04-01

    High-level waste stored as salt cake is principally NaNO/sub 3/. Some organic material is known to have been added to the waste tanks. It has been suggested that some of this organic material may have become nitrated and transformed to a detonable state. Arguments are presented to discount the presence of nitrated organics in the waste tanks. Nitrated organics generated accidentally usually explode at the time of formation. Detonation tests show that salt cake and ''worst-case'' organic mixtures are not detonable. Organic mixtures with salt cake are compared with black powder, a related exothermic reactant. Black-powder mixtures of widely varying composition can and do burn explosively; ignition temperatures are 300-450/sup 0/C. However, black-powder-type mixes cannot be ignited by radiation and are shock-insensitive. Temperatures generated by radionuclide decay in the salt are below 175/sup 0/C and would be incapable of igniting any of these mixtures. The expected effect of radiation on organics in the waste tanks is a slow dehydrogenation and depolymerization along with a slight increase in sensitivity to oxidation. The greatest explosion hazard, if any exists, is a hydrogen--oxygen explosion from water radiolysis, but the hydrogen must first be generated and then trapped so that the concentration of hydrogen can rise above 4 vol percent. This is impossible in salt cake. Final confirmation of the safety against organic-related explosive reactions in the salt cake will be based upon analytical determinations of organic concentrations. 12 tables, 5 fig. (DLC)

  11. siRNAmod: A database of experimentally validated chemically modified siRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Showkat Ahmad; Thakur, Anamika; Qureshi, Abid; Kumar, Manoj

    2016-01-28

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology has vast potential for functional genomics and development of therapeutics. However, it faces many obstacles predominantly instability of siRNAs due to nuclease digestion and subsequently biologically short half-life. Chemical modifications in siRNAs provide means to overcome these shortcomings and improve their stability and potency. Despite enormous utility bioinformatics resource of these chemically modified siRNAs (cm-siRNAs) is lacking. Therefore, we have developed siRNAmod, a specialized databank for chemically modified siRNAs. Currently, our repository contains a total of 4894 chemically modified-siRNA sequences, comprising 128 unique chemical modifications on different positions with various permutations and combinations. It incorporates important information on siRNA sequence, chemical modification, their number and respective position, structure, simplified molecular input line entry system canonical (SMILES), efficacy of modified siRNA, target gene, cell line, experimental methods, reference etc. It is developed and hosted using Linux Apache MySQL PHP (LAMP) software bundle. Standard user-friendly browse, search facility and analysis tools are also integrated. It would assist in understanding the effect of chemical modifications and further development of stable and efficacious siRNAs for research as well as therapeutics. siRNAmod is freely available at: http://crdd.osdd.net/servers/sirnamod.

  12. Top five industries resulting in injuries from acute chemical incidents—Hazardous Substance Emergency Events Surveillance, nine states, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ayana R; Wu, Jennifer

    2015-04-10

    Because industries using and/or producing chemicals are located in close proximity to populated areas, U.S. residents are at risk for unintentional chemical exposures. 1999-2008. The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system was operated by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry during January 1991-September 2009 to collect data that would enable researchers to describe the public health consequences of chemical releases and to develop activities aimed at reducing the harm from such releases. This report summarizes data for the top five industries resulting in injuries from an acute chemical incident (lasting truck transportation, educational services, chemical manufacturing, utilities, and food manufacturing) accounted for approximately one third of all incidents in which persons were injured as a result of unintentional release of chemicals; the same five industries were responsible for approximately one third of all persons injured as a result of such releases. Acute chemical incidents in these five industries resulted in serious public health implications including the need for evacuations, morbidity, and mortality. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS: Targeting chemical incident prevention and preparedness activities towards these five industries provides an efficient use of resources for reducing chemical exposures. A variety of methods can be used to minimize chemical releases in industries. One example is the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's hierarchy of controls model, which focuses on controlling exposures to occupational hazards. The hierarchy includes elimination, substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment.

  13. Prediction of hydrogen and carbon chemical shifts from RNA using database mining and support vector regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua D; Summers, Michael F; Johnson, Bruce A

    2015-09-01

    The Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank (BMRB) contains NMR chemical shift depositions for over 200 RNAs and RNA-containing complexes. We have analyzed the (1)H NMR and (13)C chemical shifts reported for non-exchangeable protons of 187 of these RNAs. Software was developed that downloads BMRB datasets and corresponding PDB structure files, and then generates residue-specific attributes based on the calculated secondary structure. Attributes represent properties present in each sequential stretch of five adjacent residues and include variables such as nucleotide type, base-pair presence and type, and tetraloop types. Attributes and (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts of the central nucleotide are then used as input to train a predictive model using support vector regression. These models can then be used to predict shifts for new sequences. The new software tools, available as stand-alone scripts or integrated into the NMR visualization and analysis program NMRViewJ, should facilitate NMR assignment and/or validation of RNA (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts. In addition, our findings enabled the re-calibration a ring-current shift model using published NMR chemical shifts and high-resolution X-ray structural data as guides.

  14. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  15. Occupational Hazards of Farming

    OpenAIRE

    White, Gill; Cessna, Allan

    1989-01-01

    A number of occupational hazards exist for the farmer and farm worker. They include the hazards of farm machinery, biologic and chemical hazards, and social and environmental stresses. Recognizing of these hazards will help the family physician care for farmers and their families.

  16. Occupational Hazards of Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gill; Cessna, Allan

    1989-01-01

    A number of occupational hazards exist for the farmer and farm worker. They include the hazards of farm machinery, biologic and chemical hazards, and social and environmental stresses. Recognizing of these hazards will help the family physician care for farmers and their families. PMID:21248929

  17. Occurrence of Fumigants and Hazardous Off-gassing Chemicals in Shipping Containers Arriving in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedberg, Urban; Johanson, Gunnar

    2017-03-01

    Containerized cargo shipment makes up the backbone of international trade. The principal aim of this cross-sectional study was to establish a qualitative and quantitative description of gaseous fumigants and volatile off-gassing substances facing workers tasked with entering shipping containers. A total of 372 packed and 119 empty shipping containers were sampled in six ports and two distribution centers in Sweden. Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and photoionization detection (PID) were the analytical methods applied to the bulk of samples. A small number of adsorbent samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results were compared to Swedish occupational exposure limits (OELs), the closest parallel to relevant work situations. Based on the FTIR analyses, 30 of 249 (12%) containers arrived with concentrations of fumigants and off-gassing substances above the 8-h OELs and close to 7% were above the short-term exposure limits. Eight detected chemicals were classified as carcinogens and 4% of the containers arrived with levels of carcinogens above the OELs, at a maximum 30 times the 8-h OEL. Considerable differences were observed between ports, ranging from 0 to 33% of containers arriving with concentrations above the OELs. It is believed that all observation results, apart from a single instance of a confirmed fumigant, phosphine, at 3 p.p.m., and possibly three instances of carbon dioxide, can be attributed to off-gassing substances. The FTIR methodology proved useful for quick preliminary checks and in-depth screening and identification. The PID method produced both false-negative and false-positive results where only 48% matched the FTIR observations. Adsorbent sampling with GC-MS analysis was useful for confirming volatile organic compounds but was deemed too slow for day-to-day screening. The high frequency of contaminated containers, the detection of several carcinogens, and the sporadic occurrences of high

  18. Computational Toxicology as Implemented by the U.S. EPA: Providing High Throughput Decision Support Tools for Screening and Assessing Chemical Exposure, Hazard and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computational toxicology is the application of mathematical and computer models to help assess chemical hazards and risks to human health and the environment. Supported by advances in informatics, high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies, and systems biology, the U.S. Environ...

  19. Estimation of the acute inhalation hazards of chemicals based on route-to-route and local endpoint extrapolation: Experience from Bulk Maritime Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höfer, T.; James, D.; Syversen, T.; Bowmer, T.

    2011-01-01

    Data on acute lethal inhalation toxicity from animal studies are commonly required for assessing the hazards to human health of volatile, gaseous and dusty chemicals or their mixtures. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) made the provision of acute inhalation toxicity data a mandatory

  20. Implementation of the basic hazard index screening for health risks associated with simultaneous exposure to multiple chemicals using a standardized target organ and systems framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Valerie H; McAtee, Matthew J; Johnson, Mark S

    2017-09-01

    Environmental health risk assessments often involve assessing the potential health effects of exposure to multiple chemicals at once (i.e., complex mixtures). Because the possible number of chemical combinations is very large, few controlled in vivo toxicological studies with chemical mixtures are relevant or practical. In lieu of specific mixture toxicity data, the segregated hazard index (HI) approach has been used to determine whether simultaneous exposures may warrant further investigation due to their combined adverse effects. Each chemical is assigned to one or more target organs based on critical effects; HIs for each target organ are generated by summing the individual hazard quotients for each of the chemicals assigned to that organ or organ system. To conduct this phased risk assessment approach in a consistent manner, a comprehensive, systematized list of toxicity targets for implementing this approach is needed. We present a comprehensive and standardized list of toxicity target organs and systems (TTOS), with example data sets, for consistent implementation of the segregated HI method. This method is designed to facilitate the standardization of the widespread use of the basic segregated HI approach. The basic hazard index mixtures screening (BHIMS) tool allows for rapid identification of exposure concerns that may warrant further and more sophisticated assessment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:852-860. Published 2017. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Text mining effectively scores and ranks the literature for improving chemical-gene-disease curation at the comparative toxicogenomics database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Allan Peter; Wiegers, Thomas C; Johnson, Robin J; Lay, Jean M; Lennon-Hopkins, Kelley; Saraceni-Richards, Cynthia; Sciaky, Daniela; Murphy, Cynthia Grondin; Mattingly, Carolyn J

    2013-01-01

    The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; http://ctdbase.org/) is a public resource that curates interactions between environmental chemicals and gene products, and their relationships to diseases, as a means of understanding the effects of environmental chemicals on human health. CTD provides a triad of core information in the form of chemical-gene, chemical-disease, and gene-disease interactions that are manually curated from scientific articles. To increase the efficiency, productivity, and data coverage of manual curation, we have leveraged text mining to help rank and prioritize the triaged literature. Here, we describe our text-mining process that computes and assigns each article a document relevancy score (DRS), wherein a high DRS suggests that an article is more likely to be relevant for curation at CTD. We evaluated our process by first text mining a corpus of 14,904 articles triaged for seven heavy metals (cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, and nickel). Based upon initial analysis, a representative subset corpus of 3,583 articles was then selected from the 14,094 articles and sent to five CTD biocurators for review. The resulting curation of these 3,583 articles was analyzed for a variety of parameters, including article relevancy, novel data content, interaction yield rate, mean average precision, and biological and toxicological interpretability. We show that for all measured parameters, the DRS is an effective indicator for scoring and improving the ranking of literature for the curation of chemical-gene-disease information at CTD. Here, we demonstrate how fully incorporating text mining-based DRS scoring into our curation pipeline enhances manual curation by prioritizing more relevant articles, thereby increasing data content, productivity, and efficiency.

  2. Text Mining Effectively Scores and Ranks the Literature for Improving Chemical-Gene-Disease Curation at the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robin J.; Lay, Jean M.; Lennon-Hopkins, Kelley; Saraceni-Richards, Cynthia; Sciaky, Daniela; Murphy, Cynthia Grondin; Mattingly, Carolyn J.

    2013-01-01

    The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; http://ctdbase.org/) is a public resource that curates interactions between environmental chemicals and gene products, and their relationships to diseases, as a means of understanding the effects of environmental chemicals on human health. CTD provides a triad of core information in the form of chemical-gene, chemical-disease, and gene-disease interactions that are manually curated from scientific articles. To increase the efficiency, productivity, and data coverage of manual curation, we have leveraged text mining to help rank and prioritize the triaged literature. Here, we describe our text-mining process that computes and assigns each article a document relevancy score (DRS), wherein a high DRS suggests that an article is more likely to be relevant for curation at CTD. We evaluated our process by first text mining a corpus of 14,904 articles triaged for seven heavy metals (cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, and nickel). Based upon initial analysis, a representative subset corpus of 3,583 articles was then selected from the 14,094 articles and sent to five CTD biocurators for review. The resulting curation of these 3,583 articles was analyzed for a variety of parameters, including article relevancy, novel data content, interaction yield rate, mean average precision, and biological and toxicological interpretability. We show that for all measured parameters, the DRS is an effective indicator for scoring and improving the ranking of literature for the curation of chemical-gene-disease information at CTD. Here, we demonstrate how fully incorporating text mining-based DRS scoring into our curation pipeline enhances manual curation by prioritizing more relevant articles, thereby increasing data content, productivity, and efficiency. PMID:23613709

  3. Statistical Analysis of Crystallization Database Links Protein Physico-Chemical Features with Crystallization Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Diana; Barnum, Timothy J.; Bruno, Andrew E.; Luft, Joseph R.; Snell, Edward H.; Mukherjee, Sayan; Charbonneau, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    X-ray crystallography is the predominant method for obtaining atomic-scale information about biological macromolecules. Despite the success of the technique, obtaining well diffracting crystals still critically limits going from protein to structure. In practice, the crystallization process proceeds through knowledge-informed empiricism. Better physico-chemical understanding remains elusive because of the large number of variables involved, hence little guidance is available to systematically identify solution conditions that promote crystallization. To help determine relationships between macromolecular properties and their crystallization propensity, we have trained statistical models on samples for 182 proteins supplied by the Northeast Structural Genomics consortium. Gaussian processes, which capture trends beyond the reach of linear statistical models, distinguish between two main physico-chemical mechanisms driving crystallization. One is characterized by low levels of side chain entropy and has been extensively reported in the literature. The other identifies specific electrostatic interactions not previously described in the crystallization context. Because evidence for two distinct mechanisms can be gleaned both from crystal contacts and from solution conditions leading to successful crystallization, the model offers future avenues for optimizing crystallization screens based on partial structural information. The availability of crystallization data coupled with structural outcomes analyzed through state-of-the-art statistical models may thus guide macromolecular crystallization toward a more rational basis. PMID:24988076

  4. Genetic k-Means Clustering Approach for Mapping Human Vulnerability to Chemical Hazards in the Industrialized City: A Case Study of Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Zeng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing human vulnerability to chemical hazards in the industrialized city is a matter of great urgency. Vulnerability mapping is an alternative approach for providing vulnerability-reducing interventions in a region. This study presents a method for mapping human vulnerability to chemical hazards by using clustering analysis for effective vulnerability reduction. Taking the city of Shanghai as the study area, we measure human exposure to chemical hazards by using the proximity model with additionally considering the toxicity of hazardous substances, and capture the sensitivity and coping capacity with corresponding indicators. We perform an improved k-means clustering approach on the basis of genetic algorithm by using a 500 m × 500 m geographical grid as basic spatial unit. The sum of squared errors and silhouette coefficient are combined to measure the quality of clustering and to determine the optimal clustering number. Clustering result reveals a set of six typical human vulnerability patterns that show distinct vulnerability dimension combinations. The vulnerability mapping of the study area reflects cluster-specific vulnerability characteristics and their spatial distribution. Finally, we suggest specific points that can provide new insights in rationally allocating the limited funds for the vulnerability reduction of each cluster.

  5. Riscos químicos ambientais à saúde da criança Environmental chemical hazards and child health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Mello-da-Silva

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Rever, na literatura médica recente, as informações disponíveis sobre os riscos da exposição de crianças a agentes químicos no meio ambiente. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foi realizada uma busca de artigos publicados sobre o tema na base de dados bibliográficos MEDLINE entre os anos de 1999 e 2005 e também em livros, manuais e recomendações publicados nos últimos anos por instituições como a Academia Americana de Pediatria e a Organização Mundial da Saúde, abordando saúde ambiental com foco na criança. SÍNTESE DE DADOS: Nos últimos anos, observa-se uma preocupação crescente em todo o mundo com os riscos relacionados à exposição de crianças a agentes químicos presentes no meio ambiente. Em torno de 85.000 produtos químicos sintéticos são produzidos nos dias de hoje, dos quais 2.800 são considerados de alto volume de produção. Sabe-se ainda muito pouco a respeito de seus efeitos sobre organismos em desenvolvimento. Crianças, por conta de suas características fisiológicas (maior demanda de água e alimentos e hábitos (como engatinhar, levar objetos a boca, brincar próximo ao solo estão particularmente expostas à contaminação por agentes químicos presentes em água, ar e solo. Agentes como metais pesados, pesticidas, poluentes orgânicos persistentes e contaminantes do ambiente doméstico, como a fumaça do tabaco, têm sido cada vez mais relacionados ao aumento da ocorrência de doenças como asma, distúrbios neurológicos e comportamentais e câncer infantil. CONCLUSÃO: Estimula-se a identificação de situações de risco utilizando instrumentos como a anamnese ou história ambiental, bem como o envolvimento dos pediatras na busca da redução da exposição de crianças e adolescentes a agentes químicos.OBJECTIVES:To review the recent medical literature on environmental chemical hazards to child health. SOURCES OF DATA: Articles published on this subject between 1999 and 2005 were searched in the

  6. The Chemistry Scoring Index (CSI: A Hazard-Based Scoring and Ranking Tool for Chemicals and Products Used in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Verslycke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A large portfolio of chemicals and products is needed to meet the wide range of performance requirements of the oil and gas industry. The oil and gas industry is under increased scrutiny from regulators, environmental groups, the public, and other stakeholders for use of their chemicals. In response, industry is increasingly incorporating “greener” products and practices but is struggling to define and quantify what exactly constitutes “green” in the absence of a universally accepted definition. We recently developed the Chemistry Scoring Index (CSI which is ultimately intended to be a globally implementable tool that comprehensively scores and ranks hazards to human health, safety, and the environment for products used in oil and gas operations. CSI scores are assigned to products designed for the same use (e.g., surfactants, catalysts on the basis of product composition as well as intrinsic hazard properties and data availability for each product component. As such, products with a lower CSI score within a product use group are considered to have a lower intrinsic hazard compared to other products within the same use group. The CSI provides a powerful tool to evaluate relative product hazards; to review and assess product portfolios; and to aid in the formulation of products.

  7. Human and organizational factors in Chinese hazardous chemical accidents: a case study of the '8.12' Tianjin Port fire and explosion using the HFACS-HC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Fu, Gui; Xue, Yujingyang

    2017-11-07

    Human and organizational factors have been proven to be the prime causes of Chinese hazardous chemical accidents (HCAs). A modified version of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), namely the HFACS-Hazardous Chemicals (HC), was developed to identify the human factors involved in Chinese HCAs. The '8.12' Tianjin Port fire and explosion, the costliest HCA in recent years, was reanalyzed using this framework, and the results were compared with the official accident inquiry report to determine their differences related to the identification of human and organizational factors. The study revealed that interacting human factors from different levels in Ruihai Company led to this catastrophe, and the inquiry report had limitations in the identification of human factors and the guidance for similar accident prevention. This study showed the applicability of the HFACS-HC in HCA analyses as well as the necessity to recommend this approach for future HCA investigations.

  8. Text mining and manual curation of chemical-gene-disease networks for the comparative toxicogenomics database (CTD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegers, Thomas C; Davis, Allan Peter; Cohen, K Bretonnel; Hirschman, Lynette; Mattingly, Carolyn J

    2009-10-08

    The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) is a publicly available resource that promotes understanding about the etiology of environmental diseases. It provides manually curated chemical-gene/protein interactions and chemical- and gene-disease relationships from the peer-reviewed, published literature. The goals of the research reported here were to establish a baseline analysis of current CTD curation, develop a text-mining prototype from readily available open source components, and evaluate its potential value in augmenting curation efficiency and increasing data coverage. Prototype text-mining applications were developed and evaluated using a CTD data set consisting of manually curated molecular interactions and relationships from 1,600 documents. Preliminary results indicated that the prototype found 80% of the gene, chemical, and disease terms appearing in curated interactions. These terms were used to re-rank documents for curation, resulting in increases in mean average precision (63% for the baseline vs. 73% for a rule-based re-ranking), and in the correlation coefficient of rank vs. number of curatable interactions per document (baseline 0.14 vs. 0.38 for the rule-based re-ranking). This text-mining project is unique in its integration of existing tools into a single workflow with direct application to CTD. We performed a baseline assessment of the inter-curator consistency and coverage in CTD, which allowed us to measure the potential of these integrated tools to improve prioritization of journal articles for manual curation. Our study presents a feasible and cost-effective approach for developing a text mining solution to enhance manual curation throughput and efficiency.

  9. Flood Hazard Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  10. Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  11. The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point's (HACCP) concept as applied to some chemical, physical and microbiological contaminants of milk on dairy farms. A prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievaart, J J; Noordhuizen, J P T M; van Beek, E; van der Beek, C; van Risp, A; Schenkel, J; van Veersen, J

    2005-03-01

    Quality management on dairy farms becomes more and more important regarding the different areas of animal health, animal welfare and food safety. Monitoring animals, farm conditions and farm records can be extended with risk identification and risk management. The hazard analysis critical control point's system is useful as an on farm strategy to control the product as well as the production process on the areas of animal health, animal welfare and food safety. This article deals in detail with the question how to develop a qualitative method where risk can be defined as an interaction between probability and impact. Two parts of the production process (milk harvest and treatment of cows) where used as an example how to apply the hazard analysis critical control point's system on chemical, physical and microbiological contaminants of milk. Not just only by summarizing the different critical checkpoints for each area but also by giving them a precise judgement of probability and impact.

  12. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL`s Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL`s acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

  13. Application of the Simplified Dow Chemical Company Relative Ranking Hazard Assessment Method for Air Combat Command Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    and Operability Studies { HAZOP ) . Both of these methods use systematic ways of considering the consequences of unexpected events. In the What-If Method...problems and all probable consequences, assigning a probability of hazard to each consequence based on the probability of occurrence. (Davis 1987:50) HAZOP

  14. 77 FR 41406 - Evaluation of In Vitro Tests for Identifying Eye Injury Hazard Potential of Chemicals and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... assess the validation status of in vitro tests and integrated non-animal testing strategies proposed for... vitro alternatives to animals for eye safety assessments is an ICCVAM priority (ICCVAM, 2008). See http... test and integrated non-animal ] testing strategies proposed for identifying eye injury hazard...

  15. Predictive Models and Tools for Assessing Chemicals under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has developed databases and predictive models to help evaluate the hazard, exposure, and risk of chemicals released to the environment and how workers, the general public, and the environment may be exposed to and affected by them.

  16. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  17. New agents with potential leishmanicidal activity identified by virtual screening of chemical databases: New agents with potential leishmanicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rebollo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives: Leishmaniosis, a disease caused by a protozoan parasite, remains a serious public health problem threatening about 350 million people around the world, of which 12 million are believed to be currently infected (WHO 2010. To date, there are no vaccines against the species of parasites and the treatment is based only on chemotherapy with toxic-, expensive- and inefficient- drugs. There is an urgent need for better drugs against Leishmania, the etiological agent of the disease. The main anti-leishmanial drug used in Colombia is meglumineantimoniate [chemical name according to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC: Hydroxy-dioxostiborane; (2R,3R,4R,5S- 6-methylaminohexane-1,2,3,4,5-pentol, (C7H17NO5], which is not efficient in the treatment of infections caused by Leishmania braziliensis, the most prevalent specie in the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Methods: We performed an in silico virtual screening of several datasets including ChemBridge and Pubchem. We virtually screened a total of 28.755 compounds against a 3D model of 6-phosphoglucono -lactonase (6-PGL from Leishmania braziliensis to identify novel inhibitors.Molecular docking of databases was performed using the software Sybyl 8.0 and AutoDockVina. Results: The initial virtual screening using a structure-based method identified 10 compounds, which were later tested with AutodockVina and classified according to their docking scores. Conclusions: These novel and potential inhibitors constitute new drug candidates that must be biologically tested to define their value as an alternative chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of these protozoan infections. Salud UIS 2013; 45 (1: 33-40

  18. Risk assessment of hazardous release in air due to the chemical production of "P. Karaminchev" company in the town of Rousse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diankova, M

    1998-09-01

    A health risk evaluation of the lifetime population risk has been made, by using the US EPA's method of risk assessment. Several main steps have been conducted: --a hazard identification, by means of emission analysis and mathematical modeling of air concentration dispersion; a dose-response evaluation and exposure assessment, and finally--a risk characterization. The health risk evaluation was conducted, using lifetime reference concentrations and doses. As risk descriptors were applied: --the individual exposure coefficient (IEC), the hazard quotient (HQ) and the margin of exposure (MOE)--for system toxicants, and the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR)--for carcinogens. The method that was used provides an upperbound estimate, including all possible exposures. The results showed, that the emissions of hydrogen chloride, phthalates (DOF), nitrogen oxides and most of the organic solvents, released from this chemical plant, are not a source of lifetime chronic health risk for the population of any of the six evaluated residential areas of Rousse. The rest of the hazardous emissions cause a slightly increased lifetime health risk, which is entirely in the so called 'controlled risk zone' the risk descriptors vary from 1.00 to 5.00. A number of actions have been prescribed to the plant's government, most of which were realized in the short term.

  19. Lessons learned from process incident databases and the process safety incident database (PSID) approach sponsored by the Center for Chemical Process Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepeda, Adrian L

    2006-03-17

    Learning from the experiences of others has long been recognized as a valued and relatively painless process. In the world of process safety, this learning method is an essential tool since industry has neither the time and resources nor the willingness to experience an incident before taking corrective or preventative steps. This paper examines the need for and value of process safety incident databases that collect incidents of high learning value and structure them so that needed information can be easily and quickly extracted. It also explores how they might be used to prevent incidents by increasing awareness and by being a tool for conducting PHAs and incident investigations. The paper then discusses how the CCPS PSID meets those requirements, how PSID is structured and managed, and its attributes and features.

  20. Identifying and modeling safety hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DANIELS,JESSE; BAHILL,TERRY; WERNER,PAUL W.

    2000-03-29

    The hazard model described in this paper is designed to accept data over the Internet from distributed databases. A hazard object template is used to ensure that all necessary descriptors are collected for each object. Three methods for combining the data are compared and contrasted. Three methods are used for handling the three types of interactions between the hazard objects.

  1. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Standard test methods for determining chemical durability of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed waste glasses and multiphase glass ceramics: The product consistency test (PCT)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 These product consistency test methods A and B evaluate the chemical durability of homogeneous glasses, phase separated glasses, devitrified glasses, glass ceramics, and/or multiphase glass ceramic waste forms hereafter collectively referred to as “glass waste forms” by measuring the concentrations of the chemical species released to a test solution. 1.1.1 Test Method A is a seven-day chemical durability test performed at 90 ± 2°C in a leachant of ASTM-Type I water. The test method is static and conducted in stainless steel vessels. Test Method A can specifically be used to evaluate whether the chemical durability and elemental release characteristics of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed glass waste forms have been consistently controlled during production. This test method is applicable to radioactive and simulated glass waste forms as defined above. 1.1.2 Test Method B is a durability test that allows testing at various test durations, test temperatures, mesh size, mass of sample, leachant volume, a...

  3. Recommendations for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense. On analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations. 2. ed.; Empfehlungen fuer die Probenahme zur Gefahrenabwehr im Bevoelkerungsschutz. Zur Analytik von chemischen, biologischen und radioaktiven Kontaminationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Udo; Derakshani, Nahid; Drobig, Matthias; Koenig, Mario; Mentfewitz, Joachim; Prast, Hartmut; Uelpenich, Gerhard; Vidmayer, Marc; Wilbert, Stefan; Wolf, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    The recommendations for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense (analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations) cover the following topics: Requirements for sampling, description of the materials (chemical, biological and radioactive contaminated materials), decontamination, sample transport and protocol documents.

  4. From hazardous waste to valuable raw material: hydrolysis of CCA-treated wood for the production of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakola, Maija; Kallioinen, Anne; Leskelä, Markku; Repo, Timo

    2013-05-01

    Solid wood, metal finnish: Instead of burning waste wood treated with chromated copper arsenite (CCA) or disposing of it in landfills, the CCA-treated wood can be used as a raw material for the production of chemicals. Catalytic or alkaline oxidation together with very mild sulfuric acid extraction produces an easily enzymatically hydrolyzable material. Usage as a raw material for the chemical industry in this manner demonstrates a sustainable and value-added waste management process. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Frontier Chemical Waste Process Incorporated – Royal Avenue Site in Niagara Falls, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontier Chemical Waste Process facility is located in a heavy industrial/commercial area. Several large industrial facilities surround the facility. The closest residential area is located about ½ mile west and the closest off-site building is located 300

  6. Chemical exposures of women workers in the plastics industry with particular reference to breast cancer and reproductive hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMatteo, Robert; Keith, Margaret M; Brophy, James T; Wordsworth, Anne; Watterson, Andrew E; Beck, Matthias; Ford, Anne Rochon; Gilbertson, Michael; Pharityal, Jyoti; Rootham, Magali; Scott, Dayna Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Despite concern about the harmful effects of substances contained in various plastic consumer products, little attention has focused on the more heavily exposed women working in the plastics industry. Through a review of the toxicology, industrial hygiene, and epidemiology literatures in conjunction with qualitative research, this article explores occupational exposures in producing plastics and health risks to workers, particularly women, who make up a large part of the workforce. The review demonstrates that workers are exposed to chemicals that have been identified as mammary carcinogens and endocrine disrupting chemicals, and that the work environment is heavily contaminated with dust and fumes. Consequently, plastics workers have a body burden that far exceeds that found in the general public. The nature of these exposures in the plastics industry places women at disproportionate risk, underlining the importance of gender. Measures for eliminating these exposures and the need for regulatory action are discussed.

  7. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  8. A TRAINING PROGRAM FOR NURSING STAFF ON HEALTH HAZARDS OF CHEMICAL INSECTICIDES EXPOSURE IN A PRACTICAL FIELD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Mohammad, Amina El-Hosini; Ragab, Ibrahim Fahmy; Morsy, Tosson A

    2015-08-01

    An insecticide is an agent used against insects, ticks, mites and other animals affecting human welfare. Exposure to Insecticides is one of the most important occupational risks among staff worker in Military camp, veterinary medicine, industry and household as well as schools and hospitals. This study Aimed to improve nursing staff knowledge regarding adverse health effects of chemical insecticides exposure in a military field. The study was conducted in one of the Main Military Hospital. was used a quasi-experimental research design to conduct this study. all nursing staff who work in a Military Hospital (n=55) who accept to participate in the research study. A significant improvement in the Nurses' Total knowledge score was found in post-test as compared to that in pre-test. All nurses obtained a satisfactory level of knowledge after the 1st & 2nd post-tests; all of them evaluate the program in relation to trainees' exnectations as "excellent".

  9. Electrostatic hazards

    CERN Document Server

    Luttgens, Günter; Luttgens, Gnter; Luttgens, G Nter

    1997-01-01

    In the US, UK and Europe there is in excess of one notifiable dust or electrostatic explosion every day of the year. This clearly makes the hazards associated with the handling of materials subject to either cause or react to electrostatic discharge of vital importance to anyone associated with their handling or industrial bulk use. This book provides a comprehensive guide to the dangers of static electricity and how to avoid them. It will prove invaluable to safety managers and professionals, as well as all personnel involved in the activities concerned, in the chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and petrochemical process industries. The book makes extended use of case studies to illustrate the principles being expounded, thereby making it far more open, accessible and attractive to the practitioner in industry than the highly theoretical texts which are also available. The authors have many years' experience in the area behind them, including the professional teaching of the content provided here. Günte...

  10. Migration and Environmental Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lori M.

    2011-01-01

    Losses due to natural hazards (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes) and technological hazards (e.g., nuclear waste facilities, chemical spills) are both on the rise. One response to hazard-related losses is migration, with this paper offering a review of research examining the association between migration and environmental hazards. Using examples from both developed and developing regional contexts, the overview demonstrates that the association between migration and environmental hazards varies by setting, hazard types, and household characteristics. In many cases, however, results demonstrate that environmental factors play a role in shaping migration decisions, particularly among those most vulnerable. Research also suggests that risk perception acts as a mediating factor. Classic migration theory is reviewed to offer a foundation for examination of these associations. PMID:21886366

  11. Development and Application of Computational/In Vitro Toxicological Methods for Chemical Hazard Risk Reduction of New Materials for Advanced Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, John M.; Mattie, D. R.; Hussain, Saber; Pachter, Ruth; Boatz, Jerry; Hawkins, T. W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is essential for reducing the chemical hazards of new weapon systems. The current collaboration between HEST (toxicology research and testing), MLPJ (computational chemistry) and PRS (computational chemistry, new propellant synthesis) is focusing R&D efforts on basic research goals that will rapidly transition to useful products for propellant development. Computational methods are being investigated that will assist in forecasting cellular toxicological end-points. Models developed from these chemical structure-toxicity relationships are useful for the prediction of the toxicological endpoints of new related compounds. Research is focusing on the evaluation tools to be used for the discovery of such relationships and the development of models of the mechanisms of action. Combinations of computational chemistry techniques, in vitro toxicity methods, and statistical correlations, will be employed to develop and explore potential predictive relationships; results for series of molecular systems that demonstrate the viability of this approach are reported. A number of hydrazine salts have been synthesized for evaluation. Computational chemistry methods are being used to elucidate the mechanism of action of these salts. Toxicity endpoints such as viability (LDH) and changes in enzyme activity (glutahoione peroxidase and catalase) are being experimentally measured as indicators of cellular damage. Extrapolation from computational/in vitro studies to human toxicity, is the ultimate goal. The product of this program will be a predictive tool to assist in the development of new, less toxic propellants.

  12. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Comprehensive, peer-reviewed toxicology data for about 5,000 chemicals. The data bank focuses on the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced...

  13. Automatic sorting of toxicological information into the IUCLID (International Uniform Chemical Information Database) endpoint-categories making use of the semantic search engine Go3R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ursula G; Wächter, Thomas; Hareng, Lars; Wareing, Britta; Langsch, Angelika; Zschunke, Matthias; Alvers, Michael R; Landsiedel, Robert

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge-based search engine Go3R, www.Go3R.org, has been developed to assist scientists from industry and regulatory authorities in collecting comprehensive toxicological information with a special focus on identifying available alternatives to animal testing. The semantic search paradigm of Go3R makes use of expert knowledge on 3Rs methods and regulatory toxicology, laid down in the ontology, a network of concepts, terms, and synonyms, to recognize the contents of documents. Search results are automatically sorted into a dynamic table of contents presented alongside the list of documents retrieved. This table of contents allows the user to quickly filter the set of documents by topics of interest. Documents containing hazard information are automatically assigned to a user interface following the endpoint-specific IUCLID5 categorization scheme required, e.g. for REACH registration dossiers. For this purpose, complex endpoint-specific search queries were compiled and integrated into the search engine (based upon a gold standard of 310 references that had been assigned manually to the different endpoint categories). Go3R sorts 87% of the references concordantly into the respective IUCLID5 categories. Currently, Go3R searches in the 22 million documents available in the PubMed and TOXNET databases. However, it can be customized to search in other databases including in-house databanks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 13C-NMR chemical shift databases as a quick tool to evaluate structural models of humic substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyrop Albers, Christian; Hansen, Poul Erik

    2010-01-01

    Models for humic and fulvic acids are discussed based on 13C liquid state NMR spectra combined with results from elemental analysis and titration studies. The analysis of NMR spectra is based on a full reconstruction of the NMR spectrum done with help of 13C-NMR data bases by adding up chemical...

  15. Review of hazards to female reproductive health in veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheftel, Joni M; Elchos, Brigid L; Rubin, Carol S; Decker, John A

    2017-04-15

    OBJECTIVE To review publications that address female reproductive health hazards in veterinary practice, summarize best practices to mitigate reproductive risks, and identify current knowledge gaps. DESIGN Systematized review. SAMPLE English-language articles describing chemical, biological, and physical hazards present in the veterinary workplace and associations with adverse reproductive outcomes or recommendations for minimizing risks to female reproductive health. PROCEDURES Searches of the CAB abstracts database were performed in July 2012 and in May 2015 with the following search terms: veterinarians AND occupational hazards and vets.id AND occupational hazards.sh. Searches of the PubMed database were conducted in November 2012 and in May 2015 with the following medical subject heading terms: occupational exposure AND veterinarians; anesthetics, inhalation/adverse effects AND veterinarians; risk factors AND pregnancy AND veterinarians; pregnancy outcome AND veterinarians; and animal technicians AND occupational exposure. Two additional PubMed searches were completed in January 2016 with the terms disinfectants/toxicity AND female AND fertility/drug effects and veterinarians/psychology AND stress, psychological. No date limits were applied to searches. RESULTS 4 sources supporting demographic trends in veterinary medicine and 118 resources reporting potential hazards to female reproductive health were identified. Reported hazards included exposure to anesthetic gases, radiation, antineoplastic drugs, and reproductive hormones; physically demanding work; prolonged standing; and zoonoses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Demographic information suggested that an increasing number of women of reproductive age will be exposed to chemical, biological, and physical hazards in veterinary practice. Information on reproductive health hazards and minimizing risk, with emphasis on developing a safety-focused work culture for all personnel, should be discussed starting

  16. 2013 FEMA Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  17. Hazardous waste: cleanup and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandas, Stephen; Cronin, Nancy L.; Farrar, Frank; Serrano, Guillermo Eliezer Ávila; Yajimovich, Oscar Efraín González; Muñoz, Aurora R.; Rivera, María del C.

    1996-01-01

    Our lifestyles are supported by complex Industrial activities that produce many different chemicals and chemical wastes. The Industries that produce our clothing, cars, medicines, paper, food, fuels, steel, plastics, and electric components use and discard thousands of chemicals every year. At home we may use lawn chemicals, solvents, disinfectants, cleaners, and auto products to Improve our quality of life. A chemical that presents a threat or unreasonable risk to people or the environment Is a hazardous material. When a hazardous material can no longer be used, It becomes a hazardous waste. Hazardous wastes come from a variety of sources, from both present and past activities. Impacts to human health and the environment can result from Improper handling and disposal of hazardous waste.

  18. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and clearly labeled. Never store hazardous products in food containers. Never mix household hazardous chemicals or waste with ... a newspaper and placing them in a sealed plastic bag in your trash can. Dispose of hazardous ...

  19. Design of Laser Based Monitoring Systems for Compliance Management of Odorous and Hazardous Air Pollutants in Selected Chemical Industrial Estates at Hyderabad, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, P.; Kalavathi, P.; Ramakrishna Rao, D.; Satyanarayna, M.

    2014-12-01

    Industrialization can no longer sustain without internalization of the concerns of the receiving environment and land-use. Increased awareness and public pressure, coupled with regulatory instruments and bodies exert constant pressure on industries to control their emissions to a level acceptable to the receiving environment. However, when a group of industries come-up together as an industrial estate, the cumulative impacts of all the industries together often challenges the expected/desired quality of receiving environment, requiring stringent pollution control and monitoring measures. Laser remote sensing techniques provide powerful tools for environmental monitoring. These methods provide range resolved measurements of concentrations of various gaseous pollutants and suspended particulate matter (SPM) not only in the path of the beam but over the entire area. A three dimensional mapping of the pollutants and their dispersal can be estimated using the laser remote sensing methods on a continuous basis. Laser Radar (Lidar) systems are the measurements technology used in the laser remote sensing methods. Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and Raman Lidar technologies have proved to be very useful for remote sensing of air pollutants. DIAL and Raman lidar systems can be applied for range resolved measurements of molecules like SO2, NO2, O3 Hg, CO, C2H4, H2O, CH4, hydrocarbons etc. in real time on a continuous basis. This paper describes the design details of the DAIL and Raman lidar techniques for measurement of various hazardous air pollutants which are being released into the atmosphere by the chemical industries operating in the Bachupally industrial Estate area at Hyderabad, India. The relative merits of the two techniques have been studied and the minimum concentration of pollutants that can be measured using these systems are presented. A dispersion model of the air pollutants in the selected chemical industrial estates at Hyderabad has been developed.

  20. The National Library of Medicine’s (NLM) Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB): Background, Recent Enhancements and Future Plans

    OpenAIRE

    Fonger, George Charles; Hakkinen, Pertti; Jordan, Shannon; Publicker, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine’s (NLM) Division of Specialized Information Services (SIS) Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program is responsible for the management of the online Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB). HSDB, a part of NLM’s Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET®), is a file of chemical/substance information with one record for each specific chemical or substance, or for a category of chemicals or substances. Like the rest of TOXNET’s databases and other resources, H...

  1. Potential toxicological hazard due to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on Mediterranean top predators: state of art, gender differences and methodological tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossi, M C; Casini, S; Marsili, L

    2007-05-01

    Man-made endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) range across all continents and oceans. Some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the Mediterranean Sea. Levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. In this paper we review the final results of a project supported by the Italian Ministry of the Environment, in which the hypothesis that Mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish and marine mammals) are potentially at risk due to EDCs was investigated. We illustrate the need to develop and apply sensitive methodological tools, such as biomarkers (Vitellogenin, Zona Radiata proteins and CYP1A activities) for evaluation of toxicological risk in large pelagic fish top predators (Swordfish, (Xiphias gladius), Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus thynnus)) and nondestructive biomarkers (CYP1A activities and fibroblast cell culture in skin biopsy), for the hazard assessment of threatened marine mammals species (Striped Dolphin, (Stenella coeruleoalba), Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus))exposed to EDCs. Differential gender susceptibility to EDCs is also explored both in large pelagic fish and in cetaceans. In cetaceans, male specimens showed higher cytochrome P450 induction (BPMO in skyn biopsies, CYP2B in fibroblasts cell cultures) by xenobiotics with respect to females.

  2. Modeling of the hERG K+ Channel Blockage Using Online Chemical Database and Modeling Environment (OCHEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Huanhuan; Zhao, Yong

    2017-12-01

    Human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) K+ channel plays an important role in cardiac action potential. Blockage of hERG channel may result in long QT syndrome (LQTS), even cause sudden cardiac death. Many drugs have been withdrawn from the market because of the serious hERG-related cardiotoxicity. Therefore, it is quite essential to estimate the chemical blockage of hERG in the early stage of drug discovery. In this study, a diverse set of 3721 compounds with hERG inhibition data was assembled from literature. Then, we make full use of the Online Chemical Modeling Environment (OCHEM), which supplies rich machine learning methods and descriptor sets, to build a series of classification models for hERG blockage. We also generated two consensus models based on the top-performing individual models. The consensus models performed much better than the individual models both on 5-fold cross validation and external validation. Especially, consensus model II yielded the prediction accuracy of 89.5 % and MCC of 0.670 on external validation. This result indicated that the predictive power of consensus model II should be stronger than most of the previously reported models. The 17 top-performing individual models and the consensus models and the data sets used for model development are available at https://ochem.eu/article/103592. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Hazard Communication Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The current rate of technological advances has brought with it an overwhelming increase in the usage of chemicals in the workplace and in the home. Coupled to this increase has been a heightened awareness in the potential for acute and chronic injuries attributable to chemical insults. The Hazard Communication Standard has been introduced with the desired goal of reducing workplace exposures to hazardous substances and thereby achieving a corresponding reduction in adverse health effects. It was created and proclaimed by the US Department of Labor and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1 tab.

  4. Bridging the Gap in the Chemical Thermodynamic Database for Nuclear Waste Repository: Studies of the Effect of Temperature on Actinide Complexation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin; Xia, Yuanxian; Friese, Judah I.; Zanonato, PierLuigi; Di Bernardo, Plinio

    2009-12-21

    Recent results of thermodynamic studies on the complexation of actinides (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, NpO{sub 2}{sup +} and Pu{sup 4+}) with F{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -}/HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} at elevated temperatures are reviewed. The data indicate that, for all systems except the 1:1 complexation of Np(V) with HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, the complexation of actinides is enhanced by the increase in temperature. The enhancement is primarily due to the increase in the entropy term (T{Delta}S) that exceeds the increase in the enthalpy ({Delta}H) as the temperature is increased. These data bridge the gaps in the chemical thermodynamic database for nuclear waste repository where the temperature could remain significantly higher than 25 C for a long time after the closure of the repository.

  5. Data-based modelling of runoff and chemical tracer concentrations in the Haute-Mentue research catchment (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorgulescu, I.; Beven, K. J.; Musy, A.

    2005-08-01

    This paper presents a model for simulating discharge as well as chemical tracer concentration (silica and calcium) in stream flow for the Haute-Mentue research basin (Switzerland). The model structure is based on a parameterization of the three components (acid soil, AS; direct precipitation, DP; deep groundwater, GW) of a hydrochemical mixing model. Each component is modelled through an identical structure consisting of a non-linear gain, expressed by a three-parameter logistic function, and a linear transfer function with two reservoirs (fast/slow) in parallel having a constant partition between them. The model is applied on an information-rich 5-week data set. Extensive Monte Carlo realizations (more than two billion models) have identified a representative sample of behavioural models able to satisfy quite stringent fit criteria on both discharges and tracers. A descriptive statistical analysis of the behavioural parameter sets reveals significant differences between the components. In particular, the AS contribution is activated for higher catchment storages and shows a steep, almost threshold-like, increase. The partition coefficient (fast/total) for the three components is ordered as DP>AS>GW. The fast constants of the three components have a similar order of magnitude, but also show DP>AS> GW. The slow time constant of the GW component is almost an order of magnitude higher than that of DP and AS. The latter are of similar magnitude and generate a highly non-linear interflow component.

  6. An automated system designed for large scale NMR data deposition and annotation: application to over 600 assigned chemical shift data entries to the BioMagResBank from the Riken Structural Genomics/Proteomics Initiative internal database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naohiro; Harano, Yoko; Tochio, Naoya; Nakatani, Eiichi; Kigawa, Takanori; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Mading, Steve; Ulrich, Eldon L; Markley, John L; Akutsu, Hideo; Fujiwara, Toshimichi

    2012-08-01

    Biomolecular NMR chemical shift data are key information for the functional analysis of biomolecules and the development of new techniques for NMR studies utilizing chemical shift statistical information. Structural genomics projects are major contributors to the accumulation of protein chemical shift information. The management of the large quantities of NMR data generated by each project in a local database and the transfer of the data to the public databases are still formidable tasks because of the complicated nature of NMR data. Here we report an automated and efficient system developed for the deposition and annotation of a large number of data sets including (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignments used for the structure determination of proteins. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our system by applying it to over 600 entries from the internal database generated by the RIKEN Structural Genomics/Proteomics Initiative (RSGI) to the public database, BioMagResBank (BMRB). We have assessed the quality of the deposited chemical shifts by comparing them with those predicted from the PDB coordinate entry for the corresponding protein. The same comparison for other matched BMRB/PDB entries deposited from 2001-2011 has been carried out and the results suggest that the RSGI entries greatly improved the quality of the BMRB database. Since the entries include chemical shifts acquired under strikingly similar experimental conditions, these NMR data can be expected to be a promising resource to improve current technologies as well as to develop new NMR methods for protein studies.

  7. Database Description - NBDC NikkajiRDF | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us NBDC NikkajiRDF Database Description General information of database Database name NBDC Nikk...ddress Email: Database classification Chemical Database Database description NBDC NikkajiRDF is RDF data of ...Need for user registration Not available About This Database Database Description... Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Database Description - NBDC NikkajiRDF | LSDB Archive ...

  8. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1994-05-27

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  9. CPDB: Carcinogenic Potency Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

    2008-01-01

    The Carcinogenic Potency Database reports analyses of animal cancer tests on 1,547 chemicals. These tests are used in support of cancer risk assessments for humans. Results are searchable and are made available via the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) TOXNET system. This column will provide background information on the database, as well as present search basics.

  10. Design of a bioactive small molecule that targets the myotonic dystrophy type 1 RNA via an RNA motif-ligand database and chemical similarity searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkesh, Raman; Childs-Disney, Jessica L; Nakamori, Masayuki; Kumar, Amit; Wang, Eric; Wang, Thomas; Hoskins, Jason; Tran, Tuan; Housman, David; Thornton, Charles A; Disney, Matthew D

    2012-03-14

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a triplet repeating disorder caused by expanded CTG repeats in the 3'-untranslated region of the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) gene. The transcribed repeats fold into an RNA hairpin with multiple copies of a 5'CUG/3'GUC motif that binds the RNA splicing regulator muscleblind-like 1 protein (MBNL1). Sequestration of MBNL1 by expanded r(CUG) repeats causes splicing defects in a subset of pre-mRNAs including the insulin receptor, the muscle-specific chloride ion channel, sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase 1, and cardiac troponin T. Based on these observations, the development of small-molecule ligands that target specifically expanded DM1 repeats could be of use as therapeutics. In the present study, chemical similarity searching was employed to improve the efficacy of pentamidine and Hoechst 33258 ligands that have been shown previously to target the DM1 triplet repeat. A series of in vitro inhibitors of the RNA-protein complex were identified with low micromolar IC(50)'s, which are >20-fold more potent than the query compounds. Importantly, a bis-benzimidazole identified from the Hoechst query improves DM1-associated pre-mRNA splicing defects in cell and mouse models of DM1 (when dosed with 1 mM and 100 mg/kg, respectively). Since Hoechst 33258 was identified as a DM1 binder through analysis of an RNA motif-ligand database, these studies suggest that lead ligands targeting RNA with improved biological activity can be identified by using a synergistic approach that combines analysis of known RNA-ligand interactions with chemical similarity searching.

  11. CAMEO Chemicals Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAMEO Chemicals is an extensive chemical database, available for download, with critical response information for thousands of chemicals, and a tool that tells you what reactions might occur if chemicals were mixed together.

  12. Tier II Chemical Storage Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities that store hazardous chemicals above certain quantities must submit an annual emergency and hazardous chemical inventory on a Tier II form. This is a...

  13. Relational databases

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, D A

    1986-01-01

    Relational Databases explores the major advances in relational databases and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in relational databases. Topics covered include capture and analysis of data placement requirements; distributed relational database systems; data dependency manipulation in database schemata; and relational database support for computer graphics and computer aided design. This book is divided into three sections and begins with an overview of the theory and practice of distributed systems, using the example of INGRES from Relational Technology as illustration. The

  14. Florida county health department, environmental health 2006 survey: do rural counties know "what to do' in a chemical or all-hazards event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Alan; Suther, Sandra; Dutton, Matthew; Kearney, Gregory D; Xu, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study described here was to determine basic plans and collaboration with first responder stakeholders and to identify perceived roles and responsibilities in preparing for and responding to a chemical disaster. A survey was developed and provided to environmental health personnel at county health departments (CHDs) in Florida. Most of the counties had good collaborative relationships with first responder stakeholders. A little more than half of the respondents had access to a resource manual with contact information and had developed and maintained a chemical plan. Rural counties were less likely to know "what to do" or their responsibility in a chemical disaster; however, both rural and nonrural counties were equally likely not to have a written plan. Public health agencies at the local CHD must be the communicators of public health messages in coordination with the incident commander and the state communications office in a chemical disaster, so it is important to strengthen collaboration and cooperation with chemical response stakeholders.

  15. How EPA Assesses Chemical Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.

  16. PADB : Published Association Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Hwanseok; Lee, Jin-Sung

    2007-01-01

    Background Although molecular pathway information and the International HapMap Project data can help biomedical researchers to investigate the aetiology of complex diseases more effectively, such information is missing or insufficient in current genetic association databases. In addition, only a few of the environmental risk factors are included as gene-environment interactions, and the risk measures of associations are not indexed in any association databases. Description We have developed a published association database (PADB; ) that includes both the genetic associations and the environmental risk factors available in PubMed database. Each genetic risk factor is linked to a molecular pathway database and the HapMap database through human gene symbols identified in the abstracts. And the risk measures such as odds ratios or hazard ratios are extracted automatically from the abstracts when available. Thus, users can review the association data sorted by the risk measures, and genetic associations can be grouped by human genes or molecular pathways. The search results can also be saved to tab-delimited text files for further sorting or analysis. Currently, PADB indexes more than 1,500,000 PubMed abstracts that include 3442 human genes, 461 molecular pathways and about 190,000 risk measures ranging from 0.00001 to 4878.9. Conclusion PADB is a unique online database of published associations that will serve as a novel and powerful resource for reviewing and interpreting huge association data of complex human diseases. PMID:17877839

  17. PADB : Published Association Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jin-Sung

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although molecular pathway information and the International HapMap Project data can help biomedical researchers to investigate the aetiology of complex diseases more effectively, such information is missing or insufficient in current genetic association databases. In addition, only a few of the environmental risk factors are included as gene-environment interactions, and the risk measures of associations are not indexed in any association databases. Description We have developed a published association database (PADB; http://www.medclue.com/padb that includes both the genetic associations and the environmental risk factors available in PubMed database. Each genetic risk factor is linked to a molecular pathway database and the HapMap database through human gene symbols identified in the abstracts. And the risk measures such as odds ratios or hazard ratios are extracted automatically from the abstracts when available. Thus, users can review the association data sorted by the risk measures, and genetic associations can be grouped by human genes or molecular pathways. The search results can also be saved to tab-delimited text files for further sorting or analysis. Currently, PADB indexes more than 1,500,000 PubMed abstracts that include 3442 human genes, 461 molecular pathways and about 190,000 risk measures ranging from 0.00001 to 4878.9. Conclusion PADB is a unique online database of published associations that will serve as a novel and powerful resource for reviewing and interpreting huge association data of complex human diseases.

  18. The CAPEC Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Lund; Abildskov, Jens; Harper, Peter Mathias

    2001-01-01

    in the compound. This classification makes the CAPEC database a very useful tool, for example, in the development of new property models, since properties of chemically similar compounds are easily obtained. A program with efficient search and retrieval functions of properties has been developed.......The Computer-Aided Process Engineering Center (CAPEC) database of measured data was established with the aim to promote greater data exchange in the chemical engineering community. The target properties are pure component properties, mixture properties, and special drug solubility data....... The database divides pure component properties into primary, secondary, and functional properties. Mixture properties are categorized in terms of the number of components in the mixture and the number of phases present. The compounds in the database have been classified on the basis of the functional groups...

  19. Community Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This excel spreadsheet is the result of merging at the port level of several of the in-house fisheries databases in combination with other demographic databases such...

  20. Biofuel Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuel Database (Web, free access)   This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.

  1. Global Volcano Hazard Frequency and Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Volcano Hazard Frequency and Distribution is a 2.5 minute gridded data set based upon the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) Volcano Database spanning...

  2. Database Administrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  3. An Intervention Study on the Implementation of Control Banding in Controlling Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Terwoert

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Active training and coaching helped the participating companies to improve their chemical risk management, and to avoid making mistakes when using and applying Stoffenmanager. The use of validated tools embedded in a community platform appears to support companies to organize and structure their chemical risk management in a business-wise manner, but much depends upon motivated occupational health and safety (OHS professionals, management support, and willingness to invest time and means.

  4. Occupational hazards facing orthopedic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, J D; Hsu, S; Ahmad, C S

    2012-03-01

    Physicians are exposed to occupational hazards of which they are often unaware. Orthopedic surgery has a particularly hazardous work environment in which surgeons are at increased risk for exposure to infection, radiation, smoke, chemicals, excessive noise, musculoskeletal injuries, as well as emotional and psychological disturbances. Understanding these risks and the precautions that can be taken to avoid them will help protect orthopedic surgeons from potential harm.

  5. Assessment of the Acute and Chronic Health Hazards of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattenberg, Elizabeth V; Bielicki, Jeffrey M; Suchomel, Ashley E; Sweet, Jessica T; Vold, Elizabeth M; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about how hydraulic fracturing affects public health because this activity involves handling large volumes of fluids that contain toxic and carcinogenic constituents, which are injected under high pressure through wells into the subsurface to release oil and gas from tight shale formations. The constituents of hydraulic fracturing fluids (HFFs) present occupational health risks because workers may be directly exposed to them, and general public health risks because of potential air and water contamination. Hazard identification, which focuses on the types of toxicity that substances may cause, is an important step in the complex health risk assessment of hydraulic fracturing. This article presents a practical and adaptable tool for the hazard identification of HFF constituents, and its use in the analysis of HFF constituents reported to be used in 2,850 wells in North Dakota between December 2009 and November 2013. Of the 569 reported constituents, 347 could be identified by a Chemical Abstract Service Registration Number (CASRN) and matching constituent name. The remainder could not be identified either because of trade secret labeling (210) or because of an invalid CASRN (12). Eleven public databases were searched for health hazard information on thirteen health hazard endpoints for 168 identifiable constituents that had at least 25 reports of use. Health hazard counts were generated for chronic and acute endpoints, including those associated with oral, inhalation, ocular, and dermal exposure. Eleven of the constituents listed in the top 30 by total health hazard count were also listed in the top 30 by reports of use. This includes naphthalene, which along with benzyl chloride, has the highest health hazard count. The top 25 constituents reportedly used in North Dakota largely overlap with those reported for Texas and Pennsylvania, despite different geologic formations, target resources (oil vs. gas), and disclosure requirements

  6. Transposing an active fault database into a fault-based seismic hazard assessment for nuclear facilities - Part 2: Impact of fault parameter uncertainties on a site-specific PSHA exercise in the Upper Rhine Graben, eastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Thomas; Scotti, Oona; Clément, Christophe; Jomard, Hervé; Baize, Stéphane

    2017-09-01

    We perform a fault-based probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) exercise in the Upper Rhine Graben to quantify the relative influence of fault parameters on the hazard at the Fessenheim nuclear power plant site. Specifically, we show that the potentially active faults described in the companion paper (Jomard et al., 2017, hereafter Part 1) are the dominant factor in hazard estimates at the low annual probability of exceedance relevant for the safety assessment of nuclear installations. Geological information documenting the activity of the faults in this region, however, remains sparse, controversial and affected by a high degree of uncertainty. A logic tree approach is thus implemented to explore the epistemic uncertainty and quantify its impact on the seismic hazard estimates. Disaggregation of the peak ground acceleration (PGA) hazard at a 10 000-year return period shows that the Rhine River fault is the main seismic source controlling the hazard level at the site. Sensitivity tests show that the uncertainty on the slip rate of the Rhine River fault is the dominant factor controlling the variability of the seismic hazard level, greater than the epistemic uncertainty due to ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). Uncertainty on slip rate estimates from 0.04 to 0.1 mm yr-1 results in a 40 to 50 % increase in hazard levels at the 10 000-year target return period. Reducing epistemic uncertainty in future fault-based PSHA studies at this site will thus require (1) performing in-depth field studies to better characterize the seismic potential of the Rhine River fault; (2) complementing GMPEs with more physics-based modelling approaches to better account for the near-field effects of ground motion and (3) improving the modelling of the background seismicity. Indeed, in this exercise, we assume that background earthquakes can only host M 6. 0 earthquakes have been recently identified at depth within the Upper Rhine Graben (see Part 1) but are not accounted

  7. DUTCH PRIORITY SETTING SYSTEM FOR EXISTING CHEMICALS: a systematic procedure for ranking chemicals according to increasing estimated hazards. To be incorporated into the UNIFORM SYSTEM FOR THE EVALUATION OF SUBSTANCES (USES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent D; Toet C

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Dutch PRiority Setting system for Existing Chemicals (PRISEC). PRISEC is designed to be incorporated into the Uniform System for Evaluation of Substances together with the Dutch Risk Assessment System for New Chemicals and the Dutch Risk Assessment System for Pesticides.

  8. Physical and chemical hazards of CO2 sequestration activity State of the art and experience feedback at Krechba (In Salah pilot site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakima Hamida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the CO2 release into atmosphere and thus contribute to reducing the greenhouse effect, the industrial process of CO2 sequestration is still at an experimental stage. This technique of CO2 geological sequestration are not fully controlled and raise issue of technological, environmental, human and organizational hazards and their effects on human health, environment and economy. From CO2 capture to transportation then injecting it into underground natural reservoirs where it is stored, geochemical, geophysical and generally industrial risks are still not very well recognized and identified. The behaviour of CO2 is not yet fully identified deep geological environment. It is therefore necessary to build, in support of this industrial CO2 storage process, proactive analysis of more transversal and overall risk for better control, technological processes of capture, Transport, Storage of CO2 (CTSC. 

  9. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capturefrom Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 GeologicStorage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-02-23

    Conventional coal-burning power plants are major contributors of excess CO2 to the atmospheric inventory. Because such plants are stationary, they are particularly amenable to CO2 capture and disposal by deep injection into confined geologic formations. However, the energy penalty for CO2 separation and compression is steep, and could lead to a 30-40 percent reduction in useable power output. Integrated gas combined cycle (IGCC) plants are thermodynamically more efficient, i.e.,produce less CO2 for a given power output, and are more suitable for CO2 capture. Therefore, if CO2 capture and deep subsurface disposal were to be considered seriously, the preferred approach would be to build replacement IGCC plants with integrated CO2 capture, rather than retrofit existing conventional plants. Coal contains minor quantities of sulfur and nitrogen compounds, which are of concern, as their release into the atmosphere leads to the formation of urban ozone and acid rain, the destruction of stratospheric ozone, and global warming. Coal also contains many trace elements that are potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. During CO2 separation and capture, these constituents could inadvertently contaminate the separated CO2 and be co-injected. The concentrations and speciation of the co-injected contaminants would differ markedly, depending on whether CO2 is captured during the operation of a conventional or an IGCC plant, and the specific nature of the plant design and CO2 separation technology. However, regardless of plant design or separation procedures, most of the hazardous constituents effectively partition into the solid waste residue. This would lead to an approximately two order of magnitude reduction in contaminant concentration compared with that present in the coal. Potential exceptions are Hg in conventional plants, and Hg and possibly Cd, Mo and Pb in IGCC plants. CO2 capture and injection disposal could afford an opportunity to deliberately capture

  10. Counterfactual Volcano Hazard Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Gordon

    2013-04-01

    The historical database of past disasters is a cornerstone of catastrophe risk assessment. Whereas disasters are fortunately comparatively rare, near-misses are quite common for both natural and man-made hazards. The word disaster originally means 'an unfavourable aspect of a star'. Except for astrologists, disasters are no longer perceived fatalistically as pre-determined. Nevertheless, to this day, historical disasters are treated statistically as fixed events, although in reality there is a large luck element involved in converting a near-miss crisis situation into a disaster statistic. It is possible to conceive a stochastic simulation of the past to explore the implications of this chance factor. Counterfactual history is the exercise of hypothesizing alternative paths of history from what actually happened. Exploring history from a counterfactual perspective is instructive for a variety of reasons. First, it is easy to be fooled by randomness and see regularity in event patterns which are illusory. The past is just one realization of a variety of possible evolutions of history, which may be analyzed through a stochastic simulation of an array of counterfactual scenarios. In any hazard context, there is a random component equivalent to dice being rolled to decide whether a near-miss becomes an actual disaster. The fact that there may be no observed disaster over a period of time may belie the occurrence of numerous near-misses. This may be illustrated using the simple dice paradigm. Suppose a dice is rolled every month for a year, and an event is recorded if a six is thrown. There is still an 11% chance of no events occurring during the year. A variety of perils may be used to illustrate the use of near-miss information within a counterfactual disaster analysis. In the domain of natural hazards, near-misses are a notable feature of the threat landscape. Storm surges are an obvious example. Sea defences may protect against most meteorological scenarios. However

  11. Toxicogenomics and Systems Toxicology Databases and Resources: Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS) and Data Integration by Applying Models on Design and Safety (DIAMONDS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fostel, J.; Someren, E. van; Pronk, T.; Pennings, J.; Schmeits, P.; Shao, J.; Kroese, D.; Stierum, R.

    2014-01-01

    Systems toxicology relies on data integration from a variety of disciplines. These include the toxicological phenotype and in vitro assay data, together with a system-wide response such as transcriptomics data. To facilitate this, databases to capture a variety of phenotypic data, along with

  12. Hawaii bibliographic database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Thomas L.; Takahashi, Taeko Jane

    The Hawaii bibliographic database has been created to contain all of the literature, from 1779 to the present, pertinent to the volcanological history of the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain. References are entered in a PC- and Macintosh-compatible EndNote Plus bibliographic database with keywords and s or (if no ) with annotations as to content. Keywords emphasize location, discipline, process, identification of new chemical data or age determinations, and type of publication. The database is updated approximately three times a year and is available to upload from an ftp site. The bibliography contained 8460 references at the time this paper was submitted for publication. Use of the database greatly enhances the power and completeness of library searches for anyone interested in Hawaiian volcanism.

  13. Hawaii bibliographic database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, T.L.; Takahashi, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Hawaii bibliographic database has been created to contain all of the literature, from 1779 to the present, pertinent to the volcanological history of the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain. References are entered in a PC- and Macintosh-compatible EndNote Plus bibliographic database with keywords and abstracts or (if no abstract) with annotations as to content. Keywords emphasize location, discipline, process, identification of new chemical data or age determinations, and type of publication. The database is updated approximately three times a year and is available to upload from an ftp site. The bibliography contained 8460 references at the time this paper was submitted for publication. Use of the database greatly enhances the power and completeness of library searches for anyone interested in Hawaiian volcanism.

  14. Gleaning Data From Disaster: A Hospital-Based Data Mining Method To Studying All-Hazard Triage After A Chemical Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Jean B.; Culley, Joan M.; Tavakoli, Abbas; Svendsen, Erik R

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this paper is to describe the methods of evaluating currently available triage models for their efficacy in appropriately triaging the surge of patients after an all-hazards disaster. Design We developed a method for evaluating currently available triage models using extracted data from medical records of the victims from the Graniteville chlorine disaster. Setting On January 6, 2005, a freight train carrying three tanker cars of liquid chlorine was inadvertently switched onto an industrial spur in central Graniteville, South Carolina. The train then crashed into a parked locomotive and derailed. This caused one of the chlorine tankers to rupture and immediately release ~60 tons of chlorine. Chlorine gas infiltrated the town with a population of 7,000. Participants This research focuses on the victims who received emergency care in South Carolina. Results With our data mapping and decision tree logic, we were successful in employing the available extracted clinical data to estimate triage categories for use in triage effectiveness research. Conclusions The methodology outlined in this paper can be used to assess the performance of triage models after a disaster. The steps are reliable and repeatable and can easily be extended or applied to other disaster datasets. PMID:24352925

  15. DOE Order 5480.28 Hanford facilities database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayenga, J.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-01

    This document describes the development of a database of DOE and/or leased Hanford Site Facilities. The completed database will consist of structure/facility parameters essential to the prioritization of these structures for natural phenomena hazard vulnerability in compliance with DOE Order 5480.28, `Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation`. The prioritization process will be based upon the structure/facility vulnerability to natural phenomena hazards. The ACCESS based database, `Hanford Facilities Site Database`, is generated from current Hanford Site information and databases.

  16. Traffic incident management in hazardous materials spills in incident clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Hazardous materials spills provide unique challenges to traffic incident clearance. When hazardous materials are present, not only do response personnel have to deal with typical traffic incident issues, they also must deal with potential chemical ha...

  17. Endocrine-disrupting environmental chemicals - hazards to man and animal; Hormonell wirksame Umweltchemikalien - Gefahr fuer Mensch und Tier? Seminarband der Zentralen Informationsstelle Umweltberatung Bayern. Bd. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behling, G.; Koller, U.; Klemmer, A.; Haury, H.J. [comps.

    1998-08-01

    The spectrum of problems relating to endocrine-disrupting environmental chemicals was presented by competent experts from public authorities and scientific institutions. The lecturers described the current stage and future tasks of research. Their lectures focused on effects of hormone-like substances on humans and animals and an assessment of risk factors on the basis of data from scientific tests and current environmental exposure. There was also a contribution presenting the chemical industry`s view of the matter. [Deutsch] Kompetente Sachverstaendige aus Behoerden und wissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen stellten das Themenspektrum vor, fuehrten in den Forschungsstand ein und zeigten den Forschungsbedarf auf. Der Schwerpunkt lag in der Darstellung der der Auswirkungen hormonell wirksamer Substanzen, wie z.B. DDT, Dioxinen und PCBs, auf Mensch und Tier sowie in der Abschaetzung der Risikofaktoren anhand der bekannten Daten aus wissenschaftlichen Tests sowie der aktuellen Exposition in der Umwelt. Mit einem Beitrag der chemischen Industrie wurde auch deren Einschaetzung der Umweltproblematik aufgezeigt. (orig./MG) m9

  18. Database Replication

    CERN Document Server

    Kemme, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Database replication is widely used for fault-tolerance, scalability and performance. The failure of one database replica does not stop the system from working as available replicas can take over the tasks of the failed replica. Scalability can be achieved by distributing the load across all replicas, and adding new replicas should the load increase. Finally, database replication can provide fast local access, even if clients are geographically distributed clients, if data copies are located close to clients. Despite its advantages, replication is not a straightforward technique to apply, and

  19. Refactoring databases evolutionary database design

    CERN Document Server

    Ambler, Scott W

    2006-01-01

    Refactoring has proven its value in a wide range of development projects–helping software professionals improve system designs, maintainability, extensibility, and performance. Now, for the first time, leading agile methodologist Scott Ambler and renowned consultant Pramodkumar Sadalage introduce powerful refactoring techniques specifically designed for database systems. Ambler and Sadalage demonstrate how small changes to table structures, data, stored procedures, and triggers can significantly enhance virtually any database design–without changing semantics. You’ll learn how to evolve database schemas in step with source code–and become far more effective in projects relying on iterative, agile methodologies. This comprehensive guide and reference helps you overcome the practical obstacles to refactoring real-world databases by covering every fundamental concept underlying database refactoring. Using start-to-finish examples, the authors walk you through refactoring simple standalone databas...

  20. Novel technologies and an overall strategy to allow hazard assessment and risk prediction of chemicals, cosmetics, and drugs with animal-free methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Marcel; Lidbury, Brett A; Yang, Chihae; Hayden, Patrick J; Kelm, Jens M; Ringeissen, Stephanie; Detroyer, Ann; Meunier, Jean R; Rathman, James F; Jackson, George R; Stolper, Gina; Hasiwa, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Several alternative methods to replace animal experiments have been accepted by legal bodies. An even larger number of tests are under development or already in use for non-regulatory applications or for the generation of information stored in proprietary knowledge bases. The next step for the use of the different in vitro methods is their combination into integrated testing strategies (ITS) to get closer to the overall goal of predictive "in vitro-based risk evaluation processes." We introduce here a conceptual framework as the basis for future ITS and their use for risk evaluation without animal experiments. The framework allows incorporation of both individual tests and already integrated approaches. Illustrative examples for elements to be incorporated are drawn from the session "Innovative technologies" at the 8th World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences, held in Montreal, 2011. For instance, LUHMES cells (conditionally immortalized human neurons) were presented as an example for a 2D cell system. The novel 3D platform developed by InSphero was chosen as an example for the design and use of scaffold-free, organotypic microtissues. The identification of critical pathways of toxicity (PoT) may be facilitated by approaches exemplified by the MatTek 3D model for human epithelial tissues with engineered toxicological reporter functions. The important role of in silico methods and of modeling based on various pre-existing data is demonstrated by Altamira's comprehensive approach to predicting a molecule's potential for skin irritancy. A final example demonstrates how natural variation in human genetics may be overcome using data analytic (pattern recognition) techniques borrowed from computer science and statistics. The overall hazard and risk assessment strategy integrating these different examples has been compiled in a graphical work flow.

  1. RDD Databases

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database was established to oversee documents issued in support of fishery research activities including experimental fishing permits (EFP), letters of...

  2. Dealer Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dealer reporting databases contain the primary data reported by federally permitted seafood dealers in the northeast. Electronic reporting was implemented May 1,...

  3. Snowstorm Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Snowstorm Database is a collection of over 500 snowstorms dating back to 1900 and updated operationally. Only storms having large areas of heavy snowfall (10-20...

  4. National database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Helen Grundtvig; Stjernø, Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Artikel om national database for sygeplejeforskning oprettet på Dansk Institut for Sundheds- og Sygeplejeforskning. Det er målet med databasen at samle viden om forsknings- og udviklingsaktiviteter inden for sygeplejen.......Artikel om national database for sygeplejeforskning oprettet på Dansk Institut for Sundheds- og Sygeplejeforskning. Det er målet med databasen at samle viden om forsknings- og udviklingsaktiviteter inden for sygeplejen....

  5. Toxic State–Corporate Crimes, Neo-liberalism and Green Criminology: The Hazards and Legacies of the Oil, Chemical and Mineral Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Ruggiero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses examples from the history and practices of multi-national and large companies in the oil, chemical and asbestos industries to examine their legal and illegal despoiling and destruction of the environment and impact on human and non-human life. The discussion draws on the literature on green criminology and state-corporate crime and considers measures and arrangements that might mitigate or prevent such damaging acts. This paper is part of ongoing work on green criminology and crimes of the economy. It places these actions and crimes in the context of a global neo-liberal economic system and considers and critiques the distorting impact of the GDP model of ‘economic health’ and its consequences for the environment.

  6. Hazardous materials information hotline using System 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, J.E.; Fuchel, K.

    1984-04-30

    The Center for Assessment of Chemical and Physical Hazards (CACPH) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed a computer hotline service for the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors. This service provides access to health and safety information for over 800 chemicals and hazardous materials. The data base uses System 2000 on a CDC 6600 and provides information on the chemical name and its synonyms, 17 categories of health and safety information, composition of chemical mixtures, categories of chemicals, use and hazards, and physical, chemical and toxicity attributes. In order to make this information available to people unfamiliar with System 2000, a user-friendly interface was developed using a Fortran PLEX Program. 1 reference, 1 figure.

  7. Hazard communications guidelines for compliance (revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The contents include: Introduction; Becoming Familiar with the Rule; Identifying Responsible Staff; Identifying Hazardous Chemicals in the Workplace; Preparing and Implementing a Hazard Communication Program; Other Requirements; Checklist for Compliance; Further Assistance; Other Sources of OSHA Assistance; OSHA Related Publications; States with Approved Plans; OSHA Consultation Project Directory; and OSHA Area Offices.

  8. Transportation of Hazardous Evidentiary Material.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.

    2005-06-01

    This document describes the specimen and transportation containers currently available for use with hazardous and infectious materials. A detailed comparison of advantages, disadvantages, and costs of the different technologies is included. Short- and long-term recommendations are also provided.3 DraftDraftDraftExecutive SummaryThe Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hazardous Materials Response Unit currently has hazardous material transport containers for shipping 1-quart paint cans and small amounts of contaminated forensic evidence, but the containers may not be able to maintain their integrity under accident conditions or for some types of hazardous materials. This report provides guidance and recommendations on the availability of packages for the safe and secure transport of evidence consisting of or contaminated with hazardous chemicals or infectious materials. Only non-bulk containers were considered because these are appropriate for transport on small aircraft. This report will addresses packaging and transportation concerns for Hazardous Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 materials. If the evidence is known or suspected of belonging to one of these Hazardous Classes, it must be packaged in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR Part 173. The anthrax scare of several years ago, and less well publicized incidents involving unknown and uncharacterized substances, has required that suspicious substances be sent to appropriate analytical laboratories for analysis and characterization. Transportation of potentially hazardous or infectious material to an appropriate analytical laboratory requires transport containers that maintain both the biological and chemical integrity of the substance in question. As a rule, only relatively small quantities will be available for analysis. Appropriate transportation packaging is needed that will maintain the integrity of the substance, will not allow biological alteration, will not react chemically with the substance being

  9. Application of the ToxMiner Database: Network Analysis Linking the ToxCast Chemicals to Known Disease-Gene Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA ToxCast program is using in vitro HTS (High-Throughput Screening) methods to profile and model bioactivity of environmental chemicals. The main goals of the ToxCast program are to generate predictive signatures of toxicity, and ultimately provide rapid and cost-effecti...

  10. Using the ToxMiner Database for a Network Analysis of Linkage between ToxCast Phase I Chemicals and Thyroid Related Disease Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA ToxCast program is using in vitro, high-throughput screening (HTS) to profile and model the bioactivity of environmental chemicals. The main goal of the ToxCast program is to generate predictive signatures of toxicity that ultimately provide rapid and cost-effective me...

  11. Application of the ToxMiner Database: Network Analysis of Linkage between ToxCast Phase I Chemicals and Thyroid Related Disease Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA ToxCast program is using in vitro HTS (High-Throughput Screening) methods to profile and model bioactivity of environmental chemicals. The main goals of the ToxCast program are to generate predictive signatures of toxicity, and ultimately provide rapid and cost-effecti...

  12. Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Base Flood Elevations, FIRM, DFIRM, BFE, This database is an interim version of the Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database. It does not fully meet all DFIRM specifications as found in "Guidelines and Specificiations for Flood Hazard Mapping Partners, Appendix L: Guidance for Preparin, Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Noble County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Base Flood Elevations, FIRM, DFIRM, BFE dataset current as of 2004. This database is an interim version of the Digital Flood Insurance...

  13. Reducing Physical Hazards: Encouraging Inherently Safer Production (Chapter 17)

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas A. Ashford

    2013-01-01

    Physical hazards differ from hazards related to the toxicity of chemicals and materials in a number of ways. Their origin is the sudden and accidental release of chemicals and/ or energy - that is, chemical accidents, explosions, and spills - as distinct from the expected products, by-products, or gradual pollution associated with chemical production and use. The chemicals or materials are not always inherently toxic. For example, flour or olive oil can be explosive in an industrial operatio...

  14. Hydro-chemical detection of permafrost degradation in the Eastern European Alps - Implications for geomorphological process studies and natural hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraushaar, Sabine; Kamleitner, Sarah; Czarnowsky, Verena; Blöthe, Jan; Morche, David; Knöller, Kay; Lachner, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    The Gepatschferner glacier in the Upper Kaunertal valley is one of the fastest melting glaciers in the Eastern European Alps. With a retreat rate of around 110 m a-1 since the hydrological year 2012/ 2013, unconsolidated sediments of steep lateral moraines have been exposed to erosion, from which nowadays episodic and perennial springs well. We hypothesize that the springs indicate the melt out of dead ice lenses in areas below 2500 m, causing a potential significant morphological change in the moraines and a decrease of slope stability in the proglacial long after glacier retreat. However, permafrost degradation has not been considered so far in contemporary erosion measurements. The present study aims to identify the spring water's origin and displays first attempts of quantifying thermal erosion, which describes the matrix volume loss due to melting and drainage of ice water. Samples were routinely analyzed for temperature, electrical conductivity, δ2H, and δ18O. Results support the hypothesis that certain springs derive from melting ice of similar isotopic signature as the glacier. In a second step, chosen samples were examined for the long-lived anthropogenic nuclide 129I. Since the 1950s the atmospheric abundance of 129I has significantly increased. Its occurrence in the water samples hints a surface contact of the waters in the last 65 years. Springs of ice origin show little 129I content and are believed to derive from dead ice by the glacier. First electric resistivity measurements support the hydro-chemical results and suggest the existence of ice lenses in the subsurface. Ice ablation and discharge measurements allowed first estimates of the thermal erosion volume caused by the melt out and drainage of ice lenses.

  15. COMPUTERS HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Augustynek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2006, over 12.6 million Polish users of the Web registered. On the average, each of them spent 21 hours and 37 minutes monthly browsing the Web. That is why the problems of the psychological aspects of computer utilization have become an urgent research subject. The results of research into the development of Polish information society carried out in AGH University of Science and Technology, under the leadership of Leslaw H. Haber, in the period from 2000 until present time, indicate the emergence dynamic changes in the ways of computer utilization and their circumstances. One of the interesting regularities has been the inverse proportional relation between the level of computer skills and the frequency of the Web utilization.It has been found that in 2005, compared to 2000, the following changes occurred:- A significant drop in the number of students who never used computers and the Web;- Remarkable increase in computer knowledge and skills (particularly pronounced in the case of first years student- Decreasing gap in computer skills between students of the first and the third year; between male and female students;- Declining popularity of computer games.It has been demonstrated also that the hazard of computer screen addiction was the highest in he case of unemployed youth outside school system. As much as 12% of this group of young people were addicted to computer. A lot of leisure time that these youths enjoyed inducted them to excessive utilization of the Web. Polish housewives are another population group in risk of addiction to the Web. The duration of long Web charts carried out by younger and younger youths has been another matter of concern. Since the phenomenon of computer addiction is relatively new, no specific therapy methods has been developed. In general, the applied therapy in relation to computer addition syndrome is similar to the techniques applied in the cases of alcohol or gambling addiction. Individual and group

  16. Solubility Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

  17. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R- 125, R-134a, R-141b, R142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses polyalkylene glycol (PAG), ester, and other lubricants. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits.

  18. Fact Sheet: Benzidine-Based Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.

  19. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilities access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  20. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-07-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  1. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-11-15

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  2. Hazardous waste operational plan for site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-02-12

    This plan outlines the procedures and operations used at LLNL's Site 300 for the management of the hazardous waste generated. This waste consists primarily of depleted uranium (a by-product of U-235 enrichment), beryllium, small quantities of analytical chemicals, industrial type waste such as solvents, cleaning acids, photographic chemicals, etc., and explosives. This plan details the operations generating this waste, the proper handling of this material and the procedures used to treat or dispose of the hazardous waste. A considerable amount of information found in this plan was extracted from the Site 300 Safety and Operational Manual written by Site 300 Facility personnel and the Hazards Control Department.

  3. The New version of Danish food composition database FRIDA including a case study on recipe calculation compared to a chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    weighed. Typical components were bread, French fries, vegetables, meat, and dressings. The fast foods were analyzed and the content of energy, protein, saturated fat, iron, thiamin, potassium and sodium were compared to recipe calculation. Wilcoxon Signed Rank test, Spearman correlation coefficients...... and Bland-Altman plots were used for comparing the two methods. Results: Overall there were differences between the chemical and recipe analysis for energy, protein, saturated fat and iron (P0.05). The error percentage was largest for saturated fat (28...

  4. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  5. Assessment of Risk Due to Chemicals Transferred in a Watershed: A Case of an Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyon Wook Ji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the potential risks of chemicals that can affect an aquifer storage transfer and recovery (ASTR site. ASTR is a water supply system that injects surface water into an aquifer and then extracts naturally filtered groundwater. The pilot site of the ASTR supplying drinking water is located downstream of the Nakdong River in South Korea. Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP was adopted to ensure suitable water quality in response to the deteriorated water quality of the Nakdong River. HACCP is a proactive management system for ensuring consistent confidence in food (or water. Hazard analysis, the first of the seven principles of HACCP, assesses physical, microbial, chemical, and radioactive hazards. This study focuses on the chemicals that are most likely to be involved in major hazardous events. Pollutant release and transfer register (PRTR data were used to analyze potential risks of chemicals. A PRTR is a national environmental database of potentially hazardous chemicals. Potential risk analysis considers the total amount of chemicals transferred off-site for treatment or disposal. Fifty-five cities and the top 10 chemicals released in the Nakdong River basin were investigated. Potential risk was defined as a function of total transfers, the relative distance, and toxicity. The top 10 cities with high potential risks were identified, and the city with the highest potential risk turned out to be Ulju.

  6. The New version of Danish food composition database FRIDA including a case study on recipe calculation compared to a chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Saxholt, Erling; Knuthsen, Pia

    Objective: Constantly updated food data that reflect the food supply, such as the recently published http://frida.fooddata.dk, is essential for recipe calculation in dietary assessment. The objective of this study was to compare the content of selected nutrients estimated by recipe calculation...... and chemical analysis of fast food based on data from http://frida.fooddata.dk. Materials and methods: New fast food data in http://frida.fooddata.dk was based on 135 samples of ready to eat fast foods as burgers and sandwiches collected from fast food outlets, separated into their recipe components which were...... weighed. Typical components were bread, French fries, vegetables, meat, and dressings. The fast foods were analyzed and the content of energy, protein, saturated fat, iron, thiamin, potassium and sodium were compared to recipe calculation. Wilcoxon Signed Rank test, Spearman correlation coefficients...

  7. Hazardous substances in frequently used professional cleaning products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerster, Fabian Melchior; Vernez, David; Wild, Pascal Pierre; Hopf, Nancy Brenna

    2014-01-01

    .... Chemical substances present in cleaning products could be responsible for these effects. Currently, only limited information is available about irritant and health hazardous chemical substances found in cleaning products...

  8. Hazard reduction in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2008-01-01

    The release of hazardous substances is a matter of concern for nanotechnology. This may include some nanoparticles, reactants, by-products, and solvents. The use of low-hazard solvents may reduce the hazards from nanoparticle production and nanomaterial processing. The hazards of inorganic

  9. Design of a Bioactive Small Molecule that Targets the Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 RNA Via an RNA Motif-Ligand Database & Chemical Similarity Searching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkesh, Raman; Childs-Disney, Jessica L.; Nakamori, Masayuki; Kumar, Amit; Wang, Eric; Wang, Thomas; Hoskins, Jason; Tran, Tuan; Housman, David; Thornton, Charles A.; Disney, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a triplet repeating disorder caused by expanded CTG repeats in the 3′ untranslated region of the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) gene. The transcribed repeats fold into an RNA hairpin with multiple copies of a 5′CUG/3′GUC motif that binds the RNA splicing regulator muscleblind-like 1 protein (MBNL1). Sequestration of MBNL1 by expanded r(CUG) repeats causes splicing defects in a subset of pre-mRNAs including the insulin receptor, the muscle-specific chloride ion channel, Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase 1 (Serca1/Atp2a1), and cardiac troponin T (cTNT). Based on these observations, the development of small molecule ligands that target specifically expanded DM1 repeats could serve as therapeutics. In the present study, computational screening was employed to improve the efficacy of pentamidine and Hoechst 33258 ligands that have been shown previously to target the DM1 triplet repeat. A series of inhibitors of the RNA-protein complex with low micromolar IC50’s, which are >20-fold more potent than the query compounds, were identified. Importantly, a bis-benzimidazole identified from the Hoechst query improves DM1-associated pre-mRNA splicing defects in cell and mouse models of DM1 (when dosed with 1 mM and 100 mg/kg, respectively). Since Hoechst 33258 was identified as a DM1 binder through analysis of an RNA motif-ligand database, these studies suggest that lead ligands targeting RNA with improved biological activity can be identified by using a synergistic approach that combines analysis of known RNA-ligand interactions with virtual screening. PMID:22300544

  10. 29 CFR 1910.1200 - Hazard communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... training in accordance with paragraph (h) of this section, except for the location and availability of the... paragraph (h) of this section (except for the location and availability of the written hazard communication... name, brand name or generic name used to identify a chemical other than by its chemical name...

  11. The Air Toxics Health Effects Database (ATHED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, George M; Smith, Roy L

    2008-11-15

    The Air Toxics Health Effects Database (ATHED) is currently used by the EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) to support risk assessments for the Residual Risk Program. An assessment of the residual risk is required to be performed at a specified time (typically 8 years) following the promulgation of a technology-based Maximum Achievable Control Technologies (MACT) standard. The goal of the Residual Risk Program is to assure that the risk that remains after MACT standards are implemented (i.e., the "residual risk") is acceptable, and if not, to propose additional regulations to mitigate those risks. ATHED maintains all available reference values for each chemical as separate data records, and includes values for all exposure durations (acute, short-term, subchronic and chronic). These values are used as benchmarks to determine acceptable exposure levels to the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) listed in Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. ATHED also provides useful background information on the uncertainty and/or modifying factors that were applied in the derivation of each reference value, as well as the point of departure and the critical study/studies. To facilitate comparisons across durations for a specific chemical, ATHED data can be graphically presented.

  12. Petroleum and hazardous material releases from industrial facilities associated with Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Nicholas; Steinberg, Laura J; Sengul, Hatice

    2010-04-01

    Hurricane Katrina struck an area dense with industry, causing numerous releases of petroleum and hazardous materials. This study integrates information from a number of sources to describe the frequency, causes, and effects of these releases in order to inform analysis of risk from future hurricanes. Over 200 onshore releases of hazardous chemicals, petroleum, or natural gas were reported. Storm surge was responsible for the majority of petroleum releases and failure of storage tanks was the most common mechanism of release. Of the smaller number of hazardous chemical releases reported, many were associated with flaring from plant startup, shutdown, or process upset. In areas impacted by storm surge, 10% of the facilities within the Risk Management Plan (RMP) and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) databases and 28% of SIC 1311 facilities experienced accidental releases. In areas subject only to hurricane strength winds, a lower fraction (1% of RMP and TRI and 10% of SIC 1311 facilities) experienced a release while 1% of all facility types reported a release in areas that experienced tropical storm strength winds. Of industrial facilities surveyed, more experienced indirect disruptions such as displacement of workers, loss of electricity and communication systems, and difficulty acquiring supplies and contractors for operations or reconstruction (55%), than experienced releases. To reduce the risk of hazardous material releases and speed the return to normal operations under these difficult conditions, greater attention should be devoted to risk-based facility design and improved prevention and response planning.

  13. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, L.; Vogel, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Studies from the natural hazards literature indicate that many natural processes, including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow and earthquakes, show evidence of nonstationary behavior such as trends in magnitudes through time. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on partial duration series (PDS) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e. that the probability of exceedance is constant through time. Given evidence of trends and the consequent expected growth in devastating impacts from natural hazards across the world, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (x) with its failure time series (t), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose PDS magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied Poisson-GP model. We derive a 2-parameter Generalized Pareto hazard model and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard event series x, with corresponding failure time series t, should have application to a wide class of natural hazards.

  14. The Impact of Hazardous Chemicals on Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    compounds. It is a known ozone layer depleting agent with a half- life of more than 30 years. It was used in petroleum refining, pharmaceutical... aerosol cans. Chloroacetyl ch loride (CIACI): a clear to slightly yellowish fuming liquid with a strong pungent odor similar to that of hydrochloric...8217MetBis): also known as phenyl isocyanate, its uses include UV curable and latent catalyst-containing polymerization compositions. All of the TICs

  15. Safety evaluation of chemical mixtures and combinations of chemical and non-chemical stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, D; Freidig, A P; Groten, J P; de Hollander, A E M; Stierum, R H; Woutersen, R A; Feron, V J

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments in hazard identification and risk assessment of chemical mixtures are reviewed. Empirical, descriptive approaches to study and characterize the toxicity of mixtures have dominated during the past two decades, but an increasing number of mechanistic approaches have made their entry into mixture toxicology. A series of empirical studies with simple chemical mixtures in rats is described in some detail because of the important lessons from this work. The development of regulatory guidelines for the toxicological evaluation of chemical mixtures is discussed briefly. Current issues in mixture toxicology include the adverse health effects of ambient air pollution; the application of such modern, sophisticated methodologies as genomics, bioinformatics, and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling; and databases for mixture toxicity. Finally, the state of the art of our knowledge on the potential adverse health effects of combined exposures to chemicals and non-chemical stressors (noise, heat/cold, microorganisms, immobilization, restraint, or transportation), research initiatives in these fields, and the development of an indicator for the cumulative health impact of multiple environmental exposures are discussed.

  16. An overview of process hazard evaluation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressel, M G; Gideon, J A

    1991-04-01

    Since the 1985 release of methyl isocyanate in Bhopal, India, which killed thousands, the chemical industry has begun to use process hazard analysis techniques more widely to protect the public from catastrophic chemical releases. These techniques can provide a systematic method for evaluating a system design to ensure that it operates as intended, help identify process areas that may result in the release of a hazardous chemical, and help suggest modifications to improve process safety. Eight different techniques are discussed, with some simple examples of how they might be applied. These techniques include checklists, "what if" analysis, safety audits and reviews, preliminary hazard analysis (PHA), failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA), fault tree analysis (FTA), event tree analysis (ETA), and hazard and operability studies (HAZOP). The techniques vary in sophistication and scope, and no single one will always be the best. These techniques can also provide the industrial hygienist with the tools needed to protect both workers and the community from both major and small-scale chemical releases. A typical industrial hygiene evaluation of a facility would normally include air sampling. If the air sampling does detect a specific hazardous substance, the source will probably be a routine or continuous emission. However, air sampling will not be able to identify or predict the location of a nonroutine emission reliably. By incorporating these techniques with typical evaluations, however, industrial hygienists can proactively help reduce the hazards to the workers they serve.

  17. Shedding a new light on hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reece, N.

    1991-02-01

    The sun's ability to detoxify waterborne chemicals has long been known; polluted streams, for example, become cleaner as they flow through sunlit areas. Solar detoxification harnesses this natural degradation process for beneficial ends, producing simple, nonhazardous substances from hazardous organic chemicals. Solar detoxification systems now being developed break down these chemicals without using the fossil fuels required by conventional technologies. Sunlight destroys hazardous waste because of the distinctive properties of photons, the packets of energy that make up sunlight. Low-energy photons add thermal energy that will heat toxic chemicals; high-energy photons add the energy needed to break the chemical bonds of these chemicals. The detoxification process discussed here takes advantage of this latter group of photons found in the ultraviolet portion of the solar spectrum. 4 figs.

  18. Stackfile Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    deVarvalho, Robert; Desai, Shailen D.; Haines, Bruce J.; Kruizinga, Gerhard L.; Gilmer, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This software provides storage retrieval and analysis functionality for managing satellite altimetry data. It improves the efficiency and analysis capabilities of existing database software with improved flexibility and documentation. It offers flexibility in the type of data that can be stored. There is efficient retrieval either across the spatial domain or the time domain. Built-in analysis tools are provided for frequently performed altimetry tasks. This software package is used for storing and manipulating satellite measurement data. It was developed with a focus on handling the requirements of repeat-track altimetry missions such as Topex and Jason. It was, however, designed to work with a wide variety of satellite measurement data [e.g., Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment -- GRACE). The software consists of several command-line tools for importing, retrieving, and analyzing satellite measurement data.

  19. Job Hazard Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Establishing proper job procedures is one of the benefits of conducting a job hazard analysis carefully studying and recording each step of a job, identifying existing or potential job hazards...

  20. Global Landslide Hazard Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Hazard Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide and snow avalanche hazards based upon work of the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute...

  1. Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcot, Divya K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.

  2. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-04-01

    Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e., that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk, and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied generalized Pareto model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard random variable X with corresponding failure time series T should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with opportunities for future extensions.

  3. Central Asia Active Fault Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd A.; Kakar, Najibullah

    2014-05-01

    The ongoing collision of the Indian subcontinent with Asia controls active tectonics and seismicity in Central Asia. This motion is accommodated by faults that have historically caused devastating earthquakes and continue to pose serious threats to the population at risk. Despite international and regional efforts to assess seismic hazards in Central Asia, little attention has been given to development of a comprehensive database for active faults in the region. To address this issue and to better understand the distribution and level of seismic hazard in Central Asia, we are developing a publically available database for active faults of Central Asia (including but not limited to Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, northern Pakistan and western China) using ArcGIS. The database is designed to allow users to store, map and query important fault parameters such as fault location, displacement history, rate of movement, and other data relevant to seismic hazard studies including fault trench locations, geochronology constraints, and seismic studies. Data sources integrated into the database include previously published maps and scientific investigations as well as strain rate measurements and historic and recent seismicity. In addition, high resolution Quickbird, Spot, and Aster imagery are used for selected features to locate and measure offset of landforms associated with Quaternary faulting. These features are individually digitized and linked to attribute tables that provide a description for each feature. Preliminary observations include inconsistent and sometimes inaccurate information for faults documented in different studies. For example, the Darvaz-Karakul fault which roughly defines the western margin of the Pamir, has been mapped with differences in location of up to 12 kilometers. The sense of motion for this fault ranges from unknown to thrust and strike-slip in three different studies despite documented left-lateral displacements of Holocene and late

  4. Hazardous substances in frequently used professional cleaning products

    OpenAIRE

    Gerster, F.M.; Vernez, D.; Wild, P.P.; Hopf, N.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A growing number of studies have identified cleaners as a group at risk for adverse health effects of the skin and the respiratory tract. Chemical substances present in cleaning products could be responsible for these effects. Currently, only limited information is available about irritant and health hazardous chemical substances found in cleaning products. We hypothesized that chemical substances present in cleaning products are known health hazardous substances that might be inv...

  5. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufactures and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on many refrigerants including propane, ammonia, water, carbon dioxide, propylene, ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  6. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1997-02-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alterative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on various refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  7. The Cambridge Structural Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Colin R; Bruno, Ian J; Lightfoot, Matthew P; Ward, Suzanna C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) contains a complete record of all published organic and metal-organic small-molecule crystal structures. The database has been in operation for over 50 years and continues to be the primary means of sharing structural chemistry data and knowledge across disciplines. As well as structures that are made public to support scientific articles, it includes many structures published directly as CSD Communications. All structures are processed both computationally and by expert structural chemistry editors prior to entering the database. A key component of this processing is the reliable association of the chemical identity of the structure studied with the experimental data. This important step helps ensure that data is widely discoverable and readily reusable. Content is further enriched through selective inclusion of additional experimental data. Entries are available to anyone through free CSD community web services. Linking services developed and maintained by the CCDC, combined with the use of standard identifiers, facilitate discovery from other resources. Data can also be accessed through CCDC and third party software applications and through an application programming interface.

  8. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, J.M. (Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States))

    1993-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  9. Landslide hazard assessment: recent trends and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardeshi, Sudhakar D; Autade, Sumant E; Pardeshi, Suchitra S

    2013-01-01

    Landslide hazard assessment is an important step towards landslide hazard and risk management. There are several methods of Landslide Hazard Zonation (LHZ) viz. heuristic, semi quantitative, quantitative, probabilistic and multi-criteria decision making process. However, no one method is accepted universally for effective assessment of landslide hazards. In recent years, several attempts have been made to apply different methods of LHZ and to compare results in order to find the best suited model. This paper presents the review of researches on landslide hazard mapping published in recent years. The advanced multivariate techniques are proved to be effective in spatial prediction of landslides with high degree of accuracy. Physical process based models also perform well in LHZ mapping even in the areas with poor database. Multi-criteria decision making approach also play significant role in determining relative importance of landslide causative factors in slope instability process. Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) are powerful tools to assess landslide hazards and are being used extensively in landslide researches since last decade. Aerial photographs and high resolution satellite data are useful in detection, mapping and monitoring landslide processes. GIS based LHZ models helps not only to map and monitor landslides but also to predict future slope failures. The advancements in Geo-spatial technologies have opened the doors for detailed and accurate assessment of landslide hazards.

  10. Hazardous Waste: Learn the Basics of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Agency Search Search Hazardous Waste Contact Us Share Learn the Basics of Hazardous Waste Hazardous waste that ... Regulations part 261 . Select a question below to learn more about each step in the hazardous waste ...

  11. Investigation of impacts to federally endangered freshwater mussels of the Lower Ohio River: Chemical and biological survey for environmental contaminants adjacent to the Republic Creosoting Hazardous Waste Site near Joppa, Illinois

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey for contaminants in bed sediments and freshwater mussels was conducted in the region of the Lower Ohio River adjacent to the Republic Creosoting hazardous...

  12. Runoff inundation hazard cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineux, N.; Degré, A.

    2012-04-01

    Between 1998 and 2004, Europe suffered from more than hundred major inundations, responsible for some 700 deaths, for the moving of about half a million of people and the economic losses of at least 25 billions Euros covered by the insurance policies. Within this context, EU launched the 2007/60/CE directive. The inundations are natural phenomenon. They cannot be avoided. Nevertheless this directive permits to better evaluate the risks and to coordinate the management measures taken at member states level. In most countries, inundation maps only include rivers' overflowing. In Wallonia, overland flows and mudflows also cause huge damages, and must be included in the flood hazard map. Indeed, the cleaning operations for a village can lead to an estimated cost of 11 000 €. Average construction cost of retention dams to control off-site damage caused by floods and muddy flows was valued at 380 000€, and yearly dredging costs associated with these retention ponds at 15 000€. For a small city for which a study was done in a more specific way (Gembloux), the mean annual cost for the damages that can generate the runoff is about 20 000€. This cost consists of the physical damages caused to the real estate and movable properties of the residents as well as the emergency operations of the firemen and the city. On top of damages to public infrastructure (clogging of trenches, silting up of retention ponds) and to private property by muddy flows, runoff generates a significant loss of arable land. Yet, the soil resource is not an unlimited commodity. Moreover, sediments' transfer to watercourses alters their physical and chemical quality. And that is not to mention the increased psychological stress for people. But to map overland flood and mud flow hazard is a real challenge. This poster will present the methodology used to in Wallonia. The methodology is based on 3 project rainfalls: 25, 50 and 100 years return period (consistency with the cartography of the

  13. Occupational hazard exposure and at risk drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, K M; Furner, S E; Qian, Y

    1999-01-01

    This study examined associations between workers' reported exposure to occupational hazards and at risk drinking. A sample of 15,907 working adults was drawn from the 1985 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (weighted sample represented 85,395,000 workers). This was the only year the NHIS included questions on both occupational hazard exposure and at risk drinking. Occupational hazard exposures included chemical/biological substances, physical hazards, injury risk, and mental stress. At risk drinking was defined as binge drinking and drinking and driving. Prevalence adjusted odds ratios were estimated. Sixty percent of workers reported exposure to one or more occupational hazards with considerable variation among and within occupations. In all, 31% reported binge drinking and 15% drove after drinking too much. In a multivariate analysis that controlled for background characteristics, workers who reported occupational hazard exposures were 1.2 to 1.4 times more likely to engage in binge drinking than workers without exposures. Similar results were found for drinking/driving. All multivariate results were statistically significant. Findings suggest workers who report occupational hazard exposures are at greater risk of both binge drinking and drinking/driving. Occupational and environmental health nurses can lead workplace initiatives to reduce occupational hazard exposure and, simultaneously, invest in health promotion efforts to curb at risk drinking among workers.

  14. Occupational hazards to health of port workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yukun; Zhan, Shuifen; Liu, Yan; Li, Yan

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this article is to reduce the risk of occupational hazards and improve safety conditions by enhancing hazard knowledge and identification as well as improving safety behavior for freight port enterprises. In the article, occupational hazards to health and their prevention measures of freight port enterprises have been summarized through a lot of occupational health evaluation work, experience and understanding. Workers of freight port enterprises confront an equally wide variety of chemical, physical and psychological hazards in production technology, production environment and the course of labor. Such health hazards have been identified, the risks evaluated, the dangers to health notified and effective prevention measures which should be put in place to ensure the health of the port workers summarized. There is still a long way to go for the freight port enterprises to prevent and control the occupational hazards. Except for occupational hazards and their prevention measures, other factors that influence the health of port workers should also be paid attention to, such as age, work history, gender, contraindication and even the occurrence and development rules of occupational hazards in current production conditions.

  15. 49 CFR 195.4 - Compatibility necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. 195.4 Section 195.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. No person may transport any hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide unless the hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide is chemically compatible with both...

  16. Artificial Radionuclides Database in the Pacific Ocean: HAM Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Aoyama

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The database “Historical Artificial Radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean and its Marginal Seas”, or HAM database, has been created. The database includes 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239,240Pu concentration data from the seawater of the Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas with some measurements from the sea surface to the bottom. The data in the HAM database were collected from about 90 literature citations, which include published papers; annual reports by the Hydrographic Department, Maritime Safety Agency, Japan; and unpublished data provided by individuals. The data of concentrations of 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239,240Pu have been accumulating since 1957–1998. The present HAM database includes 7737 records for 137Cs concentration data, 3972 records for 90Sr concentration data, and 2666 records for 239,240Pu concentration data. The spatial variation of sampling stations in the HAM database is heterogeneous, namely, more than 80% of the data for each radionuclide is from the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, while a relatively small portion of data is from the South Pacific. This HAM database will allow us to use these radionuclides as significant chemical tracers for oceanographic study as well as the assessment of environmental affects of anthropogenic radionuclides for these 5 decades. Furthermore, these radionuclides can be used to verify the oceanic general circulation models in the time scale of several decades.

  17. Database development and management

    CERN Document Server

    Chao, Lee

    2006-01-01

    Introduction to Database Systems Functions of a DatabaseDatabase Management SystemDatabase ComponentsDatabase Development ProcessConceptual Design and Data Modeling Introduction to Database Design Process Understanding Business ProcessEntity-Relationship Data Model Representing Business Process with Entity-RelationshipModelTable Structure and NormalizationIntroduction to TablesTable NormalizationTransforming Data Models to Relational Databases .DBMS Selection Transforming Data Models to Relational DatabasesEnforcing ConstraintsCreating Database for Business ProcessPhysical Design and Database

  18. Essential Principles for Reform of Chemicals Management Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.

  19. Microorganisms and Chemical Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the importance of microorganisms in chemical pollution and pollution abatement. Selected chemical pollutants are chosen to illustrate that microorganisms synthesize hazardous substances from reasonably innocuous precursors, while others act as excellent environmental decontaminating agents by removing undesirable natural and synthetic…

  20. Haz-Mat Refresher: Chemical Precautions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Louis A.

    2012-01-01

    It is important that first responders remain aware of the possible hazards resulting from chemical accidents or the intentional use of chemicals in destructive devices. Chemical components can be utilized in the manufacturing of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), can enhance the effect of a more conventional device, or can pose hazards based on…

  1. Health Care Wide Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scope | Glossary | References | Site Map | Credits Hospital eTool Administration Central Supply Clinical Services Dietary Emergency Engineering Healthcare Wide Hazards Heliport Housekeeping ICU Laboratory Laundry ...

  2. Chemical contamination in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hisato; Kim, Eun-Young; Yamauchi, Masanobu; Inoue, Suguru; Agusa, Tetsuro; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-03-01

    The 21st Century's Center of Excellence (COE) Program "Coastal Marine Environmental Research" in Ehime University, funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Government of Japan, started its activities in October 2002. One of the core projects of the COE Program in Ehime University is "studies on environmental behavior of hazardous chemicals and their toxic effects on wildlife". This core project deals with studies of the local and global distribution of environmental contaminants in aquatic ecosystems, retrospective analysis of such chemicals, their toxicokinetics in humans and wildlife, molecular mechanisms to determine species-specific reactions, and sensitivity of chemically induced effects, and with the development of methodology for risk assessment for the conservation of ecological and species diversity. This presentation describes our recent achievements of this project, including research on contamination by arsenic and organohalogen pollutants in the Mekong River basin and molecular mechanisms of morphologic deformities in dioxin-exposed red seabream (Pagrus major) embryos. We established the Environmental Specimen Bank (es-BANK) in Ehime University in 2004, archiving approximately 100000 cryogenic samples containing tissues of wildlife and humans that have been collected for the past 40 years. The CMES homepage offers details of samples through online database retrieval. The es-BANK facility was in operation by the end of 2005.

  3. Online Database Coverage of Forensic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Bonnie; Ifshin, Steven L.

    1984-01-01

    Online seaches of sample topics in the area of forensic medicine were conducted in the following life science databases: Biosis Previews, Excerpta Medica, Medline, Scisearch, and Chemical Abstracts Search. Search outputs analyzed according to criteria of recall, uniqueness, overlap, and utility reveal the need for a cross-database approach to…

  4. Updated Colombian Seismic Hazard Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraso, J.; Arcila, M.; Romero, J.; Dimate, C.; Bermúdez, M. L.; Alvarado, C.

    2013-05-01

    The Colombian seismic hazard map used by the National Building Code (NSR-98) in effect until 2009 was developed in 1996. Since then, the National Seismological Network of Colombia has improved in both coverage and technology providing fifteen years of additional seismic records. These improvements have allowed a better understanding of the regional geology and tectonics which in addition to the seismic activity in Colombia with destructive effects has motivated the interest and the need to develop a new seismic hazard assessment in this country. Taking advantage of new instrumental information sources such as new broad band stations of the National Seismological Network, new historical seismicity data, standardized global databases availability, and in general, of advances in models and techniques, a new Colombian seismic hazard map was developed. A PSHA model was applied. The use of the PSHA model is because it incorporates the effects of all seismic sources that may affect a particular site solving the uncertainties caused by the parameters and assumptions defined in this kind of studies. First, the seismic sources geometry and a complete and homogeneous seismic catalog were defined; the parameters of seismic rate of each one of the seismic sources occurrence were calculated establishing a national seismotectonic model. Several of attenuation-distance relationships were selected depending on the type of seismicity considered. The seismic hazard was estimated using the CRISIS2007 software created by the Engineering Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México -UNAM (National Autonomous University of Mexico). A uniformly spaced grid each 0.1° was used to calculate the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and response spectral values at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3.0 seconds with return periods of 75, 225, 475, 975 and 2475 years. For each site, a uniform hazard spectrum and exceedance rate curves were calculated. With the results, it is

  5. Spatial earthquake hazard assessment of Evansville, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockaway, T.D.; Frost, J.D.; Eggert, D.L.; Luna, R.

    1997-01-01

    The earthquake hazard has been evaluated for a 150-square-kilometer area around Evansville, Indiana. GIS-QUAKE, a system that combines liquefaction and ground motion analysis routines with site-specific geological, geotechnical, and seismological information, was used for the analysis. The hazard potential was determined by using 586 SPT borings, 27 CPT sounding, 39 shear-wave velocity profiles and synthesized acceleration records for body-wave magnitude 6.5 and 7.3 mid-continental earthquakes, occurring at distances of 50 km and 250 km, respectively. The results of the GIS-QUAKE hazard analyses for Evansville identify areas with a high hazard potential that had not previously been identified in earthquake zonation studies. The Pigeon Creek area specifically is identified as having significant potential for liquefaction-induced damage. Damage as a result of ground motion amplification is determined to be a moderate concern throughout the area. Differences in the findings of this zonation study and previous work are attributed to the size and range of the database, the hazard evaluation methodologies, and the geostatistical interpolation techniques used to estimate the hazard potential. Further, assumptions regarding the groundwater elevations made in previous studies are also considered to have had a significant effect on the results.

  6. Databases and their application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimm, E.C.; Bradshaw, R.H.W; Brewer, S.; Flantua, S.; Giesecke, T.; Lézine, A.M.; Takahara, H.; Williams, J.W.,Jr; Elias, S.A.; Mock, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    During the past 20 years, several pollen database cooperatives have been established. These databases are now constituent databases of the Neotoma Paleoecology Database, a public domain, multiproxy, relational database designed for Quaternary-Pliocene fossil data and modern surface samples. The

  7. Mathematics for Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ir. Sander van Laar

    2007-01-01

    A formal description of a database consists of the description of the relations (tables) of the database together with the constraints that must hold on the database. Furthermore the contents of a database can be retrieved using queries. These constraints and queries for databases can very well be

  8. Customized hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Finding out about the historic occurrence of six different types of natural hazards in any region in the United States recently became a little easier.A Project Impact initiative of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and ESRI—a leading provider of Geographic Information System (GIS) software and a Project Impact partner—offers the public customized online hazard maps.

  9. A Natural Hazards Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Fred

    This paper discusses the development of and provides examples of exercises from a student workbook for a college-level course about natural hazards. The course is offered once a year to undergraduates at Western Illinois University. Students are introduced to 10 hazards (eight meteorological plus earthquakes and volcanoes) through slides, movies,…

  10. Selection of Priority Hazardous Chemicals for Permeation Testing and Hazardous Chemical Spill Detection and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    to the increase in the number of PCB incidents reported to the NRC. Of the top 25 NRC spills- excluding asphalt , creosote, jet fuel, kerosene, and...keytones 12. Glycols and epoxides 13. Carboxylic acid and derivatives 14. Nitriles and isocyanates 15. Amines and imines 16. Organic sulfur compounds

  11. Use of product databases for risk assessment purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Hahn, Axel

    2005-09-01

    Product information databases are important prerequisites for providing data to poison centers (PC) to give adequate advice in cases of poisonings and for preparation of statistics as annual reports. For risk assessment measures, they can help for exposure assessments and for priority setting. A product database is a set of information of product and substance names, compositions, and uses of products. Data are provided due to national regulations as well as to national and international agreements between industry, international associations, e.g. the European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT), and clinical toxicology institutions. They have different contents, i.e. complete formulations, frame formulations, and material safety data sheets. For definite identification of products, the product name should be readily taken from the labels and must be similar to the names provided by electronic media as databases. Products should be classified according to their use. The first system that has been prepared for that purpose is the ATC classification for pharmaceuticals. For chemicals, several systems e.g. the WHO-IPCS classification code, exist; the EU technical guidance document for risk assessment of chemicals is mentioning use categories, and they are used on national levels as well. For risk assessment purposes, statistics of poisonings and other health hazards are important as well as information about exposure. Linking cases of poisonings with product data enables risk assessors to perform statistical evaluations about health effects due to product use categories which can be compared to product compositions. If products are categorized by their use, information about use characteristics, such as frequencies and durations, can be derived. Hence, product categories can be taken to characterize scenarios and thus help for model estimations of exposure and respective doses.

  12. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  13. California Superfund sites: Insights from a computerized database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layefsky, M.E.; Smith, D.F.; Mendell, M.J.; Schlag, R.D.; Neutra, R.R. (California Department of Health Services, Berkeley (USA))

    A computerized database of 93 California State Superfund waste sites was created to assess the feasibility of using such a system for a variety of public health purposes. Though available data were limited in many respects, analysis of the database proved useful in summarizing features of hazardous waste sites that could be of considerable public health interest.

  14. Natural hazards science strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research—founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes—can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events.To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science.In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H–SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10-year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical statutory

  15. Collecting Taxes Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Collecting Taxes Database contains performance and structural indicators about national tax systems. The database contains quantitative revenue performance...

  16. NoSQL databases

    OpenAIRE

    PANYKO, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with database systems referred to as NoSQL databases. In the second chapter, I explain basic terms and the theory of database systems. A short explanation is dedicated to database systems based on the relational data model and the SQL standardized query language. Chapter Three explains the concept and history of the NoSQL databases, and also presents database models, major features and the use of NoSQL databases in comparison with traditional database systems. In the fourth ...

  17. USAID Anticorruption Projects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Anticorruption Projects Database (Database) includes information about USAID projects with anticorruption interventions implemented worldwide between 2007 and...

  18. Risk assessment and toxicology databases for health effects assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, P.Y.; Wassom, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Scientific and technological developments bring unprecedented stress to our environment. Society has to predict the results of potential health risks from technologically based actions that may have serious, far-reaching consequences. The potential for error in making such predictions or assessment is great and multiplies with the increasing size and complexity of the problem being studied. Because of this, the availability and use of reliable data is the key to any successful forecasting effort. Scientific research and development generate new data and information. Much of the scientific data being produced daily is stored in computers for subsequent analysis. This situation provides both an invaluable resource and an enormous challenge. With large amounts of government funds being devoted to health and environmental research programs and with maintenance of our living environment at stake, we must make maximum use of the resulting data to forecast and avert catastrophic effects. Along with the readily available. The most efficient means of obtaining the data necessary for assessing the health effects of chemicals is to utilize applications include the toxicology databases and information files developed at ORNL. To make most efficient use of the data/information that has already been prepared, attention and resources should be directed toward projects that meticulously evaluate the available data/information and create specialized peer-reviewed value-added databases. Such projects include the National Library of Medicine`s Hazardous Substances Data Bank, and the U.S. Air Force Installation Restoration Toxicology Guide. These and similar value-added toxicology databases were developed at ORNL and are being maintained and updated. These databases and supporting information files, as well as some data evaluation techniques are discussed in this paper with special focus on how they are used to assess potential health effects of environmental agents. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. Existing chemicals: international activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, J F

    1989-01-01

    The standards of care used in the protection of the health and safety of people exposed to chemicals has increased dramatically in the last decade. Standards imposed by regulation and those adopted by industry have required a greater level of knowledge about the hazards of chemicals. In the E.E.C., the 6th amendment of the dangerous substances directive imposed the requirement that al new chemicals should be tested according to prescribed programme before introduction on to the market. The development of a European inventory of existing chemicals was an integral part of the 6th amendment. It has now become clear that increased standards of care referred to above must be applied to the chemicals on the inventory list. There is, however, a considerable amount of activity already under way in various international agencies. The OECD Chemicals Programme has been involved in considering the problem of existing chemicals for some time, and is producing a priority list and action programme. The International Programme on Chemical Safety produces international chemical safety cards, health and safety guides and environmental health criteria documents. The international register of potentially toxic compounds (part of UNEP) has prepared chemical data profiles on 990 compounds. The International Agency for Research on Cancer prepared monographs on the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. So far 42 volumes have been prepared covering about 900 substances. IARC and IPCS also prepare periodic reports on ongoing research on carcinogenicity or toxicity (respectively) of chemicals. The chemical industry through ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre) has mounted a major initiative on existing chemicals. Comprehensive reviews of the toxicity of selected chemicals are published (Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals). In its technical report no. 30 ECETOC lists reviews and evaluations by major national and international organisations, which provides

  20. Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of the information available on environmental chemicals in breast milk is focused on persistent, lipophilic chemicals; the database on levels of these chemicals has expanded substantially since the 1950s. Currently, various types of chemicals are measured in breast milk and ...

  1. Moral Hazard and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    2014-01-01

    Economists perceive moral hazard as an undesirable problem because it undermines efficiency. Carefully designed contracts can mitigate the moral hazard problem, but this assumes that a team is already formed. This paper demonstrates that these contracts are sometimes the reason why teams do...... not form. Formally, we study the team formation problem in which the agents’ efforts are not verifiable and the size of teams does not exceed quota r . We show that if the team members cannot make transfers, then moral hazard affects stability positively in a large class of games. For example, a stable...

  2. What Are Volcano Hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheet 002-97 Revised March 2008 What Are Volcano Hazards? Volcanoes give rise to numerous geologic and ... as far as 15 miles from the volcano. Volcano Landslides A landslide or debris avalanche is a ...

  3. Naturally occurring hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The study of naturally occurring hazardous materials (NOHMs) was conceived as a proactive response to assure that the Oregon : Department of Transportation (ODOT) maintenance and construction activities take the presence of NOHMs into account. The la...

  4. Introduction: Hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rex L.; Miyagi, Toyohiko; Lee, Saro; Trofymchuk, Oleksandr M

    2014-01-01

    Twenty papers were accepted into the session on landslide hazard mapping for oral presentation. The papers presented susceptibility and hazard analysis based on approaches ranging from field-based assessments to statistically based models to assessments that combined hydromechanical and probabilistic components. Many of the studies have taken advantage of increasing availability of remotely sensed data and nearly all relied on Geographic Information Systems to organize and analyze spatial data. The studies used a range of methods for assessing performance and validating hazard and susceptibility models. A few of the studies presented in this session also included some element of landslide risk assessment. This collection of papers clearly demonstrates that a wide range of approaches can lead to useful assessments of landslide susceptibility and hazard.

  5. Hazardous Waste Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is playing a major role in development of technologies for cleanup of toxic and hazardous waste in military...

  6. Managing geotechnical hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billey, D. [Pembina Pipeline Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Rizkalla, M. [Visitless Integrity Assessment Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

    2009-07-01

    This workshop provided a forum for discussing practical challenges related to the management of geotechnical hazards and pipeline integrity. System-wide geotechnical hazard management processes and site-specific engineering assessment, monitoring and mitigation methods were reviewed. Topics discussed at the workshop included geographic information system (GIS) tools; standards and regulations related to geotechnical hazard; strain-based design techniques for pipelines; and aerial, satellite, and geotechnical instrumentation. Other mitigation methods for geotechnical hazards included the avoidance of unstable ground; pipeline ditch modifications; bedding and padding; and excavation for pipeline strain relief. It was concluded that guidance is needed from regulators and standards developing organizations in order to develop appropriate risk assessment procedures. The workshop was divided into 2 sessions: (1) assessment and management processes; and (2) monitoring and mitigation methods. tabs., figs.

  7. Hazard identification methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna ORYMOWSKA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the main hazards that occur in the context of inland navigation and their impact on the vessel. First, characteristics are extracted from the following methods with regard to identifying threats: involving steering gear damage to an inland vessel moving on a straight waterway. Next, a hazard identification model is presented, which is appropriate to a situation involving steering gear damage to an inland vessel moving on a straight fairway.

  8. Carbon Structure Hazard Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Tommy; Greene, Ben; Porter, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Carbon composite structures are widely used in virtually all advanced technology industries for a multitude of applications. The high strength-to-weight ratio and resistance to aggressive service environments make them highly desirable. Automotive, aerospace, and petroleum industries extensively use, and will continue to use, this enabling technology. As a result of this broad range of use, field and test personnel are increasingly exposed to hazards associated with these structures. No single published document exists to address the hazards and make recommendations for the hazard controls required for the different exposure possibilities from damaged structures including airborne fibers, fly, and dust. The potential for personnel exposure varies depending on the application or manipulation of the structure. The effect of exposure to carbon hazards is not limited to personnel, protection of electronics and mechanical equipment must be considered as well. The various exposure opportunities defined in this document include pre-manufacturing fly and dust, the cured structure, manufacturing/machining, post-event cleanup, and post-event test and/or evaluation. Hazard control is defined as it is applicable or applied for the specific exposure opportunity. The carbon exposure hazard includes fly, dust, fiber (cured/uncured), and matrix vapor/thermal decomposition products. By using the recommendations in this document, a high level of confidence can be assured for the protection of personnel and equipment.

  9. Chemical carcinogenesis and chemoprevention: Scientific priority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occupational cancers are now a serious concern in industrializing developing countries where exposure levels to hazardous chemicals considerably exceed regulatory limits established in industrialized countries. The association between increasing use of chemicals and associated disorders and chemoprevention or ...

  10. Cosmetics Europe compilation of historical serious eye damage/eye irritation in vivo data analysed by drivers of classification to support the selection of chemicals for development and evaluation of alternative methods/strategies: the Draize eye test Reference Database (DRD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, João; Pfannenbecker, Uwe; Adriaens, Els; Alépée, Nathalie; Cluzel, Magalie; De Smedt, Ann; Hibatallah, Jalila; Klaric, Martina; Mewes, Karsten R; Millet, Marion; Templier, Marie; McNamee, Pauline

    2017-02-01

    A thorough understanding of which of the effects assessed in the in vivo Draize eye test are responsible for driving UN GHS/EU CLP classification is critical for an adequate selection of chemicals to be used in the development and/or evaluation of alternative methods/strategies and for properly assessing their predictive capacity and limitations. For this reason, Cosmetics Europe has compiled a database of Draize data (Draize eye test Reference Database, DRD) from external lists that were created to support past validation activities. This database contains 681 independent in vivo studies on 634 individual chemicals representing a wide range of chemical classes. A description of all the ocular effects observed in vivo, i.e. degree of severity and persistence of corneal opacity (CO), iritis, and/or conjunctiva effects, was added for each individual study in the database, and the studies were categorised according to their UN GHS/EU CLP classification and the main effect driving the classification. An evaluation of the various in vivo drivers of classification compiled in the database was performed to establish which of these are most important from a regulatory point of view. These analyses established that the most important drivers for Cat 1 Classification are (1) CO mean ≥ 3 (days 1-3) (severity) and (2) CO persistence on day 21 in the absence of severity, and those for Cat 2 classification are (3) CO mean ≥ 1 and (4) conjunctival redness mean ≥ 2. Moreover, it is shown that all classifiable effects (including persistence and CO = 4) should be present in ≥60 % of the animals to drive a classification. As a consequence, our analyses suggest the need for a critical revision of the UN GHS/EU CLP decision criteria for the Cat 1 classification of chemicals. Finally, a number of key criteria are identified that should be taken into consideration when selecting reference chemicals for the development, evaluation and/or validation of alternative methods and

  11. Logical database design principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garmany, John; Clark, Terry

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGNUnderstanding a Database Database Architectures Relational Databases Creating the Database System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)Systems Planning: Assessment and Feasibility System Analysis: RequirementsSystem Analysis: Requirements Checklist Models Tracking and Schedules Design Modeling Functional Decomposition DiagramData Flow Diagrams Data Dictionary Logical Structures and Decision Trees System Design: LogicalSYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION The ER ApproachEntities and Entity Types Attribute Domains AttributesSet-Valued AttributesWeak Entities Constraint

  12. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Max J.; Townsend, Timothy G., E-mail: ttown@ufl.edu

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes were tested using TCLP and WET. • Several electronic cigarette products leached lead at hazardous waste levels. • Lead was the only element that exceeded hazardous waste concentration thresholds. • Nicotine solution may cause hazardous waste classification when discarded unused. - Abstract: The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50 mg/L by WET and 40 mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  13. Chemical Accident Prevention: Site Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chemical safety alert assists facilities that routinely handle extremely hazardous substances, along with SERCs, LEPCs, and emergency responders, in their efforts to reduce criminally caused releases and vulnerability to terrorist activity.

  14. Ranking the risk of wildlife species hazardous to military aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, E.J.; Bissonette, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Collisions between birds and aircraft (birdstrikes) pose a major threat to aviation safety. Different species pose different levels of threat; thus, identification of the most hazardous species can help managers identify the level of hazard and prioritize mitigation efforts. Dolbeer et al. (2000) assessed the hazard posed by birds to civilian aircraft by analyzing data from the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Wildlife Strike Database to rank the hazardous species and species groups. A similar analysis has not been done for the military but would be useful and necessary. Military flight characteristics differ from those of civilian flights. During the period 1985-1998, birdstrikes cost the United States Air Force (USAF) an average of $35 million/year in damage. Using the USAF Birdstrike Database, we selected and evaluated each species or species group by the number of strikes recorded in each of 3 damage categories. We weighted damage categories to reflect extent and cost of damage. The USAF Birdstrike Database contained 25,519 records of wildlife strikes in the United States. During the period 1985-1998, 22 (mean = 1.6/year) Class-A birdstrikes (>$1,000,000 damage, loss of aircraft, loss of life, or permanent total disability) were sustained, accounting for 80% of total monetary losses caused by birds. Vultures (Cathartes aura, Coragyps atratus, Caracara cheriway) were ranked the most hazardous species group (Hazard Index Rank [HIR] = 127) to USAF aircraft, followed by geese (Branta canadensis, Chen caerulescens, HIR = 76), pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, P. occidentalis, HIR = 47), and buteos (Buteo sp., HIR = 30). Of the smaller flocking birds, blackbirds and starlings (mostly Agelaius phoeniceus, Euphagus cyanocephalus, Molothrus ater, Sturnus vulgaris, HIR = 46), horned larks (Eremophila alpestris, HIR = 24), and swallows (Families Hirundinidae, Apodidae, HIR = 23) were species groups ranked highest. Coupling these results with local bird census

  15. Property Modelling and Databases in Product-Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Sansonetti, Sascha

    development, however, it is necessary to have a large database of measured property data that has been checked for consistency and accuracy. The presentation will first introduce a database, in terms of its knowledge representation structure, the type and range of properties and chemical systems covered...... of the PC-SAFT is used. The developed database and property prediction models have been combined into a properties-software that allows different product-process design related applications. The presentation will also briefly highlight applications of the software for virtual product-process design......, and their internal consistency-accuracy checks. The database includes properties of organic chemicals, polymers and ionic liquids. There are also chemical class specific database sections, such as for solvents, aroma-chemicals, surfactants and emulsifiers. The use of this property database for model development...

  16. Advanced Materials Laboratory hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, B.; Banda, Z.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy Order 55OO.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the AML. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 23 meters. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets.

  17. Sandia National Laboratories, California Chemical Management Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2012-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Chemical Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the calender past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Chemical Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. SNL/CA is responsible for tracking chemicals (chemical and biological materials), providing Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) and for regulatory compliance reporting according to a variety of chemical regulations. The principal regulations for chemical tracking are the Emergency Planning Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and the California Right-to-Know regulations. The regulations, the Hazard Communication/Lab Standard of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) are also key to the CM Program. The CM Program is also responsible for supporting chemical safety and information requirements for a variety of Integrated Enabling Services (IMS) programs primarily the Industrial Hygiene, Waste Management, Fire Protection, Air Quality, Emergency Management, Environmental Monitoring and Pollution Prevention programs. The principal program tool is the Chemical Information System (CIS). The system contains two key elements: the MSDS library and the chemical container-tracking database that is readily accessible to all Members of the Sandia Workforce. The primary goal of the CM Program is to ensure safe and effective chemical management at Sandia/CA. This is done by efficiently collecting and managing chemical information for our customers who include Line, regulators, DOE and ES and H programs to ensure compliance with regulations and to streamline customer business processes that require chemical information.

  18. Natural Hazards, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhban, Badaoui

    Natural disaster loss is on the rise, and the vulnerability of the human and physical environment to the violent forces of nature is increasing. In many parts of the world, disasters caused by natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, drought, wildfires, intense windstorms, tsunami, and volcanic eruptions have caused the loss of human lives, injury, homelessness, and the destruction of economic and social infrastructure. Over the last few years, there has been an increase in the occurrence, severity, and intensity of disasters, culminating with the devastating tsunami of 26 December 2004 in South East Asia.Natural hazards are often unexpected or uncontrollable natural events of varying magnitude. Understanding their mechanisms and assessing their distribution in time and space are necessary for refining risk mitigation measures. This second edition of Natural Hazards, (following a first edition published in 1991 by Cambridge University Press), written by Edward Bryant, associate dean of science at Wollongong University, Australia, grapples with this crucial issue, aspects of hazard prediction, and other issues. The book presents a comprehensive analysis of different categories of hazards of climatic and geological origin.

  19. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  1. Existing test data for the Act on Registration & Evaluation, etc. of Chemical Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong-In; Ryu, Byung-Taek; Na, Suk-Hyun; Chung, Seon-Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the possibility of using existing test data provided in Korea and elsewhere for the registration of chemical substances was examined. Data on 510 chemical substances that are among the first subject to registration under the "Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc. of Chemical Substances (K-REACH)" were analyzed. The possibility of using existing data from 16 reference databases was examined for 510 chemical substances notified in July 2015 as being subject to registration. Test data with the reliability required for the registration of chemical substances under the K-REACH constituted 48.4% of the required physicochemical characteristics, 6.5% of the required health hazards, and 9.4% of the required environmental hazards. Some existing test data were not within the scope of this research, including data used for registration in the European Union (EU). Thus, considering that 350 of these 510 species are registered in EU Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation & Restriction of Chemicals, more test data may exist that can be utilized in addition to the data identified in this study. Furthermore, the K-REACH states that non-testing data (test results predicted through Read Across, Quantitative Structure- Activity Relationships) and the weight of evidence (test results predicted based on test data with low reliability) can also be utilized for registration data. Therefore, if methods for using such data were actively reviewed, it would be possible to reduce the cost of securing test data required for the registration of chemical substances.

  2. Chemical exchange program analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waffelaert, Pascale

    2007-09-01

    As part of its EMS, Sandia performs an annual environmental aspects/impacts analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the environmental aspects associated with Sandia's activities, products, and services and the potential environmental impacts associated with those aspects. Division and environmental programs established objectives and targets based on the environmental aspects associated with their operations. In 2007 the most significant aspect identified was Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage). The objective for Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage) was to improve chemical handling, storage, and on-site movement of hazardous materials. One of the targets supporting this objective was to develop an effective chemical exchange program, making a business case for it in FY07, and fully implementing a comprehensive chemical exchange program in FY08. A Chemical Exchange Program (CEP) team was formed to implement this target. The team consists of representatives from the Chemical Information System (CIS), Pollution Prevention (P2), the HWMF, Procurement and the Environmental Management System (EMS). The CEP Team performed benchmarking and conducted a life-cycle analysis of the current management of chemicals at SNL/NM and compared it to Chemical Exchange alternatives. Those alternatives are as follows: (1) Revive the 'Virtual' Chemical Exchange Program; (2) Re-implement a 'Physical' Chemical Exchange Program using a Chemical Information System; and (3) Transition to a Chemical Management Services System. The analysis and benchmarking study shows that the present management of chemicals at SNL/NM is significantly disjointed and a life-cycle or 'Cradle-to-Grave' approach to chemical management is needed. This approach must consider the purchasing and maintenance costs as well as the cost of ultimate disposal of the chemicals and materials. A chemical exchange is needed as a mechanism to re-apply chemicals on site. This

  3. Integrated Geo Hazard Management System in Cloud Computing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, M. I. M.; Omar, R. C.; Khalid, N. H. N.; Ismail, A.; Mustapha, I. S.; Baharuddin, I. N. Z.; Roslan, R.; Zalam, W. M. Z.

    2016-11-01

    Geo hazard can result in reducing of environmental health and huge economic losses especially in mountainous area. In order to mitigate geo-hazard effectively, cloud computer technology are introduce for managing geo hazard database. Cloud computing technology and it services capable to provide stakeholder's with geo hazards information in near to real time for an effective environmental management and decision-making. UNITEN Integrated Geo Hazard Management System consist of the network management and operation to monitor geo-hazard disaster especially landslide in our study area at Kelantan River Basin and boundary between Hulu Kelantan and Hulu Terengganu. The system will provide easily manage flexible measuring system with data management operates autonomously and can be controlled by commands to collects and controls remotely by using “cloud” system computing. This paper aims to document the above relationship by identifying the special features and needs associated with effective geohazard database management using “cloud system”. This system later will use as part of the development activities and result in minimizing the frequency of the geo-hazard and risk at that research area.

  4. Database Description - PSCDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase Description General information of database Database name PSCDB Alternative n...rial Science and Technology (AIST) Takayuki Amemiya E-mail: Database classification Structure Databases - Protein structure Database...554-D558. External Links: Original website information Database maintenance site Graduate School of Informat...available URL of Web services - Need for user registration Not available About This Database Database Descri...ption Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Database Description - PSCDB | LSDB Archive ...

  5. Moral Hazard in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnquell, Donald; Michaelson, Christopher M

    2016-07-01

    "Moral hazard" is a term familiar in economics and business ethics that illuminates why rational parties sometimes choose decisions with bad moral outcomes without necessarily intending to behave selfishly or immorally. The term is not generally used in medical ethics. Decision makers such as parents and physicians generally do not use the concept or the word in evaluating ethical dilemmas. They may not even be aware of the precise nature of the moral hazard problem they are experiencing, beyond a general concern for the patient's seemingly excessive burden. This article brings the language and logic of moral hazard to pediatrics. The concept reminds us that decision makers in this context are often not the primary party affected by their decisions. It appraises the full scope of risk at issue when decision makers decide on behalf of others and leads us to separate, respect, and prioritize the interests of affected parties.

  6. 40 CFR 268.45 - Treatment standards for hazardous debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., pressure, residence time, agitation, surfactants, acids, bases, and detergents to remove hazardous...: Chemical reaction utilizing the following reducing reagents (or waste reagents) or combination of reagents... square inch of surface area. 4 Acids, solvents, and chemical reagents may react with some debris and...

  7. Transportation of hazardous goods

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A general reminder: any transportation of hazardous goods by road is subject to the European ADR rules. The goods concerned are essentially the following: Explosive substances and objects; Gases (including aerosols and non-flammable gases such as helium and nitrogen); Flammable substances and liquids (inks, paints, resins, petroleum products, alcohols, acetone, thinners); Toxic substances (acids, thinners); Radioactive substances; Corrosive substances (paints, acids, caustic products, disinfectants, electrical batteries). Any requests for the transport of hazardous goods must be executed in compliance with the instructions given at this URL: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/he/HH/adr.pdf Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 73793 - 160364

  8. Cell Centred Database (CCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Cell Centered Database (CCDB) is a web accessible database for high resolution 2D, 3D and 4D data from light and electron microscopy, including correlated imaging.

  9. E3 Staff Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — E3 Staff database is maintained by E3 PDMS (Professional Development & Management Services) office. The database is Mysql. It is manually updated by E3 staff as...

  10. Database Urban Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleutjes, B.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Database Urban Europe: ResSegr database on segregation in The Netherlands. Collaborative research on residential segregation in Europe 2014–2016 funded by JPI Urban Europe (Joint Programming Initiative Urban Europe).

  11. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Max J; Townsend, Timothy G

    2015-05-01

    The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50mg/L by WET and 40mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identifying nursing hazards in the emergency department: a new approach to nursing job hazard analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Jim; Denny, Frank; Szirotnyak, Kara; Thomas, Jonathan; Corneliuson, Elizabeth; Paxton, Kim L

    2006-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that nurses are crucial components in healthcare system. In their roles, nurses are regularly confronted with a variety of biological, physical, and chemical hazards during the course of performing their duties. The safety of nurses themselves, and subsequently that of their patients, depends directly upon the degree to which nurses have knowledge of occupational hazards specific to their jobs and managerial mechanisms for mitigating those hazards. The level of occupational safety and health training resources available to nurses, as well as management support, are critical factors in preventing adverse outcomes from routine job-related hazards. This study will identify gaps in self protective safety education for registered nurses working in emergency departments as well as for nursing students. Furthermore, this study reviews the nature and scope of occupational nursing hazards, and the degree to which current nursing education and position descriptions (or functional statements) equip nurses to recognize and address the hazards inherent in their jobs. This study has three parts. First, a literature review was performed to summarize the nature and scope of occupational nursing hazards. Second, the safety components of position descriptions from 29 Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals across the United States were obtained and evaluated by an expert panel of occupational health nurses. Finally, an expert panel of occupational health nurses evaluated the degree to which nursing accreditation standards are integrated with OSHA's list of known emergency department hazards; and a separate expert panel of occupational health nurses evaluated the degree to which current VA emergency department nursing position descriptions incorporated hazard recognition and control strategies. Ultimately, prevention of job-related injuries for nurses, and subsequently their patients, will depend directly on the degree to which nurses can identify and control the

  13. CTD_DATABASE - Cascadia tsunami deposit database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database contains data on the location and sedimentological properties of tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin. Data have...

  14. Scopus database: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Judy F

    2006-03-08

    The Scopus database provides access to STM journal articles and the references included in those articles, allowing the searcher to search both forward and backward in time. The database can be used for collection development as well as for research. This review provides information on the key points of the database and compares it to Web of Science. Neither database is inclusive, but complements each other. If a library can only afford one, choice must be based in institutional needs.

  15. Web database development

    OpenAIRE

    Tsardas, Nikolaos A.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis explores the concept of Web Database Development using Active Server Pages (ASP) and Java Server Pages (JSP). These are among the leading technologies in the web database development. The focus of this thesis was to analyze and compare the ASP and JSP technologies, exposing their capabilities, limitations, and differences between them. Specifically, issues related to back-end connectivity using Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) and Java Database Connectivity (JDBC), application ar...

  16. Database Description - RMOS | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available base Description General information of database Database name RMOS Alternative nam...arch Unit Shoshi Kikuchi E-mail : Database classification Plant databases - Rice Microarray Data and other Gene Expression Database...s Organism Taxonomy Name: Oryza sativa Taxonomy ID: 4530 Database description The Ric...19&lang=en Whole data download - Referenced database Rice Expression Database (RED) Rice full-length cDNA Database... (KOME) Rice Genome Integrated Map Database (INE) Rice Mutant Panel Database (Tos17) Rice Genome Annotation Database

  17. Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 74 Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database (Web, free access)   The Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database contains thermodynamic data on enzyme-catalyzed reactions that have been recently published in the Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data (JPCRD). For each reaction the following information is provided: the reference for the data, the reaction studied, the name of the enzyme used and its Enzyme Commission number, the method of measurement, the data and an evaluation thereof.

  18. Hazardous Waste Generators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The HazWaste database contains generator (companies and/or individuals) site and mailing address information, waste generation, the amount of waste generated etc. of...

  19. Household Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... waste collection" near your zip code in the Earth 911 database Exit for more information. Contact your ... If your community doesn’t have a year-round collection system for HHW, see if there are ...

  20. The Hazard Notification System (HANS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedigar, S. F.; Venezky, D. Y.

    2009-12-01

    The Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) has developed a Hazard Notification System (HANS) for distributing volcanic activity information collected by scientists to airlines, emergency services, and the general public. In the past year, data from HANS have been used by airlines to make decisions about diverting or canceling flights during the eruption of Mount Redoubt. HANS was developed to provide a single system that each of the five U.S. volcano observatories could use for communicating and storing volcanic information about the 160+ potentially active U.S. volcanoes. The data that cover ten tables and nearly 100 fields are now stored in similar formats, and the information can be released in styles requested by our agency partners, such as the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Currently, HANS has about 4500 reports stored; on average, two - three reports are added daily. HANS (at its most basic form) consists of a user interface for entering data into one of many release types (Daily Status Reports, Weekly Updates, Volcano Activity Notifications, etc.); a database holding previous releases as well as observatory information such as email address lists and volcano boilerplates; and a transmission system for formatting releases and sending them out by email or other web related system. The user interface to HANS is completely web based, providing access to our observatory scientists from any online PC. The underlying database stores the observatory information and drives the observatory and program websites' dynamic updates and archived information releases. HANS also runs scripts for generating several different feeds including the program home page Volcano Status Map. Each observatory has the capability of running an instance of HANS. There are currently three instances of HANS and each instance is synchronized to all other instances using a master-slave environment. Information can be entered on any node; slave nodes transmit data to the master node

  1. Automated Oracle database testing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Ensuring database stability and steady performance in the modern world of agile computing is a major challenge. Various changes happening at any level of the computing infrastructure: OS parameters & packages, kernel versions, database parameters & patches, or even schema changes, all can potentially harm production services. This presentation shows how an automatic and regular testing of Oracle databases can be achieved in such agile environment.

  2. The Danish Melanoma Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Klausen, Siri; Spaun, Eva

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the database is to monitor and improve the treatment and survival of melanoma patients. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish patients with cutaneous melanoma and in situ melanomas must be registered in the Danish Melanoma Database (DMD). In 2014, 2,525 patients with invasive m...

  3. The Volcanic Hazards Assessment Support System for the Online Hazard Assessment and Risk Mitigation of Quaternary Volcanoes in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Takarada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic hazards assessment tools are essential for risk mitigation of volcanic activities. A number of offline volcanic hazard assessment tools have been provided, but in most cases, they require relatively complex installation procedure and usage. This situation causes limited usage of volcanic hazard assessment tools among volcanologists and volcanic hazards communities. In addition, volcanic eruption chronology and detailed database of each volcano in the world are essential key information for volcanic hazard assessment, but most of them are isolated and not connected to and with each other. The Volcanic Hazard Assessment Support System aims to implement a user-friendly, WebGIS-based, open-access online system for potential hazards assessment and risk-mitigation of Quaternary volcanoes in the world. The users can get up-to-date information such as eruption chronology and geophysical monitoring data of a specific volcano using the direct link system to major volcano databases on the system. Currently, the system provides 3 simple, powerful and notable deterministic modeling simulation codes of volcanic processes, such as Energy Cone, Titan2D and Tephra2. The system provides deterministic tools because probabilistic assessment tools are normally much more computationally demanding. By using the volcano hazard assessment system, the area that would be affected by volcanic eruptions in any location near the volcano can be estimated using numerical simulations. The system is being implemented using the ASTER Global DEM covering 2790 Quaternary volcanoes in the world. The system can be used to evaluate volcanic hazards and move this toward risk-potential by overlaying the estimated distribution of volcanic gravity flows or tephra falls on major roads, houses and evacuation areas using the GIS-enabled systems. The system is developed for all users in the world who need volcanic hazards assessment tools.

  4. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  5. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  6. NGNP SITE 2 HAZARDS ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Moe

    2011-10-01

    to be addressed in design and licensing processes; assure the HTGR technology can be deployed at variety of sites for a range of applications; evaluate potential sites for potential hazards and describe some of the actions necessary to mitigate impacts of hazards; and, provide key insights that can inform the plant design process. The report presents a summary of the process methodology and the results of an assessment of hazards typical of a class of candidate sites for the potential deployment of HTGR reactor technology. The assessment considered health and safety, and other important siting characteristics to determine the potential impact of identified hazards and potential challenges presented by the location for this technology. A four reactor module nuclear plant (2000 to 2400 MW thermal), that co-generates steam, electricity for general use in the plant, and hot gas for use in a nearby chemical processing facility, to provide the requisite performance and reliability was assumed for the assessment.

  7. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis for Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Mohindra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A stochastic-event probabilistic seismic hazard model, which can be used further for estimates of seismic loss and seismic risk analysis, has been developed for the territory of Yemen. An updated composite earthquake catalogue has been compiled using the databases from two basic sources and several research publications. The spatial distribution of earthquakes from the catalogue was used to define and characterize the regional earthquake source zones for Yemen. To capture all possible scenarios in the seismic hazard model, a stochastic event set has been created consisting of 15,986 events generated from 1,583 fault segments in the delineated seismic source zones. Distribution of horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA was calculated for all stochastic events considering epistemic uncertainty in ground-motion modeling using three suitable ground motion-prediction relationships, which were applied with equal weight. The probabilistic seismic hazard maps were created showing PGA and MSK seismic intensity at 10% and 50% probability of exceedance in 50 years, considering local soil site conditions. The resulting PGA for 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years (return period 475 years ranges from 0.2 g to 0.3 g in western Yemen and generally is less than 0.05 g across central and eastern Yemen. The largest contributors to Yemen’s seismic hazard are the events from the West Arabian Shield seismic zone.

  8. Chemical hygiene plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This plan was written to administer and monitor safety measures and chemical hygiene principles in the TAC Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action Project sample preparation facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It applies to toxic and/or hazardous materials to radioactive materials.

  9. Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium contract. On the one hand, an optimistic or overconfident agent disproportionately values success-contingent payments...

  10. Managing Academe's Hazardous Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Fay

    1991-01-01

    Those responsible for planning and management of colleges and universities must plan comprehensively for hazardous waste disposal. Federal and state regulations are increasing, landfill area is becoming scarce, and incineration costs are rising fast. High-level institutional commitment to a sound campus environment policy is essential. (MSE)

  11. Wind shear hazard determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: F-factor relationship with aircraft performance; F-factor formulations; the F-bar index; F-factor hazard limit; F-bar with Doppler sensors; and F-bar profile composite.

  12. On nonparametric hazard estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Brian P

    The Nelson-Aalen estimator provides the basis for the ubiquitous Kaplan-Meier estimator, and therefore is an essential tool for nonparametric survival analysis. This article reviews martingale theory and its role in demonstrating that the Nelson-Aalen estimator is uniformly consistent for estimating the cumulative hazard function for right-censored continuous time-to-failure data.

  13. On nonparametric hazard estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, Brian P.

    2015-01-01

    The Nelson-Aalen estimator provides the basis for the ubiquitous Kaplan-Meier estimator, and therefore is an essential tool for nonparametric survival analysis. This article reviews martingale theory and its role in demonstrating that the Nelson-Aalen estimator is uniformly consistent for estimating the cumulative hazard function for right-censored continuous time-to-failure data.

  14. A KINETIC DATABASE FOR ASTROCHEMISTRY (KIDA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakelam, V.; Pavone, B.; Hebrard, E.; Hersant, F. [University of Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270 Floirac (France); Herbst, E. [Departments of Physics, Astronomy, and Chemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Loison, J.-C.; Chandrasekaran, V.; Bergeat, A. [University of Bordeaux, ISM, CNRS UMR 5255, F-33400 Talence (France); Smith, I. W. M. [University Chemical Laboratories, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Adams, N. G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Bacchus-Montabonel, M.-C. [LASIM, CNRS-UMR5579, Universite de Lyon (Lyon I), 43 Bvd. 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Beroff, K. [Institut des Sciences Moleculaires d' Orsay, CNRS and Universite Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Bierbaum, V. M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Chabot, M. [Intitut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, IN2P3-CNRS and Universite Paris-Sud, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Dalgarno, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Van Dishoeck, E. F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Faure, A. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Geppert, W. D. [Department of Physics, University of Stockholm, Roslagstullbacken 21, S-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Gerlich, D. [Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, Department of Physics, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Galli, D. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); and others

    2012-03-01

    We present a novel chemical database for gas-phase astrochemistry. Named the KInetic Database for Astrochemistry (KIDA), this database consists of gas-phase reactions with rate coefficients and uncertainties that will be vetted to the greatest extent possible. Submissions of measured and calculated rate coefficients are welcome, and will be studied by experts before inclusion into the database. Besides providing kinetic information for the interstellar medium, KIDA is planned to contain such data for planetary atmospheres and for circumstellar envelopes. Each year, a subset of the reactions in the database (kida.uva) will be provided as a network for the simulation of the chemistry of dense interstellar clouds with temperatures between 10 K and 300 K. We also provide a code, named Nahoon, to study the time-dependent gas-phase chemistry of zero-dimensional and one-dimensional interstellar sources.

  15. An Interoperable Cartographic Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodanka Ključanin

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of producing a prototype of interoperable cartographic database is explored in this paper, including the possibilities of integration of different geospatial data into the database management system and their visualization on the Internet. The implementation includes vectorization of the concept of a single map page, creation of the cartographic database in an object-relation database, spatial analysis, definition and visualization of the database content in the form of a map on the Internet. 

  16. Keyword Search in Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jeffrey Xu; Chang, Lijun

    2009-01-01

    It has become highly desirable to provide users with flexible ways to query/search information over databases as simple as keyword search like Google search. This book surveys the recent developments on keyword search over databases, and focuses on finding structural information among objects in a database using a set of keywords. Such structural information to be returned can be either trees or subgraphs representing how the objects, that contain the required keywords, are interconnected in a relational database or in an XML database. The structural keyword search is completely different from

  17. Tank farms hazards assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-09-30

    Hanford contractors are writing new facility specific emergency procedures in response to new and revised US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders on emergency preparedness. Emergency procedures are required for each Hanford facility that has the potential to exceed the criteria for the lowest level emergency, an Alert. The set includes: (1) a facility specific procedure on Recognition and Classification of Emergencies, (2) area procedures on Initial Emergency Response and, (3) an area procedure on Protective Action Guidance. The first steps in developing these procedures are to identify the hazards at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. These steps are called a Hazards Assessment. The final product is a document that is similar in some respects to a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The document could br produced in a month for a simple facility but could take much longer for a complex facility. Hanford has both types of facilities. A strategy has been adopted to permit completion of the first version of the new emergency procedures before all the facility hazards Assessments are complete. The procedures will initially be based on input from a task group for each facility. This strategy will but improved emergency procedures in place sooner and therefore enhance Hanford emergency preparedness. The purpose of this document is to summarize the applicable information contained within the Waste Tank Facility ``Interim Safety Basis Document, WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001`` as a resource, since the SARs covering Waste Tank Operations are not current in all cases. This hazards assessment serves to collect, organize, document and present the information utilized during the determination process.

  18. Database Description - GRIPDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us GRIPDB Database Description General information of database Database name GRIPDB Alternative... databases - Protein sequence motifs and active sites Organism Taxonomy Name: Homo Sapiens Taxonomy ID: 9606 Database descript...ailable Web services Not available URL of Web services - Need for user registration Available About This Database Database Descript...ion Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Database Description - GRIPDB | LSDB Archive ...

  19. Database Description - RED | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase Description General information of database Database name RED Alternative name Rice Expression Database...enome Research Unit Shoshi Kikuchi E-mail : Database classification Plant databases - Rice Database classifi...cation Microarray, Gene Expression Organism Taxonomy Name: Oryza sativa Taxonomy ID: 4530 Database descripti... Article title: Rice Expression Database: the gateway to rice functional genomics...nt Science (2002) Dec 7 (12):563-564 External Links: Original website information Database maintenance site

  20. Database Description - Arabidopsis Phenome Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Arabidopsis Phenome Database Database Description General information of database Database n... BioResource Center Hiroshi Masuya Database classification Plant databases - Arabidopsis thaliana Organism T...axonomy Name: Arabidopsis thaliana Taxonomy ID: 3702 Database description The Arabidopsis thaliana phenome i...heir effective application. We developed the new Arabidopsis Phenome Database integrating two novel database...seful materials for their experimental research. The other, the “Database of Curated Plant Phenome” focusing

  1. Visualization of multidimensional database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung

    2008-01-01

    The concept of multidimensional databases has been extensively researched and wildly used in actual database application. It plays an important role in contemporary information technology, but due to the complexity of its inner structure, the database design is a complicated process and users are having a hard time fully understanding and using the database. An effective visualization tool for higher dimensional information system helps database designers and users alike. Most visualization techniques focus on displaying dimensional data using spreadsheets and charts. This may be sufficient for the databases having three or fewer dimensions but for higher dimensions, various combinations of projection operations are needed and a full grasp of total database architecture is very difficult. This study reviews existing visualization techniques for multidimensional database and then proposes an alternate approach to visualize a database of any dimension by adopting the tool proposed by Kiviat for software engineering processes. In this diagramming method, each dimension is represented by one branch of concentric spikes. This paper documents a C++ based visualization tool with extensive use of OpenGL graphics library and GUI functions. Detailed examples of actual databases demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness in visualizing multidimensional databases.

  2. Recent Advances in the GLIMS Glacier Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raup, Bruce; Cogley, Graham; Zemp, Michael; Glaus, Ladina

    2017-04-01

    Glaciers are shrinking almost without exception. Glacier losses have impacts on local water availability and hazards, and contribute to sea level rise. To understand these impacts and the processes behind them, it is crucial to monitor glaciers through time by mapping their areal extent, changes in volume, elevation distribution, snow lines, ice flow velocities, and changes to associated water bodies. The glacier database of the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) initiative is the only multi-temporal glacier database capable of tracking all these glacier measurements and providing them to the scientific community and broader public. Here we present recent results in 1) expansion of the geographic and temporal coverage of the GLIMS Glacier Database by drawing on the Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI) and other new data sets; 2) improved tools for visualizing and downloading GLIMS data in a choice of formats and data models; and 3) a new data model for handling multiple glacier records through time while avoiding double-counting of glacier number or area. The result of this work is a more complete glacier data repository that shows not only the current state of glaciers on Earth, but how they have changed in recent decades. The database is useful for tracking changes in water resources, hazards, and mass budgets of the world's glaciers.

  3. Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registry (ATSDR) Hazardous Waste Site Polygon Data with CIESIN Modifications, 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registry (ATSDR) Hazardous Waste Site Polygon Data with CIESIN Modifications, 1996 is a database providing georeferenced data...

  4. ATSDR Hazardous Waste Site Polygon Data with CIESIN Modifications, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Hazardous Waste Site Polygon Data with CIESIN Modifications, Version 2 is a database providing...

  5. Hazard Management Dealt by Safety Professionals in Colleges: The Impact of Individual Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Chih Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying, evaluating, and controlling workplace hazards are important functions of safety professionals (SPs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the content and frequency of hazard management dealt by safety professionals in colleges. The authors also explored the effects of organizational factors/individual factors on SPs’ perception of frequency of hazard management. The researchers conducted survey research to achieve the objective of this study. The researchers mailed questionnaires to 200 SPs in colleges after simple random sampling, then received a total of 144 valid responses (response rate = 72%. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the hazard management scale (HMS extracted five factors, including physical hazards, biological hazards, social and psychological hazards, ergonomic hazards, and chemical hazards. Moreover, the top 10 hazards that the survey results identified that safety professionals were most likely to deal with (in order of most to least frequent were: organic solvents, illumination, other chemicals, machinery and equipment, fire and explosion, electricity, noise, specific chemicals, human error, and lifting/carrying. Finally, the results of one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA indicated there were four individual factors that impacted the perceived frequency of hazard management which were of statistical and practical significance: job tenure in the college of employment, type of certification, gender, and overall job tenure. SPs within colleges and industries can now discuss plans revolving around these five areas instead of having to deal with all of the separate hazards.

  6. Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic (PBT) Chemicals under TSCA Section 6(h)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.

  7. Regulation of Chemicals under Section 6(a) of the Toxic Substances Control Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.

  8. Hazard perception in traffic. [previously knows as: Hazard perception.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Hazard perception is an essential part of the driving task. There are clear indications that insufficient skills in perceiving hazards play an important role in the occurrence of crashes, especially those involving novice drivers. Proper hazard perception not only consists of scanning and perceiving

  9. Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System (CCRIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CCRIS database contains chemical records with carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, tumor promotion, and tumor inhibition test results. CCRIS provides historical...

  10. Historical analysis of US pipeline accidents triggered by natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, or lightning, can initiate accidents in oil and gas pipelines with potentially major consequences on the population or the environment due to toxic releases, fires and explosions. Accidents of this type are also referred to as Natech events. Many major accidents highlight the risk associated with natural-hazard impact on pipelines transporting dangerous substances. For instance, in the USA in 1994, flooding of the San Jacinto River caused the rupture of 8 and the undermining of 29 pipelines by the floodwaters. About 5.5 million litres of petroleum and related products were spilled into the river and ignited. As a results, 547 people were injured and significant environmental damage occurred. Post-incident analysis is a valuable tool for better understanding the causes, dynamics and impacts of pipeline Natech accidents in support of future accident prevention and mitigation. Therefore, data on onshore hazardous-liquid pipeline accidents collected by the US Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) was analysed. For this purpose, a database-driven incident data analysis system was developed to aid the rapid review and categorization of PHMSA incident reports. Using an automated data-mining process followed by a peer review of the incident records and supported by natural hazard databases and external information sources, the pipeline Natechs were identified. As a by-product of the data-collection process, the database now includes over 800,000 incidents from all causes in industrial and transportation activities, which are automatically classified in the same way as the PHMSA record. This presentation describes the data collection and reviewing steps conducted during the study, provides information on the developed database and data analysis tools, and reports the findings of a statistical analysis of the identified hazardous liquid pipeline incidents in terms of accident dynamics and

  11. Comprehensive baseline hazard assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, S.B.; Amundson, T.M.

    1994-10-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed and implemented a cost effective/value-added program/process that assists in fulfilling key elements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration`s (OSHA) voluntary Protection Program (VPP) requirements. WHC is the prime contractor for the US Department of Energy (US DOE) at the Hanford site, located in Richland, Washington. The site consists of over 560 square miles, contains over 1100 facilities and has an employment of approximately 18,000. WHC is currently in the application review phase for the US DOE equivalent of OSHA-VPP ``merit`` program status. The program involves setting up a team consisting of industrial safety and health (industrial hygienists) professionals, members of the maintenance and operations work force, and facility management. This team performs a workplace hazard characterization/analysis and then applies a risk assessment approach to prioritize observed and potential hazards in need of abatement. The process involves using checklists that serve as a guide for evaluation/inspection criteria. Forms are used to document meetings, field observations, instrument calibration and performance testing. Survey maps are generated to document quality records of measurement results. A risk assessment code matrix with a keyword index was developed to facilitate consistency. The end product is useful in communicating hazards to facility management, health and safety professionals, audit/appraisal groups, and most importantly, facility workers.

  12. Radiation hazard control report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Inagaki, Masayo; Aoki, Yutaka; Takiguchi, Chizuko; Hutai, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Norihiko; Okazaki, Koji (Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.)

    1993-12-01

    The results of the radiation hazard control in the Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kinki University, from April, 1992 to March, 1993 are reported. The persons engaged in radiation-related works in fiscal year 1992 were 55 teachers, 22 students and 47 workers, accordingly, 124 persons became the object of radiation hazard control. As to the state of operation of the nuclear reactor in fiscal year 1992, the highest thermal output was 1 W, cumulative thermal output was 297.06 W[center dot]h, and the total time of operation was 578.18 h. The operation of the neutron generator was not carried out. The periodic inspection by Science and Technology Agency was performed on April 2-4, and the investigation of the state of security regulation observation was performed on July 21, 1992, and the reactor passed both without trouble. The health checkup and the control of dose equivalent of personal radiation exposure were carried out, but abnormality was not found. In the radiation hazard control in laboratories and in fields, the particularly high level of radiation was not found. (K.I.).

  13. National Database of Geriatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannegaard, Pia Nimann; Vinding, Kirsten L; Hare-Bruun, Helle

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the National Database of Geriatrics is to monitor the quality of interdisciplinary diagnostics and treatment of patients admitted to a geriatric hospital unit. STUDY POPULATION: The database population consists of patients who were admitted to a geriatric hospital unit....... Geriatric patients cannot be defined by specific diagnoses. A geriatric patient is typically a frail multimorbid elderly patient with decreasing functional ability and social challenges. The database includes 14-15,000 admissions per year, and the database completeness has been stable at 90% during the past......, percentage of discharges with a rehabilitation plan, and the part of cases where an interdisciplinary conference has taken place. Data are recorded by doctors, nurses, and therapists in a database and linked to the Danish National Patient Register. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Descriptive patient-related data include...

  14. FEMA DFIRM Flood Hazard Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA flood hazard delineations are used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to designate the Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) and for insurance rating...

  15. Seismic hazard maps for Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Haiti for peak ground acceleration and response spectral accelerations that include the hazard from the major crustal faults, subduction zones, and background earthquakes. The hazard from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden, Septentrional, and Matheux-Neiba fault zones was estimated using fault slip rates determined from GPS measurements. The hazard from the subduction zones along the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola was calculated from slip rates derived from GPS data and the overall plate motion. Hazard maps were made for a firm-rock site condition and for a grid of shallow shear-wave velocities estimated from topographic slope. The maps show substantial hazard throughout Haiti, with the highest hazard in Haiti along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and Septentrional fault zones. The Matheux-Neiba Fault exhibits high hazard in the maps for 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, although its slip rate is poorly constrained.

  16. Household Hazardous Waste and Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Household wastes that are toxic, corrosive, ignitable, or reactive are known as Household Hazardous Waste (HHW). Household Hazardous Waste may be found during residential demolitions, and thus require special handling for disposal.

  17. Industrial accidents triggered by natural hazards: an emerging risk issue

    OpenAIRE

    Krausmann, E.; V. Cozzani; Salzano, E.; E. Renni

    2011-01-01

    The threat of natural hazards impacting chemical facilities and infrastructures with the subsequent release of hazardous substances has been recognised as an emerging risk which is likely to be exacerbated by the ongoing climate change. Within the European FP7 project iNTeg-Risk, efforts are dedicated to address the problem of Natech accidents by trying to understand their underlying causes and by developing methodologies and tools to assess Natech risk. Special attention is thereby given to ...

  18. Database Description - SAHG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available base Description General information of database Database name SAHG Alternative nam...h: Contact address Chie Motono Tel : +81-3-3599-8067 E-mail : Database classification Structure Databases - ...e databases - Protein properties Organism Taxonomy Name: Homo sapiens Taxonomy ID: 9606 Database description... Links: Original website information Database maintenance site The Molecular Profiling Research Center for D...stration Not available About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Database Description - SAHG | LSDB Archive ...

  19. Transposing an active fault database into a fault-based seismic hazard assessment for nuclear facilities – Part 2: Impact of fault parameter uncertainties on a site-specific PSHA exercise in the Upper Rhine Graben, eastern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chartier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We perform a fault-based probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA exercise in the Upper Rhine Graben to quantify the relative influence of fault parameters on the hazard at the Fessenheim nuclear power plant site. Specifically, we show that the potentially active faults described in the companion paper (Jomard et al., 2017, hereafter Part 1 are the dominant factor in hazard estimates at the low annual probability of exceedance relevant for the safety assessment of nuclear installations. Geological information documenting the activity of the faults in this region, however, remains sparse, controversial and affected by a high degree of uncertainty. A logic tree approach is thus implemented to explore the epistemic uncertainty and quantify its impact on the seismic hazard estimates. Disaggregation of the peak ground acceleration (PGA hazard at a 10 000-year return period shows that the Rhine River fault is the main seismic source controlling the hazard level at the site. Sensitivity tests show that the uncertainty on the slip rate of the Rhine River fault is the dominant factor controlling the variability of the seismic hazard level, greater than the epistemic uncertainty due to ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs. Uncertainty on slip rate estimates from 0.04 to 0.1 mm yr−1 results in a 40 to 50 % increase in hazard levels at the 10 000-year target return period. Reducing epistemic uncertainty in future fault-based PSHA studies at this site will thus require (1 performing in-depth field studies to better characterize the seismic potential of the Rhine River fault; (2 complementing GMPEs with more physics-based modelling approaches to better account for the near-field effects of ground motion and (3 improving the modelling of the background seismicity. Indeed, in this exercise, we assume that background earthquakes can only host M  <  6. 0 earthquakes. However, this assumption is debatable, since faults that can

  20. Chemical assessment state of the science: Evaluation of 32 decision-support tools used to screen and prioritize chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Alison M; Fung, Mai; Panko, Julie; Kingsbury, Tony; Perez, Angela L; Hitchcock, Kristen; Ferracini, Tyler; Sahmel, Jennifer; Banducci, Amber; Jacobsen, Megan; Abelmann, Anders; Shay, Erin

    2015-04-01

    The last decade has seen an increased focus on evaluating the safety and sustainability of chemicals in consumer and industrial products. In order to effectively and accurately evaluate safety and sustainability, tools are needed to characterize hazard, exposure, and risk pertaining to products and processes. Because many of these tools will be used to identify problematic chemistries, and because many have potential applications in various steps of an alternatives analysis, the limitations and capabilities of available tools should be understood by users so that, ultimately, potential chemical risk is accurately reflected. In our study, we examined 32 chemical characterization tools from government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The tools we studied were diverse, and varied widely in their scope and assessment. As such, they were separated into five categories for comparison: 1) Screening and Prioritization; 2) Database Utilization; 3) Hazard Assessment; 4) Exposure and Risk Assessment; and 5) Certification and Labeling. Each tool was scored based on our weighted set of criteria, and then compared to other tools in the same category. Ten tools received a high score in one or more categories; 24 tools received a medium score in one or more categories, and five tools received a low score in one or more categories. Although some tools were placed into more than one category, no tool encompassed all five of the assessment categories. Though many of the tools evaluated may be useful for providing guidance for hazards - and, in some cases, exposure - few tools characterize risk. To our knowledge, this study is the first to critically evaluate a large set of chemical assessment tools and provide an understanding of their strengths and limitations. © 2015 SETAC.

  1. Update History of This Database - SKIP Stemcell Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us SKIP Stemcell Database Update History of This Database Date Update contents 2017/03/13 SKIP Stemcell Database... English archive site is opened. 2013/03/29 SKIP Stemcell Database ( https://www.skip.med.k...eio.ac.jp/SKIPSearch/top?lang=en ) is opened. About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Databa...se Site Policy | Contact Us Update History of This Database - SKIP Stemcell Database | LSDB Archive ...

  2. Update History of This Database - Arabidopsis Phenome Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Arabidopsis Phenome Database Update History of This Database Date Update contents 2017/02/27 Arabidopsis Phenome Data...base English archive site is opened. - Arabidopsis Phenome Database (http://jphenom...e.info/?page_id=95) is opened. About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database... Site Policy | Contact Us Update History of This Database - Arabidopsis Phenome Database | LSDB Archive ...

  3. IPSec Database Query Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Alberto; Chandra, Satish; Piuri, Vincenzo

    IPSec is a suite of protocols that adds security to communications at the IP level. Protocols within IPSec make extensive use of two databases, namely the Security Policy Database (SPD) and the Security Association Database (SAD). The ability to query the SPD quickly is fundamental as this operation needs to be done for each incoming or outgoing IP packet, even if no IPSec processing needs to be applied on it. This may easily result in millions of query per second in gigabit networks.

  4. Supply Chain Initiatives Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-01

    The Supply Chain Initiatives Database (SCID) presents innovative approaches to engaging industrial suppliers in efforts to save energy, increase productivity and improve environmental performance. This comprehensive and freely-accessible database was developed by the Institute for Industrial Productivity (IIP). IIP acknowledges Ecofys for their valuable contributions. The database contains case studies searchable according to the types of activities buyers are undertaking to motivate suppliers, target sector, organization leading the initiative, and program or partnership linkages.

  5. Web Technologies And Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Irina-Nicoleta Odoraba

    2011-01-01

    The database means a collection of many types of occurrences of logical records containing relationships between records and data elementary aggregates. Management System database (DBMS) - a set of programs for creating and operation of a database. Theoretically, any relational DBMS can be used to store data needed by a Web server. Basically, it was observed that the simple DBMS such as Fox Pro or Access is not suitable for Web sites that are used intensively. For large-scale Web applications...

  6. Industrial hazard and safety handbook

    CERN Document Server

    King, Ralph W

    1979-01-01

    Industrial Hazard and Safety Handbook (Revised Impression) describes and exposes the main hazards found in industry, with emphasis on how these hazards arise, are ignored, are identified, are eliminated, or are controlled. These hazard conditions can be due to human stresses (for example, insomnia), unsatisfactory working environments, as well as secret industrial processes. The book reviews the cost of accidents, human factors, inspections, insurance, legal aspects, planning for major emergencies, organization, and safety measures. The text discusses regulations, codes of practice, site layou

  7. Smart Location Database - Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  8. Smart Location Database - Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  9. IVR EFP Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains trip-level reports submitted by vessels participating in Exempted Fishery projects with IVR reporting requirements.

  10. Database principles programming performance

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Database: Principles Programming Performance provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of database systems. This book focuses on database programming and the relationships between principles, programming, and performance.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of database design principles and presents a comprehensive introduction to the concepts used by a DBA. This text then provides grounding in many abstract concepts of the relational model. Other chapters introduce SQL, describing its capabilities and covering the statements and functions of the programmi

  11. Residency Allocation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...

  12. Veterans Administration Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  13. Towards Sensor Database Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Gehrke, Johannes; Seshadri, Praveen

    2001-01-01

    . These systems lack flexibility because data is extracted in a predefined way; also, they do not scale to a large number of devices because large volumes of raw data are transferred regardless of the queries that are submitted. In our new concept of sensor database system, queries dictate which data is extracted...... from the sensors. In this paper, we define the concept of sensor databases mixing stored data represented as relations and sensor data represented as time series. Each long-running query formulated over a sensor database defines a persistent view, which is maintained during a given time interval. We...... also describe the design and implementation of the COUGAR sensor database system....

  14. LOWELL OBSERVATORY COMETARY DATABASE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The database presented here is comprised entirely of observations made utilizing conventional photoelectric photometers and narrowband filters isolating 5 emission...

  15. Danish Urogynaecological Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulla Darling; Gradel, Kim Oren; Larsen, Michael Due

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Urogynaecological Database is established in order to ensure high quality of treatment for patients undergoing urogynecological surgery. The database contains details of all women in Denmark undergoing incontinence surgery or pelvic organ prolapse surgery amounting to ~5,200 procedures......, complications if relevant, implants used if relevant, 3-6-month postoperative recording of symptoms, if any. A set of clinical quality indicators is being maintained by the steering committee for the database and is published in an annual report which also contains extensive descriptive statistics. The database...

  16. Database Publication Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, P.A.; DeWitt, D.; Heuer, A.

    2005-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in improving the publication processes for database research papers. This panel reports on recent changes in those processes and presents an initial cut at historical data for the VLDB Journal and ACM Transactions on Database Systems.......There has been a growing interest in improving the publication processes for database research papers. This panel reports on recent changes in those processes and presents an initial cut at historical data for the VLDB Journal and ACM Transactions on Database Systems....

  17. Databases for LDEF results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnhoff-Hlavacek, Gail

    1992-01-01

    One of the objectives of the team supporting the LDEF Systems and Materials Special Investigative Groups is to develop databases of experimental findings. These databases identify the hardware flown, summarize results and conclusions, and provide a system for acknowledging investigators, tracing sources of data, and future design suggestions. To date, databases covering the optical experiments, and thermal control materials (chromic acid anodized aluminum, silverized Teflon blankets, and paints) have been developed at Boeing. We used the Filemaker Pro software, the database manager for the Macintosh computer produced by the Claris Corporation. It is a flat, text-retrievable database that provides access to the data via an intuitive user interface, without tedious programming. Though this software is available only for the Macintosh computer at this time, copies of the databases can be saved to a format that is readable on a personal computer as well. Further, the data can be exported to more powerful relational databases, capabilities, and use of the LDEF databases and describe how to get copies of the database for your own research.

  18. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  19. Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database (IPCD) is a nationwide data table of passenger transportation terminals, with data on the availability of connections...

  20. Nuclear Science References Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-01

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr.

  1. Volcanic hazards to airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  2. Database design and database administration for a kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Vítek, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with creation of database design for a standard kindergarten, installation of the designed database into the database system Oracle Database 10g Express Edition and demonstration of the administration tasks in this database system. The verification of the database was proved by a developed access application.

  3. There's Life in Hazard Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Torsello; Toni McLellan

    The goals of hazard tree management programs are to maximize public safety and maintain a healthy sustainable tree resource. Although hazard tree management frequently targets removal of trees or parts of trees that attract wildlife, it can take into account a diversity of tree values. With just a little extra planning, hazard tree management can be highly beneficial...

  4. 77 FR 17573 - Hazard Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ..., 1915 and 1926 Hazard Communication; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 58 / Monday... Administration 29 CFR Parts 1910, 1915, and 1926 RIN 1218-AC20 Hazard Communication AGENCY: Occupational Safety... modifying its Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) to conform to the United Nations' Globally Harmonized...

  5. Health and Safety Procedures Manual for hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thate, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Chemical Assessments Team (ORNL/CAT) has developed this Health and Safety Procedures Manual for the guidance, instruction, and protection of ORNL/CAT personnel expected to be involved in hazardous waste site assessments and remedial actions. This manual addresses general and site-specific concerns for protecting personnel, the general public, and the environment from any possible hazardous exposures. The components of this manual include: medical surveillance, guidance for determination and monitoring of hazards, personnel and training requirements, protective clothing and equipment requirements, procedures for controlling work functions, procedures for handling emergency response situations, decontamination procedures for personnel and equipment, associated legal requirements, and safe drilling practices.

  6. Assessment of nonpoint source chemical loading potential to watersheds containing uranium waste dumps and human health hazards associated with uranium exploration and mining, Red, White, and Fry Canyons, southeastern Utah, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Marston, Thomas M.; Naftz, David L.; Snyder, Terry; Freeman, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    During May, June, and July 2007, 58 solid-phase samples were collected from abandoned uranium mine waste dumps, background sites, and adjacent streambeds in Red, White, and Fry Canyons in southeastern Utah. The objectives of this sampling program were to (1) assess the nonpoint-source chemical loading potential to ephemeral and perennial drainage basins from uranium waste dumps and (2) assess potential effects on human health due to recreational activities on and around uranium waste dumps on Bureau of Land Management property. Uranium waste-dump samples were collected using solid-phase sampling protocols. After collection, solid-phase samples were homogenized and extracted in the laboratory using a leaching procedure. Filtered (0.45 micron) water samples were obtained from the field leaching procedure and were analyzed for major and trace elements at the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Metals Analysis Laboratory at the University of Utah. A subset of the solid-phase samples also were digested with strong acids and analyzed for major ions and trace elements at the U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Division Laboratory in Denver, Colorado. For the initial ranking of chemical loading potential for uranium waste dumps, results of leachate analyses were compared with existing aquatic-life and drinking-water-quality standards. To assess potential effects on human health, solid-phase digestion values for uranium were compared to soil screening levels (SSL) computed using the computer model RESRAD 6.5 for a probable concentration of radium. One or more chemical constituents exceeded aquatic life and drinking-water-quality standards in approximately 64 percent (29/45) of the leachate samples extracted from uranium waste dumps. Most of the uranium waste dump sites with elevated trace-element concentrations in leachates were located in Red Canyon. Approximately 69 percent (31/45) of the strong acid digestible soil concentration values were greater than a calculated

  7. Kauai Test Facility hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swihart, A

    1995-05-01

    The Department of Energy Order 55003A requires facility-specific hazards assessment be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Kauai Test Facility, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. The Kauai Test Facility`s chemical and radiological inventories were screened according to potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance to the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 4.2 kilometers. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency at the {open_quotes}Main Complex{close_quotes} and a Site Area Emergency at the Kokole Point Launch Site. The Emergency Planning Zone for the {open_quotes}Main Complex{close_quotes} is 5 kilometers. The Emergency Planning Zone for the Kokole Point Launch Site is the Pacific Missile Range Facility`s site boundary.

  8. Database and Expert Systems Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg Andersen, Kim; Debenham, John; Wagner, Roland

    submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on workflow automation, database queries, data classification and recommendation systems, information retrieval in multimedia databases, Web applications, implementational aspects of databases, multimedia databases, XML processing, security, XML...

  9. HAPs-Rx: Precombustion Removal of Hazardous Air Pollutant Precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Akers; Clifford E. Raleigh

    1998-03-16

    CQ Inc. and its project team members--Howard University, PrepTech Inc., Fossil Fuel Sciences, the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and industry advisors--are applying mature coal cleaning and scientific principles to the new purpose of removing potentially hazardous air pollutants from coal. The team uniquely combines mineral processing, chemical engineering, and geochemical expertise. This project meets more than 11 goals of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Energy Strategy, and the 1993 Climate Change Action Plan. During this project: (1) Equations were developed to predict the concentration of trace elements in as-mined and cleaned coals. These equations, which address both conventional and advanced cleaning processes, can be used to increase the removal of hazardous air pollutant precursors (HAPs) by existing cleaning plants and to improve the design of new cleaning plants. (2) A promising chemical method of removing mercury and other HAPs was developed. At bench-scale, mercury reductions of over 50 percent were achieved on coal that had already been cleaned by froth flotation. The processing cost of this technology is projected to be less than $3.00 per ton ($3.30 per tonne). (3) Projections were made of the average trace element concentration in cleaning plant solid waste streams from individual states. Average concentrations were found to be highly variable. (4) A significantly improved understanding of how trace elements occur in coal was gained, primarily through work at the USGS during the first systematic development of semiquantitative data for mode of occurrence. In addition, significant improvement was made in the laboratory protocol for mode of occurrence determination. (5) Team members developed a high-quality trace element washability database. For example, the poorest mass balance closure for the uncrushed size and washability data for mercury on all four coals is 8.44 percent and the best is 0.46 percent. This indicates an

  10. Prediction methods and databases within chemoinformatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsdóttir, Svava Osk; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen; Brunak, Søren

    2005-01-01

    MOTIVATION: To gather information about available databases and chemoinformatics methods for prediction of properties relevant to the drug discovery and optimization process. RESULTS: We present an overview of the most important databases with 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional structural information...... about drugs and drug candidates, and of databases with relevant properties. Access to experimental data and numerical methods for selecting and utilizing these data is crucial for developing accurate predictive in silico models. Many interesting predictive methods for classifying the suitability...... of chemical compounds as potential drugs, as well as for predicting their physico-chemical and ADMET properties have been proposed in recent years. These methods are discussed, and some possible future directions in this rapidly developing field are described....

  11. Natural hazard fatalities in Switzerland from 1946 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Norina; Badoux, Alexandre; Techel, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Switzerland, located in the middle of the Alps, is prone to several different natural hazards which regularly cause fatalities. To explore temporal trends as well as demographic and spatial patterns in the number of natural hazard fatalities, a database comprising all natural hazard events causing fatalities was compiled for the years 1946 until 2015. The new database includes avalanche, flood, lightning, windstorm, landslide, debris flow, rockfall, earthquake and ice avalanche processes. Two existing databases were incorporated and the resulting dataset extended by a comprehensive newspaper search. In total the database contains 635 natural hazard events causing 1023 fatalities. The database does not include victims which exposed themselves to an important danger on purpose (e.g. high risk sports). The most common causes of death were snow avalanches (37 %), followed by lightning (16 %), floods (12 %), windstorms (10 %), rockfall (8 %), landslides (7 %) and other processes (9 %). Around 14.6 fatalities occurred on average each year. A distinct decrease of natural hazard fatalities could be shown over the last 70 years, which was mostly due to the decline in the number of avalanche and lightning fatalities. Thus, nearly three times as many people were killed by natural hazard processes from 1946 to 1980 than from 1981 to 2015. Normalisation of fatality data by population resulted in a clearly declining annual crude mortality rate: 3.9 deaths per million persons for the first 35 years and 1.1 deaths per million persons for the second 35 years of the study period. The average age of the victims was approximately 36 years and about 75% were males. Most people were killed in summer (JJA, 42%) and winter (DJF, 32 %). Furthermore, almost two-thirds of the fatalities took place in the afternoon and evening. The spatial distribution of the natural hazard fatalities over Switzerland was quite homogeneous. However, mountainous parts of the country (Prealps, Alps) were

  12. A Quaternary fault database for central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd Alan; Bendick, Rebecca; Stübner, Konstanze; Strube, Timo

    2016-02-01

    Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic, and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments, and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault traces and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 123 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. All data are accessible for viewing and download via http://www.geo.uni-tuebingen.de/faults/. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  13. Hazardous substances in frequently used professional cleaning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerster, Fabian Melchior; Vernez, David; Wild, Pascal Pierre; Hopf, Nancy Brenna

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies have identified cleaners as a group at risk for adverse health effects of the skin and the respiratory tract. Chemical substances present in cleaning products could be responsible for these effects. Currently, only limited information is available about irritant and health hazardous chemical substances found in cleaning products. We hypothesized that chemical substances present in cleaning products are known health hazardous substances that might be involved in adverse health effects of the skin and the respiratory tract. We performed a systematic review of cleaning products used in the Swiss cleaning sector. We surveyed Swiss professional cleaning companies (n = 1476) to identify the most used products (n = 105) for inclusion. Safety data sheets (SDSs) were reviewed and hazardous substances present in cleaning products were tabulated with current European and global harmonized system hazard labels. Professional cleaning products are mixtures of substances (arithmetic mean 3.5 +/- 2.8), and more than 132 different chemical substances were identified in 105 products. The main groups of chemicals were fragrances, glycol ethers, surfactants, solvents; and to a lesser extent, phosphates, salts, detergents, pH-stabilizers, acids, and bases. Up to 75% of products contained irritant (Xi), 64% harmful (Xn) and 28% corrosive (C) labeled substances. Hazards for eyes (59%) and skin (50%), and hazards by ingestion (60%) were the most reported. Cleaning products potentially give rise to simultaneous exposures to different chemical substances. As professional cleaners represent a large workforce, and cleaning products are widely used, it is a major public health issue to better understand these exposures. The list of substances provided in this study contains important information for future occupational exposure assessment studies.

  14. Spatial patterns of natural hazards mortality in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cutter Susan L

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on natural hazard mortality are most often hazard-specific (e.g. floods, earthquakes, heat, event specific (e.g. Hurricane Katrina, or lack adequate temporal or geographic coverage. This makes it difficult to assess mortality from natural hazards in any systematic way. This paper examines the spatial patterns of natural hazard mortality at the county-level for the U.S. from 1970–2004 using a combination of geographical and epidemiological methods. Results Chronic everyday hazards such as severe weather (summer and winter and heat account for the majority of natural hazard fatalities. The regions most prone to deaths from natural hazards are the South and intermountain west, but sub-regional county-level mortality patterns show more variability. There is a distinct urban/rural component to the county patterns as well as a coastal trend. Significant clusters of high mortality are in the lower Mississippi Valley, upper Great Plains, and Mountain West, with additional areas in west Texas, and the panhandle of Florida, Significant clusters of low mortality are in the Midwest and urbanized Northeast. Conclusion There is no consistent source of hazard mortality data, yet improvements in existing databases can produce quality data that can be incorporated into spatial epidemiological studies as demonstrated in this paper. It is important to view natural hazard mortality through a geographic lens so as to better inform the public living in such hazard prone areas, but more importantly to inform local emergency practitioners who must plan for and respond to disasters in their community.

  15. Spatial patterns of natural hazards mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Kevin A; Cutter, Susan L

    2008-12-17

    Studies on natural hazard mortality are most often hazard-specific (e.g. floods, earthquakes, heat), event specific (e.g. Hurricane Katrina), or lack adequate temporal or geographic coverage. This makes it difficult to assess mortality from natural hazards in any systematic way. This paper examines the spatial patterns of natural hazard mortality at the county-level for the U.S. from 1970-2004 using a combination of geographical and epidemiological methods. Chronic everyday hazards such as severe weather (summer and winter) and heat account for the majority of natural hazard fatalities. The regions most prone to deaths from natural hazards are the South and intermountain west, but sub-regional county-level mortality patterns show more variability. There is a distinct urban/rural component to the county patterns as well as a coastal trend. Significant clusters of high mortality are in the lower Mississippi Valley, upper Great Plains, and Mountain West, with additional areas in west Texas, and the panhandle of Florida, Significant clusters of low mortality are in the Midwest and urbanized Northeast. There is no consistent source of hazard mortality data, yet improvements in existing databases can produce quality data that can be incorporated into spatial epidemiological studies as demonstrated in this paper. It is important to view natural hazard mortality through a geographic lens so as to better inform the public living in such hazard prone areas, but more importantly to inform local emergency practitioners who must plan for and respond to disasters in their community.

  16. Update of map the volcanic hazard in the Ceboruco volcano, Nayarit, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Camarena-Garcia, M. A.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Ceboruco Volcano (21° 7.688 N, 104° 30.773 W) is located in the northwestern part of the Tepic-Zacoalco graben. Its volcanic activity can be divided in four eruptive cycles differentiated by their VEI and chemical variations as well. As a result of andesitic effusive activity, the "paleo-Ceboruco" edifice was constructed during the first cycle. The end of this cycle is defined by a plinian eruption (VEI between 3 and 4) which occurred some 1020 years ago and formed the external caldera. During the second cycle an andesitic dome built up in the interior of the caldera. The dome collapsed and formed the internal caldera. The third cycle is represented by andesitic lava flows which partially cover the northern and south-southwestern part of the edifice. The last cycle is represented by the andesitic lava flows of the nineteenth century located in the southwestern flank of the volcano. Actually, moderate fumarolic activity occurs in the upper part of the volcano showing temperatures ranging between 20° and 120°C. Some volcanic high frequency tremors have also been registered near the edifice. Shows the updating of the volcanic hazard maps published in 1998, where we identify with SPOT satellite imagery and Google Earth, change in the land use on the slope of volcano, the expansion of the agricultural frontier on the east sides of the Ceboruco volcano. The population inhabiting the area is 70,224 people in 2010, concentrated in 107 localities and growing at an annual rate of 0.37%, also the region that has shown an increased in the vulnerability for the development of economic activities, supported by highway, high road, railroad, and the construction of new highway to Puerto Vallarta, which is built in the southeast sector of the volcano and electrical infrastructure that connect the Cajon and Yesca Dams to Guadalajara city. The most important economic activity in the area is agriculture, with crops of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum), corn, and jamaica

  17. World Database of Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT The World Database of Happiness is an ongoing register of research on subjective appreciation of life. Its purpose is to make the wealth of scattered findings accessible, and to create a basis for further meta-analytic studies. The database involves four sections:
    1.

  18. A Quality System Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, William H.; Turner, Anne M.; Gifford, Luther; Stites, William

    2010-01-01

    A quality system database (QSD), and software to administer the database, were developed to support recording of administrative nonconformance activities that involve requirements for documentation of corrective and/or preventive actions, which can include ISO 9000 internal quality audits and customer complaints.

  19. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  20. The Danish Anaesthesia Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Kristian; Rosenstock, Charlotte Vallentin; Lundstrøm, Lars Hyldborg

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Anaesthesia Database (DAD) is the nationwide collection of data on all patients undergoing anesthesia. Collected data are used for quality assurance, quality development, and serve as a basis for research projects. STUDY POPULATION: The DAD was founded in 2004...