WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical hazard classification

  1. Hazard Classification of Household Chemical Products in Korea according to the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and labeling of Chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyung-Hee; Song, Dae-Jong; Yu, Myeong-Hyun; Park, Yuon-Shin; Noh, Hye-Ran; Kim, Hae-Joon; Choi, Jae-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to review the validity of the need for the application of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS) to household chemical products in Korea. The study also aimed to assess the severity of health and environmental hazards of household chemical products using the GHS. Methods 135 products were classified as ‘cleaning agents and polishing agents’ and 98 products were classified as ‘bleaches, disinfectants, and germicides....

  2. The development of the globally harmonized system (GHS) of classification and labelling of hazardous chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Chris; Azzi, Rola; Wagner, Drew

    2005-10-17

    The hazards of chemicals can be classified using classification criteria that are based on physical, chemical and ecotoxicological endpoints. These criteria may be developed be iteratively, based on scientific or regulatory processes. A number of national and international schemes have been developed over the past 50 years, and some, such as the UN Dangerous Goods system or the EC system for hazardous substances, are in widespread use. However, the unnecessarily complicated multiplicity of existing hazard classifications created much unnecessary confusion at the user level, and a recommendation was made at the 1992 Rio Earth summit to develop a globally harmonized chemical hazard classification and compatible labelling system, including material safety data sheets and easily understandable symbols, that could be used for manufacture, transport, use and disposal of chemical substances. This became the globally harmonized system for the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). The developmental phase of the GHS is largely complete. Consistent criteria for categorising chemicals according to their toxic, physical, chemical and ecological hazards are now available. Consistent hazard communication tools such as labelling and material safety data sheets are also close to finalisation. The next phase is implementation of the GHS. The Intergovernmental Forum for Chemical Safety recommends that all countries implement the GHS as soon as possible with a view to have the system fully operational by 2008. When the GHS is in place, the world will finally have one system for classification of chemical hazards.

  3. Using fewer animals to identify chemical eye hazards: revised criteria necessary to maintain equivalent hazard classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseman, Joseph K; Allen, David G; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A; Truax, James F; Stokes, William S

    2011-10-01

    U.S. Federal Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA) regulations specify eye safety testing procedures and hazard classification criteria for substances regulated by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). Current regulations require up to three sequential 6-animal tests. Testing consistent with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline for eye irritation/corrosion, which specifies 3 animals, can also be submitted to US agencies. However, current FHSA regulations do not provide criteria to classify results from 3-animal tests. An analysis was conducted to determine criteria using results from 3-animal tests that would provide equivalent labeling to FHSA regulations. The frequency that FHSA requirements identify substances as ocular irritants was compared with the frequency that a criterion of either ≥ 1/3 or ≥ 2/3 positive animals would identify these substances. A database of rabbit eye tests was also used to estimate over- and underprediction rates for each criterion. In each instance, a criterion of ≥ 1/3 positive animals more closely matched the expected outcome based on FHSA requirements, while a criterion of ≥ 2/3 positive animals identified far fewer irritants. Using a classification criterion of ≥ 1/3 positive animals provided equivalent or greater eye hazard labeling as current FHSA requirements, while using 50-83% fewer animals.

  4. Toxic chemical hazard classification and risk acceptance guidelines for use in DOE facilities. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, D.K. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Davis, J.S. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Prowse, J. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hoffman, P.W. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1995-03-24

    The concentration-limit guidelines presented in this document apply to airborne releases of chemicals evaluated with respect to human health effects for the purposes of hazard classification and categorization, risk assessment and safety analysis. They apply to all DOE facilities and operations involving the use of potentially hazardous chemicals. The guidelines do not address other nonradiological hazards such as fire, pressure releases (including explosions), and chemical reactivity, but the guidelines are applicable to hazardous chemical releases resulting from these events. This report presents the subcommittee`s evaluation and recommendations regarding analyses of accidentally released toxic chemicals. The premise upon which these recommendations are based is that the mechanism of action of toxic chemicals is fundamentally different from that associated with radionuclides, with the exception of carcinogens. The recommendations reported herein are restricted to the airborne pathway because in an accident scenario this typically represents the most immediately significant route of public exposure. However, the subcommittee recognizes that exposure to chemicals through other pathways, in particular waterborne, can have significant impacts on human health and the environment. Although there are a number of chemicals for which absorption through the skin can contribute measurably to the total dose in chronic (e.g., occupational) exposure situations, this pathway has not been considered for the acute exposure scenarios considered in this report. Later studies. will address these issues if it appears desirable.

  5. Assessing the potential hazard of chemical substances for the terrestrial environment. Development of hazard classification criteria and quantitative environmental indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona, J V; Fresno, A; Aycard, S; Ramos, C; Vega, M M; Carbonell, G

    2000-03-20

    Hazard assessment constitutes an essential tool in order to evaluate the potential effects of chemical substances on organisms and ecosystems. It includes as a first step, hazard identification, which must detect the potential dangers of the substance (i.e. the kind of effects that the substance may produce), and a second step to quantify each danger and to set the expected dose/response relationships. Hazard assessment plays a key role in the regulation of chemical substances, including pollution control and sustainable development. However, the aquatic environment has largely received more attention than terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents the extrapolation of several basic concepts from the aquatic to the terrestrial compartment, and suggests possibilities for their regulatory use. Two specific proposals are discussed. The first focuses on the scientific basis of the hazard identification-classification criteria included in the EU regulations and their extrapolation to the terrestrial environment. The second focuses on the OECD programme for environmental indicators and the development of a soil pollution pressure indicator to quantify the potential hazards for the soil compartment and its associated terrestrial ecosystem related to the toxic chemicals applied deliberately (i.e. pesticides) or not (i.e. heavy metals in sludge-based fertilisers; industrial spills) to the soil.

  6. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  7. Hazard classification of chemicals inducing haemolytic anaemia: An EU regulatory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Andre; Jacobsen, Helene; Healy, Edel; McMickan, Sinead; Istace, Fréderique; Blaude, Marie-Noëlle; Howden, Peter; Fleig, Helmut; Schulte, Agnes

    2006-08-01

    Haemolytic anaemia is often induced following prolonged exposure to chemical substances. Currently, under EU Council Directive 67/548/EEC, substances which induce such effects are classified as dangerous and assigned the risk phrase R48 'Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure.' Whilst the general classification criteria for this endpoint are outlined in Annex VI of this Directive, they do not provide specific information to assess haemolytic anaemia. This review produced by the EU Working Group on Haemolytic Anaemia provides a toxicological assessment of haemolytic anaemia and proposes criteria that can be used in the assessment for classification of substances which induce such effects. An overview of the primary and secondary effects of haemolytic anaemia which can occur in rodent repeated dose toxicity studies is given. A detailed analysis of the toxicological significance of such effects is then performed and correlated with the general classification criteria used for this endpoint. This review intends to give guidance when carrying out an assessment for classification for this endpoint and to allow for better transparency in the decision-making process on when to classify based on the presence of haemolytic anaemia in repeated dose toxicity studies. The extended classification criteria for haemolytic anaemia outlined in this review were accepted by the EU Commission Working Group on the Classification and Labelling of Dangerous Substances in September 2004.

  8. Hazard classification or risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The EU classification of substances for e.g. reproductive toxicants is hazard based and does not to address the risk suchsubstances may pose through normal, or extreme, use. Such hazard classification complies with the consumer's right to know. It is also an incentive to careful use and storage...... and to substitute with less toxic compounds. Actually, if exposure is constant across product class, producersmay make substitution decisions based on hazard. Hazard classification is also useful during major accidents where there is no time for risk assessment and the exposure is likely to be substantial enough...... be a poor substitute for a proper risk assessment as low potency substances can constitute a risk if the exposure is high enough and vice versa. Examples illustrating the strength and limitations of hazard classification, risk assessment and toxicological potency will be presented with focus on reproductive...

  9. Hazard classification of chemicals inducing haemolytic anaemia: An EU regulatory perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Andre; Jacobsen, Helene; Healy, Edel; McMickan, Sinead; Istace, Fréderique; Blaude, Marie-Noëlle; Howden, Peter; Fleig, Helmut; Schulte, Agnes

    2006-01-01

    Haemolytic anaemia is often induced following prolonged exposure to chemical substances. Currently, under EU Council Directive 67/548/EEC, substances which induce such effects are classified as dangerous and assigned the risk phrase R48 'Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure.' Whi

  10. Hazard classification of chemicals inducing haemolytic anaemia: An EU regulatory perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, A.; Jacobsen, Helene; Healy, E.

    2006-01-01

    Haemolytic anaemia is often induced following prolonged exposure to chemical substances. Currently, under EU Council Directive 67/548/EEC, substances which induce such effects are classified as dangerous and assigned the risk phrase R48 'Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure...

  11. Study on Highway Service Area Classification by Safety of Hazardous Chemicals Transportation%基于危化品运输安全的服务区分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘玲; 刘万能; 朱锐

    2014-01-01

    From a security perspective,according to the demand characteristics of hazardous chemical vehicles and the overall functionalities of highway service areas,the principles,influencing factors and its assignment cri-teria of service area classification are determined.The service areas are divided into three categories,namely Category A for hazardous chemical vehicles parking,category B only offering hazardous chemical vehicles water or oil and category C is prohibited for hazardous chemical vehicles driving into.The cluster analysis method is used to divide the pilot service areas into similar class,and the parking saturation level is used for determining the type properties of various types of service areas.%从安全性角度出发,根据危化品运输车辆的需求特性、服务区整体功能性,确定服务区划分的原则、影响因素及其赋值标准,将服务区划分为三大类,分别为 A 类可供危化品车辆停放的服务区,B 类仅提供加油加水的服务区和 C 类禁止危化品车辆驶入的服务区。并运用聚类分析方法将试点服务区划分相似的类,最后通过停车饱和度指标的高低判定各类服务区的类型属性。

  12. Chemical Classification of Space Debris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunlai; ZUO Wei; LIU Jianjun; OUYANG Ziyuan

    2004-01-01

    Space debris, here referring to all non-operating orbital objects, has steadily increased in number so that it has become a potential barrier to the exploration of space. The ever-increasing number of space debris pieces in space has created an increasingly threatening hazard to all on-the-orbit spacecraft, and all future space exploration activities have to be designed and operated with respect to the increasing threat posed by space debris. Generally, space debris is classified as large, medium and small debris pieces based on their sizes. The large debris piece is easily catalogued, but medium to small debris pieces are very difficult to track and also quite different in damage mechanisms from the large ones. In this paper, a scheme of chemical classification of space debris is developed. In our scheme, the first-order classification is employed to divide space debris into two groups: natural micrometeoroids and artificial space debris.The second-order classification is based on their chemical patterns and compositions. The natural micrometeoroids are further divided into three types, namely maric, metal and phyllosilicate micrometeorites, while the artificial space debris is divided into seven types, which are polymers, non-metal debris, metals and their alloys, oxides, sulphides and their analogs, halides and carbides. Of the latter seven types, some can also be further divided into several sub-types. Chemical classification of space debris is very useful for the study of the chemical damage mechanism of small debris pieces, and also is of great significance in constraining the origin and source of space debris and assessing their impact on spacecraft and human space activities.

  13. The impact of REACH on classification for human health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmanns, J; Bunke, D; Jenseit, W; Heidorn, C

    2014-11-01

    The REACH Regulation represents a major piece of chemical legislation in the EU and requires manufacturers and importers of chemicals to assess the safety of their substances. The classification of substances for their hazards is one of the crucial elements in this process. We analysed the effect of REACH on classification for human health endpoints by comparing information from REACH registration dossiers with legally binding, harmonised classifications. The analysis included 142 chemicals produced at very high tonnages in the EU, the majority of which have already been assessed in the past. Of 20 substances lacking a harmonised classification, 12 chemicals were classified in REACH registration dossiers. More importantly, 37 substances with harmonised classifications for human health endpoints had stricter classifications in registration dossiers and 29 of these were classified for at least one additional endpoint not covered by the harmonised classification. Substance-specific analyses suggest that one third of these additional endpoints emerged from experimental studies performed to fulfil information requirements under REACH, while two thirds resulted from a new assessment of pre-REACH studies. We conclude that REACH leads to an improved hazard characterisation even for substances with a potentially good data basis.

  14. How to control chemical hazards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Improving protection against chemical hazards is one of the 2012 CERN safety objectives identified by the Director General. Identifying and drawing up a complete inventory of chemicals, and assessing the associated risks are important steps in this direction.   The HSE Unit has drawn up safety rules, guidelines and forms to help you to meet this objective. We would like to draw your attention to: • safety guidelines C-0-0-1 and C-1-0-2 (now also available in French), which deal with the identification of hazardous chemicals and the assessment of chemical risk; • safety guideline C-1-0-1, which deals with the storage of hazardous chemicals. All safety documents can be consulted at: cern.ch/regles-securite The HSE Unit will be happy to answer any questions you may have. Write to us at: safety-general@cern.ch The HSE Unit

  15. Countermeasures to Hazardous Chemicals,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    of any effective community awareness and emergency response program is an informed public familiar with the operations of local chemical plants. Such a...protection systems. 2. Booklel, ’Protecting People and the Environment.’ - A concise booklet developed to familiarize the public with chemical operations and...Jefe, Seccion de Estudios y Planificacion 102. Civil Defense Administation c/Evaristo San Miguel, 8 Ministry of Interior Madrid-8 Ankara ESPANA

  16. A Review on Mutagenicity Testing for Hazard Classification of Chemicals at Work: Focusing on in vivo Micronucleus Test for Allyl Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Kyung-Taek; Kim, Soo-Jin

    2015-09-01

    Chemical mutagenicity is a major hazard that is important to workers' health. Despite the use of large amounts of allyl chloride, the available mutagenicity data for this chemical remains controversial. To clarify the mutagenicity of allyl chloride and because a micronucleus (MN) test had not yet been conducted, we screened for MN induction by using male ICR mice bone marrow cells. The test results indicated that this chemical is not mutagenic under the test conditions. In this paper, the regulatory test battery and several assay combinations used to determine the genotoxic potential of chemicals in the workplace have been described. Further application of these assays may prove useful in future development strategies of hazard evaluations of industrial chemicals. This study also should help to improve the testing of this chemical by commonly used mutagenicity testing methods and investigations on the underlying mechanisms and could be applicable for workers' health.

  17. Hazard interaction analysis for multi-hazard risk assessment: a systematic classification based on hazard-forming environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoyin; Siu, Yim Ling; Mitchell, Gordon

    2016-03-01

    This paper develops a systematic hazard interaction classification based on the geophysical environment that natural hazards arise from - the hazard-forming environment. According to their contribution to natural hazards, geophysical environmental factors in the hazard-forming environment were categorized into two types. The first are relatively stable factors which construct the precondition for the occurrence of natural hazards, whilst the second are trigger factors, which determine the frequency and magnitude of hazards. Different combinations of geophysical environmental factors induce different hazards. Based on these geophysical environmental factors for some major hazards, the stable factors are used to identify which kinds of natural hazards influence a given area, and trigger factors are used to classify the relationships between these hazards into four types: independent, mutex, parallel and series relationships. This classification helps to ensure all possible hazard interactions among different hazards are considered in multi-hazard risk assessment. This can effectively fill the gap in current multi-hazard risk assessment methods which to date only consider domino effects. In addition, based on this classification, the probability and magnitude of multiple interacting natural hazards occurring together can be calculated. Hence, the developed hazard interaction classification provides a useful tool to facilitate improved multi-hazard risk assessment.

  18. Hazard and risk assessment of teratogenic chemicals under REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prutner, Wiebke

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, a new European chemicals legislation was implemented: Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006, also known as "REACH." It obliges companies to take the main responsibility for the valid information on the safe use of the chemicals they manufacture and/or place on the European market. So they must, for example, register their chemicals at the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) and submit extensive substance-related registration dossiers containing information on the substances' intrinsic hazardous properties and documentation of their risk assessment. REACH regulates the registration and evaluation process as well as the authorization and restriction procedure. In addition, classification, labeling, and packaging of chemicals apply in accordance with Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 ("CLP Regulation"). It implements almost completely the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN GHS) into European legislation and will fully replace the Dangerous Substances Directive (67/548/EEC) and the Dangerous Preparations Directive (1999/45/EC) by 2015. According to both the old and the new classification system, teratogenic chemicals are classified as developmental toxicants, with developmental toxicity falling within the hazard class of reproductive toxicity. REACH as well as the CLP Regulation provide several procedures in which reproductive toxicants take a special position because their harmful effects are considered particularly serious. Teratogenic substances are not explicitly named by these legal texts but, as they constitute as developmental toxicants a hazard differentiation of reproductive toxicity, they are implicitly always included by the provisions.

  19. Hazard classification assessment for the High Voltage Initiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogan, J.D.

    1994-04-19

    An investigation was conducted to determine whether the High Voltage Initiator (Sandia p number 395710; Navy NAVSEA No. 6237177) could be assigned a Department of Transportation (DOT) hazard classification of ``IGNITERS, 1.4G, UN0325`` under Code of Federal Regulations, 49 CFR 173.101, when packaged per Mound drawing NXB911442. A hazard classification test was performed, and the test data led to a recommended hazard classification of ``IGNITERS, 1.4G, UN0325,`` based on guidance outlined in DOE Order 1540.2 and 49 CFR 173.56.

  20. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant safety document ICPP hazardous chemical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwood, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of a hazardous chemical evaluation performed for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). ICPP tracks chemicals on a computerized database, Haz Track, that contains roughly 2000 individual chemicals. The database contains information about each chemical, such as its form (solid, liquid, or gas); quantity, either in weight or volume; and its location. The Haz Track database was used as the primary starting point for the chemical evaluation presented in this report. The chemical data and results presented here are not intended to provide limits, but to provide a starting point for nonradiological hazards analysis.

  1. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].

    OpenAIRE

    Daria Pakulska

    2015-01-01

    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extremely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The g...

  2. Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

  3. Safe use of hazardous chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, George; Lawler, Gretchen

    2011-11-01

    This unit provides protocols for some commonly used disposal and decontamination procedures along with analytical techniques that are used to verify that reagents have been decontaminated. Some of the specific reagents covered are diaminobenzidine, ethidium bromide, cyanogen bromide, and chloromethylsilane. With modification, these assays may also be used to determine the concentration of a particular chemical.

  4. A complete electrical hazard classification system and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Lloyd B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cartelli, Laura [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, NFPA 70E, and relevant OSHA electrical safety standards evolved to address the hazards of 60-Hz power that are faced primarily by electricians, linemen, and others performing facility and utility work. This leaves a substantial gap in the management of electrical hazards in Research and Development (R&D) and specialized high voltage and high power equipment. Examples include lasers, accelerators, capacitor banks, electroplating systems, induction and dielectric heating systems, etc. Although all such systems are fed by 50/60 Hz alternating current (ac) power, we find substantial use of direct current (dc) electrical energy, and the use of capacitors, inductors, batteries, and radiofrequency (RF) power. The electrical hazards of these forms of electricity and their systems are different than for 50160 Hz power. Over the past 10 years there has been an effort to develop a method of classifying all of the electrical hazards found in all types of R&D and utilization equipment. Examples of the variation of these hazards from NFPA 70E include (a) high voltage can be harmless, if the available current is sufficiently low, (b) low voltage can be harmful if the available current/power is high, (c) high voltage capacitor hazards are unique and include severe reflex action, affects on the heart, and tissue damage, and (d) arc flash hazard analysis for dc and capacitor systems are not provided in existing standards. This work has led to a comprehensive electrical hazard classification system that is based on various research conducted over the past 100 years, on analysis of such systems in R&D, and on decades of experience. Initially, national electrical safety codes required the qualified worker only to know the source voltage to determine the shock hazard. Later, as arc flash hazards were understood, the fault current and clearing time were needed. These items are still insufficient to fully characterize all types of

  5. Screening tests for hazard classification of complex waste materials - Selection of methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weltens, R., E-mail: reinhilde.weltens@vito.be [VITO Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Boeretang 200, B 2400 Mol (Belgium); Vanermen, G.; Tirez, K. [VITO Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Boeretang 200, B 2400 Mol (Belgium); Robbens, J. [University of Antwerp - Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Deprez, K.; Michiels, L. [University of Hasselt - Biomedical Research Institute, University Hasselt, Campus Diepenbeek, Agoralaan A, B3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2012-12-15

    In this study we describe the development of an alternative methodology for hazard characterization of waste materials. Such an alternative methodology for hazard assessment of complex waste materials is urgently needed, because the lack of a validated instrument leads to arbitrary hazard classification of such complex waste materials. False classification can lead to human and environmental health risks and also has important financial consequences for the waste owner. The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD) describes the methodology for hazard classification of waste materials. For mirror entries the HWD classification is based upon the hazardous properties (H1-15) of the waste which can be assessed from the hazardous properties of individual identified waste compounds or - if not all compounds are identified - from test results of hazard assessment tests performed on the waste material itself. For the latter the HWD recommends toxicity tests that were initially designed for risk assessment of chemicals in consumer products (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biocides, food, etc.). These tests (often using mammals) are not designed nor suitable for the hazard characterization of waste materials. With the present study we want to contribute to the development of an alternative and transparent test strategy for hazard assessment of complex wastes that is in line with the HWD principles for waste classification. It is necessary to cope with this important shortcoming in hazardous waste classification and to demonstrate that alternative methods are available that can be used for hazard assessment of waste materials. Next, by describing the pros and cons of the available methods, and by identifying the needs for additional or further development of test methods, we hope to stimulate research efforts and development in this direction. In this paper we describe promising techniques and argument on the test selection for the pilot study that we have performed on different types of

  6. Chemical hazards in the biotechnology industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducatman, A M; Coumbis, J J

    1991-01-01

    The modern biotechnology industry employs thousands of people and is growing rapidly. The numbers of toxic chemicals encountered are substantial and the applications are largely novel. Health care professionals face a formidable task in identifying occupational hazards and safeguarding the health of employees.

  7. [Biological, chemical, and radiation factors in the classification of medical waste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakov, N V; Korotkova, G I; Orlov, A Iu; Kadyrov, D E

    2011-01-01

    The current classification of medical waste does not consider the sanitary-and-chemical hazard of epidemiologically dangerous and extremely dangerous medical waste (classes B and C). According to the results of the studies performed, the authors propose the improved classification of medical waste, which makes it possible to take into account not only infectious, radiation, and toxicological, but also sanitary-and-chemical hazards (toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and biological activity) of medical waste.

  8. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakulska, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extreiely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest, concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction.

  9. Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Pakulska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extremely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction. Med Pr 2015;66(1:99–117

  10. Hazardous chemical tracking system (HAZ-TRAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramlette, J D; Ewart, S M; Jones, C E

    1990-07-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) developed and implemented a computerized hazardous chemical tracking system, referred to as Haz-Trac, for use at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Haz-Trac is designed to provide a means to improve the accuracy and reliability of chemical information, which enhances the overall quality and safety of ICPP operations. The system tracks all chemicals and chemical components from the time they enter the ICPP until the chemical changes form, is used, or becomes a waste. The system runs on a Hewlett-Packard (HP) 3000 Series 70 computer. The system is written in COBOL and uses VIEW/3000, TurboIMAGE/DBMS 3000, OMNIDEX, and SPEEDWARE. The HP 3000 may be accessed throughout the ICPP, and from remote locations, using data communication lines. Haz-Trac went into production in October, 1989. Currently, over 1910 chemicals and chemical components are tracked on the system. More than 2500 personnel hours were saved during the first six months of operation. Cost savings have been realized by reducing the time needed to collect and compile reporting information, identifying and disposing of unneeded chemicals, and eliminating duplicate inventories. Haz-Trac maintains information required by the Superfund Amendment Reauthorization Act (SARA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).

  11. In the shadow of the Cosmetic Directive--inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, A; Bejgarn, S; Rudén, C; Molander, L; Breitholtz, M

    2013-09-01

    UV-filters are chemicals with potentially environmental hazardous properties. In the European Union (EU), UV-filters contained in sunscreen products are currently regulated by the Cosmetic Directive (from July 2013 by the Cosmetic Products Regulation). Environmental hazard classifications according to the regulation on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) must be determined for UV-filters contained in industrial chemical products, whereas UV-filters contained in sunscreens are exempted from CLP. In this study we determined the potential environmental hazard classifications of UV-filters and sunscreen products if the CLP regulation was to be required for cosmetic products. Two sunscreen products were evaluated in accordance with the aquatic environmental hazard criteria for mixtures. The results highlight that the inconsistencies in the current EU regulation of UV filters hamper the risk management of environmental hazards of UV filters used in cosmetic products. Almost 50% of the investigated UV-filters approved for use in cosmetic products on the European market according to the current Cosmetic Directive were identified to meet the CLP classification as being hazardous to the aquatic environment. Assuming a worst-case scenario, the two examined sunscreens could both be classified as hazardous to the aquatic environment with long-lasting effects according to CLP classification criteria. Hence, if the CLP regulation was applicable to sunscreen products, both brands could potentially be labelled with the environmental hazard pictogram and associated hazard and precautionary statements. Including cosmetic products, and thereby sunscreens, in the CLP regulation would contribute to a more harmonized and transparent regulation of potentially hazardous substances on the EU market.

  12. A new approach to the hazard classification of alloys based on transformation/dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeaff, James M; Hardy, David J; King, Pierrette

    2008-01-01

    Most of the metals produced for commercial application enter into service as alloys which, together with metals and all other chemicals in commerce, are subject to a hazard identification and classification initiative now being implemented in a number of jurisdictions worldwide, including the European Union Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) initiative, effective 1 June 2007. This initiative has considerable implications for environmental protection and market access. While a method for the hazard identification and classification of metals is available in the recently developed United Nations (UN) guidance document on the Globally Harmonized System of Hazard Classification and Labelling (GHS), an approach for alloys has yet to be formulated. Within the GHS, a transformation/dissolution protocol (T/ DP) for metals and sparingly soluble metal compounds is provided as a standard laboratory method for measuring the rate and extent of the release of metals into aqueous media from metal-bearing substances. By comparison with ecotoxicity reference data, T/D data can be used to derive UN GHS classification proposals. In this study we applied the T/DP for the 1st time to several economically important metals and alloys: iron powder, nickel powder, copper powder, and the alloys Fe-2Cu-0.6C (copper = 2%, carbon = 0.6%), Fe-2Ni-0.6C, Stainless Steel 304, Monel, brass, Inconel, and nickel-silver. The iron and copper powders and the iron and nickel powders had been sintered to produce the Fe-2Me-0.6C (Me = copper or nickel) alloys which made them essentially resistant to reaction with the aqueous media, so they would not classify under the GHS, although their component copper and nickel metal powders would. Forming a protective passivating film, chromium in the Stainless Steel 304 and Inconel alloys protected them from reaction with the aqueous media, so that their metal releases were minimal and would not result in GHS classification

  13. 77 FR 41300 - Hazardous Chemical Reporting: Revisions to the Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory Forms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... for most of the data elements from various organizations. While some commenters from industry opposed... new data elements and revising some existing data elements on the Emergency and Hazardous Chemical... Act (EPCRA). State and local implementing agencies requested that EPA add the new data elements...

  14. Classification,Hazards and Countermeasures of Agricultural Environmental Pollution Emergencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming; CHUAI; Haixia; ZHOU; Jianping; ZHAO; Shubo; CHENG; Jiang; YU

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural environmental pollution emergencies have become a hot research topic because of the high incidence and influence depth.This paper introduces classification and features of agricultural environmental pollution emergencies:by pollutant type,it falls into organic pollution emergencies and inorganic pollution emergencies;by the approach of entering agricultural environment,it falls into water resource agricultural environmental pollution emergencies and non-water resource agricultural environmental pollution emergencies.Hazards of agricultural environmental pollution emergencies are analyzed from 4 perspectives:personal security,indirect loss,ecological environment and social stability.In view of the hazards,countermeasures are given to deal with the pollution emergencies as(i)establishing a risk evaluation mechanism for agricultural environment;(ii)enhancing the capacity of handling agricultural environmental pollution emergencies;(iii)introducing new management concepts for environmental emergencies,and cultivating keen emergency management consciousness.

  15. A GHS-consistent approach to health hazard classification of petroleum substances, a class of UVCB substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charles R; McKee, Richard H; Freeman, James J; Swick, Derek; Mahagaokar, Suneeta; Pigram, Glenda; Roberts, Linda G; Smulders, Chantal J; Beatty, Patrick W

    2013-12-01

    The process streams refined from petroleum crude oil for use in petroleum products are among those designated by USEPA as UVCB substances (unknown or variable composition, complex reaction products and biological materials). They are identified on global chemical inventories with unique Chemical Abstract Services (CAS) numbers and names. The chemical complexity of most petroleum substances presents challenges when evaluating their hazards and can result in differing evaluations due to the varying level of hazardous constituents and differences in national chemical control regulations. Global efforts to harmonize the identification of chemical hazards are aimed at promoting the use of consistent hazard evaluation criteria. This paper discusses a systematic approach for the health hazard evaluation of petroleum substances using chemical categories and the United Nations (UN) Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of classification and labeling. Also described are historical efforts to characterize the hazard of these substances and how they led to the development of categories, the identification of potentially hazardous constituents which should be considered, and a summary of the toxicology of the major petroleum product groups. The use of these categories can increase the utility of existing data, provide better informed hazard evaluations, and reduce the amount of animal testing required.

  16. Classification of Chemical Reactions: Stages of Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stains, Marilyne; Talanquer, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    In this study we explore the strategies that undergraduate and graduate chemistry students use when engaged in classification tasks involving symbolic and microscopic (particulate) representations of different chemical reactions. We were specifically interested in characterizing the basic features to which students pay attention when classifying…

  17. Risk Assessment for Natural-Hazard Impact on Hazardous Chemical Installations: Workshop Outcome Report

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The impact of natural hazards on hazardous installations can cause major chemical accidents. This so-called “Natech” risk is increasing due to industrialisation and climate change. Capacity building in EU Member States, Candidate Countries and EU Neighbourhood Countries on Natech risk required for Natech risk reduction. This report summarises the findings of a training workshop on risk assessment for natural-hazard impact on hazardous chemical installations which the JRC organised in the ...

  18. Hazard assessment of chemical contaminants in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poels, C L; Veerkamp, W

    1992-12-01

    Disposal practices, accidental spills, leakages and local aerial deposition occurring in the past have led to local soil pollution in many cases. Especially in situations where people live on or nearby such locations this has created concern about possible adverse effects on human health. A stepped approach to the hazard assessment of polluted soil, as developed by a Task Force from the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre (ECETOC), is described. In an early phase in the assessment process the potential exposure of humans is estimated. The Human Exposure to Soil Pollutants (HESP) model can be applied for this purpose. The model calculates the total exposure of adults and children resulting from pollutants present in soil, via 10 different exposure routes. The estimated exposure can be used to indicate the potential significant exposure routes and to carry out a preliminary hazard assessment. The model is also able to predict pollutant concentrations in soil which do not exceed accepted maximum exposure levels for humans in both standardised and site specific situations. The stepped approach is cost-effective and provides an objective basis for decisions and priority setting.

  19. Environmental and health hazard ranking and assessment of plastic polymers based on chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lithner, Delilah, E-mail: delilah.lithner@gmail.com; Larsson, Ake; Dave, Goeran

    2011-08-15

    Plastics constitute a large material group with a global annual production that has doubled in 15 years (245 million tonnes in 2008). Plastics are present everywhere in society and the environment, especially the marine environment, where large amounts of plastic waste accumulate. The knowledge of human and environmental hazards and risks from chemicals associated with the diversity of plastic products is very limited. Most chemicals used for producing plastic polymers are derived from non-renewable crude oil, and several are hazardous. These may be released during the production, use and disposal of the plastic product. In this study the environmental and health hazards of chemicals used in 55 thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers were identified and compiled. A hazard ranking model was developed for the hazard classes and categories in the EU classification and labelling (CLP) regulation which is based on the UN Globally Harmonized System. The polymers were ranked based on monomer hazard classifications, and initial assessments were made. The polymers that ranked as most hazardous are made of monomers classified as mutagenic and/or carcinogenic (category 1A or 1B). These belong to the polymer families of polyurethanes, polyacrylonitriles, polyvinyl chloride, epoxy resins, and styrenic copolymers. All have a large global annual production (1-37 million tonnes). A considerable number of polymers (31 out of 55) are made of monomers that belong to the two worst of the ranking model's five hazard levels, i.e. levels IV-V. The polymers that are made of level IV monomers and have a large global annual production (1-5 million tonnes) are phenol formaldehyde resins, unsaturated polyesters, polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate, and urea-formaldehyde resins. This study has identified hazardous substances used in polymer production for which the risks should be evaluated for decisions on the need for risk reduction measures, substitution, or even phase out

  20. In the shadow of the Cosmetic Directive — Inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobek, A., E-mail: anna.sobek@itm.su.se; Bejgarn, S.; Rudén, C.; Molander, L.; Breitholtz, M.

    2013-09-01

    UV-filters are chemicals with potentially environmental hazardous properties. In the European Union (EU), UV-filters contained in sunscreen products are currently regulated by the Cosmetic Directive (from July 2013 by the Cosmetic Products Regulation). Environmental hazard classifications according to the regulation on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) must be determined for UV-filters contained in industrial chemical products, whereas UV-filters contained in sunscreens are exempted from CLP. In this study we determined the potential environmental hazard classifications of UV-filters and sunscreen products if the CLP regulation was to be required for cosmetic products. Two sunscreen products were evaluated in accordance with the aquatic environmental hazard criteria for mixtures. The results highlight that the inconsistencies in the current EU regulation of UV filters hamper the risk management of environmental hazards of UV filters used in cosmetic products. Almost 50% of the investigated UV-filters approved for use in cosmetic products on the European market according to the current Cosmetic Directive were identified to meet the CLP classification as being hazardous to the aquatic environment. Assuming a worst-case scenario, the two examined sunscreens could both be classified as hazardous to the aquatic environment with long-lasting effects according to CLP classification criteria. Hence, if the CLP regulation was applicable to sunscreen products, both brands could potentially be labelled with the environmental hazard pictogram and associated hazard and precautionary statements. Including cosmetic products, and thereby sunscreens, in the CLP regulation would contribute to a more harmonized and transparent regulation of potentially hazardous substances on the EU market. - Highlights: • UV-filters are used in both cosmetic and industrial products/applications • UV-filters in cosmetic products are excluded from CLP • We

  1. Panchromatic Satellite Image Classification for Flood Hazard Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shaker

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the use of panchromatic (PAN satellite image data for flood hazard assessment with anaid of various digital image processing techniques. Two SPOT PAN satellite images covering part of the Nile River inEgypt were used to delineate the flood extent during the years 1997 and 1998 (before and after a high flood. Threeclassification techniques, including the contextual classifier, maximum likelihood classifier and minimum distanceclassifier, were applied to the following: 1 the original PAN image data, 2 the original PAN image data and grey-levelco-occurrence matrix texture created from the PAN data, and 3 the enhanced PAN image data using an edgesharpeningfilter. The classification results were assessed with reference to the results derived from manualdigitization and random checkpoints. Generally, the results showed improvement of the calculation of flood area whenan edge-sharpening filter was used. In addition, the maximum likelihood classifier yielded the best classificationaccuracy (up to 97% compared to the other two classifiers. The research demonstrates the benefits of using PANsatellite imagery as a potential data source for flood hazard assessment.

  2. Environmental and health hazard ranking and assessment of plastic polymers based on chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithner, Delilah; Larsson, Ake; Dave, Göran

    2011-08-15

    Plastics constitute a large material group with a global annual production that has doubled in 15 years (245 million tonnes in 2008). Plastics are present everywhere in society and the environment, especially the marine environment, where large amounts of plastic waste accumulate. The knowledge of human and environmental hazards and risks from chemicals associated with the diversity of plastic products is very limited. Most chemicals used for producing plastic polymers are derived from non-renewable crude oil, and several are hazardous. These may be released during the production, use and disposal of the plastic product. In this study the environmental and health hazards of chemicals used in 55 thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers were identified and compiled. A hazard ranking model was developed for the hazard classes and categories in the EU classification and labelling (CLP) regulation which is based on the UN Globally Harmonized System. The polymers were ranked based on monomer hazard classifications, and initial assessments were made. The polymers that ranked as most hazardous are made of monomers classified as mutagenic and/or carcinogenic (category 1A or 1B). These belong to the polymer families of polyurethanes, polyacrylonitriles, polyvinyl chloride, epoxy resins, and styrenic copolymers. All have a large global annual production (1-37 million tonnes). A considerable number of polymers (31 out of 55) are made of monomers that belong to the two worst of the ranking model's five hazard levels, i.e. levels IV-V. The polymers that are made of level IV monomers and have a large global annual production (1-5 million tonnes) are phenol formaldehyde resins, unsaturated polyesters, polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate, and urea-formaldehyde resins. This study has identified hazardous substances used in polymer production for which the risks should be evaluated for decisions on the need for risk reduction measures, substitution, or even phase out.

  3. Hazard property classification of waste according to the recent propositions of the EC using different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebert, Pierre; van der Sloot, Hans A; Rebischung, Flore; Weltens, Reinhilde; Geerts, Lieve; Hjelmar, Ole

    2014-10-01

    Hazard classification of waste is a necessity, but the hazard properties (named "H" and soon "HP") are still not all defined in a practical and operational manner at EU level. Following discussion of subsequent draft proposals from the Commission there is still no final decision. Methods to implement the proposals have recently been proposed: tests methods for physical risks, test batteries for aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicity, an analytical package for exhaustive determination of organic substances and mineral elements, surrogate methods for the speciation of mineral elements in mineral substances in waste, and calculation methods for human toxicity and ecotoxicity with M factors. In this paper the different proposed methods have been applied to a large assortment of solid and liquid wastes (>100). Data for 45 wastes - documented with extensive chemical analysis and flammability test - were assessed in terms of the different HP criteria and results were compared to LoW for lack of an independent classification. For most waste streams the classification matches with the designation provided in the LoW. This indicates that the criteria used by LoW are similar to the HP limit values. This data set showed HP 14 'Ecotoxic chronic' is the most discriminating HP. All wastes classified as acute ecotoxic are also chronic ecotoxic and the assessment of acute ecotoxicity separately is therefore not needed. The high number of HP 14 classified wastes is due to the very low limit values when stringent M factors are applied to total concentrations (worst case method). With M factor set to 1 the classification method is not sufficiently discriminating between hazardous and non-hazardous materials. The second most frequent hazard is HP 7 'Carcinogenic'. The third most frequent hazard is HP 10 'Toxic for reproduction' and the fourth most frequent hazard is HP 4 "Irritant - skin irritation and eye damage". In a stepwise approach, it seems relevant to assess HP 14 first, then, if

  4. [International Chemical Safety Cards: information source on hazards caused by chemical substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakulska, Daria; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2007-01-01

    International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC) are produced by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) in collaboration with the European Commission and various IPCS-participating institutions in different countries. ICSCs disseminate essential information on chemicals to promote their safe production, transport and use. Application of standard terminology along with relevant criteria facilitates the comparison of risk related to different chemicals, which makes the cards a successful hazard-communication tool. Translation of the cards into various languages all over the world reflects the range of their growing use. A multi-stage compilation of information contained in ICSCs, based on the most up-to-date world literature and professional databases, assures its reliability. Their concise form makes them easy in everyday use as a source of information on chemical safety. The range of information contained in ICSCs corresponds to that provided by Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), however, the former are more concise and simpler. Although ICSCs have no legal status they may complement a 16-point MSDSs and help in the implementation of labeling and classification of chemicals according to the Globally Harmonized System.

  5. 76 FR 72216 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... hazardous chemicals in accordance with the Standard's definitions for ``laboratory use of hazardous chemicals'' and ``laboratory scale.'' The Standard requires that these laboratories maintain worker... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in...

  6. Assessment of Hazardous Chemicals Risk in Fur Industry in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė Vaitelytė

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the research on the possibilities of hazardous chemicals replacement with less hazardous substances. This issue has become of special importance to industrial companies after the adoption of the REACH Regulation. The article examines fur industry and traditional chemicals used in it, namely, sodium dichromate, formaldehyde, and naphthalene. Because of their properties these chemicals are pretending to be included in the REACH Regulation lists of the authorised chemicals. The risks of quasi-materials to the workplaces and the environment have been studied. This research has also looked for the alternatives to hazardous chemicals and has conducted their risk assessment. The analyzed chemicals have been compared with their alternatives with a view of disclosing specific risk reduction.

  7. Analysis of the comprehensibility of chemical hazard communication tools at the industrial workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Goh Choo; Mokhtar, Mazlin Bin; Mohd Mokhtar, Hj Anuar Bin; Ismail, Azmir Bin; Abu Yazid, Mohd Fadhil Bin Hj

    2010-01-01

    Chemical classification and labelling systems may be roughly similar from one country to another but there are significant differences too. In order to harmonize various chemical classification systems and ultimately provide consistent chemical hazard communication tools worldwide, the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) was endorsed by the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). Several countries, including Japan, Taiwan, Korea and Malaysia, are now in the process of implementing GHS. It is essential to ascertain the comprehensibility of chemical hazard communication tools that are described in the GHS documents, namely the chemical labels and Safety Data Sheets (SDS). Comprehensibility Testing (CT) was carried out with a mixed group of industrial workers in Malaysia (n=150) and factors that influence the comprehensibility were analysed using one-way ANOVA. The ability of the respondents to retrieve information from the SDS was also tested in this study. The findings show that almost all the GHS pictograms meet the ISO comprehension criteria and it is concluded that the underlying core elements that enhance comprehension of GHS pictograms and which are also essential in developing competent persons in the use of SDS are training and education.

  8. [Nursing workers' perceptions regarding the handling of hazardous chemical waste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Taiza Florêncio; Felli, Vanda Elisa Andres; Baptista, Patrícia Campos Pavan

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify the perceptions of nursing workers regarding the handling of hazardous chemical waste at the University of São Paulo University Hospital (HU-USP), and develop a proposal to improve safety measures. This study used a qualitative approach and a convenience sample consisting of eighteen nursing workers. Data collection was performed through focal groups. Thematic analysis revealed four categories that gave evidence of training deficiencies in terms of the stages of handling waste. Difficulties that emerged included a lack of knowledge regarding exposure and its impact, the utilization of personal protective equipment versus collective protection, and suggestions regarding measures to be taken by the institution and workers for the safe handling of hazardous chemical waste. The present data allowed for recommending proposals regarding the safe management of hazardous chemical waste by the nursing staff.

  9. Investigation of the Effect of Traffic Parameters on Road Hazard Using Classification Tree Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahmud Hasan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for the identification of hazardous situations on the freeways. For this study, about 18 km long section of Eastern Freeway in Melbourne, Australia was selected as a test bed. Three categories of data i.e. traffic, weather and accident record data were used for the analysis and modelling. In developing the crash risk probability model, classification tree based model was developed in this study. In formulating the models, it was found that weather conditions did not have significant impact on accident occurrence so the classification tree was built using two traffic indices; traffic flow and vehicle speed only. The formulated classification tree is able to identify the possible hazard and non-hazard situations on freeway. The outcome of the study will aid the hazard mitigation strategies.

  10. Chemical Hazards of Nanoparticles to Human and Environment (A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fozia Haque Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Science and technology have identified unique properties of nanomaterials. These properties may yield many far-reaching societal benefits, but they can also pose hazards and risks. Although the nanotechnology industry is still in its infancy, as more nanotechnology applications are commercialized, the potential for human exposure to nanoparticles and raw nanomaterials would continue to increase. One area of most concern about hazards is the workplace-be it a research laboratory, start-up company, production facility, or operation in which engineered nanomaterials are processed, used, disposed, or recycled. In order to determine whether the unique chemical and physical properties of new nanoparticles result in specific toxicologic properties, the nanotechnology community needs new ways of evaluating hazards and ultimately assessing the risk factor and therefore an attempt must be made to exclusively concentrate on the potential health hazards of nanopowders. One potential hazard that appears to have received little attention to date is their explosibility. This literature review has been commissioned to explore the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles that could differentially influence toxicity, use of nanoparticles in industry and the potential hazards.

  11. Classification and identification of hazardous residues; Clasificacion e identificacion de residuos peligrosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto V, Federico; Obaya V, Adolfo; Guerrero, Claudia [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1996-06-01

    In this work, we present the classification and identification of hazardous industrial residues. Mexico has had a wide industrial development in last years, for instance the chemical, steel and petroleum industries, and it has had important effects in the waste industrial generation from different processes. For this reason it is important to diffuse how the correct classification and identification of industrial wastes is made, for insuring their handling, treatment and adequate disposal. [Spanish] En este articulo se presentan los principales aspectos a considerar en la clasificacion e identificacion de los residuos industriales peligrosos. Mexico, considerado como un pais en vias de desarrollo, ha mantenido en los ultimos anos un amplio crecimiento industrial y uno de los mas altos del mundo en poblacion. Esta situacion ha orillado a intensificar la explotacion de los recursos naturales mediante la actividad minera, la siderurgica, la industria quimica, la petrolera, etcetera. Todo esto ha repercutido indudablemente en la generacion de residuos de tan diversa naturaleza como lo son los procesos y las materias primas involucradas, con caracteristicas que van desde los poco riesgosos hasta los altamente peligrosos. Por esta razon, la clasificacion e identificacion de los residuos peligrosos es de suma importancia para asegurar su adecuado manejo, tratamiento y disposicion.

  12. Hazard identification of chemicals: A more efficient approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, V.J.; Woutersen, R.A.; Vliet, P.W. van

    2006-01-01

    The OECD (organisation for economic co-operation and development) guidelines for hazard identification of chemicals have proved their worth in practice and are of great significance for designing adequate and relevant toxicity studies. However, assessment procedures are too time-consuming and too ex

  13. Chemical hazards from acid crater lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, M. J.; Sumarti, S.; Heikens, A.; Bogaard, T. A.; Hartiyatun, S.

    2003-04-01

    Acid crater lakes, which are hosted by a considerable number of active volcanoes, form a potential threat for local ecosystems and human health, as they commonly contain large amounts of dissolved chemicals. Subsurface seepage or overflow can lead to severe deterioration of the water quality of rivers and wells, as observations around several of these volcanoes have shown. The Ijen crater lake in East Java (Indonesia) is a striking example, as this reservoir of hyperacid (pHdental fluorosis is widespread among the ca. 100,000 residents of the area. A conspicuous spatial correlation between fluoride concentrations and the irrigation system suggest that long-term (century) infiltration of irrigation water may have affected the quality of groundwater. Fluorosis is also a problem in some villages within the caldera, where well water sources may have a more direct subsurface connection with the lake system. From our observations we conclude that water-quality monitoring is especially needed for health reasons in volcanic areas where volatile elements, derived from passively degassing magma, are intercepted by (sub) surface water bodies.

  14. [Management of chemical products and European standards: new classification criteria according to the 1272/2008 (CLP) regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanghella, Paola Di Prospero; Aliberti, Ludovica Malaguti

    2013-01-01

    The European Union adopted regulations (EC) 1907/2006 REACH e (EC)1272/2008 CLP, to manage chemicals. REACH requires for evaluation and management of risks connected to the use of chemical substances, while o CLP provides for the classification, labelling and packagings of dangerous substances and mixtures by implementing in the EU the UN Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling applying the building block approach, that is taking on board the hazard classes and categories which are close to the existing EU system in order to maintain the level of protection of human health and environment. This regulation provides also for the notification of the classification and labelling of substances to the Classification & Labelling Inventory established by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). Some european downstream regulations making reference to the classification criteria, as the health and safety laws at workplace, need to be adapted to these regulations.

  15. Landslide hazards mapping using uncertain Naïve Bayesian classification method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛伊敏; 张茂省; 王根龙; 孙萍萍

    2015-01-01

    Landslide hazard mapping is a fundamental tool for disaster management activities in Loess terrains. Aiming at major issues with these landslide hazard assessment methods based on Naïve Bayesian classification technique, which is difficult in quantifying those uncertain triggering factors, the main purpose of this work is to evaluate the predictive power of landslide spatial models based on uncertain Naïve Bayesian classification method in Baota district of Yan’an city in Shaanxi province, China. Firstly, thematic maps representing various factors that are related to landslide activity were generated. Secondly, by using field data and GIS techniques, a landslide hazard map was performed. To improve the accuracy of the resulting landslide hazard map, the strategies were designed, which quantified the uncertain triggering factor to design landslide spatial models based on uncertain Naïve Bayesian classification method named NBU algorithm. The accuracies of the area under relative operating characteristics curves (AUC) in NBU and Naïve Bayesian algorithm are 87.29%and 82.47%respectively. Thus, NBU algorithm can be used efficiently for landslide hazard analysis and might be widely used for the prediction of various spatial events based on uncertain classification technique.

  16. Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, J.M.; McKone, T.E.; Sherman, M. H.; Singer, B.C.

    2010-05-10

    Identifying air pollutants that pose a potential hazard indoors can facilitate exposure mitigation. In this study, we compiled summary results from 77 published studies reporting measurements of chemical pollutants in residences in the United States and in countries with similar lifestyles. These data were used to calculate representative mid-range and upper bound concentrations relevant to chronic exposures for 267 pollutants and representative peak concentrations relevant to acute exposures for 5 activity-associated pollutants. Representative concentrations are compared to available chronic and acute health standards for 97 pollutants. Fifteen pollutants appear to exceed chronic health standards in a large fraction of homes. Nine other pollutants are identified as potential chronic health hazards in a substantial minority of homes and an additional nine are identified as potential hazards in a very small percentage of homes. Nine pollutants are identified as priority hazards based on the robustness of measured concentration data and the fraction of residences that appear to be impacted: acetaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; 1,3-butadiene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; formaldehyde; naphthalene; nitrogen dioxide; and PM{sub 2.5}. Activity-based emissions are shown to pose potential acute health hazards for PM{sub 2.5}, formaldehyde, CO, chloroform, and NO{sub 2}.

  17. Risk-Based Prioritization Method for the Classification of Groundwater Pollution from Hazardous Waste Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Jiang, Yong-Hai; lian, Xin-Ying; Xi, Bei-Dou; Ma, Zhi-fei; Xu, Xiang-Jian; An, Da

    2016-12-01

    Hazardous waste landfill sites are a significant source of groundwater pollution. To ensure that these landfills with a significantly high risk of groundwater contamination are properly managed, a risk-based ranking method related to groundwater contamination is needed. In this research, a risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pollution from hazardous waste landfills was established. The method encompasses five phases, including risk pre-screening, indicator selection, characterization, classification and, lastly, validation. In the risk ranking index system employed here, 14 indicators involving hazardous waste landfills and migration in the vadose zone as well as aquifer were selected. The boundary of each indicator was determined by K-means cluster analysis and the weight of each indicator was calculated by principal component analysis. These methods were applied to 37 hazardous waste landfills in China. The result showed that the risk for groundwater contamination from hazardous waste landfills could be ranked into three classes from low to high risk. In all, 62.2 % of the hazardous waste landfill sites were classified in the low and medium risk classes. The process simulation method and standardized anomalies were used to validate the result of risk ranking; the results were consistent with the simulated results related to the characteristics of contamination. The risk ranking method was feasible, valid and can provide reference data related to risk management for groundwater contamination at hazardous waste landfill sites.

  18. Toxics Release Inventory Chemical Hazard Information Profiles (TRI-CHIP) Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Chemical Hazard Information Profiles (TRI-CHIP) dataset contains hazard information about the chemicals reported in TRI. Users can...

  19. How accurate are the European Union's classifications of chemical substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudén, Christina; Hansson, Sven Ove

    2003-09-30

    The European Commission has decided on harmonized classifications for a large number of individual chemicals according to its own directive for classification and labeling of dangerous substances. We have compared the harmonized classifications for acute oral toxicity to the acute oral toxicity data available in the RTECS database. Of the 992 substances eligible for this comparison, 15% were assigned a too low danger class and 8% a too high danger class according to the RTECS data. Due to insufficient transparency-scientific documentations of the classification decisions are not available-the causes of this discrepancy can only be hypothesized. We propose that the scientific motivations of future classifications be published and that the apparent over- and underclassifications in the present system be either explained or rectified, according to what are the facts in the matter.

  20. Classification of fossil fuels according to structural-chemical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Gyul' maliev; G.S. Golovin; S.G. Gagarin [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-15

    On the basis of a set of linear equations that relate the amount of major elements n{sub E} (E = C, H, O, N, S) in the organic matter of fossil fuels to structural characteristics, such as the number of cycles R, the number of atoms n{sub E}, the number of mutual chemical bonds, the degree of unsaturation of the structure {delta}, and the extent of its reduction B, a structural-chemical classification of fossil coals that is closely related to the parameters of the industrial-genetic classification (GOST 25543-88) is proposed. Structural-chemical classification diagrams are constructed for power-generating coals of Russia; coking coals; and coals designed for nonfuel purposes including the manufacture of adsorbents, synthetic liquid fuel, ion exchangers, thermal graphite, and carbon-graphite materials.

  1. Hazardous organic chemicals in rubber recycled tire playgrounds and pavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llompart, Maria; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Pablo Lamas, J; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Roca, Enrique; Dagnac, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the presence of hazardous organic chemicals in surfaces containing recycled rubber tires is investigated. Direct material analyses using solvent extraction, as well as SPME analysis of the vapour phase above the sample, were carried out. Twenty-one rubber mulch samples were collected from nine different playgrounds. In addition, seven commercial samples of recycled rubber pavers were acquired in a local store of a multinational company. All samples were extracted by ultrasound energy, followed by analysis of the extract by GC-MS. The analysis confirmed the presence of a large number of hazardous substances including PAHs, phthalates, antioxidants (e.g. BHT, phenols), benzothiazole and derivatives, among other chemicals. The study evidences the high content of toxic chemicals in these recycled materials. The concentration of PAHs in the commercial pavers was extremely high, reaching values up to 1%. In addition, SPME studies of the vapour phase above the samples confirm the volatilisation of many of those organic compounds. Uses of recycled rubber tires, especially those targeting play areas and other facilities for children, should be a matter of regulatory concern.

  2. Rule-Based Classification of Chemical Structures by Scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuffenhauer, Ansgar; Varin, Thibault

    2011-08-01

    Databases for small organic chemical molecules usually contain millions of structures. The screening decks of pharmaceutical companies contain more than a million of structures. Nevertheless chemical substructure searching in these databases can be performed interactively in seconds. Because of this nobody has really missed structural classification of these databases for the purpose of finding data for individual chemical substructures. However, a full deck high-throughput screen produces also activity data for more than a million of substances. How can this amount of data be analyzed? Which are the active scaffolds identified by an assays? To answer such questions systematic classifications of molecules by scaffolds are needed. In this review it is described how molecules can be hierarchically classified by their scaffolds. It is explained how such classifications can be used to identify active scaffolds in an HTS data set. Once active classes are identified, they need to be visualized in the context of related scaffolds in order to understand SAR. Consequently such visualizations are another topic of this review. In addition scaffold based diversity measures are discussed and an outlook is given about the potential impact of structural classifications on a chemically aware semantic web.

  3. Predicting Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC classification of drugs by integrating chemical-chemical interactions and similarities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    Full Text Available The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC classification system, recommended by the World Health Organization, categories drugs into different classes according to their therapeutic and chemical characteristics. For a set of query compounds, how can we identify which ATC-class (or classes they belong to? It is an important and challenging problem because the information thus obtained would be quite useful for drug development and utilization. By hybridizing the informations of chemical-chemical interactions and chemical-chemical similarities, a novel method was developed for such purpose. It was observed by the jackknife test on a benchmark dataset of 3,883 drug compounds that the overall success rate achieved by the prediction method was about 73% in identifying the drugs among the following 14 main ATC-classes: (1 alimentary tract and metabolism; (2 blood and blood forming organs; (3 cardiovascular system; (4 dermatologicals; (5 genitourinary system and sex hormones; (6 systemic hormonal preparations, excluding sex hormones and insulins; (7 anti-infectives for systemic use; (8 antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents; (9 musculoskeletal system; (10 nervous system; (11 antiparasitic products, insecticides and repellents; (12 respiratory system; (13 sensory organs; (14 various. Such a success rate is substantially higher than 7% by the random guess. It has not escaped our notice that the current method can be straightforwardly extended to identify the drugs for their 2(nd-level, 3(rd-level, 4(th-level, and 5(th-level ATC-classifications once the statistically significant benchmark data are available for these lower levels.

  4. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Blakley; W. D. Schofield

    2007-09-10

    This final hazard categorization (FHC) document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the commitments for the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks Remediation Project. The remediation activities analyzed in this FHC are based on recommended treatment and disposal alternatives described in the Engineering Evaluation for the Remediation to the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks (BHI 2005e).

  5. Rock slope instabilities in Norway: First systematic hazard and risk classification of 22 unstable rock slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Martina; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Oppikofer, Thierry; Penna, Ivanna

    2016-04-01

    Unstable rock slopes that can cause large failures of the rock-avalanche type have been mapped in Norway for almost two decades. Four sites have earlier been characterized as high-risk objects based on expertise of few researchers. This resulted in installing continuous monitoring systems and set-up of an early-warning system for those four sites. Other unstable rock slopes have not been ranked related to their hazard or risk. There are ca. 300 other sites known of which 70 sites were installed for periodic deformation measurements using multiple techniques (Global Navigation Satellite Systems, extensometers, measurement bolts, and others). In 2012 a systematic hazard and risk classification system for unstable rock slopes was established in Norway and the mapping approach adapted to that in 2013. Now, the first 22 sites were classified for hazard, consequences and risk using this classification system. The selection of the first group of sites to be classified was based on an assumed high hazard or risk and importance given to the sites by Norwegian media and the public. Nine of the classified 22 unstable rock slopes are large sites that deform inhomogeneously or are strongly broken up in individual blocks. This suggests that different failure scenarios are possible that need to be analyzed individually. A total of 35 failure scenarios for those nine unstable rock slopes were considered. The hazard analyses were based on 9 geological parameters defined in the classification system. The classification system will be presented based on the Gamanjunni unstable rock slope. This slope has a well developed back scarp that exposes 150 m preceding displacement. The lateral limits of the unstable slope are clearly visible in the morphology and InSAR displacement data. There have been no single structures observed that allow sliding kinematically. The lower extend of the displacing rock mass is clearly defined in InSAR data and by a zone of higher rock fall activity. Yearly

  6. Chemical classification of cattle. 1. Breed groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C M; Manwell, C

    1980-01-01

    From approximately 1000 papers with data on protein polymorphism in some 216 breeds of cattle, 10 polymorphic proteins were compared in means and variances of gene frequencies (arcsin p 1/2) for ten well-recognized breed groups for 196 of the breeds. The polymorphic proteins were alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, caseins (alpha s1, beta and chi), serum albumin, transferrin, haemoglobin, amylase I and carbonic anhydrase II. The breed groups were North European, Pied Lowland, European Red brachyceros, Channel Island brachyceros, Upland brachyceros, primigenius-brachyceros mixed, primigenius, Indian Zebu, African Humped (with Zebu admixture), and African Humped (Sanga). The coherence within groups and the differences between groups are often impressive. Only carbonic anhydrase II fails to differentiate at least some of the major breed groups. In some cases paradoxical distributions of rare genetic variants can be explained by a more detailed inspection of breed history. The chemical data support the morphological and geographical divisions of cattle into major breed groups. There are three distinct but related brachyceros groups; for some polymorphisms the two Channel Island breeds, the Jersey and the Guernsey, are quite divergent. Although some authorities have considered the Pied Lowland as primigenius, it is a very distinct breed group.

  7. Skin irritation: prevalence, variability, and regulatory classification of existing in vivo data from industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; Cole, Thomas; Hartung, Thomas

    2005-04-01

    In vivo rabbit data for skin irritation registered in the European New Chemicals Database (NCD) and an ECETOC Database were evaluated to characterise the distribution of irritation potential among chemicals and to assess the variability of the animal test. These databases could be used to determine experimental and rudimentarily within-laboratory variability, but not between-laboratory variability. Our evaluation suggests that experimental variability is small. Using two classification systems--the system currently used in Europe and the Globally Harmonised System (GHS)--the prevalence of skin irritation data obtained from NCD was analysed. This analysis revealed that out of 3121 chemicals tested, less than 10% showed an irritation potential in rabbits which would require an appropriate hazard label and 64% did not cause any irritation. Furthermore, it appears that in practical use the European classification system introduces bias towards overclassification. Based on these findings, we conclude, that the classification systems should be refined taking prevalence into account. Additionally, prevalence should be incorporated into the design and analysis of validation studies for in vitro test methods and in the definition of testing strategies.

  8. Survey of knowledge of hazards of chemicals potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, R.O.; Kirkscey, K.A.; Randolph, M.L.

    1979-09-01

    Hazards of chemical potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes are estimated based on open literature references. The tentative quantity of each chemical associated with the processes and the toxicity of the chemical are used to estimate this hazard. The chemicals thus estimated to be the most potentially hazardous to health are fluorine, nitric acid, uranium metal, uranium hexafluoride, and uranium dust. The estimated next most hazardous chemicals are bromine, hydrobromic acid, hydrochloric acid, and hydrofluoric acid. For each of these chemicals and for a number of other process-associated chemicals the following information is presented: (1) any applicable standards, recommended standards and their basis; (2) a brief discussion to toxic effects including short exposure tolerance, atmospheric concentration immediately hazardous to life, evaluation of exposures, recommended control procedures, chemical properties, and a list of any toxicology reviews; and (3) recommendations for future research.

  9. Classification of Chemical Substances and Adverse Effects of Chemical Substances on Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Söyleriz, Yüksel

    2015-01-01

    In this study, classification of chemical substances and adverse effects of chemical substances on human health in European Union and Turkey are assessed. Method In this study, national and international legislation and practices in the countries of the European Union are reviewed.

  10. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Brown, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs.

  11. Nanostructure Engineered Chemical Sensors for Hazardous Gas and Vapor Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Lu, Yijiang

    2005-01-01

    A nanosensor technology has been developed using nanostructures, such as single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and metal oxides nanowires or nanobelts, on a pair of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) processed with a silicon based microfabrication and micromachining technique. The IDE fingers were fabricated using thin film metallization techniques. Both in-situ growth of nanostructure materials and casting of the nanostructure dispersions were used to make chemical sensing devices. These sensors have been exposed to hazardous gases and vapors, such as acetone, benzene, chlorine, and ammonia in the concentration range of ppm to ppb at room temperature. The electronic molecular sensing in our sensor platform can be understood by electron modulation between the nanostructure engineered device and gas molecules. As a result of the electron modulation, the conductance of nanodevice will change. Due to the large surface area, low surface energy barrier and high thermal and mechanical stability, nanostructured chemical sensors potentially can offer higher sensitivity, lower power consumption and better robustness than the state-of-the-art systems, which make them more attractive for defense and space applications. Combined with MEMS technology, light weight and compact size sensors can be made in wafer scale with low cost.

  12. A hazard and risk classification system for catastrophic rock slope failures in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanns, R.; Oppikofer, T.; Anda, E.; Blikra, L. H.; Böhme, M.; Bunkholt, H.; Dahle, H.; Devoli, G.; Eikenæs, O.; Fischer, L.; Harbitz, C. B.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Loew, S.; Yugsi Molina, F. X.

    2012-04-01

    The Geological Survey of Norway carries out systematic geologic mapping of potentially unstable rock slopes in Norway that can cause a catastrophic failure. As catastrophic failure we describe failures that involve substantial fragmentation of the rock mass during run-out and that impact an area larger than that of a rock fall (shadow angle of ca. 28-32° for rock falls). This includes therefore rock slope failures that lead to secondary effects, such as a displacement wave when impacting a water body or damming of a narrow valley. Our systematic mapping revealed more than 280 rock slopes with significant postglacial deformation, which might represent localities of large future rock slope failures. This large number necessitates prioritization of follow-up activities, such as more detailed investigations, periodic monitoring and permanent monitoring and early-warning. In the past hazard and risk were assessed qualitatively for some sites, however, in order to compare sites so that political and financial decisions can be taken, it was necessary to develop a quantitative hazard and risk classification system. A preliminary classification system was presented and discussed with an expert group of Norwegian and international experts and afterwards adapted following their recommendations. This contribution presents the concept of this final hazard and risk classification that should be used in Norway in the upcoming years. Historical experience and possible future rockslide scenarios in Norway indicate that hazard assessment of large rock slope failures must be scenario-based, because intensity of deformation and present displacement rates, as well as the geological structures activated by the sliding rock mass can vary significantly on a given slope. In addition, for each scenario the run-out of the rock mass has to be evaluated. This includes the secondary effects such as generation of displacement waves or landslide damming of valleys with the potential of later

  13. The evaluation of an analytical protocol for the determination of substances in waste for hazard classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennebert, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.hennebert@ineris.fr [INERIS – Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Domaine du Petit Arbois BP33, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Papin, Arnaud [INERIS, Parc Technologique ALATA, BP No. 2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Padox, Jean-Marie [INERIS – Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Domaine du Petit Arbois BP33, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Hasebrouck, Benoît [INERIS, Parc Technologique ALATA, BP No. 2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Knowledge of wastes in substances will be necessary to assess HP1–HP15 hazard properties. • A new analytical protocol is proposed for this and tested by two service laboratories on 32 samples. • Sixty-three percentage of the samples have a satisfactory analytical balance between 90% and 110%. • Eighty-four percentage of the samples were classified identically (Seveso Directive) for their hazardousness by the two laboratories. • The method, in progress, is being normalized in France and is be proposed to CEN. - Abstract: The classification of waste as hazardous could soon be assessed in Europe using largely the hazard properties of its constituents, according to the the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. Comprehensive knowledge of the component constituents of a given waste will therefore be necessary. An analytical protocol for determining waste composition is proposed, which includes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) screening methods to identify major elements and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) screening techniques to measure organic compounds. The method includes a gross or indicator measure of ‘pools’ of higher molecular weight organic substances that are taken to be less bioactive and less hazardous, and of unresolved ‘mass’ during the chromatography of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The concentration of some elements and specific compounds that are linked to specific hazard properties and are subject to specific regulation (examples include: heavy metals, chromium(VI), cyanides, organo-halogens, and PCBs) are determined by classical quantitative analysis. To check the consistency of the analysis, the sum of the concentrations (including unresolved ‘pools’) should give a mass balance between 90% and 110%. Thirty-two laboratory samples comprising different industrial wastes (liquids and solids) were tested by two routine service laboratories, to give circa 7000 parameter

  14. 76 FR 25376 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... Laboratories'' (29 CFR 1910.1450; the ``Standard'') applies to laboratories that use hazardous chemicals in accordance with the Standard's definitions for ``laboratory use of hazardous chemicals'' and ``laboratory scale.'' The Standard requires these laboratories to maintain worker exposures at or below...

  15. 40 CFR 370.14 - How do I report mixtures containing hazardous chemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I report mixtures containing hazardous chemicals? 370.14 Section 370.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW Who Must Comply...

  16. Destruction of Hazardous Industrial Chemicals Using an Arcjet Plasma Torch*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleddermann, C. B.; Snyder, H. R.; Gahl, J. M.

    1996-10-01

    A small-scale thermal plasma torch has been used for the disposal of hazardous industrial chemicals including alcohols, ketones, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The plasma jet is operated at currents up to 200 Amperes and waste flow rates up to 600 ml/hr. Argon is used as the plasma gas with oxygen added to the reactor to alter the reaction chemistry. Destruction of the waste and by-product formation are monitored using a residual gas analyzer, and the temperature of the plasma plume is measured using an enthalpy probe. The by-products of the destruction of acetone are primarily carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and small amounts of hydrocarbons. Adding oxygen to the reactor increases the production of carbon dioxide and significantly decreases the amount of acetone in the exhaust gases. This reactor has achieved greater than 99 percent destruction efficiency for acetone when oxygen is added to the reaction mixture at an arcjet current of 75 Amperes, with similar destruction efficiencies observed for ethanol and trichloroethylene. *Supported by the U.S. DOE through the WERC program administered by New Mexico State University.

  17. Hazard Classification of the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Christensen

    2012-05-01

    The Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is constructing a new facility to replace remote-handled low-level radioactive waste disposal capability for INL and Naval Reactors Facility operations. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) will continue until the facility is full or closed for remediation (estimated at approximately fiscal year 2015). Development of a new onsite disposal facility is the highest ranked alternative and will provide RH-LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate RH-LLW for the foreseeable future. As a part of establishing a safety basis for facility operations, the facility will be categorized according to DOE-STD-1027-92. This classification is important in determining the scope of analyses performed in the safety basis and will also dictate operational requirements of the completed facility. This paper discusses the issues affecting hazard classification in this nuclear facility and impacts of the final hazard categorization.

  18. Recommended Hazard Classification Procedures for In-Process Propellant and Explosive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Test Impingement Test Rubbing Friction Test Local Thermal Test Regional Thermal Test Standard Test for Hazard Detection of Chemicals...a-9 Heater winding 33 a-10 Cover plates and heater terminals 34 a-11 Local thermal test , sample data sheet 35 a-11.1 Typical DTA - DSC curve with...mm LOCAL THERMAL TEST Purpose Inprocess explosive and propellant materials may be susceptible to initiation from localized hot spots from such

  19. Early warning, warning or alarm systems for natural hazards? A generic classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Early warning, warning and alarm systems have gained popularity in recent years as cost-efficient measures for dangerous natural hazard processes such as floods, storms, rock and snow avalanches, debris flows, rock and ice falls, landslides, flash floods, glacier lake outburst floods, forest fires and even earthquakes. These systems can generate information before an event causes loss of property and life. In this way, they mainly mitigate the overall risk by reducing the presence probability of endangered objects. These systems are typically prototypes tailored to specific project needs. Despite their importance there is no recognised system classification. This contribution classifies warning and alarm systems into three classes: i) threshold systems, ii) expert systems and iii) model-based expert systems. The result is a generic classification, which takes the characteristics of the natural hazard process itself and the related monitoring possibilities into account. The choice of the monitoring parameters directly determines the system's lead time. The classification of 52 active systems moreover revealed typical system characteristics for each system class. i) Threshold systems monitor dynamic process parameters of ongoing events (e.g. water level of a debris flow) and incorporate minor lead times. They have a local geographical coverage and a predefined threshold determines if an alarm is automatically activated to warn endangered objects, authorities and system operators. ii) Expert systems monitor direct changes in the variable disposition (e.g crack opening before a rock avalanche) or trigger events (e.g. heavy rain) at a local scale before the main event starts and thus offer extended lead times. The final alarm decision incorporates human, model and organisational related factors. iii) Model-based expert systems monitor indirect changes in the variable disposition (e.g. snow temperature, height or solar radiation that influence the occurrence probability

  20. 1992 Tier Two emergency and hazardous chemical inventory. Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, Section 312

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This report is a compilation of data on emergency and hazardous chemicals stored at the Hanford Reservation. The report lists name or chemical description, physical and health hazards, inventories and storage location.

  1. Chemical hazard evaluation of material disposal area (MDA) B closure project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laul, Jagdish C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-04-19

    TA-21, MDA-B (NES) is the 'contaminated dump,' landfill with radionuclides and chemicals from process waste disposed in 1940s. This paper focuses on chemical hazard categorization and hazard evaluation of chemicals of concern (e.g., peroxide, beryllium). About 170 chemicals were disposed in the landfill. Chemicals included products, unused and residual chemicals, spent, waste chemicals, non-flammable oils, mineral oil, etc. MDA-B was considered a High hazard site. However, based on historical records and best engineering judgment, the chemical contents are probably at best 5% of the chemical inventory. Many chemicals probably have oxidized, degraded or evaporated for volatile elements due to some fire and limited shelf-life over 60 yrs, which made it possible to downgrade from High to Low chemical hazard site. Knowing the site history and physical and chemical properties are very important in characterizing a NES site. Public site boundary is only 20 m, which is a major concern. Chemicals of concern during remediation are peroxide that can cause potential explosion and beryllium exposure due to chronic beryllium disease (CBD). These can be prevented or mitigated using engineering control (EC) and safety management program (SMP) to protect the involved workers and public.

  2. Development of hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) procedures to control organic chemical hazards in the agricultural production of raw food commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, Karl; Ferguson, Andrew; Beck, Angus J

    2003-01-01

    Hazard Analysis by Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards in the food chain. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all chemical microbiological, and physical hazards. However, current procedures focus primarily on microbiological and physical hazards, while chemical aspects of HACCP have received relatively little attention. In this article we discuss the application of HACCP to organic chemical contaminants and the problems that are likely to be encountered in agriculture. We also present generic templates for the development of organic chemical contaminant HACCP procedures for selected raw food commodities, that is, cereal crops,raw meats, and milk.

  3. Strata-based forest fuel classification for wild fire hazard assessment using terrestrial LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Zhu, Xuan; Yebra, Marta; Harris, Sarah; Tapper, Nigel

    2016-10-01

    Fuel structural characteristics affect fire behavior including fire intensity, spread rate, flame structure, and duration, therefore, quantifying forest fuel structure has significance in understanding fire behavior as well as providing information for fire management activities (e.g., planned burns, suppression, fuel hazard assessment, and fuel treatment). This paper presents a method of forest fuel strata classification with an integration between terrestrial light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and geographic information system for automatically assessing forest fuel structural characteristics (e.g., fuel horizontal continuity and vertical arrangement). The accuracy of fuel description derived from terrestrial LiDAR scanning (TLS) data was assessed by field measured surface fuel depth and fuel percentage covers at distinct vertical layers. The comparison of TLS-derived depth and percentage cover at surface fuel layer with the field measurements produced root mean square error values of 1.1 cm and 5.4%, respectively. TLS-derived percentage cover explained 92% of the variation in percentage cover at all fuel layers of the entire dataset. The outcome indicated TLS-derived fuel characteristics are strongly consistent with field measured values. TLS can be used to efficiently and consistently classify forest vertical layers to provide more precise information for forest fuel hazard assessment and surface fuel load estimation in order to assist forest fuels management and fire-related operational activities. It can also be beneficial for mapping forest habitat, wildlife conservation, and ecosystem management.

  4. ASSESSING CHEMICAL HAZARDS AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) FOR PLANNING FUTURE D&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; KLOS, D.B.; MINETT, M.J.

    2007-01-25

    This paper documents the fiscal year (FY) 2006 assessment to evaluate potential chemical and radiological hazards associated with vessels and piping in the former plutonium process areas at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Evaluations by PFP engineers as design authorities for specific systems and other subject-matter experts were conducted to identify the chemical hazards associated with transitioning the process areas for the long-term layup of PFP before its eventual final decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). D and D activities in the main process facilities were suspended in September 2005 for a period of between 5 and 10 years. A previous assessment conducted in FY 2003 found that certain activities to mitigate chemical hazards could be deferred safely until the D and D of PFP, which had been scheduled to result in a slab-on-grade condition by 2009. As a result of necessary planning changes, however, D and D activities at PFP will be delayed until after the 2009 time frame. Given the extended project and plant life, it was determined that a review of the plant chemical hazards should be conducted. This review to determine the extended life impact of chemicals is called the ''Plutonium Finishing Plant Chemical Hazards Assessment, FY 2006''. This FY 2006 assessment addresses potential chemical and radiological hazard areas identified by facility personnel and subject-matter experts who reevaluated all the chemical systems (items) from the FY 2003 assessment. This paper provides the results of the FY 2006 chemical hazards assessment and describes the methodology used to assign a hazard ranking to the items reviewed.

  5. Organochlorine chemical hazards for sturgeon larvae in the Middle Mississippi River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We conducted an ecological risk assessment to characterize organochlorine chemical hazards for sturgeon larvae in the Middle Mississippi River National Wildlife...

  6. Threshold of toxicological concern values for non-genotoxic effects in industrial chemicals: re-evaluation of the Cramer classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhof, H; Herzler, M; Stahlmann, R; Gundert-Remy, U

    2012-01-01

    The TTC concept employs available data from animal testing to derive a distribution of NOAELs. Taking a probabilistic view, the 5th percentile of the distribution is taken as a threshold value for toxicity. In this paper, we use 824 NOAELs from repeated dose toxicity studies of industrial chemicals to re-evaluate the currently employed TTC values, which have been derived for substances grouped according to the Cramer scheme (Cramer et al. in Food Cosm Toxicol 16:255-276, 1978) by Munro et al. (Food Chem Toxicol 34:829-867, 1996) and refined by Kroes and Kozianowski (Toxicol Lett 127:43-46, 2002), Kroes et al. 2000. In our data set, consisting of 756 NOAELs from 28-day repeated dose testing and 57 NOAELs from 90-days repeated dose testing, the experimental NOAEL had to be extrapolated to chronic TTC using regulatory accepted extrapolation factors. The TTC values derived from our data set were higher than the currently used TTC values confirming the safety of the latter. We analysed the prediction of the Cramer classification by comparing the classification by this tool with the guidance values for classification according to the Globally Harmonised System of classification and labelling of the United Nations (GHS). Nearly 90% of the chemicals were in Cramer class 3 and assumed as highly toxic compared to 22% according to the GHS. The Cramer classification does underestimate the toxicity of chemicals only in 4.6% of the cases. Hence, from a regulatory perspective, the Cramer classification scheme might be applied as it overestimates hazard of a chemical.

  7. 77 FR 66638 - The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous... the Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals. DATES: Comments must be... collection. Title: The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR...

  8. Material Development Study for a Hazardous Chemical Protective Clothing Outfit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    chemicals was technical grade or better (>90%) and were used without further purification. Specialty chemicals including formuations such as agri- cultural...polycarbon- ate. Teflon yarn is available for sewing seams. Bonding patches over the seams would be required to cover holes left from sewing. Because

  9. 40 CFR 156.78 - Precautionary statements for physical or chemical hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Precautionary Statements § 156.78 Precautionary statements for physical or chemical hazards. (a) Requirement... instructions must be added to the “Physical and Chemical Hazards” warning statement, in addition to any... equivalent symbol, must be displayed along with the required language adjoining the “Physical and...

  10. Occupational safety and health guidelines for chemical hazards. Supplement IV-OHG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document is the fourth in a seris of supplements to the 1981 Publication NIOSH/OSHA Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. The 62 guidelines presented here in the fourth supplement include 11 revisions of previously issued guidelines and 51 new guidelines. The 62 occupational safety and health guidelines presented here are being published to disseminate technical information about chemical hazards to workers, employers, and occupational safety and health professionals. Each guideline includes (1) data on the chemical name and synonyms, cemnical and physical properties, exposure limits, and signs and symptoms of exposure, personal protective equipment, and control procedures.

  11. Risk assessment and emerging chemicals hazards in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Moscato

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The main beliefs relating to the risk assessment of chemicals in foods, new chemicals in raw material as well as in food processing are briefly presented. Evaluation reviews of representative chemicals found in traditional and novel foods are given. Old and new processes or newly recognized compounds, that require careful assessment in terms of their potential human health impact, are discussed. As example of processing-related contaminants, a risk assessment for acrylamide, is described, providing two different approaches in food safety assessment and the management of carcinogenic contaminants.

  12. Chemical hazards present in liquids and vapors of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, Christoph; Paschke, Meike; Kruschinski, Svetlana; Henkler, Frank; Hahn, Jürgen; Luch, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    Electronic (e-)cigarettes have emerged in recent years as putative alternative to conventional tobacco cigarettes. These products do not contain typical carcinogens that are present in tobacco smoke, due to the lack of combustion. However, besides nicotine, hazards can also arise from other constituents of liquids, such as solvents, flavors, additives and contaminants. In this study, we have analyzed 28 liquids of seven manufacturers purchased in Germany. We confirm the presence of a wide range of flavors to enhance palatability. Although glycerol and propylene glycol were detected in all samples, these solvents had been replaced by ethylene glycol as dominant compound in five products. Ethylene glycol is associated with markedly enhanced toxicological hazards when compared to conventionally used glycerol and propylene glycol. Additional additives, such as coumarin and acetamide, that raise concerns for human health were detected in certain samples. Ten out of 28 products had been declared "free-of-nicotine" by the manufacturer. Among these ten, seven liquids were identified containing nicotine in the range of 0.1-15 µg/ml. This suggests that "carry over" of ingredients may occur during the production of cartridges. We have further analyzed the formation of carbonylic compounds in one widely distributed nicotine-free brand. Significant amounts of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and propionaldehyde were only found at 150 °C by headspace GC-MS analysis. In addition, an enhanced formation of aldehydes was found in defined puff fractions, using an adopted machine smoking protocol. However, this effect was delayed and only observed during the last third of the smoking procedure. In the emissions of these fractions, which represent up to 40 % of total vapor volume, similar levels of formaldehyde were detected when compared to conventional tobacco cigarettes. By contrast, carbonylic compounds were hardly detectable in earlier collected fractions. Our data demonstrate the

  13. A narrative review of secondary hazards in hospitals from cases of chemical self-poisoning and chemical exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Evans, James L; Sharman, Andrew; Isaac, James

    2013-10-01

    Secondary hazards are an important consideration when dealing with both self-poisoned and chemically contaminated patients. Secondary exposure of hospital staff following the admission of a poisoned patient is relatively rare but potentially serious. Risks usually arise from chemical conversion of a deliberately ingested toxic substance and subsequent offgassing, but there may be toxic substances on the victim or their clothing. Surface contamination is a more common concern in cases where patients have been exposed to chemical releases. This paper presents a narrative review that considers some of the more commonly encountered toxic chemicals and situations that may present secondary hazards in hospitals. Risks to staff can be lowered by reducing the potential for, and duration of, exposure wherever possible. Good communication with the first responders at the scene, consultation with experts, decontamination and use of personal protective equipment, together with regular training, can minimize risks in the hospital environment.

  14. Toxic hazard and chemical analysis of leachates from furfurylated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilgard, A.; Treu, A.; Zeeland, van A.N.T.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Westin, M.

    2010-01-01

    The furfurylation process is an extensively investigated wood modification process. Furfuryl alcohol molecules penetrate into the wood cell wall and polymerize in situ. This results in a permanent swelling of the wood cell walls. It is unclear whether or not chemical bonds exist between the furfuryl

  15. Modeling Exposure to Persistent Chemicals in Hazard and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E.; McLachlan, Michael S.; Arnot, Jon A.; MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Wania, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Fate and exposure modeling has not thus far been explicitly used in the risk profile documents prepared to evaluate significant adverse effect of candidate chemicals for either the Stockholm Convention or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. However, we believe models have considerable potential to improve the risk profiles. Fate and exposure models are already used routinely in other similar regulatory applications to inform decisions, and they have been instrumental in building our current understanding of the fate of POP and PBT chemicals in the environment. The goal of this paper is to motivate the use of fate and exposure models in preparing risk profiles in the POP assessment procedure by providing strategies for incorporating and using models. The ways that fate and exposure models can be used to improve and inform the development of risk profiles include: (1) Benchmarking the ratio of exposure and emissions of candidate chemicals to the same ratio for known POPs, thereby opening the possibility of combining this ratio with the relative emissions and relative toxicity to arrive at a measure of relative risk. (2) Directly estimating the exposure of the environment, biota and humans to provide information to complement measurements, or where measurements are not available or are limited. (3) To identify the key processes and chemical and/or environmental parameters that determine the exposure; thereby allowing the effective prioritization of research or measurements to improve the risk profile. (4) Predicting future time trends including how quickly exposure levels in remote areas would respond to reductions in emissions. Currently there is no standardized consensus model for use in the risk profile context. Therefore, to choose the appropriate model the risk profile developer must evaluate how appropriate an existing model is for a specific setting and whether the assumptions and input data are relevant in the context of the application

  16. Early Development of a Hazardous Chemical Protective Ensemble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    hydrogen chloride (or their acids) upon contact with air. Since these reaction products were already included in the listing of 199, it was concluded...exposure to fluosulfonic acid (FSA). For the remaining 37 chemicals, there was a varying level of reaction , as indicated in Table 8. 3) Seventy-one...38 IR 1.7 4-Chloro-o-Toluidine nd nd ad SC 2.0 Cumene nd ad 78 IR 11.0 Dimethylacetamide nd ad 40 GC 2.0 Di-n-Butyl Amine nd ad nd GC 1.4 o

  17. Toxic Chemicals in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke - Hazard and Hoopla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgman A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available These are curious times. The Canadian government has passed legislation that requires cigarette manufacturers to routinely test and publish the amounts of 44 toxic substances in cigarette mainstream smoke (MSS. Following in the footsteps of their northern neighbor, various US legislators and regulators are considering modifications to their cigarette testing and reporting programs that will also list toxicants in MSS. Across the Atlantic Ocean, the European Commission has passed a directive that may also follow the North American lead for public disclosure of MSS toxic chemicals for each brand of cigarette sold in the marketplace. United Kingdom authorities have also expressed their intention to follow this mandate.

  18. Evaluating the environmental hazard of industrial chemicals from data collected during the REACH registration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Mikael B; Hellohf, Andreas; Backhaus, Thomas

    2017-02-22

    Registration dossiers for 11,678 industrial chemicals were retrieved from the database of the European Chemicals Agency, of which 3566 provided a numerical entry for the corresponding predicted no effect concentration for the freshwater environment (PNEC). A distribution-based examination of 2244 of these entries reveals that the average PNEC of an industrial chemical in Europe is 238nmol/L, covering a span of 9 orders of magnitude. A comparison with biocides, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and WFD-priority pollutants reveals that, in average, industrial chemicals are least hazardous (hazard ranking: industrial chemicals≪pharmaceuticalschemicals have a lower environmental threshold than the median pesticide and 73 have a lower environmental threshold than even the median biocide. Industrial chemicals produced and/or imported in higher tonnages have, on average, higher PNECs which most likely is due to the lower assessment factors used for the PNEC determination. This pattern indicates that the initial AF of 1000 comprises a measure of conservatism. The vast majority of PNEC values are driven by EC50 and NOEC data from tests with Daphnia magna. Tests with marine species are rarely provided for the hazard characterization of industrial chemicals.

  19. Toxic hazard and chemical analysis of leachates from furfurylated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgård, Annica; Treu, Andreas; van Zeeland, Albert N T; Gosselink, Richard J A; Westin, Mats

    2010-09-01

    The furfurylation process is an extensively investigated wood modification process. Furfuryl alcohol molecules penetrate into the wood cell wall and polymerize in situ. This results in a permanent swelling of the wood cell walls. It is unclear whether or not chemical bonds exist between the furfuryl alcohol polymer and the wood. In the present study, five different wood species were used, both hardwoods and softwoods. They were treated with three different furfurylation procedures and leached according to three different leaching methods. The present study shows that, in general, the leachates from furfurylated wood have low toxicity. It also shows that the choice of leaching method is decisive for the outcome of the toxicity results. Earlier studies have shown that leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol prepolymers have higher toxicity to Vibrio fischeri than leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol monomers. This is probably attributable to differences in leaching of chemical compounds. The present study shows that this difference in the toxicity most likely cannot be attributed to maleic acid, furan, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, or 2-furoic acid. However, the difference might be caused by the two substances 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 2,5-furandimethanol. The present study found no difference in the amount of leached furfuryl alcohol between leachates from furfurylated softwood and furfurylated hardwood species. Earlier studies have indicated differences in grafting of furfuryl alcohol to lignin. However, nothing was found in the present study that could support this. The leachates of furfurylated wood still need to be

  20. SVD-LSSVM and its application in chemical pattern classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Shao-hui; CHEN De-zhao; HU Wang-ming

    2006-01-01

    Pattern classification is an important field in machine learning; least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) is a powerful tool for pattern classification. A new version ofLSSVM, SVD-LSSVM, to save time of selecting hyper parameters for LSSVM is proposed. SVD-LSSVM is trained through singular value decomposition (SVD) of kernel matrix. Cross validation time of selecting hyper parameters can be saved because a new hyper parameter, singular value contribution rate (SVCR), replaces the penalty factor of LSSVM. Several UCI benchmarking data and the Olive classification problem were used to test SVD-LSSVM.The result showed that SVD-LSSVM has good performance in classification and saves time for cross validation.

  1. Prioritization of the Oral (Ingestive) Hazard of Industrial Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    Space Science. English Translation of Kosmicheskaya Biologiya Meditsina. 1967-70. Volume(issue)/page/year: 2,289,1968 130 Cyclohexanone #(T3) 108-94...135 Ethanolamine #(T3) 141-43-5 1720.00 1.00 0.00 5.00 2.50 8.50 20.00 136 Cyclohexanone #(T3) 108-94-1 1800.00 1.00 0.00 5.00 2.50 8.50 25.00 137...38 Chemical CAS NumberRank 135 Ethanolamine #(T3) 141-43-5 136 Cyclohexanone #(T3) 108-94-1 137 Cadmium 7440-43-9 138 Sodium borate 12179-04-3 139

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF HAZARDOUS SLUDGE SIMULANTS FOR ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibling, R.

    2010-04-12

    An Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) tank closure. After bulk waste removal, the ECC process can be used to dissolve and remove much of the remaining sludge from HLW tanks. The ECC process uses dilute oxalic acid (1 wt %) with in-line pH monitoring and control. The resulting oxalate is decomposed through hydroxylation using an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP). Minimizing the amount of oxalic acid used for dissolution and the subsequent oxidative destruction of oxalic acid will minimize the potential for downstream impacts. Initial efficacy tests by AREVA demonstrated that previous tank heel simulants could be dissolved using dilute oxalic acid. The oxalate could be decomposed by an AOP that utilized ozone and ultraviolet (UV) light, and the resultant metal oxides and hydroxides could be separated out of the process.

  3. Hazard Assessment on Chlorine Distribution Use of Chemical Transportation Risk Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Gon [Hanwha Chemical Ulsan Site, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hun Soo [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Chlorine is one of the most produced and most used non-flammable chemical substances in the world even though its toxicity and high reactivity cause the ozone layer depletion. However, in modern life, it is impossible to live a good life without using Chlorine and its derivatives since they are being used as an typical ingredient in more than 40 percent of the manufactured goods including medicines, detergents, deodorant, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and plastic, etc. Even if Chlorine has been handled and distributed in various business (small and medium-sized businesses, water purification plants, distribution company, etc.), there have been few researches about its possible health hazard and transportation risks. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to make a detailed assessment of Chlorinerelated risks and to model an index of chemicals transportation risks that is adequate for domestic circumstances. The assessment of possible health hazard and transportation risks was made on 13 kinds of hazardous chemicals, including liquid chlorine. This research may be contributed to standardizing the risk assessment of Chlorine and other hazardous chemicals by using an index of transportation risks.

  4. How synergistic or antagonistic effects may influence the mutual hazard ranking of chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Carlsen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of various agents, including humic materials, nanomaterials, microplastics, or simply specific chemical compounds, may cause changes in the apparent persistence, bioaccumulation, and/or toxicity (PBT of a chemical compound leading to an either increased or decreased PBT characteristics and thus an increased or decreased hazard evaluation. In the present paper, a series chloro-containing obsolete pesticides is studied as an illustrative example. Partial order methodology is used to quantify how changed P, B, or T characteristics of methoxychlor (MEC influences the measure of the hazard of MEC, relative to the other 11 compounds in the series investigated. Not surprisingly, an increase in one of the three indicators (P, B, or T lead to an increased average order and thus an increased relative hazard as a result of a synergistic effect. A decrease in one of the indicator values analogously causes a decreased average order/relative hazard through an antagonistic effect; the effect, however, being less pronounced. It is further seen that the effect of changing the apparent value of the three indicators is different. Thus, persistence apparently is more important that bioaccumulation which again appears more important than toxicity, which is in agreement with previous work. The results are discussed with reference to the European chemicals framework on registration, evaluation and authorization of chemicals (REACH framework.

  5. Prioritization of chemical hazards in spices and herbs for European monitoring programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, Van E.D.; Banach, J.L.; Fels, van der Ine

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring programs are preferably risk-based, which allows focusing on the most relevant human health risks. In this study, a risk matrix was used to identify those chemical hazards that have the highest human health risk for the following spices and herbs: paprika/chilli powder, black pepper, nutm

  6. Rapid detection of chemical hazards (toxins, dioxins, and PCBs) in seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Kotsanopoulos, Konstantinos V; Papadopoulou, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Among the various hazards occurring in fish and seafood chemical hazards and in particular toxins (ciguatera, scombroid fish poisoning, paralytic shellfish poisoning, neurotoxic (brevetoxic) shellfish poisoning, puffer fish poisoning, diarrhetic shellfish poisoning) have an important place in food poisoning cases. On the other hand, some of the chemical hazards are often due to the pollution of the environment (heavy metals, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons) and their detection is neither rapid nor facile. As a result there was a great need for developing new rapid and effective methods toward the chemical hazards determination mainly because of their high toxicity. The aim of this review is to provide the information about the new up-to-date detection techniques (Immunological, Chemical and Biochemical, and Molecular assays) in conjunction with detection limits. The latter is made possible by means of inclusion of seven comprehensive and, in most case cases, very extended tables. A reference is also made on the risk characterization of toxins as regards their importance to food contamination or poisoning.

  7. [A system for predicting the toxicity and hazard of chemical substances, based on the joint use of logistic and numerical methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchevnikova, N V

    2005-01-01

    A version of a logical combinatorial intellectual system (DMS system) has been developed to predict the toxicity and hazards of chemical substances. The system is based on the combined description of the substances, which includes both structural and numerical descriptors, particularly those characterizing the reactivity of compounds or their metabolites. The selection of numerical descriptors is based on the classification of processes of the interaction of the substance with the body in accordance with the key stage of the mechanism responsible for its toxic action. The new version of the DSM system takes into account the fact that the toxicity and hazard of chemicals are frequently determined by their bioactivation. Examples of how to apply the system to the prediction of carcinogenicity are given.

  8. How developing nations can protect children from hazardous chemical exposures while sustaining economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasande, Leonardo; Massey, Rachel I; DiGangi, Joseph; Geiser, Kenneth; Olanipekun, Abiola Ifueko; Gallagher, Louise

    2011-12-01

    Increasing worldwide use of chemicals, including heavy metals used in industry and pesticides used in agriculture, may produce increases in chronic diseases in children unless steps are taken to manage the production, use, trade, and disposal of chemicals. In 2020 the developing world will account for 33 percent of global chemical demand and 31 percent of production, compared with 23 percent and 21 percent, respectively, in 1995. We describe present and potential costs of environmental exposures and discuss policy options to protect future generations of children in a sustainable development context. Specifically, we describe the principles of sound chemicals management, as follows: precaution, or the use of cost-effective measures to prevent potentially hazardous exposures before scientific understanding is complete; the right to know, or informing the public--especially vulnerable groups--in a timely fashion about the safe use of chemicals and any releases of chemicals into the environment; pollution prevention, or preventing the use of hazardous chemicals and the production of pollutants, rather than focusing on managing wastes; internalization of environmental and health costs, or ensuring that the consequences of exposures are reflected in the price of chemicals through such approaches as "polluter pays"; and use of best available scientific information in making decisions such as what chemicals to allow into the market. We recommend that industrializing nations in particular employ these principles to prevent disease among their populations while at the same time minimizing the risk to their own economic development.

  9. Chemical-Help Application for Classification and Identification of Stormwater Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.; Driskell, Timothy R.; Nunes, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    A computer application called Chemical Help was developed to facilitate review of reports for the National Highway Runoff Water-Quality Data and Methodology Synthesis (NDAMS). The application provides a tool to quickly find a proper classification for any constituent in the NDAMS review sheets. Chemical Help contents include the name of each water-quality property, constituent, or parameter, the section number within the NDAMS review sheet, the organizational levels within a classification hierarchy, the database number, and where appropriate, the chemical formula, the Chemical Abstract Service number, and a list of synonyms (for the organic chemicals). Therefore, Chemical Help provides information necessary to research available reference data for the water-quality properties and constituents of potential interest in stormwater studies. Chemical Help is implemented in the Microsoft help-system interface. (Computer files for the use and documentation of Chemical Help are included on an accompanying diskette.)

  10. Classification and segregation of hazardous wastes in laboratory; Clasificacion y segregacion del residuo peligroso en el laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez de la Cuesta, P.J.; Rus Martinez, E. [Departamento Ingeneria Quimica, Facultad Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, Malaga (Spain)

    1995-04-01

    When a chemical materials is declared waste mater, the first responsibility fall on the waste producer who will be able it to manage by the safe way until final disposition. This wort think about the necessity for waste classification, and for storing, transfering and disposing segregation. (Author) 19 refs.

  11. Mercury and Hazardous Chemicals in Schools: A Manual for Students in Southeast Asia. EPA 747-R-08-002

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Children and adolescents, up to approximately age 20, are more susceptible than adults to potential health risks from chemicals and environmental hazards. Hazardous chemicals can interrupt or alter the normal development of a child's body, leading to lasting damage. Since children are smaller than adults, similar levels of exposure to toxic…

  12. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Public Health Command; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Bock, Robert Eldon [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  13. The dilemma in prioritizing chemicals for environmental analysis: known versus unknown hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Sobek; Sofia, Bejgarn; Christina, Rudén; Magnus, Breitholtz

    2016-08-10

    A major challenge for society is to manage the risks posed by the many chemicals continuously emitted to the environment. All chemicals in production and use cannot be monitored and science-based strategies for prioritization are essential. In this study we review available data to investigate which substances are included in environmental monitoring programs and published research studies reporting analyses of chemicals in Baltic Sea fish between 2000 and 2012. Our aim is to contribute to the discussion of priority settings in environmental chemical monitoring and research, which is closely linked to chemical management. In total, 105 different substances or substance groups were analyzed in Baltic Sea fish. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the most studied substances or substance groups. The majority, 87%, of all analyses comprised 20% of the substances or substance groups, whereas 46 substance groups (44%) were analyzed only once. Almost three quarters of all analyses regarded a POP-substance (persistent organic pollutant). These results demonstrate that the majority of analyses on environmental contaminants in Baltic Sea fish concern a small number of already regulated chemicals. Legacy pollutants such as POPs pose a high risk to the Baltic Sea due to their hazardous properties. Yet, there may be a risk that prioritizations for chemical analyses are biased based on the knowns of the past. Such biases may lead to society failing in identifying risks posed by yet unknown hazardous chemicals. Alternative and complementary ways to identify priority chemicals are needed. More transparent communication between risk assessments performed as part of the risk assessment process within REACH and monitoring programs, and information on chemicals contained in consumer articles, would offer ways to identify chemicals for environmental analysis.

  14. Chemical photoallergy: photobiochemical mechanisms, classification, and risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoue, Satomi; Seto, Yoshiki; Sato, Hideyuki; Nishida, Hayato; Hirota, Morihiko; Ashikaga, Takao; Api, Anne Marie; Basketter, David; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2017-01-01

    Chemical photosensitivity can be elicited by exposure of the skin to various pharmaceutical substances, foods, cosmetics and other environmental chemicals, followed by exposure to sunlight. There are at least three types of chemical photosensitivity, i.e., photoirritancy (narrowly defined as phototoxicity), photogenotoxicity and photoallergenicity, and their clinical characteristics and mechanisms are quite different. Concerns about chemical photoallergy is increasing, and various studies have been made to clarify the photobiochemical characteristics of photoallergens and the mechanisms involved. Various methodologies, including in silico prediction models, photochemical assay systems, and in vitro phototoxicity prediction tools, have been developed to predict the photoallergenic potential of chemicals over the past few years. The aim of this manuscript is to review the clinical characteristics, pathogenetic mechanisms and photobiochemical features of photoallergens, with special emphasis on the current status about development of screening systems for predicting photoallergenic potential of chemicals.

  15. Using Patent Classification to Discover Chemical Information in a Free Patent Database: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha¨rtinger, Stefan; Clarke, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Developing skills for searching the patent literature is an essential element of chemical information literacy programs at the university level. The present article creates awareness of patents as a rich source of chemical information. Patent classification is introduced as a key-component in comprehensive search strategies. The free Espacenet…

  16. The phase transition and classification of critical points in the multistability chemical reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChunhuaZHANG; FugenWU; ChunyanWU; FaOU

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we study the phase transition and classification of critical points in multistability chemical reaction systems. Referring to the spirit of Landau's theory of phase transitions, this paper deals with the varied transitions and critical phenomena in multistable chemical systems. It is demonstrated that the higher the order of the multistability,the wider the variety of phase transitions will be. A classification scheme of critical points according to the stability criterion and the thermodynamic potential continuity is suggested.It is useful for us to study critical phenomena especially in the non-equilibrium systems including the multi-stable chemical ones.

  17. Predictive Modeling of Chemical Hazard by Integrating Numerical Descriptors of Chemical Structures and Short-term Toxicity Assay Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyn, Ivan; Sedykh, Alexander; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are widely used for in silico prediction of in vivo toxicity of drug candidates or environmental chemicals, adding value to candidate selection in drug development or in a search for less hazardous and more sustainable alternatives for chemicals in commerce. The development of traditional QSAR models is enabled by numerical descriptors representing the inherent chemical properties that can be easily defined for any number of molecules; however, traditional QSAR models often have limited predictive power due to the lack of data and complexity of in vivo endpoints. Although it has been indeed difficult to obtain experimentally derived toxicity data on a large number of chemicals in the past, the results of quantitative in vitro screening of thousands of environmental chemicals in hundreds of experimental systems are now available and continue to accumulate. In addition, publicly accessible toxicogenomics data collected on hundreds of chemicals provide another dimension of molecular information that is potentially useful for predictive toxicity modeling. These new characteristics of molecular bioactivity arising from short-term biological assays, i.e., in vitro screening and/or in vivo toxicogenomics data can now be exploited in combination with chemical structural information to generate hybrid QSAR–like quantitative models to predict human toxicity and carcinogenicity. Using several case studies, we illustrate the benefits of a hybrid modeling approach, namely improvements in the accuracy of models, enhanced interpretation of the most predictive features, and expanded applicability domain for wider chemical space coverage. PMID:22387746

  18. Classification of working processes to facilitate occupational hazard coding on industrial trawlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf C; Stage, Søren; Noer, Preben

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Commercial fishing is an extremely dangerous economic activity. In order to more accurately describe the risks involved, a specific injury coding based on the working process was developed. METHOD: Observation on six different types of vessels was conducted and allowed a description...... and a classification of the principal working processes on all kinds of vessels and a detailed classification for industrial trawlers. In industrial trawling, fish are landed for processing purposes, for example, for the production of fish oil and fish meal. The classification was subsequently used to code...... the injuries reported to the Danish Maritime Authority over a 5-year period. RESULTS: On industrial trawlers, 374 of 394 (95%) injuries were captured by the classification. Setting out and hauling in the gear and nets were the processes with the most injuries and accounted for 58.9% of all injuries...

  19. Reducing aquatic hazards of industrial chemicals: probabilistic assessment of sustainable molecular design guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Kristin A; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina M; Kostal, Jakub; Anastas, Paul; Zimmerman, Julie B; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-08-01

    Basic toxicological information is lacking for the majority of industrial chemicals. In addition to increasing empirical toxicity data through additional testing, prospective computational approaches to drug development aim to serve as a rational basis for the design of chemicals with reduced toxicity. Recent work has resulted in the derivation of a "rule of 2," wherein chemicals with an octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) less than 2 and a difference between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital (ΔE) greater than 9 (log P9 eV) are predicted to be 4 to 5 times less likely to elicit acute or chronic toxicity to model aquatic organisms. The present study examines potential reduction of aquatic toxicity hazards from industrial chemicals if these 2 molecular design guidelines were employed. Probabilistic hazard assessment approaches were used to model the likelihood of encountering industrial chemicals exceeding toxicological categories of concern both with and without the rule of 2. Modeling predicted that utilization of these molecular design guidelines for log P and ΔE would appreciably decrease the number of chemicals that would be designated to be of "high" and "very high" concern for acute and chronic toxicity to standard model aquatic organisms and end points as defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. For example, 14.5% of chemicals were categorized as having high and very high acute toxicity to the fathead minnow model, whereas only 3.3% of chemicals conforming to the design guidelines were predicted to be in these categories. Considerations of specific chemical classes (e.g., aldehydes), chemical attributes (e.g., ionization), and adverse outcome pathways in representative species (e.g., receptor-mediated responses) could be used to derive future property guidelines for broader classes of contaminants.

  20. Practical management of chemicals and hazardous wastes: An environmental and safety professional`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhre, W.L.

    1995-08-01

    This book was written to help the environmental and safety student learn about the field and to help the working professional manage hazardous material and waste issues. For example, one issue that will impact virtually all of these people mentioned is the upcoming environmental standardization movement. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is in the process of adding comprehensive environmental and hazardous waste management systems to their future certification requirements. Most industries worldwide will be working hard to achieve this new level of environmental management. This book presents many of the systems needed to receive certification. In order to properly manage hazardous waste, it is important to consider the entire life cycle, including when the waste was a useful chemical or hazardous material. Waste minimization is built upon this concept. Understanding the entire life cycle is also important in terms of liability, since many regulations hold generators responsible from cradle to grave. This book takes the life-cycle concept even further, in order to provide additional insight. The discussion starts with the conception of the chemical and traces its evolution into a waste and even past disposal. At this point the story continues into the afterlife, where responsibility still remains.

  1. Chemical hazards associated with treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsydenova, Oyuna; Bengtsson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    This review paper summarizes the existing knowledge on the chemical hazards associated with recycling and other end-of-life treatment options of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste). The hazards arise from the presence of heavy metals (e.g., mercury, cadmium, lead, etc.), flame retardants (e.g., pentabromophenol, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), etc.) and other potentially harmful substances in e-waste. If improperly managed, the substances may pose significant human and environmental health risks. The review describes the potentially hazardous content of e-waste, examines the existing e-waste management practices and presents scientific data on human exposure to chemicals, workplace and environmental pollution associated with the three major e-waste management options, i.e., recycling, incineration and landfilling. The existing e-waste management practices and associated hazards are reviewed separately for developed and developing countries. Finally, based on this review, the paper identifies gaps in the existing knowledge and makes some recommendations for future research.

  2. DOE underground storage tank waste remediation chemical processing hazards. Part I: Technology dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMuth, S.F.

    1996-10-01

    This document has been prepared to aid in the development of Regulating guidelines for the Privatization of Hanford underground storage tank waste remediation. The document has been prepared it two parts to facilitate their preparation. Part II is the primary focus of this effort in that it describes the technical basis for established and potential chemical processing hazards associated with Underground Storage Tank (UST) nuclear waste remediation across the DOE complex. The established hazards involve those at Sites for which Safety Analysis Reviews (SARs) have already been prepared. Potential hazards are those involving technologies currently being developed for future applications. Part I of this document outlines the scope of Part II by briefly describing the established and potential technologies. In addition to providing the scope, Part I can be used as a technical introduction and bibliography for Regulatory personnel new to the UST waste remediation, and in particular Privatization effort. Part II of this document is not intended to provide examples of a SAR Hazards Analysis, but rather provide an intelligence gathering source for Regulatory personnel who must eventually evaluate the Privatization SAR Hazards Analysis.

  3. Risk assessment of chemicals in food and diet: Hazard identification by methods of animal-based toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlow, S. M.; Greig, J. B.; Bridges, J. W.;

    2002-01-01

    the current state of the science of risk assessment of chemicals in food and diet, by consideration of the four stages of risk assessment, that is. hazard identification. hazard characterisation, exposure assessment and risk characterisation. The contribution of animal-based methods in toxicology to hazard......, on hazard identification for food chemicals, such as new measurement techniques, the use of transgenic animals, assessment of hormone balance and the possibilities for conducting studies in which common human diseases have been modelled. is also considered. (C) 2002 ILSI. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd....... All rights reserved....

  4. Environmental Product Development Combining the Life Cycle Perspective with Chemical Hazard Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askham, Cecilia

    in the design or redesign process. This thesis concerns marrying the life cycle perspective with chemical hazard information, in order to advance the practice of environmental product development, and hence takes further steps towards sustainable development. The need to consider the full value chain...... for the life cycle of products meant that systems theory and systems engineering principles were important in this work. Life cycle assessment methodology was important for assessing environmental impacts for case products. The new European regulation for chemicals (REACH) provided the main driver...

  5. A new classification code is available in the Danish health-care classification system for patients with symptoms related to chemicals and scents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Jesper; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde; Vesterhauge, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    From July 2012, a classification code for multiple chemical sensitivity has been available in the Danish healthcare classification system. The overall purpose is to register hospital contacts in Denmark. The diagnostic code is labelled "Symptoms related to chemicals and scents", DR688A1, and clas......, and classified as a subcategory to "Medically unexplained symptoms", DR688A, which is a specialization of the ICD-10 code "R68.8 Other specified general symptoms and signs". The classification was decided with reference to the present lack of scientific understanding.......From July 2012, a classification code for multiple chemical sensitivity has been available in the Danish healthcare classification system. The overall purpose is to register hospital contacts in Denmark. The diagnostic code is labelled "Symptoms related to chemicals and scents", DR688A1...

  6. Monitoring and trace detection of hazardous waste and toxic chemicals using resonance Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, A.J. III; Dougherty, D.R.; Chen, C.L.

    1993-04-01

    Raman scattering is a coherent, inelastic, two-photon process, which shifts the frequency of an outgoing photon according to the vibrational structure of the irradiated species, thereby providing a unique fingerprint of the molecule. When involving an allowed electronic transition (resonance Raman), this scattering cross section can be enhanced by 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 6} and provides the basis for a viable technique that can monitor and detect trace quantities of hazardous wastes and toxic chemicals. Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) possesses many of the ideal characteristics for monitoring and detecting of hazardous waste and toxic chemicals. Some of these traits are: (1) very high selectivity (chemical specific fingerprints); (2) independence from the excitation wavelength (ability to monitor in the solar blind region); (3) chemical mixture fingerprints are the sum of its individual components (no spectral cross-talk); (4) near independence of the Raman fingerprint to its physical state (very similar spectra for gas, liquid, solid and solutions -- either bulk or aerosols); and (5) insensitivity of the Raman signature to environmental conditions (no quenching). Data from a few chemicals will be presented which illustrate these features. In cases where background fluorescence accompanies the Raman signals, an effective frequency modulation technique has been developed, which can completely eliminate this interference.

  7. Monitoring and trace detection of hazardous waste and toxic chemicals using resonance Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, A.J. III; Dougherty, D.R.; Chen, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Raman scattering is a coherent, inelastic, two-photon process, which shifts the frequency of an outgoing photon according to the vibrational structure of the irradiated species, thereby providing a unique fingerprint of the molecule. When involving an allowed electronic transition (resonance Raman), this scattering cross section can be enhanced by 10[sup 4] to 10[sup 6] and provides the basis for a viable technique that can monitor and detect trace quantities of hazardous wastes and toxic chemicals. Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) possesses many of the ideal characteristics for monitoring and detecting of hazardous waste and toxic chemicals. Some of these traits are: (1) very high selectivity (chemical specific fingerprints); (2) independence from the excitation wavelength (ability to monitor in the solar blind region); (3) chemical mixture fingerprints are the sum of its individual components (no spectral cross-talk); (4) near independence of the Raman fingerprint to its physical state (very similar spectra for gas, liquid, solid and solutions -- either bulk or aerosols); and (5) insensitivity of the Raman signature to environmental conditions (no quenching). Data from a few chemicals will be presented which illustrate these features. In cases where background fluorescence accompanies the Raman signals, an effective frequency modulation technique has been developed, which can completely eliminate this interference.

  8. Pyrotechnic hazards classification and evaluation program test report. Heat flux study of deflagrating pyrotechnic munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassnacht, P. O.

    1971-01-01

    A heat flux study of deflagrating pyrotechnic munitions is presented. Three tests were authorized to investigate whether heat flux measurements may be used as effective hazards evaluation criteria to determine safe quantity distances for pyrotechnics. A passive sensor study was conducted simultaneously to investigate their usefulness in recording events and conditions. It was concluded that heat flux measurements can effectively be used to evaluate hazards criteria and that passive sensors are an inexpensive tool to record certain events in the vicinity of deflagrating pyrotechnic stacks.

  9. Clustering and rule-based classifications of chemical structures evaluated in the biological activity space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuffenhauer, Ansgar; Brown, Nathan; Ertl, Peter; Jenkins, Jeremy L; Selzer, Paul; Hamon, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Classification methods for data sets of molecules according to their chemical structure were evaluated for their biological relevance, including rule-based, scaffold-oriented classification methods and clustering based on molecular descriptors. Three data sets resulting from uniformly determined in vitro biological profiling experiments were classified according to their chemical structures, and the results were compared in a Pareto analysis with the number of classes and their average spread in the profile space as two concurrent objectives which were to be minimized. It has been found that no classification method is overall superior to all other studied methods, but there is a general trend that rule-based, scaffold-oriented methods are the better choice if classes with homogeneous biological activity are required, but a large number of clusters can be tolerated. On the other hand, clustering based on chemical fingerprints is superior if fewer and larger classes are required, and some loss of homogeneity in biological activity can be accepted.

  10. Prioritization of chemicals according to the degree of hazard in the aquatic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Dean R.

    1980-01-01

    Chemicals designated as “priority pollutants” or “toxics” have received special attention recently because the discharge of these compounds into public water is to be restricted to the maximum possible with little regard to water quality or economics. The selection of many of the 129 priority cemicals was not based on an objective scientific assessment of the exposure and effect data. In fact, for some compounds, including acenaphthene and 4-chlorophenyl-phenyl ether, the necessary data for listing were non-existent. As an alternative to arbitrarily listing or delisting chemicals for the purpose of prioity control, this paper suggests a promising scientific approach to selecting priority chemicals based on the principles of hazard assessment for chemicals in the aquatic environment. According o the hypothesis, the highest priority chemicals are those with the least margin of safety, defined as the gap between the no-observable-effect concentrations and the ambient exposure concentrations. The no-observable-effect concenrations are based on the results of chronic or sensitive life stage tests with aquatic organisms and the acceptable daily intake rate for fish eates. The ambient exposure concentrations are levels either measured in fish and water, or roughly estimated from a simple nomogram that requires only two of the following three factors: environmental release rate, ratio of dissipation to bioconcentration potential, or ambient residues in fish. The chemicals studied to illustrate this approach to prioritizing chemicals based on hazard assessment are: polychlorinated biphenyls, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, and pentachlorophenol. PMID:6771128

  11. European alerting and monitoring data as inputs for the risk assessment of microbiological and chemical hazards in spices and herbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, J.L.; Stratakou, I.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Besten, den H.M.W.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Food chains are susceptible to contaminations from food-borne hazards, including pathogens and chemical contaminants. An assessment of the potential product-hazard combinations can be supported by using multiple data sources. The objective of this study was to identify the main trends of food saf

  12. The substitution of hazardous chemicals in the international context - Opportunity for promoting sustainable chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, R.; Lissner, L.; Fantke, Peter

    in particular in developing and transition countries do not know about more sustainable and green alternatives for a chemical in a particular application. Methodologies and tools are, hence, needed for the communication and dissemination of information on more sustainable alternatives. The substitution...... and phase-out of hazardous chemicals, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), on international level like under the Stockholm Convention, might provide one promising mechanism to mainstream more sustainable and greener chemicals and other alternative solutions aiming at eliminating or at least......-Phase-Out a publication has been developed compiling information on POPs-phase out and alternatives. In the conclusions and recommendation of this document “Sustainable and Green Chemistry” is highlighted as a guiding principle for alternatives assessment. This could be an entry point of Sustainable Chemistry...

  13. Real-time detection of concealed chemical hazards under ambient light conditions using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cletus, Biju; Olds, William; Fredericks, Peter M; Jaatinen, Esa; Izake, Emad L

    2013-07-01

    Current concerns regarding terrorism and international crime highlight the need for new techniques for detecting unknown and hazardous substances. A novel Raman spectroscopy-based technique, spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS), was recently devised for noninvasively probing the contents of diffusely scattering and opaque containers. Here, we demonstrate a modified portable SORS sensor for detecting concealed substances in-field under different background lighting conditions. Samples including explosive precursors, drugs, and an organophosphate insecticide (chemical warfare agent surrogate) were concealed inside diffusely scattering packaging including plastic, paper, and cloth. Measurements were carried out under incandescent and fluorescent light as well as under daylight to assess the suitability of the probe for different real-life conditions. In each case, it was possible to identify the substances against their reference Raman spectra in less than 1 min. The developed sensor has potential for rapid detection of concealed hazardous substances in airports, mail distribution centers, and customs checkpoints.

  14. Physical and ergonomic hazards in the textile, chemical, food, metal products, and woodworking industries in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soytas, Ugur

    2006-01-01

    Questionnaires were administered in 272 textile, chemical, food, metal products and woodworking firms in ten cities in industry-dense areas to assess the general OHS situation in Turkey. This paper explores the portion related to exposures of workers to physical and ergonomic hazards. OHS experts where available, firm owners, partners, or engineers responsible for safety were asked to answer structured questions regarding percentages of workers exposed to specific hazards. About 65% of respondents reported exposures to noise risks among at least some percentage of employees; 26.3% reported more than 50% of employees were so exposed. In more than 60% of the firms employees were exposed to ergonomic risks related to the need to meet production quotas and the need to maintain constant posture. The most prevalent risk factors in five industries and the relative frequencies of exposed employees are described.

  15. Governance of complex socio-environmental risks: the case of hazardous chemicals in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Mikael; Gilek, Michael; Udovyk, Oksana

    2011-03-01

    Complex socio-environmental risks challenge society. In response to scientific uncertainty and sociopolitical controversies, environmental governance, precaution, and the ecosystem approach to management are held forward as complements to governmental risk-based sector-restricted regulation. We analyze this development for hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea. Based on interviews and policy analysis, we study informal governance and, in particular, four central EU and international policies, and investigate how present governance relates to risks and objectives at hand. While showing emergence of broader governance approaches, we conclude that central objectives will not likely be met. Furthermore, we question the quest for broad environmental governance and emphasize the value of command and control regulation, if it implements precaution. These findings contribute to the theorizing on environmental (risk) governance. Finally, we provide some ideas that could help development and implementation of risk policies for hazardous chemicals in the Baltic Sea as well as other complex risks.

  16. Heat wave hazard classification and risk assessment using artificial intelligence fuzzy logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Kiranoudis, Chris T; Maiheu, Bino; De Ridder, Koen; Daglis, Ioannis A; Manunta, Paolo; Paganini, Marc

    2013-10-01

    The average summer temperatures as well as the frequency and intensity of hot days and heat waves are expected to increase due to climate change. Motivated by this consequence, we propose a methodology to evaluate the monthly heat wave hazard and risk and its spatial distribution within large cities. A simple urban climate model with assimilated satellite-derived land surface temperature images was used to generate a historic database of urban air temperature fields. Heat wave hazard was then estimated from the analysis of these hourly air temperatures distributed at a 1-km grid over Athens, Greece, by identifying the areas that are more likely to suffer higher temperatures in the case of a heat wave event. Innovation lies in the artificial intelligence fuzzy logic model that was used to classify the heat waves from mild to extreme by taking into consideration their duration, intensity and time of occurrence. The monthly hazard was subsequently estimated as the cumulative effect from the individual heat waves that occurred at each grid cell during a month. Finally, monthly heat wave risk maps were produced integrating geospatial information on the population vulnerability to heat waves calculated from socio-economic variables.

  17. Automated and unbiased classification of chemical profiles from fungi using high performance liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Edberg; Andersen, Birgitte; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for unbiased/unsupervised classification and identification of closely related fungi, using chemical analysis of secondary metabolite profiles created by HPLC with UV diode array detection. For two chromatographic data matrices a vector of locally aligned full sp...

  18. Guidelines of Italian CCTN for classification of some effects of chemical substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mucci, N. [ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Rome (Italy). Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro; Camoni, I. [Ist. Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata

    1996-03-01

    Definitions of the categories and the criteria for the classification of chemical substances on the basis of their potential carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic-reproductive effects, elaborated by the Italian National Advisory Toxicological Committee (CCTN) in 1994. Besides all the allocations effected by the CCTN in the period 1977-1995 are reported, updated according to these criteria.

  19. Information gathering for CLP classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcello, Ida; Giordano, Felice; Costamagna, Francesca Marina

    2011-01-01

    Regulation 1272/2008 includes provisions for two types of classification: harmonised classification and self-classification. The harmonised classification of substances is decided at Community level and a list of harmonised classifications is included in the Annex VI of the classification, labelling and packaging Regulation (CLP). If a chemical substance is not included in the harmonised classification list it must be self-classified, based on available information, according to the requirements of Annex I of the CLP Regulation. CLP appoints that the harmonised classification will be performed for carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction substances (CMR substances) and for respiratory sensitisers category 1 and for other hazard classes on a case-by-case basis. The first step of classification is the gathering of available and relevant information. This paper presents the procedure for gathering information and to obtain data. The data quality is also discussed.

  20. Information gathering for CLP classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Marcello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation 1272/2008 includes provisions for two types of classification: harmonised classification and self-classification. The harmonised classification of substances is decided at Community level and a list of harmonised classifications is included in the Annex VI of the classification, labelling and packaging Regulation (CLP. If a chemical substance is not included in the harmonised classification list it must be self-classified, based on available information, according to the requirements of Annex I of the CLP Regulation. CLP appoints that the harmonised classification will be performed for carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction substances (CMR substances and for respiratory sensitisers category 1 and for other hazard classes on a case-by-case basis. The first step of classification is the gathering of available and relevant information. This paper presents the procedure for gathering information and to obtain data. The data quality is also discussed.

  1. Recommendations on chemicals management policy and legislation in the framework of the Egyptian-German twinning project on hazardous substances and waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Burkhard O; Aziz, Elham Refaat Abdel; Schwetje, Anja; Shouk, Fatma Abou; Koch-Jugl, Juliane; Braedt, Michael; Choudhury, Keya; Weber, Roland

    2013-04-01

    The sustainable management of chemicals and their associated wastes-especially legacy stockpiles-is always challenging. Developing countries face particular difficulties as they often have insufficient treatment and disposal capacity, have limited resources and many lack an appropriate and effective regulatory framework. This paper describes the objectives and the approach of the Egyptian-German Twinning Project under the European Neighbourhood Policy to improve the strategy of managing hazardous substances in the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) between November 2008 and May 2011. It also provides an introduction to the Republic of Egypt's legal and administrative system regarding chemical controls. Subsequently, options for a new chemical management strategy consistent with the recommendations of the United Nations Chemicals Conventions are proposed. The Egyptian legal and administrative system is discussed in relation to the United Nations' recommendations and current European Union legislation for the sound management of chemicals. We also discuss a strategy for the EEAA to use the existing Egyptian legal system to implement the United Nations' Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, the Stockholm Convention and other proposed regulatory frameworks. The analysis, the results, and the recommendations presented may be useful for other developing countries in a comparable position to Egypt aspiring to update their legislation and administration to the international standards of sound management of chemicals.

  2. Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  3. Predicting allergic contact dermatitis: a hierarchical structure activity relationship (SAR) approach to chemical classification using topological and quantum chemical descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Subhash C.; Mills, Denise; Hawkins, Douglas M.

    2008-06-01

    A hierarchical classification study was carried out based on a set of 70 chemicals—35 which produce allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and 35 which do not. This approach was implemented using a regular ridge regression computer code, followed by conversion of regression output to binary data values. The hierarchical descriptor classes used in the modeling include topostructural (TS), topochemical (TC), and quantum chemical (QC), all of which are based solely on chemical structure. The concordance, sensitivity, and specificity are reported. The model based on the TC descriptors was found to be the best, while the TS model was extremely poor.

  4. Fusion of chemical, biological, and meteorological observations for agent source term estimation and hazard refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieringer, Paul E.; Rodriguez, Luna M.; Sykes, Ian; Hurst, Jonathan; Vandenberghe, Francois; Weil, Jeffrey; Bieberbach, George, Jr.; Parker, Steve; Cabell, Ryan

    2011-05-01

    Chemical and biological (CB) agent detection and effective use of these observations in hazard assessment models are key elements of our nation's CB defense program that seeks to ensure that Department of Defense (DoD) operations are minimally affected by a CB attack. Accurate hazard assessments rely heavily on the source term parameters necessary to characterize the release in the transport and dispersion (T&D) simulation. Unfortunately, these source parameters are often not known and based on rudimentary assumptions. In this presentation we describe an algorithm that utilizes variational data assimilation techniques to fuse CB and meteorological observations to characterize agent release source parameters and provide a refined hazard assessment. The underlying algorithm consists of a combination of modeling systems, including the Second order Closure Integrated PUFF model (SCIPUFF), its corresponding Source Term Estimation (STE) model, a hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian Plume Model (LEPM), its formal adjoint, and the software infrastructure necessary to link them. SCIPUFF and its STE model are used to calculate a "first guess" source estimate. The LEPM and corresponding adjoint are then used to iteratively refine this release source estimate using variational data assimilation techniques. This algorithm has undergone preliminary testing using virtual "single realization" plume release data sets from the Virtual THreat Response Emulation and Analysis Testbed (VTHREAT) and data from the FUSION Field Trials 2007 (FFT07). The end-to-end prototype of this system that has been developed to illustrate its use within the United States (US) Joint Effects Model (JEM) will be demonstrated.

  5. A novel Chemical Reaction Optimization based Higher order Neural Network (CRO-HONN for nonlinear classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janmenjoy Nayak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Chemical Reaction Optimization (CRO based higher order neural network with a single hidden layer called Pi–Sigma Neural Network (PSNN has been proposed for data classification which maintains fast learning capability and avoids the exponential increase of number of weights and processing units. CRO is a recent metaheuristic optimization algorithm inspired by chemical reactions, free from intricate operator and parameter settings such as other algorithms and loosely couples chemical reactions with optimization. The performance of the proposed CRO-PSNN has been tested with various benchmark datasets from UCI machine learning repository and compared with the resulting performance of PSNN, GA-PSNN, PSO-PSNN. The methods have been implemented in MATLAB and the accuracy measures have been tested by using the ANOVA statistical tool. Experimental results show that the proposed method is fast, steady and reliable and provides better classification accuracy than others.

  6. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part I: QSAR models of skin sensitization and their application to identify potentially hazardous compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Vinicius M. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Muratov, Eugene [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry, A.V. Bogatsky Physical-Chemical Institute NAS of Ukraine, Odessa 65080 (Ukraine); Fourches, Denis [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole [ILS/Contractor Supporting the NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM), P.O. Box 13501, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Andrade, Carolina H. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Tropsha, Alexander, E-mail: alex_tropsha@unc.edu [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Repetitive exposure to a chemical agent can induce an immune reaction in inherently susceptible individuals that leads to skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been reported as skin sensitizers, there have been very few rigorously validated QSAR models with defined applicability domains (AD) that were developed using a large group of chemically diverse compounds. In this study, we have aimed to compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset related to chemically-induced skin sensitization, use this data to generate rigorously validated and QSAR models for skin sensitization, and employ these models as a virtual screening tool for identifying putative sensitizers among environmental chemicals. We followed best practices for model building and validation implemented with our predictive QSAR workflow using Random Forest modeling technique in combination with SiRMS and Dragon descriptors. The Correct Classification Rate (CCR) for QSAR models discriminating sensitizers from non-sensitizers was 71–88% when evaluated on several external validation sets, within a broad AD, with positive (for sensitizers) and negative (for non-sensitizers) predicted rates of 85% and 79% respectively. When compared to the skin sensitization module included in the OECD QSAR Toolbox as well as to the skin sensitization model in publicly available VEGA software, our models showed a significantly higher prediction accuracy for the same sets of external compounds as evaluated by Positive Predicted Rate, Negative Predicted Rate, and CCR. These models were applied to identify putative chemical hazards in the Scorecard database of possible skin or sense organ toxicants as primary candidates for experimental validation. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin sensitization dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin sensitization. • Developed models have higher prediction accuracy than OECD QSAR Toolbox. • Putative

  7. Numerical Simulations as Tool to Predict Chemical and Radiological Hazardous Diffusion in Case of Nonconventional Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Ciparisse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations are widely used nowadays to predict the behaviour of fluids in pure research and in industrial applications. This approach makes it possible to get quantitatively meaningful results, often in good agreement with the experimental ones. The aim of this paper is to show how CFD calculations can help to understand the time evolution of two possible CBRNe (Chemical-Biological-Radiological-Nuclear-explosive events: (1 hazardous dust mobilization due to the interaction between a jet of air and a metallic powder in case of a LOVA (Loss Of Vacuum Accidents that is one of the possible accidents that can occur in experimental nuclear fusion plants; (2 toxic gas release in atmosphere. The scenario analysed in the paper has consequences similar to those expected in case of a release of dangerous substances (chemical or radioactive in enclosed or open environment during nonconventional events (like accidents or man-made or natural disasters.

  8. 农药包装运输的危险性分类与标签%Hazardous Classification and Label on the Package and Transport of Pesticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琛; 张伟; 郭永华; 赵珊红

    2011-01-01

    The pesticide hazards were reviewed and the hazardous classification and label on the pesticide package and transport in the United Nations Recommendations on the transport of dangerous goods model regulations (TDG) was researched. On these bases, an correct classification idea of pesticide samples was proposed. The hazards of pesticide samples were classified and labeled according to the proposed idea and the TDG criterion ultimately.%综述了农药的危险性,研究了联合国(TDG)中对农药包装运输的危险性分类与标签.在此基础上,提出了对农药样品进行正确分类的思路,最终依据提出的思路和TDG的标准对农药样品进行了鉴定分类和标签.

  9. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical waste to LBL`s Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). Hazardous chemical waste is a necessary byproduct of LBL`s research and technical support activities. This waste must be handled properly if LBL is to operate safely and provide adequate protection to staff and the environment. These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of hazardous chemical waste, can meet LBL`s acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical waste.

  10. An OSHA based approach to safety analysis for nonradiological hazardous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurconic, M.

    1992-08-01

    The PNL method for chemical hazard classification defines major hazards by means of a list of hazardous substances (or chemical groups) with associated trigger quantities. In addition, the functional characteristics of the facility being classified is also be factored into the classification. In this way, installations defined as major hazard will only be those which have the potential for causing very serious incidents both on and off site. Because of the diversity of operations involving chemicals, it may not be possible to restrict major hazard facilities to certain types of operations. However, this hazard classification method recognizes that in the industrial sector major hazards are most commonly associated with activities involving very large quantities of chemicals and inherently energetic processes. These include operations like petrochemical plants, chemical production, LPG storage, explosives manufacturing, and facilities which use chlorine, ammonia, or other highly toxic gases in bulk quantities. The basis for this methodology is derived from concepts used by OSHA in its proposed chemical process safety standard, the Dow Fire and Explosion Index Hazard Classification Guide, and the International Labor Office`s program on chemical safety. For the purpose of identifying major hazard facilities, this method uses two sorting criteria, (1) facility function and processes and (2) quantity of substances to identify facilities requiringclassification. Then, a measure of chemical energy potential (material factor) is used to identify high hazard class facilities.

  11. An OSHA based approach to safety analysis for nonradiological hazardous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurconic, M.

    1992-08-01

    The PNL method for chemical hazard classification defines major hazards by means of a list of hazardous substances (or chemical groups) with associated trigger quantities. In addition, the functional characteristics of the facility being classified is also be factored into the classification. In this way, installations defined as major hazard will only be those which have the potential for causing very serious incidents both on and off site. Because of the diversity of operations involving chemicals, it may not be possible to restrict major hazard facilities to certain types of operations. However, this hazard classification method recognizes that in the industrial sector major hazards are most commonly associated with activities involving very large quantities of chemicals and inherently energetic processes. These include operations like petrochemical plants, chemical production, LPG storage, explosives manufacturing, and facilities which use chlorine, ammonia, or other highly toxic gases in bulk quantities. The basis for this methodology is derived from concepts used by OSHA in its proposed chemical process safety standard, the Dow Fire and Explosion Index Hazard Classification Guide, and the International Labor Office's program on chemical safety. For the purpose of identifying major hazard facilities, this method uses two sorting criteria, (1) facility function and processes and (2) quantity of substances to identify facilities requiringclassification. Then, a measure of chemical energy potential (material factor) is used to identify high hazard class facilities.

  12. A new approach for the combined chemical and mineral classification of the inorganic matter in coal. 2. Potential applications of the classification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislav V. Vassilev; Christina G. Vassileva; David Baxter; Lars K. Andersen [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Central Laboratory of Mineralogy and Crystallography

    2009-02-15

    Part 1 of the present work introduced and evaluated a new approach for the combined chemical and mineral classification of the inorganic matter in coal. The benefit of these classification systems is the use of significant correlations and actual element associations, and well-defined and genetically described mineral classes and species in coal. Potential applications of the chemically and mineralogically categorized coal types and subtypes are discussed in the present part 2. The data show that various technological problems, environmental risks and health concerns of coal use are related directly or indirectly to specific mineral and chemical coal types and subtypes. Furthermore, a concept of 'self-cleaning fuels' also is introduced and developed herein based on mineral coal types. The application of these chemical and mineral classification systems and concept is proposed to both the scientific and industrial community. 54 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. The Chemical Classification of the AGB Star IRAS 17515-2407

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-Sheng Chen; Pin Zhang

    2003-01-01

    The chemical classification of IRAS 17515-2407 has been debated for a long time. Up to now there are two contenders, oxygen-rich or carbon-rich. We believe that IRAS 17515-2407 is an oxygen-rich source: because (i) it shows the silicate self-absorbed emission; (ii) in the near infrared-IRAS diagram it is located in the oxygen-rich object region and (iii) particularly, it has detected SiO maser emission.

  14. In vitro methods for hazard assessment of industrial chemicals – opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Lin eWong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD is a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction mediated by T-lymphocytes as a result of repeated exposure of an allergen primarily on skin. ACD accounts for up to 95% of occupational skin diseases (OSDs, with epoxy resins implicated as one of the most common causes of ACD. Efficient high-throughput in vitro screening for accurate identification of compounds and materials that may pose hazardous risks in the workplace is crucial. At present, the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA is the ‘method of choice’ for predicting the sensitizing potency of contact allergens. As the 3Rs principles of reduction, refinement and replacement in animal testing has gained political and economic momentum, several in vitro screening methods have been developed for identifying potential contact allergens. To date, these latter methods have been utilized primarily to assess the skin sensitizing potential of the chemical components of cosmetic products with scant research attention as to the applicability of these methods to industrial chemicals, particularly epoxy resins. Herein we review the currently utilized in vitro methods and identify the knowledge gaps with regard to assessing the generalizability of in vitro screening methods for assessing the skin sensitizing potential of industrial chemicals.

  15. Development of Candidate Chemical Simulant List: The Evaluation of Candidate Chemical Simulants Which May Be Used in Chemically Hazardous Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    1975) also reported promoting activity for 80% citrus oil (consisting main-nTy of d-limonene) in Japanese SDDy-strain mice initiated with a single...synthesis of pharmaceuticals , insecticides, fungiciJes, non-ionic detergents and bacteriocides, in synthetic rubber processing and in froth flotation agents...Clayton (1981); Food Chemicals Codex (1981) 63 DIETHYL SEBACATE Diethyl sebacate is a colorless to yellowish liquid. It has been used as a fragrance

  16. Toxicity of a hazardous chemical mixture in the planarian, Dugesia dorotocephala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsdell, H.S.; Matthews, C.M. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The responses of the planarian, Dugesia dorotocephala to toxic chemical mixtures representative of water contaminants associated with hazardous waste sites have been studied in laboratory experiments. These free-living flatworms are readily maintained under laboratory conditions and are a useful invertebrate model for toxicology studies. Their widespread occurrence also makes them potentially useful for environmental studies. Mature asexual Dugesia dorotocephala were exposed for 14 days to mixtures of seven contaminants frequently detected in water at hazardous waste sites. The complete 1X mixture contained both metals (As, 3.1 ppm; Cr, 0.7 ppm; Pb, 3.7 ppm) and organics (chloroform, 1.5 ppm; benzene, 5.0 ppm; phenol, 3.4 ppm; trichloroethylene, 3.8 ppm). Groups of planaria were treated with the complete mixture at 0.1X, 1X and 10X concentrations. Additional groups were exposed to the metals-only or organics-only submixtures, also at 0.1X, 1X and 10X concentrations. Treatment solutions were renewed daily. Suppression of fissioning was observed in all of the 1X and 10X treatment groups. Significant mortality occurred only in the 10X complete and 1 0X metals-only treatments. It appears that the toxic effects of the complete mixture are primarily associated with the metal components.

  17. Ultrasonic photoacoustic spectroscopy of trace hazardous chemicals using quantum cascade laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Ghai, Devinder Pal; Soni, R. K.

    2016-12-01

    We report an ultrasonic sensor based on open-cell photoacoustic spectroscopy method for the detection of explosive agents in traces. Experimentally, we recorded photoacoustic spectra of traces of hazardous explosives and molecules. Tunable mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers in the wavelength range 7.0-8.8 μm lying in the molecular fingerprint region are used as optical source. Samples of Pentaerylthirol Tetranitrate (PETN), Tetranitro-triazacyclohexane (RDX), Dinitrotoluene, p-Nitrobenzoic acid and other chemicals like Ibuprofen having quantity 1.0 mg were detected using a custom made photoacoustic cells in both open and closed configurations. The explosive traces were swiped using paper from contaminated surface and detected. Finite element mesh based simulation of photoacoustic cell is carried out for optimization of geometry at ultrasonic frequency (40 kHz). A point sensor based on above approach will be very effective for forensic applications and suspicious material screening.

  18. Development of a risk management tool for prioritizing chemical hazard-food pairs and demonstration for selected mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stornetta, Alessia; Engeli, Barbara E; Zarn, Jürg A; Gremaud, Gérard; Sturla, Shana J

    2015-07-01

    We developed a simple tool for ranking chemical hazard-food pairs to assist policy makers and risk managers selecting the hazard-food pairs that deserve more attention and need to be monitored during food safety inspections. The tool is based on the derivation of a "Priority Index" (PI) that results from the ratio of the potency of the hazard and the consumer exposure. The potency corresponds to a toxicity reference value of the hazard, whereas the exposure results from the combination of the concentration of the hazard in the food, and the food consumption. Tool's assumptions and limitations are demonstrated and discussed by ranking a dataset of 13 mycotoxins in 26 food items routinely analyzed in Switzerland. The presented ranking of mycotoxin-food pairs has to be considered as relative due to scarce exposure data availability, and uncertainties in toxicity reference values. However, this representative example allows demonstrating the simplicity and the ability of the PI tool to prioritize chemical hazard-food pairs.

  19. A decision analysis framework for estimating the potential hazards for drinking water resources of chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Erin E; Stanek, John; Burgoon, Lyle D

    2017-01-01

    Despite growing concerns over the potential for hydraulic fracturing to impact drinking water resources, there are limited data available to identify chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluids that may pose public health concerns. In an effort to explore these potential hazards, a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) framework was employed to analyze and rank selected subsets of these chemicals by integrating data on toxicity, frequency of use, and physicochemical properties that describe transport in water. Data used in this analysis were obtained from publicly available databases compiled by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of a larger study on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water. Starting with nationwide hydraulic fracturing chemical usage data from EPA's analysis of the FracFocus Chemical Disclosure Registry 1.0, MCDAs were performed on chemicals that had either noncancer toxicity values (n=37) or cancer-specific toxicity values (n=10). The noncancer MCDA was then repeated for subsets of chemicals reported in three representative states (Texas, n=31; Pennsylvania, n=18; and North Dakota, n=20). Within each MCDA, chemicals received scores based on relative toxicity, relative frequency of use, and physicochemical properties (mobility in water, volatility, persistence). Results show a relative ranking of these chemicals based on hazard potential, and provide preliminary insight into chemicals that may be more likely than others to impact drinking water resources. Comparison of nationwide versus state-specific analyses indicates regional differences in the chemicals that may be of more concern to drinking water resources, although many chemicals were commonly used and received similar overall hazard rankings. Several chemicals highlighted by these MCDAs have been reported in groundwater near areas of hydraulic fracturing activity. This approach is intended as a preliminary analysis, and represents one

  20. VARIOUS PHARMACEUTICALS INCLUDING DRUGS AND INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS AS ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kirrolia and Vikas Nehra*

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the potential and, in particular, some relevant hazards associated with the use of veterinary drugs, various pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals that have produced serious environmental risks and affected the life of people along with other animals by posing great health risks. Risk analysis regarding these problems has also been discussed with the measures to handle the problem at global level. The most contentious residues which occur in meat, milk and eggs along with the environment are antibacterial drugs, hormonal growth promoters, heavy metals and industrial chemicals that are producing potential toxic health effects that include systemic toxicity, mutations, cancer, birth defects and reproductive disorders. Systemic toxicity involves changes in the structure and function of organs and organ systems: weight change, structural alterations and changes in organ system or whole animal function. Functional effects may include changes in the lungs, liver, kidneys, cardiovascular function, brain, nervous system activity, behavior and in production of resistance to disease. Furthermore, continued monitoring and periodic reassessment of risks posed by these contaminants is needed to detect or anticipate new problems so that appropriate action can be taken in the interests of public safety.

  1. Results of Hazardous and Mixed Waste Excavation from the Chemical Waste Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, S. G.; Schofield, D. P.; Kwiecinski, D.; Edgmon, C. L.; Methvin, R.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes the results of the excavation of a 1.9-acre hazardous and mixed waste landfill operated for 23 years at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Excavation of the landfill was completed in 2 1/2 years without a single serious accident or injury. Approximately 50,000 cubic yards of soil contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organics, metals, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and radioactive constituents was removed. In addition, over 400 cubic yards of buried debris was removed, including bulk debris, unknown chemicals, compressed gas cylinders, thermal and chemical batteries, explosive and ordnance debris, pyrophoric materials and biohazardous waste. Removal of these wastes included negotiation of multiple regulations and guidances encompassed in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and risk assessment methodology. RCRA concepts that were addressed include the area of contamination, permit modification, emergency treatment provision, and listed waste designation. These regulatory decisions enabled the project to overcome logistical and programmatic needs such as increased operational area, the ability to implement process improvements while maintaining a record of decisions and approvals.

  2. High-risk facilities. Emergency management in nuclear, chemical and hazardous waste facilities; Hochrisikoanlagen. Notfallschutz bei Kernkraft-, Chemie- und Sondermuellanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloepfer, Michael (ed.) [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The book on emergency management in high-risk facilities covers the following topics: Change in the nuclear policy, risk management of high-risk facilities as a constitutional problem - emergency management in nuclear facilities, operational mechanisms of risk control in nuclear facilities, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for nuclear facilities, operational mechanism of the risk control in chemical plants, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for chemical facilities, operational mechanisms of the risk control in hazardous waste facilities, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for hazardous waste facilities, civil law consequences in case of accidents in high-risk facilities, criminal prosecution in case of accidents in high-risk facilities, safety margins as site risk for emission protection facilities, national emergency management - strategic emergency management structures, warning and self-protection of the public in case of CBRN hazards including aspects of the psych-social emergency management.

  3. A Course in Hazardous Chemical Spills: Use of the CAMEO Air Dispersion Model to Predict Evacuation Distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations (CAMEO) model and its use in the classroom as a training tool in the "Hazardous Chemical Spills" course. Presents six problems illustrating classroom use of CAMEO. Lists 16 references. (YP)

  4. In silico screening of estrogen-like chemicals based on different nonlinear classification models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanxiang; Papa, Ester; Walker, John D; Gramatica, Paola

    2007-07-01

    Increasing concern is being shown by the scientific community, government regulators, and the public about endocrine-disrupting chemicals that are adversely affecting human and wildlife health through a variety of mechanisms. There is a great need for an effective means of rapidly assessing endocrine-disrupting activity, especially estrogen-simulating activity, because of the large number of such chemicals in the environment. In this study, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were developed to quickly and effectively identify possible estrogen-like chemicals based on 232 structurally-diverse chemicals (training set) by using several nonlinear classification methodologies (least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM), counter-propagation artificial neural network (CP-ANN), and k nearest neighbour (kNN)) based on molecular structural descriptors. The models were externally validated by 87 chemicals (prediction set) not included in the training set. All three methods can give satisfactory prediction results both for training and prediction sets, and the most accurate model was obtained by the LS-SVM approach through the comparison of performance. In addition, our model was also applied to about 58,000 discrete organic chemicals; about 76% were predicted not to bind to Estrogen Receptor. The obtained results indicate that the proposed QSAR models are robust, widely applicable and could provide a feasible and practical tool for the rapid screening of potential estrogens.

  5. The Geohazard Safety Classification: how resilience could play a role in the geo-hydrological hazards assessment of school buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Morelli, Stefano; Casagli, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    of risk allows us to refine the risk awareness, focusing attention on the cultural and social meaning of risk as a shared practice among communities that are potentially at risk. This project developed a method for assessing school hazard exposure (landslide, seismic, flood) and structural fragility/safe learning facilities (seismic response, dampness, plan configuration) which is non-invasive, fairly quick and objective. This tool, which is based on the GSC (Geohazard Safety Classification) definition, was tested in central Italy and optimized for a very wide variety of situations, so that it may be exported in schools (or in similar working places) of other geographical areas. The GSC was obtained as the complementary to one of the Index of Geohazard Impact (IGI), calculated modifying the equation of the specific risk, taking into account also the resilience as a damper, amplifier or invariant of the specific risk itself (IGI=max(HixVi)/rho). The variables of this new equation (hazard, vulnerability and resilience) can be quantified on the basis of ancillary data (thematic maps), results of the data processing of field surveys (seismic noise measure according to the H/V technique, thermographic images, GPS surveys) and the answers to an online questionnaire implemented on purpose.

  6. Use of short-term test systems for the prediction of the hazard represented by potential chemical carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, L.R.; Jones, T.D.; Easterly, C.E.; Walsh, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that results from short-term bioassays will ultimately provide information that will be useful for human health hazard assessment. Historically, the validity of the short-term tests has been assessed using the framework of the epidemiologic/medical screens. In this context, the results of the carcinogen (long-term) bioassay is generally used as the standard. However, this approach is widely recognized as being biased and, because it employs qualitative data, cannot be used to assist in isolating those compounds which may represent a more significant toxicologic hazard than others. In contrast, the goal of this research is to address the problem of evaluating the utility of the short-term tests for hazard assessment using an alternative method of investigation. Chemicals were selected mostly from the list of carcinogens published by the International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (IARC); a few other chemicals commonly recognized as hazardous were included. Tumorigenicity and mutagenicity data on 52 chemicals were obtained from the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) and were analyzed using a relative potency approach. The data were evaluated in a format which allowed for a comparison of the ranking of the mutagenic relative potencies of the compounds (as estimated using short-term data) vs. the ranking of the tumorigenic relative potencies (as estimated from the chronic bioassays). Although this was a preliminary investigation, it offers evidence that the short-term tests systems may be of utility in ranking the hazards represented by chemicals which may contribute to increased carcinogenesis in humans as a result of occupational or environmental exposures. 177 refs., 8 tabs.

  7. 某稀土合金生产线职业病危害作业分级调查与评价%Investigation and Evaluation of Occupational Hazards Classification At Workplacein the Production Line of Rare Earth Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛兆煜; 王志英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify and analyze occupational hazards in the productionline of Rare earth alloy ,To Classificate Oc-cupational Hazards At Workplace, and provide scientific and effective datas for regulators and occupational health management . Methods Field investigation and detection of occupational risk factors and occupational health monitoring were applied. Combined with the relerant standard, Occupational Hazards Classification At Workplace were carried out and according to the enterprise ’s conditions,the improving measures were put forward.Results The main occupational hazards were rare-earth dust,chemical toxi-cant(hydrogen fluoride,carbon monoxide,carbon dioxide,etc) ,high temperature and noise.The time weighted average concentra-tions of dust accorded with national standards pass rate was 58.8%. The work classification of rare earthdust bout 2# Electrolytic workshop wasⅡ (morderrate damage work); The work classification of rare earthdust bout other Electrolytic workshop wasⅠ(mild damage work); the qualified rate of noise and chemical toxicant in workplaces was100%.Conclusion The rare earth dust hazard is serious at Electrolytic workshop in this enterprise,According to current situation of rare earth dust concentration exceeding the re-quirement of national standards , the effective operation of occupational hazards prevention facilities Should strengthen, Make per-fect the rules and regulations of the occupational disease.%目的:对某稀土合金生产线职业病危害因素进行识别、分析,对职业病危害作业进行分级,为监管部门和企业职业卫生管理提供科学有效的数据。方法采用职业卫生现场调查法、职业病危害因素检测法、职业健康监护等方法并结合国家职业卫生相关标准对职业病危害作业进行分级,并根据企业现有情况,提出针对性整改措施。结果该项目职业病危害因素为稀土粉尘、氟化氢、一氧化碳、二氧化碳、高温

  8. Quantitative Survey and Structural Classification of Fracking Chemicals Reported in Unconventional Gas Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Martin; Schreglmann, Kathrin

    2015-04-01

    Few technologies are being discussed in such controversial terms as hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") in the recovery of unconventional gas. Particular concern regards the chemicals that may return to the surface as a result of hydraulic fracturing. These are either "fracking chemicals" - chemicals that are injected together with the fracking fluid to optimize the fracturing performance or geogenic substances which may turn up during gas production, in the so-called produced water originating from the target formation. Knowledge about them is warranted for several reasons. (1) Monitoring. Air emissions are reported to arise from well drilling, the gas itself or condensate tanks. In addition, potential spills and accidents bear the danger of surface and shallow groundwater contaminations. Monitoring strategies are therefore warranted to screen for "indicator" substances of potential impacts. (2) Chemical Analysis. To meet these analytical demands, target substances must be defined so that adequate sampling approaches and analytical methods can be developed. (3) Transformation in the Subsurface. Identification and classification of fracking chemicals (aromatics vs. alcohols vs. acids, esters, etc.) is further important to assess the possibility of subsurface reactions which may potentially generate new, as yet unidentified transformation products. (4) Wastewater Treatment. For the same reason chemical knowledge is important for optimized wastewater treatment strategies. (5) Human and Ecosystem Health. Knowledge of the most frequent fracking chemicals is further essential for risk assessment (environmental behavior, toxicity) (6) Public Discussions. Finally, an overview of reported fracking chemicals can provide unbiased scientific into current public debates and enable critical reviews of Green Chemistry approaches. Presently, however, such information is not readily available. We aim to close this knowledge gap by providing a quantitative overview of chemical

  9. Paramecium tetraurelia pre-screen for hazardous chemicals: a rapid detector system for health hazards. 1977-1983 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Sonneborn, J.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose was to develop and validate a new eukaryotic bioassay system applicable to rapid identification of environmental toxins, mutagens, and carcinogens. The ability of Paramecium to detect potential health hazards, associated with complex environmental mixtures, was demonstrated in association with the finest coal fly ash particles and aqueous waste streams from both oil shale and coal gasification developing technologies. In Paramecium, the cytotoxicity of an agent was determined by altering the survival and/or growth rate of single cells in test agents. Genotoxicity was assayed by a two-tiered approach, utilizing both the Paramecium system and the more established Ames Salmonella assay for mutagen/carcinogen detection. An agent was considered genotoxic in Paramwecium if altered phenotypes were induced in the fertilization progeny of treated parent cells. Since others had shown a significant correlation between agents which were photodynamically active in Paramecium and carcinogenic in mammals, the photodynamic activity versus carcinogenicity of agents was reviewed. Photodynamically active compounds are defined by the immobilization of cells when exposed to both the test agent and black light; neither the agent alone nor light alone affects swimming activity.

  10. Genetic variety of sinkholes and their reconaissance and classification for the derivation of hazards and to forecast of collapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucke, D.

    2012-04-01

    Genetic variety of sinkholes and their reconnaissance and classification for the derivation of hazards and to forecast of collapses Dieter Mucke GEOMONTAN Gesellschaft für Geologie und Bergbau mbH&Co.KG, Muldentalstrasse 56, 09603 Rothenfurth, Saxony/Germany The term "sinkhole" covers a lot of depressions on the earth's surface, caused by very different geological processes and anthropogenic activities. The speed of the origin of the depressions is different and leads to different hazards. The forecast look for hazards and the introduction of preventive measures gets safer if type and cause of the depressions are known of. First aim of the lecture is the classification of sinkholes in different types. Geogenic depressions develope in karst landscapes as well as in plain areas of detrital sediments on soluble rocks. The depressions are in karst landscapes localized directly in the soluble rocks like limestone or sulphate rocks (anhydrite, gypsum). It results there for solution dolines and collapse dolines in these rocks themselves.. In other cases the soluble rocks often are in large depth under overlaying claystones, siltstones, sandstones or clays, silts, sands. A cave deeply is formed under the earth's surface and when a roof failure happens, the overburden sinks after. A depression of caldera shape with abrupt slopes suddenly forms in the non-karst rock at the surface. Such erdfall-collapses in Triassic claystones develop flatter walls in the course of the time. In German such depressions are called "Erdfall" to distinguish them of dolines. Because in English the term "earth fall" has an other meaning, I will further call such depressions "erdfall-collaps". The solution of limestones and sulphate rocks results with the formation of caves and following emergence of collapse dolines and erdfall-collapses. The underground dissolution (subrosion) of rock salt is as opposed to without formation of caves. It leads to a slow lowering of the earth's surface in flat

  11. Hazard screening of chemical releases and environmental equity analysis of populations proximate to toxic release inventory facilities in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, C M; Forman, D L; Rothlein, J E

    1998-04-01

    A comprehensive approach using hazard screening, demographic analysis, and a geographic information system (GIS) for mapping is employed to address environmental equity issues in Oregon. A media-specific chronic toxicity index [or chronic index (CI)] was used to compare environmental chemical releases reported in the EPA's Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) database. In 1992, 254 facilities reportedly released more than 40 million pounds of toxic chemicals directly into the environment on-site or transferred them to sewage treatment plants or other off-site facilities for disposal and recycling. For each reported on-site TRI chemical release, a CI based on oral toxicity factors and total mass was calculated. CIs were aggregated on a media-, facility-, and chemical-specific basis. Glycol ethers, nickel, trichloroethylene, chloroform, and manganese were ranked as the top five chemicals released statewide based on total CI. In contrast, based on total mass, methanol, nickel, ammonia, acetone, and toluene were identified as the top five TRI chemicals released in Oregon. TRI facility rankings were related to the demographics and household income of surrounding neighborhoods using bivariate GIS mapping and statistical analysis. TRI facilities were disproportionately located in racial and ethnic minority neighborhoods. They were also located in areas with lower incomes compared to those in the surrounding county. No relationship was observed between the hazard ranking of the TRI facilities overall and socioeconomic characteristics of the community in which they were located.

  12. 77 FR 75739 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... this final rule in an attempt to balance a tension, inherent in many types of air regulation, to ensure... ``hazardous waste treatment'' in 40 CFR 63.11502(b) to mean treatment in either (1) a RCRA-permitted... treatment or hazardous waste treatment. In addition, Item 2.b would be edited to use the new...

  13. Evaluation of hazardous chemicals in edible insects and insect-based food intended for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Giulia; Cuykx, Matthias; Amato, Elvio; Calaprice, Chiara; Focant, Jean Francois; Covaci, Adrian

    2017-02-01

    Due to the rapid increase in world population, the waste of food and resources, and non-sustainable food production practices, the use of alternative food sources is currently strongly promoted. In this perspective, insects may represent a valuable alternative to main animal food sources due to their nutritional value and sustainable production. However, edible insects may be perceived as an unappealing food source and are indeed rarely consumed in developed countries. The food safety of edible insects can thus contribute to the process of acceptance of insects as an alternative food source, changing the perception of developed countries regarding entomophagy. In the present study, the levels of organic contaminants (i.e. flame retardants, PCBs, DDT, dioxin compounds, pesticides) and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn) were investigated in composite samples of several species of edible insects (greater wax moth, migratory locust, mealworm beetle, buffalo worm) and four insect-based food items currently commercialized in Belgium. The organic chemical mass fractions were relatively low (PCBs: 27-2065 pg/g ww; OCPs: 46-368 pg/g ww; BFRs: up to 36 pg/g ww; PFRs 783-23800 pg/g ww; dioxin compounds: up to 0.25 pg WHO-TEQ/g ww) and were generally lower than those measured in common animal products. The untargeted screening analysis revealed the presence of vinyltoluene, tributylphosphate (present in 75% of the samples), and pirimiphos-methyl (identified in 50% of the samples). The levels of Cu and Zn in insects were similar to those measured in meat and fish in other studies, whereas As, Co, Cr, Pb, Sn levels were relatively low in all samples (insect species with no additional hazards in comparison to the more commonly consumed animal products.

  14. Incorporating potency into EU classification for carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennes, C; Batke, M; Bomann, W; Duhayon, S; Kosemund, K; Politano, V; Stinchcombe, S; Doe, J

    2014-11-01

    Although risk assessment, assessing the potential harm of each particular exposure of a substance, is desirable, it is not feasible in many situations. Risk assessment uses a process of hazard identification, hazard characterisation, and exposure assessment as its components. In the absence of risk assessment, the purpose of classification is to give broad guidance (through the label) on the suitability of a chemical in a range of use situations. Hazard classification in the EU is a process involving identification of the hazards of a substance, followed by comparison of those hazards (including degree of hazard) with defined criteria. Classification should therefore give guidance on degree of hazard as well as hazard identification. Potency is the most important indicator of degree of hazard and should therefore be included in classification. This is done for acute lethality and general toxicity by classifying on dose required to cause the effect. The classification in the EU for carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity does not discriminate across the wide range of potencies seen (6 orders of magnitude) for carcinogenicity and for developmental toxicity and fertility. Therefore potency should be included in the classification process. The methodology in the EU guidelines for classification for deriving specific concentration limits is a rigorous process for assigning substances which cause tumours or developmental toxicity and infertility in experimental animals to high, medium or low degree of hazard categories by incorporating potency. Methods are suggested on how the degree of hazard so derived could be used in the EU classification process to improve hazard communication and in downstream risk management.

  15. Chemical gel barriers as low-cost alternative to containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    Chemical gel barriers are being considered as a low-cost alternative for containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater. Most of the available gels in petroleum application are non-reactive and relative impermeable, providing a physical barriers for all fluids and contaminants. However, other potential systems can be envisioned. These systems could include gels that are chemically reactive and impermeable such that most phase are captured by the barriers but the contaminants could diffuse through the barriers. Another system that is chemically reactive and permeable could have potential applications in selectivity capturing contaminants while allowing water to pass through the barriers. This study focused on chemically reactive and permeable gel barriers. The gels used in experiment are DuPont LUDOX SM colloidal silica gel and Pfizer FLOPAAM 1330S hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) gel.

  16. 41 CFR 101-42.1101 - Federal supply classification (FSC) groups and classes which contain hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... device. 2520 Vehicular power transmission components Items containing asbestos. 2530 Vehicular brake... metallic sodium. Group 29 Engine accessories Engine valves containing metallic sodium. Group 30 Mechanical power transmission equipment Equipment containing hazardous hydraulic fluids including PCBs. Group...

  17. How can we avoid the lock-in problem in the substitution of hazardous chemicals used in consumer products?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheringer, Martin; Fantke, Peter; Weber, R.

    2014-01-01

    regulated or are subject to voluntary phase-out programs; specifically, penta- and octabrominated BDEs are scheduled for elimination globally under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants; uses of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are being restricted under the Stockholm Convention......A wide range of chemical substances is used in consumer products for various purposes, including plastic softeners, dyestuffs and colorants, flame retardants, impregnation agents, antioxidants and UV absorbers, preservation agents and biocides, and many others. Among these chemicals......, there is a certain fraction of substances with hazardous properties such as persistence, bioaccumulation potential and toxicity (PBT properties) or the ability to interfere with the hormonal system (endocrine disrupting chemicals, EDCs). Large-scale screening exercises have shown that there may be several hundreds...

  18. Research on Potential Hazards Risk Classification Model in Food%食品潜在危害物风险分级模型研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡书玉; 黄小龙; 黎绍学; 罗文婷; 黄慧容

    2016-01-01

    Based on food safety risk monitoring requirements ,combined with food consumption content ,hazards levels and toxicity,potential hazards risk classification model in food was proposed for the first time. The model can quantify the risk of certain hazards in food category ,also applied in milk and dairy products. It can easily i-dentify the key monitoring objects and centralize supervision resources ,also can assist on food security warning and rapid response.%基于食品安全风险监测需要,结合食品消费量、危害物在食品的含量水平与危害物毒性,首次提出食品潜在危害物风险分级模型,量化特定食品类别中各危害物的风险程度,并以乳制品为例进行应用示范。该风险模型不仅可简易地识别重点监测的对象,集中监管资源,也有利于后续的食品安全预警和快速反应。

  19. Is there a relationship between the WHO hazard classification of organophosphate pesticide and outcomes in suicidal human poisoning with commercial organophosphate formulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, John Victor; Jerobin, Jayakumar; Nair, Anupama; Bennett, Anjana

    2010-06-01

    The WHO classification of pesticides by hazard is based primarily on the acute oral and dermal toxicity to rats. In several Asian countries there is no legislation against the sale of Class I insecticides. We evaluated if there was an association between the WHO hazard Class I, II or III organophosphate compound and outcomes in human poisoning. Two-hundred and fifty-one patients with mean (SD) age of 30.4 (11.8) years, admitted with symptomatic poisoning and treated with atropine and supportive care, were followed up until death or hospital discharge. The admission pseudocholinesterase level of 818.8 (1368) IU/L indicated significant suppression of cholinesterase activity. Class I compounds were ingested by 126, Class II by 113 and Class III by 12 patients. The hospital mortality rate was 16.7%, 5.3% and 0% with Class I, II and III organophosphate compounds, respectively (P=0.01). Ventilatory requirements were higher with Class I compared with Class II poisoning (77.0% vs. 54.9%, Ppoisoning needed mechanical ventilation for a longer period (10.55 (7.4) vs. 7.0 (5.2) days, P=0.002). The linear relationship between the WHO hazard class and mortality in acute organophosphate poisoning mandates the restriction of the sale of organophosphate compounds associated with higher lethality amongst humans.

  20. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

  1. Nanomaterials for environmental studies: classification, reference material issues, and strategies for physico-chemical characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Vicki; Nowack, Bernd; Baun, Anders; van den Brink, Nico; Kammer, Frank von der; Dusinska, Maria; Handy, Richard; Hankin, Steven; Hassellöv, Martin; Joner, Erik; Fernandes, Teresa F

    2010-03-01

    NanoImpactNet is a European Commission Framework Programme 7 (FP7) funded project that provides a forum for the discussion of current opinions on nanomaterials in relation to human and environmental issues. In September 2008, in Zurich, a NanoImpactNet environmental workshop focused on three key questions: 1. What properties should be characterised for nanomaterials used in environmental and ecotoxicology studies? 2. What reference materials should be developed for use in environmental and ecotoxicological studies? 3. Is it possible to group different nanomaterials into categories for consideration in environmental studies? Such questions have been, at least partially, addressed by other projects/workshops especially in relation to human health effects. Such projects provide a useful basis on which this workshop was based, but in this particular case these questions were reformulated in order to focus specifically on environmental studies. The workshop participants, through a series of discussion and reflection sessions, generated the conclusions listed below. The physicochemical characterisation information identified as important for environmental studies included measures of aggregation/agglomeration/dispersability, size, dissolution (solubility), surface area, surface charge, surface chemistry/composition, with the assumption that chemical composition would already be known. There is a need to have test materials for ecotoxicology, and several substances are potentially useful, including TiO(2) nanoparticles, polystyrene beads labelled with fluorescent dyes, and silver nanoparticles. Some of these test materials could then be developed into certified reference materials over time. No clear consensus was reached regarding the classification of nanomaterials into categories to aid environmental studies, except that a chemistry-based classification system was a reasonable starting point, with some modifications. It was suggested, that additional work may be

  2. Revealing Significant Relations between Chemical/Biological Features and Activity: Associative Classification Mining for Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pulan

    2012-01-01

    Classification, clustering and association mining are major tasks of data mining and have been widely used for knowledge discovery. Associative classification mining, the combination of both association rule mining and classification, has emerged as an indispensable way to support decision making and scientific research. In particular, it offers a…

  3. Cleanup worker exposures to hazardous chemicals at a former nuclear weapons plant: piloting of an exposure surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMontagne, A D; Van Dyke, M V; Martyny, J W; Ruttenber, A J

    2001-02-01

    Cleanup of former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons production facilities involves potential exposures to various hazardous chemicals. We have collaboratively developed and piloted an exposure database and surveillance system for cleanup worker hazardous chemical exposure data with a cleanup contractor at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). A unique system feature is the incorporation of a 34-category work task-coding scheme. This report presents an overview of the data captured by this system during development and piloting from March 1995 through August 1998. All air samples collected were entered into the system. Of the 859 breathing zone samples collected, 103 unique employees and 39 unique compounds were represented. Breathing zone exposure levels were usually low (86% of breathing zone samples were below analytical limits of detection). The use of respirators and other exposure controls was high (87 and 88%, respectively). Occasional high-level excursions did occur. Detailed quantitative summaries are provided for the six most monitored compounds: asbestos, beryllium, carbon tetrachloride, chromium, lead, and methylene chloride. Task and job title data were successfully collected for most samples, and showed specific cleanup activities by pipe fitters to be the most commonly represented in the database. Importantly, these results demonstrate the feasibility of the implementation of integrated exposure database and surveillance systems by practicing industrial hygienists employed in industry as well as the preventive potential and research uses of such systems. This exposure database and surveillance system--the central features of which are applicable in any industrial work setting--has enabled one of the first systematic quantitative characterizations of DOE cleanup worker exposures to hazardous chemicals.

  4. Determination of concentration of occupational chemical hazards of a synthetic rubber factory%某合成橡胶厂化学有害因素浓度测定分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩小红; 杨雷波; 董瑞风

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析、掌握某合成橡胶生产企业作业场所中化学有害因素的浓度变化.方法 对其存在的职业病危害化学有害因素连续2年进行检测检验.结果 某合成橡胶厂主要职业病危害化学有害因素为氨、氯气、氯丁二烯、甲苯、盐酸、硫酸、硫化氢、磷化氢、乙醛、乙酸、氢氧化钠、碳酸钠等.其中氨、氯气、硫化氢、磷化氢为高毒物品,但工作场所中浓度检测均未超限,氯丁二烯、乙酸等虽属一般化学有害物质,但检测点有超标样本,职业危害程度分别为中度和轻度危害.结论 企业应落实改进建议,使作业场所职业病危害化学有害因素的浓度符合国家标准,以保护劳动者的健康.%[Objective]To analyze and explore the concentration variation of occupational chemical hazards in die workplace of a synthectic rubber factory. [ Methods] The concentration of occupational chemical hazards in this factory was detected for continuously 2 years. [ Results] The major occupational chemical hazards were ammonia, chlorine, chlorine butadiene , toluene , hydrochloric acid , sulfuric acid , hydrogen sulfide , phosphine , acetaldehyde , acetic acid , sodium hydroxide , sodium carbonate and so on, including hypertoxic chemicals of ammonia , chlorine , hydrogen sulfide, phosphine whose concentrations did not exceed limits.. Although chlorine butadiene, acetic acid and others were normal chemical poisons, some samples exceeded standards with moderate and mild harm according to occupational hazards classification. [Conclusion]This factory should cany out the improved suggestion to make the concentration of occupational chemical hazards in the workplace correspond with national standard and protect the health of workers.

  5. Using ToxCast to Explore Chemical Activities and Hazard Traits: A Case Study With Ortho-Phthalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Nathalie; Iyer, Shoba; Hackett, Edward; Lock, Bennett H; Sandy, Martha; Zeise, Lauren; Solomon, Gina; Marty, Melanie

    2016-06-01

    US EPA's Toxicity Forecaster (ToxCastTM) is a tool with potential use in evaluating safer consumer products, conducting chemical alternatives analyses, prioritizing chemicals for exposure monitoring, and ultimately performing screening-level risk assessments. As a case study exploring a potential use of ToxCast, we evaluated ToxCast results for ortho-phthalates focused on the well-established toxicological endpoints of some members of this class. We compared molecular perturbations measured in ToxCast assays with the known apical toxicity endpoints of o-phthalates reported in the open literature to broadly reflect on the predictive capability of the high-throughput screening (HTS) assays. We grouped the ToxCast assays into defined sets to examine o-phthalate activity and potency. This study revealed several links between key molecular events assayed in vitro and chemical-specific hazard traits. In general, parent o-phthalates are more active than their monoester metabolites. The medium-chain length o-phthalate group is also more active than other o-phthalate groups, as supported by Toxicological Priority Index ranking and statistical methods. Some HTS assay results correlated with in vivo findings, but others did not. For example, there was a notable lack of assay activity to explain the known male reproductive toxicity of these compounds. Ultimately, HTS data resources such as ToxCast may inform us of sensitive upstream toxicity endpoints and may assist in the rapid identification of environmental chemical hazards for screening and prioritization. However, this case study shows that the absence of positive results in ToxCast in vitro assays cannot be interpreted as absence of related in vivo toxicity, and limited biological coverage by the assays remains a concern.

  6. Clasificación de reactivos químicos en los laboratorios de la Universidad Nacional Classification of chemical reagents in the laboratories of National University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Mora Barrantes

    2012-11-01

    of distribution patterns of the chemical reagents within the schools, institutes and research centers of Universidad Nacional. In addition, they were identified the chemicals hazardous classes of the reagents of larger and lesser utilization within the university laboratories. An adequate chemical reagent management, along with a classification system based upon risk categories, is necessary in order to establish a safe working environment in university laboratories. Classification of chemical reagents permits reduction of the administrative, economical, legal, safety, and technical expenses associated with chemical emergencies management; furthermore, it allows the development and application of preventive work practices by students and university personnel during chemical reagent manipulation.

  7. 29 CFR 1910.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Examples of such conditions might include: (A) Procedures using chemically-impregnated test media such as... which affect the reproductive capabilities including chromosomal damage (mutations) and effects on... and Embryotoxins (a) Allergens (examples: diazomethane, isocyanates, bichromates): Wear...

  8. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  9. Classification of residential areas according to physical vulnerability to natural hazards: a case study of Çanakkale, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başaran-Uysal, Arzu; Sezen, Funda; Ozden, Süha; Karaca, Oznur

    2014-01-01

    The selection of new settlement areas and the construction of safe buildings, as well as rendering built-up areas safe, are of great importance in mitigating the damage caused by natural disasters. Most cities in Turkey are unprepared for natural hazards. In this paper, Çanakkale, located in a first-degree seismic zone and sprawled around the Sartçay Delta, is examined in terms of its physical vulnerability to natural hazards. Residential areas are analysed using GIS (geographic information system) and remote-sensing technologies in relation to selected indicators. Residential areas of the city are divided into zones according to an evaluation of geological characteristics, the built-up area's features, and urban infrastructure, and four risk zones are determined. The results of the analysis show that the areas of the city suitable for housing are very limited. In addition, the historical centre and the housing areas near Sartçay stream are shown to be most problematic in terms of natural disasters and sustainability.

  10. Chemical profiling and classification of illicit heroin by principal component analysis, calculation of inter sample correlation and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esseiva, Pierre; Anglada, Frederic; Dujourdy, Laurence; Taroni, Franco; Margot, Pierre; Pasquier, Eric Du; Dawson, Michael; Roux, Claude; Doble, Philip

    2005-08-15

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were utilised to validate illicit drug classification in the profiling method used at "Institut de Police Scientifique" of the University of Lausanne (IPS). This method established links between samples using a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and calculation of a correlation value between samples. Heroin seizures sent to the IPS laboratory were analysed using gas chromatography (GC) to separate the major alkaloids present in illicit heroin. Statistical analysis was then performed on 3371 samples. Initially, PCA was performed as a preliminary screen to identify samples of a similar chemical profile. A correlation value was then calculated for each sample previously identified with PCA. This correlation value was used to determine links between drug samples. These links were then recorded in an Ibase((R)) database. From this database the notion of "chemical class" arises, where samples with similar chemical profiles are grouped together. Currently, about 20 "chemical classes" have been identified. The normalised peak areas of six target compounds were then used to train an ANN to classify each sample into its appropriate class. Four hundred and sixty-eight samples were used as a training data set. Sixty samples were treated as blinds and 370 as non-linked samples. The results show that in 96% of cases the neural network attributed the seizure to the right "chemical class". The application of a neural network was found to be a useful tool to validate the classification of new drug seizures in existing chemical classes. This tool should be increasingly used in such situations involving profile comparisons and classifications.

  11. Potential hazards to embryo implantation: A human endometrial in vitro model to identify unwanted antigestagenic actions of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, L.; Deppert, W.R. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Pfeifer, D. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Stanzel, S.; Weimer, M. [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Hanjalic-Beck, A.; Stein, A.; Straßer, M.; Zahradnik, H.P. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Schaefer, W.R., E-mail: wolfgang.schaefer@uniklinik-freiburg.de [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    Embryo implantation is a crucial step in human reproduction and depends on the timely development of a receptive endometrium. The human endometrium is unique among adult tissues due to its dynamic alterations during each menstrual cycle. It hosts the implantation process which is governed by progesterone, whereas 17β-estradiol regulates the preceding proliferation of the endometrium. The receptors for both steroids are targets for drugs and endocrine disrupting chemicals. Chemicals with unwanted antigestagenic actions are potentially hazardous to embryo implantation since many pharmaceutical antiprogestins adversely affect endometrial receptivity. This risk can be addressed by human tissue-specific in vitro assays. As working basis we compiled data on chemicals interacting with the PR. In our experimental work, we developed a flexible in vitro model based on human endometrial Ishikawa cells. Effects of antiprogestin compounds on pre-selected target genes were characterized by sigmoidal concentration–response curves obtained by RT-qPCR. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1) was identified as the most responsive target gene by microarray analysis. The agonistic effect of progesterone on SULT1E1 mRNA was concentration-dependently antagonized by RU486 (mifepristone) and ZK137316 and, with lower potency, by 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin. The negative control methyl acetoacetate showed no effect. The effects of progesterone and RU486 were confirmed on the protein level by Western blotting. We demonstrated proof of principle that our Ishikawa model is suitable to study quantitatively effects of antiprogestin-like chemicals on endometrial target genes in comparison to pharmaceutical reference compounds. This test is useful for hazard identification and may contribute to reduce animal studies. -- Highlights: ► We compare progesterone receptor-mediated endometrial effects of chemicals and drugs. ► 4-Nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin exert weak

  12. Long range standoff detection of chemical and explosive hazards on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Augustus Way, III; Christesen, Steven D.; Guicheteau, Jason A.; Pearman, William F.; Chyba, Tom

    2009-09-01

    Fielded surface detection systems rely on contact with either the liquid contamination itself or the associated chemical vapor above the contaminated surface and do not provide a standoff or remote detection capability. Conversely, standoff chemical vapor sensing techniques have not shown efficacy in detecting those contaminants as liquids or solids on surfaces. There are a number of optical or spectroscopic techniques that could be applied to this problem of standoff chemical detection on surfaces. The three techniques that have received the most interest and development are laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy. Details will be presented on the development of these techniques and their applicability to detecting CBRNE contamination on surfaces.

  13. Long-range standoff detection of chemical, biological, and explosive hazards on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Augustus Way, III; Guicheteau, Jason A.; Pearman, William F.; Chyba, Thomas H.; Christesen, Steven D.

    2010-04-01

    Fielded surface detection systems rely on contact with either the liquid contamination itself or the associated chemical vapor above the contaminated surface and do not provide a standoff or remote detection capability. Conversely, standoff chemical vapor sensing techniques have not shown efficacy in detecting those contaminants as liquids or solids on surfaces. There are a number of optical or spectroscopic techniques that could be applied to this problem of standoff chemical detection on surfaces. The three techniques that have received the most interest and development are laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy. Details will be presented on the development of these techniques and their applicability to detecting CBRNE contamination on surfaces.

  14. Environmental monitoring and assessment of short-term exposures to hazardous chemicals of a sterilization process in hospital working environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koda S

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess short-term exposures to ethylene oxide, formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde in a sterilization process, the authors conducted continuous environmental monitoring of these chemicals in the breathing zone of workers in 2 hospitals. The arithmetic mean of ethylene oxide was 1.2 ppm near unventilated cabinets housing sterilizing materials, and environmental concentrations of ethylene oxide could not be reduced under threshold limit values time weighted average by only managing general ventilation. Environmental concentration of formaldehyde was lower in a properly ventilated pathology division in which no large specimens were stored (0.3 ppm than in the pathology division where large specimens were stored (2.3 ppm. Although environmental concentrations of glutaraldehyde in an endoscopy unit with proper general ventilation were not detectable, environmental concentration levels in an endoscopy unit without general ventilation system were 0.2 and 0.5 ppm. According to the results of environmental monitoring in the breathing zone of workers, extremely high concentrations were observed in some work practices (ethylene oxide, 300 ppm; formaldehyde, 8.6 ppm; glutaraldehyde, 2.6 ppm. In order to avoid occupational exposures to these chemicals and prevent potential chronic and acute health hazards, good communications with these chemicals, good work practices, appropriate personal protective equipment, and engineering controls should be required.

  15. Control technology assessment of hazardous waste disposal operations in chemicals manufacturing: walk-through survey report of Chemical Waste Management, Inc. , Emelle, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, M.

    1982-08-01

    A walk through survey was conducted to assess hazardous waste disposal operations at Chemical Waste Management, Incorporated (SIC-4953), Emelle, Alabama in February 1982. Hazardous waste treatment and disposal operations included landfilling, fixation, solar evaporation, and incineration. The incinerator was a liquid injection unit used for combustible liquids containing up to 10 percent chlorine. Polychlorinated biphenyls and other chlorine containing wastes not treated on site were temporarily stored before shipment for at sea incineration. In-situ fixation was carried out on corrosive, acidic, and heavy metal containing liquids. Liquid wastes were removed and eventually pumped into a pit where they were mixed with cement kiln dust. Drum stored wastes intended for landfilling were transported by front end loaders to the site. Heavy equipment operators were protected from exposure to dust by environmental cabs. Air and medical monitoring were performed on landfill, laboratory, and maintenance shop workers. Hard hats, goggles, and safety shoes were required at the landfill. Respirators and other protective equipment and clothing were available. The author concludes that the company management is concerned about the health and safety of the employees. An in depth survey is recommended.

  16. Qualification Standards for Personnel Responsible for Hazardous or Noxious Chemicals in Bulk. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    a systems approach for handling vinyl chloride monomer ; however, their manuals were not made available for proprietary reasons. Chemical distribution... Price UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 82 P.rm DOT F 17N.1 (8 72) R.p,oductlon of completed page author Ized V...Allyl Chloride 3 3 2 3 2 1 2 2 0 1 Fl.ew.able Liquid . Grade B, Class B Poison Minoetbyl Ethano— 1 1 3 1 1 3 3 0 0 Combustible Liquid. l i ne

  17. Chemical risk assessment for storage of hazardous materials in the context of Land Use Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Ozunu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Historical technological accidents caused in numerous occasions the major environmentalpollution and the loss of many human lives. Lessons learned from these accidents contributedsignificantly to the development of technological safety in two ways: technological and legislative. Afterthree years from the adherence of Romania to EU, a coherent legislation for land-use planning is stillmissing in the context of Article 12 of Seveso Directive. Nowadays there are more than 200 Seveso-typeeconomical operators in Romania, most of them with major risk, located close to areas highly vulnerablefor population or environment. The elaboration of risk assessment studies for the technological accidentsprevention, land-use planning and emergency planning is necessary and essential for these sites. Basedon these studies the population can be informed, instructed and prepared for accidents, thus savingmany lives. In this paper the development of a risk assessment methodology for land-use andemergency planning is proposed for Seveso-type sites, where large quantities of dangerous, explosive,flammable or toxic substances are stored, handled or processed. Three case studies were consideredwhile elaborating this methodology. These case studies include technological accident scenarios for thestorage of common hazardous substances: propane, chlorine and ammonium nitrate. Severalmethodologies applied in the EU member states were approached and the proposed methodology isbased on the results of this research.

  18. 1998 Tier two emergency and hazardous chemical inventory - emergency planning and community right-to-know act section 312

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZALOUDEK, D.E.

    1999-03-02

    The Hanford Site covers approximately 1,450 square kilometers (560 square miles) of land that is owned by the U.S, Government and managed by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). The Hanford Site is located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The city of Richland adjoins the southeastern portion of the Hanford Site boundary and is the nearest population center. Activities on the Hanford Site are centralized in numerically designated areas. The 100 Areas, located along the Columbia River, contain deactivated reactors. The processing units are in the 200 Areas, which are on a plateau approximately 11 kilometers (7 miles) from the Columbia River. The 300 Area, located adjacent to and north of Richland, contains research and development laboratories. The 400 Area, 8 kilometers (5 miles) northwest of the 300 Area, contains the Fast Flux Test Facility previously used for testing liquid metal reactor systems. Adjacent to the north of Richland, the 1100 Area contains offices associated with administration, maintenance, transportation, and materials procurement and distribution. The 600 Area covers all locations not specifically given an area designation. This Tier Two Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory report contains information pertaining to hazardous chemicals managed by DOE-RL and its contractors on the Hanford Site. It does not include chemicals maintained in support of activities conducted by others on lands covered by leases, use permits, easements, and other agreements whereby land is used by parties other than DOE-RL. For example, this report does not include chemicals stored on state owned or leased lands (including the burial ground operated by US Ecology, Inc.), lands owned or used by the Bonneville Power Administration (including the Midway Substation and the Ashe Substation), lands used by the National Science Foundation (the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory), lands leased to the Washington

  19. Using systematic reviews for hazard and risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beronius, Anna; Vandenberg, Laura N.

    2016-01-01

    The possibility that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in our environment contribute to hormonally related effects and diseases observed in human and wildlife populations has caused concern among decision makers and researchers alike. EDCs challenge principles traditionally applied in chemical risk assessment and the identification and assessment of these compounds has been a much debated topic during the last decade. State of the science reports and risk assessments of potential EDCs have been criticized for not using systematic and transparent approaches in the evaluation of evidence. In the fields of medicine and health care, systematic review methodologies have been developed and used to enable objectivity and transparency in the evaluation of scientific evidence for decision making. Lately, such approaches have also been promoted for use in the environmental health sciences and risk assessment of chemicals. Systematic review approaches could provide a tool for improving the evaluation of evidence for decision making regarding EDCs, e.g. by enabling systematic and transparent use of academic research data in this process. In this review we discuss the advantages and challenges of applying systematic review methodology in the identification and assessment of EDCs. PMID:26847432

  20. Using systematic reviews for hazard and risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beronius, Anna; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2015-12-01

    The possibility that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in our environment contribute to hormonally related effects and diseases observed in human and wildlife populations has caused concern among decision makers and researchers alike. EDCs challenge principles traditionally applied in chemical risk assessment and the identification and assessment of these compounds has been a much debated topic during the last decade. State of the science reports and risk assessments of potential EDCs have been criticized for not using systematic and transparent approaches in the evaluation of evidence. In the fields of medicine and health care, systematic review methodologies have been developed and used to enable objectivity and transparency in the evaluation of scientific evidence for decision making. Lately, such approaches have also been promoted for use in the environmental health sciences and risk assessment of chemicals. Systematic review approaches could provide a tool for improving the evaluation of evidence for decision making regarding EDCs, e.g. by enabling systematic and transparent use of academic research data in this process. In this review we discuss the advantages and challenges of applying systematic review methodology in the identification and assessment of EDCs.

  1. CLASSIFICATION OF TSUNAMI HAZARD ALONG THE SOUTHERN COAST OF INDIA: AN INITIATIVE TO SAFEGUARD THE COASTAL ENVIRONMENT FROM SIMILAR DEBACLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chandrasekar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of natural disasters is not feasible but the destruction it conveys could be minimized at least to some extent by the postulation of reliable hazard management system and consistent implementation of it. With that motive, the beaches along the study area have been classified into various zones of liability based upon their response to the tsunami surge of 26 December 2004. Thereby, the beaches which are brutally affected has been identified and the beaches which are least. Based on the seawater inundation with relative to their coastal geomorphic features, we have classified the tsunami impact along the coast and the probability of the behaviour of the beaches in case of similar havoc in future. The maximum seawater inundation recorded in the study area is 750 m as in the case of Colachel and the minimum is 100 m as in the case of Kadiapatanam, Mandakadu and Vaniakudy.Beaches like Chinnamuttom, Kanyakumari, Manakudy, Pallam and Colachel are under high risk in case of similar disaster in future and the beaches like Ovari, Perumanal, Navaladi, Rajakkamangalam, Kadiapatanam, Mandakadu, Vaniakudy, Inayam and Taingapatnam are under least viability.

  2. Blue Light Hazard and Risk Group Classification of 8 W LED Tubes, Replacing Fluorescent Tubes, through Optical Radiation Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Leccese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors discuss the results of a measurement survey of artificial optical radiation emitted by 8 W LED tubes suitable for the substitution of 18 W fluorescent lamps used for general lighting. For both types of lamps, three different color temperatures were chosen, 3000 K, 4000 K, and 6000 K. These measurements were performed to evaluate the photobiological safety of the sources. The radiance and irradiance values have been measured in a wide range of wavelengths (180–3000 nm. The measurement results obtained for the LED tubes have been compared to those of similar measurements obtained for fluorescent lamps. The analysis has been focused on the range of wavelengths 300–700 nm, the blue light range, which turned out to be defining for the risk groups of the lamps. This classification is a function of the maximum permissible exposure time as indicated in the European Standard EN 62471 on the photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems.

  3. Chemical stability of salt cake in the presence of organic materials. [Detonation hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1976-04-01

    High-level waste stored as salt cake is principally NaNO/sub 3/. Some organic material is known to have been added to the waste tanks. It has been suggested that some of this organic material may have become nitrated and transformed to a detonable state. Arguments are presented to discount the presence of nitrated organics in the waste tanks. Nitrated organics generated accidentally usually explode at the time of formation. Detonation tests show that salt cake and ''worst-case'' organic mixtures are not detonable. Organic mixtures with salt cake are compared with black powder, a related exothermic reactant. Black-powder mixtures of widely varying composition can and do burn explosively; ignition temperatures are 300-450/sup 0/C. However, black-powder-type mixes cannot be ignited by radiation and are shock-insensitive. Temperatures generated by radionuclide decay in the salt are below 175/sup 0/C and would be incapable of igniting any of these mixtures. The expected effect of radiation on organics in the waste tanks is a slow dehydrogenation and depolymerization along with a slight increase in sensitivity to oxidation. The greatest explosion hazard, if any exists, is a hydrogen--oxygen explosion from water radiolysis, but the hydrogen must first be generated and then trapped so that the concentration of hydrogen can rise above 4 vol percent. This is impossible in salt cake. Final confirmation of the safety against organic-related explosive reactions in the salt cake will be based upon analytical determinations of organic concentrations. 12 tables, 5 fig. (DLC)

  4. Biochemical Testing of Potentially Hazardous Chemicals for Toxicity Using Mammalian Liver Cell Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-09

    the 1i. a. neeeae ind -nc.-.Dlenrn I rp, 1 •he ŽIP’Ton .)? f.-tm ’ ltn ’pC .Die,, ’t’J P h f, burden " .’.’- !re . j’ t ther 4sIe’ t jf-’s * oIle ,lion I...amines, nitrosamines and aflatoxins , are among the important classes of chemical carcinogens that become bound to tissue macromolecules (e.g...g centrifugation of the cell homogenate. When protein concentration was determined, it rose sharply between 2 and 4h, was essentially unchanged

  5. Conversion of Hazardous Motor Vehicle Used Tire and Polystyrene Waste Plastic Mixture into useful Chemical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moinuddin Sarker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic mixture into fuel recovery using thermal degradation process in laboratory batch process. Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic was use 75 gm by weight. Motor vehicle tire was 25 gm and polystyrene waste plastic was 50 gm. In presence of oxygen experiment was performed under laboratory fume hood. Thermal degradation temperature range was 100 - 420 oC and experiment run time was 5 hours. Product fuel density is 0.84 gm/ml and liquid fuel conversion rate was 54.93 %. Fuel was analysis by GC/MS and compounds are present aliphatic group, aromatic group, alcoholic group, oxygen content and nitrogen content.Fuel can use refinery process as a refinery feed.Keywords: Tire, polystyrene, conversion, chemical product, vehicle, hydrocarbon

  6. [Emission characteristics and hazard assessment analysis of volatile organic compounds from chemical synthesis pharmaceutical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Song, Shuang; Xu, Zhi-Rong; Xu, Ming-Zhu; Xu, Wei-Li

    2014-10-01

    In this study, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from chemical synthesis pharmaceutical industry in Taizhou, Zhejiang province were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) was in the range of 14.9-308.6 mg · m(-3). Evaluation models of ozone formation potentials (OFP) and health risk assessment were adopted to preliminarily assess the environmental impact and health risk of VOCs. The results showed that the values of OFP of VOCs were in the range of 3.1-315.1 mg · m(-3), based on the maximum incremental reactivity, the main principal contribution was toluene, tetrahydrofuran (THF), acetic ether etc. The non-carcinogenic risk and the carcinogen risk fell in the ranges of 9.48 x 10(-7)-4.98 x 10(-4) a(-1) and 3.17 x 10(-5)- 6.33 x 10(-3). The principal contribution of VOCs was benzene, formaldehyde and methylene chloride.

  7. A ternary classification using machine learning methods of distinct estrogen receptor activities within a large collection of environmental chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Yan, Lu; Wu, Yan; Ji, Li; Chen, Yuanchen; Zhao, Meirong; Dong, Xiaowu

    2017-02-15

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which can threaten ecological safety and be harmful to human beings, have been cause for wide concern. There is a high demand for efficient methodologies for evaluating potential EDCs in the environment. Herein an evaluation platform was developed using novel and statistically robust ternary models via different machine learning models (i.e., linear discriminant analysis, classification and regression tree, and support vector machines). The platform is aimed at effectively classifying chemicals with agonistic, antagonistic, or no estrogen receptor (ER) activities. A total of 440 chemicals from the literature were selected to derive and optimize the three-class model. One hundred and nine new chemicals appeared on the 2014 EPA list for EDC screening, which were used to assess the predictive performances by comparing the E-screen results with the predicted results of the classification models. The best model was obtained using support vector machines (SVM) which recognized agonists and antagonists with accuracies of 76.6% and 75.0%, respectively, on the test set (with an overall predictive accuracy of 75.2%), and achieved a 10-fold cross-validation (CV) of 73.4%. The external predicted accuracy validated by the E-screen assay was 87.5%, which demonstrated the application value for a virtual alert for EDCs with ER agonistic or antagonistic activities. It was demonstrated that the ternary computational model could be used as a faster and less expensive method to identify EDCs that act through nuclear receptors, and to classify these chemicals into different mechanism groups.

  8. Estimation of the acute inhalation hazards of chemicals based on route-to-route and local endpoint extrapolation: Experience from Bulk Maritime Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höfer, T.; James, D.; Syversen, T.; Bowmer, T.

    2011-01-01

    Data on acute lethal inhalation toxicity from animal studies are commonly required for assessing the hazards to human health of volatile, gaseous and dusty chemicals or their mixtures. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) made the provision of acute inhalation toxicity data a mandatory requ

  9. Classification of Floating Chris Chemicals for the Development of a Spill Response Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    often come into play in oil spills, creating circumstances in which seaweed , leaves, corn cobs, or other similar materials are used. None of these...chemical and foam. The draining water from this foam is rich in the polysaccharide additive. Since the diffusing chemical has an affinity for water, the... characterized as gas solubility in mixed solvents. Henry’s law states that the concentration of the solubilizing chemical in the liquid phase is proportional

  10. Predicting Chemically Induced Duodenal Ulcer and Adrenal Necrosis with Classification Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, Casimiro; Gray, Andrew T.; Olshen, Richard A.; Szabo, Sandor

    1991-07-01

    Binary tree-structured statistical classification algorithms and properties of 56 model alkyl nucleophiles were brought to bear on two problems of experimental pharmacology and toxicology. Each rat of a learning sample of 745 was administered one compound and autopsied to determine the presence of duodenal ulcer or adrenal hemorrhagic necrosis. The cited statistical classification schemes were then applied to these outcomes and 67 features of the compounds to ascertain those characteristics that are associated with biologic activity. For predicting duodenal ulceration, dipole moment, melting point, and solubility in octanol are particularly important, while for predicting adrenal necrosis, important features include the number of sulfhydryl groups and double bonds. These methods may constitute inexpensive but powerful ways to screen untested compounds for possible organ-specific toxicity. Mechanisms for the etiology and pathogenesis of the duodenal and adrenal lesions are suggested, as are additional avenues for drug design.

  11. Multivariate analysis of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy chemical signatures for geomaterial classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottfried, Jennifer L., E-mail: jennifer.gottfried@us.army.mi [US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069 (United States); Harmon, Russell S. [ARL Army Research Office, PO Box 12211, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 (United States); De Lucia, Frank C.; Miziolek, Andrzej W. [US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    A large suite of natural carbonate, fluorite and silicate geological materials was studied using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Both single- and double-pulse LIBS spectra were acquired using close-contact benchtop and standoff (25 m) LIBS systems. Principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to identify the distinguishing characteristics of the geological samples and to classify the materials. Excellent discrimination was achieved with all sample types using PLS-DA and several techniques for improving sample classification were identified. The laboratory double-pulse LIBS system did not provide any advantage for sample classification over the single-pulse LIBS system, except in the case of the soil samples. The standoff LIBS system provided comparable results to the laboratory systems. This work also demonstrates how PCA can be used to identify spectral differences between similar sample types based on minor impurities.

  12. Differentiation of chemical reaction activity of various carbon nanotubes using redox potential: Classification by physical and chemical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruoka, Shuji; Matsumoto, Hidetoshi; Castranova, Vincent; Porter, Dale W; Yanagisawa, Takashi; Saito, Naoto; Kobayashi, Shinsuke; Endo, Morinobu

    2015-12-01

    The present study systematically examined the kinetics of a hydroxyl radical scavenging reaction of various carbon nanotubes (CNTs) including double-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs and MWCNTs), and carbon nano peapods (AuCl3@DWCNT). The theoretical model that we recently proposed based on the redox potential of CNTs was used to analyze the experimental results. The reaction kinetics for DWCNTs and thin MWCNTs agreed well with the theoretical model and was consistent with each other. On the other hand, thin and thick MWCNTs behaved differently, which was consistent with the theory. Additionally, surface morphology of CNTs substantially influenced the reaction kinetics, while the doped particles in the center hollow parts of CNTs (AuCl3@DWCNT) shifted the redox potential in a different direction. These findings make it possible to predict the chemical and biological reactivity of CNTs based on the structural and chemical nature and their influence on the redox potential.

  13. Genetic k-Means Clustering Approach for Mapping Human Vulnerability to Chemical Hazards in the Industrialized City: A Case Study of Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Zeng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing human vulnerability to chemical hazards in the industrialized city is a matter of great urgency. Vulnerability mapping is an alternative approach for providing vulnerability-reducing interventions in a region. This study presents a method for mapping human vulnerability to chemical hazards by using clustering analysis for effective vulnerability reduction. Taking the city of Shanghai as the study area, we measure human exposure to chemical hazards by using the proximity model with additionally considering the toxicity of hazardous substances, and capture the sensitivity and coping capacity with corresponding indicators. We perform an improved k-means clustering approach on the basis of genetic algorithm by using a 500 m × 500 m geographical grid as basic spatial unit. The sum of squared errors and silhouette coefficient are combined to measure the quality of clustering and to determine the optimal clustering number. Clustering result reveals a set of six typical human vulnerability patterns that show distinct vulnerability dimension combinations. The vulnerability mapping of the study area reflects cluster-specific vulnerability characteristics and their spatial distribution. Finally, we suggest specific points that can provide new insights in rationally allocating the limited funds for the vulnerability reduction of each cluster.

  14. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  15. Methodology and application for health risk classification of chemicals in foods based on risk matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping Ping; Liu, Zhao Ping; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Ai Dong; Song, Yan; Yong, Ling; Li, Ning

    2014-11-01

    The method has been developed to accurately identify the magnitude of health risks and provide scientific evidence for implementation of risk management in food safety. It combines two parameters including consequence and likelihood of adverse effects based on risk matrix. Score definitions and classification for the consequence and the likelihood of adverse effects are proposed. The risk score identifies the intersection of consequence and likelihood in risk matrix represents its health risk level with different colors: 'low', 'medium', 'high'. Its use in an actual case is shown.

  16. Methodology for classification of the H14 criterion according to the directive 2008/98/EC on waste. Proposal of a biotest battery for the classification of hazardous waste. Ecotoxicological testing with bacterium, algae, crustacean and fish embryo; Metodik foer klassificering av H14-kriteriet i Avfallsfoerordningen. Foerslag till biotestbatteri foer klassificering av farligt avfall. Ekotoxikologisk testning med bakterie, alg, kraeftdjur och fiskembryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiernstroem, Sara; Hemstroem, Kristian; Wik, Ola; Carlsson, Gunnar; Breitholtz, Magnus

    2009-02-15

    Waste, including ashes that can cause ecotoxicological effects, should be classified under criterion H-14 in the Directive on Waste 2008/98/EC. The complex nature of ash production and the fact that it has a complex chemical composition makes ecotoxicological hazard and risk assessment of ashes based on mere chemical analysis insufficient. Biological test systems are thus indispensable tools to support the ecotoxicological characterisation and classification of the properties of ashes. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop a leaching procedure suitable for preparation of water extracts for ecotoxicity testing, and (2) to evaluate an ecotoxicological test battery for the characterisation of ashes. A leaching procedure developed for organic compounds was assumed to be more realistic than existing standard methods for preparation of eluates for ecotoxic tests from complex matrices. A modified version of a recirculation column test, the ER-H method, developed for leaching of nonvolatile organic compounds and validated for PAHs and CPs, was used in this study and compared with the batch test EN 14735 (Characterization of waste - Preparation of waste samples for ecotoxicity tests). The ecotoxicological test battery included species representing different trophic levels; the bacterium Vibrio fisheri, a growth inhibition test with the micro algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata formerly known as Selenastrum capricornutum, a larval development test with the copepod Nitocra spinipes and an embryo toxicity test with sebra fish (Danio rerio). These test species show a relatively low sensitivity to elevated salinity levels. This test battery can be used to test a wide variety of matrices (e.g. single chemicals, complex effluents, eluates and sediments), and therefore offers flexible solutions for testing of leachates with differing and difficult properties. Both the ashes and their leachates were also analyzed chemically for organic and inorganic substances. All the

  17. A High Throughput Ambient Mass Spectrometric Approach to Species Identification and Classification from Chemical Fingerprint Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musah, Rabi A.; Espinoza, Edgard O.; Cody, Robert B.; Lesiak, Ashton D.; Christensen, Earl D.; Moore, Hannah E.; Maleknia, Simin; Drijfhout, Falko P.

    2015-07-01

    A high throughput method for species identification and classification through chemometric processing of direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry-derived fingerprint signatures has been developed. The method entails introduction of samples to the open air space between the DART ion source and the mass spectrometer inlet, with the entire observed mass spectral fingerprint subjected to unsupervised hierarchical clustering processing. A range of both polar and non-polar chemotypes are instantaneously detected. The result is identification and species level classification based on the entire DART-MS spectrum. Here, we illustrate how the method can be used to: (1) distinguish between endangered woods regulated by the Convention for the International Trade of Endangered Flora and Fauna (CITES) treaty; (2) assess the origin and by extension the properties of biodiesel feedstocks; (3) determine insect species from analysis of puparial casings; (4) distinguish between psychoactive plants products; and (5) differentiate between Eucalyptus species. An advantage of the hierarchical clustering approach to processing of the DART-MS derived fingerprint is that it shows both similarities and differences between species based on their chemotypes. Furthermore, full knowledge of the identities of the constituents contained within the small molecule profile of analyzed samples is not required.

  18. CHRIS: Hazardous Chemical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    STCCK:STRAIGHT RUN RESICUE CARTHAMuS TINCTCRIUS OIL OILS1. EDIBLE: SAFFLOWER CARWINATE 125t1 DIPHEI4YLPETHANEOIISOCYANATE (NC!) CATECHIN -CATE00OL...CALCIUM PHOSPHATETCE ccoTOI TOLUENE 294-DIISCCYANATE 4TOIl TEA TRIETPYLALUMINL TEAR GAS aCLOROACETOPHENONE TEFLON "ONOMER TETRAFLUCROETHYLEEv U...TETRADECYLEENZENE lT - ETRADECN TDC 1-RIDTIEE TETRACHLOROETHYLENE TDI TOLUENE 2 ,4-DIISOCYANATE IG TTATYEECYO TDN IRIDECANOL I TETRADECANOL TEA

  19. The Chemistry Scoring Index (CSI: A Hazard-Based Scoring and Ranking Tool for Chemicals and Products Used in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Verslycke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A large portfolio of chemicals and products is needed to meet the wide range of performance requirements of the oil and gas industry. The oil and gas industry is under increased scrutiny from regulators, environmental groups, the public, and other stakeholders for use of their chemicals. In response, industry is increasingly incorporating “greener” products and practices but is struggling to define and quantify what exactly constitutes “green” in the absence of a universally accepted definition. We recently developed the Chemistry Scoring Index (CSI which is ultimately intended to be a globally implementable tool that comprehensively scores and ranks hazards to human health, safety, and the environment for products used in oil and gas operations. CSI scores are assigned to products designed for the same use (e.g., surfactants, catalysts on the basis of product composition as well as intrinsic hazard properties and data availability for each product component. As such, products with a lower CSI score within a product use group are considered to have a lower intrinsic hazard compared to other products within the same use group. The CSI provides a powerful tool to evaluate relative product hazards; to review and assess product portfolios; and to aid in the formulation of products.

  20. Analysis and classification of physical and chemical methods of fuel activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorchak Viktoriya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The offered article explores various research studies, developed patents in terms of physical and chemical approaches to the activation of fuel. In this regard, national and foreign researches in the field of fuels activators with different principles of action were analysed, evaluating their pros and cons. The article also intends to classify these methods and compare them regarding diverse desired results and types of fuels used. In terms of physical and chemical influences on fuels and the necessity of making constructive changes in the fuel system of internal combustion engines, an optimal approach was outlined.

  1. Classification of Chemical Substances Using Particulate Representations of Matter: An Analysis of Student Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stains, Marilyne; Talanquer, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    We applied a mixed-method research design to investigate the patterns of reasoning used by novice undergraduate chemistry students to classify chemical substances as elements, compounds, or mixtures based on their particulate representations. We were interested in the identification of the representational features that students use to build a…

  2. Structural characterization and chemical classification of some bryophytes found in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, Viktorija; Klavina, Laura; Bikovens, Oskars; Zicmanis, Andris; Purmalis, Oskars

    2013-07-01

    Bryophytes are the second largest taxonomic group in the plant kingdom; yet, studies conducted to better understand their chemical composition are rare. The aim of this study was to characterize the chemical composition of bryophytes common in Northern Europe by using elemental, spectral, and non-destructive analytical methods, such as Fourier transform IR spectrometry (FT-IR), solid-phase (13) C-NMR spectrometry, and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), for the purpose of investigating their chemotaxonomic relationships on the basis of chemical-composition data. The results of all these analyses showed that bryophytes consist mainly of carbohydrates. Judging by FT-IR spectra, the OH groups in combination of CO groups were the most abundant groups. The (13) C-NMR spectra provided information on the presence of such compounds as phenolics and lipids. It was found that the amount of phenolic compounds in bryophytes is relatively small. This finding definitely confirmed the absence of lignin in the studied bryophytes. Cluster analysis was used to better understand differences in the chemical composition of bryophyte samples and to evaluate possible usage of these methods in the chemotaxonomy of bryophytes.

  3. To investigate the testing institution of safety management of hazardous chemicals%检测机构危险化学品安全管理探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任广涛

    2015-01-01

    近年来检测市场日渐繁荣,危险化学品管理这一检测机构内部的安全隐患也开始凸显.本文分析了检测机构在危险化学品管理中存在的一些问题,并根据日常工作经验提出了健全规章制度、贯彻安全教育、完善健康监护和加强日常管理等建议,促进检测机构健康、稳定的往前发展.%With the increase in the number of domestic testing institution in recent years, the detection of the market's prosperity, hazardous chemicals management of the internal security risks have become increasingly prominent. This paper analyzes some problems in the management of hazardous chemicals, and puts forward some suggestions, such as improving rules and regulations, implementing safety education, improving health monitoring and strengthening daily management.In order to remove hazardous chemicals procurement, transportation, storage, use and disposal of the whole process of the security risks, so that testing institution can health and stable development.

  4. Advanced Materials Laboratory hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, B.; Banda, Z.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy Order 55OO.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the AML. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 23 meters. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets.

  5. A proposed new diagram for geochemical classification of natural waters and interpretation of chemical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, D. K.

    A new hydrochemical diagram is proposed for classification of natural waters and identification of hydrochemical processes. The proposed diagram differs from the Piper and expanded Durov diagrams in that the two equilateral triangles are omitted, and the shape of the main study field is different. In addition, the proposed diagram can be constructed on most spreadsheet software packages. The proposed diagram is constructed by plotting the difference in milliequivalent percentage between alkaline earths and alkali metals, expressed as percentage reacting values, on the X axis; and the difference in milliequivalent percentage between weak acidic anions and strong acidic anions, also expressed as percentage reacting values, on the Y axis. The milliequivalent percentage differences from the X and Y co-ordinates are extended further into the main study sub-fields of the proposed diagram, which defines the overall character of water. Examples of hydrochemical analyses of groundwater are given from Karnataka, India, for each of the three types of diagrams, illustrating the applicability of the proposed diagram in four case histories having different hydrogeochemical aspects. A comparison indicates that the proposed new diagram satisfies the basic requirement for a suitable classification of natural waters, and it also can be effectively used for studies of hydrochemical processes. RésuméUn nouveau diagramme hydrochimique est proposé dans le but de classer les eaux naturelles et d'identifier les processus hydrochimiques. Ce diagramme est différent des diagrammes de Piper et de Durov étendu par le fait que les deux triangles équilatéraux sont éliminés et que la forme du principal domaine d'étude est différente. En outre, le diagramme proposé peut être construit à l'aide de la plupart des tableurs. Ce diagramme est construit à partir de la différence en pourcentage des milliéquivalents entre les alcalino-terreux et les alcalins, exprimés comme des teneurs

  6. QSAR classification of metabolic activation of chemicals into covalently reactive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Chin Yee; Pan, Chuen; Tan, Andre; Ang, Ke Xin Magneline; Yap, Chun Wei

    2012-05-01

    Metabolic activation of chemicals into covalently reactive species might lead to toxicological consequences such as tissue necrosis, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, or immune-mediated toxicities. Early prediction of this undesirable outcome can help in selecting candidates with increased chance of success, thus, reducing attrition at all stages of drug development. The ensemble modelling of mixed features was used for the development of a model to classify the metabolic activation of chemicals into covalently reactive species. The effects of the quality of base classifiers and performance measure for sorting were examined. An ensemble model of 13 naive Bayes classifiers was built from a diverse set of 1,479 compounds. The ensemble model was validated internally with five-fold cross validation and it has achieved sensitivity of 67.4% and specificity of 93.4% when tested on the training set. The final ensemble model was made available for public use.

  7. Chemical sensors for classification of mine-like objects by identification of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodfin, R.L.

    1997-10-01

    This paper briefly describes a prototype sensor for detecting land mines placed in shallow water. An automatic system was developed which incorporates chemical concentration technology, an ion mobility spectrometer, and control and fluid movement subsystems. The system design was successfully demonstrated using laboratory instruments and equipment. Components for the portable unit, which will weigh less than 20 pounds, have been fabricated; field demonstrations will be completed by spring 1998. 4 figs.

  8. Chemical indices and methods of multivariate statistics as a tool for odor classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlke, Ingo T; Thiesen, Peter H; Niemeyer, Bernd

    2007-04-01

    Industrial and agricultural off-gas streams are comprised of numerous volatile compounds, many of which have substantially different odorous properties. State-of-the-art waste-gas treatment includes the characterization of these molecules and is directed at, if possible, either the avoidance of such odorants during processing or the use of existing standardized air purification techniques like bioscrubbing or afterburning, which however, often show low efficiency under ecological and economical regards. Selective odor separation from the off-gas streams could ease many of these disadvantages but is not yet widely applicable. Thus, the aim of this paper is to identify possible model substances in selective odor separation research from 155 volatile molecules mainly originating from livestock facilities, fat refineries, and cocoa and coffee production by knowledge-based methods. All compounds are examined with regard to their structure and information-content using topological and information-theoretical indices. Resulting data are fitted in an observation matrix, and similarities between the substances are computed. Principal component analysis and k-means cluster analysis are conducted showing that clustering of indices data can depict odor information correlating well to molecular composition and molecular shape. Quantitative molecule describtion along with the application of such statistical means therefore provide a good classification tool of malodorant structure properties with no thermodynamic data needed. The approximate look-alike shape of odorous compounds within the clusters suggests a fair choice of possible model molecules.

  9. Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Chemical Release Modeling Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirrup, Timothy Scott [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-20

    This evaluation documents the methodology and results of chemical release modeling for operations at Building 518, Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Core Facility. This evaluation is intended to supplement an update to the CINT [Standalone] Hazards Analysis (SHA). This evaluation also updates the original [Design] Hazards Analysis (DHA) completed in 2003 during the design and construction of the facility; since the original DHA, additional toxic materials have been evaluated and modeled to confirm the continued low hazard classification of the CINT facility and operations. This evaluation addresses the potential catastrophic release of the current inventory of toxic chemicals at Building 518 based on a standard query in the Chemical Information System (CIS).

  10. A comparison of machine learning algorithms for chemical toxicity classification using a simulated multi-scale data model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioactivity profiling using high-throughput in vitro assays can reduce the cost and time required for toxicological screening of environmental chemicals and can also reduce the need for animal testing. Several public efforts are aimed at discovering patterns or classifiers in high-dimensional bioactivity space that predict tissue, organ or whole animal toxicological endpoints. Supervised machine learning is a powerful approach to discover combinatorial relationships in complex in vitro/in vivo datasets. We present a novel model to simulate complex chemical-toxicology data sets and use this model to evaluate the relative performance of different machine learning (ML methods. Results The classification performance of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN, K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA, Naïve Bayes (NB, Recursive Partitioning and Regression Trees (RPART, and Support Vector Machines (SVM in the presence and absence of filter-based feature selection was analyzed using K-way cross-validation testing and independent validation on simulated in vitro assay data sets with varying levels of model complexity, number of irrelevant features and measurement noise. While the prediction accuracy of all ML methods decreased as non-causal (irrelevant features were added, some ML methods performed better than others. In the limit of using a large number of features, ANN and SVM were always in the top performing set of methods while RPART and KNN (k = 5 were always in the poorest performing set. The addition of measurement noise and irrelevant features decreased the classification accuracy of all ML methods, with LDA suffering the greatest performance degradation. LDA performance is especially sensitive to the use of feature selection. Filter-based feature selection generally improved performance, most strikingly for LDA. Conclusion We have developed a novel simulation model to evaluate machine learning methods for the

  11. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL`s Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL`s acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

  12. Bulk Chemical Composition of the Ningqiang Carbonaceous Chondrite:An Issue of Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guiqin; LIN Yangting

    2007-01-01

    The Ningqiang meteorite is a fall carbonaceous chondrite, containing various Ca-, Al-rich inclusions that usually escaped from secondary events such as high-temperature heating and lowtemperature alteration. However, it has not yet been classified into any known chemical group. In order to address this issue, 41 elements of the bulk Ningqiang meteorite were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atom emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) in this study. The Allende (CV3) carbonaceous chondrite and the Jilin (H5)ordinary chondrite were also measured as references, and our analyses are consistent with the previous results. Rare earth and other refractory lithophile elements are depleted in Ningqiang relative to both Allende and mean CK chondrites. In addition, the REE pattern of Ningqiang is nearly flat, while that of Allende shows slight enrichment of LREE relative to HREE. Siderophile elements of Ningqiang are close to those of mean CK chondrites, but lower than those of Allende. Our new analyses indicate that Ningqiang cannot be classified into any known group of carbonaceous chondrites, consistent with previous reports.

  13. Phytoremediation of Hazardous Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE Phytoremediation of Hazardous Wastes 6. AUTHOR(S) Steven C. McCutcheon, N. Lee Wolfe, Laura H. Carreria and Tse-Yuan Ou 5... phytoremediation (the use of plants to degrade hazardous contaminants) was developed. The new approach to phytoremediation involves rigorous pathway analyses...SUBJECT TERMS phytoremediation , nitroreductase, laccase enzymes, SERDP 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 8 16. PRICE CODE N/A 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  14. Predicted no effect concentration derivation as a significant source of variability in environmental hazard assessments of chemicals in aquatic systems: an international analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Thorsten; Diamond, Jerry; Dobson, Stuart; Howe, Paul; Kielhorn, Janet; Koennecker, Gustav; Lee-Steere, Chris; Mangelsdorf, Inge; Schneider, Uwe; Sugaya, Yoshio; Taylor, Ken; Dam, Rick Van; Stauber, Jenny L

    2014-01-01

    Environmental hazard assessments for chemicals are carried out to define an environmentally "safe" level at which, theoretically, the chemical will not negatively affect any exposed biota. Despite this common goal, the methodologies in use are very diverse across different countries and jurisdictions. This becomes particularly obvious when international scientists work together on documents with global scope, e.g., in the World Health Organization (WHO) International Program on Chemical Safety. In this article, we present a study that describes the extent of such variability and analyze the reasons that lead to different outcomes in deriving a "safe level" (termed the predicted no effect concentration [PNEC] throughout this article). For this purpose, we chose 5 chemicals to represent well-known substances for which sufficient high-quality aquatic effects data were available: ethylene glycol, trichloroethylene, nonylphenol, hexachlorobenzene, and copper (Cu). From these data, 2 data sets for each chemical were compiled: the full data set, that contained all information from selected peer-review sources, and the base data set, a subsample of the full set simulating limited data. Scientists from the European Union (EU), United States, Canada, Japan, and Australia independently carried out hazard assessments for each of these chemicals using the same data sets. Their reasoning for key study selection, use of assessment factors, or use of probabilistic methods was comprehensively documented. The observed variation in the PNECs for all chemicals was up to 3 orders of magnitude, and this was not simply due to obvious factors such as the size of the data set or the methodology used. Rather, this was due to individual decisions of the assessors within the scope of the methodology used, especially key study selection, acute versus chronic definitions, and size of assessment factors. Awareness of these factors, together with transparency of the decision-making process, would

  15. An emerging chemical classifications of comets: implications for the early Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, M. J.

    Cometary nuclei are messengers from the early solar system; they contain key information from the time when planets were forming, and even earlier - some contain material from the natal interstellar cloud. During the first 500 million years of Earth's existence, comets likely delivered vast quantities of pre-biotic organic material along with water for its oceans. The most easily modified forms of matter -the ices, low-temperature-refractory organics, and refractory minerals - hold special significance for understanding these processes. More than two dozen parent volatile species can be characterized directly from Earth-based observatories. Hyakutake and Hale-Bopp were the first bright comets to be studied with powerful new astronomical facilities. A wealth of new information on cometary organic composition was obtained, including the discovery of symmetric hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, acetylene) by infrared spectroscopy and the detection of six new parent volatiles at radio wavelengths. Since then, larger telescopes and even more powerful instruments have become available, permitting in-depth investigation of much fainter comets. With the powerful cross-dispersed cryogenic infrared echelle spectrometer (NIRSPEC, at the 10-m Keck-2 telescope), ten parent volatile species can be characterized in about two hours, eliminating many sources of systematic error. Six Oort cloud comets have been studied with it since 1999. The apparition of two bright comets in spring 2004 doubled the number of comets in which more than a dozen parent volatiles were quantified. The compositions of eleven Oort-cloud comets (including comet Halley and the deceased comet C/1999 S4 LINEAR) and two Jupiter-family comets (Encke, G-Z) will be compared and discussed in the context of chemical diversity in the giant-planets' nebular region. Implications for the delivery of water and pre-biotic organics to the early Earth will be mentioned. Mumma, M. J. et al. (2001), Ap. J. 546, 1183-1193. Mumma

  16. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry analysis linked with chemometrics for food classification - a case study: geographical provenance and cultivar classification of monovarietal clarified apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Heng-Hui; Soukoulis, Christos; Fisk, Ian

    2014-03-01

    In the present work, we have evaluated for first time the feasibility of APCI-MS volatile compound fingerprinting in conjunction with chemometrics (PLS-DA) as a new strategy for rapid and non-destructive food classification. For this purpose 202 clarified monovarietal juices extracted from apples differing in their botanical and geographical origin were used for evaluation of the performance of APCI-MS as a classification tool. For an independent test set PLS-DA analyses of pre-treated spectral data gave 100% and 94.2% correct classification rate for the classification by cultivar and geographical origin, respectively. Moreover, PLS-DA analysis of APCI-MS in conjunction with GC-MS data revealed that masses within the spectral ACPI-MS data set were related with parent ions or fragments of alkyesters, carbonyl compounds (hexanal, trans-2-hexenal) and alcohols (1-hexanol, 1-butanol, cis-3-hexenol) and had significant discriminating power both in terms of cultivar and geographical origin.

  17. Development of a novel fingerprint for chemical reactions and its application to large-scale reaction classification and similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nadine; Lowe, Daniel M; Sayle, Roger A; Landrum, Gregory A

    2015-01-26

    Fingerprint methods applied to molecules have proven to be useful for similarity determination and as inputs to machine-learning models. Here, we present the development of a new fingerprint for chemical reactions and validate its usefulness in building machine-learning models and in similarity assessment. Our final fingerprint is constructed as the difference of the atom-pair fingerprints of products and reactants and includes agents via calculated physicochemical properties. We validated the fingerprints on a large data set of reactions text-mined from granted United States patents from the last 40 years that have been classified using a substructure-based expert system. We applied machine learning to build a 50-class predictive model for reaction-type classification that correctly predicts 97% of the reactions in an external test set. Impressive accuracies were also observed when applying the classifier to reactions from an in-house electronic laboratory notebook. The performance of the novel fingerprint for assessing reaction similarity was evaluated by a cluster analysis that recovered 48 out of 50 of the reaction classes with a median F-score of 0.63 for the clusters. The data sets used for training and primary validation as well as all python scripts required to reproduce the analysis are provided in the Supporting Information.

  18. Computational toxicology as implemented by the U.S. EPA: providing high throughput decision support tools for screening and assessing chemical exposure, hazard and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavlock, Robert; Dix, David

    2010-02-01

    Computational toxicology is the application of mathematical and computer models to help assess chemical hazards and risks to human health and the environment. Supported by advances in informatics, high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies, and systems biology, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA is developing robust and flexible computational tools that can be applied to the thousands of chemicals in commerce, and contaminant mixtures found in air, water, and hazardous-waste sites. The Office of Research and Development (ORD) Computational Toxicology Research Program (CTRP) is composed of three main elements. The largest component is the National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT), which was established in 2005 to coordinate research on chemical screening and prioritization, informatics, and systems modeling. The second element consists of related activities in the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). The third and final component consists of academic centers working on various aspects of computational toxicology and funded by the U.S. EPA Science to Achieve Results (STAR) program. Together these elements form the key components in the implementation of both the initial strategy, A Framework for a Computational Toxicology Research Program (U.S. EPA, 2003), and the newly released The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Strategic Plan for Evaluating the Toxicity of Chemicals (U.S. EPA, 2009a). Key intramural projects of the CTRP include digitizing legacy toxicity testing information toxicity reference database (ToxRefDB), predicting toxicity (ToxCast) and exposure (ExpoCast), and creating virtual liver (v-Liver) and virtual embryo (v-Embryo) systems models. U.S. EPA-funded STAR centers are also providing bioinformatics, computational toxicology data and models, and developmental toxicity data and models. The models and underlying data are being made publicly

  19. Information gathering for CLP classification

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Marcello; Felice Giordano; Francesca Marina Costamagna

    2011-01-01

    Regulation 1272/2008 includes provisions for two types of classification: harmonised classification and self-classification. The harmonised classification of substances is decided at Community level and a list of harmonised classifications is included in the Annex VI of the classification, labelling and packaging Regulation (CLP). If a chemical substance is not included in the harmonised classification list it must be self-classified, based on available information, according to the requireme...

  20. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Max J.; Townsend, Timothy G., E-mail: ttown@ufl.edu

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes were tested using TCLP and WET. • Several electronic cigarette products leached lead at hazardous waste levels. • Lead was the only element that exceeded hazardous waste concentration thresholds. • Nicotine solution may cause hazardous waste classification when discarded unused. - Abstract: The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50 mg/L by WET and 40 mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  1. The method of chemical structure classification based on SMARTS and SMILES notations%基于SMARTS和SMILES编码的化学结构分类方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖新梅; 陈梅妹; 周常恩; 杨雪梅

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine Classification of chemical structure play an important role in the processing of Chemistry Database Retrieval, drug design and data mining analysis. Objective:In order to improve the retrieval and data management efficiency, developing the research of data mining, We make classified indexing to chemical structure data in the database. Methods: we do classification to chemical structure data based on SMARTS and SMILES notations. Results: we realize the automatic classification to more than 10000 chemical structure on ZHONG HUA BEN CAO. Conclusion:The method of Traditional Chinese medicine chemical structure classification based on SMARTS and SMILES notations is feasible and easy to learn.%中药化学结构分类在化学类数据库检索、药物设计及数据挖掘分析过程中都发挥重要作用。目的:对数据库中收集的化学结构信息进行分类标引,以提高检索效率便于数据管理与知识挖掘。方法:采用可用于互联网和在线服务的SMARTS、SMILES文本编码技术的中药化学结构分类方法。结果:实现了对《中华本草》的1万多的化学结构进行自动分类。结论:基于SMARTS、SMILES文本编码技术的化学结构分类方法可行且简便易学。

  2. Control technology assessment of hazardous waste disposal operations in chemicals manufacturing: indepth survey report of Tennessee Eastman Company, Kingsport, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, M.

    1984-01-01

    An in depth survey was conducted to assess control technology at the hazardous waste disposal operations of Tennessee Eastman Company (SIC-2800), Kingsport, Tennessee in November 1982. Personal and general air samples were analyzed for organic solvents at various sites. Low concentrations of acetic acid (64197), toluene (108883), and acetone (67641) were detected. The design of the incineration facility contained features for the prevention of spills and leaks, fires, and explosions. The features consisted of interlocks and alarms, specialized instrumentation and equipment that detected leaks and spills of liquid wastes, general ventilation in solid wastes storage area, a kiln overpressure relief vent, and a safety belt for workers disposing of fiberglass and sample bottles. Workers at the kiln routinely maintained records on all hazardous wastes that were stored or disposed of. Record

  3. 某电子化学品项目职业病危害因素识别和关键控制点分析%Identification of Occupational Hazards Factors and Analysis of Critical Control Points in an Electronic Chemicals Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾敏华; 冯鸿义; 周维新; 章剑; 刘川

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]By identifying and evaluating the possible occupational hazards factors and damage degree in an electronic chemicals project, to find out the critical control points, study the protective measures, and provide the technical basis for approval of administrative department. [ Methods ] The evaluation was conducted by methods of analogy and quantitative classification. [Results]The occupational hazards factors in this construction project were noise, high temperature, chemical poisons and power frequency electromagnetic field. The chemical poisons were main occupational hazards factor, which included ammonia, hydrogen fluoride, hydrochloric acid, sulfide acid, nitric acid, acetic acid, n-butyl acetate and phosphoric acid. [ Conclusion]The occupa-tional hazards factors in this construction project were complicated, chemical poisons were main hazards factor, and the prevention measure should be strengthened in the critical control points. The comprehensive evaluation showed that the occupational hazard fac-tors in the production process of this project can be controlled and prevented.%目的 通过识别、分析某电子化学品工程可能产生的职业病危害因素及危害程度,找出关键控制点,探讨防护对策和措施,为有关行政部门审批提供技术依据.方法采用类比法和定量分析法进行评价.结果该建设项目存在的职业病危害因素有噪声、高温、化学毒物和工频电磁场等,其中主要职业病危害因素为化学毒物,有氨、氟化氢、盐酸、硫酸、硝酸、冰醋酸、醋酸丁酯、磷酸等.结论该工程存在的职业病危害因素比较复杂,其中主要危害因素为化学毒物,应从职业病危害发生的关键控制部位加强防治.综合评价表明,该工程生产过程中可能产生的职业病危害因素是可以预防和控制的.

  4. Host Response to Environmental Hazards: Using Literature, Bioinformatics, and Computation to Derive Candidate Biomarkers of Toxic Industrial Chemical Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    routine manufacturing and industry operations in a megacity environment [8]. Inaccurate chemical inventories and inadequate regulation by centralized...effectively broadens the tools applicable to chemical exposure scenarios. BHSAI, Biotechnology HPC Software Applications Institute. 2.0 METHODS 2.1...comprising toxicity, stability, and physical state scores. Critical and high priority sub-lists were developed based on additional scoring algorithms

  5. Evaluating the Value of Augmenting In Vitro Hazard Assessment with Exposure and Pharmacokinetics Considerations for Chemical Prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over time, toxicity-testing paradigms have progressed from low-throughput in vivo animal studies for limited numbers of chemicals to high-throughput (HT) in vitro screening assays for thousands of chemicals. Such HT in vitro methods, along with HT in silico predictions of popula...

  6. Comparison of the hazards posed to amphibians by the glyphosate spray control program versus the chemical and physical activities of coca production in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Richard A; Solomon, Keith R

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the cumulative multifactorial physical and chemical impacts resulting from coca production on amphibian populations in comparison with the potential impacts produced by the herbicide glyphosate (Glyphos), which, mixed with the surfactant Cosmo-Flux, is used in the spray control program for illicit crops in Colombia. Using similar worst-case assumptions for exposure, several other pesticides used for coca production, including mancozeb, lambda cyhalothrin, endosulfan, diazinon, malathion, and chlorpyrifos, were up to 10- to 100-fold more toxic to frogs than the Glyphos-Cosmo-Flux mixture. Comparing hazard quotients based on application rates, several of these compounds demonstrated hazards 3-383 times that of formulated glyphosate. Secondary effects, particularly of insecticides, are also a concern, as these agents selectively target the primary food source of amphibians, which may indirectly impact growth and development. Although the potential chemical impacts by other pesticides are considerable, physical activities associated with coca production, particularly deforestation of primary forests for new coca plots, portend the greatest hazard to amphibian populations. The entire production cycle of cocaine has been linked to ecosystem degradation. The clearing of pristine forests for coca propagation in Colombia is well documented, and some of these regions coincide with those that contain exceptional amphibian biodiversity. This is particularly problematic as coca production encroaches more deeply into more remote areas of tropical rain forest. Transportation of disease, including the chitrid fungus, to these remote regions via human intrusion may also adversely affect amphibian populations. Therefore, the cumulative impacts of coca production, through habitat destruction, application of agrochemicals, and potential transmission of disease, are judged to pose greater risks to amphibian populations in coca-growing regions than the glyphosate

  7. Establishment and Validation of Hazard Classification Procedures for Combustible Explosive Danger Goods%燃烧、爆炸危险品分级程序的建立及验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建灵; 王晓峰; 俞统昌; 杨小萌

    2013-01-01

    The classification procedures of United Nations for transport of dangerous goods, and classification procedures of America department of defense for ammunition and explosives were analyzed, meanwhile, a new scientific and systematic classification procedures for combustible and explosive dangerous goods, which adapts to the situation of our country and integrates with international standard, was established, based on the character of high solid propellant and the status of explosives during manufacture, transport, storage and usage. R-2H, FG20 propellant and insensitive explosive AFX-757 have been classified by using the new procedures, the hazard classification of them accorded with overseas results well.%分析了联合国关于危险货物运输制定的分级程序及美国国防部关于弹药和炸药危险品的分级程序,结合火炸药特别是当前高能固体推进剂的特点,以及火炸药及制品在制造、运输、储存和使用中所存在的状态,建立了科学的、系统的、适合我国国情并与国际接轨的燃烧、爆炸危险品危险性分级程序和试验方法;针对典型R-2H、FG20推进剂和不敏感AFX-757炸药,利用本文建立的“燃烧、爆炸危险品危险性分级程序和试验方法”进行了危险性分级,结果与国外文献报道的危险性级别相一致。

  8. Area risk level classification for hazardous gas release in petroleum refining installations%炼油装置有害气体泄漏区域风险等级划分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章博; 王磊; 王志刚

    2015-01-01

    The prediction results obtained from simulation of typical release scenarios for petroleum refining installations have difficulties in reflecting the real risk of hazardous gas release. In order to solve this problem, a new method of area risk level classification for hazardous gas release was proposed. It combines wind filed set and release source set to build the release scenario set and predicts the probability of each release scenario. Computational fluid dynamics ( CFD) method was used to predict the concentration field of gas leakage diffusion. Based on the leakage probability and consequences, the risk matrix of hazardous gas leakage area could be achieved. The research results indicate that the release scenario set for hazardous gas could predict the probability of each scenario quantitatively and the CFD model of hazardous gas leakage in a petroleum refi-ning installation could predict its consequence. The risk matrix of hazardous gas leakage area would provide useful reference for classifying the area risk level in petroleum refining installations.%以典型场景为代表开展的气体泄漏扩散模拟研究未能体现炼油装置的真实泄漏风险。提出一种基于泄漏场景集的炼油装置有害气体泄漏区域风险等级划分方法。融合泄漏源和风场等重要随机因素生成泄漏场景集,定量预测场景发生概率,采用计算流体力学方法( CFD)预测气体泄漏扩散体积分数场。基于场景概率和泄漏后果,得到各场景有害气体泄漏区域风险矩阵。结果表明:构建的有害气体泄漏场景集能够定量预测场景发生概率;建立的炼油装置有害气体泄漏精细CFD模型能够预测有害气体泄漏场景后果;表征各场景有害气体泄漏区域风险的区域风险矩阵可以划分符合真实情况的炼油装置有害气体泄漏区域风险等级。

  9. Standard test methods for determining chemical durability of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed waste glasses and multiphase glass ceramics: The product consistency test (PCT)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 These product consistency test methods A and B evaluate the chemical durability of homogeneous glasses, phase separated glasses, devitrified glasses, glass ceramics, and/or multiphase glass ceramic waste forms hereafter collectively referred to as “glass waste forms” by measuring the concentrations of the chemical species released to a test solution. 1.1.1 Test Method A is a seven-day chemical durability test performed at 90 ± 2°C in a leachant of ASTM-Type I water. The test method is static and conducted in stainless steel vessels. Test Method A can specifically be used to evaluate whether the chemical durability and elemental release characteristics of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed glass waste forms have been consistently controlled during production. This test method is applicable to radioactive and simulated glass waste forms as defined above. 1.1.2 Test Method B is a durability test that allows testing at various test durations, test temperatures, mesh size, mass of sample, leachant volume, a...

  10. How can we avoid the lock-in problem in the substitution of hazardous chemicals used in consumer products?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheringer, Martin; Fantke, Peter; Weber, R.

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of chemical substances is used in consumer products for various purposes, including plastic softeners, dyestuffs and colorants, flame retardants, impregnation agents, antioxidants and UV absorbers, preservation agents and biocides, and many others. Among these chemicals, there is a c......A wide range of chemical substances is used in consumer products for various purposes, including plastic softeners, dyestuffs and colorants, flame retardants, impregnation agents, antioxidants and UV absorbers, preservation agents and biocides, and many others. Among these chemicals...... regulated or are subject to voluntary phase-out programs; specifically, penta- and octabrominated BDEs are scheduled for elimination globally under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants; uses of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are being restricted under the Stockholm Convention...

  11. Comparative analysis of pharmaceuticals versus industrial chemicals acute aquatic toxicity classification according to the United Nations classification system for chemicals. Assessment of the (Q)SAR predictability of pharmaceuticals acute aquatic toxicity and their predominant acute toxic mode-of-action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Thomsen, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    the United Nations Global Harmonized System for classification and labeling of chemicals (GHS). Moreover, we statistically explored whether the predominant mode-of-action (MOA) for pharmaceuticals is narcosis. We found 275 pharmaceuticals with 569 acute aquatic effect data; 23 pharmaceuticals had chronic...

  12. Waste management and chemical inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the classification and handling of waste at the Hanford Site. Waste produced at the Hanford Site is classified as either radioactive, nonradioactive, or mixed waste. Radioactive wastes are further categorized as transuranic, high-level, and low-level. Mixed waste may contain both radioactive and hazardous nonradioactive substances. This section describes waste management practices and chemical inventories at the site.

  13. Alguns aspectos históricos da classificação periódica dos elementos químicos Some historical aspects of the periodic classification of the chemical elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tolentino

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available A history of the periodic table of the elements is presented, from the first tentative classifications, passing through Meyer and Mendeleev, up to recent speculations on super-heavy elements still to be synthesized. Many of the discussions and discoveries related to chemical elements and their proper periodic classification are also presented.

  14. Dynamic Failure Analysis on Hazardous Chemicals Storage Tank Overflow%危险化学品储罐溢流失效动态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛晶

    2013-01-01

    Storage tank overflow of hazardous chemicals can cause fire and explosion accidents.Though conventional quantitative risk assessment method may identify the potential hazards and ensure safety of the process system,it fails to capture the variation of risks as deviations or changes in the process and the chemical plant take place.Those deviations will result in incidents and near misses,and are identified as one of the main causes of many accidents.Bayesian theory was applied to update the failure probability of hazardous chemicals storage tank overflow.First,potential accident scenarios were represented in terms of an event tree.Next,the end-state probabilities were estimated using deterministic approach.Subsequent-ly,the failure probabilities of event tree end-state probabilities were revised using the available accident precursor data for ten years and Bayesian theory.Case study shows that there is the significant deviation in system failure frequency throughout the life time of the process unit.%危险化学品储罐溢流易引发火灾和爆炸事故。虽然传统的定量风险评估方法能辨识潜在危害,确保化工厂工艺单元的安全,但是它不能捕获工艺过程的波动或工厂变化引起的风险变化,这些变化往往是事故的主要原因。采用贝叶斯理论更新系统失效概率,首先采用事件树分析方法构建危险化学品储罐溢流的潜在场景;然后利用确定性方法估计三种可能后果的概率;最后,应用危险化学品储罐溢流事故十年的前兆数据,采用贝叶斯理论更新各场景的动态概率。实例分析表明,系统失效概率随着时间的推移整体上呈现上升趋势。

  15. Development of a new QSPR based tool to predict explosibility properties of chemical substances within the framework of REACH and GHS

    OpenAIRE

    Fayet, Guillaume; ROTUREAU, Patricia; Joubert, Laurent; Adamo, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The new European régulation of Chemicals named REACH (for "Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals") turned out in the practical registration phase in December 2008. It requires the new assessment of hazard properties for up to 140000 substances. In this context, the development of alternative prédictive methods for assessing hazardous properties of chemical substances is promoted in REACH and in the related new European classification System of substan...

  16. Evaluation of semi-generic PBTK modeling for emergency risk assessment after acute inhalation exposure to volatile hazardous chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olie, J. Daniël N; Bessems, Jos G.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency risk assessment after chemical incidents with inhalation exposure, but they are rarely used due to their relative complexity and skill requirements. We aimed to tackle this problem by evaluating a semi-generic PBT

  17. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Comprehensive, peer-reviewed toxicology data for about 5,000 chemicals. The data bank focuses on the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced...

  18. 化工危险废物焚烧技术探讨%Study on Incineration Technology About Chemical Hazardous Wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亦农; 李小勇

    2011-01-01

    文章在调查研究的基础上,指出了焚烧法是化工危险废物比较好的处置方法,并探讨了危险废物焚烧的技术要求、工艺及尾气净化处理。选择回转窑焚烧炉为今后焚烧技术的发展方向。%According to the research,we pointed out that incineration is the better disposal methods for chemical hazardous wastes,and discussed the technical requirements.crafts.and exhaust gas purification about incineration, concluding that rotary kiln incinerato

  19. Chemical Speciation and Quantitative Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution Hazards in Two Army Shooting Range Backstop Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Nguyen, Xuan Phuc; Jung, Ho-Young; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2016-02-01

    The chemical speciation and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in two shooting range backstop soils in Korea were studied. Both soils were highly contaminated with Cd, Cu, Pb, and Sb. The chemical speciation of heavy metals reflected the present status of contamination, which could help in promoting management practices. We-rye soil had a higher proportion of exchangeable and carbonate bound metals and water-extractable Cd and Sb than the Cho-do soil. Bioavailable Pb represented 42 % of the total Pb content in both soils. A significant amount of Sb was found in the two most bioavailable fractions, amounting to ~32 % in the soil samples, in good agreement with the batch leaching test using water. Based on the values of ecological risk indices, both soils showed extremely high potential risk and may represent serious environmental problems.

  20. Maintenance and hazardous substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhl, K.; Terwoert, J.; Cabecas, J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance workers come into close contact with a broad variety of often hazardous chemicals. Depending on the specific type, these chemicals may not only cause diseases like skin sores or cancer, but many of them are highly flammable and explosive. This e-facts focuses on the specific risks relate

  1. 井下高温作业场所危害程度分级标准研究%Development of the classification standard of heat hazard levels of heat stress workplace in underground mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任智刚

    2012-01-01

    Firstly, the domestic classification standards of heat hazard in workplace and other areas are briefly analyzed. It indicated that the effective standards have not been development, which took into account the temperature and humidity conditions and the physical strength in the heat stress workplace in underground mine. Then, we invited 30 experts to determine the level of 62 types of jobs based on their experience and subjective judgment. They consist of site-manager in underground workplace, enterprise bargaining (personnel) manager and researcher. According to analyze the survey results, we proposed the form that would be used in determining the levels of the highest physical intensity, which corresponded to different types of jobs in heat stress workplace. Through qualitative and quantitative analysis and mathematical conversion of the formulas derived from the experiment of thermal tolerance limits, we gained new formulas. Furthermore, different restriction values of WBGT index because of the difference of physical intensity were calculated by using them. We compared them with the values in the classification standard of heat hazard in underground mine in the South African. Based on the results, the classification standard of heat hazard levels of heat stress workplace in underground mine were achieved. The standard includes both the highest physical intensity and WBCT index. Finally, the advise of publicize and implement of the standards and suggestion of administration based on classification were given.%对我国热害分级相关标准进行了简要总结分析,表明我国尚未制定综合考虑温湿度条件和体力劳动强度从而对井下高温作业场所的热害程度实施有效分级的相关标准.由井下现场管理人员、企业劳资(人事)管理人员、研究人员等3类共30名相关专家对井下62类主要工种劳动强度进行主观分级,通过对其结果的统计分析,研究制定了井下高温作业场所不同工种

  2. Sandia Administrative Micrographics Facility, Building 802: Hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swihart, A.

    1994-12-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Sandia Administrative Micrographics Facility, Building 802. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 33 meters. The highest emergency classification is a Site Area Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is 75 meters.

  3. Simulation Technology Laboratory Building 970 hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.L.; Starr, M.D.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Simulation Technology Laboratory, Building 970. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distances at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the ERPG-2 and Early Severe Health Effects thresholds are 78 and 46 meters, respectively. The highest emergency classification is a Site Area Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is 100 meters.

  4. Glass Formulation and Fabrication Laboratory, Building 864, Hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banda, Z.; Wood, C.L.

    1995-08-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Glass Formulation and Fabrication Laboratory, Building 864. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distances at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the ERPG-2 threshold is 96 meters. The highest emergency classification is a Site Area Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is 100 meters.

  5. 危险化学品泄漏事故的混沌动力学特性分析%The Chaotic Dynamics Analysis of the Hazardous Chemical Leakage Accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟

    2013-01-01

    To study how to prevent and control hazardous chemical leakage accidents successfully and effectively, by using chaos theory and methods, the data of hazardous chemical leakage accidents of a chemical plant in Jiaozuo were analyzed. The results of time series analysis and R/S analysis in the data indicated that hazardous chemical leakage accidents have chaotic characteristics. Analyzed and discussed such chaotic characteristics of hazardous chemical leakage accidents. And, possible subsequent accidents in a short-term were forecasted.%为探讨如何有效地预防和控制危险化学品泄漏事故,运用混沌理论方法对焦作市某化工厂泄漏事故统计数据进行了时间序列分析和R/S 分析,指出危险化学品泄漏事故具有明显的混沌特性。分析和讨论了危险化学品泄漏事故的混沌特性,并对后续短期内可能发生的事故进行了预测。

  6. Kauai Test Facility hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swihart, A

    1995-05-01

    The Department of Energy Order 55003A requires facility-specific hazards assessment be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Kauai Test Facility, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. The Kauai Test Facility`s chemical and radiological inventories were screened according to potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance to the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 4.2 kilometers. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency at the {open_quotes}Main Complex{close_quotes} and a Site Area Emergency at the Kokole Point Launch Site. The Emergency Planning Zone for the {open_quotes}Main Complex{close_quotes} is 5 kilometers. The Emergency Planning Zone for the Kokole Point Launch Site is the Pacific Missile Range Facility`s site boundary.

  7. Tattoo pigments are cleaved by laser light-the chemical analysis in vitro provide evidence for hazardous compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasold, Rudolf; Naarmann, Natascha; Ulrich, Heidi; Fischer, Daniela; König, Burkhard; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    In the western world, more than 80 million people decorate their skin with tattoos. Tattoo colorants are injected into the skin, like medical drugs. Most tattoo colorants are industrial pigments, and chemical industries have never produced them for human use but only to stain consumer goods. Up to 10% of tattooed people request removal of their tattoos because of an improved self-image or social stigmatization. In contrast to tattooing, physicians usually perform the tattoo removal. For that purpose laser light at very high intensities irradiates the skin to destroy the tattoo pigments. Based on a recent analysis of tattoo pigments, two widely used azo compounds were irradiated in suspension with laser and subsequently analyzed by using quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The high laser intensities cleaved the azo compounds, leading to an increase of decomposition products such as 2-methyl-5-nitroaniline, 2-5-dichloraniline and 4-nitro-toluene, which are toxic or even carcinogenic compounds. Moreover, the results of the chemical analysis show that the tattoo colorants already contain such compounds before laser irradiation. Because of a high number of patients undergoing laser treatment of tattoos and based on the results of our findings in vitro, it is an important goal to perform a risk assessment in humans regarding laser-induced decomposition products.

  8. Development and Application of Computational/In Vitro Toxicological Methods for Chemical Hazard Risk Reduction of New Materials for Advanced Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, John M.; Mattie, D. R.; Hussain, Saber; Pachter, Ruth; Boatz, Jerry; Hawkins, T. W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is essential for reducing the chemical hazards of new weapon systems. The current collaboration between HEST (toxicology research and testing), MLPJ (computational chemistry) and PRS (computational chemistry, new propellant synthesis) is focusing R&D efforts on basic research goals that will rapidly transition to useful products for propellant development. Computational methods are being investigated that will assist in forecasting cellular toxicological end-points. Models developed from these chemical structure-toxicity relationships are useful for the prediction of the toxicological endpoints of new related compounds. Research is focusing on the evaluation tools to be used for the discovery of such relationships and the development of models of the mechanisms of action. Combinations of computational chemistry techniques, in vitro toxicity methods, and statistical correlations, will be employed to develop and explore potential predictive relationships; results for series of molecular systems that demonstrate the viability of this approach are reported. A number of hydrazine salts have been synthesized for evaluation. Computational chemistry methods are being used to elucidate the mechanism of action of these salts. Toxicity endpoints such as viability (LDH) and changes in enzyme activity (glutahoione peroxidase and catalase) are being experimentally measured as indicators of cellular damage. Extrapolation from computational/in vitro studies to human toxicity, is the ultimate goal. The product of this program will be a predictive tool to assist in the development of new, less toxic propellants.

  9. Predicting the redox state and secondary structure of cysteine residues using multi-dimensional classification analysis of NMR chemical shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Cheng; Lai, Wen-Chung; Chuang, Woei-Jer

    2016-09-01

    A tool for predicting the redox state and secondary structure of cysteine residues using multi-dimensional analyses of different combinations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts has been developed. A data set of cysteine [Formula: see text], (13)C(α), (13)C(β), (1)H(α), (1)H(N), and (15)N(H) chemical shifts was created, classified according to redox state and secondary structure, using a library of 540 re-referenced BioMagResBank (BMRB) entries. Multi-dimensional analyses of three, four, five, and six chemical shifts were used to derive rules for predicting the structural states of cysteine residues. The results from 60 BMRB entries containing 122 cysteines showed that four-dimensional analysis of the C(α), C(β), H(α), and N(H) chemical shifts had the highest prediction accuracy of 100 and 95.9 % for the redox state and secondary structure, respectively. The prediction of secondary structure using 3D, 5D, and 6D analyses had the accuracy of ~90 %, suggesting that H(N) and [Formula: see text] chemical shifts may be noisy and made the discrimination worse. A web server (6DCSi) was established to enable users to submit NMR chemical shifts, either in BMRB or key-in formats, for prediction. 6DCSi displays predictions using sets of 3, 4, 5, and 6 chemical shifts, which shows their consistency and allows users to draw their own conclusions. This web-based tool can be used to rapidly obtain structural information regarding cysteine residues directly from experimental NMR data.

  10. Application of Biomonitoring in Risk Assessment of Chemical Hazards%生物监测任化学危害物风险评估中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春峰; Richard A.KREUTZER; 刘弘

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment was widely used as a scientific tool around the world to evaluate the probability of human health effects resulting from chemical hazards exposure. However, limited resources increased the uncertainties in most risk assessments such as lack of human exposure and dose data. Biomonitoring was a direct way to provide human data on internal exposure and early effects for a more precise and realistic risk assessment. Many developed countries and international institutes had established biomonitoring progtams and encourage applying biomonitoring data in the risk assessment process. This article addressed the definition and development of biomonitoring, depicts the use of biomonitoring in chemical risk assessment and exposure assessment,illustrates the interpretation of biomonitoring data for risk assessment, and illuminates the limitations of integration of biomonitoring data in risk assessment. In conclusion, biomonitoring has the potential to greatly improve chemical risk assessment with the accumulation of relevant data.%风险评估,是目前国际上推崇的评估暴露于环境化学危害物导致不良人体健康效应概率的科学方法,己在世界各国广泛使用.然而,在大部分的风险评估中,因缺乏人群暴露和剂量的数据而增加了评估的不确定性.生物监测能提高风险评估的准确性和真实性,直接提供人体内暴露和早期效应的信息.目前,许多国际组织和发达国家已建立生物监测项目,并鼓励将生物监测数据应用干风险评估之中.本文将阐述生物监测的定义和发展,详细描述化学危害物风险评估和暴露评估中生物监测的作用,举例说明风险评估中生物监测数据的解释,以及整合生物监测的局限性.总之,随着各类数据的积累,生物监测有能力使化学危害物风险评估更完善.

  11. Classification of chemicals as endocrinally active compounds. Critical review of the classification of selected pesticides and industrial chemicals as endocrinally active chemicals; Einstufung von Schadstoffen als endokrin wirksame Substanzen. Kritische Ueberpruefung der Einstufung von ausgewaehlten Pestiziden und Industriechemikalien als endokrin wirksame Substanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhn, T.; Guelden, M.; Ludewig, S. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Toxikologie; Seibert, H.

    1999-10-01

    Different authors have published lists of chemicals, especially pesticides and industrial chemicals, reported to have 'reproductive and endocrine disrupting activities' or 'estrogenic/antiestrogenic' activities. The objective of this study was to examine what is the basis for and whether it is justified to classify chemical compounds as 'endocrine disrupters' that are contained in frequently cited overviews, but have not been discussed in a previous report (UBA-TEXTE 46/97). Depending on the level of evidence derived from literature data, substances are classified either as (i) endocrinally active or (ii) potentially endocrinally active or (iii) without sufficient data on endocrine activity. The criteria used for the classification are based on the definitions by US-EPA and the Weybridge conference. (orig.) [German] Von verschiedenen Autoren sind umfangreiche Listen mit Chemikalien, insbesondere Pestiziden und Industriechemikalien, veroeffentlicht worden, die als 'endokrin wirksam und reproduktionstoxisch' oder als 'oestrogen- bzw. 'antioestrogen wirksam' bezeichnet werden. Aufgabe der vorliegenden Studie ist es, zu untersuchen, auf welchen Grundlagen die Einstufung als 'endokrin wirksam' beruht, und zu ueberpruefen, ob sie gerechtfertigt ist. Je nach den Ergebnissen der Literaturrecherchen werden die Substanzen einer von drei Gruppen zugeordnet: 1. endokrin wirksam, 2. potentiell endokrin wirksam, 3. ohne ausreichende Hinweise auf endokrine Wirksamkeit. Die verwendeten Kritetien fuer die Zuordnung lehnen sich an die Definitionen der EPA und der Weybridge-Konferenz an. Schon in einem vorangegengenen Bericht (UBA-TEXTE 46/97) diskutierte Verbindungen werden nicht erneut behandelt. (orig.)

  12. Does the Chemical Diversity of the Order Haplosclerida (Phylum Porifera: Class Demospongia) Fit with Current Taxonomic Classification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribalat, Marie-Aude; Marra, Maria V; McCormack, Grace P; Thomas, Olivier P

    2016-06-01

    Sponges and their associated microbiota are well known to produce a large diversity of natural products, also called specialized metabolites. In addition to their potential use in the pharmaceutical industry, these rather species-specific compounds may help in the classification of some particular sponge groups. We review herein compounds isolated from haplosclerid sponges (Class Demospongia, Order Haplosclerida) in order to help in the revision of this large group of marine invertebrates. We focus only on 3-alkylpyridine derivatives and polyacetylenic compounds, as these two groups of natural products are characteristic of haplosclerid species and are highly diverse. A close collaboration between chemists and biologists is required in order to fully apply chemotaxonomical approaches, and whenever possible biological data should include morphological and molecular data and some insight into their microbial abundance.

  13. Measurement of Antibiotic Consumption: A Practical Guide to the Use of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification and Defined Daily Dose System Methodology in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Hutchinson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the global public health importance of resistance of microorganisms to the effects of antibiotics, and the direct relationship of consumption to resistance, little information is available concerning levels of consumption in Canadian hospitals and out-patient settings. The present paper provides practical advice on the use of administrative pharmacy data to address this need. Focus is made on the use of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification and Defined Daily Dose system. Examples of consumption data from Canadian community and hospital settings, with comparisons to international data, are used to incite interest and to propose uses of this information. It is hoped that all persons responsible for policy decisions regarding licensing, reimbursement, prescribing guidelines, formulary controls or any other structure pertaining to antimicrobial use become conversant with the concepts of population antibiotic consumption and that this paper provides them with the impetus and direction to begin accurately measuring and comparing antibiotic use in their jurisdictions.

  14. Riscos químicos ambientais à saúde da criança Environmental chemical hazards and child health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Mello-da-Silva

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Rever, na literatura médica recente, as informações disponíveis sobre os riscos da exposição de crianças a agentes químicos no meio ambiente. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foi realizada uma busca de artigos publicados sobre o tema na base de dados bibliográficos MEDLINE entre os anos de 1999 e 2005 e também em livros, manuais e recomendações publicados nos últimos anos por instituições como a Academia Americana de Pediatria e a Organização Mundial da Saúde, abordando saúde ambiental com foco na criança. SÍNTESE DE DADOS: Nos últimos anos, observa-se uma preocupação crescente em todo o mundo com os riscos relacionados à exposição de crianças a agentes químicos presentes no meio ambiente. Em torno de 85.000 produtos químicos sintéticos são produzidos nos dias de hoje, dos quais 2.800 são considerados de alto volume de produção. Sabe-se ainda muito pouco a respeito de seus efeitos sobre organismos em desenvolvimento. Crianças, por conta de suas características fisiológicas (maior demanda de água e alimentos e hábitos (como engatinhar, levar objetos a boca, brincar próximo ao solo estão particularmente expostas à contaminação por agentes químicos presentes em água, ar e solo. Agentes como metais pesados, pesticidas, poluentes orgânicos persistentes e contaminantes do ambiente doméstico, como a fumaça do tabaco, têm sido cada vez mais relacionados ao aumento da ocorrência de doenças como asma, distúrbios neurológicos e comportamentais e câncer infantil. CONCLUSÃO: Estimula-se a identificação de situações de risco utilizando instrumentos como a anamnese ou história ambiental, bem como o envolvimento dos pediatras na busca da redução da exposição de crianças e adolescentes a agentes químicos.OBJECTIVES:To review the recent medical literature on environmental chemical hazards to child health. SOURCES OF DATA: Articles published on this subject between 1999 and 2005 were searched in the

  15. A Comparison of Machine Learning Algorithms for Chemical Toxicity Classification Using a Simulated Multi-Scale Data Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioactivity profiling using high-throughput in vitro assays can reduce the cost and time required for toxicological screening of environmental chemicals and can also reduce the need for animal testing. Several public efforts are aimed at discovering patterns or classifiers in hig...

  16. 某350 MW级燃煤电厂化学毒物职业危害风险评估%Risk assessment on chemical poisons hazard of one 350 MW coal-fired power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷春许; 陈葆春; 胡琼; 张岭

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the chemical poisons hazard risk of one 350 MW coal-fired power plant in north Anhui province, for providing technical basis of risk management of chemical poisons hazard in same level power plants. Methods One 350 MW coal-fired power plant was chosen, and its chemical poisons health status and main types of occupational hazard factors were investigated. The chemical poisons occupational hazard risk of this plant was assessed according the risk matrix analysis method. The level of risk was calculated based on hazard rating and exposure rating, Risk=HR:hazard rating, ER:exposure rating. Results The result of research on the chemical hazard of this 350 MW coal-fired power plant was: ammonia, hydrochloric acid, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide were in middle risk level;sodium hydroxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone and sulfuric acid were in low risk level. Conclusion The chemical poisons haz-ard risk level of this 350 MW coal-fired power plant is within tolerance. In future this plant should emphasize the following points for risk management of chemical poisons hazard: to strengthen the safety protection management and avoid acute occupational poisoning caused by ammonia leakage, hydrochloric acidvolatile and nitrogen dioxide & carbon monoxide escape into the air, and at the same time to prevent hy-drogen sulfide poisoning in the desulfurization wastewater treatment.%目的:对皖北某350 MW级燃煤电厂的化学毒物进行职业危害风险评估,为350 MW级燃煤电厂职业危害关键控制点的风险管理提供技术依据。方法调查某350 MW级燃煤电厂的职业卫生现状及主要化学危害因素种类,采用风险矩阵分析法对某350 MW级燃煤电厂的化学毒物职业危害风险进行评估,风险水平根据健康危害等级( HR)和暴露等级( ER)进行计算。结果皖北某350 MW级燃煤电厂化学毒物中的氨、盐酸、二氧化氮、一氧化碳、硫化氢为中等风险水

  17. Control of Convective Dissolution by Chemical Reactions: General Classification and Application to CO2 Dissolution in Reactive Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loodts, V.; Thomas, C.; Rongy, L.; De Wit, A.

    2014-09-01

    In partially miscible two-layer systems within a gravity field, buoyancy-driven convective motions can appear when one phase dissolves with a finite solubility into the other one. We investigate the influence of chemical reactions on such convective dissolution by a linear stability analysis of a reaction-diffusion-convection model. We show theoretically that a chemical reaction can either enhance or decrease the onset time of the convection, depending on the type of density profile building up in time in the reactive solution. We classify the stabilizing and destabilizing scenarios in a parameter space spanned by the solutal Rayleigh numbers. As an example, we experimentally demonstrate the possibility to enhance the convective dissolution of gaseous CO2 in aqueous solutions by a classical acid-base reaction.

  18. Classification of edible oils and modeling of their physico-chemical properties by chemometric methods using mid-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Aderval S.; da Silva, Arnaldo P.; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard

    This research work describes two studies for the classification and characterization of edible oils and its quality parameters through Fourier transform mid infrared spectroscopy (FT-mid-IR) together with chemometric methods. The discrimination of canola, sunflower, corn and soybean oils was investigated using SVM-DA, SIMCA and PLS-DA. Using FT-mid-IR, DPLS was able to classify 100% of the samples from the validation set, but SIMCA and SVM-DA were not. The quality parameters: refraction index and relative density of edible oils were obtained from reference methods. Prediction models for FT-mid-IR spectra were calculated for these quality parameters using partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machines (SVM). Several preprocessing alternatives (first derivative, multiplicative scatter correction, mean centering, and standard normal variate) were investigated. The best result for the refraction index was achieved with SVM as well as for the relative density except when the preprocessing combination of mean centering and first derivative was used. For both of quality parameters, the best results obtained for the figures of merit expressed by the root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) and prediction (RMSEP) were equal to 0.0001.

  19. 78 FR 48844 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The... 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...

  20. 75 FR 26166 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National... 40 CFR part 300 which is the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP... 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...

  1. 78 FR 45167 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the... protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous substances,...

  2. 76 FR 30081 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution... protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous substances,...

  3. 78 FR 65210 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of California... 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...

  4. 78 FR 49993 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan... pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous substances, Intergovernmental relations,...

  5. Study on the way of identification and control of safety hazard in chemical process design%化工工艺设计中安全危险的识别及控制方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司稳琴

    2015-01-01

    chemical technology is an important part of industrial development,which is the prerequisite for the implementation of chemical production. The chemical industry must be identified in accordance with the principle and purpose of essential safety design,so as to effectively control the hazardous factors in chemical process and realize the sustainable development of the industry.%化工工艺是工业发展的重要组成部分,是化工生产得以实施的前提.化工工业必须按照本质安全设计的原则和目的进行识别,这样才能有效控制化工工艺中危险因素,更好地实现工业的可持续发展.

  6. Building Programs Seminar of Hazardous Chemicals Transportation Safety Services Platform%危化品运输安全服务平台的建设方案研讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢枭

    2011-01-01

    为了提高危化品运输的安全服务水平,本文提出了危化品运输安全服务系统建设思路,研究了建设集中的大型危化品运输安全服务平台的设计方案,从而为企业和政府监管单位设计和建设大型危化品公路运输安全服务平台提供了参考。%In order to improve the safety of hazardous goods transport services,this paper presents a hazardous material transportation security service system building ideas,study focused on the construction of large-scale hazardous material transportation security services platform design, so as to corporate and government regulatory units design and construction of large-scale road transport of hazardous chemicals to provide a reference platform security services.

  7. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COVEY, L.I.

    2000-11-28

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) located on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for WESF. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification.

  8. Undisclosed chemicals--implications for risk assessment: a case study from the mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Khareen; Oates, Christopher; Plant, Jane; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Many of the chemicals used in industry can be hazardous to human health and the environment, and some formulations can have undisclosed ingredients and hazards, increasing the uncertainty of the risks posed by their use. The need for a better understanding of the extent of undisclosed information in chemicals arose from collecting data on the hazards and exposures of chemicals used in typical mining operations (copper, platinum and coal). Four main categories of undisclosed chemicals were defined (incomplete disclosure; chemicals with unspecific identities; relative quantities of ingredients not stated; and trade secret ingredients) by reviewing material safety data sheet (MSDS) omissions in previous studies. A significant number of chemicals (20% of 957 different chemicals) across the three sites had a range of undisclosed information, with majority of the chemicals (39%) having unspecific identities. The majority of undisclosed information was found in commercially available motor oils followed by cleaning products and mechanical maintenance products, as opposed to reagents critical to the main mining processes. All three types of chemicals had trade secrets, unspecific chemical identities and incomplete disclosures. These types of undisclosed information pose a hindrance to a full understanding of the hazards, which is made worse when combined with additional MSDS omissions such as acute toxicity endpoints (LD50) and/or acute aquatic toxicity endpoints (LC50), as well as inadequate hazard classifications of ingredients. The communication of the hazard information in the MSDSs varied according to the chemical type, the manufacturer and the regulations governing the MSDSs. Undisclosed information can undermine occupational health protection, compromise the safety of workers in industry, hinder risk assessment procedures and cause uncertainty about future health. It comes down to the duty of care that industries have towards their employees. With a wide range of

  9. Tier II Chemical Storage Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities that store hazardous chemicals above certain quantities must submit an annual emergency and hazardous chemical inventory on a Tier II form. This is a...

  10. Risk factors for acute chemical releases with public health consequences: Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance in the U.S., 1996–2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaye Wendy E

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Releases of hazardous materials can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. To reduce and prevent the public health consequences (victims or evacuations from uncontrolled or illegally released hazardous substances, a more comprehensive analysis is needed to determine risk factors for hazardous materials incidents. Methods Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES data from 1996 through 2001 were analyzed using bivariate and multiple logistic regression. Fixed-facility and transportation-related events were analyzed separately. Results For fixed-facility events, 2,327 (8% resulted in at least one victim and 2,844 (10% involved ordered evacuations. For transportation-related events, 759 (8% resulted in at least one victim, and 405 (4% caused evacuation orders. Fire and/or explosion were the strongest risk factors for events involving either victims or evacuations. Stratified analysis of fixed-facility events involving victims showed a strong association for acid releases in the agriculture, forestry, and fisheries industry. Chlorine releases in fixed-facility events resulted in victims and evacuations in more industry categories than any other substance. Conclusions Outreach efforts should focus on preventing and preparing for fires and explosions, acid releases in the agricultural industry, and chlorine releases in fixed facilities.

  11. A critical appraisal of the process of regulatory implementation of novel in vivo and in vitro methods for chemical hazard and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersma, Aldert H; Ezendam, Janine; Luijten, Mirjam; Muller, J J Andre; Rorije, Emiel; van der Ven, Leo T M; van Benthem, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Regulatory toxicology urgently needs applicable alternative test systems that reduce animal use, testing time, and cost. European regulation on cosmetic ingredients has already banned animal experimentation for hazard identification, and public awareness drives toward additional restrictions in other regulatory frameworks as well. In addition, scientific progress stimulates a more mechanistic approach of hazard identification. Nevertheless, the implementation of alternative methods is lagging far behind their development. In search for general bottlenecks for the implementation of alternative methods, this manuscript reviews the state of the art as to the development and implementation of 10 diverse test systems in various areas of toxicological hazard assessment. They vary widely in complexity and regulatory acceptance status. The assays are reviewed as to parameters assessed, biological system involved, standardization, interpretation of results, extrapolation to human hazard, position in testing strategies, and current regulatory acceptance status. Given the diversity of alternative methods in many aspects, no common bottlenecks could be identified that hamper implementation of individual alternative assays in general. However, specific issues for the regulatory acceptance and application were identified for each assay. Acceptance of one-in-one replacement of complex in vivo tests by relatively simple in vitro assays is not feasible. Rather, innovative approaches using test batteries are required together with metabolic information and in vitro to in vivo dose extrapolation to convincingly provide the same level of information of current in vivo tests. A mechanistically based alternative approach using the Adverse Outcome Pathway concept could stimulate further (regulatory) acceptance of non-animal tests.

  12. PUREX facility hazards assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, L.N.

    1994-09-23

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of PUREX is the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for PUREX. DOE Order 5500.3A requires an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification. In October of 1990, WHC was directed to place PUREX in standby. In December of 1992 the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management authorized the termination of PUREX and directed DOE-RL to proceed with shutdown planning and terminal clean out activities. Prior to this action, its mission was to reprocess irradiated fuels for the recovery of uranium and plutonium. The present mission is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration at the PUREX facility and to preserve that condition for 10 years. The ten year time frame represents the typical duration expended to define, authorize and initiate follow-on decommissioning and decontamination activities.

  13. 40 CFR 68.67 - Process hazard analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process hazard analysis. 68.67 Section...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.67 Process hazard analysis. (a) The owner or operator shall perform an initial process hazard analysis (hazard evaluation)...

  14. Path Selection for Road Transport of Hazardous Chemicals with Time Window Constraint%带时间窗约束的道路危险品运输路径选择研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏超

    2014-01-01

    对已有危险品运输模型进行分析,针对当前危险品类物流配送网络的特点,提出了在时间窗约束条件下城市道路网络中的危险品配送模型,该模型以整个网络中事故发生的期望和影响人数最小为目标。设计了目标集成方法和对集成后目标函数求解的扩展标号法来计算该多目标问题的Pareto最优折衷解,最后用实例对算法进行了验证。%Through the analysis of existing transport models for hazardous chemicals, according to the char-acteristics of the current distribution network for hazardous category logistics, this paper puts forward the distri-bution model with time window constraints for hazardous goods in urban road network, with the expectations of the least accident occurrence in the network and the minimum number of people affected as the target. The target integration and label propagation method for solving the integrated objective function is designed to calculate the multi-objective problem of Pareto optimal compromise solution. Finally, the algorithm is verified with a practical example.

  15. Current Chemical Risk Reduction Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.

  16. Performance Assessment of Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP)Free Chemical Paint Strippers on Military Coatings for Validation to Federal Specification TT-R-2918A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Free Chemical Paint Strippers on Military Coatings for Validation to Federal Specification TT-R-2918A by Lindsey Blohm Oak Ridge Institute for... chemical -agent- resistant coating (CARC) painted panels is shown in Fig. 1. The top layers of topcoat are tan and the bottom layers of topcoat are green...methylene-chloride-based strippers for removing Army chemical agent resistant coatings (CARC). Aberdeen Proving Ground (MD): Army Research

  17. Description for Hazard Forecasting Training and Safety Confirmation in Chemical Production Site%谈化工生产现场的危险预知和安全确认过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何龙; 詹志勇; 王会兵; 张远东

    2011-01-01

    化工生产现场的安全行动要从提高安全意识开始.做到危险预知和虚惊一场报告;为了养成良好操作习惯,还要实践指差呼称,体现化工安全操作原则“确认-操作-再确认”,承诺自己的安全自己来维护。%To involve the safety action in chemical production site: firstly, in order to foster safety awareness, to carry out hazard forecasting training and near miss report. Secondly, in order to cultivate good habit, to fulfill "point & call", to reflect the chemical safety operation principal " confirmation - operation - confirmation". Finally, should promise that we must be responsible for our own safety.

  18. The Coastal Hazard Wheel system for coastal multi-hazard assessment & management in a changing climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl; Halsnæs, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    screening and management. The system is developed to assess the main coastal hazards in a single process and covers the hazards of ecosystem disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding. The system was initially presented in 2012 and based on a range of test......This paper presents the complete Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW) system, developed for multi-hazard-assessment and multi-hazard-management of coastal areas worldwide under a changing climate. The system is designed as a low-tech tool that can be used in areas with limited data availability......-applications and feedback from coastal experts, the system has been further refined and developed into a complete hazard management tool. This paper therefore covers the coastal classification system used by the CHW, a standardized assessment procedure for implementation of multi-hazard-assessments, technical guidance...

  19. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards, 2013. Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat from sheep and goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    -categorisation of flocks/herds based on improved Food Chain Information (FCI), classification of abattoirs according to their capability to reduce faecal contamination, and use of improved process hygiene criteria. It is proposed to omit palpation and incision from post-mortem inspection in animals subjected to routine...... the extensive production systems used, and the ranking of chemical substances, which should be regularly updated and include new hazards. Control programmes across the food chain, national residue control plans, feed control and monitoring of environmental contaminants should be better integrated. Meat...

  20. A NEW WASTE CLASSIFYING MODEL: HOW WASTE CLASSIFICATION CAN BECOME MORE OBJECTIVE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcea Stefan Gabriel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The waste management specialist must be able to identify and analyze waste generation sources and to propose proper solutions to prevent the waste generation and encurage the waste minimisation. In certain situations like implementing an integrated waste management sustem and configure the waste collection methods and capacities, practitioners can face the challenge to classify the generated waste. This will tend to be the more demanding as the literature does not provide a coherent system of criteria required for an objective waste classification process. The waste incineration will determine no doubt a different waste classification than waste composting or mechanical and biological treatment. In this case the main question is what are the proper classification criteria witch can be used to realise an objective waste classification? The article provide a short critical literature review of the existing waste classification criteria and suggests the conclusion that the literature can not provide unitary waste classification system which is unanimously accepted and assumed by ideologists and practitioners. There are various classification criteria and more interesting perspectives in the literature regarding the waste classification, but the most common criteria based on which specialists classify waste into several classes, categories and types are the generation source, physical and chemical features, aggregation state, origin or derivation, hazardous degree etc. The traditional classification criteria divided waste into various categories, subcategories and types; such an approach is a conjectural one because is inevitable that according to the context in which the waste classification is required the used criteria to differ significantly; hence the need to uniformizating the waste classification systems. For the first part of the article it has been used indirect observation research method by analyzing the literature and the various

  1. 化学农药对蜜蜂的急性毒性测定方法与危害评价%Hazard assessment and methods to measure the acute toxicity of chemical pesticides to bees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗术东; 安建东; 李继莲; 黄家兴; 彭文君; 吴杰

    2009-01-01

    Pollinators, such as honeybees and bumble bees, are crucial to the harvest. During their foraging behavior, bees are also exposed to the risk of poisoning due to chemical pesticide treatments. At the same time, they are also very sensitive to chemical pesticides for its morphological and ethological features, therefore, it is very important to assess the hazard of pesticides on bees systematic and measure the toxicity of pesticides to bees for bee protection and new pesticides exploitation. Many measuring methods were used to investigate the toxicity of pesticides to bees, among which acute toxicity bioassays were the main ones. All kinds of measuring methods are summed up from two aspects----the acute toxicity of pesticides to bees(acute oral toxicity and acute contact toxicity) and the hazard assessments of pesticides on bees and the hazard assessment was simply introduced.%蜜蜂独特的生物学特性决定了它对化学农药的危害十分敏感,因此,精确地测定化学农药对蜜蜂的毒性和评价化学农药对蜜蜂的危害,对保护蜜蜂等非靶标生物和新农药的开发与推广都具有重要作用.在众多测定化学农药对蜜蜂的毒性方法中,急性毒性的测定是最主要的手段,是评价化学农药对蜜蜂危害的基础.从急性经口毒性和急性触杀毒性两方面综述了化学农药对蜜蜂的急性毒性测定方法和危害评价体系.

  2. The chemical and environmental property space of REACH chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öberg, Tomas; Iqbal, M Sarfraz

    2012-05-01

    The European regulation on chemicals, REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals), came into force on 1 June 2007. With pre-registration complete in 2008, data for these substances may provide an overview of the expected chemical space and its characteristics. In this paper, using various in silico computation tools, we evaluate 48782 neutral organic compounds from the list to identify hazardous and safe compounds. Two different classification schemes (modified Verhaar and ECOSAR) identified between 17% and 25% of the compounds as expressing only baseline toxicity (narcosis). A smaller portion could be identified as reactive (19%) or specifically acting (2.7%), while the majority were non-assigned (61%). Overall environmental persistence, bioaccumulation and long-range transport potential were evaluated using structure-activity relationships and a multimedia fugacity-based model. A surprisingly high proportion of compounds (20%), mainly aromatic and halogenated, had a very high estimated persistence (>195 d). The proportion of compounds with a very high estimated bioconcentration or bioaccumulation factor (>5000) was substantially less (6.9%). Finally, a list was compiled of those compounds within the applicability domain of the models used, meeting both persistence and bioaccumulation criteria, and with a long-range transport potential comparable to PCB. This list of 68 potential persistent organic pollutants contained many well-known compounds (all halogenated), but notably also five fluorinated compounds that were not included in the EINECS inventory. This study demonstrates the usability of in silico tools for identification of potentially environmentally hazardous chemicals.

  3. 基于多Agent的危险化学品安全生产信息采集系统设计%Design of information collection system of hazardous chemical work-safety based on multi-agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婕; 周铝; 王江

    2012-01-01

    Work-safety monitoring is a critical governmental responsibility, which directly affects human safety as well as protects capital assets. In this regard, hazardous chemical monitoring is of paramount importance. A well-developed safety monitoring information system has been proven to be a feasible solution to this problem, which can lower the amount of required work while increase the effectiveness of the monitoring process. A distributed agent information-collection model was established, which composed by management agent, collection agent, diagnosis a-gent and communication agent. The system was used to connect industrial enterprises located in Bureau of work safety supervision center through to the Hazardous Chemical Information Center at the Enterprise, so as to monitor the work safety of their manufacturing processes. A system based on multi-agent was applied to of production state parameters for hazard sources. The function and structure of all types of agent were designed. The system was used to data acquisition, monitoring and analysis on the state parameters in production of hazardous chemical , which lo-cated in different industrial enterprises, so as to predict or diagnose abnormal conditions in the manufacturing process. Thereby, through the cooperation and parallel solution, the problem of information-collection for hazardous chemicals work safety can be solved.%安全生产监管是政府的重要职责,直接关系到国家财产和人民生命安全.安全生产监管中,以危险化学品的监管为重中之重.提高安全生产监管的信息化程度是降低监管强度、提高监管效率行之有效的方法.构建了由管理Agent、采集Agent、故障诊断Agent、通信Agent组成的分布式信息采集多Agent系统,将安监局监管中心对危险化学品生产过程监管的信息采集任务下移到企业端,利用多Agent系统实现危险源生产状态参数的采集、监控及分析;设计了该信息采集系统各

  4. 76 FR 57701 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... rule published on July 29, 2011, (76 FR 45484) is withdrawn as of September 16, 2011. ADDRESSES... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...

  5. 76 FR 57662 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... withdrawal of the direct final action (76 FR 45432) is effective as of September 16, 2011. ADDRESSES... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...

  6. Physical and chemical hazards of CO2 sequestration activity State of the art and experience feedback at Krechba (In Salah pilot site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakima Hamida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the CO2 release into atmosphere and thus contribute to reducing the greenhouse effect, the industrial process of CO2 sequestration is still at an experimental stage. This technique of CO2 geological sequestration are not fully controlled and raise issue of technological, environmental, human and organizational hazards and their effects on human health, environment and economy. From CO2 capture to transportation then injecting it into underground natural reservoirs where it is stored, geochemical, geophysical and generally industrial risks are still not very well recognized and identified. The behaviour of CO2 is not yet fully identified deep geological environment. It is therefore necessary to build, in support of this industrial CO2 storage process, proactive analysis of more transversal and overall risk for better control, technological processes of capture, Transport, Storage of CO2 (CTSC. 

  7. NASA Hazard Analysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: 1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; 2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; 3) The Risk Informed Design Process; 4) Types of NASA Hazard Analysis; 5) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); 6) Hazard Analysis Process; 7) Identify Hazardous Conditions; 8) Consider All Interfaces; 9) Work a Preliminary Hazard List; 10) NASA Generic Hazards List; and 11) Final Thoughts

  8. Application of Environmental Risk Consequence Assessment in Site Selection of Hazardous Chemical Wharfs%基于环境风险后果评价的危险化学品码头选址

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周薇; 钱瑜; 李林子; 张玉超

    2012-01-01

    Applying environmental risk consequence assessment to hazardous chemical wharfs during their site selection stage would help to reduce the accidental contamination hazard in the operation period. In this article, risk consequence is quantified as vulnerability multiplies exposure. Risk receptors are classified into three categories: human, economic receptor and ecological receptor. Relevant indicators are selected to calculate the vulnerability index for each receptor category. Taking the hazardous wharfs on the bank of Yangtze River in Nanjing as example, a two dimensional water quality model is built to simulate the space-time distribution of contamination from aniline leakage. Different concentration thresholds are set to calculate the exposure indexes. The quantitative assessment result can give managers a proposal for site selection.%在危险化学品码头选址期间开展环境风险后果评价,有助于减轻码头运营期间突发水污染事故对周围环境可能造成的不利影响.通过将环境风险后果具体化为风险受体脆弱性与暴露的乘积,把风险的受体分为人群、经济和生态3大类别,对每一类受体分别选取指标计算脆弱性指数.并以长江南京段沿岸危化品码头的选址为例,在评价区域建立二维水质模型模拟苯胺泄漏后污染物的时空分布,并根据不同的浓度阈值确定每类受体对应的暴露系数,最后给出定量的评价结果为选址提供建议.

  9. Hazardous drugs: new challenges, new opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Valero García

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to hazardous drugs can cause harmful effects on health professionals and several protective measures must be taken. Nevertheless, classification of hazardous drugs is not the same in all the published repertoires and the terminology is still confusing: hazardous drugs, biohazardous drugs or risky drugs are terms improperly described and can define very different drugs with a very different hazard profiles. In Spain, there is not an updated official list of hazardous drugs, and healthcare professionals must consider and follow other published lists. In our opinion, it is mandatory to do a consensus among these professionals, administration and labor union organizations in order to clarify some conflictive questions not only in healthcare settings but in investigational and academic scenarios too. These multidisciplinary groups should be involved also in teaching new and non-experienced personnel and in the knowledge reinforcement for the experienced ones

  10. Hazardous drugs: new challenges, new opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero García, Silvia; López Briz, Eduardo; Vila Clérigues, Nieves; Poveda Andrés, Jose Luis

    2016-03-01

    Occupational exposure to hazardous drugs can cause harmful effects on health professionals and several protective measures must be taken. Nevertheless, classification of hazardous drugs is not the same in all the published repertoires and the terminology is still confusing: hazardous drugs, biohazardous drugs or risky drugs are terms improperly described and can define very different drugs with a very different hazard profiles. In Spain, there is not an updated official list of hazardous drugs, and healthcare professionals must consider and follow other published lists. In our opinion, it is mandatory to do a consensus among these professionals, administration and labor union organizations in order to clarify some conflictive questions not only in healthcare settings but in investigational and academic scenarios too. These multidisciplinary groups should be involved also in teaching new and non-experienced personnel and in the knowledge reinforcement for the experienced ones.

  11. 46 CFR 193.50-5 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 193.50-5 Section 193.50-5 Shipping COAST... Details § 193.50-5 Classification. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire...) Classification Type Size Soda-acid and water, gals. Foam, gals. Carbon dioxide, lbs. Dry chemical, lbs. A II...

  12. Topical Hazard Evaluation Program of Candidate Insect Repellent AI3-30180-c, US Department of Agriculture Proprietary Chemical, April 1982 - September 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-10

    irritation photochemical chemical and 10 percent reaction under test con- irritation in humans. (wlv) Oil of Bergamot ditions. 2 * - Study No. 75-51-0367-85...control (oil of Bergamot ), than unirradiated skin areas. a and diluent were applied to additional skin areas to serve as unirradiated control sites

  13. Topical Hazard Evaluation Program of Candidate Insect Repellent A13-38349a US Department of Agriculture Proprietary Chemicals, July 1981-January 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-16

    reaction (w/v) Oil of Bergamot irritation reaction under test (positive control) in 95% under test conditions and is ethyl alcohol was conditions, not...the rabbits, 0.05 mL cation and irradiation of the test chemical, caused greater irritant positive control (oil of effects than in un- Bergamot ) and

  14. Transportation of Hazardous Evidentiary Material.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.

    2005-06-01

    This document describes the specimen and transportation containers currently available for use with hazardous and infectious materials. A detailed comparison of advantages, disadvantages, and costs of the different technologies is included. Short- and long-term recommendations are also provided.3 DraftDraftDraftExecutive SummaryThe Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hazardous Materials Response Unit currently has hazardous material transport containers for shipping 1-quart paint cans and small amounts of contaminated forensic evidence, but the containers may not be able to maintain their integrity under accident conditions or for some types of hazardous materials. This report provides guidance and recommendations on the availability of packages for the safe and secure transport of evidence consisting of or contaminated with hazardous chemicals or infectious materials. Only non-bulk containers were considered because these are appropriate for transport on small aircraft. This report will addresses packaging and transportation concerns for Hazardous Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 materials. If the evidence is known or suspected of belonging to one of these Hazardous Classes, it must be packaged in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR Part 173. The anthrax scare of several years ago, and less well publicized incidents involving unknown and uncharacterized substances, has required that suspicious substances be sent to appropriate analytical laboratories for analysis and characterization. Transportation of potentially hazardous or infectious material to an appropriate analytical laboratory requires transport containers that maintain both the biological and chemical integrity of the substance in question. As a rule, only relatively small quantities will be available for analysis. Appropriate transportation packaging is needed that will maintain the integrity of the substance, will not allow biological alteration, will not react chemically with the substance being

  15. 基于Petri网的化学危险品出入库流程的建模与仿真%Modeling and Simulation of Inbound and Outbound Processes of Hazardous Chemical Materials Based on Petri Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉民; 宋巍

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we modeled the inbound and outboudn processes of hazardous chemical materials using Petri nets method, simulated the model using software ExSpect and proposed a series of safety and preventive measures in view of the analysis result.%化学危险品出入库的安全性是其物流管理的一个重要内容,利用Petri网对化学危险品出入库流程进行了建模,并运用ExSpect软件对模型进行仿真分析,针对分析结果提出了一些安全防范措施,提升了化学危险品出入的安全高效性.

  16. 危化品双层包装袋内袋扎口装置的设计%Design on Inside Bag Enlaceing Device of Hazardous Chemicals in Double Bags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王帆; 黎厚斌; 张国全; 王娈; 王北海

    2016-01-01

    为提高危化品双层包装袋封装的自动化程度,分析双层包装袋扎口装置的工作原理,建立双层包装袋扎口装置主要部件的设计思路和结构模型,并对关键参数进行优化处理。最终得出双层包装袋扎口装置设计方案。%In order to improve the automation level of double bag packaging for hazardous chemicals,the working theory of enlaceing device of double bags was analyzed,Design ideas and structural model of main components were established to double bag enlaceing device,and the key parameters were optimized.Finally, the design of double bags enlaceing device was gained.

  17. Evaluation of occupational hazards control in a fine chemicals enterprise%某精细化工企业职业病危害控制效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱海洋; 葛琴娟; 谢石; 杨庆松; 颜卫丰

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查分析某精细化工企业生产过程中存在的职业病危害因素及卫生防护设施的防护效果,评价职业病危害控制效果,并评估职业病危害的风险水平.方法 采用现场职业卫生学调查、经验法、检查表法、作业工人职业性健康检查等方法进行综合分析与评价.结果 该企业的选址与总体布局、生产设备布局、职业病防护设施、个人使用的防护用品、职业卫生管理、卫生辅助用室设置等均符合国家有关规定;该企业生产过程中可产生其他粉尘(氧化锌、雕白块粉尘)、甲醇、甲醛、氢氧化钠、二氧化硫、噪声、高温及热辐射、工频电磁辐射等职业病危害因素,其中部分岗位甲醛浓度超标,噪声作业危害达到Ⅰ级,高温及热辐射作业危害达到Ⅱ及.结论 该厂的职业病危害控制措施可行、有效,但部分岗位仍需加强治理.%[Objective]To investigate and analyze the effect of protection facilities against occupational hazards in a fine chemicals enterprise,to evaluate occupational hazards control effect and the risk level of occupational hazards. [Methods]Field hygienic investigation , experience method, check list method and occupational health examination were applied to conduct analysis and evaluation on the fine chemicals enterprise. [Results] Related factors including site selection, the overall layout, the facilities layout, occupational disease preventive and protective measures, the individual protection facilities, the occupational health management, the auxiliary room facilities all accorded with the national regulations; the production process in the fine chemicals enterprise could generate other dusts (zinc oxide, sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate dihydrate) , methanol, formaldehyde, caustic soda, sulfur dioxide, noise, high temperature and heat radiation, power frequency electric field, among which formaldehyde was over standard, noise exposure reached the

  18. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capturefrom Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 GeologicStorage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-02-23

    Conventional coal-burning power plants are major contributors of excess CO2 to the atmospheric inventory. Because such plants are stationary, they are particularly amenable to CO2 capture and disposal by deep injection into confined geologic formations. However, the energy penalty for CO2 separation and compression is steep, and could lead to a 30-40 percent reduction in useable power output. Integrated gas combined cycle (IGCC) plants are thermodynamically more efficient, i.e.,produce less CO2 for a given power output, and are more suitable for CO2 capture. Therefore, if CO2 capture and deep subsurface disposal were to be considered seriously, the preferred approach would be to build replacement IGCC plants with integrated CO2 capture, rather than retrofit existing conventional plants. Coal contains minor quantities of sulfur and nitrogen compounds, which are of concern, as their release into the atmosphere leads to the formation of urban ozone and acid rain, the destruction of stratospheric ozone, and global warming. Coal also contains many trace elements that are potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. During CO2 separation and capture, these constituents could inadvertently contaminate the separated CO2 and be co-injected. The concentrations and speciation of the co-injected contaminants would differ markedly, depending on whether CO2 is captured during the operation of a conventional or an IGCC plant, and the specific nature of the plant design and CO2 separation technology. However, regardless of plant design or separation procedures, most of the hazardous constituents effectively partition into the solid waste residue. This would lead to an approximately two order of magnitude reduction in contaminant concentration compared with that present in the coal. Potential exceptions are Hg in conventional plants, and Hg and possibly Cd, Mo and Pb in IGCC plants. CO2 capture and injection disposal could afford an opportunity to deliberately capture

  19. Control technology assessment of hazardous waste disposal operations in chemicals manufacturing: at 3M Company Chemolite incinerator, Cottage Grove, Minnesota, indepth survey report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, M.

    1984-01-01

    Environmental and breathing zone samples were analyzed for organic solvents and total hydrocarbons at the Chemolite incinerator at 3M Company (SIC-2800), Cottage Grove, Minnesota in September 1982. Engineering controls in the pump room and on the drum feed system were investigated. Concentrations of all solvents and total hydrocarbons were below all relevant standards or the limits of detection. General and local exhaust ventilation were used to suppress air contaminant concentrations in the pump room. The ventilation system supplied fresh air at the rate of 15 room changes per hour. General dilution ventilation was the primary control on the drum feed system. A carbon-dioxide injection system and overhead vent were used to minimize potential fire and explosion hazards. Grounding devices were installed on liquid waste feed lines to prevent the occurrence of sparks caused by flowing liquids. Hard hats, safety glasses, company provided uniforms, and safety shoes were routinely worn at the incineration site. Rubber suits, face shields, and half face respirators were worn when corrosive materials were handled. The company had intensive training and education programs. Only minor injuries occurred during the 11 year history of the facility.

  20. Hazardous Odor Recognition by CMAC Based Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Karlık

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic noses are being developed as systems for the automated detection and classification of odors, vapors, and gases. Artificial neural networks (ANNs have been used to analyze complex data and to recognize patterns, and have shown promising results in recognition of volatile compounds and odors in electronic nose applications. When an ANN is combined with a sensor array, the number of detectable chemicals is generally greater than the number of unique sensor types. The odor sensing system should be extended to new areas since its standard style where the output pattern from multiple sensors with partially overlapped specificity is recognized by a neural network or multivariate analysis. This paper describes the design, implementation and performance evaluations of the application developed for hazardous odor recognition using Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller (CMAC based neural networks.

  1. Hazardous Odor Recognition by CMAC Based Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucak, Ihsan Ömür; Karlık, Bekir

    2009-01-01

    Electronic noses are being developed as systems for the automated detection and classification of odors, vapors, and gases. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been used to analyze complex data and to recognize patterns, and have shown promising results in recognition of volatile compounds and odors in electronic nose applications. When an ANN is combined with a sensor array, the number of detectable chemicals is generally greater than the number of unique sensor types. The odor sensing system should be extended to new areas since its standard style where the output pattern from multiple sensors with partially overlapped specificity is recognized by a neural network or multivariate analysis. This paper describes the design, implementation and performance evaluations of the application developed for hazardous odor recognition using Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller (CMAC) based neural networks.

  2. Working towards a clearer and more helpful hazard map: investigating the influence of hazard map design on hazard communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M. A.; Lindsay, J. M.; Gaillard, J.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, geological hazards are communicated using maps. In traditional hazard mapping practice, scientists analyse data about a hazard, and then display the results on a map for stakeholder and public use. However, this one-way, top-down approach to hazard communication is not necessarily effective or reliable. The messages which people take away will be dependent on the way in which they read, interpret, and understand the map, a facet of hazard communication which has been relatively unexplored. Decades of cartographic studies suggest that variables in the visual representation of data on maps, such as colour and symbology, can have a powerful effect on how people understand map content. In practice, however, there is little guidance or consistency in how hazard information is expressed and represented on maps. Accordingly, decisions are often made based on subjective preference, rather than research-backed principles. Here we present the results of a study in which we explore how hazard map design features can influence hazard map interpretation, and we propose a number of considerations for hazard map design. A series of hazard maps were generated, with each one showing the same probabilistic volcanic ashfall dataset, but using different verbal and visual variables (e.g., different colour schemes, data classifications, probabilistic formats). Following a short pilot study, these maps were used in an online survey of 110 stakeholders and scientists in New Zealand. Participants answered 30 open-ended and multiple choice questions about ashfall hazard based on the different maps. Results suggest that hazard map design can have a significant influence on the messages readers take away. For example, diverging colour schemes were associated with concepts of "risk" and decision-making more than sequential schemes, and participants made more precise estimates of hazard with isarithmic data classifications compared to binned or gradational shading. Based on such

  3. Novel technologies and an overall strategy to allow hazard assessment and risk prediction of chemicals, cosmetics, and drugs with animal-free methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Marcel; Lidbury, Brett A; Yang, Chihae; Hayden, Patrick J; Kelm, Jens M; Ringeissen, Stephanie; Detroyer, Ann; Meunier, Jean R; Rathman, James F; Jackson, George R; Stolper, Gina; Hasiwa, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Several alternative methods to replace animal experiments have been accepted by legal bodies. An even larger number of tests are under development or already in use for non-regulatory applications or for the generation of information stored in proprietary knowledge bases. The next step for the use of the different in vitro methods is their combination into integrated testing strategies (ITS) to get closer to the overall goal of predictive "in vitro-based risk evaluation processes." We introduce here a conceptual framework as the basis for future ITS and their use for risk evaluation without animal experiments. The framework allows incorporation of both individual tests and already integrated approaches. Illustrative examples for elements to be incorporated are drawn from the session "Innovative technologies" at the 8th World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences, held in Montreal, 2011. For instance, LUHMES cells (conditionally immortalized human neurons) were presented as an example for a 2D cell system. The novel 3D platform developed by InSphero was chosen as an example for the design and use of scaffold-free, organotypic microtissues. The identification of critical pathways of toxicity (PoT) may be facilitated by approaches exemplified by the MatTek 3D model for human epithelial tissues with engineered toxicological reporter functions. The important role of in silico methods and of modeling based on various pre-existing data is demonstrated by Altamira's comprehensive approach to predicting a molecule's potential for skin irritancy. A final example demonstrates how natural variation in human genetics may be overcome using data analytic (pattern recognition) techniques borrowed from computer science and statistics. The overall hazard and risk assessment strategy integrating these different examples has been compiled in a graphical work flow.

  4. Revision and Experimental Verification of the Hazard Assessment Computer System Models for Spreading, Movement, Dissolution, and Dissipation of Insoluble Chemicals Spilled Onto Water. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    Movement Spreading Springfield, Virginia 22161 19. sett.r,.’y CI,..0,, (of th.. re.port) 20. S.cw.rty Cfoi,.il (,,f hiit P.,;#) 2.No. oI P qt., 22... running the tests and collecting data; "o Mrs. Adeline Raeke for typing the report; and 0 Mr. Victor Hernandez for drawing the figures and graphs. .1 S...IV.2 SUMMARY OF TEST CONDITIONS FOR SPREADING TEST SERIES I NON-VOLAT-iLE INSTANTANEOUS SPILLS IN BASIN Run Specific Spreading Spill Nu rChemical

  5. Cyclone hazard proneness of districts of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Mohapatra

    2015-04-01

    Hazards associated with tropical cyclones (TCs) are long-duration rotatory high velocity winds, very heavy rain, and storm tide. India has a coastline of about 7516 km of which 5400 km is along the mainland. The entire coast is affected by cyclones with varying frequency and intensity. Thus classification of TC hazard proneness of the coastal districts is very essential for planning and preparedness aspects of management of TCs. So, an attempt has been made to classify TC hazard proneness of districts by adopting a hazard criteria based on frequency and intensity of cyclone, wind strength, probable maximum precipitation, and probable maximum storm surge. Ninety-six districts including 72 districts touching the coast and 24 districts not touching the coast, but lying within 100 km from the coast have been classified based on their proneness. Out of 96 districts, 12 are very highly prone, 41 are highly prone, 30 are moderately prone, and the remaining 13 districts are less prone. This classification of coastal districts based on hazard may be considered for all the required purposes including coastal zone management and planning. However, the vulnerability of the place has not been taken into consideration. Therefore, composite cyclone risk of a district, which is the product of hazard and vulnerability, needs to be assessed separately through a detailed study.

  6. Endocrine-disrupting environmental chemicals - hazards to man and animal; Hormonell wirksame Umweltchemikalien - Gefahr fuer Mensch und Tier? Seminarband der Zentralen Informationsstelle Umweltberatung Bayern. Bd. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behling, G.; Koller, U.; Klemmer, A.; Haury, H.J. [comps.

    1998-08-01

    The spectrum of problems relating to endocrine-disrupting environmental chemicals was presented by competent experts from public authorities and scientific institutions. The lecturers described the current stage and future tasks of research. Their lectures focused on effects of hormone-like substances on humans and animals and an assessment of risk factors on the basis of data from scientific tests and current environmental exposure. There was also a contribution presenting the chemical industry`s view of the matter. [Deutsch] Kompetente Sachverstaendige aus Behoerden und wissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen stellten das Themenspektrum vor, fuehrten in den Forschungsstand ein und zeigten den Forschungsbedarf auf. Der Schwerpunkt lag in der Darstellung der der Auswirkungen hormonell wirksamer Substanzen, wie z.B. DDT, Dioxinen und PCBs, auf Mensch und Tier sowie in der Abschaetzung der Risikofaktoren anhand der bekannten Daten aus wissenschaftlichen Tests sowie der aktuellen Exposition in der Umwelt. Mit einem Beitrag der chemischen Industrie wurde auch deren Einschaetzung der Umweltproblematik aufgezeigt. (orig./MG) m9

  7. DISCRISET: a battery of tests for fast waste classification--application of tests on waste extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, K; Robbens, J; Nobels, I; Vanparys, C; Vanermen, G; Tirez, K; Michiels, L; Weltens, R

    2012-12-01

    The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD, Council Directive 91/689/EC, 1991) provides a framework for classification of hazardous waste, based on 15 Hazard (H)-criteria. For complex wastes the HWD foresees the application of toxicity tests on the waste material itself to assess its toxic properties. However, these proposed test methods often involve mammalian testing, which is not acceptable from an ethical point of view, nor is it feasible economically. The DISCRISET project was initiated to investigate the use of alternative chemical and biological fast screening tests for waste hazard classification. In the first part of the project, different methods were reviewed and a testing strategy was proposed to minimize time and cost of analysis by a tiered approach. This includes as a first tier chemical analysis followed by a general acute toxicity screen as a second tier and as a third tier mechanistic toxicity tests to assess chronic toxicity (genotoxicity, hormone disturbance, teratogenic effects, immunologic activity). In this phase of the project, selected methods were applied to 16 different waste samples from various sources and industries. The first tier chemical tests are recommended for the full characterization of the leachate fraction (inorganics) but not for the organic fraction of samples. Here the chemical characterization is only useful if toxic content is known or suspected. As second tier the fast bacterial test Microtox is validated as a general toxicity screen for the organic fraction (worst case organic extract). Samples that are not classified in tier 1 or 2 are then further investigated in the third tier by the mechanistic toxicity tests and tested for their potential chronic toxicity: immune activity (TNF-α upregulation) is indicative for corrosive, irritating or sensitising effects (H4/H8/H15), reproductive effects (H10) are indicated by hormone disturbance and early life stage abnormalities in fish larvae when exposed to the extracts and

  8. Common Mistakes of Emergency Exercise and the Countermeasures for Hazardous Chemicals Enterprises%危化品企业应急演练常见误区及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖启霞

    2015-01-01

    Emergency exercise is a crucial way, for hazardous chemical enterprises, to improve the emergency response capability, decrease the enterprise risks and improve the management level of chemical process safety. The aim of the emergency exercise and the organization/execution process were reviewed. On the basis of factual conditions, several mistakes were concluded, including the presence of blindness and inflexible of exercise program, more attention paid on the formalism rather than the quality of the emergency exercise, insufficiency of regional emergency exercise interactions, stereotyped assessment and summary after emergency exercise activity, etc. To avoid existing mistakes, several countermeasures were proposed for hazardous chemicals enterprises executing their emergency exercises. They were respectively optimizing the planning and training of exercise program, executing non-script emergency exercise on regular basis, strengthening the assessment and summary subsequent to the emergency exercise activity, continuous amendment and tracing of emergency plan, etc.%应急演练是提升危化品企业应急能力,降低企业风险的必要手段,提升企业化工安全管理水平的重要手段。文章对应急演练的目的和组织实施过程进行了回顾。结合实际情况,总结得到危化品企业在演练过程中存在演练方案设计盲目僵化、重“演”不重“练”、缺乏区域联动以及演练评估及总结模式化等误区,提出应通过强化方案策划及应急培训、实施无脚本、常态化演练、强化演练后的评估总结和预案改进追踪等对策措施来规避当前误区。

  9. COMPUTERS HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Augustynek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2006, over 12.6 million Polish users of the Web registered. On the average, each of them spent 21 hours and 37 minutes monthly browsing the Web. That is why the problems of the psychological aspects of computer utilization have become an urgent research subject. The results of research into the development of Polish information society carried out in AGH University of Science and Technology, under the leadership of Leslaw H. Haber, in the period from 2000 until present time, indicate the emergence dynamic changes in the ways of computer utilization and their circumstances. One of the interesting regularities has been the inverse proportional relation between the level of computer skills and the frequency of the Web utilization.It has been found that in 2005, compared to 2000, the following changes occurred:- A significant drop in the number of students who never used computers and the Web;- Remarkable increase in computer knowledge and skills (particularly pronounced in the case of first years student- Decreasing gap in computer skills between students of the first and the third year; between male and female students;- Declining popularity of computer games.It has been demonstrated also that the hazard of computer screen addiction was the highest in he case of unemployed youth outside school system. As much as 12% of this group of young people were addicted to computer. A lot of leisure time that these youths enjoyed inducted them to excessive utilization of the Web. Polish housewives are another population group in risk of addiction to the Web. The duration of long Web charts carried out by younger and younger youths has been another matter of concern. Since the phenomenon of computer addiction is relatively new, no specific therapy methods has been developed. In general, the applied therapy in relation to computer addition syndrome is similar to the techniques applied in the cases of alcohol or gambling addiction. Individual and group

  10. Toxic State–Corporate Crimes, Neo-liberalism and Green Criminology: The Hazards and Legacies of the Oil, Chemical and Mineral Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Ruggiero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses examples from the history and practices of multi-national and large companies in the oil, chemical and asbestos industries to examine their legal and illegal despoiling and destruction of the environment and impact on human and non-human life. The discussion draws on the literature on green criminology and state-corporate crime and considers measures and arrangements that might mitigate or prevent such damaging acts. This paper is part of ongoing work on green criminology and crimes of the economy. It places these actions and crimes in the context of a global neo-liberal economic system and considers and critiques the distorting impact of the GDP model of ‘economic health’ and its consequences for the environment.

  11. Binary Classification of a Large Collection of Environmental Chemicals from Estrogen Receptor Assays by Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship and Machine Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: There are thousands of environmental chemicals subject to regulatory decisions for endocrine disrupting potential. A promising approach to manage this large universe of untested chemicals is to use a prioritization filter that combines in vitro assays with in silico QSA...

  12. Medical waste: a minimal hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, J H

    1991-11-01

    Medical waste is a subset of municipal waste, and regulated medical waste comprises less than 1% of the total municipal waste volume in the United States. As part of the overall waste stream, medical waste does contribute in a relative way to the aesthetic damage of the environment. Likewise, some small portion of the total release of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials is derived from medical wastes. These comments can be made about any generated waste, regulated or unregulated. Healthcare professionals, including infection control personnel, microbiologists, public health officials, and others, have unsuccessfully argued that there is no evidence that past methods of treatment and disposal of regulated medical waste constitute any public health hazard. Historically, discovery of environmental contamination by toxic chemical disposal has followed assurances that the material was being disposed of in a safe manner. Therefore, a cynical public and its elected officials have demanded proof that the treatment and disposal of medical waste (i.e., infectious waste) do not constitute a public health hazard. Existent studies on municipal waste provide that proof. In order to argue that the results of these municipal waste studies are demonstrative of the minimal potential infectious environmental impact and lack of public health hazard associated with medical waste, we must accept the following: that the pathogens are the same whether they come from the hospital or the community, and that the municipal waste studied contained waste materials we now define as regulated medical waste.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. 危险化学品企业安全验收评价结论量化分析%Quantitative analysis on conclusions of safety assessment upon completion for hazard chemical enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛秀坤; 邵辉; 赵庆贤; 邢志祥; 郝永梅

    2012-01-01

    为了使危险化学品企业安全验收评价结论更加准确、客观,根据安全验收评价结论编制的原则和相关导则,从法律法规符合性、外部安全条件、总平面布局及建筑结构、主要生产装置设施、主要储存装置设施、公用工程和辅助设施、安全管理及从业人员条件和应急救援等八个方面建立了安全验收评价结论定量评估指标体系.基于层次分析法确定各级指标权重,建立了安全验收评价结论定量评估模型.为方便对安全验收评价结论进行准确、快速地评估,利用EXCEL软件建立了安全验收评价结论定量评估系统.该评估模型和评估系统可以客观、快速、准确地对危险化学品企业安全验收评价结论进行定量评估.%In order to make safety assessment upon completion of hazard chemical enterprises more accurate and objective, according to compilation principles of safety assessment upon completion and related guidelines, a quantitative evaluation index system of evaluation was established from eight aspects, including laws and regulations eon-formability, foreign safety situation, general layout, main production equipments, main store equipments, public project and auxiliary facilities, safety mangement and employment conditions and-emergency rescue. The index weights were made by Analytic Hierarchy Process method and quantitative assessment models on conclusions of safety assessment upon completion were established. In order to make safety assessment upon completion conclusion more accurate and faster, a quantitative evaluation system on conclusions of safety assessment upon completion was built by EXCEL software. The assessment models and system can quantify conclusions of safety assessment upon completion for hazard chemical enterprises more objectively, quickly and accurately.

  14. [Occupational hazards and bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamova, R S

    1991-01-01

    Occupational exposure to health hazards was studied in 258 industrial workers who had developed cancer of the bladder against 454 matched controls. All the test subjects and controls were residents of the Tambov Province centers of chemical industry. Statistical significance (relative risk-4.7) was established for exposure to aromatic amines. For those contacting with aniline dyes the relative risk (RR) made up 2.4. The risk to develop bladder cancer in powder shops (RR-3.2) was attributed to the hazards of dyes and diphenylamine. In leather-shoe and textile industry the exposure to dyes was not safe (RR-6.1), neither was it to chemicals, oil products, pesticides, overheating (RR-3.2, 1.6, 3.2 and 2.9, respectively). It is stated that in line with a significant risk to develop bladder cancer at exposure to aromatic amines there exist a number of occupational factors contributing to this risk.

  15. A New Geochemical Classification of Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Changmou; L. Lynn Chyi

    2001-01-01

    The geochemical classification proposed by Goldschmidt was based on meteoritic analysis and elemental partition in blast furnace. There are many surprises when applied to the discussion of natural occurrences. A modified classification of elements based on basic chemical properties and their occurrences. A modified classification of elements based on basic chemical properties and their occurrences in nature is, therefore, proposed for students learning geochemistry and geologists working in the field. Elements are classified into six groups including lithophile, oxyphile, siderophile, chalcophile, biophile, and atmophile elements. Five terms are taken from Goldshcmidt's original classification. Oxyphile is a new term.

  16. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  17. Lightweight autonomous chemical identification system (LACIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozos, George; Lin, Hai; Burch, Timothy

    2012-06-01

    Smiths Detection and Intelligent Optical Systems have developed prototypes for the Lightweight Autonomous Chemical Identification System (LACIS) for the US Department of Homeland Security. LACIS is to be a handheld detection system for Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) and Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TICs). LACIS is designed to have a low limit of detection and rapid response time for use by emergency responders and could allow determination of areas having dangerous concentration levels and if protective garments will be required. Procedures for protection of responders from hazardous materials incidents require the use of protective equipment until such time as the hazard can be assessed. Such accurate analysis can accelerate operations and increase effectiveness. LACIS is to be an improved point detector employing novel CBRNE detection modalities that includes a militaryproven ruggedized ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) with an array of electro-resistive sensors to extend the range of chemical threats detected in a single device. It uses a novel sensor data fusion and threat classification architecture to interpret the independent sensor responses and provide robust detection at low levels in complex backgrounds with minimal false alarms. The performance of LACIS prototypes have been characterized in independent third party laboratory tests at the Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI, Columbus, OH) and indoor and outdoor field tests at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). LACIS prototypes will be entering operational assessment by key government emergency response groups to determine its capabilities versus requirements.

  18. Potency values from the local lymph node assay: application to classification, labelling and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, S E; Api, A-M; Crevel, R W R; Debruyne, E; Gamer, A; Jowsey, I R; Kern, P; Kimber, I; Lea, L; Lloyd, P; Mehmood, Z; Steiling, W; Veenstra, G; Woolhiser, M; Hennes, C

    2010-02-01

    Hundreds of chemicals are contact allergens but there remains a need to identify and characterise accurately skin sensitising hazards. The purpose of this review was fourfold. First, when using the local lymph node assay (LLNA), consider whether an exposure concentration (EC3 value) lower than 100% can be defined and used as a threshold criterion for classification and labelling. Second, is there any reason to revise the recommendation of a previous ECETOC Task Force regarding specific EC3 values used for sub-categorisation of substances based upon potency? Third, what recommendations can be made regarding classification and labelling of preparations under GHS? Finally, consider how to integrate LLNA data into risk assessment and provide a rationale for using concentration responses and corresponding no-effect concentrations. Although skin sensitising chemicals having high EC3 values may represent only relatively low risks to humans, it is not possible currently to define an EC3 value below 100% that would serve as an appropriate threshold for classification and labelling. The conclusion drawn from reviewing the use of distinct categories for characterising contact allergens was that the most appropriate, science-based classification of contact allergens according to potency is one in which four sub-categories are identified: 'extreme', 'strong', 'moderate' and 'weak'. Since draining lymph node cell proliferation is related causally and quantitatively to potency, LLNA EC3 values are recommended for determination of a no expected sensitisation induction level that represents the first step in quantitative risk assessment.

  19. 液体危险化学品自燃温度检测电路的设计%Design of Self-ignition Temperature Detecting Circuit for Hazardous Liquid Chemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华伟; 陈飞; 李忠海; 吴庆定

    2015-01-01

    The high accurate temperature detecting circuit based on K-type thermocouple is introduced. It is used for detecting the temperature inside the combustion chamber of the self-ignition temperature detector for hazardous liquid chemicals. The experiments show that the circuit meets the requirements of wide range and high accuracy for such detector. In addition, the design principle and method of this temperature detecting circuit can also be widely used in other temperature detection systems.%介绍了一种基于K型热电偶传感器的高精度温度检测电路,用于液体危险化学品自燃温度检测仪燃烧室内温度的检测。试验表明,该电路满足液体危险化学品自燃温度检测仪对其测温范围广、精度高的要求。同时,该温度检测电路的设计原理与方法也可以广泛应用于其他温度检测系统中。

  20. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  1. Identificación de peligros químicos-tóxicos para la salud animal en comunidades de San José de las Lajas en territorio Habanero (Identification of chemical hazards to animal health in communities of San José de las Lajas in Havana territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez-Fernández Yolanda E.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenA partir del inventario de fuentes y presuntas fuentes de peligro químico – tóxico a la salud y producción animal, con la aplicación de la metodología de análisis de riesgos químicos – tóxicos para la sanidad animal de Suárez (1999 y Suárez et al., (2007 y como contribución a la gestión y reducción territorial de riesgos de desastres, se identificaron 20 fuentes de peligro de este tipo y sus elementos en riesgo en San José de Las Lajas, perteneciente a la provincia de La Habana. Estas fuentes se distribuyen fundamentalmenteen cinco comunidades e involucran a sectores como Industria, Agricultura, Investigación y Servicios. El 30% de estas fuentes poseen antecedentes de episodios químico - tóxicos o se reconocen como causa de contaminación ambiental. Fueron detectadas 167 situaciones críticas y 155 factores de riesgo. Se detectó además 47 elementos en riesgo, así como una población de 59173 animales amenazados por dichas fuentes de peligro. Se concluye acerca de la necesidad de elaboración e implementación de planes para la reducción de desastres tecnológicos que puedan afectar a la salud animal.SummaryThe methodology to analyze chemical risks to animal health designed bySuárez (1999 and Suárez et al., (2007 was applied in communities of San José de Las Lajas from Havana in order to contribute in the territorial reduction and management of disasters risks that affected animal production and health. Before that, some researchers were out the inventory of sources and presumptive sources of chemical hazards in these communities. 20 sources of chemical hazards to animal health were identified because chemicals. The chemical hazards belong to 5 communities and involve industry, agriculture, research and services. 30% of the chemical hazards are recognized as a cause of environmental contamination or had reports about former cases of chemical accidents. We detect 167 critical issues and155 risks factors that

  2. Shedding a new light on hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reece, N.

    1991-02-01

    The sun's ability to detoxify waterborne chemicals has long been known; polluted streams, for example, become cleaner as they flow through sunlit areas. Solar detoxification harnesses this natural degradation process for beneficial ends, producing simple, nonhazardous substances from hazardous organic chemicals. Solar detoxification systems now being developed break down these chemicals without using the fossil fuels required by conventional technologies. Sunlight destroys hazardous waste because of the distinctive properties of photons, the packets of energy that make up sunlight. Low-energy photons add thermal energy that will heat toxic chemicals; high-energy photons add the energy needed to break the chemical bonds of these chemicals. The detoxification process discussed here takes advantage of this latter group of photons found in the ultraviolet portion of the solar spectrum. 4 figs.

  3. Geographical classification of Italian saffron (Crocus sativus L.) based on chemical constituents determined by high-performance liquid-chromatography and by using linear discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Archivio, Angelo Antonio; Giannitto, Andrea; Maggi, Maria Anna; Ruggieri, Fabrizio

    2016-12-01

    One hundred and forty-four Italian saffron samples produced in the years from 2009 to 2015 in five distinct areas located in four different regions, Abruzzo (L'Aquila), Tuscany (Florence), Umbria (Cascia and Città della Pieve) and Sardinia, have been analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Intensities of the chromatographic peaks attributed to crocins, safranal, picrocrocin and its derivatives and flavonoids were considered as variables in linear discriminant analysis to attempt geographical classification. The results revealed that spices produced at different sites of the Italian territory can be discriminated with good accuracy. The differentiation of saffron cultivated in Sardinia from those produced in Central Italy was mainly attributed to different contents of the most abundant crocins. Good differentiation of spices produced in close sites of Central Italy was also observed, 88% of validation samples being correctly classified; some minor crocins are responsible for such discrimination.

  4. Prevention and control of hazards in seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huss, Hans Henrik; Reilly, A.; Embarek, Peter Karim Ben

    2000-01-01

    are listed and discussed. It is pointed out that there are serious safety concerns related to the consumption of raw fish and shellfish due to the presence of biological (bacteria, virus, parasites) and chemical (biotoxins) hazards. These hazards are present in the fish and shellfish pre......Seafood is high on the list of foods transmitting disease. However, the food safety issues are highly focussed and more than 80% of all seafood-borne outbreaks are related to biotoxins (ciguatoxin), scombrotoxin or the consumption of raw molluscan shellfish. The safety hazards in seafood production......-harvest and are difficult or impossible to control by applying presently available preventive measures. In contrast, the hazards related to contamination, recontamination or survival of biological hazards during processing are well-defined and can be controlled by applying Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), Good Hygiene...

  5. ThinkHazard!: an open-source, global tool for understanding hazard information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Stuart; Jongman, Brenden; Simpson, Alanna; Nunez, Ariel; Deparday, Vivien; Saito, Keiko; Murnane, Richard; Balog, Simone

    2016-04-01

    Rapid and simple access to added-value natural hazard and disaster risk information is a key issue for various stakeholders of the development and disaster risk management (DRM) domains. Accessing available data often requires specialist knowledge of heterogeneous data, which are often highly technical and can be difficult for non-specialists in DRM to find and exploit. Thus, availability, accessibility and processing of these information sources are crucial issues, and an important reason why many development projects suffer significant impacts from natural hazards. The World Bank's Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) is currently developing a new open-source tool to address this knowledge gap: ThinkHazard! The main aim of the ThinkHazard! project is to develop an analytical tool dedicated to facilitating improvements in knowledge and understanding of natural hazards among non-specialists in DRM. It also aims at providing users with relevant guidance and information on handling the threats posed by the natural hazards present in a chosen location. Furthermore, all aspects of this tool will be open and transparent, in order to give users enough information to understand its operational principles. In this presentation, we will explain the technical approach behind the tool, which translates state-of-the-art probabilistic natural hazard data into understandable hazard classifications and practical recommendations. We will also demonstrate the functionality of the tool, and discuss limitations from a scientific as well as an operational perspective.

  6. Household Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Hazardous Waste Share Facebook Twitter ... risks associated with household hazardous wastes, it is important that people always monitor the use, storage, and ...

  7. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    CERN Document Server

    Grams, W H

    2000-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from t...

  8. 49 CFR 195.4 - Compatibility necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. 195.4 Section 195.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. No person may transport any hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide unless the hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide is chemically compatible with...

  9. 33 CFR 154.1216 - Facility classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Animal Fats and... handle, store, or transport animal fats or vegetable oils as “substantial harm” facilities because they... classification of a facility that handles, stores, or transports animal fats or vegetable oils. The COTP...

  10. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-04-01

    Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e., that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk, and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied generalized Pareto model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard random variable X with corresponding failure time series T should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with opportunities for future extensions.

  11. Exudates used as medicine by the "caboclos river-dwellers" of the Unini River, AM, Brazil – classification based in their chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Henrique G. Lago

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although the use of exudates in traditional medicine has been commonly observed during ethnopharmacological surveys, few records have been made concerning the scientific merits of these products. The aim of this study was to document ethnopharmacological data and to classify exudates used as medicine by the "caboclos" river-dwellers from the Unini River of Amazonas, Brazil, on chemical analyses basis. Using an ethnographic approach, indicated plants and their respective exudates were collected, identified and incorporated into herbarium of the National Institute of Amazonian Research. To classify these exudates, plant material was extracted using methanol, and obtained extracts were analyzed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and mass spectrometry aiming identification of main compounds. Fifteen exudates were indicated by "caboclos" river-dwellers as home remedies; among their therapeutic uses, inflammatory processes, culture-bound syndromes and respiratory diseases are most prominent. Based on their solubility and chemicals classes, fifteen exudates were classified into: latex (7, resins (5, sap (1, gum (1, oleoresin (1; and eleven of them have not been mentioned on pharmacological literature until this moment. The obtained results may contribute to chemical/pharmacological application of exudates from these species, several of which have been classically used in Brazilian folk medicine.

  12. Application of the Coastal Hazard Wheel methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment and management in the state of Djibouti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rosendahl Appelquist

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment and management in a changing global climate on the state of Djibouti. The methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW is developed for worldwide application and is based on a specially designed coastal classification system that incorporates the main static and dynamic parameters determining the characteristics of a coastal environment. The methodology provides information on the hazards of ecosystem disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding and can be used to support management decisions at local, regional and national level, in areas with limited access to geophysical data. The assessment for Djibouti applies a geographic information system (GIS to develop a range of national hazard maps along with relevant hazard statistics and is showcasing the procedure for applying the CHW methodology for national hazard assessments. The assessment shows that the coastline of Djibouti is characterized by extensive stretches with high or very high hazards of ecosystem disruption, mainly related to coral reefs and mangrove forests, while large sections along the coastlines of especially northern and southern Djibouti have high hazard levels for gradual inundation. The hazard of salt water intrusion is moderate along most of Djibouti’s coastline, although groundwater availability is considered to be very sensitive to human ground water extraction. High or very high erosion hazards are associated with Djibouti’s sedimentary plains, estuaries and river mouths, while very high flooding hazards are associated with the dry river mouths.

  13. Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat from sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A risk ranking process identified Toxoplasma gondii and pathogenic verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC as the most relevant biological hazards for meat inspection of sheep and goats. As these are not detected by traditional meat inspection, a meat safety assurance system using risk-based interventions was proposed. Further studies are required on T. gondii and pathogenic VTEC. If new information confirms these hazards as a high risk to public health from meat from sheep or goats, setting targets at carcass level should be considered. Other elements of the system are risk-categorisation of flocks/herds based on improved Food Chain Information (FCI, classification of abattoirs according to their capability to reduce faecal contamination, and use of improved process hygiene criteria. It is proposed to omit palpation and incision from post-mortem inspection in animals subjected to routine slaughter. For chemical hazards, dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls were ranked as being of high potential concern. Monitoring programmes for chemical hazards should be more flexible and based on the risk of occurrence, taking into account FCI, which should be expanded to reflect the extensive production systems used, and the ranking of chemical substances, which should be regularly updated and include new hazards. Control programmes across the food chain, national residue control plans, feed control and monitoring of environmental contaminants should be better integrated. Meat inspection is a valuable tool for surveillance and monitoring of animal health and welfare conditions. Omission of palpation and incision would reduce detection effectiveness for tuberculosis and fasciolosis at animal level. Surveillance of tuberculosis at the slaughterhouse in small ruminants should be improved and encouraged, as this is in practice the only surveillance system available. Extended use of FCI could compensate for some, but not all, the information

  14. Robust water hazard detection for autonomous off-road navigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuo-zhong YAO; Zhi-yu XIANG; Ji-lin LIU

    2009-01-01

    Existing water hazard detection methods usually fail when the features of water surfaces are greatly changed by the surroundings, e.g., by a change in illumination. This paper proposes a novel algorithm to robustly detect different kinds of water hazards for autonomous navigation. Our algorithm combines traditional machine learning and image segmentation and uses only digital cameras, which are usually affordable, as the visual sensors. Active learning is used for automatically dealing with problems caused by the selection, labeling and classification of large numbers of training sets. Mean-shift based image segmentation is used to refine the final classification. Our experimental results show that our new algorithm can accurately detect not only 'common' water hazards, which usually have the features of both high brightness and low texture, but also 'special' water hazards that may have lots of ripples or low brightness.

  15. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Comparison on Atmospheric Pollution Chemical Accident Hazard Predicting(CDM)%大气污染化学事故危害预测数值模拟(CDM)与验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄顺祥; 陈海平; 刘峰; 刘树华; 朱凤荣

    2011-01-01

    The concentration and dose model on chemical agents diffusion or the toxic clouds diffusion model over complex terrain(CDM) is established, which can be used to assess and predict atmospheric pollution chemical accident hazard, and provides fast, intuitionistic and qnaniticational decision information for emergency. Contaminated field, contaminated rate, contaminated area, and contaminated depth may be computed in a few minutes. The comparison of field experiment results with numerical simulation results shows that contaminated field, contaminated rate, and contaminated depth are consistent on the whole, and the relative error of dose at different distance is less than one time. The mean relative error is 20.6%, and the relative error of contaminated depth are -26.3% and 10.2% respectively at 0.66 g.s/m3 and 0.24 g's/m3 dose. The comparison of CDM simulating results with water tank experiment results shows that they are similar highly in neutral atmosphere or stable atmosphere.%建立了对复杂地形上大气污染化学事故进行危害评估与预测的数值模式(CDM),该模式可以快速预测大气污染化学事故的危害范围、危害等级、危害面积和危害纵深等,为事故应急处置提供快速、直观和定量的决策依据。分别应用外场扩散和水槽模拟实验对CDM进行了验证。数值模拟与外场扩散实验的验证结果表明,二者在危害范围、危害纵深和危害等级等方面均具有很好的一致性,不同距离上剂量相对误差在1倍以内,平均相对误差为20.6%,剂量阈值为O.66和0.24g·s/m0的危害纵深相对误差分别为-26.3%和10.2%。数值模拟与水槽

  16. QSAR models for oxidation of organic micropollutants in water based on ozone and hydroxyl radical rate constants and their chemical classification

    KAUST Repository

    Sudhakaran, Sairam

    2013-03-01

    Ozonation is an oxidation process for the removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) from water and the chemical reaction is governed by second-order kinetics. An advanced oxidation process (AOP), wherein the hydroxyl radicals (OH radicals) are generated, is more effective in removing a wider range of OMPs from water than direct ozonation. Second-order rate constants (kOH and kO3) are good indices to estimate the oxidation efficiency, where higher rate constants indicate more rapid oxidation. In this study, quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) models for O3 and AOP processes were developed, and rate constants, kOH and kO3, were predicted based on target compound properties. The kO3 and kOH values ranged from 5 * 10-4 to 105 M-1s-1 and 0.04 to 18 * (109) M-1 s-1, respectively. Several molecular descriptors which potentially influence O3 and OH radical oxidation were identified and studied. The QSAR-defining descriptors were double bond equivalence (DBE), ionisation potential (IP), electron-affinity (EA) and weakly-polar component of solvent accessible surface area (WPSA), and the chemical and statistical significance of these descriptors was discussed. Multiple linear regression was used to build the QSAR models, resulting in high goodness-of-fit, r2 (>0.75). The models were validated by internal and external validation along with residual plots. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Chemical composition of igneous rocks expressed by means of diagrams, with reference to rock classification on a quantitative chemico-mineralogical basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddings, J.P.

    1903-01-01

    The value of graphical methods for expressing relative quantities has been well established in all kinds of statistical exposition and discussion. Their use in conveying definite conceptions of relative quantities of chemical and mineral components of rocks is becoming more and more frequent, and the value of the results in some cases can not be overestimated. This is especially true when a series or group of rocks is being considered. The intricate variations in the amounts of numerous mineral components, or of chemical components, baffle most attempts to comprehend their interrelationships by simple contemplation or by study of the numbers in which they may be expressed. Many facts and relations are overlooked which arc readily observed when diagrams are used to represent numerical figures. Moreover, visual memory is sufficiently developed in most persons to enable them to carry in mind simple geometrical forms, where it does not permit them to recollect manifold assemblages of oft-repeated numbers. Mental impressions of simple diagrams are, therefore, more definite and lasting and enable the student to store up a much greater amount of quantitative data than he could otherwise acquire.

  18. Integrating exposure into chemical alternatives assessment using a qualitative approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greggs, Bill; Arnold, Scott; Burns, Thomas J.;

    2016-01-01

    could trigger a higher-tiered, more quantitative exposure assessment on the alternatives being considered. This talk will demonstrate an approach for including chemical- and product-related exposure information in a qualitative AA comparison. Starting from existing hazard AAs, a series of four chemical...... Sustainable Chemical Alternatives Technical Committee, which consists of scientists from academia, industry, government, and NGOs, has developed a qualitative comparative exposure approach. Conducting such a comparison can screen for alternatives that are expected to have a higher exposure potential, which......-product application scenarios were examined to test the concept, to understand the effort required, and to determine the value of exposure data in AA decision-making. The group has developed a classification approach for ingredient and product parameters to support comparisons between alternatives as well...

  19. Occupational Allergic Hazards of Agricultural Chemicals and Its Prevention%对农药引起敏感性疾病的综合、系统预防体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上田厚; 原田幸一; 大森昭子; 魏长年; 今村和彦; 韦庆军; 皆本景子

    2005-01-01

    由于职业原因,农业从业人员会在劳动中接触大量、不同种类的农药,关于农药对农业从业人员的健康危害已经有大量的报道.因为缺乏适当的预防措施,在这些危害健康的疾病中,呼吸道和皮肤的过敏性疾病,尤其是接触性皮肤炎,已成为最严重的问题.但目前这种系统的、综合的预防体系还没有建立.为此,我们研究农药引起过敏性疾病的病因学和预防医学,主要的研究方法是使用吸入激惹试验对速发性过敏性疾病进行研究,使用贴附试验和豚鼠最大量实验对迟发性过敏性疾病进行研究,现在发展到使用细胞培养.目前,我们试图建立一种系统、综合和连续的预防体系对于发现农药对农业从业人员致敏因素和建立适当的控制措施.根据我们的研究结果,我们的预防体系包括以下6个步骤:通过专业采样调查发现可疑的致敏化学物质和工作环境因素;对致敏化学物质进行文献检索,查找有无致敏作用的相关报道;对致敏因素的可靠性进行证实;如果没有可疑化学物质致敏的相关文献报道,就通过实验研究证实可疑化学物质的致敏作用和机制;建立对农业从业人员工作环境的保护体系.最后,我们希望通过建立区域性的过敏和免疫中心,以便能有效地管理上述的预防体系.%The agricultural worker are exposed to various kinds and large amount of pesticides through their works.There have been many reports on the cases of agricultural workers developing health hazards due to pesticides .Among those hazards,respiratory and skin allergies,especially allergic contact dermatitis,are the most serious problems because of large numbers of suffering cases and difficulties to conduct the appropriative preventive control activities. But appropriate systemic and comprehensive control measures have been established. The etiology and prevention of allergies due to pesticides were studied

  20. Investigation of impacts to federally endangered freshwater mussels of the Lower Ohio River: Chemical and biological survey for environmental contaminants adjacent to the Republic Creosoting Hazardous Waste Site near Joppa, Illinois

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey for contaminants in bed sediments and freshwater mussels was conducted in the region of the Lower Ohio River adjacent to the Republic Creosoting hazardous...

  1. Software safety hazard analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper.

  2. Use and Misuse of Chemical Reactivity Spreadsheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, F

    2005-09-20

    Misidentifying chemical hazards can have serious deleterious effects. Consequences of not identifying a chemical are obvious and include fires, explosions, injury to workers, etc. Consequences of identifying hazards that are really not present can be equally as bad. Misidentifying hazards can result in increased work with loss of productivity, increased expenses, utilization/consumption of scarce resources, and the potential to modify the work to include chemicals or processes that are actually more hazardous than those originally proposed. For these reasons, accurate hazard identification is critical to any safety program. Hazard identification in the world of chemistry is, at best, a daunting task. The knowing or understanding, of the reactions between any of approximately twelve million known chemicals that may be hazardous, is the reason for this task being so arduous. Other variables, such as adding other reactants/contaminants or changing conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure, or concentration), make hazard determination something many would construe as being more than impossibly difficult. Despite these complexities, people who do not have an extensive background in the chemical sciences can be called upon to perform chemical hazard identification. Because hazard identification in the area of chemical safety is so burdensome and because people with a wide variety of training are called upon to perform this work, tools are required to aid in chemical hazard identification. Many tools have been developed. Unfortunately, many of these tools are not seen as the limited resource that they are and are used inappropriately.

  3. CHRIS: Hazard Assessment Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-12

    CODE AIJ 91 HAZARD ASSESSMENT CODE-ABC KLMN 95 A. VENTING GAS FIRE -CODE AB 97 B. LIOUID FIRE-CODE AKL 97 C. WATER POLLUTION HAZARDS - CODE AK 99 D...The Hazard Calculation Codes for liquefied natural gas are: AB — venting gas fire . AC - gas dispersion, ADE — liquid fire, and ADFG...5.4). Spill Amount Wind Velocity Wind Direction Weather ppm tons knots Primary Code ABCKLMN Code AB - Venting Gas Fire Assessment

  4. Best practice in workplace hazardous substances management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, C

    1995-09-01

    Chemical-induced injury and disease remains a significant problem in workers in industry. As a result of this problem, a number of national and international initiatives have recommended the development of conventions, regulations, and codes of practice to attempt to deal with the problems of hazardous substances at work. Within Australia, workplace hazardous substances regulations are in development which will impose legal obligations and responsibilities on the suppliers of hazardous substances and on the employers who use them. At the same time, internationally consistent ISO standards are in use, or are being developed, for quality systems, environmental management, and occupational health and safety. These standards outline a model for the management of quality, environment, or safety, and the processes involved are applicable to the management of hazardous substances. This process includes: obtaining commitment from senior management; instituting consultative mechanisms; developing a hazardous substances policy; identifying components of the hazardous substances management program; resourcing, implementing, and reviewing the program; and integrating the program into the organisation's strategic plan. Only by blending in a specific management program for hazardous substances into the overall planning of an organization will they be managed effectively and efficiently.

  5. A Study on Environmental Risk Classification for Chemical Industry in Jinan City%济南市企业环境风险分级研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡绳

    2016-01-01

    According to environmental risk substances, risk control levels and the sensitivity of environmental risk receptors, industrial environmental risk levels were determined. The results showed that there were 42 significant risk sources and 58 high risk sources in Jinan, accounting for 43.48% of the total evaluated enterprises. Most of significant risk and high risk sources belonged to manufactures of chemical materials and products which situated in Zhangqiu and Licheng. Finally, the risk control countermeasures were proposed for the primary environmental risk districts, such as Zhangqiu and Licheng. For Zhangqiu, measures like reducing industrial environmental risks and preventing chemical transportation vehicle accidents were advised to be taken. For Licheng, some should be carried out to improve the enterprises' risks control and protect the environmental sensitive points.%在综合考虑企业环境风险物质、环境风险控制水平和环境风险受体敏感性的基础上,对济南市企业进行了环境风险等级评估。结果显示,全市有重大环境风险源42家,较大环境风险源58家,二者占企业总数的43.48%,主要是化学原料及化学制品制造业企业,集中存在于章丘市、历城区。针对环境风险较大的区域,提出章丘市要从降低企业固有风险和防范化学品运输车辆事故方面采取措施,历城区要从提高企业风险控制水平和保护环境敏感目标方面采取措施。

  6. Potential Hazards in Smoke-Flavored Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Hong; JIANG Jie; LI Donghua

    2008-01-01

    Smoking is widely used in fish processing for the color and flavor. Smoke flavorings have evolved as a successful alter- native to traditional smoking. The hazards of the fish products treated by liquid-smoking process are discussed in this review. The smoke flavoring is one important ingredient in the smoke-flavored fish. This paper gives the definition of smoke flavorings and the hazard of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) residue in the smoke flavorings on the market. It gives also an assessment of chemical hazards such as carcinogenic PAHs, especially Benzo-[a]pyrene, as well as biological hazards such as Listeria monocyto- genes, Clostridium botulinum, histamine and parasites in smoke-flavored fish. The limitations in regulations or standards are dis- cussed. Smoke flavored fish have lower content of PAHs as compared with the traditional smoking techniques if the PAHs residue in smoke flavorings is controlled by regulations or standards.

  7. Classification in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys classification research literature, discusses various classification theories, and shows that the focus has traditionally been on establishing a scientific foundation for classification research. This paper argues that a shift has taken place, and suggests that contemporary...... classification research focus on contextual information as the guide for the design and construction of classification schemes....

  8. Facial aging: A clinical classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiffman Melvin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this classification of facial aging is to have a simple clinical method to determine the severity of the aging process in the face. This allows a quick estimate as to the types of procedures that the patient would need to have the best results. Procedures that are presently used for facial rejuvenation include laser, chemical peels, suture lifts, fillers, modified facelift and full facelift. The physician is already using his best judgment to determine which procedure would be best for any particular patient. This classification may help to refine these decisions.

  9. Composite Material Hazard Assessment at Crash Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    wing tip areas and around cockpit, and the A-7D landing gear bushings Lithium thionyl chloride Soft, silvery highly reactive metallic...per the NIOSH Method 7400 fiber counting method. Pre-weighed 37-mm polyvinyl chloride (PVC) filters captured total particulate concentrations...computer batteries Pressurized tanks and aircraft parts Compressed liquids and gases (oxygen); tires Physical and chemical hazards from

  10. Aplicación de una lengua electrónica voltamétrica para la clasificación de vinos y estudio de correlación con la caracterización química y sensorial Voltametric electronic tongue application to wines classification and correlation study with the chemical and sensory characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro A. Arrieta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analytical application of a novel electronic tongue based on voltammetric sensors array. This device was used in the classification of wines aged in barrels of different origins and toasting levels. Furthermore, a study of correlation between the response of the electronic tongue and the sensory and chemical characterization of samples was carried out. The results were evaluated by applying both principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The samples were clearly classified. Their distribution showed a high correspondence degree with the characteristics of the analyzed wines, it also showed similarity with the classification obtained from organoleptic analysis.

  11. Knowledge into action: Some lessons from the histories of hazards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Gee, D.

    , respectively). However, if one looks at history there has often been sufficient science to justify precautionary actions to reduce or eliminate harm from hazardous agents decades before effective regulatory actions was eventually taken. The histories of now well known hazardous chemicals such as PCBs, DDT...

  12. Route Optimization of Hazardous Chemicals Transportation with Mixed Time Windows%带混合时间窗的多目标危险化学品运输路径优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹宗峰; 张保全

    2012-01-01

    For the sake of reducing the risk of dangerous chemicals transportation, and making path selection more scientific and in line with the reality, different relevant stakeholders involved in the transportation were considered from different aspects (the main body of responsibility, social impact and so on), and five indicator systems were proposed on the basis of the re-identification and segmentation of indexes that affect the transport routes chosen seriously. The weights of these indexes were calculated by using the entropy weight method. The multi-objective models for hazardous chemicals transport were built on the basis of the mentioned five indicators under the condition of mixed time windows. The Pareto optimal solutions were obtained by using the improved multi-objective genetic algorithm. Analysis shows that different starting time point of departure will produce different Pareto optimal solutions, which including departure time window of each optimal path, and each optimal solution represents a path with an indicator having reached relatively optimal. It is concluded that the conditions of mixed time windows are more in line with the actual situation. On the basis of the departure time window and the generated multiple optimal paths, decision-makers can choose the most appropriate optimal path with higher efficiency according to their decision-making preferences and their focus of attention.%为降低危险化学品运输风险,使路径选择更加科学、切合实际,从责任主体、社会影响等方面综合考虑危险化学品运输相关主体,根据各主体目标对影响运输路径选择的指标进行重新识别和细分,提出5大指标体系.应用熵权法计算出各指标权重,建立混合时间窗条件下的多目标危化品运输路径优化模型,通过改进的多目标遗传算法求出Pareto最优解.结果表明,不同时间点出发会产生不同的Pareto最优解,并且可得到每条最优路径的出发时间窗,每个

  13. The Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. III. A New Classification Scheme for Carbon-Enhanced Metal-poor Stars with S-process Element Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Hollek, Julie K; Placco, Vinicius M; Karakas, Amanda I; Shetrone, Matthew; Sneden, Christopher; Christlieb, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed abundance analysis of 23 elements for a newly discovered carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star, HE 0414-0343, from the Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. Its spectroscopic stellar parameters are Teff = 4863 K, log g = 1.25, vmic = 2.20 km/s, and [Fe/H] = -2.24. Radial velocity measurements covering seven years indicate HE 0414-0343 to be a binary. HE 0414-0343 has [C/Fe] = 1.44 and is strongly enhanced in neutron-capture elements but its abundances cannot be reproduced by a solar-type s-process pattern alone. Traditionally, it could be classified as "CEMP-r/s" star. Based on abundance comparisons with AGB star nucleosynthesis models, we suggest a new physically-motivated origin and classification scheme for CEMP-s stars and the still poorly-understood CEMP-r/s. The new scheme describes a continuous transition between these two so-far distinctly treated subgroups: CEMP-sA, CEMP-sB, and CEMP-sC. Possible causes for a continuous transition include the number of therma...

  14. Haz-Mat Refresher: Chemical Precautions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Louis A.

    2012-01-01

    It is important that first responders remain aware of the possible hazards resulting from chemical accidents or the intentional use of chemicals in destructive devices. Chemical components can be utilized in the manufacturing of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), can enhance the effect of a more conventional device, or can pose hazards based on…

  15. Generic framework for meso-scale assessment of climate change hazards in coastal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a generic framework for assessing inherent climate change hazards in coastal environments through a combined coastal classification and hazard evaluation system. The framework is developed to be used at scales relevant for regional and national planning and aims to cover all...... coastal environments worldwide through a specially designed coastal classification system containing 113 generic coastal types. The framework provides information on the degree to which key climate change hazards are inherent in a particular coastal environment, and covers the hazards of ecosystem...... disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding. The system includes a total of 565 individual hazard evaluations, each graduated into four different hazard levels based on a scientific literature review. The framework uses a simple assessment methodology with limited data...

  16. Natural hazards science strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research - founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes - can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events. To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science. In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H-SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10-year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical statutory

  17. The Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. III. A New Classification Scheme for Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Stars with s-process Element Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollek, Julie K.; Frebel, Anna; Placco, Vinicius M.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Shetrone, Matthew; Sneden, Christopher; Christlieb, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    We present a detailed abundance analysis of 23 elements for a newly discovered carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star, HE 0414-0343, from the Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo Project. Its spectroscopic stellar parameters are Teff = 4863 K, {log}g=1.25,\\ξ = 2.20 km s-1, and [Fe/H] = -2.24. Radial velocity measurements covering seven years indicate HE 0414-0343 to be a binary. HE 0414-0343 has {{[C/Fe]}}=1.44 and is strongly enhanced in neutron-capture elements but its abundances cannot be reproduced by a solar-type s-process pattern alone. Traditionally, it could be classified as a “CEMP-r/s” star. Based on abundance comparisons with asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star nucleosynthesis models, we suggest a new physically motivated origin and classification scheme for CEMP-s stars and the still poorly understood CEMP-r/s. The new scheme describes a continuous transition between these two so-far distinctly treated subgroups: CEMP-sA, CEMP-sB, and CEMP-sC. Possible causes for a continuous transition include the number of thermal pulses the AGB companion underwent, the effect of different AGB star masses on their nucleosynthetic yields, and physics that is not well approximated in 1D stellar models such as proton ingestion episodes and rotation. Based on a set of detailed AGB models, we suggest the abundance signature of HE 0414-0343 to have arisen from a >1.3 M⊙ mass AGB star and a late-time mass transfer that transformed HE 0414-0343 into a CEMP-sC star. We also find that the [Y/Ba] ratio well parametrizes the classification and can thus be used to easily classify any future such stars. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  18. Review of occupational hazards associated with aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Melvin L

    2010-10-01

    Aquaculture is an emerging sector that is associated with most of the same hazards that are present in agriculture generally, but many fish farming tasks entail added danger, including working around water and working at night. Comprehensive studies of these hazards have not been conducted, and substantial uncertainty exists as to the extent of these hazards. The question addressed in this investigation was, "What is known about potential hazardous occupational exposures to aquatic plant and animal farmers?" In this review, causes of death included drowning, electrocution, crushing-related injury, hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and fatal head injury. Nonfatal injuries were associated with slips, trips, and falls; machines; strains and sprains; chemicals; and fires. Risk factors included cranes (tip over and power line contact), tractors and sprayer-equipped all-terrain vehicles (overturn), heavy loads (lifting), high-pressure sprayers, slippery surfaces, rotting waste (hydrogen sulfide production), eroding levees (overturn hazard), storm-related rushing water, diving conditions (bends and drowning), nighttime conditions, working alone, lack of training, lack of or failure to use personal flotation devices, and all-terrain vehicle speeding. Other hazards included punctures or cuts from fish teeth or spines, needlesticks, exposure to low temperatures, and bacterial and parasitic infections .

  19. Development of Hazards Classification Data on Propellants and Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    co <q H o PH nx >W J4J CO U 0) 4J co A: 4-> Ü > O O OJ r-t CN co<t LO i> r...conductance, S, of the material is the reciprocal of the resistance, R: SarpFar ( Siemens ) (32) where a - — is the conductivity of the material. The con

  20. Consensus of classification trees for skin sensitisation hazard prediction

    OpenAIRE

    ASTURIOL BOFILL DAVID; Casati, Silvia; Worth, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Since March 2013, it is no longer possible to market in the European Union (EU) cosmetics containing new ingredients tested on animals. Although several in silico alternatives are available and achievements have been made in the development and regulatory adoption of skin sensitisation non-animal tests, there is not yet a generally accepted approach for skin sensitisation assessment that would fully substitute the need for animal testing. The aim of this work was to build a defined approac...

  1. Classification of the web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges faced by investigations into the classification of the Web and outlines inquiries that are needed to use principles for bibliographic classification to construct classifications of the Web. This paper suggests that the classification of the Web meets challenges...

  2. Cluster Based Text Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    We propose a cluster based classification model for suspicious email detection and other text classification tasks. The text classification tasks comprise many training examples that require a complex classification model. Using clusters for classification makes the model simpler and increases...

  3. Developing hazardous waste programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Developing a fully operational hazardous waste regulatory system requires at least 10 to 15 years—even in countries with strong legal and bureaucratic institutions, according to a report on "The Evolution of Hazardous Waste Programs," which was funded by Resources for the Future (RFF) and the World Bank's South Asia Environment Group, and issued on June 4.The report, which compares the experiences of how four developed and four developing countries have created hazardous waste programs, indicates that hazardous waste issues usually do not become a pressing environmental issue until after countries have dealt with more direct threats to public health, such as contaminated drinking water and air pollution. The countries examined include Indonesia, Thailand, Germany, and the United States.

  4. Automated Standard Hazard Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebler, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The current system used to generate standard hazard reports is considered cumbersome and iterative. This study defines a structure for this system's process in a clear, algorithmic way so that standard hazard reports and basic hazard analysis may be completed using a centralized, web-based computer application. To accomplish this task, a test server is used to host a prototype of the tool during development. The prototype is configured to easily integrate into NASA's current server systems with minimal alteration. Additionally, the tool is easily updated and provides NASA with a system that may grow to accommodate future requirements and possibly, different applications. Results of this project's success are outlined in positive, subjective reviews complete by payload providers and NASA Safety and Mission Assurance personnel. Ideally, this prototype will increase interest in the concept of standard hazard automation and lead to the full-scale production of a user-ready application.

  5. Natural Hazards Image Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photographs and other visual media provide valuable pre- and post-event data for natural hazards. Research, mitigation, and forecasting rely on visual data for...

  6. Flood Hazard Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  7. Hazardous Waste Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is playing a major role in development of technologies for cleanup of toxic and hazardous waste in military...

  8. Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  9. What Are Volcano Hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheet 002-97 Revised March 2008 What Are Volcano Hazards? Volcanoes give rise to numerous geologic and ... as far as 15 miles from the volcano. Volcano Landslides A landslide or debris avalanche is a ...

  10. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, H. K.; Ichinose, G. A.; Somerville, P. G.; Polet, J.

    2006-12-01

    The recent tsunami disaster caused by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake has focused our attention to the hazard posed by large earthquakes that occur under water, in particular subduction zone earthquakes, and the tsunamis that they generate. Even though these kinds of events are rare, the very large loss of life and material destruction caused by this earthquake warrant a significant effort towards the mitigation of the tsunami hazard. For ground motion hazard, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) has become a standard practice in the evaluation and mitigation of seismic hazard to populations in particular with respect to structures, infrastructure and lifelines. Its ability to condense the complexities and variability of seismic activity into a manageable set of parameters greatly facilitates the design of effective seismic resistant buildings but also the planning of infrastructure projects. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) achieves the same goal for hazards posed by tsunami. There are great advantages of implementing such a method to evaluate the total risk (seismic and tsunami) to coastal communities. The method that we have developed is based on the traditional PSHA and therefore completely consistent with standard seismic practice. Because of the strong dependence of tsunami wave heights on bathymetry, we use a full waveform tsunami waveform computation in lieu of attenuation relations that are common in PSHA. By pre-computing and storing the tsunami waveforms at points along the coast generated for sets of subfaults that comprise larger earthquake faults, we can efficiently synthesize tsunami waveforms for any slip distribution on those faults by summing the individual subfault tsunami waveforms (weighted by their slip). This efficiency make it feasible to use Green's function summation in lieu of attenuation relations to provide very accurate estimates of tsunami height for probabilistic calculations, where one typically computes

  11. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  12. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  13. Classifications of objects on hyperspectral images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey

    tablets have the same or similar excipient and different active ingredients, some of the pixels chemically will be identical. But these similar pixels will be associated with different classes when a classification model is being calibrated. This can give unstable model and poor classification results...... information about spatial relations of the pixels. This works well in general, especially for exploratory analysis or multivariate curve resolution, but for some specific tasks it is not beneficial at all. One of such tasks is classification or clustering of objects on hyperspectral images. An object here....... In the present work a classification method that combines classic image classification approach and MIA is proposed. The basic idea is to group all pixels and calculate spectral properties of the pixel group to be used further as a vector of predictors for calibration and class prediction. The grouping can...

  14. Re-Examine Liquid Propellant Nitromethane Hazard Classification Parameters and Address the Hazards Classification of Various Slurry Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNLIMITED [] SAME AS RPT. F1 DTIC USERS UNCLASSIFIED 22a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b. TELEPHONE (INCLUDE AREA CODE) 22c. OFFICE...AEE-BR, B. Brodman W. Seals A. Beardell SMCAR-AEE-W, N. Slagg SMCAR-AEE, A. Bracuti J. Lannon M. Gupta J. Salo D. Chieu SMCAR-FSS-D, L. Frauen SMCAR

  15. Training hazard perception skills. [previously known as: Training hazard perception.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Hazard perception is an essential skill in the driving task, but it is still badly developed among novice drivers. Hazard perception consists of more than perceiving hazards. It also concerns appraising the seriousness of the hazards, and knowing how to act to avert them. There are indications that

  16. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-02-28

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program.

  17. Classification of skin sensitizing substances: a comparison between approaches used by the DFG-MAK Commission and the European Union legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessmann, H; Uter, W; Diepgen, T L; Drexler, H; Fartasch, M; Greim, H; Hartwig, A; Kreis, P; Löser, E; Merget, R; Merk, H; Nowak, D; Rothe, A; Stropp, G; Schnuch, A

    2011-10-01

    A systematic classification of substances (or mixtures of substances) with regard to various toxicological endpoints is a prerequisite for the implementation of occupational safety strategies. As its principal task the "Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area" of the "Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft" (DFG-MAK Commission) derives and recommends maximum workplace concentrations and biological tolerance values (MAK and BAT values) based exclusively on scientific arguments. Several endpoints are evaluated separately in detail, e.g. carcinogenicity, risks during pregnancy, germ cell mutagenicity or contribution to systemic toxicity after cutaneous absorption. Skin- and airway sensitization is also considered; the present paper focuses on these two endpoints.

  18. 77 FR 46009 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Maine... Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...

  19. Are safety data sheets for cleaning products used in Norway a factor contributing to the risk of workers exposure to chemicals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulqadir M. Suleiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cleaning products are considered less hazardous than those used in other sectors. Suppliers and distributors are less conscientious when it comes to informing users on health risks. The aim of the study was to elaborate on the usefulness and clarity of information in the safety data sheets (SDS for cleaning products, and considering if the use of these SDSs can be seen as a risk factor towards occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in the sector. Material and Methods: Safety data sheets were selected based on the risk level of the product assigned in an industrial sector scheme. 320 SDSs for cleaning products were reviewed. Constituent components found in the products over a given threshold were listed and available information thereof used to assess the perceived non-hazard consideration of the chemicals. Results: The contents of the SDSs was generic and mostly incomplete. Safety measures and health information lacked sufficient specificity despite varying compositions and concentrations of components. There is generally incompatibility between mentioned sections on the suggested non-hazardous nature of the products and health effects. Not all substances used in these products have harmonized classifications, which makes them open to various classification of the products and the suggested safety measures. This results in different companies classifying similar products differently. Risk management measures and suggested personal protective equipment (PPEs are given haphazardly. Physical properties relevant to risk assessment are not included. Conclusions: The safety data sheets are ambiguous, and they lack relevant and important information. Inadequate information and risk assessment concerning the products can lead to workers being exposed to hazardous chemicals. Underestimation of the hazard contribution of the components of the products and the insufficient, non-objective mention of appropriate control and protective

  20. Control technology assessment of hazardous waste disposal operations in chemicals manufacturing: walk-through survey report of E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company, Chambers Works, Deepwater, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, M.

    1984-01-01

    A walk through survey was conducted to assess control technology for hazardous wastes disposal operations at du Pont de Nemours and Company (SIC-2800), Deepwater, New Jersey in November 1981. Hazardous wastes generated at the facility were disposed of by incineration, wastewater and thermal treatment, and landfilling. Engineering controls for the incineration process and at the landfill were noted. At the landfill, water from a tank trailer was sprayed periodically to suppress dust generation. Vapor control devices, such as spot scrubbers, were used during transfer of organic wastes from trailers and drums to storage prior to incineration. Wastes were also recirculated to prevent build up of grit in the strainers. The company conducted area monitoring for nitrobenzene (98953) and amines at the landfill and personal monitoring for chloramines at the incinerator. Half mask dust respirators were worn by landfill operators. Operators who unloaded and emptied drums at the incinerator were required to wear face masks, rubber gloves, and boots. The author concludes that disposal of hazardous wastes at the facility is state of the art. An in depth survey is recommended.

  1. Stand-off detection and classification of CBRNe using a Lidar system based on a high power femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Jun; Yokozawa, Takeshi; Kurata, Takao; Yoshida, Akihiro; Mastunaga, Yasushi; Somekawa, Toshihiro; Eto, Shuzo; Manago, Naohiro; Horisawa, Hideyuki; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Fujii, Takashi; Kuze, Hiroaki

    2014-10-01

    We propose a stand-off system that enables detection and classification of CBRNe (Chemical, Biological, Radioactive, Nuclear aerosol and explosive solids). The system is an integrated lidar using a high-power (terawatt) femtosecond laser. The detection and classification of various hazardous targets with stand-off distances from several hundred meters to a few kilometers are achieved by means of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and two-photon fluorescence (TPF) techniques. In this work, we report on the technical considerations on the system design of the present hybrid lidar system consisting of a nanosecond laser and a femtosecond laser. Also, we describe the current progress in our laboratory experiments that have demonstrated the stand-off detection and classification of various simulants. For the R and N detection scheme, cesium chloride aerosols have successfully been detected by LIBS using a high-power femtosecond laser. For the B detection scheme, TPF signals of organic aerosols such as riboflavin have clearly been recorded. In addition, a compact femtosecond laser has been employed for the LIBS classification of organic plastics employed as e-simulants.

  2. O sistema globalmente harmonizado de classificação e rotulagem de produtos químicos (GHS: uma introdução para sua aplicação em laboratórios de ensino e pesquisa acadêmica The globally harmonised system of classification, labelling and packaging of chemicals (GHS: an introduction to its application in academic teaching and research laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Martin Wallau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article provides an overview of the Globally Harmonised System of Classification, Labelling and Packaging of Chemicals (GHS and its implementation in Brazil. Although Classification and Packaging is beyond the scope of the responsibility of academic chemists, labelling of chemicals used in academic laboratories will be required by the competent authorities to ensure the safety of students and staff. Therefore, academic teachers and researchers responsible should be familiarised with the GHS principles outlined here and at least be able to label, by applying these principles, mixtures of substances previously classified by the competent authorities.

  3. Hazard assessment due to falling stones on a reach of the regional road in the Trenta valley, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Petje

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the new Slovenian methodology for determining hazard areas and the classification of land parcels into hazard classes due to land slides and rock falls, a pilot project was carried out on the regional road between Bovec and Vr{i~ pass in theTrenta valley. For this around 20 km long road in a typical alpine environment, a hazard assessment of falling rocks was carried out, even tough the road also passes through snow avalanches hazard areas. The performed hazard assessment of falling rocks is based onan expert knowledge taking into account the field mapping, and classifies the road into three hazard classes: 9811 m is classified into the low hazard class, 7233 m is classifiedinto the medium hazard class, and 1301 m is classified into high hazard class of falling rocks.

  4. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  6. Classification of contact allergens according to potency: proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, I; Basketter, D A; Butler, M; Gamer, A; Garrigue, J-L; Gerberick, G F; Newsome, C; Steiling, W; Vohr, H-W

    2003-12-01

    It is clear that contact allergens vary substantially with regard to the relative potency with which they are able to induce skin sensitisation. Considerations of potency will in the future become a significant factor in the classification of skin sensitising chemicals. It is therefore appropriate to establish what is known of potency and thresholds in the induction of skin sensitisation and the elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis, and to identify approaches that might be available for assessment of relative potency for the purposes of categorising chemical allergens. This paper was prepared by an ECETOC (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology) Task Force that had the objective of recommending approaches for the measurement of potency and definition of thresholds for both the induction and elicitation of contact sensitisation. The deliberations recorded here build upon recommendations made previously by an ECETOC Task Force that considered the conduct of standard skin sensitisation test methods for the purposes of hazard identification and risk assessment (ECETOC, Monograph No. 29, Brussels, 2000). The emphasis in this present paper is also on standard and accepted methods for the assessment of skin sensitisation, and for which OECD guidelines are available: the local lymph node assay (LLNA), the guinea pig maximisation test and the occluded patch test of Buehler. For various reasons, discussed in detail herein, attention focused primarily upon consideration of categorisation of chemical allergens and the identification of thresholds with respect to the induction of skin sensitisation, rather than the elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis. It is concluded that although the LLNA is the method of choice for the determination of skin sensitisation potency for the purposes of categorisation, if data are already available from appropriate guinea pig tests then their judicious interpretation may provide information of value in determinations of

  7. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Max J; Townsend, Timothy G

    2015-05-01

    The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50mg/L by WET and 40mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  8. Existing chemicals: international activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, J F

    1989-01-01

    The standards of care used in the protection of the health and safety of people exposed to chemicals has increased dramatically in the last decade. Standards imposed by regulation and those adopted by industry have required a greater level of knowledge about the hazards of chemicals. In the E.E.C., the 6th amendment of the dangerous substances directive imposed the requirement that al new chemicals should be tested according to prescribed programme before introduction on to the market. The development of a European inventory of existing chemicals was an integral part of the 6th amendment. It has now become clear that increased standards of care referred to above must be applied to the chemicals on the inventory list. There is, however, a considerable amount of activity already under way in various international agencies. The OECD Chemicals Programme has been involved in considering the problem of existing chemicals for some time, and is producing a priority list and action programme. The International Programme on Chemical Safety produces international chemical safety cards, health and safety guides and environmental health criteria documents. The international register of potentially toxic compounds (part of UNEP) has prepared chemical data profiles on 990 compounds. The International Agency for Research on Cancer prepared monographs on the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. So far 42 volumes have been prepared covering about 900 substances. IARC and IPCS also prepare periodic reports on ongoing research on carcinogenicity or toxicity (respectively) of chemicals. The chemical industry through ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre) has mounted a major initiative on existing chemicals. Comprehensive reviews of the toxicity of selected chemicals are published (Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals). In its technical report no. 30 ECETOC lists reviews and evaluations by major national and international organisations, which provides

  9. The Analysis and Countermeasures on Emergent Response to the Express Highway Transportation Accident of Hazardous Chemicals%高速公路危化品运输事故应急处置现状分析及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄少扬; 沈剑荧

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on the characteristics of express highway transportation accident of hazardous chemicals,analyzing the current status of fire forces in dealing with such incidents.Aiming at the current deficiencies,this paper puts forward a measure to improve the capacity of fire forces to deal with the highway transportation accident of hazardous chemicals,The measures are for a reference and of great practical significance for the fire forces in dealing with such incidents.%在总结高速公路危险化学品运输事故特点的基础上,对现阶段消防部队处置此类事故的现状进行了分析,并针对目前存在的不足,提出了提高消防部队高速公路危险化学品运输事故处置能力的对策,为消防部队处置此类事故提供一定的借鉴,具有十分重要的现实意义。

  10. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    incinerated. Allowing household paint waste to be collected with ordinary household waste is expected to reduce the cost of handling household hazardous waste, since paint waste in Denmark comprises the major fraction of household hazardous waste.......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  11. Transportation of hazardous goods

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A general reminder: any transportation of hazardous goods by road is subject to the European ADR rules. The goods concerned are essentially the following: Explosive substances and objects; Gases (including aerosols and non-flammable gases such as helium and nitrogen); Flammable substances and liquids (inks, paints, resins, petroleum products, alcohols, acetone, thinners); Toxic substances (acids, thinners); Radioactive substances; Corrosive substances (paints, acids, caustic products, disinfectants, electrical batteries). Any requests for the transport of hazardous goods must be executed in compliance with the instructions given at this URL: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/he/HH/adr.pdf Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 73793 - 160364

  12. Lightning hazards to aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, P. B.

    1978-01-01

    Lightning hazards and, more generally, aircraft static electricity are discussed by a representative for the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. An overview of these atmospheric electricity hazards to aircraft and their systems is presented with emphasis on electrical and electronic subsystems. The discussion includes reviewing some of the characteristics of lightning and static electrification, trends in weather and lightning-related mishaps, some specific threat mechanisms and susceptible aircraft subsystems and some of the present technology gaps. A roadmap (flow chart) is presented to show the direction needed to address these problems.

  13. Classification of cultivated plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandenburg, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Agricultural practice demands principles for classification, starting from the basal entity in cultivated plants: the cultivar. In establishing biosystematic relationships between wild, weedy and cultivated plants, the species concept needs re-examination. Combining of botanic classification, based

  14. Hazard Management Dealt by Safety Professionals in Colleges: The Impact of Individual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsung-Chih; Chen, Chi-Hsiang; Yi, Nai-Wen; Lu, Pei-Chen; Yu, Shan-Chi; Wang, Chien-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Identifying, evaluating, and controlling workplace hazards are important functions of safety professionals (SPs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the content and frequency of hazard management dealt by safety professionals in colleges. The authors also explored the effects of organizational factors/individual factors on SPs’ perception of frequency of hazard management. The researchers conducted survey research to achieve the objective of this study. The researchers mailed questionnaires to 200 SPs in colleges after simple random sampling, then received a total of 144 valid responses (response rate = 72%). Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the hazard management scale (HMS) extracted five factors, including physical hazards, biological hazards, social and psychological hazards, ergonomic hazards, and chemical hazards. Moreover, the top 10 hazards that the survey results identified that safety professionals were most likely to deal with (in order of most to least frequent) were: organic solvents, illumination, other chemicals, machinery and equipment, fire and explosion, electricity, noise, specific chemicals, human error, and lifting/carrying. Finally, the results of one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated there were four individual factors that impacted the perceived frequency of hazard management which were of statistical and practical significance: job tenure in the college of employment, type of certification, gender, and overall job tenure. SPs within colleges and industries can now discuss plans revolving around these five areas instead of having to deal with all of the separate hazards. PMID:27918474

  15. NGNP SITE 2 HAZARDS ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Moe

    2011-10-01

    to be addressed in design and licensing processes; assure the HTGR technology can be deployed at variety of sites for a range of applications; evaluate potential sites for potential hazards and describe some of the actions necessary to mitigate impacts of hazards; and, provide key insights that can inform the plant design process. The report presents a summary of the process methodology and the results of an assessment of hazards typical of a class of candidate sites for the potential deployment of HTGR reactor technology. The assessment considered health and safety, and other important siting characteristics to determine the potential impact of identified hazards and potential challenges presented by the location for this technology. A four reactor module nuclear plant (2000 to 2400 MW thermal), that co-generates steam, electricity for general use in the plant, and hot gas for use in a nearby chemical processing facility, to provide the requisite performance and reliability was assumed for the assessment.

  16. 29 CFR 1917.25 - Fumigants, pesticides, insecticides and hazardous preservatives (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the atmosphere is safe. (b) Tests to determine the atmospheric concentration of chemicals used to...). (a) At any time that the concentration in any space reaches the level specified as hazardous by the... permissible exposure limit for the chemical involved. (c) Results of any tests shall be available for at...

  17. The U. S. Geological Survey Geologic Hazards Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    In 1879, Congress established the U.S Geological Survey for "the classification of the public lands and the examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain." Throughout the past 103 years, the Survey has successfully fulfilled these responsibilities, but it has also been responsive to changing national needs. This responsiveness is well exemplified by the development of the agency's natural hazard programs. Our orignial mision has been expanded to include formal investigations of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground failures, and flood hazards

  18. 化学添加剂对食品安全的危害及检测方法研究概况%The General Situation of the Research about the Hazards for Food Safety by Using Chemical Additives and Detection Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王连玮

    2011-01-01

    Chemical additives have entered people' s lives by being added in food. Some of the illegal use of chemical additives and high-does abuse resulted in a series of serious food safety incidents. So the research about the hazards of these chemical additives and the detection method is extremely urgent. The overview about various chemical additives which are added in food, toxicological effects and detection method.%化学添加剂通过加入食品中已经全面进入了人们的生活.一些化学添加剂的违规使用和大剂量滥用,造成了一系列严重的食品安全事件.对于这些化学添加剂的危害和检测方法的研究以及对食品安全的监控已经迫在眉睫.对添加于食品中的多种化学添加剂,从毒理作用和检测方法方面进行了概述.

  19. Health Care Wide Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Hazards (Lack of) PPE Slips/Trips/Falls Stress Tuberculosis Universal Precautions Workplace Violence Use of Medical Lasers Health Effects Use ... Needlesticks Noise Mercury Inappropriate PPE Slips/Trips/Falls ... of Universal Precautions Workplace Violence For more information, see Other Healthcare Wide ...

  20. Hazards of Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Research, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Common concern for the protection and improvement of the environment and the enhancement of human health and welfare underscore the purpose of this special report on the hazards of mercury directed to the Secretary's Pesticide Advisory Committee, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The report summarizes the findings of a ten-member study…

  1. Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium contract. On the one hand, an optimistic or overconfident agent disproportionately values success-contingent payments...

  2. Cadmium - is it hazardous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zartner-Nyilas, G.; Valentin, H.; Schaller, K.H.; Schiele, R.

    1983-01-01

    The report summarizes the state of knowledge and experience on cadmium. Biological, toxicological and epidemiological data have been evaluated. Cd pollution of the environment is reviewed under the aspect of human health. Uptake in food, threshod values of Cd exposure of the population, types and extent of health hazards, possible carcinogenic effects and future fields of research are discussed.

  3. Moral Hazard and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    2014-01-01

    not form. Formally, we study the team formation problem in which the agents’ efforts are not verifiable and the size of teams does not exceed quota r . We show that if the team members cannot make transfers, then moral hazard affects stability positively in a large class of games. For example, a stable...

  4. Current electrosurgical practice: hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J

    1985-01-01

    The beneficial aspects of electrosurgical cutting and coagulating techniques are nearly too numerous to list. The major contribution and electrosurgery has been to drastically reduce both blood loss and operative time resulting in reduced morbidity and mortality. There are, as well, procedures which would not be possible without electrosurgery. Nonetheless, as a source of high energy in the operating theatre, there are hazards attendant to the use of electrosurgery. Moreover, since high frequency signals are involved, the nature of the machine-patient interactions creating a potentially hazardous situation many not be easily identifiable. The significant hazards of electrosurgery in use are: explosions of combustible mixtures including anaesthesia gas and bowel gas; interference with instruments and pacemakers; stimulation of excitable tissues which on occasion has apparently caused ventricular fibrillation; and accidental radio frequency burns. Though the rate of incidents is low--in terms of the number per 100 000 procedures--individual accidents tend to be fairly catastrophic and traumatic to both the patient and surgical team. Frequently, litigation results from these accidents. Though the hazards cannot be eliminated, the probability of an incident can be minimized by careful technique.

  5. Health hazards in the microelectronics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, K

    1986-01-01

    The microelectronics industry is explored as a source of occupational health hazards resulting from the extensive use of toxic chemicals in the production of semiconductor chips and the assembly of electronic components. Information is provided on the range of chemicals used in the industry and their particular health implications. Case materials are drawn from Massachusetts' "Route 128" region and California's "Silicon Valley." Problems with worker exposure in the plants are compared with the risks experienced by residents of local neighborhoods from the leakage of industrial chemicals from underground storage tanks into the local groundwater used for drinking water. The recent development of the industry, its highly innovative character, the absence of unions and organizations for worker protection, and the persistence of a public perception that the industry is relatively safe and clean, are all identified as determinants of the extent of health hazards posed by chemical exposure. The paper concludes with recommendations for further studies, worker organization, and increased attention to the reduction of the volume and toxicity of chemicals in industrial production.

  6. 40 CFR 260.31 - Standards and criteria for variances from classification as a solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from classification as a solid waste. 260.31 Section 260.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.31 Standards and criteria for variances from classification as a solid waste. (a)...

  7. Control technology assessment of hazardous waste disposal operations in chemicals manufacturing: in-depth survey report of E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company, Chambers Works incinerator, Deepwater, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, M.Y.

    1984-01-01

    An in depth survey was conducted to assess control technology of hazardous waste disposal operations at the Chamber Works incinerator, Du Pont de Nemours and Company (SIC-2800), Deepwater, New Jersey, in October 1982. Area and breathing zone samples were analyzed for toluene (108883), ortho-chloronitrobenzene (88733), and para-chloronitrobenzene (100005). All concentrations were well below the relevant standards. Control and safety instrumentation consisted of an electrically operated interlock system that sensed process disturbances and shut down the furnace. Wastes were burned directly from tank trailers. Trailer vents were connected to a spot scrubbing system. The hose connections included a recirculation line that prevented the plugging of process and trailer discharge lines with dirt particles. Waste pumps were provided with explosion proof motors and double mechanical seals. The company had programs for worker education and evaluation of on the job performance. Air monitoring of selected air contaminants was done routinely. Minimum protective equipment required for working in the incinerator area included rubber gloves, hard hat, and butyl rubber covers for shoes. The author concludes that a state of the art hazard control system is in place at the facility.

  8. Hazardous Waste: Learn the Basics of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Hazardous Waste Share Facebook Twitter ... listed or characteristic hazardous waste. Finally, it is important to note that some facilities petitioned EPA to ...

  9. Hazardous Material Storage Facilities and Sites - Commercial Hazardous Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Commercial Hazardous Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Hazardous Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to...

  10. Hazard perception in traffic. [previously knows as: Hazard perception.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Hazard perception is an essential part of the driving task. There are clear indications that insufficient skills in perceiving hazards play an important role in the occurrence of crashes, especially those involving novice drivers. Proper hazard perception not only consists of scanning and perceiving

  11. Classification, disease, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutel, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Classification shapes medicine and guides its practice. Understanding classification must be part of the quest to better understand the social context and implications of diagnosis. Classifications are part of the human work that provides a foundation for the recognition and study of illness: deciding how the vast expanse of nature can be partitioned into meaningful chunks, stabilizing and structuring what is otherwise disordered. This article explores the aims of classification, their embodiment in medical diagnosis, and the historical traditions of medical classification. It provides a brief overview of the aims and principles of classification and their relevance to contemporary medicine. It also demonstrates how classifications operate as social framing devices that enable and disable communication, assert and refute authority, and are important items for sociological study.

  12. 49 CFR 173.133 - Assignment of packing group and hazard zones for Division 6.1 materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment of packing group and hazard zones for... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions Classification, Packing... Assignment of packing group and hazard zones for Division 6.1 materials. (a) The packing group of Division...

  13. Automated indexing of the Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Carlo; Chang, Hua Florence; Moore, Dorothy; Fonger, George C

    2003-01-01

    The Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB), produced and maintained by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), contains over 4600 records on potentially hazardous chemicals. To enhance information retrieval from HSDB, NLM has undertaken the development of an automated HSDB indexing protocol as part of its Indexing Initiative. The NLM Indexing Initiative investigates methods whereby automated indexing may partially or completely substitute for human indexing. The poster's purpose is to describe the HSDB Automated Indexing Project.

  14. Automated Indexing of the Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB)

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB), produced and maintained by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), contains over 4600 records on potentially hazardous chemicals. To enhance information retrieval from HSDB, NLM has undertaken the development of an automated HSDB indexing protocol as part of its Indexing Initiative. The NLM Indexing Initiative investigates methods whereby automated indexing may partially or completely substitute for human indexing. The poster’s purpose is to describe...

  15. Seismic hazard maps for Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Haiti for peak ground acceleration and response spectral accelerations that include the hazard from the major crustal faults, subduction zones, and background earthquakes. The hazard from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden, Septentrional, and Matheux-Neiba fault zones was estimated using fault slip rates determined from GPS measurements. The hazard from the subduction zones along the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola was calculated from slip rates derived from GPS data and the overall plate motion. Hazard maps were made for a firm-rock site condition and for a grid of shallow shear-wave velocities estimated from topographic slope. The maps show substantial hazard throughout Haiti, with the highest hazard in Haiti along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and Septentrional fault zones. The Matheux-Neiba Fault exhibits high hazard in the maps for 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, although its slip rate is poorly constrained.

  16. The Additive Hazard Mixing Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping LI; Xiao-liang LING

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the aging and dependence properties in the additive hazard mixing models including some stochastic comparisons.Further,some useful bounds of reliability functions in additive hazard mixing models are obtained.

  17. FEMA DFIRM Flood Hazard Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA flood hazard delineations are used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to designate the Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) and for insurance rating...

  18. Probabilistic, Seismically-Induced Landslide Hazard Mapping of Western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, M. J.; Sharifi Mood, M.; Gillins, D. T.; Mahalingam, R.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake-induced landslides can generate significant damage within urban communities by damaging structures, obstructing lifeline connection routes and utilities, generating various environmental impacts, and possibly resulting in loss of life. Reliable hazard and risk maps are important to assist agencies in efficiently allocating and managing limited resources to prepare for such events. This research presents a new methodology in order to communicate site-specific landslide hazard assessments in a large-scale, regional map. Implementation of the proposed methodology results in seismic-induced landslide hazard maps that depict the probabilities of exceeding landslide displacement thresholds (e.g. 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 10 meters). These maps integrate a variety of data sources including: recent landslide inventories, LIDAR and photogrammetric topographic data, geology map, mapped NEHRP site classifications based on available shear wave velocity data in each geologic unit, and USGS probabilistic seismic hazard curves. Soil strength estimates were obtained by evaluating slopes present along landslide scarps and deposits for major geologic units. Code was then developed to integrate these layers to perform a rigid, sliding block analysis to determine the amount and associated probabilities of displacement based on each bin of peak ground acceleration in the seismic hazard curve at each pixel. The methodology was applied to western Oregon, which contains weak, weathered, and often wet soils at steep slopes. Such conditions have a high landslide hazard even without seismic events. A series of landslide hazard maps highlighting the probabilities of exceeding the aforementioned thresholds were generated for the study area. These output maps were then utilized in a performance based design framework enabling them to be analyzed in conjunction with other hazards for fully probabilistic-based hazard evaluation and risk assessment. a) School of Civil and Construction

  19. Update of the LIPID MAPS comprehensive classification system for lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahy, E.; Subramaniam, S.; Murphy, R.C.; Nishijima, M.; Raetz, C.R.H.; Shimizu, T.; Spener, F.; van Meer, G.; Wakelam, M.J.O.; Dennis, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the International Lipid Classification and Nomenclature Committee under the sponsorship of the LIPID MAPS Consortium developed and established a “Comprehensive Classification System for Lipids” based on well-defined chemical and biochemical principles and using an ontology that is extensibl

  20. Present state, basic theories, methods and progresses of investigation and assessment on marine hazardous geology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Peiying; Li Ping; Liu Lejun; Du Jun; Zhang Xiaolong; Wang Shengji

    2003-01-01

    The achievement progresses of investigation and studies on marine hazardous geology are summarized and presentsd in the late 20 century in China. The importance, research value and presentday studies of marine hazardous geology, a newly developing branch of geoscience, are well expatiated.Several often confused concepts and theories are explained and redefined here. The comment on the means of investigations, assessment of marine hazardous geology, as well as its evolution, innovation,existing questions and future tasks are also introduced and presented. The concepts of "hazard geology","geohazard", "map of marine hazard geology", "integrated evaluaton on seafloor stablity" are respectively discussed, including their definition, research objects, methods and contents. The types and classification of marine hazardous geology, principles and methods of marine hazardous geology map compilation, the assessment methods and models of marine hazardous geology environment and seafloor stability and so on are also discussed.

  1. Health and Safety Procedures Manual for hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thate, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Chemical Assessments Team (ORNL/CAT) has developed this Health and Safety Procedures Manual for the guidance, instruction, and protection of ORNL/CAT personnel expected to be involved in hazardous waste site assessments and remedial actions. This manual addresses general and site-specific concerns for protecting personnel, the general public, and the environment from any possible hazardous exposures. The components of this manual include: medical surveillance, guidance for determination and monitoring of hazards, personnel and training requirements, protective clothing and equipment requirements, procedures for controlling work functions, procedures for handling emergency response situations, decontamination procedures for personnel and equipment, associated legal requirements, and safe drilling practices.

  2. Industrial hazard and safety handbook

    CERN Document Server

    King, Ralph W

    1979-01-01

    Industrial Hazard and Safety Handbook (Revised Impression) describes and exposes the main hazards found in industry, with emphasis on how these hazards arise, are ignored, are identified, are eliminated, or are controlled. These hazard conditions can be due to human stresses (for example, insomnia), unsatisfactory working environments, as well as secret industrial processes. The book reviews the cost of accidents, human factors, inspections, insurance, legal aspects, planning for major emergencies, organization, and safety measures. The text discusses regulations, codes of practice, site layou

  3. Sawmill chemicals and carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Huff, J

    2001-01-01

    Workers in wood industries are exposed to variable medleys of chemicals, both natural and synthetic. Additional exposures include fungi, bacteria, bark and wood dusts, solvents, paints, and various other wood coatings. These individual and conglomerate exposures have been associated with diverse occupational illnesses and hazards, including cancers. In this commentary, I summarize both experimental and epidemiologic carcinogenesis results for several chemicals used in the wood industry, as we...

  4. Hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hembra, R.L

    1989-01-01

    This report has found that while most states have accomplished few or no cleanups of sites contaminated by hazardous waste, some have enacted tough cleanup laws, committed relatively large resources to the cleanup effort, and achieved considerable results. At the 17 cleanup sites analyzed, state cleanup plans were generally stringent. However, no federal standards have been set for over half of the contaminants found at these sites. For 11 sites, the states set cleanup levels without doing formal risk assessments. Also, most states reviewed did not consider the full range of alternatives EPA requires. Most states have not shown that they can effectively clean up large, hazardous waste sites. This report recommends that EPA turn sites targeted for cleanup over to the states only if there are adequate controls and oversight.

  5. 77 FR 17573 - Hazard Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ..., 1915 and 1926 Hazard Communication; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 58 / Monday... Administration 29 CFR Parts 1910, 1915, and 1926 RIN 1218-AC20 Hazard Communication AGENCY: Occupational Safety... modifying its Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) to conform to the United Nations' Globally...

  6. Hazard Maps in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Emphasizes the use of geophysical hazard maps and illustrates how they can be used in the classroom from kindergarten to college level. Depicts ways that hazard maps of floods, landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, and multi-hazards can be integrated into classroom instruction. Tells how maps may be obtained. (SLM)

  7. Carbon sequestration and eruption hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.

    2007-12-01

    In order to reduce the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, proposals have been made to sequestrate carbon in ocean, or in coal mines and other underground formations. High gas concentration in ocean or underground formations has to potential to power gas-driven eruptions. In this presentation, possible eruption hazards are explored. Whenever carbon dioxide is sequestrated in the form of carbon dioxide gas, or dissolved and/or absorbed carbon dioxide, it is necessary to exercise caution to avoid gas-driven eruption hazard. It is long known that explosive volcanic eruptions are driven by H2O gas in magma. Lake eruptions powered by dissolved CO2 in lake bottom water were discovered in the 1980's (Kling et al., 1987; Zhang, 1996). Gas-driven ocean eruptions with mechanism similar to lake eruptions have been hypothesized (Zhang, 2003; Zhang and Kling, 2006) although not confirmed. Mud volcanos are commonly thought to be driven by methane-rich fluids in sediment (Milkov, 2000). Recently, Zhang et al. (2007) have proposed that coal outbursts in underground coal mines are driven by dissolved high CO2 concentration in coal, causing coal fragmentation and outburst. That is, coal outbursts may be regarded as a new type of gas-driven eruptions. Therefore, high concentrations of free gas or dissolved/absorbed gas may power eruptions of magma, lake water, ocean water, sediment, and coal. Gas- driven volcanic, lake and ocean eruptions are due to volume expansion from bubble growth, whereas gas-driven coal and sediment eruptions are due to high gas-pressure, leading to fragmentation of coal and sediment. (In explosive volcanism, magma fragmentation is also a critical point.) The threshold conditions for many of these eruptions are not known yet. In planning large (industrial) scale injection of CO2 into a natural reservoir, it is important to know the eruption threshold and design the injection scheme accordingly. More safe sequestration in terms of eruption hazards would

  8. Chemical hygiene plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This plan was written to administer and monitor safety measures and chemical hygiene principles in the TAC Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action Project sample preparation facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It applies to toxic and/or hazardous materials to radioactive materials.

  9. Security classification of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quist, A.S.

    1989-09-01

    Certain governmental information must be classified for national security reasons. However, the national security benefits from classifying information are usually accompanied by significant costs -- those due to a citizenry not fully informed on governmental activities, the extra costs of operating classified programs and procuring classified materials (e.g., weapons), the losses to our nation when advances made in classified programs cannot be utilized in unclassified programs. The goal of a classification system should be to clearly identify that information which must be protected for national security reasons and to ensure that information not needing such protection is not classified. This document was prepared to help attain that goal. This document is the first of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. Volume 1 broadly describes the need for classification, the basis for classification, and the history of classification in the United States from colonial times until World War 2. Classification of information since World War 2, under Executive Orders and the Atomic Energy Acts of 1946 and 1954, is discussed in more detail, with particular emphasis on the classification of atomic energy information. Adverse impacts of classification are also described. Subsequent volumes will discuss classification principles, classification management, and the control of certain unclassified scientific and technical information. 340 refs., 6 tabs.

  10. Security classification of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quist, A.S.

    1993-04-01

    This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.

  11. Background of REACH in EU regulations on evaluation of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foth, H; Hayes, Aw

    2008-06-01

    Industrial chemicals are needed for chemical synthesis or technical purposes. These beneficial effects are counterbalanced by the potential health risks for all who come into contact with them. The new chemical legislation of the EU, Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH) will force the responsibility of manufacturers and importers of chemical substances to gather the right information needed to decide on the right circumstances of use and control of chemical substances and products. In order to understand the roots of REACH, experiences gained with regard to existing chemicals legislation, particularly in Germany, will be reviewed. Since Council Directive 67/548/EEC all chemicals placed on the market need a set of standard information and provisions for safe transportation. This directive and its amendments (Council Directive(s) 79/831/EEC and 92/32/EEC) have established for new substances a sound information data basis for classification of dangerous properties. Under Council Regulation 793/93/EEC, regulations and administrative provisions have established the requirement to assess the risk to man and the environment of existing substances. So far, only 119 substances have been evaluated under the forces of this regulation. This separation has led to a substantial imbalance between existing substances and new substances with respect to available data needed to recognize hazards for health. The register of produced and imported chemical substances under REACH should eliminate some of this separation and will also be the key for selection of substances of very high concern by the authorization process to restrict the use and distribution accordingly.

  12. Topical Hazard Evaluation Program of Candidate Insect Repellents AI3-38352a, AI3-38354a, AI3-38355a, US Department of Agriculture Proprietary Chemicals, May 1982 - November 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    irrita- chemical and of 10% (wv) A13-38357a, AI3-38360a, tion reaction under Oil of Bergamot (positive and Ar3-38361a did test conditions and control...caused a greater Irritant positive control (Oil of effect than In un- Bergamot ) and diluent were Irradiated skin areas. applied to additional skin

  13. Safety and health hazard observations in Hmong farming operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, R L; Krenz, J; de Castro, A B

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural workers have a high risk of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. However, there are very few standardized tools available to assess safety and health in agricultural operations. Additionally, there are a number of groups of agricultural workers, including Hmong refugees and immigrants, for which virtually no information on safety and health conditions is available. This study developed an observation-based methodology for systematically evaluating occupational health and safety hazards in agriculture, and pilot-tested this on several small-scale Hmong farming operations. Each observation assessed of range of safety and health hazards (e.g., musculoskeletal hazards, dust and pollen, noise, and mechanical hazards), as well as on factors such as type of work area, presence of personal protective equipment, and weather conditions. Thirty-six observations were collected on nine farms. The most common hazards observed were bending at the back and lifting 50 pounds were also common. The farming activities observed involved almost no power equipment, and no pesticide or chemical handling was observed. The use of personal protective equipment was uncommon. The results of this assessment agreed well with a parallel study of perceived safety and health hazards among Hmong agricultural workers. This study suggests that small-scale Hmong farming operations involve a variety of hazards, and that occupational health interventions may be warranted in this community. The study also demonstrates the utility of standardized assessment tools and mixed-method approaches to hazard evaluation.

  14. Chemical Demonstrations: The Chem Demo Book. A Guide To Fun, Safe & Exciting Chemical Demonstrations. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Thomas K.

    Chemical demonstrations can and do enhance an otherwise potentially dull subjects--the properties of hazardous materials. This book contains the recipes for presenting several chemical demonstrations. Demonstrations are designed to be relatively easy to perform and present minimal hazards if done properly. The book contains an introduction, safety…

  15. Volcanic hazards to airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  16. Ontologies vs. Classification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    What is an ontology compared to a classification system? Is a taxonomy a kind of classification system or a kind of ontology? These are questions that we meet when working with people from industry and public authorities, who need methods and tools for concept clarification, for developing meta d...... classification systems and meta data taxonomies, should be based on ontologies.......What is an ontology compared to a classification system? Is a taxonomy a kind of classification system or a kind of ontology? These are questions that we meet when working with people from industry and public authorities, who need methods and tools for concept clarification, for developing meta...... data sets or for obtaining advanced search facilities. In this paper we will present an attempt at answering these questions. We will give a presentation of various types of ontologies and briefly introduce terminological ontologies. Furthermore we will argue that classification systems, e.g. product...

  17. Classification of Spreadsheet Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Rajalingham, Kamalasen; Chadwick, David R.; Knight, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for a systematic classification of spreadsheet errors. This classification or taxonomy of errors is aimed at facilitating analysis and comprehension of the different types of spreadsheet errors. The taxonomy is an outcome of an investigation of the widespread problem of spreadsheet errors and an analysis of specific types of these errors. This paper contains a description of the various elements and categories of the classification and is supported by appropri...

  18. Hazard analysis for 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facilty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.J.; Brehm, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    This hazard analysis (HA) has been prepared for the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility (Facility), in compliance with the requirements of Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) controlled manual WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis Manual, and to the direction of WHC-IP-0690, Safety Analysis and Regulation Desk Instructions, (WHC 1992). An HA identifies potentially hazardous conditions in a facility and the associated potential accident scenarios. Unlike the Facility hazard classification documented in WHC-SD-NR-HC-004, Hazard Classification for 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility, (Huang 1993), which is based on unmitigated consequences, credit is taken in an HA for administrative controls or engineered safety features planned or in place. The HA is the foundation for the accident analysis. The significant event scenarios identified by this HA will be further evaluated in a subsequent accident analysis.

  19. 基于反向传播神经网络的化工项目职业病危害评价的方法研究%Quantitative Assessment Method for Occupational Hazards in Chemical Projects Based on Back Propagation Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霞; 吴世达; 陈健; 宁勇; 于威威; 卢伟

    2011-01-01

    [目的]建立一种基于反向传播(back propagation,BP)神经网络的化工行业职业病危害综合定量评价方法.[方法]在全面分析化工项目职业卫生状况影响因素的基础上,建立包含11项指标的综合评价指标体系,并实现了指标的量化.收集本市23家石油化工类建设项目的相关资料,其中18组作为训练样本对神经网络进行训练,建立BP神经网络模型.[结果]5组作为测试样本,输入训练好的神经网络模型中进行测试,结果与专家评估结果相符,正确率100%.[结论]本研究所建立的多指标综合定量评价的神经网络模型可用于定量评价化工项目的职业病危害风险,为职业病危害风险评估法的研究提供了一种新的思路,为化工项目的分级管理和风险控制提供了有效的途径.%[Objective]To establish a comprehensive quantitative assessment method for occupational hazard based on back propagation( BP )neural network.[Methods]A comprehensive assessment index system containing 11 indicators was established after analyzing the key factors of occupational health status in chemical industry.The indicators were graded.Twenty-three samples of chemical projects in the city were collected, of which 18 samples were used to train the neural network and established a BP neural network model.[Results]Five samples were used as test samples and fed into the input layer of the trained neural network.Furthermore, the output results of the 5 test samples showed good eoincidence with the results rated by experts ( 100% correct ).[Conclusion]The neural network model can be used for quantitative assessment of occupational risk in chemical projects.The developed method provides new ideas in risk assessment of occupational hazard and an effective way for ranking management and risk control in chemical projects.

  20. Categorization framework to aid hazard identification of nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Olsen, Stig Irving;

    2007-01-01

    The physical, chemical and biological properties of various nanomaterials differ substantially - as do the potential risks they pose. We argue that nanomaterials must be categorized based on the location of the nanoscale structure in the system/material before their hazards can be assessed...... and propose a categorization framework that enables scientists and regulators to identify the categories of nanomaterials systematically. The framework is applied to a suggested hazard identification approach aimed at identifying causality between inherent physical and chemical properties and observed adverse...

  1. AN OBJECT-BASED METHOD FOR CHINESE LANDFORM TYPES CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ding

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Landform classification is a necessary task for various fields of landscape and regional planning, for example for landscape evaluation, erosion studies, hazard prediction, et al. This study proposes an improved object-based classification for Chinese landform types using the factor importance analysis of random forest and the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM. In this research, based on 1km DEM of China, the combination of the terrain factors extracted from DEM are selected by correlation analysis and Sheffield's entropy method. Random forest classification tree is applied to evaluate the importance of the terrain factors, which are used as multi-scale segmentation thresholds. Then the GLCM is conducted for the knowledge base of classification. The classification result was checked by using the 1:4,000,000 Chinese Geomorphological Map as reference. And the overall classification accuracy of the proposed method is 5.7% higher than ISODATA unsupervised classification, and 15.7% higher than the traditional object-based classification method.

  2. An Object-Based Method for Chinese Landform Types Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hu; Tao, Fei; Zhao, Wufan; Na, Jiaming; Tang, Guo'an

    2016-06-01

    Landform classification is a necessary task for various fields of landscape and regional planning, for example for landscape evaluation, erosion studies, hazard prediction, et al. This study proposes an improved object-based classification for Chinese landform types using the factor importance analysis of random forest and the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). In this research, based on 1km DEM of China, the combination of the terrain factors extracted from DEM are selected by correlation analysis and Sheffield's entropy method. Random forest classification tree is applied to evaluate the importance of the terrain factors, which are used as multi-scale segmentation thresholds. Then the GLCM is conducted for the knowledge base of classification. The classification result was checked by using the 1:4,000,000 Chinese Geomorphological Map as reference. And the overall classification accuracy of the proposed method is 5.7% higher than ISODATA unsupervised classification, and 15.7% higher than the traditional object-based classification method.

  3. Concepts of Classification and Taxonomy. Phylogenetic Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Fraix-Burnet, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic approaches to classification have been heavily developed in biology by bioinformaticians. But these techniques have applications in other fields, in particular in linguistics. Their main characteristics is to search for relationships between the objects or species in study, instead of grouping them by similarity. They are thus rather well suited for any kind of evolutionary objects. For nearly fifteen years, astrocladistics has explored the use of Maximum Parsimony (or cladistics) for astronomical objects like galaxies or globular clusters. In this lesson we will learn how it works. 1 Why phylogenetic tools in astrophysics? 1.1 History of classification The need for classifying living organisms is very ancient, and the first classification system can be dated back to the Greeks. The goal was very practical since it was intended to distinguish between eatable and toxic aliments, or kind and dangerous animals. Simple resemblance was used and has been used for centuries. Basically, until the XVIIIth...

  4. Revue bibliographique: les méthodes chimiques d'identification et de classification des champignons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verscheure M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotaxonomy of fungi : a review. For few years, advancements of molecular methods and analytical techniques enabled scientists to realise a classification of microorganisms based on biochemical characteristics. This classification, called chemotaxonomy, includes molecular methods and chemical methods which provide additional data and lead to a better identification and/or classification.

  5. 33 CFR 127.609 - Dry chemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.609 Dry chemical systems. (a)...

  6. Design and Implementation of Hazardous Chemicals Security MIS Based on Digital Signature%基于数字签名的危险化学品安全管理信息系统的设计与实现磁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋云波; 刘文光

    2014-01-01

    The experience and development trend of safety management of dangerous chemicals in EU and major devel-oped countries are researched .According to the present situation of safety management of dangerous chemicals and existing problems in China ,a set of dangerous chemical safety management information system which is suitable for China's national conditions is researched and developed .The system uses authentication ,electronic signature and electronic seal technology based on digital signature ,effectively preventing identity theft ,responsibility of negation ,ultra vires operation ,overcoming traditional management model's unclear responsibilities ,confusion ,low efficiency ,supervision lag ,achieving administration departments and enterprises' communication timely ,real-time online business ,scientific monitoring ,the regulatory process electronic data preservation .%文章研究欧盟等主要发达国家危险化学品安全管理的经验和发展趋势,结合我国危险化学品安全管理的现状和存在问题,研究开发一套适合我国国情的危险化学品安全管理信息系统。该系统采用了基于数字签名的身份认证、电子签名、电子签章技术。能有效防止身份冒用、责任否定、越权操作等重大安全问题;克服传统监管模式权责不清、流程混乱、效率低下、监管滞后等弊端;实现安监部门与企业上下及时沟通、实时在线业务办理、科学监管、监管过程电子数据保全。

  7. Pattern Recognition and Classification of Geographical Indication Rice Based on Chemical Components%基于化学成分的大米国家地理标志产品模式识别与分类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮贵华; 杜甫佑; 黄小龙; 何小青; 郑彦婕; 杨国武

    2012-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) and Fisher linear discriminant analysis were both applied for the pattern recognition and classification of Zengcheng mew rice from Guangdong province as a geographical indication (GI) product. A classification model between GI and non-GI products was established based on inorganic elements and organic compounds including amino acids, fat, starch and protein by Fisher linear discriminant analysis. The results showed that Fisher linear discriminant analysis was a simple and fast method for the classification and identification of geographical indication rice and could allow rapid establishment of a classification model for identification and reorganization between GI and non-GI products based on relatively complicated data.%综合运用主成分分析(PcA)和Fisher准则两类线性判别方法对广东增城丝苗米国家地理标志产品中无机元素成分、有机组成(氨基酸、脂肪、淀粉、蛋白质等)进行模式识别与聚类研究,并采用Fisher线性判别方法建立地标产品与非地标产品间的分类模型。结果表明:Fisher线性判别用于大米地理标志产品的分类与识别简单快速,在分析数据相对复杂的情况下,可快速建立分类模型并实现地理标志产品与非地理标志样本间的鉴定与识别。

  8. Multiple sparse representations classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Plenge (Esben); S.K. Klein (Stefan); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); E. Meijering (Erik)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In t

  9. Library Classification 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author explores how a new library classification system might be designed using some aspects of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and ideas from other systems to create something that works for school libraries in the year 2020. By examining what works well with the Dewey Decimal System, what features should be carried…

  10. Classifier in Age classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santhi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Face is the important feature of the human beings. We can derive various properties of a human by analyzing the face. The objective of the study is to design a classifier for age using facial images. Age classification is essential in many applications like crime detection, employment and face detection. The proposed algorithm contains four phases: preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection and classification. The classification employs two class labels namely child and Old. This study addresses the limitations in the existing classifiers, as it uses the Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM for feature extraction and Support Vector Machine (SVM for classification. This improves the accuracy of the classification as it outperforms the existing methods.

  11. A chemometric evaluation of the underlying physical and chemical patterns that support near infrared spectroscopy of barley seeds as a tool for explorative classification of endosperm genes and gene combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Susanne; Søndergaard, Ib; Møller, Birthe

    2005-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopic (NIR; 1100-2500 nm), chemical and genetic data were combined to study the pleiotropic secondary effects of mutant genes on milled samples in a barley seed model. NIR and chemical data were both effective in classifying gene and gene combinations by Principal Component ...

  12. Periurbanisation and natural hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Loison

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In mountainous areas in recent decades urbanisation has expanded to areas where low ground adjoins mountainsides that are unstable in a number of respects. Periurbanisation in mountain basins with unstable sides poses specific problems that local players have to address. The Lavanchon basin (southeast of Grenoble, which is subject to very rapid urban growth combined with particularly dynamic mountainsides, is representative of the way activity is being brought into closer contact with potential hazards. A diachronic study of changes in land use between 1956 and 2001 shows how valley infrastructures at the bottom of mountainsides have become increasingly dense. In this context, a survey was carried out among a number of residents in the Lavanchon basin in an attempt to evaluate the degree of awareness that the population has of the natural hazards to which it is exposed. The results show that slightly more than half of the population surveyed was aware of the problem of natural hazards being present in the area, with most inhabitants being more concerned about industrial and pollution hazards. New residents were unaware of or were unwilling to accept the reality of hazards. The low incidence of significant natural events, the effectiveness of the protective structures built, the absence of information provided by the public authorities and the division of the basin between several management bodies appear to have engendered a feeling of safety from natural phenomena. The geographical distribution of appreciation of the hazard clearly shows a distinction between those inhabitants living on the low ground and those at the bottom of the mountainsides, and this corresponds fairly closely with the historical and current location of the main potentially hazardous events that have occurred.Dans les territoires de montagne, les dernières décennies ont vu l’expansion de l’urbanisation vers les zones de contact entre la plaine et les versants, lieux

  13. Kappa Coefficients for Circular Classifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrens, Matthijs J.; Pratiwi, Bunga C.

    2016-01-01

    Circular classifications are classification scales with categories that exhibit a certain periodicity. Since linear scales have endpoints, the standard weighted kappas used for linear scales are not appropriate for analyzing agreement between two circular classifications. A family of kappa coefficie

  14. Assessment of nonpoint source chemical loading potential to watersheds containing uranium waste dumps and human health hazards associated with uranium exploration and mining, Red, White, and Fry Canyons, southeastern Utah, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Marston, Thomas M.; Naftz, David L.; Snyder, Terry; Freeman, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    During May, June, and July 2007, 58 solid-phase samples were collected from abandoned uranium mine waste dumps, background sites, and adjacent streambeds in Red, White, and Fry Canyons in southeastern Utah. The objectives of this sampling program were to (1) assess the nonpoint-source chemical loading potential to ephemeral and perennial drainage basins from uranium waste dumps and (2) assess potential effects on human health due to recreational activities on and around uranium waste dumps on Bureau of Land Management property. Uranium waste-dump samples were collected using solid-phase sampling protocols. After collection, solid-phase samples were homogenized and extracted in the laboratory using a leaching procedure. Filtered (0.45 micron) water samples were obtained from the field leaching procedure and were analyzed for major and trace elements at the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Metals Analysis Laboratory at the University of Utah. A subset of the solid-phase samples also were digested with strong acids and analyzed for major ions and trace elements at the U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Division Laboratory in Denver, Colorado. For the initial ranking of chemical loading potential for uranium waste dumps, results of leachate analyses were compared with existing aquatic-life and drinking-water-quality standards. To assess potential effects on human health, solid-phase digestion values for uranium were compared to soil screening levels (SSL) computed using the computer model RESRAD 6.5 for a probable concentration of radium. One or more chemical constituents exceeded aquatic life and drinking-water-quality standards in approximately 64 percent (29/45) of the leachate samples extracted from uranium waste dumps. Most of the uranium waste dump sites with elevated trace-element concentrations in leachates were located in Red Canyon. Approximately 69 percent (31/45) of the strong acid digestible soil concentration values were greater than a calculated

  15. A rating system for determination of hazardous wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talinli, Ilhan; Yamantürk, Rana; Aydin, Egemen; Başakçilardan-Kabakçi, Sibel

    2005-11-11

    Although hazardous waste lists and their classification methodologies are nearly the same in most of the countries, there are some gaps and subjectiveness in determining the waste as hazardous waste. A rating system for the determination of waste as a hazardous waste is presented in this study which aims to overcome the problems resulted from the existing methodologies. Overall rating value (ORV) calculates and quantifies the waste as regular, non-regular or hazardous waste in an "hourglass" scale. "ORV" as a cumulative-linear formulation in proposed model consists of components such as ecological effects of the waste (Ee) in terms of four main hazard criteria: ignitability, reactivity, corrosivity and toxicity; combined potential risk (CPR) including carcinogenic effect, toxic, infectious and persistence characteristics; existing lists and their methodology (L) and decision factor (D) to separate regular and non-regular waste. Physical form (f) and quantity (Q) of the waste are considered as factors of these components. Seventeen waste samples from different sources are evaluated to demonstrate the simulation of the proposed model by using "hourglass" scale. The major benefit of the presented rating system is to ease the works of decision makers in managing the wastes.

  16. A Study of Rockburst Hazard Evaluation Method in Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing of coal mining depth, the mining conditions are deteriorating, and dynamic hazard is becoming more likely to happen. This paper analyzes the relations and differences between rockburst in the coal mine and rockburst in the metal mine. It divides coal mine rockburst into two types including static loading type during roadway excavation process and dynamic loading type during mining face advancing. It proposes the correlation between the formation process of rockburst and the evolution of overlying strata spatial structure of the stope, criterion of rockburst occurrence, new classification, and predictive evaluation method for rockburst hazard that rockburst damage evaluation (RDE = released energy capacity (REC/absorbed energy capacity (AEC. Based on the relationship between RDE value and its corresponding level of rockburst hazard, the rockburst hazard can be divided into five types and evaluation index of each type can be achieved. Then the ongoing rockburst damage level can be classified in one of the five types, and the relative parameters, such as hazard extent, controlling measures also can be achieved. This new quantitative method could not only assess the impacting direction of rockburst occurrence, but also verify the effect of preventive measures for rockburst.

  17. Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework in which principal and agent knowingly hold asymmetric beliefs regarding the probability of success of their enterprise. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium......-powered incentives are sufficient to induce any given effort level. If the agent is overall moderately overconfident, the latter effect dominates; because the agent bears less risk in this case, he actually benefits from his overconfidence. If the agent is significantly overconfident, the former effect dominates......; the agent is then exposed to an excessive amount of risk, which is harmful to him. An increase in overconfidence--either about the base probability of success or the extent to which effort affects it--makes it more likely that high levels of effort are implemented in equilibrium....

  18. Sports: The Infectious Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minooee, Arezou; Wang, Jeff; Gupta, Geeta K

    2015-10-01

    Although the medical complications of sports are usually traumatic in nature, infectious hazards also arise. While blood-borne pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cause significant illness, the risk of acquiring these agents during sporting activities is minimal. Skin infections are more commonplace, arising from a variety of microbial agents including bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Sports involving water contact can lead to enteric infections, eye infections, or disseminated infections such as leptospirosis. Mumps, measles, and influenza are vaccine-preventable diseases that have been transmitted during sporting events, both in players and in spectators. Prevention is the key to many of these infections. Players should be vaccinated and should not participate in sports if their infection can be spread by contact, airborne, or droplet transmission.

  19. Identification of Potential Hazard using Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, R. M.; Syahputri, K.; Rizkya, I.; Siregar, I.

    2017-03-01

    This research was conducted in the paper production’s company. These Paper products will be used as a cigarette paper. Along in the production’s process, Company provides the machines and equipment that operated by workers. During the operations, all workers may potentially injured. It known as a potential hazard. Hazard identification and risk assessment is one part of a safety and health program in the stage of risk management. This is very important as part of efforts to prevent occupational injuries and diseases resulting from work. This research is experiencing a problem that is not the identification of potential hazards and risks that would be faced by workers during the running production process. The purpose of this study was to identify the potential hazards by using hazard identification and risk assessment methods. Risk assessment is done using severity criteria and the probability of an accident. According to the research there are 23 potential hazard that occurs with varying severity and probability. Then made the determination Risk Assessment Code (RAC) for each potential hazard, and gained 3 extreme risks, 10 high risks, 6 medium risks and 3 low risks. We have successfully identified potential hazard using RAC.

  20. Accuracy of reported flash point values on material safety data sheets and the impact on product classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radnoff, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) are the foundation of worker right-to-know legislation for chemical hazards. Suppliers can use product test data to determine a product's classification. Alternatively, they may use evaluation and professional judgment based on test results for the product or a product, material, or substance with similar properties. While the criteria for classifying products under the new Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS) are different, a similar process is followed. Neither the current Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) nor GHS require suppliers to test their products to classify them. In this project 83 samples of products classified as flammable or combustible, representing a variety of industry sectors and product types, were collected. Flash points were measured and compared to the reported values on the MSDSs. The classifications of the products were then compared using the WHMIS and GHS criteria. The results of the study indicated that there were significant variations between the disclosed and measured flash point values. Overall, more than one-third of the products had flash points lower than that disclosed on the MSDS. In some cases, the measured values were more than 20°C lower than the disclosed values. This could potentially result in an underestimation regarding the flammability of the product so it is important for employers to understand the limitations in the information provided on MSDSs when developing safe work procedures and training programs in the workplace. Nearly one-fifth of the products were misclassified under the WHMIS system as combustible when the measured flash point indicated that they should be classified as flammable when laboratory measurement error was taken into account. While a similar number of products were misclassified using GHS criteria, the tendency appeared to be to "over-classify" (provide a hazard class that was more conservative

  1. 40 CFR 260.30 - Non-waste determinations and variances from classification as a solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from classification as a solid waste. 260.30 Section 260.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.30 Non-waste determinations and variances from classification as a solid waste....

  2. Recognizing Job Health Hazards. Module SH-08. Safety and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on recognizing job health hazards is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module presents the four general categories of environmental conditions or stresses: chemical, physical, biological, and ergonomic. Following the introduction, 14 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the student is…

  3. Hazard identification by extended multilevel flow modelling with function roles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jing; Zhang, Laibin; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2014-01-01

    HAZOP studies are widely accepted in chemical and petroleum industries as the method for conducting process hazard analysis related to design, maintenance and operation of th e systems. In this paper, a HAZOP reasoning method based on function-oriented modelling, multilevel flow modelling (MFM...

  4. Remanufacturing strategy for chemical equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-cheng; XU Bin-shi; WANG Hai-dou; JIANG Yi; WU Yi-xiong; GONG Jian-ming; TU Shan-dong

    2005-01-01

    Failure, especially induced by cracks, usually occurred in the service process of chemical equipment, which could cause the medium leakage, fire hazard and explosion and induced the personnel casualty and economic losses. To assure the long-term and safety service, it is necessary to apply the remanufacturing technology on the chemical equipment containing cracks. The recent research advances on the remanufacturing, the failure modes and the life extension technology for chemical equipment were reviewed. The engineering strategy of the remanufacturing for the chemical equipment was proposed, which could provide a reasonable and reliable technical route for the remanufacturing operation of chemical equipment. In the strategy, the redesign was also been considered.

  5. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart F of... - Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Table 2 to Subpart F of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Chemical Manufacturing Industry Pt. 63, Subpt. F, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart F of Part 63—Organic Hazardous... contains the named chemical (i.e., antimony, arsenic) as part of that chemical's infrastructure. b...

  6. The application of structure-activity relationships in human hazard assessment: a first approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzebos EM; Janssen PAH; Maslankiewicz L; Meijerink MCM; Muller JJA; Pelgrom SMG; Verdam L; Vermeire TG; CSR

    2001-01-01

    In this report an overview is given of structure-activity relationships (SARs) described in literature that can be helpful for the daily human hazard evaluation of chemicals. SARs describe the relation between molecular structure and biological- or physical-chemical activity of the chemical. Chemica

  7. 港口危险化学品项目安全设施设计专篇编制要点分析%Points analysis for compilation of safety facilities designed monographs in port hazardous chemicals project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩刚; 龚庆文; 赵秀慧

    2014-01-01

    以天津浮式LNG接收终端项目(一期)码头工程为依托,从安全设施设计专篇的前期准备工作、编制内容及专篇审查各环节进行逐一论述,使设计人员对此类设计专篇的工作有一个全面系统的了解,并为今后危险化学品码头工程安全设施设计专篇的编制提供借鉴。%Taking Tianjin floating LNG receiving terminal project (Phase I) wharf engineering as the basis, we discussed the preparatory work, monographs content and monographs reviewing of safety facilities designed monographs to allow designers to have a comprehensive and systematic understanding of such designs, which can provide a reference for the future work of dan-gerous chemicals wharf engineering safety facilities designed monographs.

  8. Questa Baseline and Pre-mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation, 7. A Pictorial Record of Chemical Weathering, Erosional Processes, and Potential Debris-flow Hazards in Scar Areas Developed on Hydrothermally Altered Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Ludington, Steve; Vincent, Kirk R.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Caine, Jonathan S.; Livo, K. Eric

    2009-01-01

    Erosional scar areas developed along the lower Red River basin, New Mexico, reveal a complex natural history of mineralizing processes, rapid chemical weathering, and intense physical erosion during periodic outbursts of destructive, storm-induced runoff events. The scar areas are prominent erosional features with craggy headwalls and steep, denuded slopes. The largest scar areas, including, from east to west, Hottentot Creek, Straight Creek, Hansen Creek, Lower Hansen Creek, Sulfur Gulch, and Goat Hill Gulch, head along high east-west trending ridges that form the northern and southern boundaries of the lower Red River basin. Smaller, topographically lower scar areas are developed on ridge noses in the inner Red River valley. Several of the natural scar areas have been modified substantially as a result of large-scale open-pit and underground mining at the Questa Mine; for example, much of the Sulfur Gulch scar was removed by open pit mining, and several scars are now partially or completely covered by mine waste dumps.

  9. A percepção dos trabalhadores de enfermagem sobre o manejo dos resíduos químicos perigosos Percepción de los trabajadores de enfermería sobre el manejo de residuos químicos peligrosos Nursing workers' perceptions regarding the handling of hazardous chemical waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiza Florêncio Costa

    2012-12-01

    propuestas para el manejo adecuado de residuos químicos peligrosos para la enfermería.The objectives of this study were to identify the perceptions of nursing workers regarding the handling of hazardous chemical waste at the University of São Paulo University Hospital (HU-USP, and develop a proposal to improve safety measures. This study used a qualitative approach and a convenience sample consisting of eighteen nursing workers. Data collection was performed through focal groups. Thematic analysis revealed four categories that gave evidence of training deficiencies in terms of the stages of handling waste. Difficulties that emerged included a lack of knowledge regarding exposure and its impact, the utilization of personal protective equipment versus collective protection, and suggestions regarding measures to be taken by the institution and workers for the safe handling of hazardous chemical waste. The present data allowed for recommending proposals regarding the safe management of hazardous chemical waste by the nursing staff.

  10. 76 FR 77457 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals,...

  11. 76 FR 56294 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National... of the direct final action (76 FR 41719) is effective as of September 13, 2011. ADDRESSES... in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...

  12. Hazard Map for Autonomous Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels

    This dissertation describes the work performed in the area of using image analysis in the process of landing a spacecraft autonomously and safely on the surface of the Moon. This is suggested to be done using a Hazard Map. The correspondence problem between several Hazard Maps are investigated fu...

  13. Global Polynomial Kernel Hazard Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiabu, Munir; Miranda, Maria Dolores Martínez; Nielsen, Jens Perch

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new bias reducing method for kernel hazard estimation. The method is called global polynomial adjustment (GPA). It is a global correction which is applicable to any kernel hazard estimator. The estimator works well from a theoretical point of view as it asymptotically redu...

  14. Global Polynomial Kernel Hazard Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiabu, Munir; Miranda, Maria Dolores Martínez; Nielsen, Jens Perch;

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new bias reducing method for kernel hazard estimation. The method is called global polynomial adjustment (GPA). It is a global correction which is applicable to any kernel hazard estimator. The estimator works well from a theoretical point of view as it asymptotically...

  15. Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkner, K.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan (CHSP) is to provide specific guidance to all LBL employees and contractors who use hazardous chemicals. This Plan, when implemented, fulfills the requirements of both the Federal OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) for laboratory workers, and the Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for non-laboratory operations (e.g., shops). It sets forth safety procedures and describes how LBL employees are informed about the potential chemical hazards in their work areas so they can avoid harmful exposures and safeguard their health. Generally, communication of this Plan will occur through training and the Plan will serve as a the framework and reference guide for that training.

  16. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms.

  17. Quaternary ammonium compounds – New occupational hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs, quats belong to organic ionic chemical agents which display unique properties of both surfactants and disinfectants. Their wide distribution in the work environment and also in private households brings about new occupational hazards. This paper reviews reports about the health effects of QACs. QACs could play a role of sensitizers and irritants to the skin and mucous membranes. It is suspected that particular QACs can display an immunologic crossreactivity between each other and with other chemical compounds containing ammonium ion, such as muscle relaxants widely used in anesthesia. They may promote the development of airway allergy, however, the background mechanisms are still unclear and need to be further investigated. Until now, a few cases of occupational asthma induced by QACs have been described and their involvement in contact dermatitis has been documented. The possibility of anaphylaxis due to QACs cannot be excluded as well. Med Pr 2014;65(5:675–682

  18. 78 FR 54970 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... process in March 2012 (77 FR 5379). When verified by a futures classification, Smith-Doxey data serves as... Classification: Optional Classification Procedure AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed... for the addition of an optional cotton futures classification procedure--identified and known...

  19. Thermo-refrigerating machineries. Classification; Machines thermofrigorifiques. Classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duminil, M. [Association Francaise du Froid (AFF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-07-01

    Thermo-refrigerating systems transfer the heat extracted from a cold source towards a heat source and consume thermal energy from a third source. This article proposes a classification of thermo-refrigerating systems in three categories: the systems with a changing state working fluid (physical change of the refrigerant: dissociable systems, integrated systems (ejection systems, sorption systems); chemical change of the refrigerant), the systems where the working fluid stays in the same physical state (dissociable systems (Brayton, Siemens, Stirling and Ericsson cycles), integrated systems (Vuilleumier cycle systems, thermochemical systems)) and the other systems (Seebeck thermoelectric generator with Peltier effect modules). Dissociable thermo-refrigerating systems are made of the grouping of two separate thermal machines: a thermal engine and a mechanical-refrigerating machine. (J.S.)

  20. Update on diabetes classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Celeste C; Philipson, Louis H

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the difficulties in creating a definitive classification of diabetes mellitus in the absence of a complete understanding of the pathogenesis of the major forms. This brief review shows the evolving nature of the classification of diabetes mellitus. No classification scheme is ideal, and all have some overlap and inconsistencies. The only diabetes in which it is possible to accurately diagnose by DNA sequencing, monogenic diabetes, remains undiagnosed in more than 90% of the individuals who have diabetes caused by one of the known gene mutations. The point of classification, or taxonomy, of disease, should be to give insight into both pathogenesis and treatment. It remains a source of frustration that all schemes of diabetes mellitus continue to fall short of this goal.