WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical grouts

  1. Grout diffusion characteristics during chemical grouting in a deep water-bearing sand layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Dangliang; Sui Wanghua

    2012-01-01

    The deep,loose bottom aquifer of the eastern air shaft in the Xinglongzhuang Coal Mine was used to develop an experimental model of shaft grouting through Model deep soil.Lab experiments using chemical grouting were done to study the grout.The grouted soil shapes and osmotic pressure were measured during the experiments.The tested characteristics of the grouted soil show that the diffusion mode of grout in saturated sandy soil is a combination of split compaction and osmosis.More specifically,the shape of the grouted soil is determined by split compaction while the size of the grouted soil shape is determined by osmosis.Sensor test results indicate that the main reason for the non-uniform grout diffusion is the anisotropic osmotic pressure field surrounding the grouting holes.

  2. Grout to meet physical and chemical requirements for closure at Hanford grout vaults. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-21

    The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout based on portland cement, Class F fly ash, and bentonite clay, for the Hanford Grout Vault Program. The purpose of this grout was to fill the void between a wasteform containing 106-AN waste and the vault cover blocks. Following a successful grout development program, heat output, volume change, and compressive strength were monitored with time in simulated repository conditions and in full-depth physical models. This research indicated that the cold-cap grout could achieve and maintain adequate volume stability and other required physical properties in the internal environment of a sealed vault. To determine if contact with 106-AN liquid waste would cause chemical deterioration of the cold-cap grout, cured specimens were immersed in simulated waste. Over a period of 21 days at 150 F, specimens increased in mass without significant changes in volume. X-ray diffraction of reacted specimens revealed crystallization of sodium aluminum silicate hydrate. Scanning electron microscopy used with X-ray fluorescence showed that clusters if this phase had formed in grout pores, increasing grout density and decreasing its effective porosity. Physical and chemical tests collectively indicate a sealing component. However, the Hanford Grout Vault Program was cancelled before completion of this research. This report summarizes close-out Waterways Experiment Station when the Program was cancelled.

  3. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant low-level waste grout stabilization development program FY-96 status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.

    1996-09-01

    The general purpose of the Grout Stabilization Development Program is to solidify and stabilize the liquid low-level wastes (LLW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). It is anticipated that LLW will be produced from the following: (1) chemical separation of the tank farm high-activity sodium-bearing waste; (2) retrieval, dissolution, and chemical separation of the aluminum, zirconium, and sodium calcines; (3) facility decontamination processes; and (4) process equipment waste. The main tasks completed this fiscal year as part of the program were chromium stabilization study for sodium-bearing waste and stabilization and solidification of LLW from aluminum and zirconium calcines. The projected LLW will be highly acidic and contain high amounts of nitrates. Both of these are detrimental to Portland cement chemistry; thus, methods to precondition the LLW and to cure the grout were explored. A thermal calcination process, called denitration, was developed to solidify the waste and destroy the nitrates. A three-way blend of Portland cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash was successfully tested. Grout cubes were prepared at various waste loadings to maximize loading while meeting compressive strength and leach resistance requirements. For the sodium LLW, a 25% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 3.5 and a compressive strength of 2,500 pounds per square inch while meeting leach, mix, and flow requirements. It was found that the sulfur in the slag reduces the chromium leach rate below regulatory limits. For the aluminum LLW, a 15% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.5 and a compressive strength of 4,350 pounds per square inch while meeting leach requirements. Likewise for zirconium LLW, a 30% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.3 and a compressive strength of 3,570 pounds per square inch.

  4. Cure shrinkage in epoxy grouts for grouted repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddoha, Md.; Islam, Md. Mainul; Aravinthan, Thiru; Manalo, Allan; Lau, Kin-tak

    2013-08-01

    Structures can go through harsh environmental adversity and can experience material loss and cracks during their service lives. Infill material is used to ensure a supporting bed for a grouted repair. Epoxy grouts are used for repairing and rehabilitating structures, such as foundations, bridges, piers, transportation pipelines, etc., because they are resistant to typical chemicals and possess superior mechanical properties than other grouts. The resin based infill used inside the void or cracked space of the repair is vulnerable to shrinkage. When these filled grouts have high resin content, cracks can develop from residual stresses, which can affect the load transfer performance. It follows that interlayer separation and cracking of infill layer can occur in a grouted repair. In this study, volumetric shrinkage of two epoxy grouts was measured over 28 days using a Pycnometer. The highest volumetric shrinkage measured after 7 days was found to be 2.72%. The results suggest that the volumetric shrinkage can be reduced to 1.1% after 7 days, through the introduction of a coarse aggregate filler; a 2.5 times reduction in shrinkage. About 98% and 92% of the total shrinkage over the 28 day period, of the unfilled and filled grouts respectively, was found to occur within 7 days of mixing. The gel-time shrinkages were also calculated, to determine the "postgel" part of the curing contraction which subsequently produces residual stresses in the hardened grout systems.

  5. Strength of Experimental Grouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

     The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....... The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....

  6. Tank closure reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  7. Mechanical Properties of High Performance Cementitious Grout Masterflow 9300

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    The present report describes tests carried out on the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9300, developed by BASF Construction Chemicals A/S.......The present report describes tests carried out on the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9300, developed by BASF Construction Chemicals A/S....

  8. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  9. Strength of High Performance Grouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations.......The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....

  10. Silicate grout curtains behaviour for the protection of coastal aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elektorowicz, M.; Chifrina, R.; Hesnawi, R. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Tests were performed to evaluate the behaviour of silicate grout with different reagents (ethylacetate - formamide SA and calcium chloride SC) in pure silica sand and natural soils from coastal areas containing organic matter, clayey soil and silica sand. The grouted specimens were tested with simulated fresh and salt water. The setting process during chemical grouting in the soil and sand was studied. The grouting of soil and sand with SA caused a transfer to the environment of some compounds: sodium formate, sodium acetate, ammonia and part of the initial ethylacetate and formamide. This process had a tendency to decrease for approximately 4 months. The stability of specimens was low. The grouting of soil and sand with SC caused no significant contamination of the environment. The increase of pH of environmental water was even less than with SA grouting. Also, the stability of specimens is higher in comparison with SA grouting. Salt water protected the specimens grouted with SA and SC from destruction and prevented contamination.

  11. 某水电站大坝裂缝化灌混凝土芯样抗剪试验研究%Shear Tests on the Concrete Core Samples for the Chemical Grouting of Dam Cracks of a Hydropower Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 沈蓉; 赵云川; 龚维群

    2016-01-01

    Temperature crack in the pouring process of mass concrete of concrete arch dam and gravity dam could be a hidden troubles that affects the safety of the dam, especially reduces the tensile strength and shear mechanical properties of concrete dam, and also affects the long⁃term stability and the service life of the dam. During the pou⁃ring of mass concrete of a hydropower station, part of the dam was affected by temperature and cracks penetrated through. By using the crack grouting material for the hydropower station dam, we carried out indoor tests and com⁃pared the test results. The indoor tests include:shear test on the original concrete core sample with no crack from the dam, shear test on cube concrete samples with cracks ( made by splitting) and concrete core samples after sim⁃ulation chemical grouting, and shear test on concrete core samples with cracks fully bonded after grouting. Results show that after chemical grouting treatment on the cracks, the shear parameter f ′ reaches the 83% of the original concrete, and c′s the 68%of the original concrete. The result of indoor chemical grouting simulation is better, with f′equaling the level of original concrete, and c′reaching above 85% of the original concrete. Chemical grouting is an effective measure to treat dam cracks and improve the shear strength and the impermeability of concrete. The re⁃search results provide reference for reasonable values of mechanical parameters of concrete after chemical grouting.%混凝土拱坝、重力坝等的大体积混凝土在浇筑过程中产生的温度裂缝可能会成为大坝的安全隐患,尤其会降低大坝混凝土的抗拉、抗剪力学性能,影响大坝的长期稳定性和降低大坝的寿命。某水电站在大体积混凝土浇筑过程中,部分坝段受温度影响,形成一些贯通裂缝。采用该水电站大坝坝体的裂缝灌浆材料,在室内进行了无缝本体混凝土芯样抗剪试验、

  12. Fate of Contaminants in Contact with West Valley Grouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhrmann,M.; Gillow, J.

    2009-07-01

    as contaminants are exposed to evolving chemistry in the grout. Still other solid phases may form from reactions between the waste and grout components, not only the cementitious materials, but also the additives used in the grout. Another process that may exert some control on contaminant concentrations is adsorption onto solids within the grout. These may be additives such as the fluorapatite or zeolite that are substantial percentages of the grouts or they may be minerals, typically Ca-Al-Si materials, that form in the grout system as cement sets. In addition, as the grout weathers over time, CaCO{sub 3} minerals, such as calcite and aragonite, will form as a rind on the grout and as a fracture filling mineral. Some contaminants are likely to be incorporated into these minerals, to a greater or lesser extent, as they precipitate. For some elements, such as U, there is a significant literature exploring the incorporation into CaCO{sub 3}, but for others there is essentially no information. This is also the case for much of the chemical regime of the grouts. Initial conditions are at pH values around 12 and information is often sparse.

  13. Grout performance in support of in situ grouting of the TH4 tank sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, R.D.; Kauschinger, J.L.; Spence, R.D.

    1999-04-01

    The cold demonstration test proved that less water was required to pump the in situ grout formulation than had been previously tested in the laboratory. The previous in situ grout formulation was restandardized with the same relative amounts of dry blend ingredients, albeit adding a fluidized admixture, but specifying less water for the slurry mix that must by pumped through the nozzles at high pressure. Also, the target GAAT tank for demonstrating this is situ grouting technique has been shifted to Tank TH4. A chemical surrogate sludge for TH4 was developed and tested in the laboratory, meeting expectations for leach resistance and strenght at 35 wt % sludge loading. It addition, a sample of hot TH4 sludge was also tested at 35 wt % sludge loading and proved to have superior strength and leach resistance compared with the surrogate test.

  14. Grout for closure of the demonstration vault at the US DOE Hanford Facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeley, L.D.; Ernzen, J.J.

    1992-08-01

    The Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout to be used as a cold- (nonradioactive) cap or void-fill grout between the solidified low-level waste and the cover blocks of a demonstration vault for disposal of phosphate-sulfate waste (PSW) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Facility. The project consisted of formulation and evaluation of candidate grouts and selection of the best candidate grout, followed by a physical scale-model test to verify grout performance under project-specific conditions. Further, the project provided data to verify numerical models (accomplished elsewhere) of stresses and isotherms inside the Hanford demonstration vault. Evaluation of unhardened grout included obtaining data on segregation, bleeding, flow, and working time. For hardened grout, strength, volume stability, temperature rise, and chemical compatibility with surrogate wasteform grout were examined. The grout was formulated to accommodate unique environmental boundary conditions (vault temperature = 45 C) and exacting regulatory requirements (mandating less than 0.1% shrinkage with no expansion and no bleeding); and to remain pumpable for a minimum of 2 hr. A grout consisting of API Class H oil-well cement, an ASTM C 618 Class F fly ash, sodium bentonite clay, and a natural sand from the Hanford area met performance requirements in laboratory studies. It is recommended for use in the DOE Hanford demonstration PSW vault.

  15. 某水电站f18断层水泥+化学浆液复合灌浆施工%Compound grouting using cement+ chemical slurry for the f18 fault of a hydropower station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贡建兵; 李焰

    2014-01-01

    某水电站一断层贯穿坝基上下游,在河床上游与水库联系,且断层及下盘煌斑岩脉岩体破碎、性状差,在水库运行期长期高压水渗透作用下,可能发生逐渐软化、泥化现象,形成渗漏通道,导致坝体局部开裂。为了提高该断层的抗渗、抗变形能力等,在断层区域布置了水泥+化学浆液灌浆孔进行复合灌浆补强处理。介绍了灌浆施工技术及类似工程可以借鉴的工艺方法。%A fault penetrates the dam foundation and connects reservoir at the upstream river bed. As the broken rock and poor performance of the fault and the lamprophyre underneath, argillization and soft-ening may occur with long-term seepage of high-pressure water. This may form a seepage passage in-side the dam body and cause cracks. To improve the resistance of seepage and deformation of the fault, compound grouting using cement+chemical slurry was carried out. This paper introduced the grouting construction, for reference.

  16. GROUT HOPPER MODELING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2011-08-30

    The Saltstone facility has a grout hopper tank to provide agitator stirring of the Saltstone feed materials. The tank has about 300 gallon capacity to provide a larger working volume for the grout slurry to be held in case of a process upset, and it is equipped with a mechanical agitator, which is intended to keep the grout in motion and agitated so that it won't start to set up. The dry feeds and the salt solution are already mixed in the mixer prior to being transferred to the hopper tank. The hopper modeling study through this work will focus on fluid stirring and agitation, instead of traditional mixing in the literature, in order to keep the tank contents in motion during their residence time so that they will not be upset or solidified prior to transferring the grout to the Saltstone disposal facility. The primary objective of the work is to evaluate the flow performance for mechanical agitators to prevent vortex pull-through for an adequate stirring of the feed materials and to estimate an agitator speed which provides acceptable flow performance with a 45{sup o} pitched four-blade agitator. In addition, the power consumption required for the agitator operation was estimated. The modeling calculations were performed by taking two steps of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach. As a first step, a simple single-stage agitator model with 45{sup o} pitched propeller blades was developed for the initial scoping analysis of the flow pattern behaviors for a range of different operating conditions. Based on the initial phase-1 results, the phase-2 model with a two-stage agitator was developed for the final performance evaluations. A series of sensitivity calculations for different designs of agitators and operating conditions have been performed to investigate the impact of key parameters on the grout hydraulic performance in a 300-gallon hopper tank. For the analysis, viscous shear was modeled by using the Bingham plastic approximation

  17. Penetration grouting reinforcement of sandy gravel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ping; PENG Zhen-bin; TANG Yi-qun; PENG Wen-xiang; HE Zhong-ming

    2008-01-01

    To study the relationship between grouting effect and grouting factors, three factors (seven parameters) directionless pressure and small cycle grouting model experiment on sandy gravel was done, which was designed according to uniform design method. And regressing was applied to analysis of the test data. The two models test results indicate that when the diffusing radius of grout changes from 26 to 51 era, the grouted sandy gravel compressing strength changes fTom 2.13 to 12.30 MPa; the relationship between diffusing radius(R) and water cement ratio(m), permeability coefficient(k), grouting pressure(p), grouting time(t) is R=19.953m0.121k0.429p0.412t0.437, the relationship between compressing strength(P) and porosity(n), water cement ratio, grouting pressure, grouting time is P=0.984n0.517m-1.488p0.118t0.031.So the porosity of sandy gravel, the permeability coefficient of sandy gravel, grouting pressure, grouting time, water cement ratio are main factors to influence the grouting effect. The grouting pressure is the main factor to influence grouting diffusing radius, and the water cement ratio is the main factor to influence grouted sandy gravel compressing strength.

  18. Predicting the Grouting Ability of Sandy Soils by Artificial Neural Networks Based On Experimental Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Hassanlourad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the grouting ability of sandy soils is investigated by artificial neural networks based on the results of chemical grout injection tests. In order to evaluate the soil grouting potential, experimental samples were prepared and then injected. The sand samples with three different particle sizes (medium, fine, and silty and three relative densities (%30, %50, and %90 were injected with the sodium silicate grout with three different concentrations (water to sodium silicate ratio of 0.33, 1, and 2. A multi-layer Perceptron type of the artificial neural network was trained and tested using the results of 138 experimental tests. The multi-layer Perceptron included one input layer, two hidden layers and one output layer. The input parameters consisted of initial relative densities of grouted samples, the average size of particles (D50, the ratio of the grout water to sodium silicate and the grout pressure. The output parameter was the grout injection radius. The results of the experimental tests showed that the radius of grout injection is a complicated function of the mentioned parameters. In addition, the results of the trained artificial neural network showed to be reasonably consistent with the experimental results.

  19. Grout testing and characterization for shallow-land burial trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallent, O.K.; Sams, T.L.; Tamura, T.; Godsey, T.T.; Francis, C.L.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1986-10-01

    An investigation was conducted to develop grout formulations suitable for in situ stabilization of low-level and transuranic (TRU) waste in shallow-land burial trenches at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The acceptabilities of soil, ordinary particulate, and fine particulate grouts were evaluated based on phase separation, compressive strength, freeze/thaw, penetration resistance, rheological, water permeability, column, and other tests. Soil grouts with soil-to-cement weight ratios from 0.91 to 1.60 were found to be suitable for open trench or drum disposal. Ordinary particulate grouts containing type I,II Portland cement, class C fly ash, bentonite, water, and a fluidizer were formulated to fill large voids within the soil/waste matrix of a closed shallow-land burial trench. Fine particulate grouts containing fine (mean particle size, 9.6 m) cement and water were formulated to fill smaller voids and to establish a grout-soil barrier to prevent water intrusion into the grouted waste trench. Solution, or chemical grouts, were evaluated as possible substitutes for the fine particulate grouts.

  20. Leach test of cladding removal waste grout using Hanford groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; Legore, V.L.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes laboratory experiments performed during 1986-1990 designed to produce empirical leach rate data for cladding removal waste (CRW) grout. At the completion of the laboratory work, funding was not available for report completion, and only now during final grout closeout activities is the report published. The leach rates serve as inputs to computer codes used in assessing the potential risk from the migration of waste species from disposed grout. This report discusses chemical analyses conducted on samples of CRW grout, and the results of geochemical computer code calculations that help identify mechanisms involved in the leaching process. The semi-infinite solid diffusion model was selected as the most representative model for describing leaching of grouts. The use of this model with empirically derived leach constants yields conservative predictions of waste release rates, provided no significant changes occur in the grout leach processes over long time periods. The test methods included three types of leach tests--the American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 intermittent solution exchange test, a static leach test, and a once-through flow column test. The synthetic CRW used in the tests was prepared in five batches using simulated liquid waste spiked with several radionuclides: iodine ({sup 125}I), carbon ({sup 14}C), technetium ({sup 99}Tc), cesium ({sup 137}Cs), strontium ({sup 85}Sr), americium ({sup 241}Am), and plutonium ({sup 238}Pu). The grout was formed by mixing the simulated liquid waste with dry blend containing Type I and Type II Portland cement, class F fly ash, Indian Red Pottery clay, and calcium hydroxide. The mixture was allowed to set and cure at room temperature in closed containers for at least 46 days before it was tested.

  1. Rock fracture grouting with microbially induced carbonate precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minto, James M.; MacLachlan, Erica; El Mountassir, Gráinne; Lunn, Rebecca J.

    2016-11-01

    Microbially induced carbonate precipitation has been proposed for soil stabilization, soil strengthening, and permeability reduction as an alternative to traditional cement and chemical grouts. In this paper, we evaluate the grouting of fine aperture rock fractures with calcium carbonate, precipitated through urea hydrolysis, by the bacteria Sporosarcina pasteurii. Calcium carbonate was precipitated within a small-scale and a near field-scale (3.1 m2) artificial fracture consisting of a rough rock lower surfaces and clear polycarbonate upper surfaces. The spatial distribution of the calcium carbonate precipitation was imaged using time-lapse photography and the influence on flow pathways revealed from tracer transport imaging. In the large-scale experiment, hydraulic aperture was reduced from 276 to 22 μm, corresponding to a transmissivity reduction of 1.71 × 10-5 to 8.75 × 10-9 m2/s, over a period of 12 days under constantly flowing conditions. With a modified injection strategy a similar three orders of magnitude reduction in transmissivity was achieved over a period of 3 days. Calcium carbonate precipitated over the entire artificial fracture with strong adhesion to both upper and lower surfaces and precipitation was controlled to prevent clogging of the injection well by manipulating the injection fluid velocity. These experiments demonstrate that microbially induced carbonate precipitation can successfully be used to grout a fracture under constantly flowing conditions and may be a viable alternative to cement based grouts when a high level of hydraulic sealing is required and chemical grouts when a more durable grout is required.

  2. Environmental Assessment of Selected Cone Penetrometer Grouts and a Tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Geocem Section II-Chemical Data Chemical family: Calcium Salts Formula: Grout cement consists of finely ground portland cement clinker and limestone...Portland cement clinker is a sintered material produced by heating to high temperature (greater than 1200 degrees Celsius) a mixture of substances...provided by burning fossil fuels, trace , but detectable, amounts of naturally occurring, and possible harmful, elements may be found during chemical

  3. Grouted Pile and Its Bearing Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The grouting method applied in bored pile is an improvement to the conventional bored pile. Load tests have proved that grouting under the bored pile tip is an effective method to enhance the bearing capacity of the pile and to reduce the pile settlement. In this paper, the grouting technology is described and pile-load test results are discussed. In order to put the grouting method into design practice, the authors analyze the working mechanism of soil compaction. And, based on the theory of cavities expansion in soil mass, approximate formulae are proposed for estimating the bearing capacity of the grouted pile. The theoretical prediction agrees well with the load test results.

  4. Laboratory leach tests of phosphate/sulfate waste grout and leachate adsorption tests using Hanford sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; McLaurine, S.B.; Airhart, S.P.; LeGore, V.L.; Treat, R.L.

    1987-12-01

    An assessment of the long-term risks posed by grout disposal at Hanford requires data on the ability of grout to resist leaching of waste species contained in the grout via contact with water that percolates through the ground. Additionally, data are needed on the ability of Hanford sediment (soil) surrounding the grout and concrete vault to retard migration of any wastes released from the grout. This report describes specific laboratory experiments that are producing empirical leach rate data and leachate-sediment adsorption data for Phosphate-Sulfate Waste (PSW) grout. The leach rate and adsorption values serve as inputs to computer codes used to forecast potential risk resulting from the use of ground water containing leached species. In addition, the report discusses other chemical analyses and geochemical computer code calculations that were used to identify mechanisms that control leach rates and adsorption potential. Knowledge of the controlling chemical and physical processes provides technical defensibility for using the empirical laboratory data to extrapolate the performance of the actual grout disposal system to the long time periods of interest. 59 refs., 83 figs., 18 tabs.

  5. Grouted Connections with Shear Keys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ronnie; Jørgensen, M. B.; Damkilde, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a finite element model in the software package ABAQUS in which a reliable analysis of grouted pile-to-sleeve connections with shear keys is the particular purpose. The model is calibrated to experimental results and a consistent set of input parameters is estimated so...

  6. Grouting for Pile Foundation Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Stoel, A.E.C.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the use of grouting methods for pile foundation improvement, a generic term that is used here to define both foundation renovation (increasing the bearing capacity of a pile foundation that has insufficient bearing capacity) and foundation protection (safeguar

  7. CsIX/TRU Grout Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. J. Losinski; C. M. Barnes; B. K. Grover

    1998-11-01

    A settlement agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Idaho mandates that liquid waste now stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC - formerly the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, ICPP) will be calcined by the end of year 2012. This study investigates an alternative treatment of the liquid waste that removes undissolved solids (UDS) by filtration and removes cesium by ion exchange followed by cement-based grouting of the remaining liquid into 55-gal drums. Operations are assumed to be from January 2008 through December 2012. The grouted waste will be contact-handled and will be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico for disposal. The small volume of secondary wastes such as the filtered solids and cesium sorbent (resin) would remain in storage at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for treatment and disposal under another project, with an option to dispose of the filtered solids as a r emote-handled waste at WIPP.

  8. Real-Time Grouting Monitoring and Visualization Analysis System for Dam Foundation Curtain Grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊贵超; 钟登华; 任炳昱; 崔博; 李晓超; 岳攀

    2016-01-01

    A real-time monitoring and 3D visualization analysis system is proposed for dam foundation curtain grouting. Based on the real-time control technology, the optimization method and the set theory, a mathematical model of the system is established. The real-time collection and transmission technology of the grouting data pro-vides a data foundation for the system. The real-time grouting monitoring and dynamic alarming method helps the system control the grouting quality during the grouting process, thus, the abnormalities of grouting, such as jacking and hydraulic uplift, can be effectively controlled. In addition, the 3D grouting visualization analysis technology is proposed to establish the grouting information model(GIM). The GIM provides a platform to visualize and ana-lyze the grouting process and results. The system has been applied to a hydraulic project of China as a case study, and the application results indicate that the real-time grouting monitoring and 3D visualization analysis for the grouting process can help engineers control the grouting quality more efficiently.

  9. CONSIDERATIONS FOR GROUT FORMULATIONS FOR FACILITY CLOSURES USING IN SITU STRATEGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, J.; Serrato, M.; Langton, C.; Long, T.; Blankenship, J.; Hannah, G.; Stubblefield, R.; Szilagyi, A.

    2010-08-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting in situ closures (entombment) at a large number of facilities throughout the complex. Among the largest closure actions currently underway are the closures of the P and R Reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. In these facilities, subgrade open spaces are being stabilized with grout; this ensures the long term structural integrity of the facilities and permanently immobilizes and isolates residual contamination. The large size and structural complexity of these facilities present a wide variety of challenges for the identification and selection of appropriate fill materials. Considerations for grout formulations must account for flowability, long term stability, set times, heat generation and interactions with materials within the structure. The large size and configuration of the facility necessitates that grout must be pumped from the exterior to the spaces to be filled, which requires that the material must retain a high degree of flowability to move through piping without clogging while achieving the required leveling properties at the pour site. Set times and curing properties must be controlled to meet operations schedules, while not generating sufficient heat to compromise the properties of the fill material. The properties of residual materials can result in additional requirements for grout formulations. If significant quantities of aluminum are present in the facility, common formulations of highly alkaline grouts may not be appropriate because of the potential for hydrogen generation with the resultant risks. SRS is developing specialized inorganic grout formulations that are designed to address this issue. One circum-neutral chemical grout formulation identified for initial consideration did not possess the proper chemical characteristics, having exceptionally short set times and high heat of hydration. Research efforts are directed toward developing grout formulations

  10. Investigation of a Hardened Cement Paste Grout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteves, Luis Pedro; Sørensen, Eigil Verner

    This report documents a series of tests performed on a hardened cement paste grout delivered by the client, Det Norske Veritas A/S.......This report documents a series of tests performed on a hardened cement paste grout delivered by the client, Det Norske Veritas A/S....

  11. Compensation Grouting in Sand: Experiments, Field Experiences and Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezuijen, A.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis reports on experimental research on compensation grouting in sand. It is investigated in model tests, how the shape of the grout bodies made during injection depends on the grout properties, the density of the sand and the way the tubes are installed. The shape of the grout body affects

  12. Development of a technical approach for assessing environmental release and migration characteristics of Hanford Grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Treat, R. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lokken, R. O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    1985-09-01

    A Transportable Grout Facility is being constructed at the Hanford Site to immobilize low-level liquid radioactive waste in grout. This report addresses the grout and sediment testing methodology that is being developed at PNL to support assessments of the long-term performance of the disposed grout. Sediment is the soil that surrounds and underlies the disposed grout. A goal of these efforts is to certify tests for application at Hanford. An assessment of the long-term risks posed by grout requires data on the ability of grout to resist leaching of wastes contained within the grout. Additionally, data are needed on the ability of the sediments to retard the mobility of any wastes released from grout. The effects of aging on the ability of grout to retain waste must also be understood. Aging of grout can reduce or enhance the ability of the grout to contain waste. Credible predictive modeling of the fate of hazardous constituents in disposed grout for periods of up to 10,000 years would best be performed using comprehensive, coupled hydrologic and chemical reaction codes based on knowledge of the mechanisms that control waste release and mobility. It is not clear yet how soon such codes will be available or which types of waste disposal options they will apply to. In the interim we must be content with simpler and separate models that address individual reactions such as leaching and adsorption. One of these models, the Semi-Infinite Solid Diffusion Leach Model, is a popular release model used to describe the leaching of grouts and other cemented waste forms. Because others have found success in describing laboratory leach experiments with cemented waste forms using this leach model and because it appears likely to err on the conservative side for the Hanford application, we currently endorse the use of this model and its supporting experimental methodology for approximations of grout waste release rates. At the present time it is believed that the leachate from

  13. Grout performance in support of in situ stabilization/solidification of the GAAT tank sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kauschinger, J. L. [Ground Environmental Services, Inc., Alpharetta, GA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The Gunite{trademark} and associated tanks (GAATs) were constructed at ORNL between 1943 and 1951 and were used for many years to collect radioactive and chemical wastes. These tanks are currently inactive. Varying amounts of the sludge were removed and disposed of through the Hydrofracture Program. Thus, some tanks are virtually empty, while others still contain significant amounts of sludge and supernatant. In situ grouting of the sludges in the tanks using multi-point injection (MPI{trademark}), a patented, proprietary technique, is being investigated as a low-cost alternative to (1) moving the sludges to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) for later solidification and disposal, (2) ex situ grouting of the sludges followed by either disposal back in the tanks or containerizing and disposal elsewhere, and (3) vitrification of the sludges. The paper discusses the chemical characteristics of the GAATs and the type of chemical surrogate that was used during the leachability tests. T his is followed by the experimental work, which, consisted of scope testing and sensitivity testing. The scope testing explored the rheology of the proposed jetting slurries and the settling properties of the proposed grouts using sand-water mixes for the wet sludge. After establishing a jetting slurry and grout with an acceptable rheology and settling properties, the proposed in situ grout formulation was subjected to sensitivity testing for variations in the formulation.

  14. Fatigue Life of High Performance Grout for Wind Turbine Grouted Connection in Wet or Dry Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.; Westhof, Luc; Yde, Elo;

    Grouted connections of monopile supported offshore wind turbine structures are subjected to loads leading to very high oscillating service stresses in the grout material. The fatigue capacity of a high performance cement based grout was tested by dynamic compressive loading of cylindrical specimens...... at varying levels of cyclic frequency and load. The fatigue tests were performed in two series: one with the specimens in air and one with the specimens submerged in water during the test. The fatigue life of the grout, in terms of the number of cycles to failure, was found to be significantly shorter when...... tested in water than when tested in air....

  15. Strength of Mock-up Trial Grout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    The present report describes tests carried out on samples taken and cast during the execution of a mock-up trial placement of the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9500 on January 21, 2009.......The present report describes tests carried out on samples taken and cast during the execution of a mock-up trial placement of the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9500 on January 21, 2009....

  16. A study of grout flow pattern analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. Y. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Hyun, S. [Mercer Univ., Macon, GA (United States)

    2013-01-10

    A new disposal unit, designated as Salt Disposal Unit no. 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt nuclear waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System plan. The unit is cylindrical disposal vault of 380 ft diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has about 30 million gallons of capacity. Primary objective was to develop the computational model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as function of elevation of grout discharge port, and slurry rheology. A Bingham plastic model was basically used to represent the grout flow behavior. A two-phase modeling approach was taken to achieve the objective. This approach assumes that the air-grout interface determines the shape of the accumulation mound. The results of this study were used to develop the design guidelines for the discharge ports of the Saltstone feed materials in the SDU6 facility. The focusing areas of the modeling study are to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor under the baseline modeling conditions, to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation of discharge port, discharge pipe diameter, and grout properties, and to determine the changes in grout density as it is related to grout drop height. An axi-symmetric two-phase modeling method was used for computational efficiency. Based on the nominal design and operating conditions, a transient computational approach was taken to compute flow fields mainly driven by pumping inertia and natural gravity. Detailed solution methodology and analysis results are discussed here.

  17. Fatigue Life of High Performance Grout in Dry and Wet Environment for Wind Turbine Grouted Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    2011-01-01

    The cementitious material in grouted connections of offshore monopile wind turbine structures is subjected to very high oscillating service stresses. The fatigue capacity of the grout therefore becomes essential to the performance and service life of the grouted connection. In the present work...... the fatigue life of a high performance cement based grout was tested by dynamic compressive loading of cylindrical specimens at varying levels of cyclic frequency and load. The fatigue tests were performed in two series, one with the specimens tested in air and one with the specimens submerged in water during...... the test. The fatigue life of the grout, in terms of the number of cycles to failure, was found to be significantly shorter when tested in water than when tested in air, particularly at low frequency....

  18. Formulation and Analysis of Compliant Grouted Waste Forms for SHINE Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, William [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heltemes, Thad A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Youker, Amanda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakhtang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Optional grouted waste forms were formulated for waste streams generated during the production of 99Mo to be compliant with low-level radioactive waste regulations. The amounts and dose rates of the various waste form materials that would be generated annually were estimated and used to determine the effects of various waste processing options, such as the of number irradiation cycles between uranium recovery operations, different combinations of waste streams, and removal of Pu, Cs, and Sr from waste streams for separate disposition (which is not evaluated in this report). These calculations indicate that Class C-compliant grouted waste forms can be produced for all waste streams. More frequent uranium recovery results in the generation of more chemical waste, but this is balanced by the fact that waste forms for those waste streams can accommodate higher waste loadings, such that similar amounts of grouted waste forms are required regardless of the recovery schedule. Similar amounts of grouted waste form are likewise needed for the individual and combined waste streams. Removing Pu, Cs, and Sr from waste streams lowers the waste form dose significantly at times beyond about 1 year after irradiation, which may benefit handling and transport. Although these calculations should be revised after experimentally optimizing the grout formulations and waste loadings, they provide initial guidance for process development.

  19. Rheology of sludge-slurry grouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, E. W.

    1980-10-01

    A series of rheograms was developed that relates the critical velocity (velocity where flow changes from laminar to turbulent) of a cementitious grout that incorporates a suspended sludge-slurry to the critical velocity of a reference grout made with a simulated waste solution. The sludge that is now in the Gunite waste tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be suspended and pumped to the new waste storage tanks in Melton Valley. The sludge will then be blended with a cement mix base to form a grout which will be injected underground by the shale fracturing process. This report describes the materials, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory studies to suspend sludges and mix sludge-slurry grouts that have flow properties similar to those of current shale fracturing grouts. Bentonite clay is an effective suspender in dilute NaNO/sub 3/ solutions; 15 wt % solids can be suspended with 2.0 wt % bentonite in a 0.1 M NaNO/sub 3/ solution. Other suspending materials were evaluated, but bentonite gave the best results. If a slurry grout becomes too viscous to pump, methods must be available to thin the mixture. A number of thinners, friction reducers, and plasticizers were examined. Q-Broxin, a thinner supplied by Baroid, reduced the velocity of a grout required for turbulent flow in a 5.0-cm (2-in.)-diam tube from 1.76 to 1.20 m/s (5.79 to 3.95 ft/s); FX-32C, a plasticizer supplied by Fox Industries, Inc., reduced the velocity from 1.76 to 0.75 m/s (5.6 to 2.45 ft/s).

  20. Test plan for formulation and evaluation of grouted waste forms with shine process wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jerden, J. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this experimental project is to demonstrate that waste streams generated during the production of Mo99 by the SHINE Medical Technologies (SHINE) process can be immobilized in cement-based grouted waste forms having physical, chemical, and radiological stabilities that meet regulatory requirements for handling, storage, transport, and disposal.

  1. Microbial analyses of cement and grouting additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, L.; Jaegevall, S.; Paeaejaervi, A.; Rabe, L.; Edlund, J.; Eriksson, S. [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden)

    2012-01-15

    During sampling in the ONKALO tunnel in 2006, heavy growth of a slimy material was observed in connection with grouting. It was suggested to be microbial growth on organic additives leaching from the grout. Two sampling campaigns resulted in the isolation of several aerobic bacterial strains. Some of these strains were used in biodegradation studies of three solid cement powders, eight liquid grout additives, and six plastic drainage materials. Degradation was also studied using ONKALO groundwaters as inoculums. The isolated strains were most closely related to hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms. The biodegradation of seven of the products was tested using microorganisms isolated from the ONKALO slime in 2006; none of these strains could degrade the tested products. When ONKALO drillhole groundwaters were used as inoculums in the degradation studies, it was demonstrated that Structuro 111X, Mighty 150, and Super-Parmix supported growth of the groundwater microorganisms. Structuro 111X is a polycarboxylate condensate while Mighty 150 and Super-Parmix are condensates with formaldehyde and naphthalene. Some of the isolated microorganisms belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, many strains of which can degrade organic molecules. None of the plastic drainage materials supported growth during the degradation studies. Microorganisms were present in two of the liquid products when delivered, GroutAid and Super-Parmix. The potential of the organic compounds in grout additives to be degraded by microorganisms, increasing the risk of biofilm formation and complexing compound production, must be considered. Microbial growth will also increase the possibility of hydrogen sulphide formation. (orig.)

  2. Mechanical Properties of High Cementitious Grout (I)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

     The present report describes tests carried out on the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9500, marked WMG 7145 FP, developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....... The present report describes tests carried out on the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9500, marked WMG 7145 FP, developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....

  3. TANKS 18 AND 19-F EQUIPMENT GROUT FILL MATERIAL EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D.; Langton, C.

    2011-12-15

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) intends to remove Tanks 18-F and 19-F at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from service. The high-level waste (HLW) tanks have been isolated from the F-area Tank Farm (FTF) facilities and will be filled with cementitious grout for the purpose of: (1) physically stabilizing the empty volumes in the tanks, (2) limiting/eliminating vertical pathways from the surface to residual waste on the bottom of the tanks, (3) providing an intruder barrier, and (4) providing an alkaline, chemical reducing environment within the closure boundary to limit solubility of residual radionuclides. Bulk waste and heel waste removal equipment will remain in Tanks 18-F and 19-F when the tanks are closed. This equipment includes: mixer pumps, transfer pumps, transfer jets, equipment support masts, sampling masts and dip tube assemblies. The current Tank 18-F and 19-F closure strategy is to grout the internal void spaces in this equipment to eliminate fast vertical pathways and slow water infiltration to the residual material on the tank floor. This report documents the results of laboratory testing performed to identify a grout formulation for filling the abandoned equipment in Tanks 18-F and 19-F. The objective of this work was to formulate a flowable grout for filling internal voids of equipment that will remain in Tanks 18-F and 19-F during the final closures. This work was requested by V. A. Chander, Tank Farm Closure Engineering, in HLW-TTR-2011-008. The scope for this task is provided in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), SRNL-RP-2011-00587. The specific objectives of this task were to: (1) Prepare and evaluate the SRR cooling coil grout identified in WSRC-STI-2008-00298 per the TTR for this work. The cooling coil grout is a mixture of BASF MasterFlow{reg_sign} 816 cable grout (67.67 wt. %), Grade 100 ground granulated blast furnace slag (7.52 wt. %) and water (24.81 wt. %); (2) Identify equipment grout placement and

  4. Characterization of hydrofracture grouts for radionuclide migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, D.P.; McDaniel, E.W.; Weeren, H.O.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed characterization of hydrofracture grouts was performed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and ..beta..-..gamma.. autoradiography. Laboratory-produced samples containing simulated wastes as well as actual radioactive samples of hydrofracture grout sheets obtained by core drilling were examined in this work. X-ray diffraction results revealed that both laboratory-produced samples and a core-drilled sample consisted primarily of calcium carbonate phases. Both sample types contained very small amounts of strontium or cesium wastes, neither of which could be detected by microscopic techniques. The core-drilled sample contained radioactive /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 60/Co that could be detected by ..beta..-..gamma.. autoradiography. The autoradiograph revealed that these radionuclides were still present in the 20-year-old grout and that they had not migrated into the trapped shale fragments.

  5. Grout cement. ; Grout cement to fill ground/grout cement to fill cracks. Chunyuyo cement. ; Jiban chunyuyo cement /hibiware chunyuyo cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okaue, H. (Nittetsu Cement Co. Ltd., Hokkaido (Japan))

    1991-09-01

    Ground grout cement is grouted into the ground under high pressure in high water ratio (100 to 1000%) in the form of milk differing from concrete in terms of the water-cement ratio. The grouted milk is governed by characteristics of the cement the milk itself possesses, resulting in variable grouting modes, which are divided in fracture grouting, permeation grouting and boundary grouting. Their applications include cutting off of water in dams, ground reinforcement, prevention of water gushing in tunnel excavation, natural ground reinforcement, improvement of sandy soil and prevention of its collapse, and stabilization of ground for urban civil engineering works such as subway, water supply and sewerage constructions. Grout cement to fill cracks in concrete structures is so grouted into cracks that the slurry fills up contiguous cracks to a certain level and goes upward while pushing out air or water existing in the cracks. The slurry filled into the cracks solidifies and hardens while being absorbed into the concrete, and finally integrates with the concrete. The grout cement is used to rework such concrete structures as dams, tunnels, and bridge bases. 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Research on method of pressure grouting piling of driven tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianqi PAN; Zupei ZHANG; Diancai PAN; Yong CHEN; Maosen TAN

    2006-01-01

    The pressure grouting pile of driven tube can improve the load bearing capacity of the single pile from the mechanism of pressure grouting pile of driven tube. On the basis of analyzing the mechanism, the authors designed the machines and tools of pressure grouting, determined the operating manufacture and technology parameter on the pressure grouting secondly. The result shows that the pressure grouting pile of driven tube not only changes the pile type but also reduce the length of the pile and its engineering cost, it enhances the load bearing capacity of single pile an the same time.

  7. Grouting of fly ash in sanitary landfills; Injektering av flygaska i hushaallsavfallsdeponi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockhom (Sweden); Andreas, Lale; Lagerkvist, Anders [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Jannes, Sara; Tham, Gustav [Telge Aatervinning AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for stabilization of sanitary landfills by injecting fly ash. The method is supposed to prevent differential settlements in landfills and by that to counteract damages in the final cover. Injecting fly ash may also affect the chemical development in a positive way and prevent metal leaching. Pilot experiments at the Tveta waste recycling center (Tveta Aatervinningsanlaeggning) have been performed in order to estimate if the grouting technology is a suitable method for sanitary landfills. Fly ashes from the combustion of bio fuels were used in these tests. A literature study and laboratory experiments in order to prepare the field experiments were also part of the project. About 100 tons of ash slurry were injected during the pilot experiments. This corresponds to a filling degree of approximately 12-16 % of the available pores in the landfill body. As a result of the pilot test, the following conclusions can be drawn: Ash can be mixed with water to a pumpable slurry which can be injected without hardening inside the equipment. Neither the waste nor the grouting material caused a backpressure during the injection and nothing indicates that the injected ash deforms the landfilled waste. The ash-water-slurry flows through the voids in the waste easily. Thus, the ash may dispread quite far from the injection holes. Using a more powerful equipment backpressure and movements in the waste might occur. It was not possible to estimate the flow required for backpressure in this study. Large variations are possible but for safety reasons the maximal pressure should be limited with regard to the expected stability in the actual area. The grouted ash will harden within the landfill body within a couple of days. It accumulates in hard but brittle lumps, which may result in an increased stability of the landfill. Further studies are necessary in order to evaluate how the stability is affected and what amounts of ash are

  8. Influence Mechanism of Grouting on Mechanical Characteristics of Rock Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jixun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouting technology has been widely used in all fields of geotechnical and civil engineering. Prospective engineering objectives including reinforcement of rock mass and groundwater leakage treatment can be achieved by grouting which will change the mechanical parameters of rock mass such as strength, elastic modulus, and coefficient of permeability. In this paper, rock mass is assumed as a composite material consisting of rock particles and random microcracks initially. Since part or all of the cracks will be filled with cement slurry after grouting, rock mass consists of rock particles, grout condensate, and some or no random microcracks after grouting. The damage constitutional law of the mesoscopic element is established based on the theory of mesoscopic damage mechanics. With the heterogeneity of the components of rock mass considered, the variation of mechanical characteristics of rock mass is studied before and after grouting. And the influence mechanism of grouting on rock mass is investigated at mesoscale level.

  9. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  10. ELAWD GROUT HOPPER MOCK-UP TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickenheim, B.; Hansen, E.; Leishear, R.; Marzolf, A.; Reigel, M.

    2011-10-27

    A 10-inch READCO mixer is used for mixing the premix (45 (wt%) fly ash, 45 wt% slag, and 10 wt% portland cement) with salt solution in the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). The Saltstone grout free falls into the grout hopper which feeds the suction line leading to the Watson SPX 100 duplex hose pump. The Watson SPX 100 pumps the grout through approximately 1500 feet of piping prior to being discharged into the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) vaults. The existing grout hopper has been identified by the Saltstone Enhanced Low Activity Waste Disposal (ELAWD) project for re-design. The current nominal working volume of this hopper is 12 gallons and does not permit handling an inadvertent addition of excess dry feeds. Saltstone Engineering has proposed a new hopper tank that will have a nominal working volume of 300 gallons and is agitated with a mechanical agitator. The larger volume hopper is designed to handle variability in the output of the READCO mixer and process upsets without entering set back during processing. The objectives of this task involve scaling the proposed hopper design and testing the scaled hopper for the following processing issues: (1) The effect of agitation on radar measurement. Formation of a vortex may affect the ability to accurately measure the tank level. The agitator was run at varying speeds and with varying grout viscosities to determine what parameters cause vortex formation and whether measurement accuracy is affected. (2) A dry feeds over addition. Engineering Calculating X-ESR-Z-00017 1 showed that an additional 300 pounds of dry premix added to a 300 gallon working volume would lower the water to premix ratio (W/P) from the nominal 0.60 to 0.53 based on a Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) salt simulant. A grout with a W/P of 0.53 represents the upper bound of grout rheology that could be processed at the facility. A scaled amount of dry feeds will be added into the hopper to verify that this is a recoverable situation

  11. In-situ grouting of uranium-mill-tailings piles: an assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, T.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Passage in 1978 of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) initiated a program of remedial action for 22 existing mill tailings piles generated in the period 1940 to 1970 as part of the nation's defense and nuclear power programs. The presence of these piles poses potential health and environmental contamination concerns. Possible remedial actions proposed include multilayer covers over the piles to reduce water infiltration, reduce radon gas releases, and reduce airborne transport of tailings fines. In addition, suggested remedial actions include (1) the use of liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles and (2) chemical stabilization of the tailings to retain the radioactive and nonradioactive sources of contamination. Lining of the piles would normally be applicable only to piles that are to be moved from their present location such that the liner could be placed between the tailings and the groundwater. However, by using civil engineering techniques developed for grouting rocks and soils for strength and water control, it may be possible to produce an in situ liner for piles that are not to be relocated. The Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office requested that ORNL assess the potential application of grouting as a remedial action. This report examines the types of grouts, the equipment available, and the costs, and assesses the possibility of applying grouting technology as a remedial action alternative for uranium mill tailings piles.

  12. Study on the characteristics of grout permeation based on cylindrical diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen-gang LI; Wen ZHAO; Yun-sheng HUANG; Yun-xia LEI; Long-mei YU

    2013-01-01

    Permeation grouting is widely applied for its low grouting pressure and minor disturbance to the stratum in grouting engineering,especially in engineering with strict requirements on ground settlement.However,permeation grouting theory lags behind compared with other engineering disciplines,and the theoretical formulas now available cannot accurately be used to guide grouting engineering design and predict the cost and effects of grouting due to many factors affecting grout permeation in stratum.In this study,permeation grouting experiment devices were independently manufactured with the characteristics of easily controlling grouting pressure,simulating sandy strata grout,and detecting grouting effect.Using a uniform design,the sand consolidation agent,as grouting material,its spread in Shenyang sandy strata was tested with these experiment devices.The quantitative relations between grouting factors (grouting pressure,strata parameters,water-sand consolidation agent ratio)and grouting effects (grout spread radius,gell strength,grout amount) are obtained with regression analysis,and the influence degree of grouting factors on grouting effects is studied.

  13. Grouting Control for Deep-Water Jacket Skirt Pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing; ZHANG Jianxin; XU Lianjiang

    2006-01-01

    Deep-water jacket skirt pile grouting is a critical step in ocean platform construction. Because of the complexity of the skirt pile structure and grouting pipeline, the calculation of grouting pressure and the control of output pressure are involved. Beginning with the jacket skirt pile grouting construction scheme, grouting pressure is estimated on the basis of engineering fluid mechanics theory and variable frequency control technique. Programmable logic controller is the center of grouting pressure control system, which accomplishes the flow control of cement buffer tank water buffer tank, additive buffer tank, cement metering tank, water metering tank, additive metering tank, mixer and agitator. Based on PROFIBUS-DP network, the output pressure of the slurry pump is controlled by the inverter. This method has been applied successfully in JZ20-2 Nor. high spot jacket platform construction.

  14. Prediction of ground surface displacement caused by grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭风琪; 刘晓潭; 童无期; 单智

    2015-01-01

    Ground surface displacement caused by grouting was calculated with stochastic medium theory. Ground surface displacement was assumed to be caused by the cavity expansion of grouting, slurry seepage, and slurry contraction. A prediction method of ground surface displacement was developed. The reliability of the presented method was validated through a comparison between theoretical results and results from engineering practice. Results show that the present method is effective. The effect of parameters on uplift displacement was illustrated under different grouting conditions. Through analysis, it can be known that the ground surface uplift is mainly caused by osmosis of slurry and the primary influence angle of stratum βdetermines the influence range of surface uplift. Besides, the results show that ground surface uplift displacement decreases notably with increasing depth of the grouting cavity but it increases with increasing diffusion radius of grout and increasing grouting pressure.

  15. Pressured Grouting Method (PGM) in Pile Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兴序; 于志强; 王旭

    2002-01-01

    Application of pressured grouting method (PGM) in pile engineering can tackle problems encountered during construction of bored piles. Bearing capacity of piles can be increased through compaction of subsoils around piles. This paper reports research efforts of this technique by the pile research team in Southwest Jiaotong University in last decade with respect to the construction process, test findings, and primary research conclusions. The social-economical benefits of this method and application market in pile engineering are also analyzed.

  16. Maintenance Implementation Plan for the Grout Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoakum, A.K.

    1993-08-01

    The objective of the Maintenance Implementation Plan (MIP) is to describe how the Grout Treatment Facility will implement the requirements established by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4A, Maintenance Management Program, Chapter 2.0 Nuclear Facilities (DOE 1990). The plan provides a blueprint for a disciplined approach to implementation and compliance. Each element of the order is prioritized, categorized, and then placed into one of three phases for implementation.

  17. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩同春

    2004-01-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerization reaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reaction kinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time of calcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and an example is provided to verify the proposed formula.

  18. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩同春

    2004-01-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerizationreaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reactionkinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time ofcalcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and anexample is provided to verify the proposed formula.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION HANFORD GROUT LYSIMETER FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, G. A.

    1984-06-01

    The Hanford Grout Lysimeter Facility (HGLF) will be constructed to test the leaching and migration of radioactive and nonradioactive tracers embedded in a solidification agent (grout) under actual burial conditions in Hanford soil. Three different water treatment rates will be used: natural precipitation, 4 times and 8 times natural precipitation. Six lysimeters will be assembled. Each unit will measure 6 feet in diameter, 25 feet deep. Their construction and instrumentation will be performed during June-July, 1984 by J. A. Jones Construction Company and/or their subcontractor. The routine monitoring will be performed by Battelle staff over a 5.5 year period beginning in November 1984. The total estimated project cost will be approximately $200,000. The only anticipated environmental impact from this project will be a temporary nuisance-type local dust problem during the construction phase. This will not be a detriment to the environment. The results of dose calculations indicate that dose rates from the grouted waste cans will be quite low when the cans are covered by a meter or more of earth. Dose rates at or near the surface of the individual cans are not high enough to preclude their handling. The facility area will be fenced, posted as a radiation zone and operated under a radiation work procedure.

  20. Evaluation of the Performance of Grouting Materials for Saturated Riprap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehyeon Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four types of grout were developed to evaluate the effect of grouting of saturated riprap layers on ground water flow. The developed types of grout are divided into a quick-setting type and a general-type, and also into high and low viscosities. A number of grout tests were performed in a model acrylic chamber, 0.4 m in diameter and 2.0 m in length, for visual observation of injection. To reproduce the field flow condition of the saturated riprap layers (approach flow, the grout tests were carried out at 0 cm/s and 100 cm/s for the flow speed and 10 L/min for the grout injection speed after installing a flow injection opening on the lower part of the chamber. Based on the results of the grout tests, the injection of each grout in the saturated riprap layers was examined to find out the most effective grout.

  1. PHYSICAL PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS OF LABORATORY PREPARED SALTSTONE GROUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E.; Cozzi, A.; Edwards, T.

    2014-05-05

    The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) built two new Saltstone Disposal Units (SDU), SDU 3 and SDU 5, in 2013. The variable frequency drive (VFD) for the grout transfer hose pump tripped due to high current demand by the motor during the initial radioactive saltstone transfer to SDU 5B on 12/5/2013. This was not observed during clean cap processing on July 5, 2013 to SDU 3A, which is a slightly longer distance from the SPF than is SDU 5B. Saltstone Design Authority (SDA) is evaluating the grout pump performance and capabilities to transfer the grout processed in SPF to SDU 3/5. To assist in this evaluation, grout physical properties are required. At this time, there are no rheological data from the actual SPF so the properties of laboratory prepared samples using simulated salt solution or Tank 50 salt solution will be measured. The physical properties of grout prepared in the laboratory with de-ionized water (DI) and salt solutions were obtained at 0.60 and 0.59 water to premix (W/P) ratios, respectively. The yield stress of the DI grout was greater than any salt grout. The plastic viscosity of the DI grout was lower than all of the salt grouts (including salt grout with admixture). When these physical data were used to determine the pressure drop and fluid horsepower for steady state conditions, the salt grouts without admixture addition required a higher pressure drop and higher fluid horsepower to transport. When 0.00076 g Daratard 17/g premix was added, both the pressure drop and fluid horsepower were below that of the DI grout. Higher concentrations of Daratard 17 further reduced the pressure drop and fluid horsepower. The uncertainty in the single point Bingham Plastic parameters is + 4% of the reported values and is the bounding uncertainty. Two different mechanical agitator mixing protocols were followed for the simulant salt grout, one having a total mixing time of three minutes and the other having a time of 10 minutes. The Bingham Plastic parameters

  2. MODELING ANALYSIS FOR GROUT HOPPER WASTE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2012-01-04

    The Saltstone facility at Savannah River Site (SRS) has a grout hopper tank to provide agitator stirring of the Saltstone feed materials. The tank has about 300 gallon capacity to provide a larger working volume for the grout nuclear waste slurry to be held in case of a process upset, and it is equipped with a mechanical agitator, which is intended to keep the grout in motion and agitated so that it won't start to set up. The primary objective of the work was to evaluate the flow performance for mechanical agitators to prevent vortex pull-through for an adequate stirring of the feed materials and to estimate an agitator speed which provides acceptable flow performance with a 45{sup o} pitched four-blade agitator. In addition, the power consumption required for the agitator operation was estimated. The modeling calculations were performed by taking two steps of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach. As a first step, a simple single-stage agitator model with 45{sup o} pitched propeller blades was developed for the initial scoping analysis of the flow pattern behaviors for a range of different operating conditions. Based on the initial phase-1 results, the phase-2 model with a two-stage agitator was developed for the final performance evaluations. A series of sensitivity calculations for different designs of agitators and operating conditions have been performed to investigate the impact of key parameters on the grout hydraulic performance in a 300-gallon hopper tank. For the analysis, viscous shear was modeled by using the Bingham plastic approximation. Steady state analyses with a two-equation turbulence model were performed. All analyses were based on three-dimensional results. Recommended operational guidance was developed by using the basic concept that local shear rate profiles and flow patterns can be used as a measure of hydraulic performance and spatial stirring. Flow patterns were estimated by a Lagrangian integration technique along

  3. Evolution of technetium speciation in reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, Wayne W.; Bucher, Jerome J.; Shuh, David K.; Edelstein,Norman M.

    2003-11-24

    Cementitious waste forms (CWFs) are an important component of the strategy to immobilize high-level nuclear waste resulting from plutonium production by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant fission product of particular concern in CWFs due to the high solubility and mobility of pertechnetate, TcO4-, the stable form of technetium in aerobic environments. CWFs can more effectively immobilize 99Tc if they contain additives that reduce mobile TcO4- to immobile Tc(IV) species. Leaching of 99Tc from reducing CWFs that contain Tc(IV) is much slower than for CWFs containing TcO4-. Previous X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies showed that the Tc(IV) species were oxidized to TcO4- in reducing grout samples prepared on a laboratory scale. Whether the oxidizer was atmospheric O2 or NO3- in the waste simulant was not determined. In actual CWFs, rapid oxidation of Tc(IV) by NO3- would be a concern, whereas oxidation by atmospheric O2 would be of less concern due to the slow diffusion and reaction of O2 with the reducing CWF. To address this uncertainty, two series of reducing grouts were prepared using TcO4- containing waste simulants with and without NO3-. In the first series of samples, the TcO4- was completely reduced using Na2S, and the samples were placed in containers that permitted O2 diffusion. In these samples, all of the technetium was initially present as aTc(IV) sulfide compound, TcSx, which was characterized using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and is likely Tc2S7. The TcSx initially present in the grout samples was steadily oxidized over 4 years. In the second series of samples, all of the TcO4- was not initially reduced, and the grout samples were placed in airtight containers. In these samples, the remaining TcO4- continued to be reduced as the samples aged, presumably due to the presence of reducing blast furnace slag. When samples in the second series were exposed to atmosphere, the

  4. Latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried transuranic/mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.L.

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven national Laboratory was requested to investigate latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried TRU/mixed waste for INEL. The waste exists in shallow trenches that were backfilled with soil. The objective was to formulate latex-modified grouts for use with the jet grouting technique to enable in-situ stabilization of buried waste. The stabilized waste was either to be left in place or retrieved for further processing. Grouting prior to retrieval reduces the potential release of contaminants. Rheological properties of latex-modified grouts were investigated and compared with those of conventional neat cement grouts used for jet grouting.

  5. Review of results from SKB R and D on grouting technology for sealing the rock, years 1996-2000; Oeversikt av resuItat fraan SKB:s FoU inom injekteringsteknik foer bergtaetning aaren 1996-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, A. (ed.) [Swedpower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Eklund, D. [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Eriksson, Magnus [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. Soil and Rock Mechanics; Fransson, Aasa [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Inst. of Geology; Hansson, Paer [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Lagerblad, B. [Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Lindblom, U. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Geotechnical Engineering; Wilen, P. [Swedpower AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2001-05-01

    In order identify the current state of the art and developments needs, SKB assembled a group of experts from universities and other research organisations. Internal plans were written for the subprojects 'Characterisation of rock for grouting purposes', 'Mechanisms that control the spreading of grout in jointed rock' and 'Cement based grouting material'. Later internal plans for the subprojects 'Demands on grouting' and 'Stabilising and sealing effect of pre-grouting' were written. The aims, which were set for the different subprojects, were in short, to summarise the technological advances, establish a method for rock characterisation from a grouting point of view, develop conceptual and numerical models for simulation of the grouting course, characterise grout in a relevant way, develop understanding and theoretical know-how of durability and chemical influence, identify and develop a number of grouting materials for different situations, develop a specification of requirements for grouting and to verify the theories in laboratory. In the subproject 'Demands on grouting' a literature review was carried out. One important conclusion from the study is that the concept is not very well dealt with in the literature. SKB are currently investigating the prerequisites for the construction of the deep repository. One part of that work is to further specify demands on maximum allowed volume of leakage water for the repository as a whole and also for each part of the deep repository. In the subproject 'Characterisation of rock for grouting purposes', the possibilities of using hydraulic tests for predictions and design have been studied. The idea of this study was to investigate correspondences and deviations to increase the understanding of what is measured in a water-loss measurement. One can draw the conclusion that hydraulic tests are useful when describing the fracture geometry. Numerical modelling

  6. Tanks 18 And 19-F Structural Flowable Grout Fill Material Evaluation And Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. A.; Stefanko, D. B.

    2013-04-23

    Cementitious grout will be used to close Tanks 18-F and 19-F. The functions of the grout are to: 1) physically stabilize the final landfill by filling the empty volume in the tanks with a non-compressible material; 2) provide a barrier for inadvertent intrusion into the tank; 3) reduce contaminant mobility by a) limiting the hydraulic conductivity of the closed tank and b) reducing contact between the residual waste and infiltrating water; and 4) providing an alkaline, chemically reducing environment in the closed tank to control speciation and solubility of selected radionuclides. The objective of this work was to identify a single (all-in-one) grout to stabilize and isolate the residual radionuclides in the tank, provide structural stability of the closed tank and serve as an inadvertent intruder barrier. This work was requested by V. A. Chander, High Level Waste (HLW) Tank Engineering, in HLW-TTR-2011-008. The complete task scope is provided in the Task Technical and QA Plan, SRNL-RP-2011-00587 Revision 0. The specific objectives of this task were to: 1) Identify new admixtures and dosages for formulating a zero bleed flowable tank fill material selected by HLW Tank Closure Project personnel based on earlier tank fill studies performed in 2007. The chemical admixtures used for adjusting the flow properties needed to be updated because the original admixture products are no longer available. Also, the sources of cement and fly ash have changed, and Portland cements currently available contain up to 5 wt. % limestone (calcium carbonate). 2) Prepare and evaluate the placement, compressive strength, and thermal properties of the selected formulation with new admixture dosages. 3) Identify opportunities for improving the mix selected by HLW Closure Project personnel and prepare and evaluate two potentially improved zero bleed flowable fill design concepts; one based on the reactor fill grout and the other based on a shrinkage compensating flowable fill mix design. 4

  7. CLOSURE OF HLW TANKS FORMULATION FOR A COOLING COIL GROUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V; Erich Hansen, E

    2008-05-23

    The Tank Closure and Technology Development Groups are developing a strategy for closing the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Two Type IV tanks, 17 and 20 in the F-Area Tank Farm, have been successfully filled with grout. Type IV tanks at SRS do not contain cooling coils; on the other hand, the majority of the tanks (Type I, II, III and IIIA) do contain cooling coils. The current concept for closing tanks equipped with cooling coils is to pump grout into the cooling coils to prevent pathways for infiltrating water after tank closure. This task addresses the use of grout to fill intact cooling coils present in most of the remaining HLW tanks on Site. The overall task was divided into two phases. Phase 1 focused on the development of a grout formulation (mix design) suitable for filling the HLW tank cooling coils. Phase 2 will be a large-scale demonstration of the filling of simulated cooling coils under field conditions using the cooling coil grout mix design recommended from Phase 1. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1, the development of the cooling coil grout formulation. A grout formulation is recommended for the full scale testing at Clemson Environmental Technology Laboratory (CETL) that is composed by mass of 90% Masterflow (MF) 816 (a commercially available cable grout) and 10% blast furnace slag, with a water to cementitious material (MF 816 + slag) ratio of 0.33. This formulation produces a grout that meets the fresh and cured grout requirements detailed in the Task Technical Plan (2). The grout showed excellent workability under continuous mixing with minimal change in rheology. An alternative formulation using 90% MF 1341 and 10% blast furnace slag with a water to cementitious material ratio of 0.29 is also acceptable and generates less heat per gram than the MF 816 plus slag mix. However this MF 1341 mix has a higher plastic viscosity than the MF 816 mix due to the presence of sand in the MF 1341 cable grout and a

  8. Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: September 1990 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Osborne, S.C.; Francis, C.L.; Scott, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) is the most widely used technology for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % ASTM Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. The blend is mixed with 106-AN waste at a ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents progress made to date on efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of WHC`s Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula.

  9. Liquid Secondary Waste Grout Formulation and Waste Form Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, B. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle M. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-23

    This report describes the results from liquid secondary waste (LSW) grout formulation and waste form qualification tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate new formulations for preparing a grout waste form with high-sulfate secondary waste simulants and the release of key constituents from these grout monoliths. Specific objectives of the LSW grout formulation and waste form qualification tests described in this report focused on five activities: 1.preparing new formulations for the LSW grout waste form with high-sulfate LSW simulants and solid characterization of the cured LSW grout waste form 2.conducting the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1313 leach test (EPA 2012) on the grout prepared with the new formulations, which solidify sulfate-rich Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) off-gas condensate secondary waste simulant, using deionized water (DIW) 3.conducting the EPA Method 1315 leach tests (EPA 2013) on the grout monoliths made with the new dry blend formulations and three LSW simulants (242-A evaporator condensate, Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) leachate, and WTP off-gas condensate) using two leachants, DIW and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water (VZPW) 4.estimating the 99Tc desorption Kd (distribution coefficient) values for 99Tc transport in oxidizing conditions to support the IDF performance assessment (PA) 5.estimating the solubility of 99Tc(IV)-bearing solid phases for 99Tc transport in reducing conditions to support the IDF PA.

  10. Study on Optimal Grouting Timing for Controlling Uplift Deformation of a Super High Arch Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peng; Zhu, Xiaoxu; Li, Qingbin; Liu, Hongyuan; Yu, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    A grouting model is developed for use during the grouting of the complex foundation of a super high arch dam. The purpose as to determine the optimal grouting timing and appropriate grouting pressure involved in controlling the uplift deformation of the dam. The model determines the optimal grouting time as the height of the arch dam increases with the concrete pouring, by checking the tensile stresses in the dam against standard specifications. The appropriate grouting pressures are given on the basis of the actual grouting pressures monitored during the upstream riverbed foundation grouting. An engineering procedure, applying the model, was then proposed and used during foundation grouting under the toe block of the Xiluodu super high-arch dam in south-western China. The quality of the foundation grouting was evaluated against the results from pressurized water permeability tests, acoustic wave velocity tests, elastic modulus tests and panoramic photographing of the rockmass on completion of the foundation grouting. The results indicated that the proposed grouting model can be applied to effectively reduce the uplift deformation and associated cracking risk for super high arch dams, and it can be concluded that the proposed engineering grouting procedure is a valuable tool for improving foundation grouting under the toe blocks of a super high arch dam.

  11. The physical model for research of behavior of grouting mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajovsky, Radovan; Pies, Martin; Lossmann, Jaroslav

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with description of physical model designed for verification of behavior of grouting mixtures when applied below underground water level. Described physical model has been set up to determine propagation of grouting mixture in a given environment. Extension of grouting in this environment is based on measurement of humidity and temperature with the use of combined sensors located within preinstalled special measurement probes around grouting needle. Humidity was measured by combined capacity sensor DTH-1010, temperature was gathered by a NTC thermistor. Humidity sensors measured time when grouting mixture reached sensor location point. NTC thermistors measured temperature changes in time starting from initial of injection. This helped to develop 3D map showing the distribution of grouting mixture through the environment. Accomplishment of this particular measurement was carried out by a designed primary measurement module capable of connecting 4 humidity and temperature sensors. This module also takes care of converting these physical signals into unified analogue signals consequently brought to the input terminals of analogue input of programmable automation controller (PAC) WinPAC-8441. This controller ensures the measurement itself, archiving and visualization of all data. Detail description of a complex measurement system and evaluation in form of 3D animations and graphs is supposed to be in a full paper.

  12. Cement-based grouts in geological disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onofrei, M. [AECL Research, Pinnawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1996-04-01

    The behavior and performance of a specially developed high-performance cement-based grout has been studied through a combined laboratory and in situ research program conducted under the auspices of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP). A new class of cement-based grouts - high-performance grouts-with the ability to penetrate and seal fine fractures was developed and investigated. These high-performance grouts, which were injected into fractures in the granitic rock at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Canada, are shown to successfully reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass from <10{sup -7} m s{sup -1} to 10{sup -9} m s{sup -1} and to penetrate fissures in the rock with apertures as small as 10 {mu}m. Furthermore, the laboratory studies have shown that this high - performance grout has very low hydraulic conductivity and is highly leach resistant under repository conditions. Microcracks generated in this materials from shrinkage, overstressing or thermal loads are likely to self-seal. The results of these studies suggest that the high-performance grouts can be considered as viable materials in disposal-vault sealing applications. Further work is needed to fully justify extrapolation of the results of the laboratory studies to time scales relevant to performance assessment.

  13. Pilot-scale grout production test with a simulated low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fow, C.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Treat, R.L.; Hymas, C.R.

    1987-05-01

    Plans are underway at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to convert the low-level fraction of radioactive liquid wastes to a grout form for permanent disposal. Grout is a mixture of liquid waste and grout formers, including portland cement, fly ash, and clays. In the plan, the grout slurry is pumped to subsurface concrete vaults on the Hanford Site, where the grout will solidify into large monoliths, thereby immobilizing the waste. A similar disposal concept is being planned at the Savannah River Laboratory site. The underground disposal of grout was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1966 and 1984. Design and construction of grout processing and disposal facilities are underway. The Transportable Grout Facility (TGF), operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) for the Department of Energy (DOE), is scheduled to grout Phosphate/Sulfate N Reactor Operations Waste (PSW) in FY 1988. Phosphate/Sulfate Waste is a blend of two low-level waste streams generated at Hanford's N Reactor. Other wastes are scheduled to be grouted in subsequent years. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is verifying that Hanford grouts can be safely and efficiently processed. To meet this objective, pilot-scale grout process equipment was installed. On July 29 and 30, 1986, PNL conducted a pilot-scale grout production test for Rockwell. During the test, 16,000 gallons of simulated nonradioactive PSW were mixed with grout formers to produce 22,000 gallons of PSW grout. The grout was pumped at a nominal rate of 15 gpm (about 25% of the nominal production rate planned for the TGF) to a lined and covered trench with a capacity of 30,000 gallons. Emplacement of grout in the trench will permit subsequent evaluation of homogeneity of grout in a large monolith. 12 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Data report on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Small-Scale Seal Performance Test, Series F grouting experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, E.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dale, T.F.; Van Pelt, R.S. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-03-01

    SSSPT-F was designed to evaluate sealing materials at WIPP. It demonstrated: (1) the ability to practically and consistently produce ultrafine cementitious grout at the grouting site, (2) successful, consistent, and efficient injection and permeation of the grout into fractured rock at the repository horizon, (3) ability of the grout to penetrate and seal microfractures, (4) procedures and equipment used to inject the grout. Also techniques to assess the effectiveness of the grout in reducing the gas transmissivity of the fractured rock were evaluated. These included gas-flow/tracer testing, post-grout coring, pre- and post-grout downhole televiewer logging, slab displacement measurements, and increased loading on jacks during grout injection. Pre- and post-grout diamond drill core was obtained for use in ongoing evaluations of grouting effectiveness, degradation, and compatibility. Diamond drill equipment invented for this test successfully prevented drill cuttings from plugging fractures in grout injection holes.

  15. TANKS 18 AND 19-F STRUCTURAL FLOWABLE GROUT FILL MATERIAL EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D.; Langton, C.

    2011-11-01

    Cementitious grout will be used to close Tanks 18-F and 19-F. The functions of the grout are to: (1) physically stabilize the final landfill by filling the empty volume in the tanks with a non compressible material; (2) provide a barrier for inadvertent intrusion into the tank; (3) reduce contaminant mobility by (a) limiting the hydraulic conductivity of the closed tank and (b) reducing contact between the residual waste and infiltrating water; and (4) providing an alkaline, chemically reducing environment in the closed tank to control speciation and solubility of selected radionuclides. The objective of this work was to identify a single (all-in-one) grout to stabilize and isolate the residual radionuclides in the tank, provide structural stability of the closed tank and serve as an inadvertent intruder barrier. This work was requested by V. A. Chander, High Level Waste (HLW) Tank Engineering, in HLW-TTR-2011-008. The complete task scope is provided in the Task Technical and QA Plan, SRNL-RP-2011-00587 Revision 0. The specific objectives of this task were to: (1) Identify new admixtures and dosages for formulating a zero bleed flowable tank fill material selected by HLW Tank Closure Project personnel based on earlier tank fill studies performed in 2007. The chemical admixtures used for adjusting the flow properties needed to be updated because the original admixture products are no longer available. Also, the sources of cement and fly ash have changed, and Portland cements currently available contain up to 5 wt. % limestone (calcium carbonate). (2) Prepare and evaluate the placement, compressive strength, and thermal properties of the selected formulation with new admixture dosages. (3) Identify opportunities for improving the mix selected by HLW Closure Project personnel and prepare and evaluate two potentially improved zero bleed flowable fill design concepts; one based on the reactor fill grout and the other based on a shrinkage compensating flowable fill mix

  16. In situ grouting of low-level burial trenches with a cement-based grout at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C.W.; Spence, R.D.; Tamura, T.; Spalding, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    A technology being evaluated for use in the closure of one of the low-level radwaste burial grounds at ORNL is trench stabilization using a cement-based grout. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of this technology, two interconnecting trenches in SWSA 6 were selected as candidates for in situ grouting with a particulate grout. The primary objective was to demonstrate the increased trench stability (characterized by trench penetration tests) and the decreased potential for leachate migration (characterized by hydraulic conductivity tests) following in situ injection of a particulate grout into the waste trenches. Stability against trench subsidence is a critical issue. For example, construction of impermeable covers to seal the trenches will be ineffectual unless subsequent trench subsidence is permanently suspended. A grout composed of 39% Type 1 Portland cement, 55.5% Class F fly ash, and 5.5% bentonite mixed at 12.5 lb/gal of water was selected. Before the trenches were grouted, the primary characteristics relating to physical stability, hydraulic conductivity, and void volume of the trenches were determined. Their physical stability was evaluated using soil-penetration tests.

  17. Gas generation from Hanford grout samples. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonah, C.D.; Kapoor, S.: Matheson, M.S.; Mulac, W.A.; Meisel, D.

    1994-03-01

    The radiolytic yields of H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and CO from two batches of WHC-supplied samples of grouted simulated waste have been {gamma} irradiated at several dose rates (0.025, 0.63 and 130 krad/h for H{sub 2} and 130 krad/h for all other gases). In one batch, the liquid waste simulant that was added to the grout included the original components that were added to Tank 102-AP (labeled ``virgin``waste.) The second batch included a similar liquid waste simulant that was preirradiated to 35 Mrad prior to incorporation into the grout. It is believed that the preirradiated samples more closely represent radioactive waste that was stored in the tank for several years. The lowest dose rate corresponds approximately to that expected in the grout; with the high dose rate, doses equivalent to about 85 years storage in grout vaults were achieved. Most of the results on the batch of virgin samples have been reported recently (Report ANL 93/42). Here we report the results from the batch of preirradiated grout samples and compare the results from the two batches. The radiolytic yields of H{sub 2} and N{sub 2} are lower in the preirradiated than in the virgin grout. On the other hand G(O{sub 2}) is higher in the preirradiated samples: 0.078 vs. 0.026. The yield of nitrous oxide is essentially the same, G(N{sub 2}O) =0.010, in both. The yields measured from both batches are significantly higher than previously reported values. At 90{degrees}C similar amounts of H{sub 2} were generated thermally from both batches of grout, whereas the total amounts of N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O were larger for the preirradiated than for the virgin grout samples. At lower temperatures the rate of generation was hardly measurable. Mass spectrometric analysis suggests that NO is thermally (but not radiolytically) released from the grout samples.

  18. Rock grouting. Current competence and development for the final repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmelin, Ann (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE)); Brantberger, Martin (Ramboell (SE)); Eriksson, Magnus (Vattenfall Power Consultant (SE)); Gustafson, Gunnar (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)); Stille, Haakan (Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-06-15

    The report aims at presenting the overall state of grouting competence and development relating to the final repository and at motivating and giving detail to the grouting sections presented in the 2007 version of the overall SKB report 'Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste' that is presented to the government every three years. The report offers suggestions for principles for planning, design and execution of grouting and describes the further work thought to be necessary in order to meet the requirements of the final repository, that are currently given as working premises. This report does not aim to, and cannot, describe the grouting processes in detail. For details of current concepts, experience and development work, a list of references is provided. In Chapter 2, the task of sealing the underground repository is examined and an overall approach presented. Although the requirements related to this task are preliminary, it is made evident that they concern both the actual grouting results and the process leading to the achievement of these results. Chapter 3 is a conceptual description of grouting and the factors that govern the spreading of grout in the rock mass. It is intended as an introduction to Chapters 4-6, which describe the state of grouting competence and the tools available for the sealing of the final repository facility. Both common practice and cutting-edge research are dealt with in these chapters, mainly relying on references where available. Chapters 4 and 5 focus on the system consisting of the fundamental components the rock mass, the grout materials and the grouting technology, and how these system components interact whilst, in Chapter 6, the rock/grout technical system is viewed in a brief organizational context. Based on the requirements on results and the overall grouting process on the one hand and the current competence in grouting theory and

  19. Laboratory Study on Grout Injection for Improving Subgrade of Airfield Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck Shang Goh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shares the authors’ experience of using low pressure grouting to improve the subgrade performance. The first part of the paper introduced a case history where low pressure grouting was applied in weakened subgrade of the active airport pavements in Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA. The treated areas seemed to have been improved and only one of all eight treated areas had reoccurrence of depression. However, the performance of the treated area was difficult to be evaluated. The latter part of the paper investigated the effectiveness of grout injection through laboratory experiments. The laboratory equipment used for the grout injection tests included an injection mold and a steel tank of 1 m length x 0.6 m wide x 0.6 m depth for subgrade soil sample. Three grout types namely neat cement grout, fly ash cement grout, bentonite cement grout were used for this study. Six tests were conducted on sandy soil samples to examine the effect of grout type on the effectiveness of injection. The sandy soil was compacted to approximate 80 % of the maximum dry density. The injection pressure was fixed at 0.5 MPa. Insitu CBR test was also conducted to determine the strength of the grouted sample. The results showed that the fly ash cement grout could penetrate further than the neat cement grout; however its strength was lower than the neat cement grout.

  20. On the Micro Fracture Rock Grouting Water Plugging Material%浅谈微裂隙岩体注浆堵水材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶泽源; 王源

    2014-01-01

    The grouting material is an important link of water engineering, especially plays a decisive role in the rock fractured zone grouting engineering. This paper mainly introduces the performance characteristics of two grouting materials commonly used in water shutoff at home and abroad:urea formaldehyde resin slurry fine cement grout and chemical grout.%注浆材料主要是注浆堵水工程中一个重要的环节,尤其是在岩体裂隙发育带注浆堵水工程中起到了决定性的作用。本文主要说明了目前国内外常用的注浆材料成分,介绍了两种微裂隙注浆堵水中常用到的注浆材料:超细水泥浆液和化学浆液中的脲醛树脂浆液的性能特点。

  1. Florida Sinkholes and Grout Injection Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Hunt Griffith II

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Florida has a major problem when it comes to sinkholes. These sinkholes can become very hazardous to people, homes, and to the landscape as a whole. Florida sits on a carbonate platform which is highly indicative of sinkholes. There are three main types of sinkholes which occur in Florida: dissolution, cover subsidence, and cover collapse. I will compare these types of sinkholes to the underlying formation beneath Florida to see if there is a connection between the types of sinkholes that occur. I will also create a 3D model of grout injection stabilization and calculate its volume to compare to the actual volume placed under the house. This information will help inform and bring attention to the problem in Florida and in turn, may help alleviate the problem if we can understand what causes these sinkholes. The 3D model may help engineering companies become more efficient in predicting the projected amount of volume to stabilize a house that may be in danger.

  2. Microstructural Effects of Sulphate Attack in Sustainable Grouts for Micropiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Ortega Álvarez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the use of micropiles has undergone a great development. In general, they are made with cement grout, reinforced with steel tubing. In Spain, these grouts are prepared using OPC, although the standards do not forbid the use of other cements, like sustainable ones. Micropiles are in contact with soils and groundwater, in which the presence of sulphates is common. Their deleterious effects firstly affect to the microstructure. Then, the aim of this research is to study the effects of sulphate attack in the microstructure of micropiles grouts, prepared with OPC, fly ash and slag commercial cements, compared to their behaviour when they are exposed to an optimum hardening condition. The microstructure evolution has been studied with the non-destructive impedance spectroscopy technique, which has never been used for detecting the effects of sulphate attack when slag and fly ash cements are used. Its results have been contrasted with mercury intrusion porosimetry and “Wenner” resistivity ones. The 28-day compressive strength of grouts has been also determined. The results of microstructure characterization techniques are in agreement, although impedance spectroscopy is the most sensitive for following the changes in the porous network of grouts. The results showed that micropiles made using fly ash and slag cements could have a good performance in contact with aggressive sodium sulphate media, even better than OPC ones.

  3. Protection against water or mud inrush in tunnels by grouting: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shucai Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Grouting is a major method used to prevent water and mud inrush in tunnels and underground engineering. In this paper, the current situation of control and prevention of water and mud inrush is summarized and recent advances in relevant theories, grout/equipment, and critical techniques are introduced. The time-variant equations of grout viscosity at different volumetric ratios were obtained based on the constitutive relation of typical fast curing grouts. A large-scale dynamic grouting model testing system (4000 mm × 2000 mm × 5 mm was developed, and the diffusions of cement and fast curing grouts in dynamic water grouting were investigated. The results reveal that the diffusions of cement grouts and fast curing grouts are U-shaped and asymmetric elliptical, respectively. A multi-parameter real-time monitoring system (ϕ = 1.5 m, h = 1.2 m was developed for the grouting process to study the diffusion and reinforcement mechanism of grouting in water-rich faulted zone. A high early strength cream-type reinforcing/plugging grout, a high permeability nano-scale silica gel grout, and a high-expansion filling grout were proposed for the control of water hazards in weak water-rich faulted zone rocks, water inrush in karst passages, and micro-crack water inrush, respectively. Complement technologies and equipment for industrial applications were also proposed. Additionally, a novel full-life periodic dynamic water grouting with the critical grouting borehole as the core was proposed. The key techniques for the control of water inrush in water-rich faulted zone, jointed fissures and karst passages, and micro-crack water inrush were developed.

  4. Performance of Grouted Splice Sleeve Connector under Tensile Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alias

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The grouted splice sleeve connector system takes advantage of the bond-slip resistance of the grout and the mechanical gripping of reinforcement bars to provide resistance to tensile force. In this system, grout acts as a load-transferring medium and bonding material between the bars and sleeve. This study adopted the end-to-end rebars connection method to investigate the effect of development length and sleeve diameter on the bonding performance of the sleeve connector. The end-to-end method refers to the condition where reinforcement bars are inserted into the sleeve from both ends and meet at the centre before grout is filled. Eight specimens of grouted splice sleeve connector were tested under tensile load to determine their performance. The sleeve connector was designed using 5 mm thick circular hollow section (CHS steel pipe and consisted of one external and two internal sleeves. The tensile test results show that connectors with a smaller external and internal sleeve diameter appear to provide better bonding performance. Three types of failure were observed in this research, which are bar fracture (outside the sleeve, bar pullout, and internal sleeve pullout. With reference to these failure types, the development length of 200 mm is the optimum value due to its bar fracture type, which indicates that the tensile capacity of the connector is higher than the reinforcement bar. It is found that the performance of the grouted splice sleeve connector is influenced by the development length of the reinforcement bar and the diameter of the sleeve.

  5. Determination of the biodegradation rate of asphalt for the Hanford grout vaults. Hanford Grout Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luey, J.; Li, S.W.

    1993-04-01

    Testing was initiated in March 1991 and completed in November 1992 to determine the rate at which asphalt is biodegraded by microorganisms native to the Hanford Site soils. The asphalt tested (AR-6000, US Oil, Tacoma, Washington) is to be used in the construction of a diffusion barrier for the Hanford grout vaults. Experiments to determine asphalt biodegradation rates were conducted using three separate test sets. These test sets were initiated in March 1991, January 1992, and June 1992 and ran for periods of 6 months, 11 months, and 6 months, respectively. The experimental method used was one originally developed by Bartha and Pramer (1965), and further refined by Bowerman et al. (1985), that determined the asphalt biodegradation rate through the measurement of carbon dioxide evolved.

  6. Thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts for geothermal heat pumps. Progress report FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.L.

    1997-11-01

    Grout is used to seal the annulus between the borehole and heat exchanger loops in vertical geothermal (ground coupled, ground source, GeoExchange) heat pump systems. The grout provides a heat transfer medium between the heat exchanger and surrounding formation, controls groundwater movement and prevents contamination of water supply. Enhanced heat pump coefficient of performance (COP) and reduced up-front loop installation costs can be achieved through optimization of the grout thermal conductivity. The objective of the work reported was to characterize thermal conductivity and other pertinent properties of conventional and filled cementitious grouts. Cost analysis and calculations of the reduction in heat exchanger length that could be achieved with such grouts were performed by the University of Alabama. Two strategies to enhance the thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts were used simultaneously. The first of these was to incorporate high thermal conductivity filler in the grout formulations. Based on previous tests (Allan and Kavanaugh, in preparation), silica sand was selected as a suitable filler. The second strategy was to reduce the water content of the grout mix. By lowering the water/cement ratio, the porosity of the hardened grout is decreased. This results in higher thermal conductivity. Lowering the water/cement ratio also improves such properties as permeability, strength, and durability. The addition of a liquid superplasticizer (high range water reducer) to the grout mixes enabled reduction of water/cement ratio while retaining pumpability. Superplasticizers are commonly used in the concrete and grouting industry to improve rheological properties.

  7. Geoelectric response of porous media in water and grout injection processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙强; 刘盛东; 姜春露; 王勃

    2014-01-01

    Significant changes in spontaneous potential and exciting currents are observed during water and grout injection in a simulated porous media. Obvious correlations between the seepage flow field and the electric field in the porous media are identified. In this work, a detailed experimental study of geoelectric field variation occurring in water migration was reported by analyzing water and grout injection processes in a simulated porous media. The spontaneous potential varies linearly with the thickness of unsaturated porous media. Very interestingly, the spontaneous potential generated in the second grout injection exhibits some“memory”of previous grouting paths. The decreases in spontaneous potential observed during grout injection is very probably due to that the spontaneous potential variations are primarily caused by electro-filtration potential, as indicated by the far larger viscosity of grout compared to that of water. The geoelectric response can be utilized to effectively identify the grouting paths in water-bearing rocks.

  8. Multipoint Grout Injection System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-09-01

    At the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), radioactive waste contained in the 16 cylindrical Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAATs) must retrieved so the tanks can be closed. In many cases, removing the small amounts of sludge that remain in the tank after the bulk of the waste is retrieved is extremely costly and provides little benefit from site health and environmental standpoints. The Tanks Focus Area is working with ORR's M and I contractor (Bechtel-Jacobs), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Ground Environmental Services to demonstrate the application of multi-point-injection (MPI) grout emplacement technology for horizontal cylindrical tanks during a cold demonstration in FY99. GAAT TH-4 has been identified as the tank to be used for the hot demonstration in FY00. Evaluation efforts continue on the effect of slag on strength performance of the grout to be used in TH-4 tank closure. The site must find out what level of slag can be accommodated in the grout while maintaining strength performance requirements. Other efforts in support of the utilization of MPI TM technology in large-scale waste tanks will continue. Also, ORR is collaborating with SRS to evaluate the use this technology to support grouting of the Old Burial Ground tanks at SRS.

  9. Performance assessment on grouted double-shell tank waste at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.H; McNair, G.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Allison, J.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The low-level fraction of liquid waste stored in double-shell tanks at Hanford will be solidified in a cementitious matrix (grout) and disposed in subsurface vaults. This paper discusses activities related to the preparation of a site-specific performance assessment as required by DOE Order 5820.2A. A draft performance assessment has been prepared for the planned grout disposal system at Hanford using site-specific data. The assessment estimates the incremental increase in the dose to future populations who, after loss of institutional control at the site, use groundwater downgradient of the disposal site. Increases in nonradiological species in water from a hypothetical well are also estimated. Two-dimensional transport models were used to estimate contaminant concentrations in groundwater. Based on diffusional release from the waste package, the projected radiological dose to an individual on a hypothetical farm using water from a well at the disposal facility boundary is estimated at less than one percent of the 25 mrem/yr standard in Order 5820.2. Technetium accounted for about 95% of the dose. Nitrate was the principle chemical contaminant at 0.3% to 0.5% of apportioned drinking water standards. Sensitivity studies on various parameters are in progress. This performance assessment will be updated as additional data become available.

  10. TANK 18-F AND 19-F TANK FILL GROUT SCALE UP TEST SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D.; Langton, C.

    2012-01-03

    High-level waste (HLW) tanks 18-F and 19-F have been isolated from FTF facilities. To complete operational closure the tanks will be filled with grout for the purpose of: (1) physically stabilizing the tanks, (2) limiting/eliminating vertical pathways to residual waste, (3) entombing waste removal equipment, (4) discouraging future intrusion, and (5) providing an alkaline, chemical reducing environment within the closure boundary to control speciation and solubility of select radionuclides. This report documents the results of a four cubic yard bulk fill scale up test on the grout formulation recommended for filling Tanks 18-F and 19-F. Details of the scale up test are provided in a Test Plan. The work was authorized under a Technical Task Request (TTR), HLE-TTR-2011-008, and was performed according to Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), SRNL-RP-2011-00587. The bulk fill scale up test described in this report was intended to demonstrate proportioning, mixing, and transportation, of material produced in a full scale ready mix concrete batch plant. In addition, the material produced for the scale up test was characterized with respect to fresh properties, thermal properties, and compressive strength as a function of curing time.

  11. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Injected Granular Soil with Thick Super Plasticized Grouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas A. Anagnostopoulos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of super-plasticizers in micro fine or regular cement-based grouts has become of vital importance in advanced professional grouting practices. These super-plasticizers play an important role in the production of more durable grouts with improved rheological characteristics. This report presents a laboratory study of the effect of a new-generation Polycarboxylate Super-plasticizer (PCE on the inject ability of thick cement grouts into a coarse soil, under different grouting pressures, in comparison to that of a polynaphthalene (SNF super-plasticizer. Finally, the physical (dry unit weight, porosity and permeability and mechanical properties (compressive strength, elastic modulus of grouted specimens with various grouts were examined. The experiments were conducted using different additive dosages with grouts proportioned with a water to cement ratio (w/c of 0.33, 0.4 and 0.5, respectively. The results showed that PCE super-plasticizer is more effective than the SNF one for the increase of grout inject ability and the improvement of physical and mechanical properties of grouted soil.

  12. APPLICATION OF TIME-VARYING VISCOUS GROUT IN GRAVEL- FOUNDATION ANTI-SEEPAGE TREATMENT*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Peng-da; LI Lu; TANG Ju; WANG Dao-zeng

    2011-01-01

    The time-varying viscosity of common grout and the controllable grout are measured with a rotation viscometer in experiments. The time-varying viscosity of grout is analyzed according to the characteristics in the process of anti-seepage treatment for gravel foundation. The principle of effective stress for porous medium is applied to analyzes the fluid-structure coupling in grouting. In the consideration of coupling physical variables, dynamic models of porosity, permeability and viscosity are constructed.The difiusion radius can thus be defined by the foundational porosity. The distribution of holes in field experiments is designed according to the diffusion radius of grout. Then, the permeability test is designed to verify the grout effect. The calculated diffusion radius coincides with experimental results, and the permeability meets the requirements of the project, which is valuable for the anti-seepage treatment in gravel foundation.

  13. Characteristics of thermally-enhanced bentonite grouts for geothermal heat exchanger in South Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chulho; LEE; Kangja; LEE; Hangseok; CHOI; Hyo-Pum; CHOI

    2010-01-01

    The thermal conductivity and viscosity of bentonite grouts have been evaluated and compared each other to determine the suitability of these materials for backfilling vertical boreholes of ground heat exchangers.Seven bentonite grouts from different product sources were considered in this paper.Two additives,silica sand and graphite were added in bentonite grouts to enhance thermal performance.The bentonite grouts indicate that both the thermal conductivity and the viscosity increase with the content of silica sand and graphite.Therefore,it is recommended to select cautiously the amount of silica sand and graphite considering not only thermal conductivity but also viscosity for the optimum condition of backfilling.Finally,the effect of salinity in the pore water on the change of swelling potential of the bentonite-based grouts has been quantitatively evaluated to show the feasibility of bentonite grouts in the coastal area.

  14. Experimental Study on Post Grouting Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Bored Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Duanduan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post grouting can improve the inherent defects such as the formation of the mud cake at pile side and the sediment at pile end in the process of bored pile construction. Thus post grouting has been widely used in Engineering. The purpose of this paper is to research the influences of post grouting to pile bearing capacity more systematically and intuitively. Combined with the static load test of four test piles in Weihe River Bridge test area of new airport highway in Xi’an, the bearing capacity and settlement of routine piles and post grouting piles are comparatively analyzed. The test results show that under the same geological condition, post grouting can improve the properties of pile tip and pile shaft soil of bored piles significantly, enhance the ultimate resistance, improve the ultimate bearing capacity and reduce the pile tip settlement. Then post grouting can aim to optimize pile foundation.

  15. Experimental Test Plan for Grouting H-3 Calcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan K. Herbst

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 4400 cubic meters of solid high-level waste called calcine are stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Under the Idaho Cleanup Project, dual disposal paths are being investigated. The first path includes calcine retrieval, package "as-is", and ship to the Monitored Geological Repository (MGR). The second path involves treatment of the calcine with such methods as vitrification or grouting. This test plan outlines the hot bench scale tests to grout actual calcine and verify that the waste form properties meet the waste acceptance criteria. This is a necessary sequential step in the process of qualifying a new waste form for repository acceptance. The archive H-3 calcine samples at the Contaminated Equipment Maintenance Building attached to New Waste Calcining Facility will be used in these tests at the Remote Analytical Laboratory. The tests are scheduled for the second quarter of fiscal year 2007.

  16. Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2009-05-27

    This report summarizes information and data on the reaction behavior of uranium metal in water, in water-saturated simulated and genuine K Basin sludge, and in grout matrices. This information and data are used to establish the technical basis for metallic uranium reaction behavior for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP). The specific objective of this report is to consolidate the various sources of information into a concise document to serve as a high-level reference and road map for customers, regulators, and interested parties outside the STP (e.g., external reviewers, other DOE sites) to clearly understand the current basis for the corrosion of uranium metal in water, sludge, and grout.

  17. Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2008-09-25

    This report summarizes information and data on the reaction behavior of uranium metal in water, in water-saturated simulated and genuine K Basin sludge, and in grout matrices. This information and data are used to establish the technical basis for metallic uranium reaction behavior for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP). The specific objective of this report is to consolidate the various sources of information into a concise document to serve as a high-level reference and road map for customers, regulators, and interested parties outside the STP (e.g., external reviewers, other DOE sites) to clearly understand the current basis for the corrosion of uranium metal in water, sludge, and grout.

  18. Numerical Simulations of Settlement of Jet Grouting Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juzwa Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the comparison of results of numerical analyses of interaction between group of jet grouting columns and subsoil. The analyses were conducted for single column and groups of three, seven and nine columns. The simulations are based on experimental research in real scale which were carried out by authors. The final goal for the research is an estimation of an influence of interaction between columns working in a group.

  19. Experimental Study of Contaminant Release from Reducing Grout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waiting D.J.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A column experiment was conducted to study the release behavior of technetium, uranium, and selenium initially sequestered in reducing grout similar in composition to Savannah River Site (SRS saltstone, a cementitious waste form made by mixing salt solution from SRS liquid waste storage tanks with a dry mix containing blast furnace slag, fly ash, and Portland cement. The data suggest that uranium was retained in the grout possibly as a CaUO4 phase, whereas most of the selenium was released. Technetium release initially was relatively constant, and then increased significantly after 26 pore volumes. The increase in technetium release was slightly delayed relative to the observed Eh increase. The system Eh-pH started under conditions in which technetium solubility is low, constrained by Tc3O4 solubility, but eventually transitioned into the stability field of the pertechnetate ion. The delay in technetium release relative to the Eh increase was possibly due to slow oxidation of technetium at depth within the grout particles, which in turn was likely controlled by O2 diffusion into the particles. In contrast to technetium and uranium, selenium release was not solubility limited and selenium likely was present in the pore solution initially as a HSe− species.

  20. Laboratory Evaluation of Underwater Grouting of CPP-603 Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, V.J.; Pao, J.H.; Demmer, R.L.; Tripp, J.L.

    2002-01-17

    A project is underway to deactivate a Fuel Storage Basin. The project specifies the requirements and identifies the tasks that will be performed for deactivation of the CPP- 603 building at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Fuel Receiving and Storage Building (CPP- 603) was originally used to receive and store spent nuclear fuel from various facilities. The area to undergo deactivation includes the three spent nuclear fuel storage basins and a transfer canal (1.5 million gallons of water storage). Deactivation operations at the task site include management of the hot storage boxes and generic fuel objects, removal of the fuel storage racks, basin sludge, water evaporation and basin grouting, and interior equipment, tanks, and associated components. This includes a study to develop a grout formulation and placement process for this deactivation project. Water will be allowed to passively evaporate to r educe the spread of contamination from the walls of the basin. The basins will be filled with grout, underwater, as the water evaporates to maintain the basin water at a safe level. The objective of the deactivation project is to eliminate potential exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials and eliminate potential safety hazards associated with the CPP-603 building.

  1. Laboratory Evaluation of Underwater Grouting of CPP-603 Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Virgil James; Pao, Jenn Hai; Demmer, Ricky Lynn; Tripp, Julia Lynn

    2002-02-01

    A project is underway to deactivate a Fuel Storage Basin. The project specifies the requirements and identifies the tasks that will be performed for deactivation of the CPP- 603 building at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Fuel Receiving and Storage Building (CPP- 603) was originally used to receive and store spent nuclear fuel from various facilities. The area to undergo deactivation includes the three spent nuclear fuel storage basins and a transfer canal (1.5 million gallons of water storage). Deactivation operations at the task site include management of the hot storage boxes and generic fuel objects, removal of the fuel storage racks, basin sludge, water evaporation and basin grouting, and interior equipment, tanks, and associated components. This includes a study to develop a grout formulation and placement process for this deactivation project. Water will be allowed to passively evaporate to reduce the spread of contamination from the walls of the basin. The basins will be filled with grout, underwater, as the water evaporates to maintain the basin water at a safe level. The objective of the deactivation project is to eliminate potential exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials and eliminate potential safety hazards associated with the CPP-603 building.

  2. Monitoring of Grouting Compactness in a Post-Tensioning Tendon Duct Using Piezoceramic Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tianyong; Kong, Qingzhao; Wang, Wenxi; Huo, Linsheng; Song, Gangbing

    2016-08-22

    A post-tensioning tendon duct filled with grout can effectively prevent corrosion of the reinforcement, maintain bonding behavior between the reinforcement and concrete, and enhance the load bearing capacity of concrete structures. In practice, grouting of the post-tensioning tendon ducts always causes quality problems, which may reduce structural integrity and service life, and even cause accidents. However, monitoring of the grouting compactness is still a challenge due to the invisibility of the grout in the duct during the grouting process. This paper presents a stress wave-based active sensing approach using piezoceramic transducers to monitor the grouting compactness in real time. A segment of a commercial tendon duct was used as research object in this study. One lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoceramic transducer with marble protection, called a smart aggregate (SA), was bonded on the tendon and installed in the tendon duct. Two PZT patch sensors were mounted on the top outside surface of the duct, and one PZT patch sensor was bonded on the bottom outside surface of the tendon duct. In the active sensing approach, the SA was used as an actuator to generate a stress wave and the PZT sensors were utilized to detect the wave response. Cement or grout in the duct functions as a wave conduit, which can propagate the stress wave. If the cement or grout is not fully filled in the tendon duct, the top PZT sensors cannot receive much stress wave energy. The experimental procedures simulated four stages during the grout pouring process, which includes empty status, half grouting, 90% grouting, and full grouting of the duct. Experimental results show that the bottom PZT sensor can detect the signal when the grout level increases towards 50%, when a conduit between the SA and PZT sensor is formed. The top PZT sensors cannot receive any signal until the grout process is completely finished. The wavelet packet-based energy analysis was adopted in this research to

  3. Monitoring of Grouting Compactness in a Post-Tensioning Tendon Duct Using Piezoceramic Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyong Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A post-tensioning tendon duct filled with grout can effectively prevent corrosion of the reinforcement, maintain bonding behavior between the reinforcement and concrete, and enhance the load bearing capacity of concrete structures. In practice, grouting of the post-tensioning tendon ducts always causes quality problems, which may reduce structural integrity and service life, and even cause accidents. However, monitoring of the grouting compactness is still a challenge due to the invisibility of the grout in the duct during the grouting process. This paper presents a stress wave-based active sensing approach using piezoceramic transducers to monitor the grouting compactness in real time. A segment of a commercial tendon duct was used as research object in this study. One lead zirconate titanate (PZT piezoceramic transducer with marble protection, called a smart aggregate (SA, was bonded on the tendon and installed in the tendon duct. Two PZT patch sensors were mounted on the top outside surface of the duct, and one PZT patch sensor was bonded on the bottom outside surface of the tendon duct. In the active sensing approach, the SA was used as an actuator to generate a stress wave and the PZT sensors were utilized to detect the wave response. Cement or grout in the duct functions as a wave conduit, which can propagate the stress wave. If the cement or grout is not fully filled in the tendon duct, the top PZT sensors cannot receive much stress wave energy. The experimental procedures simulated four stages during the grout pouring process, which includes empty status, half grouting, 90% grouting, and full grouting of the duct. Experimental results show that the bottom PZT sensor can detect the signal when the grout level increases towards 50%, when a conduit between the SA and PZT sensor is formed. The top PZT sensors cannot receive any signal until the grout process is completely finished. The wavelet packet-based energy analysis was adopted in this

  4. On the use of hydration heat for quality management of borehole heat exchanger grouting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suibert Oskar Seibertz, Klodwig; Händel, Falk; Dietrich, Peter; Vienken, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The ongoing energy transition from conventional, fossil fuel based energy generation, over to renewable energy sources led to an increase in geothermal energy use. Different systems for extracting heat from the subsurface are in use, whereas a commonly used system is the borehole heat exchanger (BHE). A BHE generally consist of a closed loop pipe system through which a heat exchanging fluid is circulated. The BHE is surrounded by grouting. The grouting, focus of this work, has two main objectives to fulfill: Firstly, to thermally couple the subsurface and the BHE pipes; and, secondly, to protect the pipes and to prevent the heat exchanging fluid from entering the subsurface in case of BHE mechanical failure. Therefore, to provide proper functionality, efficiency, and safety of a BHE, it has to be guaranteed that the grouting does not have defects. The hardening reaction (hydration) of the grouting is exothermic, whereas the grouting is mostly a variant of (thermally enhanced) cement. The hydration temperature depends on the type of grout as well as the possible dilutions (resulting in defects) of the grouting material by water, air or drilling debris, and the thermal transport potential of the subsurface. Therefore the quality of the grouting can be investigated by temperature measurements during the hardening process. To validate this further, tests on field and laboratory scale were conducted. For laboratory testing, different columns were built in which different defects of BHE grouting and pipes were simulated. For defect simulation isolation and mixing with drilling debris were chosen, representing inclusions of water and/or air during cement casting as well as partial collapse of the borehole. The temperature changes during installation and hardening of the grouting are measured by fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS). This allows for temporal and spatial high resolution, continuous temperature measurements at the interface of pipe to grout

  5. Study on applicability of clay-based grout injection in the excavated damaged zone around the plug (TSX project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugita, Yutaka [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    2002-09-01

    JNC has joined the international joint project, the TSX project, with AECL at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Canada. Full-scale sealing technologies are applied to an underground tunnel in the TSX project. Regarding clay grouting, which supports the performance of the clay plug, a grouting experiment in the Excavated Damaged Zone around the tunnel was performed in the TSX project. A pre-injection test was the trial for the development of the grouting procedure, and the injection test was to evaluate the grouting effectiveness of the grouting in the EDZ around the tunnel. The results of the experiments showed the efficiency injection concentration of the grout slurry was between 4.0 and 6.0wt%. Grouted EDZ had lower hydraulic conductivity than that before grouting. (author)

  6. Structural Health Monitoring of a Grouted Foundation Part for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ronnie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Pedersen, B. j.;

    2013-01-01

    a structural health monitoring (SHM) method for detecting failures in a grouted connection. A finite element model representing different assumed damage stages of the grout connection is established and acceleration time series are simulated. A time series model based on the SHM method indicates that minor...

  7. Durability of double-shell slurry feed grouts: FY-90 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokken, R.O.; Martin, P.F.C.

    1992-12-01

    Plans for disposal of the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank wastes at Hanford include grouting. Grout disposal is the process of mixing low-level liquid waste with cementitious powders and pumping the slurry to near-surface, underground concrete vaults; hydration results in the formation of a solid product that binds/encapsulates the radioactive/hazardous constituents. In this durability program, previous studies have indicated a strong impact from curing temperature/time on strength and leach resistance of DSSF grouts. The current studies were expanded to determine whether these impacts could be attributed to other factors, such as dry blend composition and waste concentration. Major conclusions: grouts from dry blends with 40 wt% limestone had lower strengths; compressive strengths and leach resistance decreased with increased curing temperature/time; leach resistance increased for grouts prepared with dilute DSSF; nitrate leach resistance increased with high slag/cement ratios, dilute DSSF, and low curing temperatures; amount of drainable liquids for grouts using diluted DSSF was lowest when slag content was high; the 2 most significant factors affecting grout properties were the slag/cement ratio and waste dilution (slag-waste reactions appear to dominate the properties of DSSF grouts).

  8. THERMALLY CONDUCTIVE CEMENTITIOUS GROUTS FOR GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMPS. PROGRESS REPORT BY 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALLAN,M.L.; PHILIPPACOPOULOS,A.J.

    1998-11-01

    Research commenced in FY 97 to determine the suitability of superplasticized cement-sand grouts for backfilling vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pump (GHP) systems. The overall objectives were to develop, evaluate and demonstrate cementitious grouts that could reduce the required bore length and improve the performance of GHPs. This report summarizes the accomplishments in FY 98.

  9. Capacity and failure mechanism of laterally loaded jet-grouting reinforced piles: Field and numerical investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ben; WANG LiZhong; HONG Yi

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the results of field and numerical investigations of lateral stiffness,capacity,and failure mechanisms for plain piles and reinforced concrete piles in soft clay.A plastic-damage model is used to simulate concrete piles and jet-grouting in the numerical analyses.The field study and numerical investigations show that by applying jet-grouting surrounding the upper 7.5D (D =pile diameter) of a pile,lateral stiffness and bearing capacity of the pile are increased by about 110% and 100%,respectively.This is partially because the jet-grouting increases the apparent diameter of the pile,so as to enlarge the extent of failure wedge and hence passive resistance in front of the reinforced pile.Moreover,the jet-grouting provides a circumferential confinement to the concrete pile,which suppresses development of tensile stress in the pile.Correspondingly,tension-induced plastic damage in the concrete pile is reduced,causing less degradation of stiffness and strength of the pile than that of a plain pile.Effectiveness of the circumferential confinement provided by the jet-grouting,however,diminishes once the grouting cracks because of the significant vertical and circumferential tensile stress near its mid-depth.The lateral capacity of the jet-grouting reinforced pile is,therefore,governed by mobilized passive resistance of soil and plastic damage of jet-grouting.

  10. Experimental study on pile-end post-grouting piles for super large bridge pile foundations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiming GONG; Guoliang DAI; Haowen ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    The application of pile-end post-grouting piles for super-large bridge pile foundations in some important projects was introduced in this paper. There are totally 21 test piles. The maximum pile diameter varies from 2.5 m to 3 m, and the maximum length is 125m; the bearing capacity of the post-grouting piles is over ten thousands tons. Based on the test results, the bearing capacity,displacement, and beating characteristics before and after grouting were analyzed. The results show that the beating capacity of the piles is increased in different degrees after grouting although the technical parameters, including the patterns of grouting pipes, pressure, dosages of cement, duration of grouting lasting time, are different. However,the obtained values are very discrete. In addition, the calculation formula for the post-grouting piles under specified grouting condition was deduced based on the statistics analysis results of 57 test piles. The research results have been applied in the design of bridge foundation.

  11. Calculation method of composite foundation sedimentation of grouting pile with cover plate under embankment load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾长存; 洪昌地; 马文彬; 李雪平

    2008-01-01

    Grouting pile is a new soft soil foundation treatment method with characteristics such as no vibration, no noise, no soil compaction, light construction machines and quick construction velocity and so on. At present, study on reinforcement mechanism and design calculation method of composite foundation of grouting pile is initially started without design specifications, so it is usually required to draw on design specifications of stump pile when designing composite foundation of grouting pile while grouting pile has its characteristics and difference although reinforcement mechanisms and construction processes of two types of piles are similar. Sedimentation formula of composite foundation of grouting pile with cover plate is educed and a suitable deformation mode is proposed by aiming to deformation characteristics of composite foundation of grouting pile with cover plate under embankment load on basis of relevant sedimentation theories of composite foundation by combination of characteristics of composite foundation of grouting pile. The sedimentation calculation formula of grouting pile with cover plate under embankment load is educed according to balance relation of force and displacement coordination conditions by elastic theory and sedimentation calculation model established is validated by sedimentation monitoring documents of one expressway in China.

  12. Characterisation, design and execution of two grouting fans at 450 m level, Aespoe HRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmelin, Ann [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Eriksson, Magnus [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Fransson, Aasa [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    During June 2003 a grouting field experiment was carried out at Aespoe HRL, in connection with the construction of a tunnel (TASQ) for the Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment (APSE). The tunnel is situated in connection to the elevator shaft landing at 450 m depth and runs in direction N/E. The grouting was carried out as part of the ordinary construction work, but was accompanied by extra investigations and analyses during operations and an active adaptation of a basic grouting design to the encountered conditions. The main objectives of this set-up were to Investigate what can be achieved with best available technology, material and knowledge under the current conditions, i.e. a relatively tight crystalline rock mass at great depth; Collect data and evaluate theories resulting from previous research projects on characterisation and predictions on grout spread; Collect data to further develop those above mentioned theories; Contribute to the achievement of good conditions at the experimental site for the pillar stability experiments. The characterization method is based on analyses of stepwise investigations consisting of investigations in an initially drilled core-drill hole followed by probe and grouting boreholes with pressure-build-up tests and measuring of inflow during drilling, all aiming at identifying the singular fractures that are to be sealed. The decision about grouting design is based on the successively up-dated rock description from the characterization and iterative selection and testing of grouting design and grout in a numeric model, resulting in an expected grout spread and sealing effect. Based on investigations and analysis of results from investigations of a core-drilled hole at the site, a basic design was set up, together with conditions for application. Probe boreholes covering the first anticipated fan gave substantially larger inflows than expected, and subsequently the design was changed. A first round was drilled and grouted, sealing

  13. Experimental study on the compressive strength of grouted concrete block masonry based on nondestructive detection methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong-bin; LI Long-fei

    2009-01-01

    Existing nondestructive detection methods were adopted to test the compressive strength of grouted concrete block masonry, i.e. the rebound method, pulling-out method and core drilling method were employed to test the strength of block, mortar and grouted concrete, respectively. The suitability of these methods for the testing of strength of grouted concrete block masonry was discussed, and the comprehensive strength of block masonry was appraised by combining existing nondestructive or micro-destructive detection methods. The nondestructive detection test on 25 grouted concrete block masonry specimens was carried out. Experimental results show that these methods mentioned above are applicable for the strength detection of grouted concrete block masonry. Moreover, the formulas of compressive strength, detection methods and proposals are given as well.

  14. Long-term degradation (or improvement?) of cementitious grout/concrete for waste disposal at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepho, M.G. [Daniel B. Stephens & Associates, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    If grout and/or concrete barriers and containments are considered for long-term (500 yrs to 100,000 ) waste disposal, then long-term degradation of grout/cement materials (and others) need to be studied. Long-term degradations of a cementitious grout monolith (15.4mW x 10.4mH x 37.6mL) and its containment concrete shell and asphalt shell (each 1-m thick) were analyzed. The main degradation process of the concrete shell was believed to be fractures due to construction joints, shrinkage, thermal stress, settlement, and seismic events. A scenario with fractures was modeled (flow and transport model) for long-term risk performance (out to a million yrs). Even though the concrete/grout is expected to fracture, the concrete/grout chemistry, which has high Ph value, is very beneficial in causing calcite deposits from calcium in the water precipitating in the fractures. These calcite deposits will tend to plug the fracture and keep water from entering. The effectiveness of such plugging needs to be studied more. It`s possible that the plugged fractures are more impermeable than the original concrete/grout. The long-term performance of concrete/grout barriers will be determined by its chemistry, not its mechanical properties.

  15. Thermally conductive cementitious grouts for geothermal heat pumps. Progress report FY 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.L.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.

    1998-11-01

    Research commenced in FY 97 to determine the suitability of superplasticized cement-sand grouts for backfilling vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pump (GHP) systems. The overall objectives were to develop, evaluate and demonstrate cementitious grouts that could reduce the required bore length and improve the performance of GHPs. This report summarizes the accomplishments in FY 98. The developed thermally conductive grout consists of cement, water, a particular grade of silica sand, superplasticizer and a small amount of bentonite. While the primary function of the grout is to facilitate heat transfer between the U-loop and surrounding formation, it is also essential that the grout act as an effective borehole sealant. Two types of permeability (hydraulic conductivity) tests was conducted to evaluate the sealing performance of the cement-sand grout. Additional properties of the proposed grout that were investigated include bleeding, shrinkage, bond strength, freeze-thaw durability, compressive, flexural and tensile strengths, elastic modulus, Poisson`s ratio and ultrasonic pulse velocity.

  16. Bio-grout based on microbially induced sand solidification by means of asparaginase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Fu, Qing-Long; Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Achal, Varenyam; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2015-11-03

    Bio-grout, a new ground improvement method, has been recently developed to improve the mechanical properties, decrease the permeability of porous materials, reinforce or repair cementitious materials and modify the properties of soil or sand. Bio-grout production depends on microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP), which is driven mainly by an enzyme, urease. However, urease-based MICP process produces excessive ammonia, in addition to secondary pollution generated by urea that is used as substrate in it. In the present study, we reported asparaginase-based MICP process for sand bio-grout development using Bacillus megaterium, and results were also compared with urease-based bio-grouts. The asparaginase activity led to significantly less ammonia production compared to urease without compromising with desired properties of a novel grout. The UCS of bio-grout was obtained at 980 kPa, while the permeability was decreased substantially. The mineralogical composition of precipitated substance was identified as calcite using XRD and the crystal morphology was observed under SEM. The mass percentage of calcite in bio-grout was calculated by thermogravimetric analysis and XCT verified calcite precipitation in it. The results confirmed that biocalcification by means of bacterial asparaginase is a potential solution for geotechnical problems. The asparaginase-based MICP process could be of wider acceptance in future.

  17. Bio-grout based on microbially induced sand solidification by means of asparaginase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Fu, Qing-Long; Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Achal, Varenyam; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2015-11-01

    Bio-grout, a new ground improvement method, has been recently developed to improve the mechanical properties, decrease the permeability of porous materials, reinforce or repair cementitious materials and modify the properties of soil or sand. Bio-grout production depends on microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP), which is driven mainly by an enzyme, urease. However, urease-based MICP process produces excessive ammonia, in addition to secondary pollution generated by urea that is used as substrate in it. In the present study, we reported asparaginase-based MICP process for sand bio-grout development using Bacillus megaterium, and results were also compared with urease-based bio-grouts. The asparaginase activity led to significantly less ammonia production compared to urease without compromising with desired properties of a novel grout. The UCS of bio-grout was obtained at 980 kPa, while the permeability was decreased substantially. The mineralogical composition of precipitated substance was identified as calcite using XRD and the crystal morphology was observed under SEM. The mass percentage of calcite in bio-grout was calculated by thermogravimetric analysis and XCT verified calcite precipitation in it. The results confirmed that biocalcification by means of bacterial asparaginase is a potential solution for geotechnical problems. The asparaginase-based MICP process could be of wider acceptance in future.

  18. MAGNESIUM MONO POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMISSIONING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-01-05

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of magnesium mono potassium phosphate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Magnesium mono potassium phosphate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout (pH of about 12.4). A less alkaline material ({<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere. Fresh and cured properties were measured for: (1) commercially blended magnesium mono potassium phosphate packaged grouts, (2) commercially available binders blended with inert fillers at SRNL, (3) grouts prepared from technical grade MgO and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and inert fillers (quartz sands, Class F fly ash), and (4) Ceramicrete{reg_sign} magnesium mono potassium phosphate-based grouts prepared at Argonne National Laboratory. Boric acid was evaluated as a set retarder in the magnesium mono potassium phosphate mixes.

  19. Parameters Optimization of Curtain Grouting Reinforcement Cycle in Yonglian Tunnel and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For practical purposes, the curtain grouting method is an effective method to treat geological disasters and can be used to improve the strength and permeability resistance of surrounding rock. Selection of the optimal parameters of grouting reinforcement cycle especially reinforcement cycle thickness is one of the most interesting areas of research in curtain grouting designs. Based on the fluid-structure interaction theory and orthogonal analysis method, the influence of reinforcement cycle thickness, elastic modulus, and permeability on water inflow of tunnel after grouting and stability of surrounding rock was analyzed. As to the water inflow of tunnel after grouting used as performance evaluation index of grouting reinforcement cycle, it can be concluded that the permeability was the most important factor followed by reinforcement cycle thickness and elastic modulus. Furthermore, pore water pressure field, stress field, and plastic zone of surrounding rock were calculated by using COMSOL software under different conditions of reinforcement cycle thickness. It also can be concluded that the optimal thickness of reinforcement cycle and permeability can be adopted as 8 m and 1/100 of the surrounding rock permeability in the curtain grouting reinforcement cycle. The engineering case provides a reference for similar engineering.

  20. 水工隧洞水泥灌浆的若干问题%Some Issues on Cement Grouting of Hydraulic Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏鲁平

    2002-01-01

    Based on the practices of construction supervision to cement grouting at the reservoir emptying and power tunnels of the TSQ stage Ⅰ Hydropower station, some issues on quality control of cement grouting of hydraulic tunnel are discussed, and corresponding suggestions are put forward for revision of current standard (SL62-94). It is regarded that the refilling grouting could not be used for remedying the thickness of concrete lining; the end sealing of refilling grouting section should not be neglected; higher grouting pressure would be used. For the consolidation grouting, grout return pipe should be placed at the grout hole top for pure pressure type grouting; five-grade water cement ratio of grout mix is suggested; a certain standard should be specified for changing the grout to thicker mix by skipping the intermediate grade; the standard for ending the grouting should be relaxed. In current grouting standard, some terms should be complemented for contact grouting of steel penstock and spiral case and for plug grouting of circular-anchor hole.

  1. GROUT TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN 105-R DISASSEMBLY BASIN D AND E CANAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogle, R.; Collins, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2010-06-03

    The 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin Grout Placement Strategy Report (SRNL-TR-2009-00157) identifies various portions of the facility that will undergo an in-situ decommissioning process. The estimated residual radioactive contamination in the 105-R facility is shown in Figure 1. Cementitious grout formulations developed by SRNL are being used to immobilize and isolate the radioactive contamination in existing below grade portions of the 105-R building as shown by the gray-hatched area in Figure 2. A Zero Bleed flowable fill was formulated for both dry placement and for underwater placement. The first major area in the 105-R Disassembly Basin to undergo the grouting process was the D&E Canal and an underlying void space known as the Chase. Grout temperature data was needed to ensure that the grout mix design was on the correct grout curing trajectory to meet the material compressive strength requirement of 50 pounds per square inch. Initial grout temperature measurements were needed to confirm and optimize grout mix design fresh property characteristics; i.e. material strength, and set time. Grout curing temperature is an integrating fresh property characteristic that is used to estimate cementitious material strength in accordance with the Standard Practice for Estimating Concrete Strength by the Maturity Method, ASTM C 1074. The Maturity Method is used in the construction industry to estimate in-place strength of concrete to allow the start of critical construction activities; e.g. formwork removal, removal of cold weather protection, opening of roadways to traffic, etc. Applying this methodology provides an expeditious means to estimate in-place grout strength based on compressive strength laboratory results. The Maturity Method results define the relationship between strength-time and age-time that may be utilized in the field for estimating strength after a given time of placement. Maturation curves were developed under the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin

  2. Effects of grouting, shotcreting and concrete leachates on backfill geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, Miguel; Arcos, David; Duro, Lara [Enviros Consulting, Valldoreix, Barc elona (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    The use of concrete to seal open fractures (grouting) and to impermeabilise the deposition tunnels (shotcreting) has been envisaged in the construction of a high level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository according to SKB designs. Nevertheless, the geochemical effect of using concrete in the repository is not fully understood. Concrete degradation due to the interaction with groundwater can affect the performance of other repository barriers, such as the backfill material used for sealing the deposition tunnels. One of the main effects of concrete degradation is the generation of alkaline plumes. For this reason, SKB is currently planning to use a type of concrete whose degradation result in lower pH values than those developed with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). In order to assess the long-term geochemical effect of including low-pH concrete elements in a HLNW repository, we performed a 2D reactive-transport model of a backfilled deposition tunnel that intersects a hydraulic conductive fracture which has been partially grouted. An additional case has been modelled where part of the deposition tunnel walls were covered with a shotcrete layer. The modelling results predict the development of a high-alkalinity plume, larger in the case of considering a grouted fracture, accompanied by the precipitation of CSH-phases in the fracture. However, the effect on the backfill material is only significant if concrete is in contact with the backfill (shotcrete case). In order to conduct these models, and considering that at the beginning of the present work there was not a specific composition for such a low-pH concrete, its composition has been assumed in order to meet the expected geochemical evolution of concrete degradation according to SKB expectations. This is a pH of pore water of around 11 and the degradation of CSH phases resulting in a source for Ca and Si into the system. For this reason, jennite and tobermorite have been selected, although it is known that jennite is

  3. RESEARCH ON THE SEROSITY DURING INJECTING CLAY GROUTS INTO THE OVERLYING ROCK STRATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨逾; 范学理; 杨伦; 赵德深; 刘文生

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of the mechanism study of injecting clay grouts into overlying strata, the clay grouts are researched in greater detail from three aspects. The flowing state of clay grouts in the strata——the pattern of different direction flowing around a point source is advanced and the flowing equation is put forward which is correspond with experiment result, and the corresponding mechanical model is set up which has its formulistic study, and the function of clay grouts is also discussed after the water in it has been lost, at the same time the concept of similar rock in effective supporting zone is given. It would draw great positive inspiration from what studied in this paper for studying on drawing down the surface subsidence by injecting.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL FOR HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING GROUTING OPERATIONS IN THE R- AND P-REACTOR VESSELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2009-12-29

    The R- and P-reactor buildings were retired from service and are now being prepared for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D). D&D activities will consist primarily of immobilizing contaminated components and structures in a grout-like formulation. Aluminum corrodes very rapidly when it comes in contact with the alkaline grout materials and as a result produces hydrogen gas. To address this potential deflagration/explosion hazard, the Materials Science and Technology Directorate (MS&T) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to review and evaluate existing experimental and analytical studies of this issue to determine if any process constraints on the chemistry of the fill material and the fill operation are necessary. Various options exist for the type of grout material that may be used for D&D of the reactor vessels. The grout formulation options include ceramicrete (pH 6-8), low pH portland cement + silica fume grout (pH 10.4), or Portland cement grout (pH 12.5). The assessment concluded that either ceramicrete or the silica fume grout may be used to safely grout the P-reactor vessel. The risk of accumulation of a flammable mixture of hydrogen between the grout-air interface and the top of the reactor is very low. Portland cement grout, on the other hand, for the same range of process parameters does not provide a significant margin of safety against the accumulation of flammable gas in the reactor vessel during grouting operations in the P-reactor vessel. It is recommended that this grout not be utilized for this task. The R-reactor vessel contains significantly less aluminum and thus a Portland cement grout may be considered as well. For example, if the grout fill rate is less than 1 inch/min and the grout temperature is maintained at 70 C or less, the risk of hydrogen accumulation in the R-reactor vessel is very low for the Portland cement. Alternatively, if the grout fill rate is less than 0.5 inch/min and the grout is maintained

  5. Grout and Glass Performance Maximizing the Loading of ORNL Tank Sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, M.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Spence, R.D.; Travis, J.R.

    1999-03-01

    Grouting and vitrification are currently two likely stabilization and solidification alternatives for radioactive and hazardous mixed wastes stored at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Grouting has been used to stabilize and solidify hazardous and low-level radioactive waste for decades. Vitrification has been developed as a high-level radioactive alternative for decades and has been under development recently as a mixed-waste alternative disposal technology.

  6. The grouting handbook a step-by-step guide for foundation design and machinery installation

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Donald M

    2013-01-01

    Minimize loss of revenue and the downtime of critical assets by avoiding foundation cracking, poor bonds, and initial alignment changes. After their successful introduction as a maintenance material, machinery grouts are now being used for equipment placement in new construction. While certainly suitable for both markets and applications, a successful installation depends on proper grout selection, application, foundation preparation, and forming methods. Therefore, guidelines on their uses and limitations are needed for engineers and maintenance personnel. Based on 45 years of field experi

  7. Application of Distributed Optical Fiber Sensing Technology in the Anomaly Detection of Shaft Lining in Grouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunde Piao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rupture of the shaft lining caused by grouting has seriously undermined the safety in coal mining. Based on BOTDR distributed optical fiber sensing technology, this paper studied the layout method of optical fiber sensors and the anomaly detection method of the deformation and obtained the evolution law of shaft deformation triggered by grouting. The research results showed that the bonding problem of optical fiber sensors in damp environment could be effectively solved, by applying the binder consisting of sodium silicate and cement. Through BOTDR-based deformation detection, the real-time deformation of the shaft lining caused by grouting was immediately spotted. By comparing the respective strain of shaft lining deformation and concrete deformation, the risk range of shaft lining grouting was identified. With the additional strain increment of the shaft lining triggered by each process of grouting, the saturated condition of grouting volume in strata was analyzed, providing an important technical insight into the field construction and the safety of the shaft lining.

  8. Strength Assessment of Broken Rock Postgrouting Reinforcement Based on Initial Broken Rock Quality and Grouting Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfa Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate postgrouting rock mass strength growth is important for engineering design. In this paper, using self-developed indoor pressure-grouting devices, 19 groups of test cubic blocks were made of the different water cement ratio grouting into the broken rock of three kinds of particle sizes. The shear strength parameters of each group under different conditions were tested. Then this paper presents a quantitative calculation method for predicting the strength growth of grouted broken rock. Relational equations were developed to investigate the relationship between the growth rates of uniaxial compressive strength (UCS, absolute value of uniaxial tensile strength (AUTS, internal friction angle, and cohesion for post- to pregrouting broken rock based on Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion. From previous test data, the empirical equation between the growth rate of UCS and the ratio of the initial rock mass UCS to the grout concretion UCS has been determined. The equations of the growth rates of the internal friction coefficient and UCS for grouting broken rock with rock mass rating (RMR and its increment have been established. The calculated results are consistent with the experimental results. These observations are important for engineered design of grouting reinforcement for broken rock mass.

  9. Use of a Paraffin Based Grout to Stabilize Buried Beryllium and Other Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gretchen Matthern; Duane Hanson; Neal Yancey; Darrell Knudson

    2005-12-01

    The long term durability of WAXFIXi, a paraffin based grout, was evaluated for in situ grouting of activated beryllium wastes in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), a radioactive landfill at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, part of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The evaluation considered radiological and biological mechanisms that could degrade the grout using data from an extensive literature search and previous tests of in situ grouting at the INL. Conservative radioactive doses for WAXFIX were calculated from the "hottest" (i.e., highest-activity) Advanced Test Reactor beryllium block in the SDA.. These results indicate that WAXFIX would not experience extensive radiation damage for many hundreds of years. Calculation of radiation induced hydrogen generation in WAXFIX indicated that grout physical performance should not be reduced beyond the effects of radiation dose on the molecular structure. Degradation of a paraffin-based grout by microorganisms in the SDA is possible and perhaps likely, but the rate of degradation will be at a slower rate than found in the literature reviewed. The calculations showed the outer 0.46 m (18 in.) layer of each monolith, which represents the minimum expected distance to the beryllium block, was calculated to require 1,000 to 3,600 years to be consumed. The existing data and estimations of biodegradation and radiolysis rates

  10. Jet grouting for a groundwater cutoff wall in difficult glacial soil deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, R.F.; Pepe, F. Jr. [Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, New York, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Jet grouting is being used as part of a groundwater cutoff wall system in a major New York City subway construction project to limit drawdowns in an adjacent PCB contamination plume. A circular test shaft of jet grout columns was conducted during the design phase to obtain wall installation parameters. The test program also included shaft wall mapping, and measurements of; inflows, piezometric levels, ground heave and temperature, and jet grout hydraulic conductivity. An axisymmetric finite element method groundwater model was established to back calculate the in-situ hydraulic conductivities of both the surrounding glacial soils and the jet grout walls by matching observed inflows and piezometric levels. The model also verified the use of packer permeability test as a tool in the field to evaluate the hydraulic conductivities of jet grout columns. Both the test program and analytic studies indicated that adjustments to the construction procedures would be required to obtain lower hydraulic conductivities of the jet grout walls for construction. A comparison is made with the conductivities estimated from the test program/analytic studies with those from the present construction.

  11. Use of jet grouting to create a low permeability horizontal barrier below an incinerator ash landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furth, A.J.; Burke, G.K. [Hayward Baker Inc., Odenton, MD (United States); Deutsch, W.L. Jr. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., West Chester, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The City of Philadelphia`s Division of Aviation (DOA) has begun construction of a new commuter runway, designated as Runway 8-26, at the Philadelphia International Airport. A portion of this runway will be constructed over a former Superfund site known as the Enterprise Avenue Landfill, which for many years was used to dispose of solid waste incinerator ash and other hazardous materials. The site was clay capped in the 1980`s, but in order for the DOA to use the site, additional remediation was needed to meet US EPA final closure requirements. One component of the closure plan included installation of a low permeability horizontal barrier above a very thin (approximately 0.61 to 0.91 meters) natural clay stratum which underlies an approximately 1020 m{sup 2} area of the landfill footprint so as to insure that a minimum 1.52 meter thick low permeability barrier exists beneath the entire 150,000 m{sup 2} landfill. The new barrier was constructed using jet grouting techniques to achieve remote excavation and replacement of the bottom 0.91 meters of the waste mass with a low permeability grout. The grout was formulated to meet the low permeability, low elastic modulus and compressive strength requirements of the project design. This paper will discuss the advantages of using jet grouting for the work and details the development of the grout mixture, modeling of the grout zone under load, field construction techniques, performance monitoring and verification testing.

  12. Structural model testing for prestressed concrete pressure vessels: a study of grouted vs nongrouted posttensioned prestressing tendon systems. [HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J.

    1979-04-01

    Nongrouted tendons are predominantly used in this country as the prestressing system for prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPVs) because they are more easily surveyed to detect reductions in prestressing level and distress such as results from corrosion. Grouted tendon systems, however, offer advantages which may make them cost-effective for PCPV applications. Literature was reviewed to (1) provide insight on the behavior of grouted tendon system, (2) establish performance histories for structures utilizing grouted tendons, (3) examine corrosion protection procedures for prestressing tendons, (4) identify arguments for and against using grouted tendons, and (5) aid in the development of the experimental investigation. The experimental investigation was divided into four phases: (1) grouted-nongrouted tendon behavior, (2) evaluation of selected new material systems, (3) bench-scale corrosion studies, and (4) preliminary evaluation of acoustic emission techniques for monitoring grouted tendons in PCPVs. The groutability of large tendon systems was also investigated.

  13. Direct Grout Stabilization of High Cesium Salt Waste: Salt Alternative Phase III Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.A.

    1998-12-07

    The direct grout alternative is a viable option for treatment/stabilization and disposal of salt waste containing Cs-137 concentrations of 1-3 Ci/gal. The composition of the direct grout salt solution is higher in sodium salts and contains up to a few hundred ppm Cs-137 more than the current reference salt solution. However it is still similar to the composition of the current reference salt solution. Consequently, the processing, setting, and leaching properties (including TCLP for Cr and Hg) of the direct grout and current saltstone waste forms are very similar. The significant difference between these waste solutions is that the high cesium salt solution will contain between 1 and 3 Curies of Cs-137 per gallon compared to a negligible amount in the current salt solution. This difference will require special engineering and shielding for a direct grout processing facility and disposal units to achieve acceptable radiation exposure conditions. The Cs-137 concentration in the direct grout salt solution will also affect the long-term curing temperature of the waste form since 4.84 Watts of energy are generated per 1000 Ci of Cs-137. The temperature rise of the direct grout during long-term curing has been calculated by A. Shaddy, SRTC.1 The effect of curing temperature on the strength, leaching and physical durability of the direct grout saltstone is described in this report. At the present time, long term curing at 90 degrees C appears to be unacceptable because of cracking which will affect the structural integrity as evaluated in the immersion test. (The experiments conducted in this feasibility study do not address the effect of cracking on leaching of contaminants other than Cr, Hg, and Cs.) No cracking of the direct grout or reference saltstone waste forms was observed for samples cured at 70 degrees C. At the present time the implications of waste form cracking at elevated curing temperatures has not been fully addressed. The direct grout falls within the

  14. Study of evaluation for grouting effect in a borehole; Yakueki chunyu koka hyoka gijutsu ni okeru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H.; Matsuo, T. [Fukuoka Municipal Transportation Bureau, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamauchi, Y.; Imanishi, H. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    For the foundation improvement works by grouting in a borehole, evaluation of grouting effect is one of the most important management items. The grouting design and works are sometimes reconsidered depending on the evaluation of grouting effect during the test injection. The purpose of the evaluation of grouting effect is to grasp the range of improvement and consolidation after the injection, and to judge and estimate the strength and permeability of the consolidation part. This paper describes the judgment method of the strength using PS logging results and borehole televiewer (BHTV) logging results. The reflection intensity (Ir) by the BHTV logging increased after the grouting, which showed a same tendency as that using S-wave and P-wave velocities (Vs and Vp) before and after the grouting. This was considered to demonstrate the grouting effect. A relation was obtained between the Vs, Vp and Ir before and after the grouting, which was expressed by following equation. Ir=0.143{times}Vs-70=0.093{times}Vp-110. The relation with the dynamic elastic coefficient (Ed) was also obtained as follow; Ir=0.0013{times}Ed. 9 figs.

  15. Grouting of Multiple Leaf-Masonry Walls: Application on Some Islamic Historical Monuments in Cairo, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed HEMEDA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study summarizes an overview on the available experimental and practical data and results from laboratory testing (ungrouted and grouted three leaf masonry wallettes in compression and in diagonal compression. On the basis of the experimental results, (A the structural behavior of the multiple leaf-masonry walls studied in details (b the parameters that affect the behavior of ungrouted masonry are detected and commented upon, and (c the behavior of grouted masonry studied in details. Particularly attention to be paid to large walls whose construction may comprise different kinds of materials. Such walls include cavity walls; rubble filled masonry walls and veneered brick walls which have poor quality core. Not only may the interior of the wall be less capable of carrying load but movement of the core material may also be a source of new stresses. As the experimental results show that the key parameter for the improvement of the mechanical properties of masonry is not the compressive strength of the injected grout, emphasis is given to ternary, as well as to hydraulic lime based grouts: those materials are expected to ensure durable interventions, they lead to a significant enhancement of the mechanical properties of masonry. On the basis of the experimental data on wallettes, as well as based on recent data from tests on grouted cylinders made of filling materials, simple formulae are drived, allowing for the strength of masonry to be calculated, and scientifically interventions processes and techniques had been applied to selected historical monuments in Cairo.

  16. Evaluation of Compressive Strength and Stiffness of Grouted Soils by Using Elastic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Mo Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement grouted soils, which consist of particulate soil media and cementation agents, have been widely used for the improvement of the strength and stiffness of weak ground and for the prevention of the leakage of ground water. The strength, elastic modulus, and Poisson’s ratio of grouted soils have been determined by classical destructive methods. However, the performance of grouted soils depends on several parameters such as the distribution of particle size of the particulate soil media, grouting pressure, curing time, curing method, and ground water flow. In this study, elastic wave velocities are used to estimate the strength and elastic modulus, which are generally obtained by classical strength tests. Nondestructive tests by using elastic waves at small strain are conducted before and during classical strength tests at large strain. The test results are compared to identify correlations between the elastic wave velocity measured at small strain and strength and stiffness measured at large strain. The test results show that the strength and stiffness have exponential relationship with elastic wave velocities. This study demonstrates that nondestructive methods by using elastic waves may significantly improve the strength and stiffness evaluation processes of grouted soils.

  17. Field application of innovative grouting agents for in situ stabilization of buried waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, G.G.; Farnsworth, R.K. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents field applications for two innovative grouting agents that were used to in situ stabilize buried waste sites, via jet grouting. The two grouting agents include paraffin and a proprietary iron oxide based cement grout called TECT. These materials were tested in specially designed cold test pits that simulate buried transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The field demonstrations were performed at the INEL in an area referred to as the Cold Test Pit, which is adjacent to the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). At the RWMC, 56,000 m{sup 3} of transuranic (TRU) waste is co-mingled with over 170,000 m{sup 3} of soil in shallow land burial. Improving the confinement of this waste is one of the options for final disposition of this waste. Using jet-grouting technology to inject these materials into the pore spaces of buried waste sites results in the creation of buried monolithic waste forms that simultaneously protect the waste from subsidence, while eliminating the migratory potential of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in the waste.

  18. Evaluation of In Situ Grouting as a Potential Remediation Method for the Hanford Central Plateau Deep Vadose Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Pierce, Eric M.; Nimmons, Michael J.; Mattigod, Shas V.

    2011-01-11

    The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau report identifies in situ grouting as a potential remediation technology for the deep vadose zone and includes a planned effort to evaluate in situ grouting to provide information for future feasibility studies. This report represents the first step in this evaluation effort.

  19. Assessing the influence of jet-grouting underpinning on the nearby buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aleksandra Chepurnova

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the underpinning-induced ground movement due to jet-grouting. Jet-grouting technique can cause distortions as a result of an inaccurate processing sequence and/or errors made at different stages of work execution. The aim of this paper is to determine the minimum value of such movement on the basis of the findings obtained at two similar construction sites located in the Historical Center of Moscow, considering that the maximum value is usually unpredictable. Numerical simulation of the process of soil eroding agrees well with the observational data at the current stage. It was found that the minimum value of deformations (only settlement was considered in this study) due to jet-grouting is no less than 2e3 mm. By contrast, the negative scenario of deformation due to foundation underpinning is clearly demonstrated. Also, this paper provides some general solutions for excavation supporting system as well as for underpinning design.

  20. The radiation stability of ground granulated blast furnace slag/ordinary Portland cement grouts containing organic admixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, J.D.; Fairhall, G.A. [British Nuclear Fuels, Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    At the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) Sellafield reprocessing plant in the United Kingdom, cement grouts based on ground granulated blast-furnace slag (BFS) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) are used extensively for immobilizing radioactive wastes. These grouts have excluded organic admixtures in order to reduce process complexity and uncertainties, regarding the performance of organic admixtures with BFS/OPC grouts, particularly under irradiation. This study has investigated the effects of sulfonated melamine formaldehyde and naphthalene condensates on grout properties. The results show grout settlement and strengths increase on addition of additives, with the additives remaining largely in the pore solution. Under irradiation the additives breakdown liberating hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Strength and product dimensions are unaffected by irradiation.

  1. Nuclear waste viewed in a new light; a synchrotron study of uranium encapsulated in grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stitt, C.A., E-mail: Camilla.stitt@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Hart, M., E-mail: oxford.mike@gmail.com [Diamond Light Source Limited, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Fermi Avenue, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Harker, N.J., E-mail: nicholas.harker@esrf.fr [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Hallam, K.R., E-mail: k.r.hallam@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); MacFarlane, J., E-mail: james.macfarlane@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Banos, A., E-mail: antonis.banos@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Paraskevoulakos, C., E-mail: cp13846@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Butcher, E., E-mail: ed.j.butcher@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1 PG (United Kingdom); Padovani, C., E-mail: cristiano.padovani@nda.gov.uk [Radioactive Waste Management Limited (formerly the Radioactive Waste Management Directorate of the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority), Curie Avenue, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RH (United Kingdom); Scott, T.B., E-mail: t.b.scott@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • Unirradiated Magnox uranium was encapsulated in grout and exposed to hydrogen. • Synchrotron X-ray tomography imaged the uranium corrosion before and after exposure. • Synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction identified the corrosion products; UH{sub 3} and UO{sub 2}. • Uranium encapsulated in grout oxidised via the anoxic U + H{sub 2}O regime. • Successful in-situ, non-invasive examination of pyrophoric and radioactive material - Abstract: How do you characterise the contents of a sealed nuclear waste package without breaking it open? This question is important when the contained corrosion products are potentially reactive with air and radioactive. Synchrotron X-rays have been used to perform micro-scale in-situ observation and characterisation of uranium encapsulated in grout; a simulation for a typical intermediate level waste storage packet. X-ray tomography and X-ray powder diffraction generated both qualitative and quantitative data from a grout-encapsulated uranium sample before, and after, deliberately constrained H{sub 2} corrosion. Tomographic reconstructions provided a means of assessing the extent, rates and character of the corrosion reactions by comparing the relative densities between the materials and the volume of reaction products. The oxidation of uranium in grout was found to follow the anoxic U + H{sub 2}O oxidation regime, and the pore network within the grout was observed to influence the growth of uranium hydride sites across the metal surface. Powder diffraction analysis identified the corrosion products as UO{sub 2} and UH{sub 3}, and permitted measurement of corrosion-induced strain. Together, X-ray tomography and diffraction provide means of accurately determining the types and extent of uranium corrosion occurring, thereby offering a future tool for isolating and studying the reactions occurring in real full-scale waste package systems.

  2. CLOSURE OF HLW TANKS PHASE 2 FULL SCALE COOLING COILS GROUT FILL DEMONSTATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E; Alex Cozzi, A

    2008-06-19

    This report documents the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) support for the Tank Closure and Technology Development (TCTD) group's strategy for closing high level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, this task addresses the ability to successfully fill intact cooling coils, presently within the HLW tanks, with grout that satisfies the fresh and cured grout requirements [1] under simulated field conditions. The overall task was divided into two phases. The first phase was the development of a grout formulation that satisfies the processing requirements for filling the HLW tank cooling coils [5]. The second phase of the task, which is documented in this report, was the filling of full scale cooling coils under simulated field conditions using the grout formulation developed in the first phase. SRS Type I tank cooling coil assembly design drawings and pressure drop calculations were provided by the Liquid Waste (LW) customer to be used as the basis for configuring the test assemblies. The current concept for closing tanks equipped with internal cooling coils is to pump grout into the coils to inhibit pathways for infiltrating water. Access to the cooling coil assemblies is through the existing supply/return manifold headers located on top of the Type I tanks. The objectives for the second phase of the testing, as stated in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance plan (TTQAP) [2], were to: (1) Perform a demonstration test to assess cooling coil grout performance in simulated field conditions, and (2) Measure relevant properties of samples prepared under simulated field conditions. SRNL led the actual work of designing, fabricating and filling two full-scale cooling coil assemblies which were performed at Clemson Engineering Technologies Laboratory (CETL) using the South Carolina University Research and Education Foundation (SCUREF) program. A statement of work (SOW) was issued to CETL [6] to perform this work.

  3. Analysis on contaminants transport process through clay-solidified grouting curtain in MSW landfills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong-gui; ZHANG Ke-neng; HUANG Chang-bo

    2005-01-01

    Clay-solidified grouting curtains are commonly used for remediation by containment or pollution prevention, in addition to their use as a barrier to water flow in municipal solid waste(MSW) landfills. A hydrological model.of water flow and a hydrodynamic model of contaminant are presented to simulate the migration of leachate through clay-solidified grouting curtain in MSW landfills, with particular attention paid to the role of diffusive and adsorptive fluxes in contaminant transport. The models were applied to simulate the sensitivity of the curtain's behavior to changes in parameters, such as thickness, depth, permeability coefficient, diffusion coefficient,resistance coefficient and concentration, and also to demonstrate the contaminant distribution on the evolution of travel time and offset distance of clay-solidified grouting curtain in landfills. It is found that a part of leachate components stays or is retarded in clay-solidified grouting curtain by precipitate or exchange, the retention rate is closely related to composition of clay-solidified grouting curtain, more than 800%, and the maximum occurs at the cementclay ratio of 2: 4 under experimental conditions. Contamination distribution is variable on travel time and offset distance, the highest concentration takes place where the contamination intensity is nearest to the pollution resource or takes place at early middle period of transport, and the pollutant attenuates gradually. The results indicate that claysolidified grouting curtain with a proper thickness, a low permeability coefficient and a high resistance coefficient might serve as a sufficiently effective vertical barrier against leachate seepage and contamination migration in MSWlandfills.

  4. Experimental studies on the physico-mechanical properties of jet-grout columns in sandy and silty soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Muge K.

    2016-04-01

    The term of ground improvement states to the modification of the engineering properties of soils. Jet-grouting is one of the grouting methods among various ground improvement techniques. During jet-grouting, different textures of columns can be obtained depending on the characteristics of surrounding subsoil as well as the adopted jet-grouting system for each site is variable. In addition to textural properties, strength and index parameters of jet-grout columns are highly affected by the adjacent soil. In this study, the physical and mechanical properties of jet-grout columns constructed at two different sites in silty and sandy soil conditions were determined by laboratory tests. A number of statistical relationships between physical and mechanical properties of soilcrete were established in this study in order to investigate the dependency of numerous variables. The relationship between qu and γd is more reliable for sandy soilcrete than that of silty columns considering the determination coefficients. Positive linear relationships between Vp and γd with significantly high determination coefficients were obtained for the jet-grout columns in silt and sand. The regression analyses indicate that the P-wave velocity is a very dominant parameter for the estimation of physical and mechanical properties of jet-grout columns and should be involved during the quality control of soilcrete material despite the intensive use of uniaxial compressive strength test. Besides, it is concluded that the dry unit weight of jet-grout column is a good indicator of the efficiency of employed operational parameters during jet-grouting.

  5. Bolt-Grout Interactions in Elastoplastic Rock Mass Using Coupled FEM-FDM Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Deb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical procedure based on finite element method (FEM and finite difference method (FDM for the analysis of bolt-grout interactions are introduced in this paper. The finite element procedure incorporates elasto-plastic concepts with Hoek and Brown yield criterion and has been applied for rock mass. Bolt-grout interactions are evaluated based on finite difference method and are embedded in the elasto-plastic procedures of FEM. The experimental validation of the proposed FEM-FDM procedures and numerical examples of a bolted tunnel are provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method for practical applications.

  6. Quantitative modelling of the degradation processes of cement grout. Project CEMMOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandia, Fidel; Galindez, Juan-Manuel; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge (Amphos21 Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    2010-05-15

    Grout cement is planned to be used in the sealing of water-conducting fractures in the deep geological storage of spent nuclear fuel waste. The integrity of such cementitious materials should be ensured in a time framework of decades to a hundred of years as mimum. However, their durability must be quantified since grout degradation may jeopardize the stability of other components in the repository due to the potential release of hyperalkaline plumes. The model prediction of the cement alteration has been challenging in the last years mainly due to the difficulty to reproduce the progressive change in composition of the Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (CSH) compounds as the alteration proceeds. In general, the data obtained from laboratory experiments show a rather similar dependence between the pH of pore water and the Ca-Si ratio of the CSH phases. The Ca-Si ratio decreases as the CSH is progressively replaced by Si-enriched phases. An elegant and reasonable approach is the use of solid solution models even keeping in mind that CSH phases are not crystalline solids but gels. An additional obstacle is the uncertainty in the initial composition of the grout to be considered in the calculations because only the recipe of low-pH clinker is commonly provided by the manufacturer. The hydration process leads to the formation of new phases and, importantly, creates porosity. A number of solid solution models have been reported in literature. Most of them assumed a strong non-ideal binary solid solution series to account for the observed changes in the Ca-Si ratios in CSH. However, it results very difficult to reproduce the degradation of the CSH in the whole Ca-Si range of compositions (commonly Ca/Si=0.5-2.5) by considering only two end-members and fixed nonideality parameters. Models with multiple non-ideal end-members with interaction parameters as a function of the solid composition can solve the problem but these can not be managed in the existing codes of reactive

  7. ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL FOR HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING GROUTING OPERATIONS IN THE R AND P REACTOR VESSELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2009-10-29

    The R- and P-reactor buildings were retired from service and are now being prepared for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D). D&D activities will consist primarily of immobilizing contaminated components and structures in a grout-like formulation. Aluminum corrodes very rapidly when it comes in contact with the alkaline grout materials and as a result produces hydrogen gas. To address this potential deflagration/explosion hazard, the Materials Science and Technology Directorate (MS&T) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to review and evaluate existing experimental and analytical studies of this issue to determine if any process constraints on the chemistry of the fill material and the fill operation are necessary. Various options exist for the type of grout material that may be used for D&D of the reactor vessels. The grout formulation options include ceramicrete (pH 6-8), low pH portland cement + silica fume grout (pH 10.4), or portland cement grout (pH 12.5). The assessment concluded that either ceramicrete or the silica fume grout may be used to safely grout the R- and P- reactor vessels. The risk of accumulation of a flammable mixture of hydrogen between the grout-air interface and the top of the reactor is very low. Conservative calculations estimate that either ceramicrete or the silica fume grout may be used to safely grout the R- and P- reactor vessels. The risk of accumulation of a flammable mixture of hydrogen between the grout-air interface and the top of the reactor is very low. Although these calculations are conservative, there are some measures that may be taken to further minimize the potential for hydrogen evolution. (1) Minimize the temperature of the grout as much as practical. Lower temperatures will mean lower hydrogen generation rates. Grout temperatures less than 100 C should however, still provide an adequate safety margin for the pH 8 and pH 10.4 grout formulations. (2) Minimize the fill rate as much as

  8. Mechanism Research on the Improvement of Bearing Capacity of Single Pile by Pile-base Post Grouting Technique and Estimation of Bearing Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The slurry wall bored grouting has some defects. The pile-base post grouting technique can efficiently make up these defects and greatly improve the bearing capacity. Based on the pile-base post grouting technique and its process analysis, this paper carries out a detailed analysis about the improvement of mechanism of bearing capacity and mechanism of spherical expansion by the use of pile-base post grouting technique, as well as the estimation method of the bearing capacity of pile-base post grouting pile, which has a certain reference value for theoretical research and technical application of the technique.

  9. HYDRAULIC AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SALTSTONE GROUTS AND VAULT CONCRETES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, K; John Harbour, J; Mark Phifer, M

    2008-11-25

    were determined following a minimum 28 day curing period. Additional testing of the three saltstone formulations was conducted following a minimum 90 day curing period. The compressive strength of each saltstone and concrete material was measured at approximately 14, 28, 56, and 90 days. Recommended hydraulic property values for each saltstone grout and the vault concretes are provided. The hydraulic properties provided for each material include the saturated hydraulic conductivity, dry bulk density, particle density, and porosity. In addition, water retention data are presented for each material along with the van Genuchten transport parameters as determined using the RETC code.

  10. Degree of saturation effect on the grout-soil interface shear strength of soil nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the grouted soil nailing system, the bonding strength of cement grout-soil interface offers the required resistance to maintain the stability of whole structure. In practice, soil nailing applications are often placed at unsaturated conditions, such as soil slopes, shallow foundations, retaining walls and pavement structures. In these cases, the water content in the soil nail zone may increase or decrease due to rain water or dry weather, and even cannot become saturated during their design service life. In this study, the effect of water content (degree of saturation on the shear strength of interface between cement grout and sand are experimentally investigated by means of direct shear test. Meanwhile the water retention curve was determined and interface microstructure was observed. Experimental results show that the shear strength of interface changes non-monotonously with degree of saturation when the interface was prepared, due to the non-monotonousness of the cohesiveness between soil particles. The less the cohesiveness between sand particles, the more grout was observed been penetrated into the voids, and thus the larger the interface shear stress.

  11. Nuclear waste viewed in a new light; a synchrotron study of uranium encapsulated in grout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, C A; Hart, M; Harker, N J; Hallam, K R; MacFarlane, J; Banos, A; Paraskevoulakos, C; Butcher, E; Padovani, C; Scott, T B

    2015-03-21

    How do you characterise the contents of a sealed nuclear waste package without breaking it open? This question is important when the contained corrosion products are potentially reactive with air and radioactive. Synchrotron X-rays have been used to perform micro-scale in-situ observation and characterisation of uranium encapsulated in grout; a simulation for a typical intermediate level waste storage packet. X-ray tomography and X-ray powder diffraction generated both qualitative and quantitative data from a grout-encapsulated uranium sample before, and after, deliberately constrained H2 corrosion. Tomographic reconstructions provided a means of assessing the extent, rates and character of the corrosion reactions by comparing the relative densities between the materials and the volume of reaction products. The oxidation of uranium in grout was found to follow the anoxic U+H2O oxidation regime, and the pore network within the grout was observed to influence the growth of uranium hydride sites across the metal surface. Powder diffraction analysis identified the corrosion products as UO2 and UH3, and permitted measurement of corrosion-induced strain. Together, X-ray tomography and diffraction provide means of accurately determining the types and extent of uranium corrosion occurring, thereby offering a future tool for isolating and studying the reactions occurring in real full-scale waste package systems.

  12. Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Investigations for Imaging the Grouting Injection in Shallow Subsurface Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farooq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The highway of Yongweol-ri, Muan-gun, south-western part of the South Korean Peninsula, is underlain by the abandoned of subsurface cavities, which were discovered in 2005. These cavities lie at shallow depths with the range of 5∼15 meters below the ground surface. Numerous subsidence events have repeatedly occurred in the past few years, damaging infrastructure and highway. As a result of continuing subsidence issues, the Korean Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources (KIGAM was requested by local administration to resolve the issue. The KIGAM used geophysical methods to delineate subsurface cavities and improve more refined understanding of the cavities network in the study area. Cement based grouting has been widely employed in the construction industry to reinforce subsurface ground. In this research work, time-lapse electrical resistivity surveys were accomplished to monitor the grouting injection in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway, which have provided a quasi-real-time monitoring for modifying the subsurface cavities related to ground reinforcement, which would be difficult with direct methods. The results obtained from time-lapse electrical resistivity technique have satisfactory imaged the grouting injection experiment in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway. Furthermore, the borehole camera confirmed the presence of grouting material in the subsurface cavities, and hence this procedure increases the mechanical resistance of subsurface cavities below the highway.

  13. Grout long radius flow testing to support Saltstone disposal Unit 5 design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D. B.; Langton, C. A.; Serrato, M. G.; Brooks, T. E. II; Huff, T. H.

    2013-02-24

    The Saltstone Facility, located within the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina, consists of two facility segments: The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The SPF receives decontaminated legacy low level sodium salt waste solution that is a byproduct of prior nuclear material processing. The salt solution is mixed with cementitious materials to form a grout slurry known as “Saltstone”. The grout is pumped to the SDF where it is placed in a Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) to solidify. SDU 6 is referred to as a “mega vault” and is currently in the design stage. The conceptual design for SDU 6 is a single cell, cylindrical geometry approximately 114.3 meters in diameter by 13.1 meter high and is larger than previous cylindrical SDU designs, 45.7 meters in diameter by 7.01 meters high (30 million gallons versus 2.9 million gallons of capacity). Saltstone slurry will be pumped into the new waste disposal unit through roof openings at a projected flow rate of about 34.1 cubic meters per hour. Nine roof openings are included in the design to discharge material into the SDU with an estimated grout pour radius of 22.9 to 24.4 meters and initial drop height of 13.1 meters. The conceptual design for the new SDU does not include partitions to limit the pour radius of the grout slurry during placement other than introducing material from different pour points. This paper addresses two technical issues associated with the larger diameter of SDU 6; saltstone flow distance in a tank 114.3 meters in diameter and quality of the grout. A long-radius flow test scaled to match the velocity of an advancing grout front was designed to address these technology gaps. The emphasis of the test was to quantify the flow distance and to collect samples to evaluate cured properties including compressive strength, porosity, density, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Two clean cap surrogate mixes (saltstone premix plus water

  14. Grout Long Radius Flow Testing to Support Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 Design - 13352

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D.B.; Langton, C.A.; Serrato, M.G. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Brooks, T.E. II; Huff, T.H. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Saltstone Facility, located within the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina, consists of two facility segments: The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The SPF receives decontaminated legacy low level sodium salt waste solution that is a byproduct of prior nuclear material processing. The salt solution is mixed with cementitious materials to form a grout slurry known as 'Saltstone'. The grout is pumped to the SDF where it is placed in a Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) to solidify. SDU 6 is referred to as a 'mega vault' and is currently in the design stage. The conceptual design for SDU 6 is a single cell, cylindrical geometry approximately 114.3 meters in diameter by 13.1 meter high and is larger than previous cylindrical SDU designs, 45.7 meters in diameter by 7.01 meters high (30 million gallons versus 2.9 million gallons of capacity). Saltstone slurry will be pumped into the new waste disposal unit through roof openings at a projected flow rate of about 34.1 cubic meters per hour. Nine roof openings are included in the design to discharge material into the SDU with an estimated grout pour radius of 22.9 to 24.4 meters and initial drop height of 13.1 meters. The conceptual design for the new SDU does not include partitions to limit the pour radius of the grout slurry during placement other than introducing material from different pour points. This paper addresses two technical issues associated with the larger diameter of SDU 6; Saltstone flow distance in a tank 114.3 meters in diameter and quality of the grout. A long-radius flow test scaled to match the velocity of an advancing grout front was designed to address these technology gaps. The emphasis of the test was to quantify the flow distance and to collect samples to evaluate cured properties including compressive strength, porosity, density, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Two clean cap surrogate mixes (Saltstone premix

  15. Engineering practice of reducing ground subsidence by grouting into overburden bed-separated and similar model experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yan-fa; ZHONG Ya-ping; LI Jian-min; WANG Su-hua; ZHANG Qing-song

    2007-01-01

    The subsidence prediction theory under the condition of grouting into bedseparated was developed. Reducing ground subsidence by grouting was carried out on eight fully-mechanized top-coal caving faces, by using the continuous grouting in multiple-layer to obtain experiment results of reducing subsidence under fully mining. The similar material model that can be dismantled under the condition of constant temperature and constant humidity was developed. The model was used to simulate the evolution of overburden bed-separated under such constraints of temperature and humidity, at the same time, and to test the hardening process of similar materials.

  16. The Evaluation of Material Properties of Low-pH Cement Grout for the Application of Cementitious Materials to Deep Radioactive Waste Repository Tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Seop; Kwon, S. K.; Cho, W. J.; Kim, G. W

    2009-12-15

    Considering the current construction technology and research status of deep repository tunnels for radioactive waste disposal, it is inevitable to use cementitious materials in spite of serious concern about their long-term environmental stability. Thus, it is an emerging task to develop low pH cementitious materials. This study reviews the state of the technology on low pH cements developed in Sweden, Switzerland, France, and Japan as well as in Finland which is constructing a real deep repository site for high-level radioactive waste disposal. Considering the physical and chemical stability of bentonite which acts as a buffer material, a low pH cement limits to pH {<=}11 and pozzolan-type admixtures are used to lower the pH of cement. To attain this pH requirement, silica fume, which is one of the most promising admixtures, should occupy at least 40 wt% of total dry materials in cement and the Ca/Si ratio should be maintained below 0.8 in cement. Additionally, selective super-plasticizer needs to be used because a high amount of water is demanded from the use of a large amount of silica fume. In this report, the state of the technology on application of cementitious materials to deep repository tunnels for radioactive waste disposal was analysed. And the material properties of low-pH and high-pH cement grouts were evaluated base on the grout recipes of ONKALO in Finlan.

  17. 锦屏一级水电站f5断层、煌斑岩脉复合灌浆技术研究%ANALYSIS OF COMPOUND GROUTING TECHNOLOGY FOR F5 FAULT AND LAMPROPHYRE VEIN AT JINPING Ⅰ HYDROPOWER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王胜; 黄润秋; 祝华平

    2012-01-01

    锦屏一级水电站发育的f5断层和煌斑岩脉对坝基的变形稳定、基础应力传递等极为不利,严重影响大坝稳定性及安全运营.针对f5断层、煌斑岩脉水泥灌浆存在的问题,结合f5断层和煌斑岩脉工程地质特征,开展f5断层、煌斑岩脉的水泥-化学复合灌浆加固技术研究.首先,对水泥-化学复合灌浆的作用机理进行分析,从灌浆材料、灌浆方法、现场灌浆试验、灌浆效果评价等方面进行了分析研究.研究结果表明,所采用灌浆材料可灌性较好,施工工艺、灌浆参数基本合理;灌浆后岩体透水性得到了改善,对f5断层、煌斑岩脉声波波速、变形模量等有一定程度提高,但仍然没有达到设计要求.基于水泥-化学复合灌浆存在的问题,分别从灌浆材料、灌浆参数和灌浆质量检查等方面提出了优化建议.%The f5 fault and lamprophyre vein of Jinping I Hydropower have an adverse effect to deformation stabil-ity and stress transfer of dam foundation. They can seriously affect the stability and safe operation of the dam. This paper investigates the cement grout problems for the f5 fault and lamprophyre vein. It is combined with its engineer-ing geology. It examines the cement-chemical compound grouting technology from grouting materials, grouting method, and field grouting. It evaluates the grouting on the basis of mechanism of cement-chemical compound grou-ting. The results show that the use of grouting materials can be better irrigation. Construction technology and grou-ting parameters are reasonable. The permeability of rock has been improved. The wave velocity and deformation modulus of the f5 fault and lamprophyre have a certain degree of improvement. But they still do not meet the design requirements. Optimization proposal has been got from grouting materials, parameters and quality checks on the ba-sis of the grouting evaluation results.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL FOR HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING GROUTING OPERATIONS IN THE R AND P REACTOR VESSELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2010-05-24

    The R- and P-reactor buildings were retired from service and are now being prepared for deactivation and decommissioning (D and D). D and D activities consist primarily of immobilizing contaminated components and structures in a grout-like formulation. Aluminum corrodes very rapidly when it comes in contact with the alkaline grout materials and as a result produces hydrogen gas. To address this potential deflagration/explosion hazard, the Materials Science and Technology Directorate (MS and T) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to review and evaluate existing experimental and analytical studies of this issue to determine if any process constraints on the chemistry of the fill material and the fill operation are necessary. Various options exist for the type of grout material that may be used for D and D of the reactor vessels. The grout formulation options include ceramicrete (pH 6-8), low pH portland cement + silica fume grout (pH 10.4), or Portland cement groupt (pH 12.5). The assessment concluded that either ceramicrete or the silica fume grout may be used to safely grout the P-reactor vessel. The risk of accumulation of a flammable mixture of hydrogen between the grout-air interface and the top of the reactor is very low. Portland cement grout, on the other hand, for the same range of process parameters does not provide a margin of safety against the accumulation of flammable gas in the reactor vessel during grouting operations in the P-reactor vessel. It is recommended that this grout not be utilized for this task. The R-reactor vessel cotnains significantly less aluminum based on current facility process knowledge, surface observations, and drawings. Therefore, a Portland cement grout may be considered for grouting operations as well as the other grout formulations. For example, if the grout fill rate is less than 1 inch/min and the grout temperature is maintained at 70 C or less, the risk of hydrogen accumulation during fill

  19. 盾构隧道同步注浆浆液压力消散规律研究%Research on the Dissipation Law of Grout Pressure during the Simultaneous Grouting of Shield Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莎莎; 戴志仁; 白云

    2012-01-01

    基于达西定律、力学平衡原理和广义虎克定律,推导盾尾空隙内浆液的固结方程,以软土地区典型的盾构隧道同步注浆参数为例,分析浆液压力消散规律.结果表明:浆饼(浆液固结层)厚度与土体剪切模量、泊松比成反比,与注浆压力成正比,与浆液固结前后孔隙比的变化密切相关;不计地层渗流阻力影响时,浆液压力的消散与浆饼厚度的形成主要集中在浆液注入盾尾空隙后的2.1h以内;地层渗流阻力可以延缓浆液的固结过程,但不能影响其最终固结状态;土体剪切模量的增大有利于促进浆液压力的快速消散;孔隙水压力的增大能明显抑制浆液压力的消散;注浆压力的增大对初始时刻浆液压力的消散具有明显的促进作用,但却会相应延长压力消散的时间.%Guided by Darcy law, the mechanical equilibrium principle and the generalized Hooke's law, the formula of grout consolidation in tail void was derived. Based on the typical grouting parameters during simultaneous grouting in soft soils, the dissipation law of grout pressure was analyzed. Results show that the thickness of grout cake (grout consolidated layer) is inversely proportional to soil shear modulus and Poisson's ratio, is proportional to grouting pressure, and is still closely related to the change of void ratio before and after grout consolidation. Excluded the influence of ground osmotic resistance, the dissipation of grout pressure and the formation of grout cake is mainly concentrated in the first 2. 1 hours after grout injected into tail void. Ground osmotic resistance can obviously delay grout consolidation process, but not the finial consolidation state. The increment of soil shear modulus helps to accelerate the dissipation speed of grout pressure. The increment of pore water pressure can obviously restrain the dissipation of grout pressure. The increase of grouting pressure can obviously promote the initial

  20. Jet Grouting. Control of execution and result parameters. Test fields - Experience in Chile; Jet Grouting. Control de parametros de ejecucion y de resultados. Campos de prueba-Experiencia en Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayarza, P. M.; Vukotic, G.

    2014-07-01

    This article emphasizes the importance of Test Fields in project that includes the Jet Grouting technique. In particular, the Chilean experience is analyzed, where the Jet Grouting was first introduced by Pilots Terratest S. A. in the year 2010, only, only in 2011 the first project using jet columns was constructed. The versatilely of this technique allows its use in a wide variety of projects, for example, soil capacity improvement, settlement control, reduction of soil permeability and other environmental applications. Currently, the most common applications are underpinning existing foundations, ground improvement, lateral support of excavations, hydraulic barriers, slope stabilization, liquefaction control, among others. The Jet Grouting is one of the most demanding soil improvement technique and requires excellence in designing and execution engineers and other involved specialist. It is therefore essential to ensure exhaustive control to the execution and final parameters, in order to check that the product- Jet Grouting element-have the design properties, and implement modifications if necessary. Many authors strongly advises that if there is no comparable experience and even if there is, a Test Field of Jet Grouting elements has to be executed in site. This field consists in a nearby area with similar geotechnical conditions of the project, where Jet Grouting test columns will be constructed. This Test Field will allow selecting the most effective execution parameters and verifying that the final product has he correct design properties. (Author)

  1. A THERMAL MODEL OF THE IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE AS GROUT IN CONCRETE VAULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadday, M

    2008-10-27

    Salt solution will be mixed with cement and flyash/slag to form a grout which will be immobilized in above ground concrete vaults. The curing process is exothermic, and a transient thermal model of the pouring and curing process is herein described. A peak temperature limit of 85 C for the curing grout restricts the rate at which it can be poured into a vault. The model is used to optimize the pouring.

  2. Effective grouting area of jointed slope and stress deformation responses by numerical analysis with FLAC3D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zi-qiang; LIU Qun-yi; ZENG Fan-he; QING Du-gan

    2009-01-01

    To study the grouting reinforcement mechanism in jointed rock slope, first, the theoretical deduction was done to calculate the critical length of slipping if the slope angle is larger than that of joint inclination; Second, the numerical calculation model was founded by FLAG3D, so as to find the stress and deformation responses of rock mass in the state before and after grouting, the analysis results show that the range between the boundary of critical slipping block and the joint plane that passes the slope toe is the effective grouting area (EGA). After excavation, large deformation occurs along the joint plane. After grouting, the displacements of rock particles become uniform and continuous, and large deformations along the joint plane are controlled; the dynamic displacement can reflect the deformation response of slope during excavation in the state before and after grouting, as well as the shear location of potential slip plane. After grouting, the dynamic displacement of each monitoring point reaches the peak value with very few time steps,which indicate that the parameters of the joint plane, such as strength and stiffness, are improved; the stress field becomes uniform. Tensile area reduces gradually; whole stability of the slope and its ability to resist tensile and shear stress are improved greatly.

  3. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  4. The grout/glass performance assessment code system (GPACS) with verification and benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepho, M.G.; Sutherland, W.H.; Rittmann, P.D.

    1994-12-01

    GPACS is a computer code system for calculating water flow (unsaturated or saturated), solute transport, and human doses due to the slow release of contaminants from a waste form (in particular grout or glass) through an engineered system and through a vadose zone to an aquifer, well and river. This dual-purpose document is intended to serve as a user`s guide and verification/benchmark document for the Grout/Glass Performance Assessment Code system (GPACS). GPACS can be used for low-level-waste (LLW) Glass Performance Assessment and many other applications including other low-level-waste performance assessments and risk assessments. Based on all the cses presented, GPACS is adequate (verified) for calculating water flow and contaminant transport in unsaturated-zone sediments and for calculating human doses via the groundwater pathway.

  5. Durability and compressive strength of blast furnace slag-based cement grout for special geotechnical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega, J. M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Special foundations, most prominently micropiles and soil anchors, are frequently used in construction today. In Spain, the grout for these special technical applications is generally prepared with portland cement, although the codes and standards in place stipulate only the minimum compressive strength required, with no mention of cement type. Those texts also establish a range of acceptable water:cement ratios. In the present study, durability and compressive strength in cement grout prepared with blast furnace slag cement at different w/c ratios are characterised and compared to the findings for a reference portland cement grout. The results show that slag grout exhibits greater durability than the portland cement material and complies with the compressive strength requirements laid down in the respective codes.Actualmente es muy frecuente el empleo de cimentaciones especiales, entre las que destacan los micropilotes y los anclajes. En España, las lechadas de cemento para estos trabajos geotécnicos especiales se preparan habitualmente con cemento Portland, aunque las diferentes normativas al respecto no restringen el tipo de cemento a emplear, siempre que se alcance una determinada resistencia a compresión. Respecto a la dosificación de las lechadas, la normativa permite emplear diferentes relaciones agua/cemento dentro de un determinado rango. En vista de ello, en este trabajo se han caracterizado las propiedades de durabilidad y resistencia a compresión de lechadas de cemento preparadas con un cemento con escoria de alto horno y con diferentes relaciones a/c, tomando como referencia de comportamiento lechadas de cemento Portland. El uso de un cemento con escoria conlleva una mejora en la durabilidad de las lechadas, cumpliendo los requisitos de resistencia a compresión establecidos por la normativa.

  6. Leach and EP (extraction procedure) toxicity tests on grouted waste from Tank 106-AN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; Lokken, R.O.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; Martin, P.F.C.

    1989-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting laboratory experiments to produce leach rate data for various waste species that will be contained in grout at Hanford. In the work reported here, grout made from Tank 106-AN liquid waste was used to produce empirical leach rate data for several radionuclides ({sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {99}Tc, {129}I, {137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am), stable major components (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, F, Cl, and Na), and trace metals (Cr, Mo, and Ni). Two types of tests were used to produce leach rate data: an intermittent replacement leach test (ANS 16.1 leach test) and a static leach test. Measured effective diffusivities of key species are as follows: 4 to 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/sec for {sup 99}Tc, 3 to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/sec for {sup 129}I, 4 to 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} cm{sup 2}/sec for nitrate, and 6 to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} cm{sup 2}/sec for nitrite. The leach indices of all species studied are above (more favorable than) the waste form criteria. The leach indices for {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I are 7.4 {plus minus} 1.2 and 7.6 {plus minus} 0.4, respectively, and are being further investigated in continuing studies of double-shell slurry feed grouts. An Extraction Procedure (EP) toxicity test was also conducted and the grouted water is considered nontoxic per this test protocol. 19 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Experimental Study on Mechanical Characteristics of Cracked Rock Mass Reinforced by Bolting and Grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The stress hardening characteristics of the reinforced rock mass in uniaxial compression tests were revealed by means of the experimental study on mechanical characteristics of cracked rock mass reinforced by bolting and grouting. And the load-bearing mechanism of the reinforced rock mass was perfectly reflected by the experiment. The results can offer some useful advice for support design and stability analysis of deep drifts in unstable strata.

  8. Grout and glass performance in support of stabilization/solidification of ORNL tank sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R.D.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1998-09-01

    Wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collected, evaporated, and stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and Bethel Valley Evaporator Storage Tanks (BVEST) pending treatment for disposal. In addition, some sludges and supernatants also requiring treatment remain in two inactive tank systems: the gunite and associated tanks (GAAT) and the old hydrofracture (OHF) tank. The waste consists of two phases: sludge and supernatant. The sludges contain a high amount of radioactivity, and some are classified as TRU sludges. Some Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough to be defined as RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges are presumed to be mixed TRU waste. Grouting and vitrification are currently two likely stabilization/solidification alternatives for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize/solidify hazardous and low-level radioactive waste for decades. Vitrification has been developed as a high-level radioactive alternative for decades and has been under development recently as an alternative disposal technology for mixed waste. The objective of this project is to define an envelope, or operating window, for grout and glass formulations for ORNL tank sludges. Formulations will be defined for the average composition of each of the major tank farms (BVEST/MVST, GAAT, and OHF) and for an overall average composition of all tank farms. This objective is to be accomplished using surrogates of the tank sludges with hot testing of actual tank sludges to check the efficacy of the surrogates.

  9. IMPACT OF ALUMINATE IONS ON THE PROPERTIES OF SALTSTONE GROUT MIXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J; Tommy Edwards, T; Erich Hansen, E; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-02-21

    It is important to identify and control the operational and compositional variables that impact the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixes. The grout that is produced at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) is referred to as Saltstone and is a waste form that immobilizes low concentrations of radionuclides as well as certain toxic metals. The Saltstone will be disposed of in vaults at Savannah River Site (SRS). An effort referred to as the Saltstone Variability Study has been initiated to achieve this goal. The protocols developed in this variability study are also ideally suited as a tool to assess the impact of proposed changes to the processing flow sheet for Liquid Waste Operations at SRS. One such proposal that is currently under consideration is to introduce a leaching step in the treatment of the High Level Waste (HLW) sludge to remove aluminum prior to vitrification at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This leachate would significantly increase the soluble aluminate concentration in the salt feed that will be processed at the SPF. Consequently, an initial study of the impact of increased aluminate concentration on the Saltstone grout properties was performed. Prior work by Lukens (1) showed that aluminate in the salt solutions increases the amount of heat generation.

  10. Assessing the influence of jet-grouting underpinning on the nearby buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Chepurnova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the underpinning-induced ground movement due to jet-grouting. Jet-grouting technique can cause distortions as a result of an inaccurate processing sequence and/or errors made at different stages of work execution. The aim of this paper is to determine the minimum value of such movement on the basis of the findings obtained at two similar construction sites located in the Historical Center of Moscow, considering that the maximum value is usually unpredictable. Numerical simulation of the process of soil eroding agrees well with the observational data at the current stage. It was found that the minimum value of deformations (only settlement was considered in this study due to jet-grouting is no less than 2–3 mm. By contrast, the negative scenario of deformation due to foundation underpinning is clearly demonstrated. Also, this paper provides some general solutions for excavation supporting system as well as for underpinning design.

  11. Quantitative modelling of the degradation processes of cement grout. Project CEMMOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandia, Fidel; Galindez, Juan-Manuel; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge (Amphos21 Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    2010-05-15

    Grout cement is planned to be used in the sealing of water-conducting fractures in the deep geological storage of spent nuclear fuel waste. The integrity of such cementitious materials should be ensured in a time framework of decades to a hundred of years as mimum. However, their durability must be quantified since grout degradation may jeopardize the stability of other components in the repository due to the potential release of hyperalkaline plumes. The model prediction of the cement alteration has been challenging in the last years mainly due to the difficulty to reproduce the progressive change in composition of the Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (CSH) compounds as the alteration proceeds. In general, the data obtained from laboratory experiments show a rather similar dependence between the pH of pore water and the Ca-Si ratio of the CSH phases. The Ca-Si ratio decreases as the CSH is progressively replaced by Si-enriched phases. An elegant and reasonable approach is the use of solid solution models even keeping in mind that CSH phases are not crystalline solids but gels. An additional obstacle is the uncertainty in the initial composition of the grout to be considered in the calculations because only the recipe of low-pH clinker is commonly provided by the manufacturer. The hydration process leads to the formation of new phases and, importantly, creates porosity. A number of solid solution models have been reported in literature. Most of them assumed a strong non-ideal binary solid solution series to account for the observed changes in the Ca-Si ratios in CSH. However, it results very difficult to reproduce the degradation of the CSH in the whole Ca-Si range of compositions (commonly Ca/Si=0.5-2.5) by considering only two end-members and fixed nonideality parameters. Models with multiple non-ideal end-members with interaction parameters as a function of the solid composition can solve the problem but these can not be managed in the existing codes of reactive

  12. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of curtain grouting in the dam bedrock based on binghamian grouts%大坝基岩帷幕宾汉姆浆液灌浆的三维数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓韶辉; 王晓玲; 敖雪菲; 任炳昱; 李瑞金

    2016-01-01

    Because of the grouting engineering of masking and the complexity of geological conditions, how to accurately determine the diffusion regularity of grout under complicated geological conditions is the key and difficult point of grouting numerical simulation analysis. Binghamian grouts two-phase flow characteris⁃tics in the process of grout diffusion and complex geological conditions of dam bedrock is not considered in the present numerical simulation research of grouting in the hydraulic engineering. These research objects mainly focus on a single fracture or a single grout hole, while the simulation of grout front has not in⁃volved. Aim at the above-mentioned problems,a three-dimensional refined geological information model,in⁃cluded different formations,unfavorable geological body, curtains, grouting holes, was firstly established in this paper. Then, coupled with the volume of fluid (VOF) method in the CFD commercial software STAR-CCM+, a three-dimensional grouting mathematical model of Binghamian grouts air-grout two-phase flow was developed to achieve the numerical simulation of the multiple holes and sequencing grouting in the dam bedrock,also analyzing the grout diffusion rule and curtain lap after grouting. Finally,a hydropow⁃er station of bedrock curtain grouting process was taken as a case. The results show that the grout diffu⁃sion radius increases with time in a certain time range,but its rate of change shows a decline trend. After grouting completion of each sequence hole,grout front laps well. Furthermore,comparing the simulation val⁃ue with the actual measuring value of the grouting quantity and time, the average errors were 9.08% and 6.32% respectively,which verified the reliability of the method.%由于灌浆工程的掩蔽性和地质条件的复杂性,如何准确地确定复杂地质条件下浆液的扩散规律是灌浆数值模拟分析的关键及难点。目前,在水利工程中灌浆数值模拟的

  13. 桩底后压浆浆液扩散问题研究%Study on Grout Diffusion of Pile-bottom Post Grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭仕奇

    2013-01-01

      采用钻探取样方法,对渗透性地层中桩底后注浆浆液扩散及固结状态进行检验。实物样品表明,在相对均匀的地层中,浆液扩散呈现出向下、向侧、向上不同的渗透能力:向下最强,向侧次之,向上最弱。在粗细交互地层中,颗粒越粗,渗透更好,扩散更远;水泥浆的含量更高。在同一地层中,距注浆出口越近,水泥浆含量越高。取样结果还表明:在桩底,压力、温度不同于地表,特别是有丰富地下水的环境下,水泥浆的凝结固化时间延迟非常显著。%  In permeable formation, the diffusion and consolidation states of pile-bottom post grout were inspected with the sampling method.The practicality samples showed that in relatively homogeneous strata, grout diffusion were with different downward, sideward and upward penetration ability, each was the strongest, the second place and the weakest.In the al-ternating strata of coarse and fine particles, more coarse was the particle, the better was the permeability, the farther was the diffusion and the higher was the cement content;and in the same strata, the nearer to the grout outlet, the higher was the cement content.The sampling also indicates that the pressure and temperature at the pile bottom are different from the surface;especially in the environment with plentiful groundwater, the time delay for cement slurry condensation curing was very obvious.

  14. 压密注浆顶升效应的研究%Research on lift effect of compaction grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明

    2012-01-01

    The paper adopts SIGMA/W formwork of Geostudio software to simulate the compaction grouting correction procedure of 4 000 t stored fluid tank in Shanghai, compares the influence of the various grouting depth on the lift effect and the grouting lift effect of four kinds of common soils in Shanghai, and illustrates the analysis results show the rectification magnitude of the compaction grouting is 10-1 m, its grouting depth should be less than the half of the bottom consolidation depth and the lift effect of the mucky soil with the minimal compression modulus is the best.%运用Geostudio软件中的SIGMA/W模块模拟了上海4 000 t储液槽的压密注浆纠偏过程,对比了不同注浆深度对顶升效应的影响,以及上海常见的四类土的注浆顶升效应,分析结果显示压密注浆的纠偏量级为10-1m,注浆深度宜不大于底层加固深度的一半,压缩模量最小的淤泥质土的顶升效果最好。

  15. In-situ grouting of the low-level radioactive waste disposal silos at ORNL`s Solid Waste Storage Area Six

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C.W.; Farmer, C.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Stansfield, R.G. [Stansfield (Robert G.), Knoxville, TN (US)

    1993-07-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), one method of solid low-level radioactive waste disposal has been disposed of in below-grade cylindrical concrete silos. Located in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6), each silo measures 8 ft in diameter and 20 ft deep. Present day operations involve loading the silos with low-level radioactive waste and grouting the remaining void space with a particulate grout of low viscosity. Initial operations involving the disposal of wastes into the below-grade silos did not include the grouting process. Grouting was stated as a standard practice (in late 1988) after discovering that {approximately}75% of the silos accumulated water in the bottom of the silos in the {approximately}2 years after capping. Silo water (leachate) contained a wide range of types and concentrations of radionuclides. The migration of contaminated leachate out of the silo into adjoining soil and groundwater was considered to be a serious environmental concern. This report describes how a specially designed particulate-base grout was used to grout 54 silos previously filled with low-level radioactive waste. Grouting involved three steps: (1) silo preparation, (2) formulation and preparation of the grout mixture, and (3) injection of the grout into the silos. Thirty-five of the 54 silos grouted were equipped with a 3-in.-diam Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) pipe used to monitor water levels in the silos. A method for rupturing the bottom section of these PVC wells was developed so that grout could be pumped to the bottom of those silos. Holes (2-in. diam) were drilled through the {approximately}18 in. thick concrete to fill the remaining 19 wells without the PVC monitoring wells. The formulation of grout injected into the silos was based on a Portland Type I cement, flyash, sand, and silica fume admixture. Compressive strength of grout delivered to SWSA6 during grouting operations averaged 1,808 lb/in{sup 2} with a bulk density of 3,549 lb/yd{sup 3}.

  16. Development of grout formulations for 106-AN waste: Mixture-experiment results and analysis. Volume 1, Narrative and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R.D.; McDaniel, E.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, C.M.; Lokken, R.O.; Piepel, G.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Twenty potential ingredients were identified for use in developing a 106-AN grout formulation, and 18 were subsequently obtained and tested. Four ingredients-Type II-LA (moderate heat of hydration) Portland cement, Class F fly ash, attapulgite 150 drilling clay, and ground air-cooled blast-furnace slag (GABFS) were selected for developing the 106-AN grout formulations. A mixture experiment was designed and conducted around the following formulation: 2.5 lb of cement per gallon, 1.2 lb of fly ash per gallon, 0.8 lb of attapulgite per gallon, and 3.5 lb of GABFS per gallon. Reduced empirical models were generated from the results of the mixture experiment. These models were used to recommend several grout formulations for 106-AN. Westinghouse Hanford Company selected one of these formulations to be verified for use with 106-AN and a backup formulation in case problems arise with the first choice.

  17. Technical Note: Example of the Application of Jet Grouting to the Neutralisation of Geotechnical Hazard in Shaft Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dybeł Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a geotechnical hazard neutralisation technology for shaft structures. The diagnosis of problems with uncontrolled subsidence of the ventilation duct provided by the authors enabled the development of a schedule of works required for the protection and reinforcement of foundation soil in the shaft area. The technology of protection works was selected after the analysis of the technical condition of shaft structures as well as hydrological and geomechanical conditions. Due to the closeness of the shaft lining, it was necessary to form grout columns using jet grouting and low-pressure grouting technologies. The article presents the issues related to the selected technology and its application to the neutralisation of the emergent geotechnical hazard. The method of performance of recommended works was also described together with their impact on the technical condition of structures discussed as well as their functionality and usage.

  18. Effects of Using Silica Fume and Polycarboxylate-Type Superplasticizer on Physical Properties of Cementitious Grout Mixtures for Semiflexible Pavement Surfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Mahmud, Hilmi; Mashaan, Nuha S.; Katman, Herdayati; Husain, Nadiah Md

    2014-01-01

    Semi-flexible pavement surfacing is a composite pavement that utilizes the porous pavement structure of the flexible bituminous pavement, which is subsequently grouted with appropriate cementitious materials. This study aims to investigate the compressive strength, flexural strength, and workability performance of cementitious grout. The grout mixtures are designed to achieve high strength and maintain flow properties in order to allow the cement slurries to infiltrate easily through unfilled compacted skeletons. A paired-sample t-test was carried out to find out whether water/cement ratio, SP percentages, and use of silica fume influence the cementitious grout performance. The findings showed that the replacement of 5% silica fume with an adequate amount of superplasticizer and water/cement ratio was beneficial in improving the properties of the cementitious grout. PMID:24526911

  19. Polymer grouts for plugging lost circulation in geothermal wells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbreath, D. (Green Mountain International, Waynesvile, NC); Mansure, Arthur James; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2004-12-01

    We have concluded a laboratory study to evaluate the survival potential of polymeric materials used for lost circulation plugs in geothermal wells. We learned early in the study that these materials were susceptible to hydrolysis. Through a systematic program in which many potential chemical combinations were evaluated, polymers were developed which tolerated hydrolysis for eight weeks at 500 F. The polymers also met material, handling, cost, and emplacement criteria. This screening process identified the most promising materials. A benefit of this work is that the components of the polymers developed can be mixed at the surface and pumped downhole through a single hose. Further strength testing is required to determine precisely the maximum temperature at which extrusion through fractures or voids causes failure of the lost circulation plug.

  20. Modified-sulfur cements for use in concretes, flexible pavings, coatings, and grouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, W. C.; Sullivan, T. A.; Jong, B. W.

    1981-05-01

    A family of modified-sulfur cements was developed for the preparation of construction materials with improved properties. Various types of sulfur cements were prepared by reacting sulfur with mixtures of dicyclopentadiene and oligomers of cyclopentadiene. Durable cements were prepared with structural characteristics ranging from rigid to flexible. These cements were used to prepare corrosion-resistant materials for use in a wide variety of industrial applications where resistance to acidic and salt conditions is needed. These materials were prepared as rigid concretes, flexible pavings, spray coatings, and grouts. Production of modified-sulfur cements in a commercial-size plant was demonstrated.

  1. Drip Sealing Grouting of Tunnels in Crystalline Rock: Conceptualisation and Technical Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butron, Christian

    2012-07-01

    A conceptual model of the groundwater hydraulic conditions around the tunnel contour in ancient brittle crystalline rocks has been developed and verified. The general aim has been to reach an understanding of the groundwater conditions in and close to the tunnel roof where dripping takes place and to propose technical and practical strategies for waterproofing. Dripping is accompanied by ice growth and icicle formation in cold regions, creating additional problems such as shotcrete fall-outs, icicle fall-outs, damage to vehicles, damage to trains, etc. The methodology for the development of the conceptual model is based mainly on transmissivity determinations from short-duration hydraulic tests and analyses of the connectivity of the fracture structure by means of semi-variogram analysis. The determination of the dimensionality of the flow in the fractures has also been found to be essential in order to describe the conductive system. This conceptual model describes the fracture systems as a combination of transmissive patches (2D-flow fractures) connected by less pervious channels (1D-flow fractures). It provides an understanding of the heterogeneity and connectivity of the fracture network and thus the groundwater conditions, not only in the roof but also around the tunnel contour. The pre-excavation grouting design process used in the tunnelling projects followed a structured approach and the evaluation showed that the grouting design reduced the inflow and fulfilled the environmental demands. However, dripping remained, making its characterisation very important when proposing a possible solution for its control. It is proposed that the remaining dripping comes from a channelised system that has been left unsealed and which would be extremely difficult to intersect with future boreholes, as well as from some ungrouted fractures with inconvenient orientations. Geomembrane lining and post-excavation grouting are possible solutions, although particular attention

  2. Bolt-grouting combined support technology in deep soft rock roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanlong; Meng Qingbin; Xu Guang; Wu Haoshuai; Zhang Guimin

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing the mineral composition, mechanical properties and ground stress testing in surrounding rock, the study investigated the failure mechanism of deep soft rock roadway with high stress. The bolt-grouting combined support system was proposed to prevent such failures. By means of FLAC3D numer-ical simulation and similar material simulation, the feasibility of the support design and the effectiveness of support parameters were discussed. According to the monitoring the surface and deep displacement in surrounding rock as well as bolt axial load, this paper analyzed the deformation of surrounding rock and the stress condition of the support structure. The monitor results were used to optimize the proposed support scheme. The results of field monitors demonstrate that the bolt-grouting combined support tech-nology could improve the surround rock strength and bearing capacity of support structure, which con-trolled the great deformation failure and rheological property effectively in deep soft rock roadway with high stress. As a result, the long term stability and safety are guaranteed.

  3. Experimental research on ultimate bearing capacity of grouted-round-steel-tube N-joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Wen-zhong; LIU Xu-dong; ZHANG Ge-ming; ZHANG Bo-yi

    2007-01-01

    As an important structural member in self-supporting concrete floor during construction, encased steel truss-concrete composite beam has brilliant prospect in outer-jacketing structures for adding stories or mega frame structures. Compared with encased angle truss, encased round steel tube truss can facilitate layout of itself in column and facilitate layout and anchorage of prestressed reinforcement placed horizontally. N-joint is wildly used in encased steel truss. For cave-in failure easily occurs in hollow steel-tube joint, the idea that the chord is grouted to increase cave-in bearing capacity of hollow tube is proposed. Test results of 8 grouted-roundsteel-tube N-joints from the beginning of loading to failure are reported. Mechanical property and failure mode of this kind of truss joint are analyzed, and the formulas of ultimate bearing capacity of the joint corresponding to different failure modes are established. All these can provide basic data for spreading encased steel truss-concrete composite beam.

  4. Low-Cost Tower Root Fatigue Load Estimation for Structural Health Monitoring of Grouted Connections in Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    The sinking of wind turbines (WTs) with monopile foundations is one of the major issues in the offshore wind industry nowadays. Dynamic wind and wave loads act on the WTs causing vibrations of the structure. However, grouted connections in the monopiled WTs are not designed well enough to transfe...

  5. BLENDED CALCIUM ALUMINATE-CALCIUM SULFATE CEMENT-BASED GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-03-10

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout which has a pH greater than 12.4. In addition, blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement compositions can be formulated such that the primary cementitious phase is a stable crystalline material. A less alkaline material (pH {<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts [Wiersma, 2009a and b, Wiersma, 2010, and Serrato and Langton, 2010]. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere [Griffin, 2010, Stefanko, 2009 and Wiersma, 2009 and 2010, Bobbitt, 2010, respectively]. Radiolysis calculations are also provided in a separate document [Reyes-Jimenez, 2010].

  6. Grout disposal facility vault exhauster: Technical background document on demonstration of best available control technology for toxics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Glantz, C.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rittman, P.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The Grout Disposal Facility (GDF) is currently operated on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. The GDF is located near the east end of the Hanford Site`s 200 East operations area, and is used for the treatment and disposal of low-level radioactive liquid wastes. In the grout treatment process, selected radioactive wastes from double-shell tanks are mixed with grout-forming solids; the resulting grout slurry is pumped to near-surface concrete vaults for solidification and permanent disposal. As part of this treatment process, small amounts of toxic particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be released to the atmosphere through the GDF`s exhaust system. This analysis constitutes a Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (T-BACT) study, as required in the Washington Administrative Code (WAC 173-460) to support a Notice of Construction for the operation of the GDF exhaust system at a modified flow rate that exceeds the previously permitted value. This report accomplishes the following: assesses the potential emissions from the GDF; estimates air quality impacts to the public from toxic air pollutants; identifies control technologies that could reduce GDF emissions; evaluates impacts of the control technologies; and recommends appropriate emissions controls.

  7. Establishment and application of drilling sealing model in the spherical grouting mode based on the loosing-circle theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao; Zhiyong; Lin; Baiquan; Gao; Yabin; Cheng; Yanying

    2012-01-01

    There are quite a few studies that have been done on borehole sealing theory both domestically and internationally.The existing researches usually consider drilling of the surroundings as a dense homogeneous elastic body which does not meet the characteristics of real drilling of the fractured body.Based on the loosing-circle theory and analyses of the surrounding rock stress field,cracks and seepage fields,combined with Newtonian fluid spherical grouting model,we deduced the dynamic relationship between the seepage coefficient and rock or grouting parameters of the drilling sealing fluid mode of spherical fissure grouting.In this experiment,mucus was injected in the simulated coal seam and the permeability coefficient of the sealing body was calculated by using the model.To verify the validity of the model,the calculated sealing body number was compared with the extreme negative pressure that the sealing body could withstand.The theoretical model revealed the drilling sealing fluid mechanism,provided a method for the quantitative calculation of the drilling sealing fluid effect by grouting mode and a reference for the subsequent research of sealing mechanism.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM: PROTOCOL FOR THE VERIFICATION OF GROUTING MATERIALS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE REHABILITATION AT THE UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON - CIGMAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This protocol was developed under the Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program, and is intended to be used as a guide in preparing laboratory test plans for the purpose of verifying the performance of grouting materials used for infra...

  9. 垃圾土地基灌浆处理试验%Grouting improvement of foundation of municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海; 施建勇; 陈继东; 艾英钵; 张坤勇

    2011-01-01

    Based on the in-situ grouting tests, the mass fraction of cement was analyzed by boring samples of municipal solid waste after cement grouting. The cement was uniformly distributed over the foundation of municipal solid waste, and the mass fraction of cement reached 10% after the first grouting and increased to 25% after the socond grouting. Through the strength tests on laboratory cement-waste samples after curing of 28 days. the stress-strain relation of the cement-wate samples exhibited hardening characteristics even when the dosage of cement reached 25 % and the curing age was 60 days, and the cement-waste samples were loose and not consolidated. The static load tests on the foundation of municipal solid waste before and after grouting indicated that the bearing properties of the foundation of municipal solid waste cotld he improved by grouting, and the bearing capacity was obviously raised. However, the failure mode of the foundation of municipal solid waste after the second grouting was brittle becauso of the restricted in-situ curing conditions.%通过现场灌浆试验,钻取灌浆处理后的水泥垃圾土样进行水泥质量分数的分析试验,得到一次灌浆能使水泥浆在垃圾土地基中较均匀分布,水泥质量分数达到约10%,二次灌浆能增加水泥质量分数约25%的结果.经过室内水泥垃圾土样28 d养护强度试验,发现即使水泥掺入量达到25%、养护60d,得到的应力应变曲线仍呈硬化型,水泥垃圾土仍是松散体,没有形成固结体.灌浆前后垃圾土地基的静载荷试验表明,灌浆能明显改善垃圾土地基的承载特性,提高地基的承载力,但由于垃圾填埋场现场养护条件限制,二次灌浆后垃圾土地基的破坏表现为脆性特征.

  10. Super-compactor and grouting. Efficient and safe treatment of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongyou; Starke, Holger; Muetzel, Wolfgang; Winter, Marc [Babcock Noell GmbH, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    The conditioning and volume reduction of nuclear waste are increasingly important factors throughout the world. Efficient and safe treatment of nuclear waste therefore plays a decisive role. Babcock Noell designed, manufactured and supplied a complete waste treatment facility for conditioning of the solid radioactive waste of a nuclear power plant to China. This facility consists of a Sorting Station, a Super-Compactor, a Grouting Unit with Capping Device and other auxiliary equipment which is described in more detail in the following article. This article gives an overview of the efficient and safe treatment of nuclear waste. Babcock Noell is a subsidiary of the Bilfinger Power Systems and has 40 years of experience in the field of design, engineering, construction, static and dynamic calculations, manufacturing, installation, commissioning, as well as in the service and operation of a wide variety of nuclear components and facilities worldwide.

  11. DSC and curing kinetics study of epoxy grouting diluted with furfural -acetone slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H.; Sun, D. W.; Li, B.; Liu, Y. T.; Ran, Q. P.; Liu, J. P.

    2016-07-01

    The use of furfural-acetone slurry as active diluents of Bisphenol-A epoxy resin (DGEBA) groutings has been studied by dynamic and non-isothermal DSC for the first time. Curing kinetics study was investigated by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetries at different heating rates. Activation enery (Ea) was calculated based on Kissinger and Ozawa Methods, and the results showed that Ea increased from 58.87 to 71.13KJ/mol after the diluents were added. The furfural-acetone epoxy matrix could cure completely at the theoretical curing temperature of 365.8K and the curing time of 139mins, which were determined by the kinetic model parameters.

  12. Grout and Glass Performance in Support of Stabilization/Solidification of the MVST Tank Sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Spence, R.D.

    1998-11-01

    Wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collected, evaporated, and stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) pending treatment for disposal. The waste separates into two phases: sludge and supematant. Some of the supematant from these tanks has been decanted, solidified into a grout, and stored for disposal as a solid low-level waste. The sludges in the tank bottoms have been accumulating ,for several years. Some of the sludges contain a high amount of gamma activity (e.g., `37CS concentration range of 0.01 3-11 MBq/g) and contain enough transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes to be classified as TRU wastes. Some Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough in the available total constituent analysis for the MVST sludge to be classified as RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges are presumed to be mixed TRU waste.

  13. Measuring the dynamic compression and release behavior of rocks and grouts associated with HYDROPLUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnish, M.D.

    1993-10-01

    Gas-gun impact tests were performed on twelve rocks and rock simulants pertinent to the HYDROPLUS nuclear yield measurement program: A variety of tuffs, rhyolites, carbonates, grouts, an epoxy-alumina mixture and quartzite permafrost samples recovered in an apparently preserved frozen state from northern Canada. The present report presents results for all of these materials except for the carbonates. Two classes of impact techniques were employed for measuring equation-of-state properties for these materials. Both use velocity interferometry diagnostics. One, employing a sample-in-projectile geometry, provides high-precision Hugoniot data and continuous release trajectories for dry or water-saturated materials. The majority of the experiments were performed with this geometry. The other, employing a sample-in-target geometry, provides loading path and Hugoniot data as well as limited release data. Uncertainties in the results have been estimated by analyzing the effects of errors in observables and ancillary material properties.

  14. Simulation and analysis on ultrasonic testing for the cement grouting defects of the corrugated pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qingbang, Han; Ling, Chen; Changping, Zhu [Changzhou Key Laboratory of Sensor Networks and Environmental Sensing, College of IOT, Hohai University Changzhou, Jiangsu, 213022 (China)

    2014-02-18

    The defects exist in the cement grouting process of prestressed corrugated pipe may directly impair the bridge safety. In this paper, sound fields propagation in concrete structures with corrugated pipes and the influence of various different defects are simulated and analyzed using finite element method. The simulation results demonstrate a much complex propagation characteristic due to multiple reflection, refraction and scattering, where the scattering signals caused by metal are very strong, while the signals scattered by an air bubble are weaker. The influence of defect both in time and frequency domain are found through deconvolution treatment. In the time domain, the deconvolution signals correspond to larger defect display a larger head wave amplitude and shorter arrive time than those of smaller defects; in the frequency domain, larger defect also shows a stronger amplitude, lower center frequency and lower cutoff frequency.

  15. Integrity assessment of grouted posttensioning cables and reinforced concrete of a nuclear containment building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenton B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Containment Buildings of CANDU Nuclear Generating Stations were designed to house nuclear reactors and process equipment and also to provide confinement of releases from a potential nuclear accident such as a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA. To meet this design requirement, a post-tensioning system was designed to induce compressive stresses in the structure to counteract the internal design pressure. The CANDU reactor building at Gentilly-1 (G-1, Quebec, Canada (250 MWe was built in the early 1970s and is currently in a decommissioned state. The structure at present is under surveillance and monitoring. In the year 2000, a field investigation was conducted as part of a condition assessment and corrosion was detected in some of the grouted post-tension cable strands. However, no further work was done at that time to determine the cause, nature, impact and extent of the corrosion. An investigation of the Gentilly-1 containment building is currently underway to assess the condition of grouted post-tensioning cables and reinforced concrete. At two selected locations, concrete and steel reinforcements were removed from the containment building wall to expose horizontal cables. Individual cable strands and reinforcement bars were instrumented and measurements were taken in-situ before removing them for forensic examination and destructive testing to determine the impact of ageing and corrosion. Concrete samples were also removed and tested in a laboratory. The purpose of the field investigation and laboratory testing, using this structure as a test bed, was also to collect material ageing data and to develop potential Nondestructive Examination (NDE methods to monitor Containment Building Integrity. The paper describes the field work conducted and the test results obtained for concrete, reinforcement and post-tensioning cables.

  16. Research on Grouting Technology with Abandoned Drilling Mud%钻井废弃泥浆注浆利用技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋雪飞; 王正胜; 陈振国; 徐润; 周兴旺

    2011-01-01

    为了缓解煤矿钻井废弃泥浆排放处理难的问题,研究利用废弃泥浆配制成地面预注浆浆液,通过对研制的泥浆采用降黏改性处理后,浆液的密度及黏度降低;塑性强度缓慢增长,约15 h可以达到50 kPa.淮北矿业集团袁店二矿主井井筒的S孔注浆工程利用钻井泥浆注浆材料7 606m3,经井筒掘进测量,注浆段井筒剩余涌水量仅为3 m3/h,注浆效果达到优良.%In order to release the problems of the abandoned drilling mud discharging and treatment, the paper had a study on the preparation of the surface pre-grouting grout with the abandoned drilling mud.With the sticky reduction and modification treatment of the prepared mud, the density and sticky of the grout would be reduced.The plasticity strength of the grout would be slowly increased and could be reached to 50 kPa after about 15 h.The grouting project with S bereholes for the mine main shaft of Yuandian No.2 Mine, Huaibei Coal Mining Group had consumed the drilling mud grout of 7 606 m3.After the mine shaft excavation and measurement, the residual water inrush quantity at the grouting section of the mine shaft was about 3 m3/h and the grouting effect was excellent.

  17. Leach tests on grouts made with actual and trace metal-spiked synthetic phosphate/sulfate waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; McLaurine, S.B.; Martin, P.F.C.; Lokken, R.O.

    1989-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted experiments to produce empirical leach rate data for phosphate-sulfate waste (PSW) grout. Effective diffusivities were measured for various radionuclides ({sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 14}C, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, and U), stable major components (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, K and Na) and the trace constituents Ag, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se. Two types of leach tests were used on samples of actual PSW grout and synthetic PSW grout: the American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 intermittent replacement leach test and a static leach test. Grout produced from both synthetic and real PSW showed low leach rates for the trace metal constituents and most of the waste radionuclides. Many of the spiked trace metals and radionuclides were not detected in any leachates. None of the effluents contained measurable quantities of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 109}Cd, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 203}Hg, or As. For those trace species with detectable leach rates, {sup 125}I appeared to have the greatest leach rate, followed by {sup 99}Tc, {sup 75}Se, and finally U, {sup 14}C, and {sup 110m}Ag. Leach rates for nitrate are between those for I and Tc, but there is much scatter in the nitrate data because of the very low nitrate inventory. 32 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. 考虑滤过效应的卵砾石层浆液扩散研究%CEMENT GROUT DISPERSION CONSIDERING FILTRATION IN GRAVEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房凯; 夏唐代; 包柳青; 叶建梁; 陈士才

    2013-01-01

      Due to progressive blocking of cement grains within the soil matrix,filtration of grout plays a significant role during grout dispersion process. The influence of filtration on the grout dispersion in gravel is studied. The injectability criterion of the grout is first summarized. Then the linear filtration law is introduced into the mass balance relationships of water,cement and soil to develop a cement grout dispersion model in spherical coordinates with account for filtration. The comparison between model results and experimental data proves the validity of the given model and the necessity of considering the phenomenon of filtration. In addition,the influences of filtration on permeation grouting under different injection durations and water-cement ratios are also studied. The results reveal that the penetration resistance increases gradually due to grout filtration,leading to the increase in grouting pressure with time. For grout with smaller water-cement ratio,the grouting pressure is larger and the influence of filtration is more obvious.%  渗透注浆过程中水泥颗粒对土体孔隙的堵塞会产生滤过效应,滤过效应在浆液扩散过程中起着非常重要的作用。基于此,研究滤过效应对卵砾石层中注浆浆液扩散的影响。在总结浆液可注入性标准的基础上,考虑浆液滤过过程中水、水泥和土体的质量平衡,引入线性滤过定律,给出一种球孔扩散条件下考虑滤过效应的水泥浆浆液扩散模型,并通过模型理论结果和现场实测数据的对比,说明该方法的合理性和考虑滤过效应的必要性。不同注浆时间和水灰比条件下滤过效应对渗透注浆的影响分析表明,滤过效应导致土体的渗透阻力逐渐增大,土体中注浆压力随时间逐渐增加。浆液水灰比越小,注浆压力越大,滤过效应也越显著。

  19. Removal of Pb2+ and Cd2+ by adsorption on clay-solidified grouting curtain for waste landfills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong-gui; ZHANG Ke-neng; ZOU Yin-sheng; DENG Fei-yue

    2006-01-01

    Pb2+ and Cd2+ in leachate were adsorbed on clay-solidified grouting curtain for waste landfills with equilibrium experiment. The cation exchange capacity was determined with ammonium acetate. And the concentration of heavy metal cations in leachate was determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Their equilibrium isotherms were measured, and the experimental isotherm data were analyzed by using Freundlich and Langmuir models. The results show that the adsorption capacities of the heavy metal cations are closely related to the compositions of clay-solidified grouting curtain, and the maximum adsorption appears at the ratio of cement to clay of 2: 4 in the experimental conditions. At their maximum adsorption and pH 5.0, the adsorption capacities of Pb2+ and Cd2+ are 16.19 mg/g and 1.21 mg/g. The competitive adsorption coefficients indicate that the adsorption of clay-solidified grouting curtain for Pb2+ is stronger than that for Cd2+. The adsorption process conforms to Freundlich's model with related coefficient higher than 0. 996.

  20. Development of grout formulations for 106-AN waste: Mixture-experiment results and analysis. Volume 2, Data presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R.D.; McDaniel, E.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, C.M.; Lokken, R.O.; Piepel, G.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Twenty potential ingredients were identified for use in developing a 106-AN grout formulation, and 18 were subsequently obtained and tested. Four ingredients: Type II-LA (moderate heat of hydration) Portland cement, Class F fly ash, attapulgite 150 drilling clay, and ground air-cooled blast-furnace slag (GABFS) -- were selected for developing the 106-AN grout formulations. A mixture experiment was designed and conducted around the following formulation: 2.5 lb of cement per gallon, 1.2 lb of fly ash per gallon, 0.8 lb of attapulgite per gallon, and 3.5 lb of GABFS per gallon. Reduced empirical models were generated from the results of the mixture experiment. These models were used to recommend several grout formulations for 106-AN. Westinghouse Hanford Company selected one of these formulations to be verified for use with 106-AN and a backup formulation in case problems arise with the first choice. This report presents the mixture-experimental results and leach data.

  1. Effects of the Length of Jet Grouted Columns and Soil Profile on the Settlement of Shallow Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheer Ahmed Almani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of length of jet grouted columns and varying soil profile under shallow foundations of buildings constructed on the liquefiable ground was studied. The isolated shallow footing pad which supports a typical simple frame structure was constructed on the liquefiable ground. This ground was reinforced with jet grouted column rows under the shallow foundations of structure. The system was modeled as plane-strain using the FLAC 2D (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua dynamic modelling and analysis code. This case focuses on the length of jet grouted columns in a soil profile and the effect of soil profiles of varying thickness on the settlements of building structure when the soil is liquefied during an earthquake. The results show that liquefaction-induced large settlements of shallow foundation of building decrease to tolerable limits with the increase in the length of columns. For soil profiles, with a relatively thinner liquefiable layer, a certain minimum length of columns (extended in base non liquefiable layer is required to meet the settlement tolerable limits. For soil profiles, with a relatively thicker liquefiable layer, this length should be equal to the thickness of the liquefiable layer from the footing base plus some extension in the base non liquefiable dense layer. In the soil profile with the base liquefiable layer underlying the non liquefiable layer, settlements could not be reduced to the tolerable limits even with columns of relatively larger length which may be critical.

  2. OPERATIONAL AND COMPOSITIONAL FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF ARP/MCU SALTSTONE GROUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M.; Edwards, T.; Pickenheim, B.

    2012-02-15

    The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) receives low level waste (LLW) salt solution from Tank 50H for treatment and disposal. Tank 50H receives transfers from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), the H-Canyon General Purpose Evaporator, and the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU) Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSS-HT). At the SPF, the LLW is mixed with premix (a cementitious mixture of portland cement (PC), blast furnace slag (BFS) and Class F fly ash (FA)) in a Readco mixer to produce fresh (uncured) saltstone that is transferred to the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) vaults. The saltstone formulation (mix design) must produce a grout waste form that meets both placement and performance properties. In previous simulated saltstone studies, multiple compositional factors were identified that drive the performance properties of saltstone made from the projected ARP/MCU salt solution. This composition was selected as salt solution simulant since ARP/MCU is the primary influent into Tank 50H. The primary performance property investigated was hydraulic conductivity since it is a variable input property to the saltstone Performance Assessment (PA) transport model. In addition, the porosity, also referred to as void structure, is another variable that impacts the PA response. In addition, Young's modulus and cured density are other performance properties analyzed in this report; however they are indicators of the performance of saltstone and not direct inputs into the PA. The data from previous studies showed that the largest impact on the performance properties of saltstone was due to curing temperature, followed by aluminate concentration in the salt solution, water to premix ratio and premix composition. However, due to the scope of the previous studies, only a few mixes were cured and analyzed at higher temperatures. The samples cured at 60 C had an increased hydraulic conductivity of approximately 600

  3. Relaxation study of cement based grouting material using nuclear magnetic resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xianzhong; Lin Baiquan; Zhai Cheng; Ni Guanhua; Li Ziwen

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at actual condition of poor effect of hole sealing for the reason of poor cement paste fluidity in the process of coal mine gas drainage,by adding a water reducing agent,cement paste for hole sealing was produced.The changes of initial distribution,weighted average values and total relaxation signal intensity of transverse relaxation time (T2) of water in pure cement paste and water reducing agent added cement paste were studied with low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).The results show that there are four peaks in T2 distribution curves of cement paste:the first peak is related to the bound water in flocculation,the second and the third peaks are related to the water in flocculation,water reducing agent makes it extending towards the long relaxation time,increasing its liquidity,and the fourth peak is related to the free water.By using weighted average values of T2 and total relaxation signal intensity,hydration process of cement pastes could be roughly divided into four stages:the initial period,reaction period,accelerated period and steady period.By analyzing the periods,it makes sure that the grouting process should be completed in the reaction period in the site,and the drainage process should be started in the steady period.The results have great guiding significance to the hole sealing and methane drainage.

  4. Relaxation study of cement based grouting material using nuclear magnetic resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Xianzhong; Lin; Baiquan; Zhai; Cheng; Ni; Guanhua; Li; Ziwen

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at actual condition of poor effect of hole sealing for the reason of poor cement paste fluidity in the process of coal mine gas drainage,by adding a water reducing agent,cement paste for hole sealing was produced.The changes of initial distribution,weighted average values and total relaxation signal intensity of transverse relaxation time(T 2) of water in pure cement paste and water reducing agent added cement paste were studied with low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR).The results show that there are four peaks in T2 distribution curves of cement paste:the first peak is related to the bound water in flocculation,the second and the third peaks are related to the water in flocculation,water reducing agent makes it extending towards the long relaxation time,increasing its liquidity,and the fourth peak is related to the free water.By using weighted average values of T2 and total relaxation signal intensity,hydration process of cement pastes could be roughly divided into four stages:the initial period,reaction period,accelerated period and steady period.By analyzing the periods,it makes sure that the grouting process should be completed in the reaction period in the site,and the drainage process should be started in the steady period.The results have great guiding significance to the hole sealing and methane drainage.

  5. Experimental studies on behavior of fully grouted reinforced-concrete masonry shear walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Fenglai

    2015-12-01

    An experimental study is conducted on fully grouted reinforced masonry shear walls (RMSWs) made from concrete blocks with a new configuration. Ten RMSWs are tested under reversed cyclic lateral load to investigate the influence of different reinforcements and applied axial stress values on their seismic behavior. The results show that flexural strength increases with the applied axial stress, and shear strength dominated by diagonal cracking increases with both the amount of horizontal reinforcement and applied axial stress. Yield displacement, ductility, and energy dissipation capability can be improved substantially by increasing the amount of horizontal reinforcement. The critical parameters for the walls are derived from the experiment: displacement ductility values corresponding to 15% strength degradation of the walls reach up to 2.6 and 4.5 in the shear and flexure failure modes, respectively; stiffness values of flexure- and shear-dominated walls rapidly degrade to 17%-19% and 48%-57% of initial stiffness at 0.50 D max (displacement at peak load). The experiment suggests that RMSWs could be assigned a higher damping ratio (˜14%) for collapse prevention design and a lower damping value (˜7%) for a fully operational limit state or serviceability limit state.

  6. Mechanical properties and failure characteristics of fractured sandstone with grouting and anchorage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Yijiang; Han Lijun; Qu Tao; Yang Shengqi

    2014-01-01

    Based on uniaxial compression experimental results on fractured sandstone with grouting and anchorage, we studied the strength and deformation properties, the failure model, crack formation and evolution laws of fractured sandstone under different conditions of anchorage. The experimental results show that the strength and elastic modulus of fractured sandstone with different fracture angles are sig-nificantly lower than those of intact sandstone. Compared with the fractured samples without anchorage, the peak strength, residual strength, peak and ultimate axial strain of fractured sandstone under different anchorage increase by 64.5-320.0%, 62.8-493.0%, and 31.6-181.4%, respectively. The number of bolts and degree of pre-stress has certain effects on the peak strength and failure model of fractured sandstone. The peak strength of fractured sandstone under different anchorage increases to some extent, and the failure model of fractured sandstone also transforms from tensile failure to tensile-shear mixed failure with the number of bolts. The pre-stress can restrain the formation and evolution process of tensile cracks, delay the failure process of fractured sandstone under anchorage and impel the transformation of failure model from brittle failure to plastic failure.

  7. Field grouting summary report on the WAG 4 seeps 4 and 6 removal action project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3. Appendixes E and F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    During the summer of 1996, a unique multi-phase, multi-stage, low-pressure permeation grouting pilot program was performed inside portions of four unlined waste disposal trenches at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The project was deemed a non-time-critical removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); however, due to a history of heavy precipitation in the fall, the schedule was fast-tracked to meet an October 31, 1996 grouting completion date. The technical objective of the removal action was to reduce the off-site transport of j Strontium 90 ({sup 90}Sr) by grouting portions of four waste disposal trenches believed to be responsible for over 70 percent of the {sup 90}Sr leaving the site. A goal of the grouting operation was to reduce the average in situ hydraulic conductivity of the grouted waste materials to a value equal to or less than 1 x 10{sup -6} cm/sec. This target hydraulic conductivity value was established to be at least two orders of magnitude lower than that of the surrounding natural ground.

  8. Field grouting summary report on the WAG seeps 4 and 6 removal action project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    During the summer of 1996, a unique multi-phase, multi-stage, low-pressure permeation grouting pilot program was performed inside portions of four unlined waste disposal trenches at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The project was deemed a non-time-critical removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); however, due to a history of heavy precipitation in the fall, the schedule was fast-tracked to meet an October 31, 1996 grouting completion date. The technical objective of the removal action was to reduce the off-site transport of Strontium 90 ({sup 90}Sr) by grouting portions of four waste disposal trenches believed to be responsible for over 70% of the {sup 90}Sr leaving the site. A goal of the grouting operation was to reduce the average in situ hydraulic conductivity of the grouted waste materials to a value equal to or less than 1 x 10{sup {minus}6} cm/sec. This target hydraulic conductivity value was established to be at least two orders of magnitude lower than that of the surrounding natural ground.

  9. Discussion of Key Points in Reservoir Anti-seepage Grouting Project Quality Test%水库防渗灌浆工程质量检测的要点探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    劳正绍

    2013-01-01

    Impermeable grouting reinforcement is the main implementation content in weak dam risk removal reinforcement.Impermeable grouting commonly adopts high pressure jet grouting , filling grouting, dam foundation curtain grouting and the like .However , quality inspection of high pressure jet grouting , filling grouting and dam foundation curtain grouting is mainly based on inspection hole drilling water injection and drilling packer permeability test .The paper provides important scientific basis for project quality inspection and acceptance through inspection hole test results .%  防渗灌浆加固是病险水库除险加固的主要实施内容,防渗灌浆加固常用高压喷射灌浆、充填灌浆、坝基帷幕灌浆等,而高压喷射灌浆、充填灌浆、坝基帷幕灌浆质量检测是以检查孔钻孔注水和钻孔压水试验为主,通过检查孔的试验成果,为工程质量检查、验收提供重要的科学依据。

  10. 象山隧道岩溶段注浆技术优化研究%Optimization of Grouting Technologies for Karst Sections:Case Study on Xiangshan Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高广义; 陈立杰

    2011-01-01

    为了快速通过象山隧道岩溶段,贯通全隧,通过引进专业化注浆队伍,优化注浆技术,提高注浆效果,保证安全快速开挖.对原注浆方案,注浆工艺、注浆效果评定标准优化和研究,提出象山隧道岩溶段注浆施工技术,即保证了注浆效果、加快了施工进度,又节约了施工成本.通过实践应用证实优化后的施工方法具有明显的经济效益和社会效益,值得在类似工程中借鉴和推广.%Professional grouting teams are introduced and grouting technologies are optimized to improve the grouting efficiency and to guarantee the safe and rapid construction so as to pass through the karst sections of Xiangshan tunnel successfully. The original grouting plans, grouting technologies and grouting effect assessment standards are optimized and studied and grouting technologies for the karst sections of Xiangshan tunnel are proposed. In the end, the grouting effect is guaranteed and the construction progress is accelerated. The practice proves that the technologies optimized have significant economic and social benefits and are worth to be popularized in similar works.

  11. Using infrared thermography to determine the presence and correct placement of grouted cells in single-width concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Gregory R.; Allen, Lee R.

    1999-03-01

    Determining the placement of reinforcing grout in single-width CMU (Concrete Masonry Unit) walls has, in the past, been a painstaking and destructive undertaking. Usually, a test is performed because -- by accident -- missing cells are discovered when a wall penetration is retrofitted or change order is executed, requiring that the wall be opened. Often, a hammer or hammer drill is used to punch holes where the grouting is supposed to be. The test results are used to extrapolate the extent of the problem. This method falls short, since the sample is so small, that only outright fraud can be found, and excess grouting cannot be determined. This paper discusses the results of a joint effort between Stockton Infrared Thermographic Services, Inc. (SITS) and Allen Applied Infrared Technology, Inc. (AAIT) to produce a methodology for using non-destructive infrared thermography to ensure that the design specifications are being met.

  12. 地铁隧道下穿人行天桥注浆加固技术%Grouting Reinforement Technology for Metro Tunnel beneath Pedestrian Footbridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯宝利; 张鹏飞; 廖秋林

    2013-01-01

    北京地铁7号线湾子站-达官营站区间采用矿山法施工,并通过注浆加固措施成功实现暗挖隧道下穿人行天桥。文章简要介绍工程中注浆支护方案选择、后退式深孔灌注双液浆施工方法、后退式深孔全断面注浆施工方法,以及注浆检测与效果评价。%The paper briefly describes the project grouting support scheme selection, retreating deep slurry with two liquids construction methods, retreating deep hole total tunnel grouting methods, and grouting detection and evaluation.

  13. Sorption (Kd) measurements on cinder block and grout in support of dose assessments for Zion Nuclear Station decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milian L.; Sullivan T.

    2014-06-24

    The Zion Nuclear Power Station is being decommissioned. ZionSolutions proposes to leave much of the below grade structures in place and to fill them with a backfill to provide structural support. Backfills under consideration include “clean” concrete demolition debris from the above grade parts of the facility, a flowable grout, cinder block construction debris and sand. A previous study (Yim, 2012) examined the sorption behavior of five nuclides (Fe-55, Co-60, Ni-63, Sr-85, and Cs-137) on concrete and local soils. This study, commissioned by ZionSolutions and conducted by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) examines the sorption behavior on cinder block and grout materials. Specifically, this study measured the distribution coefficient for four radionuclides of concern using site-groundwater and cinder block from the Zion site and a flowable grout. The distributions coefficient is a measure of the amount of the radionuclide that will remain sorbed to the solid material that is present relative to the amount that will remain in solution. A high distribution coefficient indicates most of the radionuclide will remain on the solid material and will not be available for transport by the groundwater. The radionuclides examined in this set of tests were Co-60, Ni-63, Sr-85, and Cs-137. Tests were performed following ASTM C1733-10, Standard Test Methods for Distribution Coefficients of Inorganic Species by the Batch Method. Sr-85 was used in the testing as an analogue for Sr-90 because it behaves similarly with respect to sorption and has a gamma emission that is easier to detect than the beta emission from Sr-90.

  14. Research on the Grouting Reinforcement Technique in the Fault of Liudian Coal Mine%刘店矿过断层注浆加固技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代礼永

    2015-01-01

    为解决刘店煤矿北翼东回风大巷掘进过程中遇DF2正断层问题,基于巷道围岩控制原理,提出巷道注浆加固技术,并从注浆加固技术原理、注浆材料选择、注浆孔布置、注浆参数四个方面,研究巷道过DF2正断层时注浆加固方案。结果表明:北翼东回风大巷过DF2正断层时提前对迎头断层带煤体进行预注浆加固,改善了围岩条件;采用注浆加固技术,掘进过程中片帮冒顶次数减小,压力显现现象明显降低。%In order to solve the problem of DF2 positive fault in the process of digging, based on the principle of the control of roadway surrounding rock, the roadway grouting reinforcement technique was proposed in this paper. From the aspects of technique principle, material, grouting hole arrangement and grouting parameter, the grouting reinforcement scheme for DF2 positive fault was studied. The results showed that grouting reinforcement can improve the conditions of surrounding rock. In the process of excavating, through grouting reinforcement technique, there were fewer roof fall and rib spalling accidents and pressure appeared phenomenon was decreased obviously.

  15. 帷幕注浆堵水技术在山环煤矿的应用%Application of Curtain Grouting Water Shutoff Technology in Shanhuan Colliery, Meilin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡政明

    2012-01-01

    Curtain grouting technology is used to conduct Shanhuan Colliery, which enables shaft inflow to reduce tees the smooth construction of shaft. water shutoff of vertical to 5 m3/h from 35 m3/h shaft sand-gravel aquifer in before grouting, and guaran-%山环煤矿采用帷幕注浆技术,对立井井筒砂砾石含水层进行堵水,使井筒涌水量由注浆前的35rn3/h减少到5m3/h,保证了井简的顺利施工。

  16. Effect of Nanosilica on the Fresh Properties of Cement-Based Grouting Material in the Portland-Sulphoaluminate Composite System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengli Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of NS particle size and content on the fresh properties of the grouting material based on the portland-sulphoaluminate composite system was analyzed. The experimental results indicated that air content increased and apparent density decreased, with increased NS content, but the NS particle sizes have minimal effect on the air content and apparent density. The setting time of mortar was significantly shortened, with increased NS content; however, NS particle sizes had little influence on the setting time. The effect of fluidity on the mortars adding NS with particle size of 30 nm is larger than NS with particle sizes of 15 and 50 nm and the fluidity decreased with increased NS content, but the fluidity of mortars with the particle sizes of 15 and 50 nm is almost not affected by the NS content. XRD analysis shows that the formation of ettringite was promoted and the process of hydration reaction of cement was accelerated with the addition of NS. At the microscopic level, the interfacial transition zone (ITZ of the grouting material became denser and the formation of C-S-H gel was promoted after adding NS.

  17. EVOLUTION OF CHEMICAL CONDITIONS AND ESTIMATED PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN THE RESIDUAL WASTE LAYER DURING POST-CLOSURE AGING OF TANK 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M.

    2012-02-29

    evolution. In Denham (2007, Rev. 1), the solubilities in the oxidized regions were estimated at Eh values in equilibrium with dissolved oxygen. Here, these are considered to be maximum possible solubilities because Eh values are unlikely to be in equilibrium with dissolved oxygen. More realistic Eh values are estimated here and plutonium solubilities calculated at these are considered more realistic. Apparent solubilities of plutonium that coprecipitated with iron phases are estimated from Pu:Fe ratios in Tank 18 residual waste and the solubilities of the host iron phases. The estimated plutonium solubilities are shown. Uncertainties in the grout simulations and plutonium solubility estimates are discussed. The primary uncertainty in the grout simulations is that little is known about the physical state of the grout as it ages. The simulations done here are pertinent to a porous medium, which may or may not be applicable to fractured grout, depending on the degree and nature of the fractures. Other uncertainties that are considered are the assumptions about the reducing capacity imparted by blast furnace slag, the effects of varying dissolved carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations, and the treatment of silica in the simulations. The primary uncertainty in the estimates of plutonium solubility is that little is known about the exact form of plutonium in the residual waste. Other uncertainties include those inherent in the thermodynamic data, pH variations from those estimated in the grout simulations, the effects of the treatment of silica in the grout simulations, and the effect of varying total dissolved carbonate concentrations. The objective of this document is to update the model for solubility controls on release of plutonium from residual waste in closed F-Area waste tanks. The update is based on new information including a new proposed grout formulation, chemical analysis of Tank 18 samples and more current thermodynamic data for plutonium and grout minerals. In

  18. Optimization of compressive strength in admixture-reinforced cement-based grouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Zaimoglu, A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Taguchi method was used in this study to optimize the unconfined (7-, 14- and 28-day compressive strength of cement-based grouts with bentonite, fly ash and silica fume admixtures. The experiments were designed using an L16 orthogonal array in which the three factors considered were bentonite (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 3%, fly ash (10%, 20%, 30% and 40% and silica fume (0%, 5%, 10% and 20% content. The experimental results, which were analyzed by ANOVA and the Taguchi method, showed that fly ash and silica fume content play a significant role in unconfined compressive strength. The optimum conditions were found to be: 0% bentonite, 10% fly ash, 20% silica fume and 28 days of curing time. The maximum unconfined compressive strength reached under the above optimum conditions was 17.1 MPa.En el presente trabajo se ha intentado optimizar, mediante el método de Taguchi, las resistencias a compresión (a las edades de 7, 14 y 28 días de lechadas de cemento reforzadas con bentonita, cenizas volantes y humo de sílice. Se diseñaron los experimentos de acuerdo con un arreglo ortogonal tipo L16 en el que se contemplaban tres factores: la bentonita (0, 0,5, 1 y 3%, las cenizas volantes (10, 20, 30 y 40% y el humo de sílice (0, 5, 10 y 20% (porcentajes en peso del sólido. Los datos obtenidos se analizaron con mediante ANOVA y el método de Taguchi. De acuerdo con los resultados experimentales, el contenido tanto de cenizas volantes como de humo de sílice desempeña un papel significativo en la resistencia a compresión. Por otra parte, las condiciones óptimas que se han identificado son: 0% bentonita, 10% cenizas volantes, 20% humo de sílice y 28 días de tiempo de curado. La resistencia a compresión máxima conseguida en las anteriores condiciones era de 17,1 MPa.

  19. 松软地层防渗灌浆帷幕结构性状实验研究%FIELD EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON TRAITS OF GROUTING IMPERVIOUS CURTAIN IN SOFT LAYER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵金; 潘烨; 彭春雷; 陈安重; 杨松林

    2015-01-01

    The high permeability of loose formation,the large consumption plasma of anti-seepage grouting and irregular diffusion have a great deal of uncertainty.So,it is very difficult to accurately grasp the structural traits of the formed impervious curtain,which contains impervious curtain thickness,mechanical properties,anti-seepage effect and other elements.Existing methods and techniques on the assessment of impervious quality mainly include that water pressure test,standard grout depth,coring,physical probe and other methods to access relevant information,which would impose a direct effect.In this study,injection test,hole skew measurement,coring test, whole section excavation and other methods are applied in field,the characters of anti-seepage structure include curtain effective thickness and its sphere of influence,curtain strength properties and permeability characteristic. They are revealed by experimental tests in various operating conditions.Under the condition of 1.5m pitch-row and 0.8m double-row distance,the experimental results show that it is very simple and efficient to adopt the technique of slurry sealing means and pulsating grouting ways to control the grouting process and the utilization of controllable clay grout material with appropriate grouting control parameters.Meanwhile,the periphery hole compaction zone, effective body and cemented stones curtain body are formed uniform and effective.The seepage coefficient reaches 5 lu below.The 28days stone strength after grouting reaches over 3.0MPa.In the effect contrast to pulp and stable slurry paste perfusion,it is found that if grout with stable slurry,it will be mainly with splitting permeability and the diffusion distance will be further than pulp.For higher seepage reinforcement requirements engineering,it will be the best to do the paste perfusion first,and then the stable slurry irrigation.Pulp veins mainly concentrate in the 1m radius around the grouting pipe,accounting for more than 60% of the

  20. 地震波CT在注浆效果检测评价中的应用%THE APPLICATION OF SEISMIC WAVE CT TO GROUTING DETECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛星

    2012-01-01

    The seismic wave CT( Computerized Tomography) is a high resolution geophysical method containing abundant information, and hence it is very suitable for engineering geological exploration. Grouting filling,as a goaf treatment scheme,has been used frequently in recent years. Owing to the considerable uncertainty of the grouting slurry position and reinforcement effect after the grouting treatment, it is difficult to conduct quality examination on the basis of traditional sampling and compactness methods. Due to its own advantage , seismic wave CT has become a suitable choice for grouting quality detection, and it has achieved good results in practical applications.%地震波CT(Computerized Tomography)是一种信息量大、分辨率高的地球物理方法,非常适用于工程地质勘查.注浆充填是近几年来应用较多的一种采空区治理方案,由于采空区注浆治理后,其浆液位置和加固效果具有较大的不确定性,因此难以通过传统的取样、密实度等方法进行质量检测.地震波CT以其自身的优势成为了一种注浆质量检测的合适选择,并在实际应用中取得了良好的效果.

  1. Application of Grouting Water Shutoff Technology in Mingxi Mine%注浆堵水技术在鸣西矿井的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪来春; 刘敏

    2012-01-01

    The paper narrated the application and effect of grouting water shutoff technology in the treatment of karst-fractured groundwater in Maokou Limestone.%叙述了注浆堵水技术在治理茅口灰岩岩溶裂隙水中的应用及效果。

  2. Using Prestressed Concrete Pipe to Test the Grouting Reinforcement Effection%采用试桩验证注浆加固效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李连营; 王志强; 张学飞

    2012-01-01

    在新回填的坑中兴建建筑物存在很多安全隐患,为提高填土密实度、均匀性和承载能力,防止地面产生过大的沉降和不均匀沉降,同时解决桩的负摩阻力问题,采用注浆加固工艺对填土进行加固,并通过在坑内、坑外进行预应力管桩试桩验证加固效果.结果表明,填土经注浆加固后的性质明显提高,采用注浆技术进行加固处理是合理的.%There are many existing security risks of buildings in the new backfill pit By using the grouting technologies to reinforce density, uniformity and bearing capacity, we can produce large settlement and uneven settlement in order to problem of negative skin friction of pile, and through the prestressed concrete pipe to test grouting effect in and outside the pit The results showed that, the character of fill is improved obviously after grouting reinforcement So,using grouting technology to treat fill is reasonable.

  3. EVOLUTION OF CHEMICAL CONDITIONS AND ESTIMATED SOLUBILITY CONTROLS ON RADIONUCLIDES IN THE RESIDUAL WASTE LAYER DURING POST-CLOSURE AGING OF HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M.; Millings, M.

    2012-08-28

    This document provides information specific to H-Area waste tanks that enables a flow and transport model with limited chemical capabilities to account for varying waste release from the tanks through time. The basis for varying waste release is solubilities of radionuclides that change as pore fluids passing through the waste change in composition. Pore fluid compositions in various stages were generated by simulations of tank grout degradation. The first part of the document describes simulations of the degradation of the reducing grout in post-closure tanks. These simulations assume flow is predominantly through a water saturated porous medium. The infiltrating fluid that reacts with the grout is assumed to be fluid that has passed through the closure cap and into the tank. The results are three stages of degradation referred to as Reduced Region II, Oxidized Region II, and Oxidized Region III. A reaction path model was used so that the transitions between each stage are noted by numbers of pore volumes of infiltrating fluid reacted. The number of pore volumes to each transition can then be converted to time within a flow and transport model. The bottoms of some tanks in H-Area are below the water table requiring a different conceptual model for grout degradation. For these simulations the reacting fluid was assumed to be 10% infiltrate through the closure cap and 90% groundwater. These simulations produce an additional four pore fluid compositions referred to as Conditions A through D and were intended to simulate varying degrees of groundwater influence. The most probable degradation path for the submerged tanks is Condition C to Condition D to Oxidized Region III and eventually to Condition A. Solubilities for Condition A are estimated in the text for use in sensitivity analyses if needed. However, the grout degradation simulations did not include sufficient pore volumes of infiltrating fluid for the grout to evolve to Condition A. Solubility controls for use

  4. Practice and monitoring analysis of building lifting due to grouting%房屋注浆抬升实践与监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易小明; 张顶立; 逄铁铮; 骆建军

    2009-01-01

    厦门梧村山浅埋大跨隧道,要求下穿浦南片区密集建筑群,其工程难度国内外罕见.通过对现场房屋的抬升实践和监测分析发现:房屋注浆抬升可分为两个层次,即注浆止沉和注浆抬升.现场抬升试验表明:采用动态跟踪补偿注浆能够较好地实现房屋止沉,而房屋的抬升则极富挑战性.一方面房屋抬升必须以补偿注浆、止浆墙完成、地层加固密实为前提;另一方面还必须选取合适的注浆工艺、注浆量、压力、抬升孔分布、注浆深度等,才可能实现抬升.抬升过程监控还发现:地层抬升明显,房屋止沉效果良好;但房屋抬升呈波动趋势,最终房屋仍呈沉降趋势.该结果反应了注浆地层抬升与房屋抬升是不一致的,只有较大范围、稳定的、均匀的、不消散的地表抬升,才能形成安全有效的房屋抬升.通过相关的解析和数值方法,对抬升注浆参数进行初步优选以及对房屋抬升量进行预测,结果可以满足工程需要.%Wucunshan Tunnel of Xiamen which is designed as shallow large span structure needs to go through dense buildings in Punan territory, and construction difficulties is unusual both at home and abroad. By in-situ building lifting test and monitoring, two levels of building lifting by grouting can be seen: the first level is controlling and cutting building subsidence, the second is named building lifting strictly. The in-situ lifting tests show that the first level can be achieved with dynamic tracking and retrieving grouting successfully, whereas the second level requires much more refined grouting techniques. On one hand, the fulfilling of building lifting must be on the premise of the first level of retrieving grouting, finishing wall for grouting, and enforcing foundation soil. On the other hand, it depends on adequate grouting technologies, grouting amount, pressure, arrangement of grouting holes, holes and depths, etc. Related monitoring results

  5. 水库大坝劈裂灌浆的施工技术%On Construction Technique of Dam Fracturing Grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海港

    2012-01-01

    结合临汾市洹河水库大坝除险加固改造工程,详细介绍了大坝劈裂灌浆的施工方法及施工工艺。%In combination of the danger-removing and consolidating works for the dam of the Juhe Reservoir in Linfen city, the paper details the construction method and technique of dam fracturing grouting.

  6. Grouting reinforcement technology for mine roadway repair in fault fracture zone%断层破碎带巷修注浆加固技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰永伟; 李凤义

    2012-01-01

    为了完善断层破碎带巷道维修方法,以注浆加固理论为基础,通过注浆材料配比实验,分析不同体积配比条件下,水泥水玻璃与凝固时间、抗压强度的关系,确定水泥水玻璃体积比为1∶0.4的注浆加固最佳配比方案。根据现场实际情况,提出了利用注浆加固技术、U型钢梁棚和喷射混凝土相结合的巷道维修方案,成功解决了现场问题。该研究对于类似矿井的断层破碎带巷道维修具有借鉴意义。%Aimed at improving mine roadway repair in fault fracture zone,this paper,building on grouting reinforcement theory and the experiments of grouting material ratio,presents an analysis of the relation between the geling time and cement-water-glass in different volume ratio conditions,and an analysis of the relation between the compressive strength and cement-water-glass in different volume ratio conditions.The paper features the best volume ratio of cement-water glass of 1:0.4 for grouting reinforcement,offers the mine roadway repair scheme tailored to the grouting reinforcement by combining U-shaped shed with shotcrete according to the practical conditions,and provides a better solution to on-site problems.The research has reference to repairing similar mine roadway with fault fracture zones.

  7. 水平注浆在盾构隧道接收洞口中的应用%Application of horizontal grouting method in receipt well of shield-driven tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广仁; 曹会清; 杜伟; 尹昆仑; 郝永杰

    2013-01-01

    以某泥水平衡式盾构接收洞口地层加固工程为例,对盾构隧道接收洞口周边土体加固技术进行研究.通过对比分析地面垂直注浆、高压旋喷和水平注浆等加固方案的优缺点,择优选择水平注浆加固工艺.介绍了根据实际地质情况优化注浆孔位的平面布置,井壁钻孔与埋设孔口管工艺,注浆孔口管的使用方法及注浆工艺与参数等.通过井壁预留孔检查注浆固结情况,效果良好,有效防止了涌水、涌砂及倒灌等,可为后续盾构机顺利进洞提供保障.实践表明:水平注浆工艺有效缩短了施工时间,对于砂卵石层有较好的可操作性和可灌入性,提高了地层固结的成功率.%Taking the reinforced engineering of receipt well in cement-water balance type shield-driven tunnel as an example, the paper researches the reinforcement technology for the soil around the receipt well. By comparing and different reinforcement schemes, such as surface vertical grouting, high-pressure rotary jet grouting, and horizontal grouting, etc, the reinforcement process of horizontal grouting was selected. The plane arrangement of grouting location was determined and optimized according to actual geological condition, process in well wall bore and buried borehole orifice-pipe, method of grouting orifice pipe and grouting process and parameters, etc. Grouting consolidation situation was checked out through preserved bores of well wall. Results showed that this method had a sound project effectiveness, preventing the water burst, sand gushing, back flushing, etc, which can provide protection to the operation of subsequent shield machines. Practices prove that the horizontal grouting method can shorten the construction time, have better operability and grouting ability for sand and gravel layer, and have improved the success rate of formation consolidation.

  8. 富水砂卵石地层注浆参数优化研究%Study on optimization of grouting parameters in water -soaked sand and cobble stratu m

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李享松; 覃娟; 罗概; 邓俊

    2016-01-01

    Choosing reasonable grouting parameter is the key to grouting reinforcement for Water -soaked sand and cobble stratum,which has the characteristics of looseness,large porosity and high permeability.Taking a subway station in Changsha as the project background,in the light of the actual problems of cement -sodium sili-cate slurry grouting including difficultly controlling the setting time and empirically determining grouting hole spacing,the paper has optimized grouting material parameters and hole spacing by indoor grouting material tes-ting,field grouting testing and finite element numerical simulation and proposed the corresponding grouting con-trol standards.It is suggested that water -cement ratio should be 0.8 -1.0,water glass about 40 Baume De-grees,water glass addition 8% -10% and grouting hole spacing about 1.8 m when Water -soaked sand and cobble stratum adopted cement -water class to grout.%富水砂卵石地层具有结构松散、空隙率大、高渗透性的特点,在进行注浆加固设计时,合理地确定注浆参数是注浆加固成功与否的关键。以长沙某地铁车站为工程依托,结合富水砂卵石地层的特点,针对水泥-水玻璃(CS)双液浆注浆凝结时间控制难、注浆孔距设计凭经验确定等问题,通过室内注浆材料试验、现场注浆试验及有限元数值模拟对注浆材料参数及注浆孔距进行优化分析,提出相应的注浆控制标准。研究结果表明:富水砂卵石地层采用 CS 双液浆注浆,当水灰比取0.8~1.0时,水玻璃浓度应控制在40波美度左右,水玻璃掺合量控制在8%~10%,注浆孔间距宜控制在1.8 m 左右。

  9. 单组份水溶性聚氨酯灌浆材料研究%Research of one-component water-soluble polyurethane grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑先军; 李红英; 伊善科

    2013-01-01

    One-component water-soluble polyurethane grouting material was prepared by hydrophilic polyether polyols with toluene diisocyanate,the influence of the various-NCO content of prepolymer、the amount of solvent and the amount of retarder on the properties of grouting materials have been studied.Results show that when the NCO% content of 7%~11%,the amount of solvent at 15%~25%,the retarder amount of about 2%,the one-component water-soluble polyurethane grouting material was the best performance,suitable for fast water blocking and protection of wet substrate in engineering.%采用亲水性聚醚多元醇与TDI反应合成了单组份水溶性聚氨酯灌浆材料,研究了NCO含量、溶剂用量、缓凝剂用量对灌浆材料性能的影响.结果表明,NCO含量在7%~11%、溶剂用量在15%~25%、缓凝剂用量在2%左右时,制备的单组份水溶性聚氨酯灌浆材料性能较好,适用于工程的快速堵水或潮湿基面的防护.

  10. The application research of lightweight foam cement in the grouting materials%轻质泡沫水泥注浆材料的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡焕校; 罗玮; 唐良智; 彭春雷; 夏凌云

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary study was made that inflatable foam cement slurry was used as grouting material by employing orthogonal experiment. The indicators such as specific density, viscosity, syneresis rate, stone density and stone rate of inflatable foam cement slurry had been tested, which depended on the different foaming and foam stabilizing agent by the orthogonal experimental method. The experimental results show that it can be used as grouting material for a variety of anti-seepage grouting works. The reasonable parameters and ratio were given by considering stone density and stone rate of inflatable foam cement slurry.%用不同的发泡剂和稳泡剂,采用正交实验,对轻质泡沫水泥浆液作为注浆材料作了初步研究,测试了轻质泡沫水泥浆液的比重、粘度、析水率、结石体密度和结石率等指标,根据实验结果进行了分析研究,从结石体密度和结石体的结石率考虑优选出一种作为注浆材料用于充填防渗注浆的轻质泡沫水泥浆液的合理参数配比.

  11. Curtain grouting gushing water treatment under special geological conditions%特殊地质条件下的帷幕灌浆涌水处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁时伟; 唐正前

    2013-01-01

      大型水电站的基础帷幕灌浆作为工程设计的重要组成部分,其施工质量关系到工程后期的安全运行。大多数工程坝基帷幕灌浆施工时,受坝基地质条件和承受的河床水头影响,涌水压力和涌水量不同。向家坝水电站因特殊的地质条件和河床水位较高,在帷幕灌浆施工中有近85%的孔段出现涌水,且涌水压力和涌水量较大,给施工造成很多困难,国内其它工程较为少见。通过对向家坝水电站坝基帷幕灌浆各类涌水情况施工详细研究和大量试验,取得了大涌水量和特殊地质条件下帷幕灌浆成功的施工技术和施工经验,供其他类似工程参考。%The foundation of large-scale hydropower curtain grouting as an important part of the engineering design,its construction quality is related to the safe operation of the project built.The most engineering Curtain Grouting construction,the dam foundation geological conditions and withstand the riverbed head impact,the gushing pressure and water inflow different.Xiangjiaba hydropower station because of the special geological conditions and the high water level of the river bed,curtain grouting nearly 85% of the hole section gushing and gushing water pressure and water inflow and cause a lot of difficulties to the construction and other do-mestic works.By a detailed study and a large number of tests of the various types of water gushing to the Xi-angjiaba hydropower dam foundation curtain grouting.It achieved many successful construction technologys and construction experiences in large inflow and special geological conditions curtain grouting,which provides ref-erence to similar projects.

  12. Low-pH injection grout for deep repositories. Summary report from a co-operation project between NUMO (Japan), Posiva (Finland) and SKB (Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Anders [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sievaenen, Ursula [JP-Suoraplan Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-06-01

    The use of standard cementitious material creates pulses of pH in the magnitude of 12-13 in the leachates and release alkalis. Such a high pH is detrimental and also unnecessarily complicates the safety analysis of the repository. As no reliable pH-plume models exist, the use of products giving a pH below 11 in the leachates facilitates the safety analysis. Also, according to current understanding, the use of low-pH cement (pH = 11) will not disturb the functioning of the bentonite, although limiting the amount of low-pH cement is recommended. A result of the project is that there are both low-pH cementitious material for grouting larger fractures (= 100 {mu}m) and non-cementitious material for grouting smaller fractures (< 100 {mu}m) that will, after further optimisation work, be recommended for grouting of deep repositories. This project concentrated on the technical development of properties for the low pH grouts. Long-term safety and environmental aspects and durability of materials were preliminarily considered. Continued evaluations have to be carried out. Five systems, e.g. material combinations, were studied in the project: 1. Ordinary Portland Cement + Silica Fume. 'OPC+SF' denotes a binder system that is based mainly on OPC+SF. SF was used in a few commercial forms. The OPC used in this system was mainly UF16 and in some cases Rheocem 900 or white cement. 2. Blast furnace slag. 'Slag' denotes an OPC activated slag based system. Alkali and water glass activation were not examined, because of long-term safety reasons. OPC used in this system was rapid hardening Portland cement. 3. Super sulphate cement. 'SSC' is a slag-based system activated with gypsum and OPC. The OPC used was rapid hardening Portland cement and the gypsum was a very fine grained slurry product. 4. Low-Alkali Cement 'LAC' was introduced to the project by NUMO as a product, ground to fixed fineness by the producer. Neither the mineral composition nor

  13. Study of the Behavior of Grouting Cement Mortar%注浆用水泥浆体性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁乃兴; 陈忠明

    2000-01-01

    对注浆加固公路路基用的水泥浆体从稳定性、流动度、粘滞度、凝结时间、析水率等方面进行了研究.掺加适量的粉煤灰可增加浆体的稳定性,外加剂水玻璃可增加浆体的稳定性及结石率,同时对浆体的流动性有降低作用,而外加剂氯化钙则对浆体的流动性有增强作用.%In this paper, the behavior of grouting cement mortar to reinforce highway subgrade is analyzed from the aspects of stability, fluidity, viscosity, bleeding ratio and setting time of cement mortar. Mixing a certain content of fly ash to cement mortar can improve stability of mortar. Mixing water glass can improve stability and increase forming stone percent of mortar and can reduce the fluidity of mortar. While mixing CaCl2 can increase fluidity of mortar also

  14. Development programs in the United States of America for the application of cement-based grouts in radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dole, L.R.; Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews seven cement-based waste form development programs at six of the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. These sites have developed a variety of processes that range from producing 25 mm (1 in.) diameter pellets in a glove box to producing 240 m (800 ft.) diameter grout sheets within the bedding planes of a deep shale formation. These successful applications of cement-based waste forms to the many radioactive waste streams from nuclear facilities bear witness to the flexibility and reliability of this class of materials. This paper also discusses the major issues regarding the application of cement-based waste forms to radioactive waste management problems. These issues are (1) leachability, (2) radiation stability, (3) thermal stability, (4) phase complexity of the matrix, and (5) effects of the waste stream composition. A cursory review of current research in each of these areas is given This paper also discusses future trends in cement-based waste form development and applications. 31 references, 11 figures.

  15. α,β-Furyl-Acrolein and Its Epoxy Grouting Material%α,β-呋喃丙烯醛及其环氧树脂灌浆材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高南; 张亚峰; 邝健政; 陈玉放; 王永珍

    2011-01-01

    Furfural used as diluent was toxic,volatile and irritant in the epoxy grouting material of the furfural-acetone system.α,β-furyl-acrolein was synthesized by the Aldol condensation reaction using furfural and aliphatic aldehydes containing α-H to replace furfural in this paper.Reactions of n-butyraldehyde,n-valeraldehyde,n-heptylaldehyde and so on with furfural were investigated and properties of the environmental-friendly epoxy grouting material prepared by α,β-furyl-acrolein were compared with each other.In the epoxy grouting material,α,β-furyl-acrolein was used as the diluent replacing the toxic and volatile furfural.Comprehensively considering all facts,3-furyl-2-ethyl-acrolein(FEA) was selected as the epoxy grouting material diluent among the α,β-furyl-acrolein.The yield of product FEA was up to 82.6% and the boiling range,the density was 208 ℃~210 ℃,1.079 g/cm3 respectively.The results show the epoxy grouting material prepared by FEA has the properties of viscosity,the compressive strength and the tensile shear strength corresponding to 80 mPa·s~97.5 mPa·s,96.76 MPa~99.98 MPa,5.07 MPa~6.06 MPa respectively.It′s a kind of environmental-friendly epoxy resin grouting material with low volatility and excellent physical and mechanical properties.%针对糠醛-丙酮体系环氧灌浆材料中糠醛毒性大、易挥发及刺激性强等问题,将糠醛与含α-H的脂肪族醛通过羟醛缩合合成α,β-呋喃丙烯醛代替糠醛。研究了正丁醛、正戊醛、正庚醛等含α-H的脂肪族醛与糠醛之间的缩合反应,并对各产物性质及制备的环氧灌浆材料性能进行分析比较,优选3-呋喃基-2-乙基-丙烯醛(FEA)制备浆材,其中FEA产率达82.6%、沸程208℃~210℃及密度1.079 g/cm3。FEA作为稀释剂制备的浆材黏度为80 mPa.s~97.5 mPa.s、28 d压缩强度为96.76 MPa~99.98 MPa、拉伸剪切强度为5.07 MPa~6.06 MPa,是一种挥发度低、性能优异的环保型环氧灌浆材料。

  16. New technology and loading tests of horizontal jet grouting arch%水平旋喷拱棚新工艺与载荷试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳建国; 张慧东; 张慧乐; 赵琰飞; 钟冬波; 徐寒; 刘钟

    2011-01-01

    Based on the equipment performance and construction problems of horizontal jet grouting technique in China, a new construction method for rotary high pressure horizontal jet grouting and new equipments are developed based on field technology and loading tests by China Jingye Engineering Corporation Limited.In field tests, the seal equipment achieves good results.The excavation shows that jet grouting piles lap joints are close and have no cracks after 28 days' maintenance; and the construction effect is good.After cleaning out the overlaying soil, it can be seen that the texture of the jet grouting piles is uniform, the lateral and vertical lap joints are good, and the occlusion size is about 0.2 m.The compressive strength is of returning fluid sample blocks is about 60% of coring blocks.Based on the full scale tests, the Q-s curves are relatively stable.The cracks occur and are constantly extended, resulting in collapse of the jet grouting arch by cracks perforated.Numerical simulations and tests show that vertical and horizontal displacements of the jet grouting arch increase with the increase of load, and the maximum displacements occur at vault.%基于国内水平旋喷技术存在成桩质量差、加固体周围岩土体变形大等问题,以中国京冶工程技术有限公司开发的全方位高压喷射注浆新工法及相应设备为依托,进行了水平旋喷拱棚现场新工艺和载荷试验.新工艺现场施工过程中,孔口止浆器止浆效果良好;养护28 d后隧洞开挖显示,旋喷桩搭接紧密,开挖长度内无搭接裂缝,施工效果良好;清除上覆土层后,可见旋喷桩质地均匀,纵横向搭接良好,桩-桩咬合尺寸约0.2 m;返浆试块的抗压强度约为取芯试块的60%.拱棚结构载荷试验表明,Q-s曲线相对平稳;拱棚结构的破坏主要是由于旋喷桩体搭接处产生裂缝并不断扩展,最终贯通引起的剪切破坏.通过数值模拟与实测值的对比,拱棚结构的竖向位移和

  17. 水泥基灌浆材料流动性能的研究%Study on the flow property of cement based grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高汉青; 于大第; 杨晓光; 王炜; 潘美; 郑旗

    2014-01-01

    Two test methods were introduced for the flow property testing of cement based grouting material ,truncated cone method and flow cone method.Experiments were carried out to compare the flow performances of same cement based grouting material by the two dif-ferent test methods,and the result showed that the flow property of cement based grouting material with high fluidity could not be fully characterized only by the truncated method.Cement based material with excellent flow performance was prepared by using the self-made anti-settling agent,and it could meet the requirements of both GB/T 50448-2008 and ASTM-C939-2012.%介绍了国内标准与ASTM标准测试水泥基灌浆材料流动性能所采用的两种方法:截锥圆模法和流锥法,试验比较了水泥基灌浆材料在两种测试方法下的性能表现差异,结果表明国内标准仅采用截锥圆模法无法全面表征大流动度水泥基灌浆材料的流动特性。采用自制防沉剂,配制了同时满足GB/T 50448-2008和ASTM C939-2012要求的具有高流动性能的水泥基灌浆材料。

  18. Optimization of ground source heat pumps related to soil and groundwater conditions as well as grouting material; Optimierung von Waermepumpen in Bezug auf Boden- und Grundwasserverhaeltnisse sowie Verpressmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzenbach, R.; Clauss, F.; Waberseck, T. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. und Versuchsanstalt fuer Geotechnik; Sass, J. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Fachgebiet Ingenieurgeologie

    2006-07-01

    The capacity and the performance of ground source heat pumps and seasonal thermal storage systems with borehole heat exchangers depend on the conditions of the encountered subsoil and the groundwater and furthermore on the thermal properties of the grouting material used for conclusive backfilling of the annular space after installing the heat exchanger pipes in the borehole. Intensive investigations are carried out at the Technische Universitaet Darmstadt with the aim of an economical optimisation of the dimensioning of ground source heat pumps and seasonal thermal storage systems. (orig.)

  19. Test Research on Grouting in Sand and Gravel Layer%某级配砂砾石灌浆试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦鹏飞; 符平; 王春; 彭忠红

    2014-01-01

    In the water conservancy project and other constructions ,the grouting in sand and gravel layer is of great im-portance and value .The grouting is invisible ,the sand and gravel layer is complex and uncertainty ,and the diffusion ra-dius of cement slurry and the concretion strength are unpredictable .The particle gradation attempted for the sand and gravel layer widely distributed in the northwest and southwest in China ,and the cement grouting tests with different pro-portion and different component were carried out in laboratory .The results indicate that the diffusion radius of the cement slurry is increased with the water cement ratio increased ,which is closely related with its physical-mechanical properties ;the concretion strength is decreased with the water cement ratio increased .The concretion strength is dispersed widely due to the complexity of the inner structure in the sand and gravel layer .The test results could be used as a reference in site grouting construction .%在工程兴建中对砂砾石层进行灌浆加固处理具有非常重要的意义。灌浆工程是隐蔽工程,砂砾石地层形态又复杂多变,在砂砾石层灌浆浆液的扩散半径及结石体强度等灌浆效果方面存在较大的不可预测性。对我国西北、西南地区广泛分布的砂砾石层进行了颗粒试配,并在实验室内开展了不同配比、不同组分的水泥灌浆试验研究。试验结果表明:水泥浆液的扩散半径基本上随水灰比的增加而增大,与浆液自身的物理力学性质密切相关;砂料结石体的抗压强度随水灰比的增加而减小,但是由于砂石料的内部结构极其复杂,使得试样的抗压强度离散性极大。试验所得结果可初步指导现场灌浆施工。

  20. 三关庙水电站浆砌石重力坝设计%Grouted Rubble Gravity Dam Design for Sanguan Temple Hydropower Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马杰

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the structure design in overfall section and non-overfall section of Sanguan temple hydropower grouted rubble gravity dam.The result of stability stress calculation of the dam shows that structure design of this gravity dam is reasonable.%本文对三关庙水电站浆砌石重力坝的溢流坝段和非溢流坝段结构设计做了介绍。坝体稳定应力计算结果表明该重力坝的结构设计是合理的。

  1. 邻近营业线高压旋喷桩施工安全技术%Construction Security Technology of High Pressure Jet Grouting Pile at Adjacent Operating Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武垚强

    2016-01-01

    本文介绍了郑徐客专徐州枢纽相关工程ZXZH-1标邻近营业线高压旋喷桩施工技术,对类似环境下的高压旋喷桩施工有一定的参考价值。%This article introduces the construction technology of high pressure jet grouting pile at adjacent operating lines of ZXZH-1 section in the related project of Xuzhou hub of Zhengzhou-Xuzhou passenger dedicated line, which has certain reference value for the high pressure jet grouting pile construction in similar environment.

  2. Test Study on Monitoring and Evaluation of Grouting Effect in the Immersed Tube Tunnel%沉管隧道注浆效果监测与评价的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈永芳; 黄醒春

    2013-01-01

    为了探索沉管隧道管底注浆效果的监测方法和评价体系,在国内率先采用探地雷达和数字地震仪对舟山沈家门港海底隧道模型的注浆基础进行了测试研究.通过在注浆前、注浆过程中以及注浆完成2小时后所进行的现场检测,将采集到雷达波形和面波波形与模型中预先设置的观察窗现场观察的结果进行对比,确定注浆前、注浆过程中、注浆完成后三个阶段的典型波形,以判别和评价沉管隧道管底注浆基础效果.试验结果表明,探地雷达结合面波法的监测方法能作为在管底注浆施工时的停止注浆条件之一,可满足沉管隧道现场施工时管底注浆基础效果的监测和评价,进而可为沉管隧道的工程设计方案提供依据.%In order to explore the monitoring methods and evaluation system of the immersed tube tunnel grouting effect,the grouting foundation of Shenjiamen port cross-harbour tunnel model has been tested firstly using ground penetrating radar and digital seismograph in Zhoushan,Zhejiang,China.By field testing before grouting,during grouting process and 2 hours after grouting,the collected waveforms by ground penetrating radar and surface wave have been compared with the results of field observations in pre-set viewing window.The typical waveforms of three phases (before grouting,in grouting process and after grouting) would be determined,which have been to differentiate and evaluate the foundation grouting effect of the immersed tube tunnel.The test results showed that the monitoring method combining ground penetrating radar and surface wave could be used as one of the conditions to stop grouting in the construction of the tube bottom and could meet the monitoring and evaluation of the foundation grouting effect in the immersed tube tunnel construction site.This method will also provide the basis for engineering design programs of the immersed tube tunnel.

  3. Research on Test Methods for Pre-stressed Pipe Grouting Quality%预应力管道压浆质量检测方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向勇; 张梦龙; 屈建强; 张麟

    2012-01-01

    通过比较的方法,介绍了目前国内外最常用的检测预应力管道压浆质量的方法,分别有冲击回波法、探地雷达法、超声波法、超声波层析成像法等几种检测方法。总结了这几种方法在工程应用上的特点,并根据国内外的研究应用结果,推荐冲击回波法为预应力管道压浆质量的检测方法。%This article,through the comparison,introduced the present domestic and foreign most commonly used pre-stressed pipe grouting quality test methods,including several detection methods such as impact echo method,ultrasonic method,ground penetrating radar method,ultrasonic tomographic imaging method,summaried the characteristics of these methods in engineering application,and recommended that impact echo method is the test method for pre-stressed grouting quality according to its application and research results at home and abroad.

  4. Research on waste drilling mud being used in grouting%钻井废弃泥浆用作注浆材料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振国; 徐润; 高岗荣

    2011-01-01

    The drilling mud of dirt shaft and clay slurry in Zhujixi Coal Mine was studied by means of XRD and laser particle analyzer.The results show that the content of smectite is higher and the partical size is smaller in drilling mud.The research of the influence of drilling mud to the hydration process of cement and the viscosity, plastic strength of drilling mud cement grout demonstrates that waste drilling mud can be used in grouting instead of clay slurry.%采用X射线衍射仪和激光粒度仪分析朱集西煤矿矸石井钻井泥浆和注浆用黏土浆,显示钻井泥浆的膨胀性黏土矿物含量相对黏土浆高,且黏土颗粒粒径小;通过钻井泥浆对水泥水化历程影响的研究和由钻井泥浆配成的钻井液水泥浆的黏度、塑性强度等性能的研究,证明朱集西煤矿钻井废弃泥浆可代替黏土浆用作注浆材料.

  5. Low-pH injection grout for deep repositories. Summary report from a co-operation project between NUMO (Japan), Posiva (Finland) and SKB (Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Anders [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sievaenen, Ursula [JP-Suoraplan Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-06-01

    The use of standard cementitious material creates pulses of pH in the magnitude of 12-13 in the leachates and release alkalis. Such a high pH is detrimental and also unnecessarily complicates the safety analysis of the repository. As no reliable pH-plume models exist, the use of products giving a pH below 11 in the leachates facilitates the safety analysis. Also, according to current understanding, the use of low-pH cement (pH = 11) will not disturb the functioning of the bentonite, although limiting the amount of low-pH cement is recommended. A result of the project is that there are both low-pH cementitious material for grouting larger fractures (= 100 {mu}m) and non-cementitious material for grouting smaller fractures (< 100 {mu}m) that will, after further optimisation work, be recommended for grouting of deep repositories. This project concentrated on the technical development of properties for the low pH grouts. Long-term safety and environmental aspects and durability of materials were preliminarily considered. Continued evaluations have to be carried out. Five systems, e.g. material combinations, were studied in the project: 1. Ordinary Portland Cement + Silica Fume. 'OPC+SF' denotes a binder system that is based mainly on OPC+SF. SF was used in a few commercial forms. The OPC used in this system was mainly UF16 and in some cases Rheocem 900 or white cement. 2. Blast furnace slag. 'Slag' denotes an OPC activated slag based system. Alkali and water glass activation were not examined, because of long-term safety reasons. OPC used in this system was rapid hardening Portland cement. 3. Super sulphate cement. 'SSC' is a slag-based system activated with gypsum and OPC. The OPC used was rapid hardening Portland cement and the gypsum was a very fine grained slurry product. 4. Low-Alkali Cement 'LAC' was introduced to the project by NUMO as a product, ground to fixed fineness by the producer. Neither the mineral composition nor

  6. Development of rock bolt grout and shotcrete for rock support and corrosion of steel in low-pH cementitious materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Anders (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Vaellingby (Sweden)); Pettersson, Stig (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    It is foreseen that cementitious products will be utilized in the construction of the final repository. The use of conventional cementitious material creates pulses in the magnitude of pH 12.13 in the leachates and release alkalis. Such a high pH is detrimental mainly to impairment of bentonite functioning, but also to possibly enhanced dissolution of spent fuel and alteration of fracture filling materials. It also complicates the safety analysis of the repository, as the effect of a high pH-plume should be considered in the evaluation. As no reliable pH-plume models exist, the use of products giving a pH below 11 in the leachates facilitates the safety analysis, although limiting the amount of low-pH cement is recommended. In earlier studies it was found that shotcreting, standard casting and rock bolting with low-pH cement (pH . 11 in the leachate) should be possible without any major development work. This report summarizes the results of development work done during 2008 and 2009 in the fields of low-pH rock bolt grout, low-pH shotcrete and steel corrosion in low-pH concrete. Development of low-pH rock bolt grout mixes and laboratory testing of the selected grout was followed by installation of twenty rock bolts for rock support at Aspo HRL using the chosen low-pH grout. The operation was successful and the bolts and grout are subject to follow up the next ten years. Low-pH shotcrete for rock support was initially developed within the ESDRED project, which was an Integrated Project within the European Commission sixth framework for research and technological development. ESDRED is an abbreviation for Engineering Studies and Demonstrations of Repository Designs. ESDRED was executed from 1st February 2004 to 31st January 2009. The development of the mix design described in this report was based on the results from ESDRED. After laboratory testing of the chosen mix, it was field tested in niche NASA 0408A at Aspo HRL. Further, some areas in the TASS-tunnel were

  7. 深厚砂砾石地层固结灌浆在实际工程中的应用%Consolidation Grouting of Deep Sand-gravel Stratum in Practical Engineering Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵健飞

    2014-01-01

    水利工程施工过程中,经常会遇到水工建筑物直接修建在砂砾石地层上,为了提高砂砾石地层的整体性、密实性并降低其透水率,一般需要对坝基采取全面的固结灌浆,必要时也在坝基上、下游一定范围内进行固结灌浆。结合水利枢纽的工程实践,对泄洪冲沙闸底板进行全面的固结灌浆处理,施工过程中采用自上而下分段灌浆方法,对现有的钻探与灌浆工艺技术进行优化组合,最终经灌后质量检查,结果满足深厚砂砾石覆盖层固结灌浆的设计要求,取得了良好的效果。%In the construction of hydraulic engineering projects ,the hydraulic structures are often directly built on the sand gravel stratum .In order to improve the integrity of sandy gravel stratum and reduce its permeability ,it is common to apply comprehensive consolidation grouting on the dam foundation ,sometimes consolidation grouting is also carried out in a certain range of the upstream and downstream of the dam foundation when necessary .In the construction of an engineer-ing project ,the comprehensive consolidation grouting was applied on the floor of the outlet sluice with descending stage grouting method during the construction process .This method combined the advantages of the existing drilling and grout-ing techniques and reached a optimum combination .The result of the quality inspection indicates that the outcome not on-ly meets the specifications of consolidation grouting of deep sand gravel stratum ,but also has excellent performance .

  8. MECHANICAL MODEL AND ELASTIC MODULUS OF GROUTED CONCRETE BLOCK MASONRY IN COMPRESSION%灌孔混凝土砌块砌体受压力学模型及其弹性模量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁建国; 龙腾

    2012-01-01

    灌孔混凝土砌块砌体是由砌体和灌孔混凝土两部分组合而成,为了得到竖向压力作用下两种材料的相互作用机理,该文基于最小势能原理推导了砌体对灌孔混凝土的套箍系数以及灌孔混凝土砌块砌体内的应力分布,得到了灌孔混凝土砌块砌体的弹性模量可近似按材料力学组合截面公式进行计算,其计算结果与收集的全国65组281个试件试验结果符合良好,并通过试验结果统计得到了灌孔混凝土砌块砌体弹性模量的建议公式。理论分析和试验结果表明,我国现行规范中灌孔混凝土砌块砌体弹性模量取值偏低,将使配筋砌块砌体结构的设计计算结果偏于不安全。%In order to obtain the interaction mechanism between the grout and masonry in grouted concrete block masonry structures under vertical load, the hooping factor which denotes the hooping action of the masonry to the grouted concrete and the stress distribution in the grouted concrete block masonry is studied based on the minimum potential energy principle. The elastic modulus of grouted concrete block masonry can be approximately calculated according to the assembled section formula in material mechanics, and the calculation results of this formula agree well with the test results of 281 specimens in 65 groups. Another proposed formula to calculate the elastic modulus of the grouted concrete block is derived base on the test results by regression analysis method. Theoretical analysis and test results show that the value of elastic modulus of grouted concrete block masonry in our current code is low, indicating it is unsafe to guide the design of reinforced concrete block masonry structures.

  9. Application of Screw directional drilling technology in mine grouting and plugging water engineering%螺杆定向钻井技术在煤矿注浆堵水工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋建国; 井旋; 郭冬兰

    2014-01-01

    Due to the anisotropy of rock and rock hardness larger gap interbed and artiifcial drilling operation process is not reasonable factors, the borehole deviation rate of the ground ultra deep grouting and plugging water borehole is dififcult to control, and often appear the serious overrun of the ifnal hole offset, which were unable to meet the requirements of grouting phenomenon, seriously affected grouting effect and even caused drilling scrap. By using the directional drilling technology can construct the branch directional drilling in the grouting hole which offset were serious overrun, and rock hardness that is soft and full, reasonable curvature radius, achieve the deviation or reconstruction branch grouting holes.%地面超深注浆堵水钻孔由于受到岩石的各向异性、岩石硬度差距较大的互层以及人为钻进操作工艺不合理等因素影响,钻孔偏斜率难以控制,往往出现终孔偏距严重超限,无法满足注浆要求的现象,严重影响注浆效果甚至造成钻孔报废。采用定向钻井技术可以在偏距严重超限的注浆钻孔内且岩石完整、硬度较软和曲率半径合理的孔段施工分支定向钻孔,达到纠偏或重新施工分支注浆钻孔的目的。

  10. 环保型改性糠醛及其环氧灌浆材料%Environmental-friendly modified furfural and its epoxy grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷翅; 高南; 张亚峰; 廖兵; 邝健政; 王永珍

    2011-01-01

    Through the aldol condensation reaction, α,β-furyl-acrolein were synthesized using furfural and aliphatic aldehydes containing α-H to replace furfural to solve problems of furfural as diluents which was toxic, volatile and irritant in epoxy grouting material of furfural-acetone system. Reaction yield and product properties of n-butyraldehyde,n-valeraldehyde,n-heptylaldehyde and so on with furfural were determined. At the same time, the products of α, β-furyl-acrolein were characterized. Comparing with properties of various α,β-furyl-acrolein as diluents of epoxy grouting material, the 3-furyl-2-ethyl-acrolein (FEA) has the best performance. The results showed the epoxy grouting material of viscosity. 28 d compressive strength and tensile shear strength correspond to 80~97.5 mPa·s,92.76~99.98 Mpa,5.07~6.06 Mpa. Meanwhile,toxicity tests show that the KD50 of FEA was 1260 mg/kg,acute oral toxicity belongs to low poison grade.%通过羟醛缩合反应,糠醛与含α-H的脂肪族醛合成α,β-呋喃丙烯醛代替糠醛,解决糠醛-丙酮体系中糠醛毒性大、易挥发及刺激性强等问题.测试了糠醛与各种α-H脂肪族醛反应的产率及产物的性质,并对其各产物进行结构表征.通过对制备的环氧灌浆材料性能进行分析比较,优选出3-呋喃基-2-乙基-丙烯醛(FEA)为稀释剂制备浆材.其浆材黏度为80~97.5 mPa·s、28d抗压强度为96.76~99.98 MPa、拉伸剪切强度为5.07~6.06 MPa.毒性试验表明,FEA的LD50为1260 mg/kg,急性经口毒性属于低毒毒级.

  11. Chemical Stabilization of Hanford Tank Residual Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Um, Wooyong; Williams, Benjamin D.; Bowden, Mark E.; Gartman, Brandy N.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mausolf, Edward J.

    2014-03-01

    Three different chemical treatment methods were tested for their ability to stabilize residual waste from Hanford tank C-202 for reducing contaminant release (Tc, Cr, and U in particular). The three treatment methods tested were lime addition [Ca(OH)2], an in-situ Ceramicrete waste form based on chemically bonded phosphate ceramics, and a ferrous iron/goethite treatment. These approaches rely on formation of insoluble forms of the contaminants of concern (lime addition and ceramicrete) and chemical reduction followed by co-precipitation (ferrous iron/goethite incorporation treatment). The results have demonstrated that release of the three most significant mobile contaminants of concern from tank residual wastes can be dramatically reduced after treatment compared to contact with simulated grout porewater without treatment. For uranium, all three treatments methods reduced the leachable uranium concentrations by well over three orders of magnitude. In the case of uranium and technetium, released concentrations were well below their respective MCLs for the wastes tested. For tank C-202 residual waste, chromium release concentrations were above the MCL but were considerably reduced relative to untreated tank waste. This innovative approach has the potential to revolutionize Hanford’s tank retrieval process, by allowing larger volumes of residual waste to be left in tanks while providing an acceptably low level of risk with respect to contaminant release that is protective of the environment and human health. Such an approach could enable DOE to realize significant cost savings through streamlined retrieval and closure operations.

  12. Chemical stabilization of Hanford tank residual waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Um, Wooyong; Williams, Benjamin D.; Bowden, Mark E.; Gartman, Brandy; Lukens, Wayne W.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mausolf, Edward J.

    2014-03-01

    Three different chemical treatment methods were tested for their ability to stabilize residual waste from Hanford tank C-202 for reducing contaminant release (Tc, Cr, and U in particular). The three treatment methods tested were lime addition [Ca(OH)2], an in situ Ceramicrete waste form based on chemically bonded phosphate ceramics, and a ferrous iron/goethite treatment. These approaches rely on formation of insoluble forms of the contaminants of concern (lime addition and Ceramicrete) and chemical reduction followed by co-precipitation (ferrous iron/goethite incorporation treatment). The results have demonstrated that release of uranium from tank residual wastes can be dramatically reduced after treatment compared to contact with simulated grout porewater without treatment. All three treatments methods reduced the leachable uranium concentrations by well over three orders of magnitude. In the case of uranium and technetium, released concentrations were well below their respective Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for the wastes tested. For tank C-202 residual waste, chromium release concentrations were above the MCL but were considerably reduced relative to untreated tank waste.

  13. Chemical stabilization of Hanford tank residual waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J., E-mail: kirk.cantrell@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Um, Wooyong; Williams, Benjamin D.; Bowden, Mark E.; Gartman, Brandy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Lukens, Wayne W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Buck, Edgar C.; Mausolf, Edward J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Three different chemical treatment methods were tested for their ability to stabilize residual waste from Hanford tank C-202 for reducing contaminant release (Tc, Cr, and U in particular). The three treatment methods tested were lime addition [Ca(OH){sub 2}], an in situ Ceramicrete waste form based on chemically bonded phosphate ceramics, and a ferrous iron/goethite treatment. These approaches rely on formation of insoluble forms of the contaminants of concern (lime addition and Ceramicrete) and chemical reduction followed by co-precipitation (ferrous iron/goethite incorporation treatment). The results have demonstrated that release of uranium from tank residual wastes can be dramatically reduced after treatment compared to contact with simulated grout porewater without treatment. All three treatments methods reduced the leachable uranium concentrations by well over three orders of magnitude. In the case of uranium and technetium, released concentrations were well below their respective Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for the wastes tested. For tank C-202 residual waste, chromium release concentrations were above the MCL but were considerably reduced relative to untreated tank waste. This innovative approach has the potential to revolutionize Hanford’s tank retrieval process, by allowing larger volumes of residual waste to be left in tanks while providing an acceptably low level of risk with respect to contaminant release that is protective of the environment and human health. Such an approach could enable DOE to realize significant cost savings through streamlined retrieval and closure operations.

  14. Research and application of epoxy grouting material elasticity increasing method%环氧灌浆材料增弹方法的研究及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨霞; 富珠峰

    2011-01-01

    Four kinds of different elastic epoxy grouting materials were prepared by adding toughening agent, flexible epoxy resin,flexible curing agent and nano materials with the E-51 epoxy resin as the main resin,material properties and characteristics of the process which prepared from the different modification methods are compared. The obtained materials are applied in Shanghai metro tunnel project.%以E-51环氧树脂为主体树脂,通过添加活性增韧剂、柔韧性环氧树脂、柔性固化剂及纳米材料4种方法制备弹性环氧灌浆材料,比较了采用不同改性方法的环氧灌浆材料的性能及工艺特点,并在上海地铁隧道工程进行了试点应用.

  15. 静压注浆处理油罐基础不均匀沉降%On treatment of uneven settlement of tank foundation with static pressure grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏景和

    2012-01-01

    通过对某厂油罐基础不均匀沉降的处理,论述了用静压注浆处理油罐地基沉降的可行性。同时,采用油罐内架设三脚架提拉罐底板的方法,对处理中小型油罐沉降具有一定的参考价值。%According to the treatment of the uneven settlement of the tank foundation at some plant, the paper indicates the feasibility to treat the tank foundation settlement with the static pressure grouting, and adopts to erect the tripod pulling tank bottom in the tank, so it provides some ref- erence value to treat the settlement in small tank.

  16. Analysis on Seepage Field of Grouting Circle in Subsea Tunnel Based on Fluid-solid Coupling%基于流固耦合的海底隧道注浆圈渗流场影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪优; 王星华; 刘建华; 陈俊儒

    2012-01-01

    Taking fissured body of rock as the equivalent continuum, the seepage model of subsea tunnel was established and the characteristics of seepage field were analyzed. By case-study of the Subsea Tunnel Project of the Jiaozhou Bay, the law of influence of grouting circles on the seepage field was analyzed. The calculation results show as follows: The principle "to block mainly, to emit limitedly" should be taken in waterproofing amd drainage of subsea tunnel; the water plugging effect of the grouting circle is related to the thickness of the grouting circle, and the thickness of the grounting circle is in direct proportion to the permeability coefficient of the grouting circle; when the ratio between the permeability coefficient of rocks and the permeability coefficient of grouting consolidation circle is greater than 100 and the thickness of grouting circle is not smaller than10m. neither the permeability coefficient of grouting circle nor the thickness of grouting circle affects the volume of tunnel gushing water significantly; the larger the difference between the volume of tunnel gushing vatei amd the controlled drainage volume, the greater the external water pressure on tunnel lining; the grouting circle can be used to block seepage paths of groundwater so as to significantly reduce the external water pressure on. turn-nel lining; in the stage of free drainage, tunnel lining does not bear any water pressure and the volume of gush-ing water is equal to the volume of controlled drainage.%将存在裂隙的岩体视为等效连续介质,建立海底隧道稳定渗流分析计算模型,并对渗流场相关特性进行探讨;结合青岛胶州湾海底隧道工程计算注浆圈对渗流场影响.结果表明:海底隧道防排水应采取“以堵为主,限量排放”的原则;注浆圈堵水效果与其厚度相关,且注浆圈厚度与其渗透系数成正比.但当围岩渗透系数与注浆加固圈渗透系数之比大于100,且注浆圈厚度不小于10

  17. 矿物掺合料对硫铝酸盐水泥基灌浆料性能的影响%Effect of mineral admixtures on performance of grout material based on sulphate aluminium cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴民; 赵慧

    2014-01-01

    为研究矿物掺合料对硫铝酸盐水泥基灌浆料力学性能及流动性能的影响,分别以硅灰、双飞粉、轻质碳酸钙为掺合料制备了硫铝酸盐水泥基灌浆料。在不同水胶比条件下,测试了灌浆料的流动度及不同龄期的抗折、抗压强度。试验结果表明:加入一定量硅灰可以提高灌浆料各龄期强度,但随着硅灰掺量增大,灌浆料流动度降低;加入一定量双飞粉对灌浆料流动度及各龄期强度均有负面影响;加入一定量轻质碳酸钙对灌浆料不同龄期抗压强度有所提高,对流动度及抗折强度没有明显影响。%In order to study mineral admixtures' impact on the mechanical and flow properties of sulfur aluminate cement-based grouting material,the author produces sulfur aluminate cement-based grouting material samples by useing silica fume ,Flying powder and light cal-cium carbonate as mineral admixtures.The author also tests and analysises fluidity ,strength index in different water cement ratio. The fl-lowing are the results that we can conclude:(1)adding a certain amount of silica fume can improve the strength of grouting material in each stage,while the grout fluidity will reduce when the dosage of silica fume increases;(2)adding a certain amount of flying powder has negative effects on the grout fluidity and the strength in each stage;(3)adding a certain amount of light calcium carbonate can improve the compressive strength of grout in ecah stage,while has no obvious effects on fluidity and flexural strength.

  18. 超高水材料覆岩离层及冒落裂隙带注浆充填技术%Grouting Backfill Technology with Super High Water Material for Overburden Bed-separation and Falling Fractured Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成真; 冯光明

    2011-01-01

    In order to the problems occurred by the great amount pressurized flowing water in the bed-separation after the traditional grouting and subsidence control technology conducted in the overburden bed-separation, in combination with the basic performances of the super water material, based on the key strata theory of the strata control as the guide, the grouting backfill technology with the super water material was provided for the overburden strata bed-separation and falling fractured zone.The technology would fully fill with the super water material in the bed-separation space, the space between the falling rocks of the falling zone and the cracks of the fractured zone.After the grouting material solidified, the filled material could control the activities of the overburden strata.The previous practical results of the overburden strata grouting and the application of the grouting and backfill technology to an imaginary coal mining face showed that the grouting and backfill with the super water material in the overburden strata bed-separation and falling fractured zone would have a subsidence reduction rate between 80% ~ 90% and would have a high production and high efficient coal mining in seam under the buildings,railway line and water body.%为了解决传统覆岩离层注浆减沉技术实施后离层区内大量承压可流动水体所带来的问题,结合超高水材料基本性能,以岩层控制的关键层理论为指导,提出了超高水材料覆岩离层及冒落裂隙带注浆充填技术.该技术将超高水材料浆液充满关键层下的离层空间、冒落带垮落矸石间缝隙以及裂缝带裂隙,凝固后的充填体控制上覆岩活动.根据以往覆岩离层注浆实践结果及超高水材料注浆充填技术在假想工作面的应用可知:超高水材料覆岩离层及冒落裂隙带注浆充填的减沉率在80%~90%,有助实现"三下"压煤开采的高产高效.

  19. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  20. 灌浆技术在龙佛水库除险加固工程中的应用%The application of grouting technology in risk removal and reinforcement project of Longfo Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新乐

    2016-01-01

    Songxian County Longfo Reservoir dam foundation suffers from serious leakage,thereby threatening the dam safety and benefit of water accumulation in the reservoir.Grouting technology is adopted in the construction of risk removal and reinforcement project with good construction effect.In the paper,grouting technology construction methods,quality control and special quality problem handling methods are described.%嵩县龙佛水库坝基漏水严重,威胁着坝体的安全和水库蓄水效益的发挥,在除险加固工程建设中采用了灌浆技术,施工效果良好。本文阐述了灌浆技术的施工方法、质量控制及特殊质量问题的处理途径。

  1. 黄泥灌浆治理采煤工作面火区实践%Practice on the Treatment of Fire Area in Mining Working Face by Yellow Clay Grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张中岭

    2014-01-01

    The process and treatment of spontaneous combustion in 21021 Coal Face ,Hongda Colliery was intro-duced in the paper ,after testing and analyzing correlation gas sample ,yellow clay grouting scheme was adopted to grout fire area ,which put out fire successfully and ensured safety production .%介绍了宏达煤矿21021采煤工作面发生自燃的过程及处理情况,通过对相关气样化验、分析后,采取了黄泥灌浆方案对火区进行注浆,成功灭火,保证了安全生产。

  2. 粉煤灰胶结注浆防灭火研究及应用%Research and application of ifre preventing and extinguishing using lfy ash cementing grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方庆河; 马保祥; 林羿潇

    2014-01-01

    3 coal seam of a coal mining is class II of spontaneous combustion coal, The shortest combustion time is for 18 days, in order to effectively control the ignition in goaf, achieve the purpose of ifre prevention and control, this paper used lfy ash cementing grouting materials for ifre prevention, and determined the suitable ifre prevention and extinguishing grouting system.%某煤矿开采的3煤层为Ⅱ类自燃煤层,最短发火期为18天,为有效地控制采空区发火,达到防灭火目的,矿井决定采用粉煤灰胶结防灭火材料进行注浆防灭火,确定合适的防灭火注浆系统。

  3. 东敢水库松散堆石坝体充填灌浆的设计与施工%Design and construction of loose rockfill dam body filling grouting for Donggan Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王之岑

    2013-01-01

      Filling grouting of loose rockfill dam body at downstream side of main dam is the most complicated of all reinforcement measures for Donggan Reservoir. The grouting effects also play key role in dam body stress calcula⁃tion. An introduction was made on the design,construction and examination results of loose rockfill dam body fill⁃ing grouting.%  东敢水库除险加固工程各项加固措施中,尤以主坝下游侧松散堆石坝体充填灌浆最为复杂,灌浆效果能否达到设计要求对坝体的应力分析计算起关键作用。介绍了松散堆石坝体充填灌浆的设计与施工,以及完工后工程检测的结果。

  4. 注浆工艺在平煤六矿暗轨猴车联络巷的应用%Application of Grouting Processing in PingMei Sixth Mine Dark Rail-monkey Car Contact Lane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵广金; 任名扬

    2013-01-01

    平顶山矿区是我国地质条件复杂的矿区之一.受围岩破碎、软岩流变等地质条件的影响,平煤股份六矿三水平暗轨猴车联络巷位于为软岩巷道,围岩松散破碎,围岩主要以泥岩、砂质泥岩为主,为满足矿井发展需要三水平暗轨猴车道进行底板注浆.在分析了巷道岩性的基础上,提出了注浆管初注和内注式锚杆二次注浆施工方案,并进行了实地试验.%Pingdingshan Coal Mine is one .of China's complex geological conditions. Affected by the broken country rock, soft rock rheology and geological conditions, six mine in Pingdingshan shares three-level dark rail—monkey car contact lane belong to soft rock tunnel, and the surrounding rock is broken and loose, country rock gives priority to mudstone, sandy mudstone. To meet the development of mine, we need to conduct bottom grouting to three-level dark rail-monkey car contact lane. Based on the analysis of roadway lithology, grouting pipe eariy injection and injection anchor secondary grouting construction program was proposed, and field trial was carried out.

  5. 横缝灌浆对向家坝岸坡反拱坝段工作特性影响研究%Influence of Transverse Joint Grouting on Working Performance of Xiangjiaba Slope Anti-arch Dam Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秋景; 杨波; 廉成志; 李海枫; 吴龙珅

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine the influence of transverse joints grouting on working performance of anti arch dam section of gravity dam, deformation and stress of Xiangjiaba slope anti arch dam section under action of temperature load are calculated by using FEM. The results show that variation of dam deformation and dam heel stress are influenced significantly by transverse joints grouting;transverse joints should not be grouted if each dam section meets stability condition.%为明确横缝灌浆对采用反拱形式布置的重力坝坝体工作性态的影响,采用三维有限元方法分析了向家坝岸坡反拱坝段在单独温度作用下的变形和应力.结果显示,横缝灌浆对坝体变形和坝踵应力变化规律影响显著;在单坝段满足稳定条件下横缝不宜灌浆.

  6. Reinforcement and Rectification for the Coal Bunker Foundation by Composite Grouting Method%复合注浆法在煤仓地基加固纠偏中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯旭海; 李生生

    2014-01-01

    大荷载煤仓因为地基土承载力不够而产生不均匀沉降和倾斜,需要进行加固和纠偏处理。复合注浆法综合利用注浆的加固和抬升效应,进行地基加固和构筑物沉降控制。以大荷载煤仓地基加固为例,对注浆设计与施工进行了介绍,实现了提高地基承载力和降低沉降差的目的。%A coal bunker with large loads is easy to appear uneven settlement and tilt because of lack of ground bearing capacity. The foundation needs to be reinforced and the coal bunker needs to be rectified for use. The composite grouting method can reinforce the foundation and control the sedimentation of structures by utilizing the compaction and jacking effects of grouting. Taking a large load bunker foundation’ s reinforcement for example, the paper introduced the design and construction of the composite grouting method to improve the bearing capacity and reduce differential settlement.

  7. Drilling of grouting and control holes and water loss measurements in the ONKALO exhaust air shaft 2010-2011; Injektointi- ja kontrollireikien kairaus ja vesimenekkimittaus ONKALOn poistoilmakuilulla 2010-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Drillcon SMOY, Espoo (Finland)

    2014-12-15

    Posiva Oy contracted (several orders 2009-2011) Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) to core drill the drillholes for grouting work of the exhaust air shaft ONK-KU2 (unofficial abbreviation {sup P}IK{sup )} in ONKALO. The work took place in several phases between 28th of December 2010 and 22th of August 2011. The identification numbers of the drillholes are ONK-PP277...287, ONK-PP291...293, ONK-PP295...307 and ONK-PP314. The drilling rig used was hydraulic Sandvik DE 130. Extra stabilized NQ2 drilling equipment was used to ensure maximum straightness of the drillholes. The drillhole diameter with the equipment used is 75.5 mm and sample diameter is 50.5 mm. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The deviations of the drillholes were surveyed with EMS-Reflex device during drilling and when the drillhole was finished. Water loss measurements were conducted in the drillholes to estimate the need for grouting and to measure if the grouting operation was successful. (orig.)

  8. Drilling of grouting and control holes and water loss measurements in the ONKALO inlet air shaft 2010-2013; Injektointi- ja kontrollireikien kairaus ja vesimenekkimittaus ONKALOn tuloilmakuilulla 2010-2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Drillcon SMOY, Espoo (Finland)

    2014-12-15

    Posiva Oy contracted (several orders 2009-2011) Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) to core drill the drillholes for grouting work of the exhaust air shaft ONK-KU2 (unofficial abbreviation {sup P}IK{sup )} in ONKALO. The work took place in several phases between 28th of December 2010 and 22th of August 2011. The identification numbers of the drillholes are ONK-PP277...287, ONK-PP291...293, ONK-PP295...307 and ONK-PP314. The drilling rig used was hydraulic Sandvik DE 130. Extra stabilized NQ2 drilling equipment was used to ensure maximum straightness of the drillholes. The drillhole diameter with the equipment used is 75.5 mm and sample diameter is 50.5 mm. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The deviations of the drillholes were surveyed with EMS-Reflex device during drilling and when the drillhole was finished. Water loss measurements were conducted in the drillholes to estimate the need for grouting and to measure if the grouting operation was successful. (orig.)

  9. Drilling of grouting and control holes and water loss measurements in the ONKALO personnel shaft 2010-2014; Injektointi- ja kontrollireikien kairaus ja vesimenekkimittaus ONKALOn henkiloekuilulla 2010-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Drillcon SMOY, Espoo (Finland)

    2014-12-15

    Posiva Oy contracted (several orders 2009-2014) Drillcon Smoy to core drill the drillholes for grouting work of the personnel shaft ONK-KU1 (unofficial abbreviation {sup H}K1{sup )} in ONKALO. The work took place in several phases between 14th of December 2010 and 16th of January 2014. The identification numbers of the drillholes are ONK-PP275...276, ONK-PP289...290, ONK-PP294, ONK-PP354...365, ONK-PP378, ONK-PP385...396, ONK-PP406 and ONK-PP414...415. The drilling rig used was hydraulic Sandvik DE 130. Extra stabilized NQ2 drilling equipment was used to ensure maximum straightness of the drillholes. The drillhole diameter with the equipment used is 75.7 mm and sample diameter is 50.5 mm. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The deviations of the drillholes were surveyed with EMS-Reflex device during drilling and when the drillhole was finished. Water loss measurements were conducted in the drillholes to estimate the need for grouting and to measure if the grouting operation was successful. (orig.)

  10. Practices of Grout Filling Water Conservation Coal Replacement Technology%注浆充填保水置换煤炭技术实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁亮

    2016-01-01

    The Xinfang coalmine is situated in the southern Fangzi District, Weifang City, Shandong Province;surface water in the area is insufficient, groundwater serious shortage. The No.4201 dip stoping area has complicated structures, in faulted zone and periphery can easily cause floor water bursting during winning and impact working face safety in production. Thus more fault water barrier is needed and caused large amount of protecting coal. To fully exploit coal resources and effectively protect Archean granite gneiss water resources under coal measures floor, ensuring coalmine sustainable development, thus production face advanced grout filling in shat⁃tered fault zone is used to plug floor water conducted fractures, prevent floor water gushing, and realize full coal resources replacement target. Taking the No.3 production face in the stoping area as an example, introduced grouting boreholes layout principle and operation procedure, and then assessed water conservation effect. The coal winning has confirmed that after production face grouting, largely re⁃duced water inflow, ensured safety in winning, meanwhile effectively protected groundwater resources, and actively mitigated the“quan⁃titative water shortage”status in Weifang City.%新方矿井位于山东省潍坊市坊子区南部,区内地表水缺乏,地下水严重不足。新方矿井4201下山采区地质构造复杂,回采中断层带及附近易发生底板突水,影响工作面安全生产,需留设较多的断层防水煤柱,煤柱内压煤量大。为充分开采煤炭资源,同时有效保护煤层底板太古界花岗片麻岩水资源,确保矿井可持续发展,采用回采工作面超前注浆充填断层破碎带的措施,封堵底板导水裂隙,实现防止底板大量涌水,达到充分开采置换煤炭资源的目的。以该采区3#工作面为例,介绍了注浆钻孔的布置原则及施工过程,进而对保水效果进行了评价。回采证

  11. 大松动圈破碎围岩二次注浆加固试验研究%Experiment Study on Secondary Grouting Reinforcement of Broken Surrounding Rock in Large Loose Circle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云; 韩立军; 孙昌兴; 董叶茂

    2012-01-01

    为解决赵庄煤矿高地应力条件下松软破碎围岩巷道持续变形的问题,通过理论分析、试验模拟和现场观测的手段对二次注浆加固进行研究,基于松动圈理论,采用地质雷达探测技术、深浅孔原位复注浆技术及锚注加固技术,在西翼南回风巷原有的锚网索支护基础上进行了全断面二次注浆加固试验。采用数值模拟以及巷道变形量观测的方法对支护效果进行检验。结果表明:二次注浆加固提高了围岩的整体强度,塑性区大幅减小,形成了复合承载结构,实现了锚固体与破碎围岩共同承载和自承载,可有效解决破碎围岩的持续变形问题。%In order to solve the continued deformation problem of the gateway with broken surrounding rock under the high geostress conditions in Zhaozhuang Mine, a study was conducted on the secondary grouting reinforcement with the theoretical analysis, test simulation and site observation means. Based on the loose circle theory, the geological radar detection technology, the in-situ re-grouting technology with shallow borehole and the boh and grouting reinforcement technology were applied to the full section secondary grouting reinforcement test based on the previous bolt/steel mesh/anchor support of the south air returning gateway in the west wing of the mine. The numerical software similar simulation and the gateway deformation observation were applied to the inspection of the support effect. The results showed that the secondary grouting reinforcement had improved the integrated strength of the surrounding rock, high reduced the plastic zone, formed a complex loading structure, released the joint loading and self loading of the anchoring mass and the broken surrounding rock and could effectively solve the continued deformation problem of the broken surrounding rock.

  12. 地铁深基坑工程抗突涌准幕灌浆技术研究%Study on Curtain Grouting Technology for Preventing Water Gushing in Works of Metro Deep Foundation Pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宏宇

    2012-01-01

    杭州某地铁深基坑工程由于地连墙在圆砾层中成槽困难,使得地下连续墙(以下简称“地连墙”)插入深度减小,不能满足承压水抗突涌稳定性要求,基于此,依托该地铁深基坑实例,通过现场灌浆对比试验,确定帷幕灌浆参数,并按此参数设置帷幕灌浆,填充地连墙未隔断的圆砾层,与地连墙搭接形成封闭的阻水帷幕,解决承压水抗突涌问题。研究表明:圆砾层的孔隙度大、渗透性好,可进行灌浆处理;帷幕灌浆能够节省工期,节约造价,有效地解决圆砾层的承压水抗突涌问题。%Some difficulties occurred in trough work in the round gravel layer for metro deep foundation pit with floor- wall transition make the floor-wall insert depth reduced, therefore it can not meet the requirements on the stability under the pressure of water gushing. Based on these and by taking a metro deep fbundation pit as an instance, curtain grouting parameters are determined after the cornparison tests on the field grouting. The parameter is set to guide curtain grouting, fill the floor-wall no- separated gravel layer, and to form a closed water-blocking curtain of the floor-wall overlap to solve the problems occurred in pressure water to stop water gushing. The study shows that the satisfactory round gravel porosity and permeability help grouting treatment; and curtain grouting shortens construction duration with less cost, effectively providing gravel layers some solutions on pressure water preventing-gushing issues.

  13. 破碎围岩锚注加固浆液扩散规律研究%Slurry diffusion within cracked wall rock during the bolt-grouting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慎举; 王连国; 陆银龙; 张蓓

    2011-01-01

    基于连续介质力学和渗流力学理论,运用渗透张量法得出浆液在破碎围岩中扩散的基本方程;并通过对实际锚注支护工程进行假设与简化,建立锚注加固系统浆液在包含正交裂隙组的围岩中渗透扩散的数学模型.在此基础上,运用COMSOL软件对锚注支护工程进行实时模拟,研究了不同注浆压力和不同注浆锚杆布置方式对浆液流动扩散规律的影响.结果表明:对于巷道锚注支护工程,合理的注浆压力约为1.0~4.0MPa,合理的钻孔间距约为浆液扩散半径的1.3倍左右.将研究成果用于祁南煤矿新掘大巷锚注支护设计,取得了良好的效果.%Continuum mechanics were used with seepage theory to obtain a basic equation for slurry diffusion within cracked wall rock.The permeability tensor method was used to obtain the diffusion behavior.A mathematical model of slurry diffusion in a bolt grouting system within a wall rock having orthogonal fractures was developed.Certain assumptions and simplifications of field grouting and support methods were used during this derivation.A numerical simulation of the bolt grouting process was conducted using COMSOL.The slurry diffusion at different grouting pressures and for different bolt layouts were studied.The results show that a rational grouting pressure is from 1.0 to 4.0 MPa for roadway bolt supports.The borehole spacing should be nearly 1.3 times the slurry diffusion radius.These results were applied to the design of roadway supports in the Qinan coal of the Huaibei mine to good effect.

  14. Development and application demonstration of stemming slurry materials for high-pressure grouting in soft stratum%松软地层高压灌浆封孔浆体研制及应用论证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵金; 曾柳絮; 陈安重; 杨松林; 彭春雷

    2012-01-01

    For the impervious construction in soft stratum, there are various technical problems, such as easy collapse of boreholes, vertical lift induced by difficultly pressed grouting, large waste led by easy grouting leakage, and difficult grouting control. The traditional methods of "sleeve valve pipe grouting", "embedded screen pipe tube" and "orifice closed grouting" are difficult to meet the design requirements in deep soft ground. To reduce cost and to improve efficiency, a new construction method, high pulsating pressure grouting from below with stemming slurry materials, is put forward, and one of the key techniques, slurry sealing technique, is described. For the construction requirements, a kind of lowAntensity, rapidly solidified and hard plastic-like sealing slurry is developed, and its performance parameters are obtained. It is enough to stem grouting and to consume energy by filling slurry materials between grouting pipe and bore hole pipe wall based on the grouting mechanism. The bottom-up pulling force which provides the basis for choosing pulling machines for construction is calculated. In addition, if you turn the grouting pipe continuously during the process of grouting, the work efficiency can be improved and the grouting pipe can be smoothly promoted to avoid locking accidents even in deep borehole cases without pipe drawing machines. Through the tests on the deep soft stratum in the bay area of Tuokou Hydropower Station, the slurry materials achieve the desired effect. Theoretical study and engineering practice show that it's feasible to adopt slurry sealing technology and to implement high-pressure grouting in soft stratum, and that the construction techniques by means of stemming slurry material can meet requirements.%在松软地层进行防渗工程施工时,存在钻孔易塌孔,灌浆难起压易导致垂向挤密抬动,灌浆易漏浆串浆导致耗浆量大,灌浆过程难控制等技术难题。传统的“袖阀

  15. 新近系松散一半胶结砂砾石含水层的注浆改造试验及效果%Neogene Loose-Weakly Cemented Sandy Gravel Aquifer Grouting Reformation Test and Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兰春; 李经海; 高祥川; 牛淑敏

    2012-01-01

    Safely driving through the Neogene sandy gravel is a common hard nut in inclined shaft opening out. To provide basis for surface advance grouting or concrete curtain grouting, the Xinwen Group has carried out special grouting test and pumping test, coring etc. to contrast and validated for Neogene gravel layer (intercalated with sandy clay) with total thickness 20~30m near the Heiliang coalmine main and auxiliary inclines, Shanghaimiao west mine area, Inner Mongolia. The result has demonstrated that although the loose-weakly cemented gravel layer has certain groutability beyond the IMPa grouting pressure "threshold" , but the slurry diffusive extent is less than 2~3m; also, the diffusive mode is irregular, uncontrollable and cannot form a reliable slurry diffusive consolidated ring, thus no improved effects on gravel layer water-bearing property and transmissibility have been found. Through this test, has grappled grouting performance in loose -weakly cemented gravel layer better, and obtained related grouting parameters and experiences, thus have guiding significance in grouting reformation and underground engineering construction safety in similar strata.%矿井斜井开拓安全通过新近系砂砾石含水层是一个普遍的难题,为给斜井地面预注浆或帷幕注浆法过砾石层提供依据,新矿集团在内蒙古自治区上海庙西矿区黑梁煤矿主副斜井附近对总厚20~30m的新近系砾石层(夹砂质粘土层)进行了专门注浆试验及抽水、取心等对比验证工作.结果表明,松散-半胶结砾石层虽然在超过1MPa的注浆压力“阀值”后具有一定的可注性,但浆液扩散范围小于2~3m,而且扩散方式不规则、不可控、形不成可靠的浆液扩散加固圈,对砾石层的含、导水性未发现有改善效果.通过本次试验,较好地掌握了松散-半胶结砾石层注浆性能,获得了有关注浆参数和经验,对类似地层的注浆改造和井巷工程的安全施工具有指导意义.

  16. Stabilization of Rocky Flats Pu-contaminated ash within chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, A. S.; Strain, R.; Jeong, S. Y.; Reed, D.; Krause, T.; Singh, D.

    A feasibility study was conducted on the use of chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for stabilization of combustion residue of high transuranic (TRU) wastes. Using a matrix of magnesium potassium phosphate formed by the room-temperature reaction of MgO and KH 2PO 4 solution, we made waste forms that contained 5 wt% Pu to satisfy the requirements of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The waste forms were ceramics whose compression strength was twice that of conventional cement grout and whose connected porosity was ≈50% that of cement grout. Both surrogate and actual waste forms displayed high leaching resistance for both hazardous metals and Pu. Hydrogen generation resulting from the radiolytic decomposition of water and organic compounds present in the waste form did not appear to be a significant issue. Pu was present as PuO 2 that was physically microencapsulated in the matrix. In the process, pyrophoricity was removed and leaching resistance was enhanced. The high leaching resistance was due to the very low solubility of PuO 2 coupled with superior microencapsulation. As a result, the waste forms satisfied the current Safeguard Termination Limit requirement for storage of TRU combustion residues.

  17. 探讨水利水电工程钻探与灌浆技术%Discussion on Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering Drilling and Grouting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莉洁

    2013-01-01

    Along with the technology and construction engin-eering of our country's water conservancy and hydropower has made great development and progress, the infrastructure cons-truction has entered a new stage. However, the dril ing and gr-outing technology of water conservancy and hydropower engi-neering construction has become a complex and systematic te-chnology, how to bet er ensure the quality of water conservan-cy and hydropower projects, wil become an important subject in front of us.%随着我国的水利水电技术与工程建设取得巨大发展和进步,基础设施的建设也迈进了一个新的阶段。然而,水利水电工程建设中的钻探和灌浆技术却成为一项复杂而系统的技术,如何能够更好地保证水利水电工程的质量,就成为摆在我们面前的一个重要课题。

  18. Grouting material selection test in hydraulic tunnel gushing%水工隧洞涌水灌浆材料比选试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武立强

    2015-01-01

    This paper combine with tunnel construction of Dahuofang Reservoir water conveyance project (phase Ⅱ)in Liaoning Province,carry out water-tight experiment respectively and effect analysis focuses on the features of grouting ma-terial when the tunnel occurs a large water-gushing,such as cement,water glass and other commonly used material,in or-der to provide a reference for similar projects.%结合辽宁省大伙房水库输水(二期)工程隧洞施工,论述了隧洞发生较大涌水现象时,针对水泥、水玻璃、水泥—水玻璃等常用灌浆材料的性能特点,分别进行阻水试验及效果分析,以期为类似工程提供一定参考价值。

  19. EVOLUTION OF CHEMICAL CONDITIONS AND ESTIMATED SOLUBILITY CONTROLS ON RADIONUCLIDES IN THE RESIDUAL WASTE LAYER DURING POST-CLOSURE AGING OF HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M.; Millings, M.

    2012-08-28

    This document provides information specific to H-Area waste tanks that enables a flow and transport model with limited chemical capabilities to account for varying waste release from the tanks through time. The basis for varying waste release is solubilities of radionuclides that change as pore fluids passing through the waste change in composition. Pore fluid compositions in various stages were generated by simulations of tank grout degradation. The first part of the document describes simulations of the degradation of the reducing grout in post-closure tanks. These simulations assume flow is predominantly through a water saturated porous medium. The infiltrating fluid that reacts with the grout is assumed to be fluid that has passed through the closure cap and into the tank. The results are three stages of degradation referred to as Reduced Region II, Oxidized Region II, and Oxidized Region III. A reaction path model was used so that the transitions between each stage are noted by numbers of pore volumes of infiltrating fluid reacted. The number of pore volumes to each transition can then be converted to time within a flow and transport model. The bottoms of some tanks in H-Area are below the water table requiring a different conceptual model for grout degradation. For these simulations the reacting fluid was assumed to be 10% infiltrate through the closure cap and 90% groundwater. These simulations produce an additional four pore fluid compositions referred to as Conditions A through D and were intended to simulate varying degrees of groundwater influence. The most probable degradation path for the submerged tanks is Condition C to Condition D to Oxidized Region III and eventually to Condition A. Solubilities for Condition A are estimated in the text for use in sensitivity analyses if needed. However, the grout degradation simulations did not include sufficient pore volumes of infiltrating fluid for the grout to evolve to Condition A. Solubility controls for use

  20. 松软地层脉动灌浆封孔浆体止浆机制初步研究%Mechanism of stemming slurry materials for pulsating grouting in soft strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵金; 梁经纬; 杨东升; 潘烨; 彭春雷

    2016-01-01

    The pulsating grouting with slurry materials is an effective method for anti-seepage and reinforcement in soft strata, but the mechanism of stemming slurry materials is not clear.Based on the engineering fracture mechanics and Bingham fluid concentric annular narrow gap flow model, the mechanism of stemming slurry materials is analyzed qualitatively, andbased on the conservation of energy, the governing equation for the stemming slurry materials is deduced. The relationship among the limit loading pressure of slurry materials in pulsating grouting, the rheological properties of grouting slurry, the performance of sealing slurry and the pulsating frequency is analyzed. The limit loading pressure of the slurry materials increases with the increase of plastic viscosity of slurry, yield stress plastic strength of sealing slurry and interval time of pulse, and decreases with the increase of duration time of pulse. The effect increases with the increase of the height of hole sealing. The mechanism of stemming slurry materials is verified by the self-made indoor experimental device. For the anti-seepage project in the slope of the diversion canal in Hebi of Henan, which is in the Middle Route Project of South-to-North Water Diversion, in view of the soft geological conditions, the stemming slurry technology of slurry materials is applied to the slope project by means of segmented pulsating grouting from bottom to top. The pumping tests after grouting indicate that the permeability reaches 10-5~10-6 cm/s, and the amount of work of 20% is saved compared to that of the traditional grouting technology.%浆体封闭脉动灌浆是松软地层防渗加固的有效手段,但封孔浆体的止浆机制尚不明确。基于工程断裂力学以及宾汉姆流体同心环状劈裂流动模型,对脉动灌浆封孔浆体的止浆机制进行了定性分析,并基于能量守恒,推导出了脉动灌浆封孔浆体止浆的控制方程。分析了脉动灌浆封孔浆体的

  1. Supporting technique with advanced pipe-shed grouting in extremely complicated faulting zone%超前管棚注浆支护技术在极复杂断层带中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵毅鑫; 姜耀东; 孟磊; 王涛; 刘华博

    2013-01-01

    Based on the application cases of roadways successfully passing through the complicated fault zones by using supporting technique with advanced pipe-shed grouting, the technical problems of roadway support in passing through the extremely complicated fault zone were analyzed firstly in this paper. Meanwhile, the design parameters of advanced pipe-shed grouting were calculated, and the stress and deformation of surrounding rock in the fault zone under various supporting conditions were also analyzed by numerical simulation. Moreover, the in-situ deformation of roadway supported by advanced pipe-shed grouting was measured, and the successful application experiences of the pipe-shed grouting technique were summarized. The practice results show that the supporting technique with pipe-shed grouting can not only improve the integrity of surrounding rock and the supporting capacity, but also form a strong pre-support system. It can be well used as one of effective roadway support techniques in the complicated geological zones. However, some other measures, such as geophysical prospecting, effective in-situ monitoring, et al, are needed to improve the grouting quality and ensure the safety of passing through the complicated fault zones. The experiences in this paer can provide ref- erence to the design and construction of similar projects in complicated geological zones.%基于煤矿巷道采用超前管棚注浆支护技术顺利通过复杂断层带的实际案例,研究了巷道通过极复杂断层带面临的破碎围岩变形控制问题.通过计算确定了超前管棚注浆支护的设计参数,采用数值计算手段分析了过断层区域不同支护条件下的围岩应力和巷道变形情况,并针对施工后的管棚支护巷道变形量进行了现场实测,总结了超前管棚注浆支护技术在巷道通过复杂断层带的成功经验.实践证明:超前管棚注浆支护技术提高了围岩的完整性及整体承载能力,能够形成较强的

  2. 锦屏水电站大奔流料场边坡锚索灌浆质量控制%Quality control of slope anchor grouting of Dabenliugou quarry of Jinping I Hydropower Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢文峰; 陈瑛; 邱向辉

    2014-01-01

    在锦屏一级水电站大奔流料场边坡锚索灌浆施工中,监理工程师采取“主动控制为主,被动控制为辅冶的动态控制方法,对锚索灌浆质量进行控制。重视事前控制、预先防范、过程跟踪、强化检查、及时反馈。通过加强锚索灌浆施工工序、水泥净浆、质量控制点和质量检验等环节的控制,确保了锦屏一级水电站大奔流料场边坡锚索灌浆质量,为同类工程锚索灌浆施工质量控制提供了经验。%In the construction of the slope anchor grouting of Dabenliugou quarry of Jinping I Hydropower Station, the dynamic controlling method of relying mainly on active control while a subsidiary passive control is adopted in the supervision to control the quality of anchor grouting. The procedures such as pre-control, precautionary, process tracing, strengthening the inspection and timely feedback are focused. The quality of the slope anchor grouting of Dabenliugou quarry of Jinping I Hydropower Station was ensured through controlling related links such as construction procedures, cement pasting, quality point controlling and quality checking.

  3. 高铁灌浆材料专用高效缓凝剂的试验研究%The test research on high efficient retarder special for grouting materials in high-speed railway construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗海玉; 郑娟荣; 潘国强

    2013-01-01

    研究葡萄糖酸钠、硼酸和有机盐类缓凝剂A及其复配产物对硫铝酸盐水泥基高铁灌浆材料凝结时间的影响.结果表明:将葡萄糖酸钠、硼酸和缓凝剂A按合理比例复合配制,在掺量为0.35%~0.40%(以灌浆材料质量计)时,灌浆材料的初始流动度≥320 mm,0.5 h流动度≥280 mm,初凝时间为45~60 min,终凝时间与初凝时间间隔为10~20 min,均满足高铁灌浆材料的性能指标要求.%Effects of sodium gluconate, borax, organic retarder A and their compounds on setting time of the grouting materials based on sulphoaluminate cement were studied. The results showed that when the compounds of sodium gluconate,borax and retarder A were made in rational proportion, the grouting materials with the compound of 0.35%~0.4% had original fluidity (≥ 320 mm),fluidity after 30 min(3=280 mm),original setting time(45~60 min),the 10~20 min interval between the original and final setting times, these properties all satisfied the index requirement of grouting materials used in high-speed railway construction.

  4. 低应变反射波法水平旋喷桩质量评定研究%Study on Evaluation of Jet Grouting Pile Quality by Low Strain Reflection Wave Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白中坤; 于少辉; 杨朝帅

    2013-01-01

    富水粉细砂地层中的隧道大断面施工,需要施作超前水平旋喷桩护壳及掌子面超前核心土旋喷桩加固后才能保证安全开挖,因此确保水平旋喷桩桩身质量十分重要.采用低应变反射波法对掌子面上台阶5根水平试验桩的波形进行分析、解译,检测了桩身有无断桩、缩颈、离析等缺陷及相应缺陷的位置,并与开挖后桩体质量对比,证明应用低应变反射波法进行隧道内水平旋喷桩桩身完整性检测是一种快速、无损的方法,且其检测结果可靠.%When large cross-section tunnels are excavated in water-rich fine silty sand ground, advance horizontal jet grouting pipes are needed to reinforce the tunnel face so as to ensure safe excavation.Therefore, it is very important to ensure the quality of the horizontal jet grouting piles.The quality of 5 horizontal jet grouting piles installed in the top heading of a tunnel is detected by low strain reflection wave method.The detection results are compared with the actual quality of the piles exposed, which demonstrates that the low strain reflection wave method adopted is a fast, reliable and nondestructive quality-detection mehtod.

  5. 高压旋喷注浆法在处理涵洞地基中的应用%High pressure jet grouting method in treatment of culvert application foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世波

    2013-01-01

      结合朔黄铁路扩能改造K132+808.5段钢筋混凝土盖板箱涵中的地基处理工程,详细介绍高压旋喷注浆法在处理涵洞地基中的施工特点与加固效果,包括桩的平面布置、水泥浆配制、注浆量及注浆压力、施工工艺与现场检测效果评价等.结果表明,采用高压旋喷注浆法处理涵洞软土地基可操作性强、加固效果且经济性良好,可为今后相似工程中的涵洞地基处理提供实际参考与施工依据.%In connection with the foundation treatment engineering of reinforced concrete cover plate culvert in the capacity expansion and revamp of K132+808.5 section of Shuo-Huang Railway, this paper expounds the characteristics and reinforcement effect of the high pressure jet grouting method in treatment of culvert foundation, including the pile layout, making up of cement slurry, quantity and pressure of grouting, construction process and effect evaluation of on-site examination and so on. Results show that the high pressure jet grouting method has stronger operability, nicer reinforcement effect and economic efficiency in the treatment of soft soil foundation of a culvert, which offers real referential values and construction bases for foundation treatment in a culvert in similar projects.

  6. 低强度砂浆灌孔砌块砌体抗压性能试验研究%EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON COMPRESSIVE BEHAVIORS OF GROUTED BLOCK MASONRY WITH LOW-STRENGTH MORTAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄靓; 王辉; 陈胜云

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effect of mortar strength on compressive behaviors of grouted concrete masonry,nine specimens using lime mortar were analyzed.According to failure pattern,cracking load,ultimate capacity and deformation capacity,a formula was provided to calculate the compressive capacity of grouted concrete masonry when the mortar strength is very low.The ratio of cracking load to ultimate load is very small,which affects the durability of masonry building.Therefore,this paper states that the mortar strength should be higher than a critical value when designing and constructing grouted concrete masonry.%为了研究低强度砂浆对灌孔砌块砌体抗压性能的影响,该文通过9个采用石灰砂浆砌筑的灌孔砌块砌体的抗压试验,对其抗压破坏形态、开裂荷载、极限荷载及变形能力进行了分析,提出了适用于砂浆强度很低的灌孔砌块砌体的抗压强度计算公式。分析表明:低强度砂浆砌块砌体的初裂荷载与极限荷载之比较小,而开裂荷载过低将会对砌体房屋的耐久性产生不利影响,因此,该文认为在进行灌孔砌块砌体的设计和施工时,砂浆的强度应得到保证,不能过低。

  7. 浅析除险加固高压旋喷灌浆质量问题与对策%Primary Analysis on Quality Problems and Countermeasures of High Presure Rotating-jet Grouting in Reinforcement Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐猛勇

    2012-01-01

    通过对高压旋喷灌浆施工技术的特点、流程及施工质量控制、工艺要求等进行探讨,对高压旋喷灌浆施工质量问题进行分析并提出相应对策;为确保工程质量,高压旋喷灌浆应严格按照技术要求进行操作,重点对水压、水量、气量、浆液密度、进浆量、提升速度、回浆密度进行控制。通过具体项目实施,结果表明:高压旋喷注浆施工质量问题通过采取措施是能有效控制的,高喷灌浆对坝体防渗堵漏效果好,对类似的坝体防渗加固工程具有借鉴作用。%The construction quality problems of this grouting technology are discussed and analyzed such as the technical characteristics and process of the construction,as well as the quality control and work requirements of the construction,and finally the countermeasures are put forward,including strictly operating according to technical requirements and majorly controlling water pressure,water volume,gas,slurry density,slurry volume,speed,slurry-return density and so on.The implementation results of this project show that the construction quality of high pressure rotating-jet grouting could be controlled effectively by using some measures,this grouting technology has good effect for dam seepage control,at the same time,it could provide references for similar projects.

  8. Chemical use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of research and activities related to chemical use on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. The chemicals used on the Refuge...

  9. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  10. 2D Forward Simulation of Grouting Karst for Pile Foundation with High-density Resistivity Method%桩基岩溶注浆模型高密度电法二维正演模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张吉; 师学明; 辛民高

    2011-01-01

    研究目的:高密度电法是一种常用的桩基岩溶注浆质量无损检测方法,为使该方法更好地应用于生产实践,本文采用RES2DMOD软件(版本号3.0)对桩基岩溶注浆地质-地球物理模型进行了高密度电法二维正演数值模拟.研究结论:数值模拟结果表明,完整注浆体和岩溶注浆缺陷在高密度电法视电阻率断面图上均有反应,分别为高阻异常和低阻异常.温纳装置高密度电法对于异常的反应相对明显,异常的范围比较大,但幅值相对较小;施伦贝谢装置对于异常的反应幅值较大,但范围较小,且呈垂向分布,相对不易识别.%Research purposes; The high -density resistivity method (HDR) is a commonly used method for detecting the quality of grouting karst of pile foundation. In order to guide the production practice, RES2DM0D 3.0 was used for 2D forward simulation with high - density resistivity for grouting karst of pile foundation to the geology - earth physical model . Research conclusions: The result of numerical simulation shows the full grouting body and defects of grouting karst can be reflected on the resistivity profile drawing respectively by abnormal high resistance and low resistance. The geophysical anomaly is obvious with large abnormal range and small amplitude when using the Wenner array HDR method, and the geophysical anomaly is weaker with small reflection amplitude and vertical distribution when using the Wenner - Schlumberger array and it is difficult to distinguish.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF DETERIORATED HISTORIC MASONRY STRUCTURES REINFORCED BY MICROBIAL GROUTING METHOD%劣化古建砖石砌体的微生物注浆加固试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨钻; 程晓辉

    2015-01-01

    微生物灌浆加固劣化砌体结构是在不适合使用石灰、水泥和环氧树脂等传统灌浆材料情况下,在被加固空腔内原位填充颗粒,使其作为加固材料的骨架,并通过注入微生物和胶凝溶液的方法,在填充颗粒孔隙内诱导生成碳酸钙、胶凝颗粒,形成具有一定强度的微生物砂浆体。通过微生物加固实验室简化模型与现场灌浆试验等方法相结合,对高强度微生物砂浆加固各类劣化砌体的方法进行优化研究,为微生物灌浆技术应用于高质量砖石砌体文物建筑加固提供了有益的经验。%Microbial grouting reinforcement to repair the deterioration of masonry structures involves injecting microorganisms and nutrient solution ( a cementation solution ) into existing granular system pores to induce the generated calcium carbonate cementation to form a microbial mortar of certain strength. Microbial grouting reinforcement is used when traditional grouting materials, such as lime, cement and epoxy, cannot be employed.The effects of the main factors on the strength formation of microbial mortar were systematically studied through the simplified laboratory and in-situ models.Thus, the methods for strengthening all sorts of deteriorated masonries by high-strength microbial mortar could be optimized, which would provide a basis for the using of microbial grouting technique in high-quality reinforcement of historical masonry buildings.

  12. Seepage Control Design of Dam Diaphragm Wall Combined with Grout Curtain for Danger-removing and Consolidating Project of Taiping Reservoir%太平水库除险加固工程墙幕结合防渗设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彩丽

    2012-01-01

    太平水库于1975年建成,已运行30多年,枢纽建筑物存在诸多问题,其中问题之一就是坝肩及坝基渗漏问题,已影响到水库经济效益及运行安全,为此采取了防渗墙与帷幕灌浆相结合的防渗处理措施以解决这一问题。文中介绍了水库的防渗设计,帷幕灌浆和防渗墙的施工工艺及质量控制。%The Taiping Reservoir had been completed in the year 1975,and its operation has lasted for 30-odd years.But there are many problems in building of hydroproject,one of which is seepage in dam shoulder and dam foundation.This problem has impacted the reservoir's economical benefit and operation safety.Therefore,a seepage control measure of dam diaphragm wall combined with grout curtain is adopted to solve this problem.In this paper,the reservoir's seepage control design,the construction techniques and the quality control measures of grout curtain and diaphrage wall are expounded.

  13. Large Diameter Freeze Shaft Single Wellbore Grouting Plugging Technology Research%大直径冻结井筒单层井壁注浆堵水技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德明; 段安新

    2014-01-01

    To study the freezing of large diameter single wellbore wall grouting technology for large amount of leakage problems wellbore door grams celebrate mine shaft began to thaw vice combining technical features wellbore wall hydrogeological conditions and parameters of the wellbore after the walls ,curtains and wall impermeable microcracks take phased ,focused carried grouting .The results show that:the amount of leakage from the wellbore 233 m3/h reduced to 4.5 m3/h,reaching the amount of wellbore leakage specifications .%为研究大直径冻结井筒单层井壁注浆堵水技术,针对门克庆矿副立井开始解冻后井筒漏水量较大的问题,结合井筒的技术特征、水文地质情况和井壁参数,对井筒壁后、隔水帷幕及井壁微裂纹采取分阶段、分重点进行注浆堵水。结果表明:井筒漏水量由233 m3/h降低为4.5 m3/h,达到井筒漏水量规范要求。

  14. 高压水泥旋喷桩在避风塘工程中的应用%Application of High Pressure Jet Grouting Pile in Typhoon Shelter Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄祥军; 温永威; 曾建青

    2011-01-01

    In the temporary typhoon shelter project of Shantou Port Guangao Harbor Area, high pressure jet grouting pile is used as waterproof curtain, and the foundation trench and harbor basin are excavated on land. The above project is used as an example to emphasize key points of high pressure jet grouting pile construction, as well as the feasibility and economy of major technical measures adopted in construction, which will provide the reference for similar projects.%在汕头港广澳港区临时避风塘工程的施工中,以高压水泥旋喷桩作为防水帷幕,实现了基槽、港池挖方的陆上干地施工.以本工程为例,重点介绍高压水泥旋喷桩的施工要点、主要施工技术措施的可行性和经济性,可供类似工程参考.

  15. COMPREHENSIVE GROUTING TREATMENT FOR WATER GUSHING ANALYSIS IN LIMESTONE BRECCIAS FRACTURE ZONE%灰岩角砾岩破碎带涌水综合注浆治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆松; 韩伟伟; 李术才; 袁晏仁; 刘人太; 李金求; 孙怀凤

    2012-01-01

    Water gushing in limestone breccia fracture zone is a complex geological disaster often encountered in tunnel construction. Compared with the general water gushing in fracture rock mass, due to the poor stability of surrounding rock and rock heterogeneity, gushing treatment in limestone breccias fracture zone is very difficult. For controlling the water gushing in breccias fracture zone with high water pressure and quantity in Zhongliangshan tunnel, water analysis and transient electromagnetic detection were conducted; and groundwater source and channel were analyzed. Based on this, drainage was done first to reduce the water pressure in surrounding rock, then grouting was carried out to strengthen shallow layer. The shallow layer grouting was divided into two parts, i.e. upper part and lower part. Curtain in deep rock was done to plug water. Plugging and drainage were combined in water gushing control. Those four measures formed a comprehensive treatment method. A good control effect was achieved through choosing adaptive grouting materials and matched technology. Surrounding rock deformation and water quantity were measured and analyzed to avoid rock instability induced by grouting pressure. The comprehensive water gushing treatment method well solved the problems during grouting process in breccia fracture zone and realized informatization construction.%灰岩角砾岩破碎带涌水是岩溶隧道建设中经常遇到的地质灾害,由于破碎带围岩稳定性较差且具有较强的不均一性,与一般的裂隙岩体涌水相比,其治理难度较大.针对中梁山隧道角砾岩破碎带高压大流量涌水,进行涌水地质分析和含水区域的瞬变电磁探测,对地下水的来源和通道进行深入分析,在此基础上提出并实施先分流泄压后浅层加固、上下分区治理、深部帷幕和堵排结合的综合治理方案,通过选择适当的注浆材料和配套工艺,取得较好的治理效果.为避免注浆压力可能造

  16. Engineering properties and pore structure of cement-sodium silicate double solution grouting material%水泥-水玻璃双液注浆材料工程性能及孔隙结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建康; 陆海军; 李继祥; 朱登峰

    2016-01-01

    水泥‐水玻璃双液注浆材料由于其凝胶时间短、早期强度高、材料经济且来源广泛等诸多优点,而被大量用于工程注浆堵水中.通过黏度试验、凝胶时间试验、线膨胀试验与低温氮气吸附试验,深化了对双液注浆材料基本性能的认识,同时结合试验结果提出最优双液注浆材料配合比.凝胶时间试验表明,在水泥掺量增加、温度升高的过程中,浆液的凝胶时间从148~367 s减少到71~211 s;黏度试验表明,由20℃升温到50℃时,黏度从10.39~178.57 m2/s非线性降低到6.84~83.58 m2/s ,浆液表现出明显的非牛顿流体的特性;浆液结石体低温氮气吸附条件下,浆液孔径分布在2~10 nm ,浆液孔隙分布均匀,不易发生渗漏现象;凝固后的浆液结石体线膨胀系数在30℃到60℃有下降趋势,但浆液仍表现为热膨胀性,而在大于70℃时线膨胀系数变为负值,浆液结石体出现收缩性质.%Cement‐sodium silicate double solution grouting material has been widely used in engineering grouting because of its short gel time ,high early strength ,economical and wide range of material resources , etc .. The basic properties of the double solution grouting material were investigated by viscosity test , gel time test , linear expansion test and low temperature nitrogen adsorption test .The optimum mixture ratio of double solution grouting material is proposed .The gel time test shows that the gel time decreases from 148‐367 s to 71‐211 s in the process of cement dosage increasing and temperature increasing . Through the viscosity test , it is found that when the temperature increases from 20 ℃ to 50 ℃ , the viscosity of double solution grouting material nonlinearly reduces from 10 .39‐178 .57 m2/s to 6 .84‐83 .58 m2/s ,and the slurry shows obvious characteristics of non‐Newtonian fluid .Under the condition of low temperature nitrogen

  17. 波纹管孔道压浆密实度超声仿真分析%Analysis of ultrasonic simulation on duct grouting density of bellows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵胜永; 韩庆邦; 朱昌平

    2013-01-01

    This article detects the duct grouting density of bellows by using the ultrasonic signal . The simulation by COMSOL Multiphysics software includes some models of different air bubble’s major axis radius of defect , which can research the influence of different air bubble ’s major axis radius of defect on the transmissive signal waveform received by the transducer , spectrum , the power spectral density and the average power based on this basis .The numerical results indicate that under the larger air bubble’s major axis radius ,the larger the volatility on the follow-up of the reflected signal ,the larger the spectrum ,the slower the decays of the power spectral density function ,and the larger the average power in the bellows ;on the contrary ,under the smaller air bubble defect ,the smaller the volatility on the follow-up of the reflected signal ,the smaller the spectrum ,the faster the decays of the power spectral density function ,and the smaller the average power in the bellows .%利用超声波信号检测波纹管孔道中压浆密实度。运用COMSOL Multiphysics软件对空气泡不同长轴半径的波纹管孔道压浆模型进行了仿真,研究了不同空气泡长轴半径对接收透射信号波形及频谱的影响,研究了空气泡长轴半径对功率谱密度和平均功率的影响。数值结果分析表明,在空气泡小于波纹管范围内,空气泡长轴半径越大,接收透射信号的后续波幅就越大,频谱幅值越大,功率谱密度函数衰减越慢,平均功率越大。

  18. Chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1991-07-02

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  19. Chemical intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Andersson, Linus; Nordin, Steven;

    2015-01-01

    Chemical intolerance (CI) is a term used to describe a condition in which the sufferer experiences a complex array of recurrent unspecific symptoms attributed to low-level chemical exposure that most people regard as unproblematic. Severe CI constitutes the distinguishing feature of multiple...... chemical sensitivity (MCS). The symptoms reported by CI subjects are manifold, involving symptoms from multiple organs systems. In severe cases of CI, the condition can cause considerable life-style limitations with severe social, occupational and economic consequences. As no diagnostic tools for CI...

  20. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  1. Construction Technology forLeakage Ribsat the Bottom of Reverse Pressure Injection Inorganic Grout Repair Girder%反向压注无机灌浆料修补箱梁底部漏筋技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张向民

    2015-01-01

    无机高强灌浆料具有自流性好、快硬、早强、高强、无收缩、微膨胀、自密性好等特点,且无毒、无害、对水质及周围环境无污染,加上施工质量可靠、操作方便、成本较低、工期较短等优点,在工程修补加固中得到广泛应用.本文结合工程实例,克服施工操作难、工作空间小等难题,经过方案优化,采用反向压注无机灌浆料修补技术对案例箱梁底部漏筋进行了修补处理,并详细介绍了该施工技术工艺流程.研究结果表明,反向压注无机灌浆料修补箱梁底部漏筋效果良好,值得应用与推广.%Inorganic high-strength grout hasthe advantages of good self-fluidity, fast hard, early strength, high strength, non-shrink, micro-expansion, and self-tightness, and it is non-toxic, harmless, without pollution to water quality and the surrounding environment, coupled with reliable construction quality easy operation, low cost, short du?ration, etc., it is widely used in engineering repair and strengthening.Combining with engineering example, overcom?ing the difficultiesin construction operation, small work space and other problems, after scheme optimization, this pa?per used a reverse pressure injection inorganic grout repair technique to repair and treatleakage ribs at thebottom of the box in this case, and introduced the construction process in detail. The results show that using the reverse pres?sure injection inorganic grout to repair leakage ribsat the bottom of the box has a good effect, worth of wide applica?tion and promotion.

  2. 导波在端锚锚杆锚固段上界面的反射研究%Research on the guided wave reflecting from the upper interface of partially grouted rock bolt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何文; 王成; 宁建国; 唐永刚

    2009-01-01

    Finite element method was used to simulate longitudinal guided wave reflecting from the upper interface of partially grouted bolt, with the excitation wave frequencies 5 ~ 60 kHz. Reflection coefficient was used to evaluate the upper interface reflection wave which can be seen clearly while reflection coefficient was large. The effect of thickness of the grout layer, wedge angle between the upper interface and the bolt axial direction and grout materials on the upper interface reflection wave was studied. The results show that the factors above have little effect on reflection coefficient with the same excitation wave frequency, and reflection coefficient is larger when the excitation wave frequency is lower than 20 kHz, and reflection coefficient reaches its minimun when the frequency is 40 kHz. The results of numerical simulation agree well with the experimental results.%利用有限元数值模拟研究了5~60 kHz纵向导波在端锚锚杆锚固段上界面的反射情况.使用反射系数衡量导波在锚固段上界面反射能量的大小,反射系数越大,即导波在锚固段上界面的反射越明显.通过改变锚固层厚度、锚固段上界面与锚杆轴向间的楔角和锚固层的材料,研究了反射系数的变化.結果表明,以上因素对同频率导波的反射系数影响不大;当激发波频率低于20 kHz,反射系数较大;而频率为40 kHz时,反射系数最小.数值模拟导波在锚固段上界面反射系数与现场测试所得结果吻合较好.

  3. 锚碇沉箱基础与升浆基床摩擦性能研究%Research on friction property between anchorage caisson foundation and grouting bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿铁锁; 陈亮; 张哲

    2015-01-01

    According to the first domestic offshore suspension bridge using caisson foundation,the friction property between prepacked aggregate riprap grouting bed and concrete under water,the friction coefficients between gravel bed and concrete structure are mainly studied.Firstly,the friction coefficients between gravel bed and concrete structure are obtained by laboratory and field experiments,and then,the friction property between prepacked aggregate riprap grouting bed and concrete structure under water is acquired by the numerical analysis method.The experimental results show that the friction coefficients between the common gravel bed and the concrete caisson are in the range of 0.5-0.6,which meets the corresponding code,and the friction coefficient between the prepacked aggregate riprap grouting bed and the concrete caisson is within 0.7-0.8,or even 0.9 considering the film cohesive force of concrete.%针对国内首个采用沉箱基础的海上悬索桥,主要对水下预填骨料抛石升浆基床与混凝土之间的摩擦性能,以及碎石基床与混凝土结构的摩擦因数展开研究.首先通过室内和现场实验得到碎石基床与混凝土结构的摩擦因数,在此基础上采用数值分析方法得到水下预填骨料抛石升浆基床与混凝土结构之间的摩擦性能.结果表明,普通碎石基床与混凝土沉箱之间的摩擦因数在设计规范规定的0.5~0.6内,而预填骨料抛石升浆基床与混凝土沉箱之间的摩擦因数为0.7~0.8,如考虑混凝土之间的黏结力膜作用,摩擦因数可达0.9.

  4. 围岩松动圈锚注联合支护技术研究与应用%Research and Application of Surrounding Rock Loosen Zone Bolting Grouting United Support Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飞鹏; 郜建明

    2014-01-01

    为解决赵庄煤业西翼胶带巷极破碎软岩的变形控制技术问题,对西翼胶带巷两帮和底板进行了探地雷达松动圈测试,得出了巷道围岩松动圈范围和破碎情况,基于松动圈测试及分析,提出了由预留变形量让压、初次全锚索网喷支护、深浅孔注浆加固、底角锚注加固组成的锚注联合支护体系,并在西翼胶带巷进行了应用。数值模拟和现场围岩变形监测结果表明,全锚索及深浅孔注浆加固下,巷道围岩强度提高,整体性较好,围岩破坏范围大幅减小,巷道表面变形得到有效控制,能够较好地满足巷道的使用,成功地解决了胶带巷大松动圈极破碎软岩条件下的巷道稳定控制问题。%In order to solve the problem of the deformation control technology in the Zhao Zhuang coal mine west wing belt roadway with bro-ken soft surrounding rock , the GPR loose circle testing was carried on two sides wall and bottom of the roadway surrounding rock and got the loose circle range and broken rock conditions. Based on the analysis of the loose circle testing , a combined support system was proposed with a reserved deformation pressure first, the anchor net spray support, deep-shallow hole grouting reinforcement and bottom anchor grouting re-inforcement, which were applied in the West Wing belt roadway. Deformation monitoring and the numerical simulation results show that under the deep-shallow hole grouting reinforcement, the surrounding rock strength is improved, integrity is better, rock damage range is greatly re-duced, the roadway surface deformation is effectively controlled, which means the scheme can better meet the roadway operating requirement, successfully resolved the conveyor broken roadway stability control problem of soft rock conditions.

  5. Experimental Studying on Rock Fractures and Grouting Influence Based on Ultrasonic Testing%基于超声波检测的岩体裂隙及注浆影响的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许延春; 谢小锋; 李昆奇; 刘世奇

    2016-01-01

    基于超声波检测速度快、 对试样尺寸和形状要求低并且可以反映岩石强度的特点,通过室内试验模拟岩体裂隙及注浆过程,应用超声波检测技术测定岩体在不同裂隙宽度下声波传播速度,并对比分析了岩体注浆前后、 干式状态及湿式状态的波速变化规律.结果表明:不同岩性的岩石波速差异较大,同一岩性的岩石,其波速也不尽相同,灰岩中波速相对最高,其次是砂岩,泥岩中波速相对最低;各类岩性的岩石纵波波速均随着裂隙宽度的增大而减小;在同一裂隙宽度下,随着含水量增加,波速增大;注浆后与未注浆时相比,波速也明显增大.通过本试验不仅认识了岩体裂隙及注浆的波速变化规律,同时试验也证实了利用超声波测试岩石内部声波速度是评价裂隙岩体注浆加固效果的一种有效手段.%Based on the characters of ultrasonic testing, such as high testing speed, low standard ofsample size and shape and rock strength could be reflected, ultrasonic testing was used to test sound wave propagation velocity in different fractures width, then sound wave velocity change rule in three different states were compared and analyzed, which included before and after grouting of rock mass, dry and wet situation.The results showed that sonic velocity was different in different rock, sonic velocity was also different in the same rock, the highest was limestone, and the second was sandstone, the last was mudstone.Longitudinal wave velocity of all kinds of rocks decreased with fractures width increased, sonic velocity increased with moisture increased under the same fracture width, sonic velocity increased obviously after grouting.The experiment showed that ultrasonic testing was a useful method, which evaluated grouting effect of fractured rock effectively at the same time.

  6. 朔黄重载铁路路基加固效果分析与评价%Reinforcing-effect Analysis and Evaluation of Oblique Jet Grouting Pile in the Embankment of Shuo-huang Heavy Haul Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹成斐; 徐方

    2012-01-01

      According to the reinforcing-method of oblique jet grouting pile in the embankment of shuo-huang heavy haul railway, sand replacement, second modulus of deformation(Ev2),dynamic modulus of deformation(Evd),light dynamic penetration (N10),coefficient of subgrade reaction (K30)and other field tests have been done in a typical work site. Pile-soil composite test indicators have been used to evaluate the reinforcing-effect of the oblique jet grouting pile. Test analysis indicate that the basic bearing capacity of foundation (σ0),coefficient of subgrade reaction(K30),second modulus of deformation (Ev2),and dynamic modulus of deformation (Evd)have been significantly enhanced, while the improvement of the compaction factor (K)of the soil between piles is not high. It is integrated to show that the oblique jet grouting pile has a good effect in reinforcing the embankment. The evaluation method and achievement can be referenced and utilized in other similar projects. And, it has a significant value to popularize this method.%  根据朔黄重载铁路路基斜打旋喷桩的加固方法,选取典型工点进行灌砂、二次变形模量Ev2、动态变形模量Evd、轻型动力触探N10和地基系数K30等现场检测试验,采用桩土复合试验指标评价斜打旋喷桩的加固效果。试验分析表明:加固后地基基本承载力滓0、地基系数K30、变形模量Ev2和动态变形模量Evd指标均有明显提高,但桩间土压实度K提高不大。综合分析,斜打旋喷桩对路基起到了良好的加固效果。其评价方法和成果可供同类工程参考和利用,具有重要推广价值。

  7. Water Gushing Mechanism and Grouting Sealing Technology of Vertical Shaft lining in Yiqiao Coal Mine%义桥煤矿立井井简涌水机理与注浆封堵技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林东才; 魏夕合; 刘尊欣; 张培森

    2012-01-01

    针对义桥煤矿复杂水文地质条件下深厚表土层立井壁破裂、井筒涌水严重,采用单液及双液水泥、水玻璃多次封堵无效的技术难题,结合井壁破裂理论中的施工质量说和竖直附加应力说,分析了义桥煤矿主副立井井壁涌水特征及变形破坏机理,在此基础上,研究了高分子化学材料马丽散N注浆封堵涌水、加固围岩机理,并制定了主副井筒表土段壁间注浆、基岩段壁后注浆的钻孔布置与施工工艺,并对注浆量、注浆压力等进行了过程监控,对井筒涌水量进行了长期监测,实测涌水量已小于0.05m^3/h,达到了防治井壁破裂、封堵涌水、稳定含水层水压的目的,缓释和抑制了井壁附加压力。%According to the technical problem of mine shaft lining breaking, water gushing seriously in shaft, many invalid sealing of using single liquid and dual fluid cement and sodium silicate in the deep and thick topsoil under complex hydrogeology conditions of Yiqiao coal mine, combining with the construction quality hypothesis and the vertical additional stress hypothesis of the mine shaft lin- ing breaking theory, the water gushing characteristics and deformation failure mechanism of the main and auxiliary shaft were analyzed.And on this basis, grouting and blocking water gushing and reinforcement of surrounding rock mechanism of the high polymer chemistry material marithan N were studied, and the drill hole layout and the construction technology of grouting between borehole wall of topsoil section, grouting behind the wall of the bedrock section were formulated, and the process monitoring for the grouting quantity and grou- ting pressure were carried out. Through long - term monitoring of the shaft lining water gushing, the shaft lining water gushing was less than O. 05 m3/h, which realized the purpose of preventing and controlling of shaft lining water gushing, shaft lining breaking, stability of

  8. Application of Curtain Grouting in Seepage Control of Hydraulic Structure Engineering%帷幕灌浆在水工建筑物防渗工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边传伟; 葛志友

    2013-01-01

    结合南水北调中线干线易县段魏家坟沟排水倒虹吸工程,对帷幕灌浆技术在防渗施工中的运用及施工工艺流程进行了分析和探讨,并提出了相应的改进措施,为施工提供借鉴依据。%Combined the Yi Xian section of Weijia Fen ditch drainage inverted siphon project in with the middle route of south-to-north water diversion project,the curtain grouting technology are analyzed and discussed in seepage control of hydraulic structure construction and the application process,and proposed the corresponding improvement measures and provides the reference basis for the construction.

  9. 工作面注浆堵水期间沉淀系统设计的优化及应用%Optimization and Application of Precipitation during the System Design Grouting and Blocking Water Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔钦

    2014-01-01

    针对孟津煤矿11011工作面注浆堵水期间可能出现跑砂、跑浆的现象,在已掘巷道中构建了沉淀阵地,起到了有效的沉淀作用,对今后的矿井堵水工作具有借鉴和指导意义。%11011 Face Grouting may arise during the shutoff Mengjin Coal Mine run against sand, running pulp phenomenon, to build positions in precipitation have been digging tunnel, precipitation played an effective role in the future work of mine has a reference and shutoff guidance.

  10. Study on curtain grouting sand-consolidating and water-shutoff technique used in overall Xiushan tunnel section%秀山隧道全断面帷幕注浆固砂止水技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈先智; 韩银利

    2012-01-01

    In light of characteristics of Xiushan tunnel with complicated hydrological conditions and high surrounding water sources demands, curtain grouting water-shutoff technique is applied which is good for protecting ecological environment of the tunnel top and reducing future trou- ble. As a result, the construction difficulties including high-pressure water gushing in the tunnel and sudden sand are successfully solved.%针对秀山隧道水文地质条件较复杂,周围水资源环境要求高的特点,通过采用有利于保护洞顶生态环境、减少后患的帷幕注浆堵水技术,成功地解决了洞内高压涌水、突砂等施工难题。

  11. 超细高性能灌浆水泥组分优化试验研究%Study on the Optimizing Components of Microfine High Performance Grouting Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管学茂; 胡曙光; 丁庆军

    2002-01-01

    按逐次叠加原理和正交设计理论,配制出了超细高性能灌浆水泥(microfine high performance grouting cement,简称MHPGC).对该材料组成与性能的关系进行了系统研究,并用SEM对其微观结构进行了分析.研究表明,在MHPGC中合理地掺入粉煤灰、矿渣、膨胀剂、石膏等材料,能产生超叠加效应,显著提高MHPGC的强度,降低水泥熟料的用量.

  12. Numerical simulation of infiltration laws of grouts in random aperture based on multi-fractional Brownian motion%基于MBM随机隙宽单裂隙浆液渗透规律的模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗平平; 王兰甫; 范波; 张芳

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the influence of aperture distribution on the infiltration in a single fracture, based on the fractal theory of multi-fractional Brownian motion(MBM), four groups of fracture surfaces at different regularization dimensions are constructed, all of which more realistically reflect the asymptotic self-similarity of aperture distribution of natural fracture surface. From the numerical simulation of grouting in a single random aperture fracture, it is indicated that pressure contours show twists and turns spreading over time, which reflects the distinct non-uniform characteristics. The distribution of closed area has a tendency that is from dot-like scatter to focused plane with the regularization dimensions tending to reduce, and its spatial location has obvious influence on the pressure and grouting time. As the development of percolation, there appears a tendency that the node pressure is from monotonically rapid increase to stepwise stability, and the more the node approaching the percolation border, the shorter the grouting time used in the case of reaching the steady pressure. Moreover, there is a power relationship between the node pressure and the grouting time. In view of this rule, empirical equations with different parameters are also obtained by fitting curves.%为了研究单裂隙面隙宽分布对浆液渗透的影响,基于多重分数布朗运动(MBM)分形理论构建出4种不同规则维数下的随机隙宽单裂隙几何模型,从而较真实的反应了天然裂隙面隙宽分布的局部渐进自相似性。通过注浆数值模拟研究发现,压力等值线随时间延续呈现曲折扩散形式,反映了其非均匀渗透特征。裂隙面闭合区分布形态随规则维数降低由点状散布趋向面状集中,其空间位置对浆液后期渗透压力和全程注浆时间影响很大;并且随着浆液入渗发展,节点压力由前期的较快单调增长到后期逐步趋于稳定,越靠近入渗边界的节点

  13. 后注浆灌注桩在某工程中的应用及经济分析%Application and Economic Analysis of Post-grouting Bored Concrete Pile in a Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 洪峰

    2011-01-01

    Combined with the actual construction the principle and application of post-pressure grouting technology in pile tip and pile lateral of reinforced concrete bored cast-in pilate piles are introduced.There are many factors affecting pile foundation selection for construction works.Through the cost analysis and evaluation on the pile foundation of the construction works, some economic indicators for the selection of pile foundation under the present productive force and price level are gained.Which will be beneficial to improve the cost effectiveness and rationality of selection of it.The base-grouting treatment technique of bored concrete pile can improve the bearing capacity, so the application of this kind of pile become broad useage day by day.%结合工程实例,介绍了钢筋混凝土钻孔灌注桩桩端桩侧后压浆技术的原理及应用。影响建筑工程桩基选型的因素很多,通过典型工程桩基的造价分析与评价,得出当前生产力和物价水平条件下桩基选型的若干经济指标.有助于提高建筑工程桩基选型的经济性及合理性水平。由于灌注桩后注浆处理技术可使承载力显著提高.因而这种桩基日益得到广泛应用。

  14. The High Pressure Jet Grouting Pile Engineering Examples in the Construction Waste Landfill Area%高压旋喷桩在建筑垃圾填埋区的工程实例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌海

    2014-01-01

    工程建造于废弃的采石场,采石场留下较大的采石坑,坑中填充了各种建筑垃圾和生活垃圾。原设计采用冲孔灌注桩作为工程的基础桩,由于场地内存在小范围的土洞,开始施工冲孔灌注桩时就发生了严重的塌孔事故。改用高压旋喷桩地基处理的基础方案达到了良好的效果。就此讨论了在此类建筑垃圾填埋区域进行高压旋喷桩地基处理的整个流程。对试桩过程、设计参数取用、施工过程和检测过程中应注意的问题进行了研究和讨论。%The engineering construction in the abandoned quarry,quarry left large quarries,pit filled with all sorts of construction waste and household refuse.The original design using punching as the basis of engineering pile,due to the existence of a small scale soil caves in field,when punching pile construction a serious down hole accidents took place. To switch to foundation treatment of the high pressure j et grouting pile foundation scheme achieved good effect.This paper discussed the whole process of high pressure j et grouting pile foundation treatment.Process of test pile,design parameters,construction process and testing process were studied.

  15. 滑坡含水量对注浆钢管微型桩加固效果的影响%Influence of Landslide Water Content on Reinforcing Effect of Grouted Steel Tube Micropiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈强; 陈炜韬; 马青杰

    2011-01-01

    通过离心模型试验,分别从坡顶位移、坡面水平位移及坡内位移的角度,分析在相同加固条件下坡体位移变形的特征,研究了坡体失效变形模式.试验研究表明:注浆钢管微型桩能有效地控制边坡土体的位移和坡体内裂缝;加固后的边坡滑动面深度将发生下移,从而阻止滑坡的形成;相同加固条件下的边坡含水量对加固效果起控制作用,即当含水量超过一定值后注浆钢管微型桩加固失效;注浆微型桩加固土质边坡失效时,整体上滑动面呈圆弧形,并从坡脚的平台中部剪出.%Displacement characteristic and failure mode of slop was analyzed from the aspects of displacement of slope top, horizontal displacement of slope surface and displacement of internal slope through centrifugal model test when the slop was reinforced in the same way. The experimental result shows that (1) grouted steel tube micropiles can effectively control the displacement and crack of slope soil; ( 2 ) the slide surface of slope will move down after reinforcement to prevent the generation of landslide; (3 ) the water content of slope controls the reinforcing effect under the .same reinforcing condition, I. E. , if water content in soil exceeds the critical value, the reinforcement of grouted steel tube micropiles is noneffective; (4) the slide surface becomes circular arc shaped and will breach from the flat of slope toe when the reinforcement disables.

  16. Study on Roadway Reinforcement Technique by Retractable Circular Support and Backfilling Grouting%可缩性圆形支架壁后充填注浆加固技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李书民; 孙小岩; 张丰

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing the failure of traditional support by 36 U-shaped steel and wire mesh in the track dip in Changcun coal mine, it can be concluded that anchoring property is the primary cause for the low anchorage force and the poor effect of anchoring. Through analyzing the cross section of roadway and roadway reinforcement theory by backfilling grouting, roadway reinforcement technique by retractable circular support and backfilling grouting is put into effect This industrial practice demonstrates that this technique can solve the matter of deformation failure of soft rock roadway and can be used in other roadways with the similar situation in Changcun coal mine.%通过对常村煤矿轨道下山采用锚网(索)+ 36U型钢等常规支护形式失败的原因进行分析,得出巷道可锚性差是造成锚杆锚固力低和锚固效果差的主要因素;同时对巷道断面的选择和壁后充填注浆加固机理的分析,提出采用可缩性圆形支架壁后充填注浆加固技术.实践证明,采用可缩性圆形支架壁后充填注浆加固技术可有效解决软岩巷道变形的难题,为常村煤矿类似的巷道提供了一个有效的支护新途径.

  17. Chemical Mahjong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossairt, Travis J.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2011-01-01

    An open-access, Web-based mnemonic game is described whereby introductory chemistry knowledge is tested using mahjong solitaire game play. Several tile sets and board layouts are included that are themed upon different chemical topics. Introductory tile sets can be selected that prompt the player to match element names to symbols and metric…

  18. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil biodeg

  19. Grouting Treatment for Water Gushing of Collapsing Columns with Centralized Auxiliary Transportation for Lower Group Coal in Wulihou Mine%五里堠煤矿下组煤集中辅助运输下山陷落柱出水的注浆治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广太

    2014-01-01

    为治理五里堠煤矿下组煤集中辅助运输下山陷落柱涌水问题,综合地面三维地震勘探、井下钻探、注浆加固技术,提出了陷落柱出水的治理方案和施工措施。经过治理实践,表明涌水量明显减小,注浆效果良好,取得显著效益。%To solve water gushing of collapsing columns with centralized auxiliary transportation for lower group coal in Wulihou Mine, ground three -dimensional seismic exploration, drilling, and grouting reinforcement technology were synthesized to propose a treatment plan and detailed construction measures. The practice showed that water gushing reduced dramatically with ideal grouting effect and obvious economic benefits.

  20. Chemical carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemical compounds benefits society in a number of ways. Pesticides, for instance, enable foodstuffs to be produced in sufficient quantities to satisfy the needs of millions of people, a condition that has led to an increase in levels of life expectancy. Yet, at times, these benefits are offset by certain disadvantages, notably the toxic side effects of the chemical compounds used. Exposure to these compounds can have varying effects, ranging from instant death to a gradual process of chemical carcinogenesis. There are three stages involved in chemical carcinogenesis. These are defined as initiation, promotion and progression. Each of these stages is characterised by morphological and biochemical modifications and result from genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. These genetic modifications include: mutations in genes that control cell proliferation, cell death and DNA repair - i.e. mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressing genes. The epigenetic factors, also considered as being non-genetic in character, can also contribute to carcinogenesis via epigenetic mechanisms which silence gene expression. The control of responses to carcinogenesis through the application of several chemical, biochemical and biological techniques facilitates the identification of those basic mechanisms involved in neoplasic development. Experimental assays with laboratory animals, epidemiological studies and quick tests enable the identification of carcinogenic compounds, the dissection of many aspects of carcinogenesis, and the establishment of effective strategies to prevent the cancer which results from exposure to chemicals.A sociedade obtém numerosos benefícios da utilização de compostos químicos. A aplicação dos pesticidas, por exemplo, permitiu obter alimento em quantidade suficiente para satisfazer as necessidades alimentares de milhões de pessoas, condição relacionada com o aumento da esperança de vida. Os benefícios estão, por

  1. Chemical cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, Jan CA

    2010-01-01

    The composition of the most remote objects brought into view by the Hubble telescope can no longer be reconciled with the nucleogenesis of standard cosmology and the alternative explanation, in terms of the LAMBDA-Cold-Dark-Matter model, has no recognizable chemical basis. A more rational scheme, based on the chemistry and periodicity of atomic matter, opens up an exciting new interpretation of the cosmos in terms of projective geometry and general relativity. The response of atomic structure to environmental pressure predicts non-Doppler cosmical redshifts and equilibrium nucleogenesis by alp

  2. Field tests on behavior of destructive and non-destructive base-grouting piles under compression%破坏和非破坏后注浆抗压桩受力性状现场试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠苗; 张乾青

    2011-01-01

    Field tests on the behaviors of one destructive base-grouting pile and one non-destructive base-grouting pile under compression are presented.The two piles have different diameters and are instrumented with rebar strain gauges along the pile shafts.The results of these full-scale loading tests show that the ratio of the tip load to the pile head load of the destructive and the non-destructive base-grouting piles is about 40% at the capacity load level,and it decreases with the increase of pile diameter at the same load level.Furthermore,at shallow depth the skin friction of the non-destructive pile decreases from the ultimate skin resistance with the increase of load as the test pile is loaded to the maximum value,whereas for the destructive pile the shaft resistance along the pile depth approaches to the limiting state and decreases from a peak value with further increase of the pile head load.The thresholds of settlement at the pile head for fully mobilizing the skin resistances in different soils are about 1% to 4% of the pile diameter.The load transmission curve of the soils around the pile base corresponds to a softening model in the field tests on the destructive pile,whereas the settlement-resistance curve of the non-destructive pile developed at the pile tip follows a hardening model.%通过桩身埋设有钢筋应力计的2根直径不同的破坏性和非破坏性后注浆抗压试桩现场静载试验,对比分析了破坏性和非破坏性后注浆抗压试桩的受力性状。现场试验表明,极限荷载下非破坏性和破坏性后注浆桩的桩端力荷载分担比约为40%且同一桩顶荷载水平下,桩端荷载分担比随桩径的增大而减小。最大试验荷载下非破坏性试桩浅层土侧阻力完全发挥并有侧阻软化趋势,而破坏性试桩全桩长范围桩侧阻力均表现为软化性状。实测发现不同土中桩侧摩阻力充分发挥时对应的桩顶沉降约为(1%~4%)D(D为桩径)。非破坏性试

  3. Application of high-pressure rotating jet grouting technology in steel sheet pile construction%高压旋喷灌浆技术在钢板桩工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志明; 李汉桥

    2001-01-01

    In the construction of steel sheet pile works in the Honghu floodcontrol dyke,high-pressure rotating jet grouting technology was used to build a close seepage control system's pile wall at the joint of steel sheet pile with vertical composite geomembrane.In order to guarantee project quality,strengthen the controlling and examination of intermediate key construction links,some measures were timely taken for solving problems arising in construction.Inspection by excavation and boring showed good project guality with 100% projects being up to standard and 80% projects being excellent.The seepage control body constructed by using high-pressure rotating jet grouting technology at the joint of steel sheet piles with vertical composite geomembane is successful,and is characterized by good results,high-speed construction,reliable quality and reasonable cost,etc.This construction method has remarkable superiority compared with other ones.%洪湖钢板桩工程中在垂直铺塑与钢板桩两种工法联接处,采用高压旋喷桩墙形成封闭防渗体系。施工过程中,为保证质量,加强对中间关键环节的控制、检查,对出现的问题及时采取处理措施,有效地保证了工程质量。经开挖自检和钻孔检查,合格率100%,优良率75%,工程质量优良。施工结果表明,钢板桩和垂直铺塑接头处采用高压旋喷灌浆技术构筑防渗体是成功的。它具有效果好、速度快、质量有保证、经济适宜等特点,与其它工法相比具有明显的优势。者

  4. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  5. Chemical Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    As a preliminary study on the effects of chemical aging of polymer materials MERL and TRI have examined two polymeric materials that are typically used for offshore umbilical applications. These two materials were Tefzel, a copolymer of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene, and Coflon, polyvinylidene fluoride. The Coflon specimens were cut from pipe sections and exposed to H2S at various temperatures and pressures. One of these specimens was tested for methane permeation, and another for H2S permeation. The Tefzel specimens were cut from .05 mm sheet stock material and were exposed to methanol at elevated temperature and pressure. One of these specimens was exposed to methanol permeation for 2 days at 100 C and 2500 psi. An additional specimen was exposed to liquid methanol for 3 days at 150 C and 15 Bar. Virgin specimens of each material were similarly prepared and tested.

  6. 向家坝水电站挠曲核部破碎带水泥-环氧树脂复合灌浆试验研究%Cement-epoxy Resin Grouting Treatment for the Flexural Fracture Zone in Xiangjiaba Hydropower Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏涛; 张健; 陈亮; 肖承京

    2015-01-01

    向家坝水电站坝址岩性岩相多变,地质条件非常复杂,坝右岸存在挠曲核部破碎带,对大坝的渗透稳定非常不利。现场施工发现水泥灌浆难以对坝基存在的挠曲核部破碎带进行有效处理,为解决挠曲核部破碎带地质缺陷,长江科学院在右岸二期基坑高程257 m 平台进行了水泥-环氧树脂复合灌浆试验。灌后检查显示:透水率由复合灌浆前的平均透水率3.05 Lu降为0.075 Lu,做全压力为2.265 MPa的疲劳压水试验,经72 h 透水率为0 Lu;水力破坏坡降比灌前提高了11.54倍;灌浆后平均波速比灌前提高16.8%。试验结果表明:湿磨细水泥-环氧树脂同孔复合灌浆的工艺是可行的,CW510环氧树脂灌浆材料能够浸润和渗透到挠曲核部破碎带不良地质体中,试验中所获得的工艺参数可以在向家坝水电站挠曲核部破碎处理中推广应用,并可为其他水工建筑物基础处理借鉴。%The geological conditions of Xiangjiaba hydropower station is very complicated with a flexural core frac-ture zone at the right side of dam foundation,detrimental to the seepage stability of the dam.It’s hard to mend these geological defects such as siltstone and argillaceous siltstone with cement grouting .In view of this we conduc-ted test on platform at elevation 257m on the right bank of second-stage foundation pit using cement-epoxy resin grouting to mend the geological defects.The quality inspection results after grouting are as follows:water permea-bility reduced from 3.05 Lu to 0.075 Lu;the water permeability of fatigue water pressure test with full pressure of 2.265 MPa is 0 Lu after 72h;the gradient of hydraulic damage is 11.54 times higher than that before grouting;the average wave velocity improved by 16.8% over the previous grouting.The test results indicate that the treatment of cement-epoxy resin compound grouting for flexural core fracture zone in Xiangjiaba

  7. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1965-06-01

    How did life come to be on the surface of the earth? Darwin himself recognized that his basic idea of evolution by variation and natural selection must be a continuous process extending backward in time through that period in which the first living things arose and into the period of 'Chemical Evolution' which preceded it. We are approaching the examination of these events by two routes. One is to seek for evidence in the ancient rocks of the earth which were laid down prior to that time in which organisms capable of leaving their skeletons in the rocks to be fossilized were in existence. This period is sometime prior to approximately 600 million years ago. The earth is believed to have taken its present form approximately 4700 million years ago. We have found in rocks whose age is about 1000 million years certain organic molecules which are closely related to the green pigment of plants, chlorophyll. This seems to establish that green plants were already fluorishing prior to that time. We have now found in rocks of still greater age, namely, 2500 million years, the same kinds of molecules mentioned above which can be attributed to the presence of living organisms. If these molecules are as old as the rocks, we have thus shortened the time available for the generation of the complex biosynthetic sequences which give rise to these specific hydrocarbons (polyisoprenoids) to less than 2000 million years.

  8. 深层搅拌及帷幕灌浆技术在某水库加固中的应用%Application of Deep Stirring and Curtain Grouting in a Reservoir Reinforcement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志成; 谢力分; 刘飞

    2012-01-01

    It is a small reservoir which is mainly used for irrigation, as well as such comprehensive utilization as flood control, breeding, tourism and so on. The reservoir has been used for many years, the filling of the dam does not meet the specification requirements and seepage of the downstream dam slope disperses. The treatment of the dam does not meet the specification reqirement, such problems as large water permeability, seepage of dam foundation, and so on. According to the project importance and field test results, deep stirring and curtain grouting tech- nology is adopted to solve leakage prblem.%某水库是一座以灌溉为主,兼有防洪、养殖、旅游等综合利用的小(2)型水库。水库运行多年,存在坝体填筑质量不满足规范要求,下游坝坡散浸,大坝坝体处理不满足规范要求,透水性较大,坝基渗漏等问题。根据工程重要性及现场试验结果,采用深层搅拌成墙及帷幕灌浆技术解决渗漏问题。

  9. 灌浆技术在斜槽地基加固工程中的应用%Application of Grouting Technology in the Chute Ground Base Consolidation Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭其青

    2001-01-01

    The ground base of the newly added chute in 4# tailings reservoir at Dexing Copper Mine is characterised by thick weathered layer,loose structure,fractured zone and landslip mass accumulation.As a result,the ground has a great subsidence and inefficient carrying capacity.In view of this, the grouting technology was adopted to reinforce the chute ground base.The on-site testing shows that the subsidence of the chute has been efficiently controlled and the carrying capacity of the ground base improved so that the stability requirement has been met.%基于德兴铜矿4#尾矿库新增斜槽地基强风化层厚、结构松散、有破碎带和滑坡体堆积物而造成地基沉降量较大和承载力不够的实际情况,应用灌浆技术对斜槽地基进行了加固。现场检测表明,能够有效的控制斜槽的沉降,提高了地基的承载力和满足稳定性要求。

  10. Chemical information science coverage in Chemical Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, G

    1987-02-01

    For many years Chemical Abstracts has included in its coverage publications on chemical documentation or chemical information science. Although the bulk of those publications can be found in section 20 of Chemical Abstracts, many relevant articles were found scattered among 39 other sections of CA in 1984-1985. In addition to the scattering of references in CA, the comprehensiveness of Chemical Abstracts as a secondary source for chemical information science is called into question. Data are provided on the journals that contributed the most references on chemical information science and on the languages of publication of relevant articles.

  11. Application of chemical grouting in lining concrete of Longtan hydropower project's diversion tunnel%化学灌浆在龙滩导流洞衬砌混凝土中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯国锋; 程俊利

    2005-01-01

    为了保证龙滩水电站右岸导流洞的安全运行,导流洞混凝土底板100 m长的施工缝需要进行处理,以加强对混凝土的保护、补强加固和防渗堵漏.补强加固要求缝面浆液固化后有较高的粘结强度,最终要求能增强混凝土结构的整体性.鉴于此要求,提出 "堵漏+灌浆"综合处理方案.经分析研究,决定采用化学灌浆法,经比选,决定采用YDS系列浆材,Penetron防水涂料和Peneplug快速堵漏剂.对几种材料的特性、施工工艺进行了介绍.化学灌浆施工获得了成功,保证了电站右岸导流洞的安全运行.

  12. Nature's chemicals and synthetic chemicals: comparative toxicology.

    OpenAIRE

    Ames, B N; Profet, M; Gold, L S

    1990-01-01

    The toxicology of synthetic chemicals is compared to that of natural chemicals, which represent the vast bulk of the chemicals to which humans are exposed. It is argued that animals have a broad array of inducible general defenses to combat the changing array of toxic chemicals in plant food (nature's pesticides) and that these defenses are effective against both natural and synthetic toxins. Synthetic toxins such as dioxin are compared to natural chemicals, such as indole carbinol (in brocco...

  13. Quarterly Progress Report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: July-September 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    2001-04-16

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period July-September 1999. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within ten major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry, Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Studies, Chemistry Research, Physical Properties Research, Biochemical Engineering, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Fluid Structures and Properties, Biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies. The name of a technical contact is included with each task described, and readers are encouraged to contact these individuals if they need additional information. Activities conducted within the area of the Cell Operations involved the testing of two continuously stirred tank reactors in series to evaluate the Savannah River-developed process of small-tank tetraphenylborate precipitation to remove cesium, strontium and transuranics from supernatant. Within the area of Process Chemistry, various topics related to solids formation in process solutions from caustic treatment of Hanford sludge were addressed. Saltcake dissolution efforts continued, including the development of a predictive algorithm. New initiatives for the section included modeling activities centered on detection of hydrogen in {sup 233}U storage wells and wax formation in petroleum mixtures, as well as support for the Spallation Neutron Source (investigation of transmutation products formed during operation). Other activities involved in situ grouting and evaluation of options for use (i.e., as castable shapes) of depleted uranium. In a continuation of activities of the preceding

  14. Reliability Evaluation of Vertical Bearing Capacity of Post-grouting Bored Piles%后注浆灌注桩桩端竖向承载力可靠性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 朱晓丽

    2015-01-01

    后注浆钻孔灌注桩目前广泛应用于软土地区中,其承载力较大,沉降较小,因此对其承载力的估算一直受到重视。研究桩端位于砂土层中的桩端后注浆灌注桩竖向抗压承载力可靠度,并编写了相应Matlab程序。考虑到在实际进行可靠度计算时,极限状态方程的确立、随机变量的选择对最后得到的可靠度指标有很大影响,比较了2个随机变量、4个随机变量以及6个随机变量这样3种情况计算同一算例的可靠度指标。对于极限状态方程的确定,本文建立了3种不同的极限状态方程,研究结果发现极限状态方程的选取对可靠度指标的影响较小,可按照实际工程掌握数据选取随机变量。由于进行可靠度研究时,随机变量的均值和标准差都是基于大量数据确定的,会有误差存在,因此研究各个随机变量的敏感性能对实际工程计算可靠度指标的精度提高有所帮助。%Post-grouting bored piles are widely used in soft soil area, whose carrying capacity is large and settlement is small, so estimation of carrying capacity is much accounted of.In this paper, the study was mainly about the reliability evaluation of vertical bearing capacity of the base-grouting bored piles which is lo-cated in the sandy soil and wrote the Matlab program about it.Considering the limit state equation, the choice of the random variables has a great influence on the reliability index.Three conditions, which are of 2 random vari-ables, 4 random variables and 6 random variables, were used to calculate the reliability evaluation of the same example.About selecting limit state equation, three different limit state equations were chosen.And the limit state equation has little effect on reliability evaluation showed in the result.So random variable can be chosen ac-cording to the practical engineering.Considering the mean value and standard deviation of random variables base on mass

  15. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-cheng; Sui, Guodong; Elizarov, Arkadij; Kolb, Hartmuth C.; Huang, Jiang; Heath, James R.; Phelps, Michael E.; Quake, Stephen R.; Tseng, Hsian-rong; Wyatt, Paul; Daridon, Antoine

    2012-06-26

    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  16. Application of Grouting and Water-Blocking Techniques to the Replacement of Shield Tail Seal Brushes in a Permeable Strata with High Water Pressure%注浆止水技术在高水压强渗透地层盾尾刷更换施工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施瑾伟; 杨钊; 杨擎; 鞠义成; 余村

    2015-01-01

    盾尾密封的完整性和可靠性对于盾构施工安全极其重要。当盾尾刷出现损坏时,要及时进行更换,而进行盾尾刷更换的关键在于地层中地下水的封堵。文章以南京纬三路过江通道N线工程为例,结合高水压强渗透地层盾尾刷更换施工的特点和要求,采用了改进的注浆止水技术。一是通过加强同步注浆,形成第一道止水体系;二是采用增设预留孔的两环特殊管片,对盾尾区域进行止水加固;三是在盾构B环注入聚氨酯形成止水带,防止前方泥水舱泥水后窜。通过采取多道措施形成一个厚度大、密实性高、且具有一定强度的完整止水体系,在无水的环境中成功更换了盾尾刷。%The integrity and reliability of shield-tail sealing are very important to the safety of shield tunnelling, and tail-seal brushes need to be replaced quickly in case of any damage; therefore the sealing of underground water is key to success in these cases. Taking line N of the Nanjing Weisan Road river-crossing project as an example, and considering the characteristics and requirements of replacing a tail-seal brush in a strong, permeable strata with high water pressure, an improved grouting technique was adopted for stopping water: 1) the primary water-stopping system was formed by strengthening the synchronous grouting; 2) the shield-tail part was consolidated by grouting via two special segments with additional reserved holes; and 3) the B-ring of the shield was grouted with polyurethane to avoid leakage from the front of the slurry chamber. Using this method, a complete water-sealing system characterized by its thickness, high density and strength is formed, ensuring successful replacement of the tail-seal brushes in a dry environent.

  17. Chemical Security Analysis Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2006, by Presidential Directive, DHS established the Chemical Security Analysis Center (CSAC) to identify and assess chemical threats and vulnerabilities in the...

  18. The chemical life(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    You write this narrative autoethnography to open up a conversation about our chemical lives. You go through your day with chemical mindfulness, questioning taken-for-granted ideas about natural and artificial, healthy and unhealthy, dependency and addiction, trying to understand the chemical messages we consume through the experiences of everyday life. You reflect on how messages about chemicals influence and structure our lives and why some chemicals are celebrated and some are condemned. Using a second-person narrative voice, you show how the personal is relational and the chemical is cultural. You write because you seek a connection, a chemical bond.

  19. 动水大高程地面双液注浆堵水关键技术浆液凝固性能试验研究%Study for the Test of Slurry Coagulability About Double Liquid Grouting Water Shutoff Key Technology on the Dynamic Water High Elevation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷

    2014-01-01

    水泥-水玻璃在灌浆、堵水等工程中具有广泛的应用,而浆液的凝胶时间对灌浆、堵水等工程的顺利进行起着直接的影响,本文通过对不同水灰比、不同水玻璃用量的水泥水玻璃浆液的凝固性能进行试验分析,选取适当的配合比浆液对安徽省淮南市某矿进行从地面向地下注浆堵水工程。%The cement - sodium silicate slurry is widely used in grouting and water stopping, and the solidification char-acter-istics of slurry have the direct effect on such engineering. According to the analysis of the coagulability test result of the ce-ment-sodium silicate slurry with different ratio of water and dif-ferent dosage of sodium silicate, determining the mix proportion for blocking Water grouting at a mine of Huainan Coal.

  20. 软弱围岩隧道管棚水平旋喷组合预加固变形规律%Deformation Law of Composite Structure of Pipe Roof and Horizontal Jet-Grouting Pile Reinforcement in Tunneling in Weak Strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖金星; 汪珂; 郭春霞; 李锋宁

    2015-01-01

    为研究软弱围岩地层管棚水平旋喷桩组合结构的预加固效果,采用三维弹塑性有限元方法对比分析了单独使用管棚、单独使用旋喷桩、管棚与旋喷桩组合预加固及无加固4种工况下隧道结构体系的位移变化规律。结果表明:1)水平旋喷桩和管棚2种工法中,水平旋喷桩预加固工法控制拱顶下沉、拱脚收敛值和掌子面稳定性能力显著;2)管棚预加固工法控制地表沉降的能力较强;3)管棚和旋喷桩组合结构控制拱顶沉降和拱脚收敛,掌子面水平位移性能突出,管棚水平旋喷桩组合结构使地表沉降减小91.3%,拱顶沉降减小76.2%,拱脚收敛减小76.3%,其地表最大沉降值为2.7 mm,拱顶最大沉降值为25 mm,拱脚最大收敛值为4 mm,最小收敛值为-9.4 mm,加固效果明显。%The deformation law of tunnel structures in 4 cases, i. e. , application of only pipe roof, application of only horizontal jet-grouting piles, application of pipe roof coupled with horizontal jet-grouting piles and application of no ad-vance reinforcement, are studied by means of three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element method, so as to investigate the effect of the pipe roof coupled with horizontal jet-grouting piles on the deformation of tunnel in weak strata. Conclu-sions drawn are as follows:1) The horizontal jet-grouting pile method is superior in controlling crown settlement, arch spring convergence and face displacement, while the pipe roof method is superior in controlling the ground surface settle-ment.2 ) The combination method of pipe roof and horizontal jet-grouting piles results in outstanding control of crown settlement , arch spring convergence and tunnel face horizontal displacement:the ground surface settlement is reduced by 91 . 3%, the crown settlement is reduced by 76 . 2%, and the arch spring convergence is reduced by 76 . 3%;the maxi-mum ground surface settlement is 2. 7 mm, the maximum crown settlement is 25 mm

  1. Existing chemicals: international activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, J F

    1989-01-01

    The standards of care used in the protection of the health and safety of people exposed to chemicals has increased dramatically in the last decade. Standards imposed by regulation and those adopted by industry have required a greater level of knowledge about the hazards of chemicals. In the E.E.C., the 6th amendment of the dangerous substances directive imposed the requirement that al new chemicals should be tested according to prescribed programme before introduction on to the market. The development of a European inventory of existing chemicals was an integral part of the 6th amendment. It has now become clear that increased standards of care referred to above must be applied to the chemicals on the inventory list. There is, however, a considerable amount of activity already under way in various international agencies. The OECD Chemicals Programme has been involved in considering the problem of existing chemicals for some time, and is producing a priority list and action programme. The International Programme on Chemical Safety produces international chemical safety cards, health and safety guides and environmental health criteria documents. The international register of potentially toxic compounds (part of UNEP) has prepared chemical data profiles on 990 compounds. The International Agency for Research on Cancer prepared monographs on the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. So far 42 volumes have been prepared covering about 900 substances. IARC and IPCS also prepare periodic reports on ongoing research on carcinogenicity or toxicity (respectively) of chemicals. The chemical industry through ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre) has mounted a major initiative on existing chemicals. Comprehensive reviews of the toxicity of selected chemicals are published (Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals). In its technical report no. 30 ECETOC lists reviews and evaluations by major national and international organisations, which provides

  2. 某铁矿冻结孔的缓凝水泥浆固管充填技术%Study on the Filling Technology of Freezing Hole Using Retarding Cement Grout in an Iron Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王衍森; 杨福军; 冷阳光

    2012-01-01

    近年来,冻结法凿井技术在我国富水岩层矿井建设中的应用越来越广泛.为防止冻结壁融化后冻结孔成为竖向导水通道,威胁矿井的安全,冻结孔必须开展固管充填处理.针对某铁矿回风井冻结法凿井面临的地层条件及钻孔泥浆特点,通过室内及现场试验研究,获得了具有良好稳定性、较长缓凝时间且能与钻孔化学泥浆相容的缓凝水泥浆液配方,并研究制订了合理的冻结孔固管充填施工技术与工艺.冻结孔固管充填技术在该矿井的成功应用,证实了所研发的缓凝水泥浆液配方及相关施工技术与工艺的可行性与可靠性.%In recent years, freezing sinking technology is widely used in water-bearing rock strata in our country. To prevent the freezing hole becoming vertical water channels after the ice wall thawing, consequently threatening the safety of the mine,the hollow space around freezing pipes in freezing holes must be filled. Aiming at the strara condition and drilling mud features in freeze sinking in the ventilation shaft of an iron mine, the retarding cement grout formula, which is stable and has long slow setting time and considerable compatibility with drilling mud,was obtained through a large number of laboratory and field tests; then,the reasonable technology and process were produced for the freezing holes filling. The successful application of this technology in the iron mine, proved its feasibility and reliability of the formula and the related process.

  3. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2012-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics field with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of chemical physics. This volume explores: Quantum Dynamical Resonances in Ch

  4. Capacitive chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

    2014-05-27

    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  5. Tobacco and chemicals (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...

  6. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-12-01

    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  7. Chemical Search Web Utility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical Search Web Utility is an intuitive web application that allows the public to easily find the chemical that they are interested in using, and which...

  8. Chemicals Industry Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  9. Chemical Physics Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Munn, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    This is a guide to the chemical physics major. The scope of chemical physics is presented, along with the general features of course contents and possible course structures. This information was derived from a survey of British universities and colleges offering undergraduate degree courses in chemical physics. (BB)

  10. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fatima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  11. Chemicals for worldwide aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnick, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Regulations and therapeutants or other safe chemicals that are approved or acceptable for use in the aquaculture industry in the US, Canada, Europe and Japan are presented, discussing also compounds that are unacceptable for aquaculture. Chemical use practices that could affect public health are considered and details given regarding efforts to increase the number of registered and acceptable chemicals.

  12. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2012-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series presents contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study o

  13. Advances in chemical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2011-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series offers contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of che

  14. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Chemical Physics is the only series of volumes available that explores the cutting edge of research in chemical physics. This is the only series of volumes available that presents the cutting edge of research in chemical physics.Includes contributions from experts in this field of research.Contains a representative cross-section of research that questions established thinking on chemical solutions.Structured with an editorial framework that makes the book an excellent supplement to an advanced graduate class in physical chemistry or chemical physics.

  15. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2011-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series offers contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of che

  16. Investigation of Sand-Cement Grouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-09-01

    the sianAS. Ho-4, VVers thia 𔃽pacification ,Jlowi -inI r.ver,4 e ofl 3 :*- cen~t to be retain(v,- on1 the NO,. 1E6 sieve. 3y * :.Oviiq- (1),, sc...325 material as does the traprock or silica sand. This j J: i3 -robably the reason for the difference in the quantity of sand founud pmrnable. The three...deficient in material assing th.e ±,e h DOsieve, Ath the addition of percentages of fŕ. ash was test-ilwped. in the other to-ts in this phase, tne

  17. Constructing bottom barriers with met grouting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibazaki, M.; Yoshida, H. [Chemical Grouting Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    Installing a bottom barrier using conventional high pressure jetting technology and ensuring barrier continuity is challenging. This paper describes technology that has been developed and demonstrated for the emplacement of bottom barriers using pressures and flow rates above the conventional high pressure jetting parameters. The innovation capable of creating an improved body exceeding 5 meters in diameter has resulted in the satisfying connection and adherence between the treated columns. Besides, the interfaces among the improved bodies obtain the same strength and permeability lower than 1 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec as body itself. A wide variety of the thickness and the diameter of the improved mass optimizes the application, and the method is nearing completion. The paper explains an aspect and briefs case histories.

  18. Chemical bond fundamental aspects of chemical bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Frenking, Gernot

    2014-01-01

    This is the perfect complement to ""Chemical Bonding - Across the Periodic Table"" by the same editors, who are two of the top scientists working on this topic, each with extensive experience and important connections within the community. The resulting book is a unique overview of the different approaches used for describing a chemical bond, including molecular-orbital based, valence-bond based, ELF, AIM and density-functional based methods. It takes into account the many developments that have taken place in the field over the past few decades due to the rapid advances in quantum chemica

  19. Hand chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby

    2015-03-01

    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes.

  20. Chemical Biology is.....

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Biology is a relatively new field, and as such is not yet simply or succinctly defined. It includes such a wide range of fundamental problems that this commentary could only include just a few snapshots of potential areas of interest. Overarching themes and selected recent successes and ideas in chemical biology are described to illustrate broadly the scope of the field, but should not be taken as exhaustive. The Chemical Biology Section of Chemistry Central Journal is pleased to rec...

  1. Multivariate Quantitative Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchen, David G.; Capezza, Mary

    1995-01-01

    Technique of multivariate quantitative chemical analysis devised for use in determining relative proportions of two components mixed and sprayed together onto object to form thermally insulating foam. Potentially adaptable to other materials, especially in process-monitoring applications in which necessary to know and control critical properties of products via quantitative chemical analyses of products. In addition to chemical composition, also used to determine such physical properties as densities and strengths.

  2. Introduction to chemical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Soustelle, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This book is a progressive presentation of kinetics of the chemical reactions. It provides complete coverage of the domain of chemical kinetics, which is necessary for the various future users in the fields of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Materials Science, Chemical Engineering, Macromolecular Chemistry and Combustion. It will help them to understand the most sophisticated knowledge of their future job area. Over 15 chapters, this book present the fundamentals of chemical kinetics, its relations with reaction mechanisms and kinetic properties. Two chapters are then devoted to experimental re

  3. Laboratory of Chemical Physics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Current research in the Laboratory of Chemical Physics is primarily concerned with experimental, theoretical, and computational problems in the structure, dynamics,...

  4. Chemical Processing Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerle, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical processes presented in this document include cleaning, pickling, surface finishes, chemical milling, plating, dry film lubricants, and polishing. All types of chemical processes applicable to aluminum, for example, are to be found in the aluminum alloy section. There is a separate section for each category of metallic alloy plus a section for non-metals, such as plastics. The refractories, super-alloys and titanium, are prime candidates for the space shuttle, therefore, the chemical processes applicable to these alloys are contained in individual sections of this manual.

  5. 声波测井与地震直达波测井在采空区注浆质量检测中的联合应用%Combined Application of Acoustic Logging and Seismic Direct Wave Logging in Grouting Quality Detection of Goaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      在采空区注浆质量检测时,由于地质条件的限制,钻孔常常不能完全充水,钻孔的下部充水,符合声波测井的条件,采用声波测井法;而在测孔的上部由于不能充水,故采用地震直达波测井法。通过这两种方法分别得到超声波与地震波在井壁岩层的传播速度,从而初步判断井壁的岩性情况,再通过与钻孔岩芯特征比较,进而对注浆质量进行综合评估。%In the grouting quality detection of goaf , due to geological conditions limitation, the drilling holes often can not be completely water-filled.The lower part of drilling holes is water-filled, which is in accorded with the condition of acoustic logging , so we can use acoustic logging;but the upper part of the drilling holes is not water-filled,we use seismic direct wave logging.We can preliminary judge the litholo-gy of the borehole wall by using the propagation velocity of ultrasonic wave and seismic wave in the bore -hole wall rock.Then we can make a comprehensive assessment of grouting quality by comparing with the drilling holes core characteristics.

  6. Macro-micro mechanical on joint -grout-bolt interaction in rockmass subjected to shear loading%剪切荷载下岩体结构面-浆体-锚杆相互作用机理宏细观研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 袁康; 蒋宇静; 吴学震

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of bolted rock joints was researched by using bilinear constitutive model of bolt in virtue of the inner-embed FISH language of PFC based on DEM. Through a variation of the bolt’s elastic modulus and the strength of grout, their influence on macroscopic mechanical response and microscopic mechanical response of anchoring system were studied under the bolt−grout−rock interaction. The results show that there is a clear relationship between the mechanical response of bolted rock joint and the mechanical property of anchoring structures. Macroscopic aspect: the stiffer the bolt the more shear strength of bolted rock joint has. Microscopic aspect: the quantity of cracks in grout and rock increase with the increase of bolt’s stiffness so as to result in more damage to anchoring system. Cracks will appear in the joint and the intersection of bolt and joint initially. With the increase of shear displacement, the cracks in joint will be generated at the place whose compressive contact force is very concentrated while the cracks around the bolt will propagate from the intersection of bolt and joint to the two ends of bolt. Besides, the cracks are mainly concentrated on the compression side. Most of the cracks are tension cracks which are induced by compression among particles. The number of cracks in rock and grout will increase when the strength of grout is much larger or smaller. The cracks are mainly tension cracks which are result from the compression among the particles. When the strength of grout is much smaller, the cracks are mainly concentrated on the rock otherwise the cracks will be mainly distributed in grout. Therefore, the shearing strength of bolted rock joint in macroscopic aspect and the damage of anchoring system resulting from anchoring structure in microscopic aspect should be considered comprehensively while reinforcing jointed rock mass so as to realize the macroscopic-microscopic coupling support. It has a certain

  7. Casestudy of stabilization of structural-unstable soilsusing grouting ОПЫТ ЗАКРЕПЛЕНИЯ СТРУКТУРНО-НЕУСТОЙЧИВЫХ ГРУНТОВ ЦЕМЕНТАЦИЕЙ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovanov Aleksandr Mikhailovich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available More than 20 years ago, Rostov-based Promstroyniiproekt Institute (Research and Development Institute for Industrial Engineering, backed by Geotechnika group of companies and other organizations, commenced using cement grouting to stabilize soil as part of foundation soils of buildings. It has turned out that consolidation of water saturated by clay accelerates grouting and assures higher strength than the silicification method. The article describes a new method of grouting and a case study of grouting stabilization of the foundation soil of a five-storey residential house, made by subsiding soils and subjacent fluid-plastic clay loams.The work was complicated by the fact that clay was displaced by the cement-sand mortar injected at the pressure insufficient for formation of discontinuous cavities. In these circumstances, the team of researchers developed and implemented an integrated solution to avoid clay clustering under the influence of the injected grout.The authors consider problems arising in the course of operation of buildings in the above geotechnical environment and describe the sequence of grouting operations. The article includes the work performance pattern and patterns of building control.Описан новый комплексный способ цементации грунтов и опыт его применения для усиления основания существующего пятиэтажного жилого дома, сложенного просадочными грунтами, подстилаемыми текучепластичными суглинками. Рассмотрены некоторые проблемы, возникающие при эксплуатации зданий в данных инженерно-геологических условиях, и описана последовательность работ при цементации.

  8. Multiple chemical sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Marie Thi Dao; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Kupers, Ron;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition characterized by recurrent, non-specific symptoms in response to chemically unrelated exposures in non-toxic concentrations. Although the pathophysiology of MCS remains unknown, central sensitization may be an important factor...

  9. Chemical burn or reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000059.htm Chemical burn or reaction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chemicals that touch skin can lead to a reaction on the skin, throughout the body, or both. ...

  10. Chemical warfare in freshwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, Gabi

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes can excrete chemical substances into their enviroment and these compounds may inhibit the growth of phytoplankton. This process is defined as allelopathy: one organism has effects on another via the excretion of a (mixture of) chemical substance(s). With laboratory and field expe

  11. Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaka, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-13

    The Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT) is used to determine the thermal stability of High Explosives (HEs) and chemical compatibility between (HEs) and alien materials. The CRT is one of the small-scale safety tests performed on HE at the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF).

  12. Biobased chemicals from polyhydroxybutyrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekreijse, Jurjen

    2016-01-01

    Currently, most chemicals and materials are obtained from fossil resources. After use, these chemicals and materials are converted to CO2. As discussed in chapter 1, this causes a build-up of CO2 in the atmosphere, the main driving force of global warming. In order to reach a sustai

  13. Chemical recognition software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.S.; Trahan, M.W.; Nelson, W.E.; Hargis, P.H. Jr.; Tisone, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    We have developed a capability to make real time concentration measurements of individual chemicals in a complex mixture using a multispectral laser remote sensing system. Our chemical recognition and analysis software consists of three parts: (1) a rigorous multivariate analysis package for quantitative concentration and uncertainty estimates, (2) a genetic optimizer which customizes and tailors the multivariate algorithm for a particular application, and (3) an intelligent neural net chemical filter which pre-selects from the chemical database to find the appropriate candidate chemicals for quantitative analyses by the multivariate algorithms, as well as providing a quick-look concentration estimate and consistency check. Detailed simulations using both laboratory fluorescence data and computer synthesized spectra indicate that our software can make accurate concentration estimates from complex multicomponent mixtures, even when the mixture is noisy and contaminated with unknowns.

  14. Chemical recognition software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.S.; Trahan, M.W.; Nelson, W.E.; Hargis, P.J. Jr.; Tisone, G.C.

    1994-12-01

    We have developed a capability to make real time concentration measurements of individual chemicals in a complex mixture using a multispectral laser remote sensing system. Our chemical recognition and analysis software consists of three parts: (1) a rigorous multivariate analysis package for quantitative concentration and uncertainty estimates, (2) a genetic optimizer which customizes and tailors the multivariate algorithm for a particular application, and (3) an intelligent neural net chemical filter which pre-selects from the chemical database to find the appropriate candidate chemicals for quantitative analyses by the multivariate algorithms, as well as providing a quick-look concentration estimate and consistency check. Detailed simulations using both laboratory fluorescence data and computer synthesized spectra indicate that our software can make accurate concentration estimates from complex multicomponent mixtures. even when the mixture is noisy and contaminated with unknowns.

  15. Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Wheeler, David R.; Simonson, Robert J.

    2010-09-21

    A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a sorptive support structure having a tortuous flow path. The tortuosity provides repeated twists, turns, and bends to the flow, thereby increasing the interfacial contact between sample fluid stream and the sorptive material. The tortuous path also provides more opportunities for desorption and readsorption of volatile species. Further, the thermal efficiency of the tortuous path chemical preconcentrator is comparable or superior to the prior non-planar chemical preconcentrator. Finally, the tortuosity can be varied in different directions to optimize flow rates during the adsorption and desorption phases of operation of the preconcentrator.

  16. Chemical ecology of fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteller, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Fungi are widespread in nature and have conquered nearly every ecological niche. Fungi occur not only in terrestrial but also in freshwater and marine environments. Moreover, fungi are known as a rich source of secondary metabolites. Despite these facts, the ecological role of many of these metabolites is still unknown and the chemical ecology of fungi has not been investigated systematically so far. This review intends to present examples of the various chemical interactions of fungi with other fungi, plants, bacteria and animals and to give an overview of the current knowledge of fungal chemical ecology.

  17. CHEMICALS AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk TEKBAS

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available However a lot of chemicals had been used in our daily life, we have enough knowledge about the effects of only for a small portion of them on reproductive health. Our knowledge had been arisen from epidemiologic and experimental studies. In order to protect ourselves from chemicals in the environment it should be concentrate on experimental studies and the results of them should be carefully studied during epidemiological researches. It would be tried to tell about the main chemicals which had been known as effective on reproductive health on the following review. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(1.000: 50-59

  18. Elements of chemical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, Leonard K

    2005-01-01

    This survey of purely thermal data in calculating the position of equilibrium in a chemical reaction highlights the physical content of thermodynamics, as distinct from purely mathematical aspects. 1970 edition.

  19. Chemical Physics Summer School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-06-28

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Chemical Physics Summer School was held at Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  20. Biotechnology for renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the industrial organic chemicals are derived from fossil sources. With the oil and gas resources becoming limiting, biotechnology offers a sustainable alternative for production ofchemicals from renewable feedstocks. Yeast is an attractive cell factory forsustainable production...

  1. Chemical Engineering at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a review of the career paths for chemicals engineer at NASA (specifically NASA Johnson Space Center.) The author uses his personal experience and history as an example of the possible career options.

  2. Legendary Chemical Aphrodisiacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Thomas G.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Presents a survey of the literature and a summary of information regarding aphrodisiacs. Chemical compounds are discussed as groups of plant natural products, animal natural products, and synthetic products. (CS)

  3. Chemical evolution and life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaterre Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In research on the origins of life, the concept of “chemical evolution” aims at explaining the transition from non-living matter to living matter. There is however strong disagreement when it comes to defining this concept more precisely, and in particular with reference to a chemical form of Darwinian evolution: for some, chemical evolution is nothing but Darwinian evolution applied to chemical systems before life appeared; yet, for others, it is the type of evolution that happened before natural selection took place, the latter being the birthmark of living systems. In this contribution, I review the arguments defended by each side and show how both views presuppose a dichotomous definition of “life”.

  4. Chemical agent recoveries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset shows the calculation of reported decontamination efficacies from the raw data (i.e., measured amount of chemical recovered from test coupons and positive...

  5. 219-S chemical compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GOODWIN, L.D.

    1999-08-31

    This document consists of tables of the materials that make up the ''wetted'' parts of the 219-S waste handling facility and a combination of manufacturer lists of chemicals that are not recommended.

  6. Chemical Data Access Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This tool is intended to aid individuals interested in learning more about chemicals that are manufactured or imported into the United States. Health and safety...

  7. Chemicals from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  8. A bionics chemical synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanapitak, Surachoke; Toumazou, Christofer

    2013-06-01

    Implementation of the current mode CMOS circuit for chemical synapses (AMPA and NMDA receptors) with dynamic change of glutamate as the neurotransmitter input is presented in this paper. Additionally, circuit realisation for receptor GABA(A) and GABA(B) with an electrical signal which symbolises γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) perturbation is introduced. The chemical sensor for glutamate sensing is the modified ISFET with enzyme (glutamate oxidase) immobilisation. The measured results from these biomimetics chemical synapse circuits closely match with the simulation result from the mathematical model. The total power consumption of the whole chip (four chemical synapse circuits and all auxiliary circuits) is 168.3 μW. The total chip area is 3 mm(2) in 0.35-μm AMS CMOS technology.

  9. Countermeasures to Hazardous Chemicals,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    of any effective community awareness and emergency response program is an informed public familiar with the operations of local chemical plants. Such a...protection systems. 2. Booklel, ’Protecting People and the Environment.’ - A concise booklet developed to familiarize the public with chemical operations and...Jefe, Seccion de Estudios y Planificacion 102. Civil Defense Administation c/Evaristo San Miguel, 8 Ministry of Interior Madrid-8 Ankara ESPANA

  10. Computational Systems Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea, Tudor I.; Elebeoba E. May; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007).

  11. Sawmill chemicals and carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Huff, J

    2001-01-01

    Workers in wood industries are exposed to variable medleys of chemicals, both natural and synthetic. Additional exposures include fungi, bacteria, bark and wood dusts, solvents, paints, and various other wood coatings. These individual and conglomerate exposures have been associated with diverse occupational illnesses and hazards, including cancers. In this commentary, I summarize both experimental and epidemiologic carcinogenesis results for several chemicals used in the wood industry, as we...

  12. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-30

    mass spectrometer. Also discussed were Corporation, St. Louis , Mo. unique analytical applications of several negative ion chemical Synthesis of the...were purchsed from obtained at a probe temperature of 180-200 °C and displays Sigma Chemical Co.. St. Louis , Mo. Arginine hydrochloride (4) a M4...13) Rosenstock. H, M.: Drax . K.: Stener. B. W: Hernon J. T. J. Phys. Chem, Ref. Data 1977, 6, Supl. 1. 774-783,167 occur in the ratio of 10/ 1

  13. Environmental/chemical thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, C.R.; Dailey, N.S.; Jordan, A.C.; Miller, K.C.; Owens, E.T.; Rickert, L.W.

    1978-06-01

    The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus approaches scientific language control problems from a multidisciplinary view. The Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI) was used as a base for the present thesaurus. The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, used as its source of new terms those major terms found in 13 Environmental Protection Agency data bases. The scope of this thesaurus includes not only environmental and biomedical sciences, but also the physical sciences with emphasis placed on chemistry. Specific chemical compounds are not included; only classes of chemicals are given. To adhere to this level of classification, drugs and pesticides are identified by class rather than by specific chemical name. An attempt was also made to expand the areas of sociology and economics. Terminology dealing with law, demography, and geography was expanded. Proper names of languages and races were excluded. Geographic terms were expanded to include proper names for oceans, continents, major lakes, rivers, and islands. Political divisions were added to allow for proper names of countries and states. With such a broad scope, terminology for specific sciences does not provide for indexing to the lowest levels in plant, animal, or chemical classifications.

  14. Computational systems chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Tudor I; May, Elebeoba E; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology (SCB) (Nat Chem Biol 3: 447-450, 2007).The overarching goal of computational SCB is to develop tools for integrated chemical-biological data acquisition, filtering and processing, by taking into account relevant information related to interactions between proteins and small molecules, possible metabolic transformations of small molecules, as well as associated information related to genes, networks, small molecules, and, where applicable, mutants and variants of those proteins. There is yet an unmet need to develop an integrated in silico pharmacology/systems biology continuum that embeds drug-target-clinical outcome (DTCO) triplets, a capability that is vital to the future of chemical biology, pharmacology, and systems biology. Through the development of the SCB approach, scientists will be able to start addressing, in an integrated simulation environment, questions that make the best use of our ever-growing chemical and biological data repositories at the system-wide level. This chapter reviews some of the major research concepts and describes key components that constitute the emerging area of computational systems chemical biology.

  15. The Chemical Revolution revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hasok

    2015-02-01

    I respond to the critical comments by Martin Kusch and Ursula Klein on my account of the Chemical Revolution. I comment along three different lines: descriptive, explanatory, and normative. (1) I agree with Klein that Lavoisier did not introduce drastic changes in chemical ontology, but maintain that there was methodological incommensurability in the Chemical Revolution; in response to Kusch's view, I maintain that Lavoisier's victory was slow and incomplete. (2) Admitting that there were many causes shaping the outcome of the Chemical Revolution, including the convenience of Lavoisier's theoretical scheme and various complicated social factors, I still think that the general rise of compositionism was an important factor. (3) I defend my normative pluralist view on the Chemical Revolution, denying Kusch's argument that chemists had overwhelmingly good reasons to trust Lavoisier and his allies over the phlogistonists. Overall, I agree with Kusch that it would be desirable to have a good descriptive-normative sociological account of the Chemical Revolution, but I also think that it should be an account that allows for divergence in individuals' and sub-communities' self-determination.

  16. Chemical kinetics of gas reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kondrat'Ev, V N

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Kinetics of Gas Reactions explores the advances in gas kinetics and thermal, photochemical, electrical discharge, and radiation chemical reactions. This book is composed of 10 chapters, and begins with the presentation of general kinetic rules for simple and complex chemical reactions. The next chapters deal with the experimental methods for evaluating chemical reaction mechanisms and some theories of elementary chemical processes. These topics are followed by discussions on certain class of chemical reactions, including unimolecular, bimolecular, and termolecular reactions. The rema

  17. Current Chemical Risk Reduction Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.

  18. Accessing and using chemical databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Pavlov, Todor; Niemelä, Jay Russell

    2013-01-01

    , and dissemination. Structure and functionality of chemical databases are considered. The typical kinds of information found in a chemical database are considered-identification, structural, and associated data. Functionality of chemical databases is presented, with examples of search and access types. More details...... are included about the OASIS database and platform and the Danish (Q)SAR Database online. Various types of chemical database resources are discussed, together with a list of examples.......Computer-based representation of chemicals makes it possible to organize data in chemical databases-collections of chemical structures and associated properties. Databases are widely used wherever efficient processing of chemical information is needed, including search, storage, retrieval...

  19. Biological and Chemical Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  20. Protein Chemical Shift Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Anders S

    2014-01-01

    The protein chemical shifts holds a large amount of information about the 3-dimensional structure of the protein. A number of chemical shift predictors based on the relationship between structures resolved with X-ray crystallography and the corresponding experimental chemical shifts have been developed. These empirical predictors are very accurate on X-ray structures but tends to be insensitive to small structural changes. To overcome this limitation it has been suggested to make chemical shift predictors based on quantum mechanical(QM) calculations. In this thesis the development of the QM derived chemical shift predictor Procs14 is presented. Procs14 is based on 2.35 million density functional theory(DFT) calculations on tripeptides and contains corrections for hydrogen bonding, ring current and the effect of the previous and following residue. Procs14 is capable at performing predictions for the 13CA, 13CB, 13CO, 15NH, 1HN and 1HA backbone atoms. In order to benchmark Procs14, a number of QM NMR calculatio...

  1. Chemically Powered Nanomotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapral, Raymond

    2007-03-01

    Molecular motors play important roles in transport in biological systems. These molecular machines are powered by chemical energy and operate in the regime of low Reynolds number hydrodynamics. Recently a class of simple inorganic molecular motors has been constructed and studied experimentally [1,2]. These motors are bimetallic rods, one end of which is chemically active. The talk will describe simple mesoscopic models for the motion of such nanomotors. The motor consists of two linked spheres, one of which catalyzes the conversion between two chemical species. The chemical species interact differently with the the two spheres in the dimer. The nano-dimer motor is solvated by a molecules treated at a mesoscopic level whose evolution is governed by multi-particle collision dynamics. The dynamics conserves mass, momentum and energy so that coupling between the nanomotor and the hydrodynamic modes of the solvent is treated correctly. The simulations allow one to explore the mechanisms of the chemically powered motion and the effects of fluctuations on the motor dynamics. [1] W. F. Paxton, et al., ``Catalytic Nanomotors: Autonomous Movement of Striped Nanorods,'' J. Am. Chem. Soc. (JACS), 126 (41), 13424 (2004). [2] S. Fournier-Bidoz, et al. ``Synthetic Self-Propelled Nanorotors,'' Chem. Commun., (4), 441 (2005).

  2. 梁山隧道深埋富水陡倾软弱带突水涌泥机制分析及旋喷技术%Analysis on Mechanism of Water Gushing and Mud Inflow When Tunneling through Deep-covered Steep Water-rich Fracture Zone and Application of Horizontal Jet Grouting Piles:Case Study on Liangshan Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴培荣

    2015-01-01

    Liangshan tunnel is one of the key works on Xiamen-Shenzhen railway.During the construction of the tunnel, water gushing and mud inflow often occur,due to the deep-covered water-rich steep soft fracture zone met.In the paper, the characteristics of the water gushing,mud inflow and ground surface collapse are studied,and the water gushing and mud inflow mechanism is analyzed.It is concluded that fully-weathered materials and ground water under the effect of high seepage pressure difference induced by tunnel excavation are the main causes for the water gushing and mud inflow, and that the ground surface collapse is induced by the sudden drop of the ground water level.After investigation, theoretical analysis and tests,it is determined that long-distance horizontal jet grouting piles be used to reinforce the fracture zone.The layout,construction process and inspection standard of the jet grouting piles are also presented in the paper.The practice shows that the long-distance horizontal jet grouting piles mentioned are feasible and effective in the consolidation of the fracture zone.%梁山隧道是厦深铁路福建段的控制工程之一,施工中遇到深埋富水陡倾软弱带,多次导致突水涌泥及洞顶塌陷情况。通过研究突水涌泥及洞顶塌陷的灾害特征,分析得到突水涌泥机制,即:在这种多因素复杂地质条件下,隧道开挖导致形成极高的渗透压力差,并产生新的地下临空通道,在地下水渗透压力作用和自身重力作用下,全风化物质涌入隧道,形成突水涌泥;而软弱构造带塌陷的主要原因为地下水位的急剧下降。通过调研、理论分析及试验等方法,确定采用长距离水平旋喷桩通过软弱带,并提出其布置形式、施工工艺及检验标准。工程实践证明,采用长距离水平旋喷桩作为预加固手段是可行且有效的。

  3. STUDY OF DISTRIBUTION LAW OF WATER PRESSURE ACTING ON COMPOSITE LINING AND REASONABLE PARAMETERS OF GROUTING CIRCLE FOR SUBSEA TUNNEL%海底隧道复合衬砌水压力分布规律及合理注浆加固圈参数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏飞; 张顶立; 赵勇; 张成平

    2012-01-01

    与普通山岭隧道不同,海底隧道深埋于海床之下,地下水的处理是其修建过程中的关键问题,而隧道渗水量控制及衬砌结构水荷载确定又是地下水处理的核心问题.采用“堵水限排”的设计理念,设计海底隧道复合衬砌结构防排水系统,可以实现以较小的排放量明显折减甚至消除作用在支护结构上的外水压力,使海底隧道衬砌结构设计更经济.基于地下水水力学理论,推导海底隧道渗水量和复合衬砌结构外水压力的计算方法,并结合厦门海底隧道工程实践,采用理论分析和数值模拟方法揭示初期支护、二次衬砌以及注浆加固圈等参数的变化对隧道渗水量和衬砌外水压力的影响规律.在此基础上,提出海底隧道复合衬砌合理注浆加固圈参数的确定方法,并在厦门翔安海底隧道穿越F4风化深槽的合理注浆加固圈参数设计中取得成功应用.研究结果可为海底隧道或富水区高水头山岭隧道工程的防排水系统设计提供借鉴和参考.%Different from land tunnels, the subsea tunnels are located deeply under the sea, so the groundwater treatment is the key issue during tunnel construction. Simultaneously, water inflow control and calculation of water load acting on lining structure are the core issues. The external water pressure on lining will be reduced remarkably with low discharge by adopting the design discipline of blocking groundwater and limiting discharge. So the design of lining structure in subsea tunnels is more economical. Based on the correlation theory of groundwater hydraulics, a calculation methods of water load acting on composite lining and water inflow in subsea tunnels is derived. Taking Xiang'an subsea tunnel in Xiamen for example, the influences of variable parameters of primary support, secondary support and grouting circle on water inflow and external water pressure are then expounded by using theoretical analysis and numerical

  4. Nanotechnology for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Salaheldeen Elnashaie, Said; Hashemipour Rafsanjani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic principles of transforming nano-technology into nano-engineering with a particular focus on chemical engineering fundamentals. This book provides vital information about differences between descriptive technology and quantitative engineering for students as well as working professionals in various fields of nanotechnology. Besides chemical engineering principles, the fundamentals of nanotechnology are also covered along with detailed explanation of several specific nanoscale processes from chemical engineering point of view. This information is presented in form of practical examples and case studies that help the engineers and researchers to integrate the processes which can meet the commercial production. It is worth mentioning here that, the main challenge in nanostructure and nanodevices production is nowadays related to the economic point of view. The uniqueness of this book is a balance between important insights into the synthetic methods of nano-structures and nanomaterial...

  5. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  6. Translated chemical reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Matthew D

    2014-05-01

    Many biochemical and industrial applications involve complicated networks of simultaneously occurring chemical reactions. Under the assumption of mass action kinetics, the dynamics of these chemical reaction networks are governed by systems of polynomial ordinary differential equations. The steady states of these mass action systems have been analyzed via a variety of techniques, including stoichiometric network analysis, deficiency theory, and algebraic techniques (e.g., Gröbner bases). In this paper, we present a novel method for characterizing the steady states of mass action systems. Our method explicitly links a network's capacity to permit a particular class of steady states, called toric steady states, to topological properties of a generalized network called a translated chemical reaction network. These networks share their reaction vectors with their source network but are permitted to have different complex stoichiometries and different network topologies. We apply the results to examples drawn from the biochemical literature.

  7. Precision Chemical Abundance Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yong, David; Grundahl, Frank; Meléndez, Jorge;

    2012-01-01

    This talk covers preliminary work in which we apply a strictly differential line-by-line chemical abundance analysis to high quality UVES spectra of the globular cluster NGC 6752. We achieve extremely high precision in the measurement of relative abundance ratios. Our results indicate that the ob......This talk covers preliminary work in which we apply a strictly differential line-by-line chemical abundance analysis to high quality UVES spectra of the globular cluster NGC 6752. We achieve extremely high precision in the measurement of relative abundance ratios. Our results indicate...... that the observed abundance dispersion exceeds the measurement uncertainties and that many pairs of elements show significant correlations when plotting [X1/H] vs. [X2/H]. Our tentative conclusions are that either NGC 6752 is not chemically homogeneous at the ~=0.03 dex level or the abundance variations...

  8. Chemical Inhibition of Autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baek, Eric; Lin Kim, Che; Gyeom Kim, Mi;

    2016-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells activate and undergo apoptosis and autophagy for various environmental stresses. Unlike apoptosis, studies on increasing the production of therapeutic proteins in CHO cells by targeting the autophagy pathway are limited. In order to identify the effects of chemical...... autophagy inhibitors on the specific productivity (qp), nine chemical inhibitors that had been reported to target three different phases of autophagy (metformin, dorsomorphin, resveratrol, and SP600125 against initiation and nucleation; 3-MA, wortmannin, and LY294002 against elongation, and chloroquine...... and bafilomycin A1 against autophagosome fusion) were used to treat three recombinant CHO (rCHO) cell lines: the Fc-fusion protein-producing DG44 (DG44-Fc) and DUKX-B11 (DUKX-Fc) and antibody-producing DG44 (DG44-Ab) cell lines. Among the nine chemical inhibitors tested, 3-MA, dorsomorphin, and SP600125...

  9. Applied chemical engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tassios, Dimitrios P

    1993-01-01

    Applied Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics provides the undergraduate and graduate student of chemical engineering with the basic knowledge, the methodology and the references he needs to apply it in industrial practice. Thus, in addition to the classical topics of the laws of thermodynamics,pure component and mixture thermodynamic properties as well as phase and chemical equilibria the reader will find: - history of thermodynamics - energy conservation - internmolecular forces and molecular thermodynamics - cubic equations of state - statistical mechanics. A great number of calculated problems with solutions and an appendix with numerous tables of numbers of practical importance are extremely helpful for applied calculations. The computer programs on the included disk help the student to become familiar with the typical methods used in industry for volumetric and vapor-liquid equilibria calculations.

  10. Chemical inhomogeneities and pulsation

    CERN Document Server

    Turcotte, S

    2001-01-01

    Major improvements in models of chemically peculiar stars have been achieved in the past few years. With these new models it has been possible to test quantitatively some of the processes involved in the formation of abundance anomalies and their effect on stellar structure. The models of metallic A (Am) stars have shown that a much deeper mixing has to be present to account for observed abundance anomalies. This has implications on their variability, which these models also reproduce qualitatively. These models also have implications for other chemically inhomogeneous stars such as HgMn B stars which are not known to be variable and lambda Bootis stars which can be. The study of the variability of chemically inhomogeneous stars can provide unique information on the dynamic processes occurring in many types of stars in addition to modeling of the evolution of their surface composition.

  11. Chemical Kinetics Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 17 NIST Chemical Kinetics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemical Kinetics Database includes essentially all reported kinetics results for thermal gas-phase chemical reactions. The database is designed to be searched for kinetics data based on the specific reactants involved, for reactions resulting in specified products, for all the reactions of a particular species, or for various combinations of these. In addition, the bibliography can be searched by author name or combination of names. The database contains in excess of 38,000 separate reaction records for over 11,700 distinct reactant pairs. These data have been abstracted from over 12,000 papers with literature coverage through early 2000.

  12. Chemicals in material cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksson, Eva; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Material recycling has been found beneficial in terms of resource and energy performance and is greatly promoted throughout the world. A variety of chemicals is used in materials as additives and data on their presence is sparse. The present work dealt with paper as recyclable material and diisob......Material recycling has been found beneficial in terms of resource and energy performance and is greatly promoted throughout the world. A variety of chemicals is used in materials as additives and data on their presence is sparse. The present work dealt with paper as recyclable material...... and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) as chemical in focus. The results showed variations, between 0.83 and 32 μg/g, in the presence of DiBP in Danish waste paper and board and potential accumulation due to recycling....

  13. Endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen

    BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may contribute to reproductive changes in boys in the Western world, however, less is known about influence of EDCs in women. The incidence of precocious breast development is increasing in USA and Europe and mammary gland development has been...... suggested as particularly sensitive to endocrine disruption. Mammary gland examination in toxicological studies may be useful for improving knowledge on possible influences of EDCs on human mammary glands and also be useful for detection of endocrine disrupting effects of chemicals as part of safety testing...... and genistein, a mixture of phytoestrogens, and a mixture of environmentally relevant estrogenic EDCs of various origins. Moreover, mixtures of antiandrogenic chemicals were investigated. These include a mixture of pesticides and a mixture of environmentally relevant anti-androgenic EDCs of various origins...

  14. Chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents for forensic purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Reuver, L.P.J. de; Fidder, A.; Tromp, M.; Verschraagen, M.

    2010-01-01

    A program has been initiated towards the chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents, in order to support forensic investigations towards synthesis routes, production sites and suspect chemical suppliers. Within the first stage of the project various chemical warfare agents (VX, sulfur mustard, sa

  15. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant safety document ICPP hazardous chemical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwood, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of a hazardous chemical evaluation performed for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). ICPP tracks chemicals on a computerized database, Haz Track, that contains roughly 2000 individual chemicals. The database contains information about each chemical, such as its form (solid, liquid, or gas); quantity, either in weight or volume; and its location. The Haz Track database was used as the primary starting point for the chemical evaluation presented in this report. The chemical data and results presented here are not intended to provide limits, but to provide a starting point for nonradiological hazards analysis.

  16. Principles of chemical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    House, James E

    2007-01-01

    James House's revised Principles of Chemical Kinetics provides a clear and logical description of chemical kinetics in a manner unlike any other book of its kind. Clearly written with detailed derivations, the text allows students to move rapidly from theoretical concepts of rates of reaction to concrete applications. Unlike other texts, House presents a balanced treatment of kinetic reactions in gas, solution, and solid states. The entire text has been revised and includes many new sections and an additional chapter on applications of kinetics. The topics covered include quantitative rela

  17. Chemical allergy in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimber, Ian; Basketter, David A; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    functional sub-populations of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes. Evidence for a similar association of chemical allergy in humans with discrete T-lymphocyte populations is, however, limited. It is of some interest, therefore, that two recent articles from different teams of investigators have shed new light...... on the role of polarized T-lymphocyte responses in the development of allergic contact dermatitis and occupational asthma in humans. The implications for understanding of chemical allergy in humans are explored in this Commentary....

  18. Chemical space and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Christopher M

    2004-12-16

    Chemical space--which encompasses all possible small organic molecules, including those present in biological systems--is vast. So vast, in fact, that so far only a tiny fraction of it has been explored. Nevertheless, these explorations have greatly enhanced our understanding of biology, and have led to the development of many of today's drugs. The discovery of new bioactive molecules, facilitated by a deeper understanding of the nature of the regions of chemical space that are relevant to biology, will advance our knowledge of biological processes and lead to new strategies to treat disease.

  19. CHEMICAL TOXICITY OF URANIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Cam

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Uranium, occurs naturally in the earth’s crust, is an alpha emitter radioactive element from the actinide group. For this reason, U-235 and U-238, are uranium isotopes with long half lives, have got radiological toxicity. But, for natural-isotopic-composition uranium (NatU, there is greater risk from chemical toxicity than radiological toxicity. When uranium is get into the body with anyway, also its chemical toxicity must be thought. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 215-220

  20. Magnetic chemically peculiar stars

    CERN Document Server

    Schöller, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Chemically peculiar (CP) stars are main-sequence A and B stars with abnormally strong or weak lines for certain elements. They generally have magnetic fields and all observables tend to vary with the same period. Chemically peculiar stars provide a wealth of information; they are natural atomic and magnetic laboratories. After a brief historical overview, we discuss the general properties of the magnetic fields in CP stars, describe the oblique rotator model, explain the dependence of the magnetic field strength on the rotation, and concentrate at the end on HgMn stars.

  1. 预置再生砖骨料灌浆混凝土物理力学性能影响因素研究%Research on Factors Affecting Physical and Mechanical Properties of Pre -placed Concrete Slabs with Recycled Brick Aggregate Manufactured by Grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武玲玲; 姚久星; 高素坤; 祝祥; 周宝木; 徐学东

    2015-01-01

    It is an effective way to make use of the abandoned brick aggregate by making recycled concrete medium bricks using pre-placed brick aggregate grouting method .The middle and lower strength concrete was prepared by mixing ce-ment ,fly ash ,recycled brick aggregate as raw materials and water reducing agent ,foaming agent as admixtures through the use of pre-placed recycled brick aggregate grouting technique .The influence of water-cement ratio ,the substitution quantity of fly ash and foam content on the strength ,dry density and water absorption of the concrete specimens was in-vestigated through orthogonal tests .According to the test results ,the best water-cement ratio was 0 .45 and the optimal substitution quantity of fly ash was 20% ,different amount of foams should be determined based on the strength and heat preservation performance requirements of the concrete .%采用预置砖骨料灌浆的方法制作再生混凝土中型砌块,是实现废弃砖骨料再生利用的一种有效途径。以水泥、粉煤灰和再生砖骨料为原料,减水剂和发泡剂为外加剂,通过向预置的砖骨料内灌浆的工艺制备中低强度混凝土,研究水胶比、粉煤灰取代量、泡沫掺量对混凝土强度、干密度和吸水率的影响规律。通过正交试验分析确定最佳配合比为水胶比0.45,粉煤灰取代量20%,根据强度及保温性能要求综合考虑,选择不同泡沫掺量。

  2. The Application and Design of High Pressure Jet Grouting Pile in the Sluice Foundation Treatment of Both Sides of Qiantang River%高压旋喷桩在钱塘江两岸水闸地基处理中的应用设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立新

    2013-01-01

      Along with the use of sluice operation, it exposed the defects of the tidal gate: the uneven settlement between each part of the sluice is serious. According to the investigation and analysis of risks, the main reason of the situation formation is that the sluice foundation is washed away by the tide. High pressure jet grouting pile can be used not only as the foundation reinforcement of existing buildings and new buildings, but also can be used as a temporary measure in construction (such as retaining soil and water, waterproof of deep foundation pit side etc. ), especially as the best way of the sluice foundation reinforcement of both sides of Qiantang River. The use of high pressure jet grouting pile technology in sluice foundation treatment has achieved satisfying results.%  随着水闸的运行使用,暴露出一个这一带挡潮闸的通病:水闸各段各部位之间不均匀沉降严重。根据险情调查分析,出现该状况的主要原因是潮水对水闸地基的冲刷所致。高压旋喷桩不仅可作为既有建筑和新建建筑的地基加固之用,也可作为施工中的临时措施(如深基坑侧壁挡土或挡水、防水帷幕等),尤其是目前钱塘江两岸水闸的地基加固、防渗处理的最佳方法。目前在该地区相关水闸地基处理中采用高压旋喷桩技术,取得了令人较满意的结果。

  3. Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of the information available on environmental chemicals in breast milk is focused on persistent, lipophilic chemicals; the database on levels of these chemicals has expanded substantially since the 1950s. Currently, various types of chemicals are measured in breast milk and ...

  4. Chemical hygiene plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This plan was written to administer and monitor safety measures and chemical hygiene principles in the TAC Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action Project sample preparation facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It applies to toxic and/or hazardous materials to radioactive materials.

  5. Chemical Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    2004-01-01

    This paper highlights for a class of chemical products, the design process, their design with respect to the important issues, the need for appropriate tools and finally, lists some of the challenges and opportunities for the process systems engineering (PSE)/computer-aided process engineering...

  6. Chemical and Petrochemical Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This publication is a background document on the global chemical and petrochemical sector for the IEA publication Energy Technology Transitions in Industry (IEA, 2009). It provides further, more detailed information on the methodology and data issues for energy efficiency indicators for the sector. The indicators discussed offer insight regarding the energy efficiency improvement potential in the short- to medium-term (by proven technologies).

  7. The renewable chemicals industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Rass-Hansen, J.; Marsden, Charlotte Clare;

    2008-01-01

    The possibilities for establishing a renewable chemicals industry featuring renewable resources as the dominant feedstock rather than fossil resources are discussed in this Concept. Such use of biomass can potentially be interesting from both an economical and ecological perspective. Simple and e...

  8. Chemically Reacting Turbulent Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-14

    two stages of gen I tubes equipped with P-47 phosphor screens The detector chosen for the camera was a Reticon RL128S* line detectoI- .,hich consists...the Stud’, of Turbulent Mixing," William M. Pitts, Nuclear Engineering Seminar of the Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of

  9. Chemical Absorption Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Chemical absorption materials that potentially can be used for post combustion carbon dioxide capture are discussed. They fall into five groups, alkanolamines, alkali carbonates, ammonia, amino acid salts, and ionic liquids. The chemistry of the materials is discussed and advantages and drawbacks...

  10. Chemical Safety – Introduction

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    A course of "Chemical Safety – Introduction" will be held in English on 29 May 2009, 9:30-12:00. There are some places left. If you are interested in participating, please register on the Training Catalogue. You will then receive an invitation by email.

  11. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Anne Gram

    Et voksende antal mennesker i Danmark oplever at være overfølsomme over for dufte og kemikalier. Imidlertid er den tilskrevne diagnose Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) ikke medicinsk anerkendt i Danmark pga. mangel på organiske og patofysiologisk basis for symptomerne. Dette speciale bygger på...

  12. Hydroxyl Radical Chemical Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    Stone (I) 1 Atlantic Research Corporation, Alexandria, VA (Robert Naismith ) I Battelle Columbus laboratories, Columbus, OH (Fred Tietzel) 1...Corporation, Santa Monica, CA (Dr. Claude R. Culp) 1 Thiokol Chemical Corporation, Wasatch Division, Brigham City, UT ( James E. Hansen) 4 United

  13. Chemical Aspects of Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfman, Murry

    1982-01-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) and periodontal (gum) disease are treated/prevented by procedures utilizing chemical expertise. Procedures and suggestions on how they might be incorporated into the high school chemistry curriculum are described. Specific topics discussed include dental caries, fluoride, diet, tooth decay prevention, silver amalgan,…

  14. Chemical defences against herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavia, Henrik; Baumgartner, Finn; Cervin, Gunnar;

    2012-01-01

    of these theories, concluding with new chemical approaches to tackle the questions and suggestions for future research directions. It explains that aquatic primary producers are a taxonomically and functionally diverse group of organisms that includes macroalgae, microalgae, and vascular plants. It also states...

  15. Plant Diseases & Chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Sherm

    2008-01-01

    This course discusses the use of chemicals for plant disease control. Specifically, pesticides that can be used both in commercial or home/yard sitautions. This course also teaches how to determine plant diseases that may have caused a plant to die.

  16. Chemicals of Common bitercress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marenich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the study of the chemical composition of Common bitter cress (Barbarea vulgaris R. Br.. Shows indicators of good quality, optimal parameters extraction, trace element composition, amino acid composition, content of biologically active substances and volatile of raw material.

  17. Power plant chemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

  18. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  19. The Use of Chemical-Chemical Interaction and Chemical Structure to Identify New Candidate Chemicals Related to Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    Full Text Available Lung cancer causes over one million deaths every year worldwide. However, prevention and treatment methods for this serious disease are limited. The identification of new chemicals related to lung cancer may aid in disease prevention and the design of more effective treatments. This study employed a weighted network, constructed using chemical-chemical interaction information, to identify new chemicals related to two types of lung cancer: non-small lung cancer and small-cell lung cancer. Then, a randomization test as well as chemical-chemical interaction and chemical structure information were utilized to make further selections. A final analysis of these new chemicals in the context of the current literature indicates that several chemicals are strongly linked to lung cancer.

  20. Chemical Sensing with Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Reginald M.

    2012-07-01

    Transformational advances in the performance of nanowire-based chemical sensors and biosensors have been achieved over the past two to three years. These advances have arisen from a better understanding of the mechanisms of transduction operating in these devices, innovations in nanowire fabrication, and improved methods for incorporating receptors into or onto nanowires. Nanowire-based biosensors have detected DNA in undiluted physiological saline. For silicon nanowire nucleic acid sensors, higher sensitivities have been obtained by eliminating the passivating oxide layer on the nanowire surface and by substituting uncharged protein nucleic acids for DNA as the capture strands. Biosensors for peptide and protein cancer markers, based on both semiconductor nanowires and nanowires of conductive polymers, have detected these targets at physiologically relevant concentrations in both blood plasma and whole blood. Nanowire chemical sensors have also detected several gases at the parts-per-million level. This review discusses these and other recent advances, concentrating on work published in the past three years.

  1. Environmental and chemical carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogan, Gerald N; Hecht, Stephen S; Felton, James S; Conney, Allan H; Loeb, Lawrence A

    2004-12-01

    People are continuously exposed exogenously to varying amounts of chemicals that have been shown to have carcinogenic or mutagenic properties in experimental systems. Exposure can occur exogenously when these agents are present in food, air or water, and also endogenously when they are products of metabolism or pathophysiologic states such as inflammation. It has been estimated that exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens may contribute significantly to the causation of a sizable fraction, perhaps a majority, of human cancers, when exposures are related to "life-style" factors such as diet, tobacco use, etc. This chapter summarizes several aspects of environmental chemical carcinogenesis that have been extensively studied and illustrates the power of mechanistic investigation combined with molecular epidemiologic approaches in establishing causative linkages between environmental exposures and increased cancer risks. A causative relationship between exposure to aflatoxin, a strongly carcinogenic mold-produced contaminant of dietary staples in Asia and Africa, and elevated risk for primary liver cancer has been demonstrated through the application of well-validated biomarkers in molecular epidemiology. These studies have also identified a striking synergistic interaction between aflatoxin and hepatitis B virus infection in elevating liver cancer risk. Use of tobacco products provides a clear example of cancer causation by a life-style factor involving carcinogen exposure. Tobacco carcinogens and their DNA adducts are central to cancer induction by tobacco products, and the contribution of specific tobacco carcinogens (e.g. PAH and NNK) to tobacco-induced lung cancer, can be evaluated by a weight of evidence approach. Factors considered include presence in tobacco products, carcinogenicity in laboratory animals, human uptake, metabolism and adduct formation, possible role in causing molecular changes in oncogenes or suppressor genes, and other relevant data

  2. Chemical Synthesis of Glycosaminoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, Marco; Bednarek, Christin; Wawryszyn, Mirella; Sauter, Paul; Biskup, Moritz B; Schepers, Ute; Bräse, Stefan

    2016-07-27

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) as one major part of the glycocalyx are involved in many essential biological cell processes, as well as in many courses of diseases. Because of the potential therapeutic application of GAG polymers, fragments, and also derivatives toward different diseases (e.g., heparin derivatives against Alzheimer's disease), there is a continual growing demand for new chemical syntheses, which suffice the high claim to stereoselectivity and chemoselectivity. This Review summarizes the progress of chemical syntheses of GAGs over the last 10 years. For each class of the glycosaminoglycans-hyaluronan (HA), heparan sulfate/heparin (HS/HP), chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS), and keratan sulfate (KS)-mainly novel glycosylation strategies, elongation sequences, and protecting group patterns are discussed, but also (semi)automated syntheses, enzymatic approaches, and functionalizations of synthesized or isolated GAGs are considered.

  3. Chemical Engineering in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmeyer, Dennis A.; Meneghelli, Barry; Steinrock, Todd (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The aerospace industry has long been perceived as the domain of both physicists and mechanical engineers. This perception has endured even though the primary method of providing the thrust necessary to launch a rocket into space is chemical in nature. The chemical engineering and chemistry personnel behind the systems that provide access to space have labored in the shadows of the physicists and mechanical engineers. As exploration into the cosmos moves farther away from Earth, there is a very distinct need for new chemical processes to help provide the means for advanced space exploration. The state of the art in launch systems uses chemical propulsion systems, primarily liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, to provide the energy necessary to achieve orbit. As we move away from Earth, there are additional options for propulsion. Unfortunately, few of these options can compare to the speed or ease of use provided by the chemical propulsion agents. It is with great care and significant cost that gaseous compounds such as hydrogen and oxygen are liquefied and become dense enough to use for rocket fuel. These low-temperature liquids fall within a specialty area known as cryogenics. Cryogenics, the science and art of producing cold operating conditions for use on Earth, in orbit, or on some other nonterrestrial body, has become increasingly important to our ability to travel within our solar system. The production of cryogenic fuels and the long-term storage of these fluids are necessary for travel. As our explorations move farther away from Earth, we need to address how to produce the necessary fuels to make a round-trip. The cost and the size of these expeditions are extreme at best. If we take everything necessary for our survival for the round-trip, we invalidate any chance of travel in the near future. As with the early explorers on Earth, we need to harvest much of our energy and our life support from the celestial bodies. The in situ production of these energy

  4. Chemical aerosol Raman detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, R. L.; Farrar, L. W.; Di Cecca, S.; Amin, M.; Perkins, B. G.; Clark, M. L.; Jeys, T. H.; Sickenberger, D. W.; D'Amico, F. M.; Emmons, E. D.; Christesen, S. D.; Kreis, R. J.; Kilper, G. K.

    2017-03-01

    A sensitive chemical aerosol Raman detector (CARD) has been developed for the trace detection and identification of chemical particles in the ambient atmosphere. CARD includes an improved aerosol concentrator with a concentration factor of about 40 and a CCD camera for improved detection sensitivity. Aerosolized isovanillin, which is relatively safe, has been used to characterize the performance of the CARD. The limit of detection (SNR = 10) for isovanillin in 15 s has been determined to be 1.6 pg/cm3, which corresponds to 6.3 × 109 molecules/cm3 or 0.26 ppb. While less sensitive, CARD can also detect gases. This paper provides a more detailed description of the CARD hardware and detection algorithm than has previously been published.

  5. Chemical genetics and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Sumitra; Zhang, Liyun; Mumm, Jeff S

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration involves interactions between multiple signaling pathways acting in a spatially and temporally complex manner. As signaling pathways are highly conserved, understanding how regeneration is controlled in animal models exhibiting robust regenerative capacities should aid efforts to stimulate repair in humans. One way to discover molecular regulators of regeneration is to alter gene/protein function and quantify effect(s) on the regenerative process: dedifferentiation/reprograming, stem/progenitor proliferation, migration/remodeling, progenitor cell differentiation and resolution. A powerful approach for applying this strategy to regenerative biology is chemical genetics, the use of small-molecule modulators of specific targets or signaling pathways. Here, we review advances that have been made using chemical genetics for hypothesis-focused and discovery-driven studies aimed at furthering understanding of how regeneration is controlled.

  6. COOEE bitumen: chemical aging

    CERN Document Server

    Lemarchand, Claire A; Dyre, Jeppe C; Hansen, Jesper S

    2013-01-01

    We study chemical aging in "COOEE bitumen" using molecular dynamic simulations. The model bitumen is composed of four realistic molecule types: saturated hydrocarbon, resinous oil, resin, and asphaltene. The aging reaction is modelled by the chemical reaction: "2 resins $\\rightarrow$ 1 asphaltene". Molecular dynamic simulations of four bitumen compositions, obtained by a repeated application of the aging reaction, are performed. The stress autocorrelation function, the fluid structure, the rotational dynamics of the plane aromatic molecules, and the diffusivity of each molecule, are determined for the four different compositions. The aging reaction causes a significant dynamics slowdown, which is correlated to the aggregation of asphaltene molecules in larger and dynamically slower nanoaggregates. Finally, a detailed description of the role of each molecule types in the aggregation and aging processes is given.

  7. Autocatalytic chemical smoke rings

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, M C; Rogers, Michael C.; Morris, Stephen W.

    2005-01-01

    Buoyant plumes, evolving free of boundary constraints, may develop well-defined mushroom shaped heads. In normal plumes, overturning flow in the head entrains less buoyant fluid from the surroundings as the head rises, robbing the plume of its driving force. We consider here a new type of plume in which the source of buoyancy is an autocatalytic chemical reaction. The reaction occurs at a sharp front which separates reactants from less dense products. In this type of plume, entrainment assists the reaction, producing new buoyancy which fuels an accelerating plume head. When the head has grown to a critical size, it detaches from the upwelling conduit, forming an accelerating, buoyant vortex ring. This vortex is analogous to a rising smoke ring. A second-generation head then develops at the point of detachment.Multiple generations of chemical vortex rings can detach from a single triggering event.

  8. Biocatalysis for Biobased Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén de Regil

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The design and development of greener processes that are safe and friendly is an irreversible trend that is driven by sustainable and economic issues. The use of Biocatalysis as part of a manufacturing process fits well in this trend as enzymes are themselves biodegradable, require mild conditions to work and are highly specific and well suited to carry out complex reactions in a simple way. The growth of computational capabilities in the last decades has allowed Biocatalysis to develop sophisticated tools to understand better enzymatic phenomena and to have the power to control not only process conditions but also the enzyme’s own nature. Nowadays, Biocatalysis is behind some important products in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and bulk chemicals industry. In this review we want to present some of the most representative examples of industrial chemicals produced in vitro through enzymatic catalysis.

  9. Interactive Chemical Reactivity Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Haag, Moritz P; Bosson, Mael; Redon, Stephane; Reiher, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Elucidating chemical reactivity in complex molecular assemblies of a few hundred atoms is, despite the remarkable progress in quantum chemistry, still a major challenge. Black-box search methods to find intermediates and transition-state structures might fail in such situations because of the high-dimensionality of the potential energy surface. Here, we propose the concept of interactive chemical reactivity exploration to effectively introduce the chemist's intuition into the search process. We employ a haptic pointer device with force-feedback to allow the operator the direct manipulation of structures in three dimensions along with simultaneous perception of the quantum mechanical response upon structure modification as forces. We elaborate on the details of how such an interactive exploration should proceed and which technical difficulties need to be overcome. All reactivity-exploration concepts developed for this purpose have been implemented in the Samson programming environment.

  10. Chemical Decontaminant Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-20

    any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display...Some test methods for efficacy require the use of CWAs and decontaminants. 15. SUBJECT TERMS decontamination; chemical warfare agent; CWA...contaminant in samples from contact samplers , coupons, rinsate, or other samples. MS, GC or LC, FID, FPD, or equivalents. ±15 percent of the mass of

  11. Chemical transport reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  12. Chemical constituents of Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Negi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus species (family Liliaceae are medicinal plants of temperate Himalayas. They possess a variety of biological properties, such as being antioxidants, immunostimulants, anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antioxytocic, and reproductive agents. The article briefly reviews the isolated chemical constituents and the biological activities of the plant species. The structural formula of isolated compounds and their distribution in the species studied are also given.

  13. Control of chemical chaos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫东; 钱积新

    2002-01-01

    Lyapunov exponents can act as the judgment rule whether the systems is chaotic or not.We propose an approach to control chaotic systems by varying the Lyapunov exponents of the system. At last we use this method to control a chemical system. Both the theoretical analysis and the simulation results prove that this method can quickly and effectively stabilize the chaotic systems to the desire points.

  14. Chemical Reactions at Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Henderson and Nancy Ryan Gray

    2010-04-14

    Chemical reactions at surfaces underlie some of the most important processes of today, including catalysis, energy conversion, microelectronics, human health and the environment. Understanding surface chemical reactions at a fundamental level is at the core of the field of surface science. The Gordon Research Conference on Chemical Reactions at Surfaces is one of the premiere meetings in the field. The program this year will cover a broad range of topics, including heterogeneous catalysis and surface chemistry, surfaces in environmental chemistry and energy conversion, reactions at the liquid-solid and liquid-gas interface, electronic materials growth and surface modification, biological interfaces, and electrons and photons at surfaces. An exciting program is planned, with contributions from outstanding speakers and discussion leaders from the international scientific community. The conference provides a dynamic environment with ample time for discussion and interaction. Attendees are encouraged to present posters; the poster sessions are historically well attended and stimulate additional discussions. The conference provides an excellent opportunity for junior researchers (e.g. graduate students or postdocs) to present their work and interact with established leaders in the field.

  15. Metabolomics in chemical ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlisch, Constanze; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-07-01

    Chemical ecology elucidates the nature and role of natural products as mediators of organismal interactions. The emerging techniques that can be summarized under the concept of metabolomics provide new opportunities to study such environmentally relevant signaling molecules. Especially comparative tools in metabolomics enable the identification of compounds that are regulated during interaction situations and that might play a role as e.g. pheromones, allelochemicals or in induced and activated defenses. This approach helps overcoming limitations of traditional bioassay-guided structure elucidation approaches. But the power of metabolomics is not limited to the comparison of metabolic profiles of interacting partners. Especially the link to other -omics techniques helps to unravel not only the compounds in question but the entire biosynthetic and genetic re-wiring, required for an ecological response. This review comprehensively highlights successful applications of metabolomics in chemical ecology and discusses existing limitations of these novel techniques. It focuses on recent developments in comparative metabolomics and discusses the use of metabolomics in the systems biology of organismal interactions. It also outlines the potential of large metabolomics initiatives for model organisms in the field of chemical ecology.

  16. Tier II Chemical Storage Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities that store hazardous chemicals above certain quantities must submit an annual emergency and hazardous chemical inventory on a Tier II form. This is a...

  17. Fiber Bragg distributed chemical sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, A.; Cheng, L.K.; Jansen, T.H.

    2010-01-01

    A distributed chemical sensor is developed by coating multiple Bragg gratings in a fibre with chemical selective responsive coatings. The optical response of the coated grating is optimised and the recoat process is very reproducible.

  18. Stochastic processes in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Shuler, K E

    2009-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of chemical physics.

  19. Galactic Chemical Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mollá, M; da Costa, R; Gibson, B K; Díaz, A I

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the evolution of oxygen abundance radial gradients resulting from our chemical evolution models calculated with different prescriptions for the star formation rate (SFR) and for the gas infall rate, in order to assess their respective roles in shaping gradients. We also compare with cosmological simulations and confront all with recent observational datasets, in particular with abundances inferred from planetary nebulae. We demonstrate the critical importance in isolating the specific radial range over which a gradient is measured, in order for their temporal evolution to be useful indicators of disk growth with redshift.

  20. Chemical kinetics modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project emphasizes numerical modeling of chemical kinetics of combustion, including applications in both practical combustion systems and in controlled laboratory experiments. Elementary reaction rate parameters are combined into mechanisms which then describe the overall reaction of the fuels being studied. Detailed sensitivity analyses are used to identify those reaction rates and product species distributions to which the results are most sensitive and therefore warrant the greatest attention from other experimental and theoretical research programs. Experimental data from a variety of environments are combined together to validate the reaction mechanisms, including results from laminar flames, shock tubes, flow systems, detonations, and even internal combustion engines.

  1. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are…

  2. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign.

  3. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign. PMID:18768813

  4. Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoursey, W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the organization of a graduate course dealing with mass transfer, particularly as it relates to chemical reactions. Discusses the course outline, including mathematics models of mass transfer, enhancement of mass transfer rates by homogeneous chemical reaction, and gas-liquid systems with chemical reaction. (TW)

  5. Fiber Bragg distributed chemical sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, A.; Saalmink, M.; Lucassen, T.; Wiegersma, S.; Jansen, T.H.; Jansen, R.; Cheng, L.K.

    2011-01-01

    A distributed chemical sensor is developed by coating multiple Bragg gratings in a single glass fiber with chemical responsive coatings. The composition of the coating is tuned to the target chemicals to be measured and the optical response of the coated grating is optimized by changing the coating

  6. Identification of Chemical Toxicity Using Ontology Information of Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanpeng Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advance of the combinatorial chemistry, a large number of synthetic compounds have surged. However, we have limited knowledge about them. On the other hand, the speed of designing new drugs is very slow. One of the key causes is the unacceptable toxicities of chemicals. If one can correctly identify the toxicity of chemicals, the unsuitable chemicals can be discarded in early stage, thereby accelerating the study of new drugs and reducing the R&D costs. In this study, a new prediction method was built for identification of chemical toxicities, which was based on ontology information of chemicals. By comparing to a previous method, our method is quite effective. We hope that the proposed method may give new insights to study chemical toxicity and other attributes of chemicals.

  7. Frontiers in Chemical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowlan, Pamela Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-02

    These are slides dealing with frontiers in chemical physics. The following topics are covered: Time resolving chemistry with ultrashort pulses in the 0.1-40 THz spectral range; Example: Mid-infrared absorption spectrum of the intermediate state CH2OO; Tracking reaction dynamics through changes in the spectra; Single-shot measurement of the mid-IR absorption dynamics; Applying 2D coherent mid-IR spectroscopy to learn more about transition states; Time resolving chemical reactions at a catalysis using mid-IR and THz pulses; Studying topological insulators requires a surface sensitive probe; Nonlinear phonon dynamics in Bi2Se3; THz-pump, SHG-probe as a surface sensitive coherent 2D spectroscopy; Nanometer and femtosecond spatiotemporal resolution mid-IR spectroscopy; Coherent two-dimensional THz/mid-IR spectroscopy with 10nm spatial resolution; Pervoskite oxides as catalysts; Functionalized graphene for catalysis; Single-shot spatiotemporal measurements; Spatiotemporal pulse measurement; Intense, broad-band THz/mid-IR generation with organic crystals.

  8. Wearable Optical Chemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobnik, Aleksandra

    Wearable sensors can be used to provide valuable information about the wearer's health and/or monitor the wearer's surroundings, identify safety concerns and detect threats, during the wearer's daily routine within his or her natural environment. The "sensor on a textile", an integrated sensor capable of analyzing data, would enable early many forms of detection. Moreover, a sensor connected with a smart delivery system could simultaneously provide comfort and monitoring (for safety and/or health), non-invasive measurements, no laboratory sampling, continuous monitoring during the daily activity of the person, and possible multi-parameter analysis and monitoring. However, in order for the technology to be accessible, it must remain innocuous and impose a minimal intrusion on the daily activities of the wearer. Therefore, such wearable technologies should be soft, flexible, and washable in order to meet the expectations of normal clothing. Optical chemical sensors (OCSs) could be used as wearable technology since they can be embedded into textile structures by using conventional dyeing, printing processes and coatings, while fiber-optic chemical sensors (FOCSs) as well as nanofiber sensors (NFSs) can be incorporated by weaving, knitting or laminating. The interest in small, robust and sensitive sensors that can be embedded into textile structures is increasing and the research activity on this topic is an important issue.

  9. Pressure Controlled Chemical Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Megan R; Batista, Bruno C; Steinbock, Oliver

    2016-06-30

    The dissolution of metal salts in silicate solution can result in the growth of hollow precipitate tubes. These "chemical gardens" are a model of self-organization far from the equilibrium and create permanent macroscopic structures. The reproducibility of the growth process is greatly improved if the solid salt seed is replaced by a salt solution that is steadily injected by a pump; however, this modification of the original experiment eliminates the membrane-based osmotic pump at the base of conventional chemical gardens and does not allow for analyses in terms of the involved pressure. Here we describe a new experimental method that delivers the salt solution according to a controlled hydrostatic pressure. In one form of the experiment, this pressure slowly decreases as zinc sulfate solution flows into the silicate-containing reaction vessel, whereas a second version holds the respective solution heights constant. In addition to three known growth regimes (jetting, popping, budding), we observe single tubes that fill the vessel in a horizontally undulating but vertically layered fashion (crowding). The resulting, dried product has a cylindrical shape, very low density, and one continuous connection from top to bottom. We also present phase diagrams of these growth modes and show that the flow characteristics of our experiments follow a reaction-independent Hagen-Poiseuille equation.

  10. Chemical simulation of greywater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Suhail Najem; Scholz, Miklas

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable water resources management attracts considerable attention in today's world. Recycling and reuse of both wastewater and greywater are becoming more attractive. The strategy is to protect ecosystem services by balancing the withdrawal of water and the disposal of wastewater. In the present study, a timely and novel synthetic greywater composition has been proposed with respect to the composition of heavy metals, nutrients and organic matter. The change in water quality of the synthetic greywater due to increasing storage time was monitored to evaluate the stability of the proposed chemical formula. The new greywater is prepared artificially using analytical-grade chemicals to simulate either low (LC) or high (HC) pollutant concentrations. The characteristics of the synthetic greywater were tested (just before starting the experiment, after two days and a week of storage under real weather conditions) and compared to those reported for real greywater. Test results for both synthetic greywater types showed great similarities with the physiochemical properties of published findings concerning real greywater. Furthermore, the synthetic greywater is relatively stable in terms of its characteristics for different storage periods. However, there was a significant (p greywater after two days of storage with reductions of 62% and 55%, respectively. A significant (p greywater after seven days of storage.

  11. Remanufacturing strategy for chemical equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-cheng; XU Bin-shi; WANG Hai-dou; JIANG Yi; WU Yi-xiong; GONG Jian-ming; TU Shan-dong

    2005-01-01

    Failure, especially induced by cracks, usually occurred in the service process of chemical equipment, which could cause the medium leakage, fire hazard and explosion and induced the personnel casualty and economic losses. To assure the long-term and safety service, it is necessary to apply the remanufacturing technology on the chemical equipment containing cracks. The recent research advances on the remanufacturing, the failure modes and the life extension technology for chemical equipment were reviewed. The engineering strategy of the remanufacturing for the chemical equipment was proposed, which could provide a reasonable and reliable technical route for the remanufacturing operation of chemical equipment. In the strategy, the redesign was also been considered.

  12. Chemical face peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarasso, S L; Glogau, R G

    1991-01-01

    Application of caustic chemicals to improve cosmesis and reverse actinic damage has been used for centuries. Although still not an exact science, it was not until the latter part of this century that peeling became more systematized. The indications, patient selection, armamentarium, histology, comprehension of the mechanisms of action, and safety parameters of peels have only recently become more extensively defined. Phenol, when used in the Baker's formula, provides the most dramatic results but also holds the most potential for systemic complications. Ideally suited for fair-skinned women, a phenol peel can provide substantial improvement in rhytidosis and actinic damage. Although the results of medium-depth peels approach those of Baker's peels, they are not quite as profound. Use of TCA and the medium-depth peels has filled an important gap between deep and superficial peels, however. Also ideal for light complexions, this category of peels lightens pigmentary problems and improves rhytides with minimal potential for systemic toxicity; however, local complications, including scarring and pigmentary anomalies, should not be underestimated. [table: see text] Superficial peels do not effectively eradicate the ravages of time and sun, but when done repetitively, they do improve pigmentary irregularities and may improve some minor surface changes and thus impart a fresher appearance to facial skin. Although pigmentary changes can occur, superficial peels are relatively safe, and maximal results can be achieved with serial applications. Peels have been categorized by patient indications and the corresponding depth of peeling required for improvement (Table 4). The depth is determined in turn by a host of factors (Table 5). Neither the classification scheme nor the peel process should be viewed dogmatically. Patients will often benefit from the concurrent use of different skin preparations and wounding agents. Localized gradations can be achieved not only with

  13. Chemical Dependence and Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Sancineto da Silva Nunes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between chemical dependency and personalitystructure in a Brazilian sample. Participants were college students (n=35 and patients of a drug recovery center (n= 48. Two personality scales based on the Big-5 Model were used to measure Extraversion and Agreeableness. A semi-structured interview was used to identify events in the patients' life histories that might support specific classifications. Participants' scores were also compared to Brazilian normative samples. The results showed significant differences between clinical and non-clinical groups in Agreeableness, but not in Extraversion. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using scales and interview aspects for predicting group membership. The model showed 92.1% general predictive power. Results pointed to the advantage of using both interview and objective techniques to assess individuals with antisocial personality symptoms.

  14. Chemically deposited tin sulphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkari, A., E-mail: anis.akkari@ies.univ-montp2.f [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis El Manar, Tunisie 2092 (Tunisia); Institut d' Electronique du Sud, Unite Mixte de Recherche 5214 UM2-CNRS (ST2i), Universite Montpellier 2, Place Eugene Bataillon, CC 082, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Guasch, C. [Institut d' Electronique du Sud, Unite Mixte de Recherche 5214 UM2-CNRS (ST2i), Universite Montpellier 2, Place Eugene Bataillon, CC 082, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Kamoun-Turki, N. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis El Manar, Tunisie 2092 (Tunisia)

    2010-02-04

    SnS thin films were deposited on glass substrates after multi-deposition runs by chemical bath deposition from aqueous solution containing 30 ml triethanolamine (TEA) (C{sub 6}H{sub 15}NO{sub 3}) (50%), 10 ml thioacetamide (CH{sub 3}CSNH{sub 2}), 8 ml ammonia (NH{sub 3}) solution and 10 ml of Sn{sup 2+}(0.1 M). These films were characterised with X-ray diffraction (XRD), with scanning electron microscopy, and with spectrophotometric measurements. The obtained thin films exhibit the zinc blend structure, the crystallinity seems to be improved as the film thickness increases and the band gap energy is found to be about 1.76 eV for film prepared after six depositions runs.

  15. Chemical properties of mendelevium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulet, E.K.

    1980-11-01

    Even with the most intense ion beams and the largest available quantities of target isotope, about 10/sup 6/ atoms at a time is all the Md that can be produced for chemical studies. This lack of sufficient sample size coupled with the very short lifetimes of the few atoms produced has severely restricted the gathering and the broadness of our knowledge concerning the properties of Md and the heavier elements. To illustrate, the literature contains a mere eleven references to the chemical studies of Md, and none of these deal with bulk properties associated with the element bound in solid phases. Some of these findings are: Md was found to be more volatile than other actinide metals which lead to the belief that it is divalent in the metallic state; separation of Md from the other actinides can be accomplished either by reduction of Md/sup 3 +/ to the divalent state or by chromatographic separations with Md remaining in the tripositive state; extraction of Md/sup 2 +/ with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid is much poorer than the extraction of the neighboring tripositive actinides; attempts to oxidize Md/sup 3 +/ with sodium bismuthate failed to show any evidence for Md/sup 4 +/; reduction potential of Md/sup 3 +/ was found to be close to -0.1 volt; Md/sup 3 +/ can be reduced to Md(Hg) by sodium amalgams and by electrolysis; the electrochemical behavior of Md is very similar to that of Fm and can be summarized in the equation, Md/sup 2 +/ + 2e/sup -/ = Md(Hg) and E/sup 0/ = -1.50 V.; and Md cannot be reduced to a monovalent ion with Sm/sup 2 +/.

  16. REINFORCING MECHANISM AND SIMULATING METHOD FOR REINFORCING EFFECTS OF SYSTEMICALLY GROUTED BOLTS IN DEEP-BURIED HARD ROCK TUNNELS%深埋硬岩隧洞系统砂浆锚杆的加固机制与加固效果模拟方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文平; 冯夏庭; 张传庆; 邱士利; 李占海

    2012-01-01

    Systematically grouted bolts, as the main support structure of deep-buried hard rock tunnels, compose the bolt-rock composite structure with surrounding rocks. which reinforces the mechanical property of surrounding rocks. Based on the Mohr-Coulomb(M-C) criterion, the stress condition and the strength of the composite structure meeting the M-C criterion were derived under high-stress conditions. Combining with the rock mass deterioration model(RDM) of brittle rock, an approach to determine the mechanical parameters of the composite structure was presented. The difference of mechanical parameters between two different composite structures of bolt-elastic surrounding rock and bolt-yielding surrounding rock was taken into account. In this approach, the mechanical parameters of the bolt-yielding surrounding rock composite structure were associated with present equivalent plastic strain of surrounding rocks. A numerical method, which could model the reinforcing effect of normally grouted bolts laid out systematically during excavating and supporting stages, was proposed. It is identified that this method has an advantage over other methods in modeling the effect of supporting time on surrounding rock stability. Finally, the method was applied to evaluate the stability of surrounding rocks, and related references were provided for design and construction of the diversion tunnel #2 of Jinping Ⅱ hydropower station.%系统布置的砂浆锚杆是深埋硬岩隧洞主要支护结构,锚杆与围岩组成锚杆-围岩复合结构体,使围岩的力学特性得到改善.基于岩体的莫尔-库仑(M-C)屈服准则,推导锚杆-围岩复合结构体满足M-C准则的应力条件.结合岩体劣化本构模型,提出确定锚杆-围岩复合结构体力学参数的方法.锚杆与弹性围岩和屈服围岩组成的锚杆-围岩复合结构体的力学参数确定方法不同,锚杆与屈服围岩组成的锚杆-围岩复合结构体的力学参数与围岩当前状态的等

  17. A new method for controlling of floor heave of deep tunnels in soft rocks by mini-tube grouting piles of crushed stones%微型碎石管注桩治理深部软岩巷道底鼓新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢芳; 王金安

    2013-01-01

    针对造成巷道底鼓的物理和力学两种重要机制,研究并提出微型碎石管注桩治理深部软岩巷道底鼓的新方法.在物理机制方面,微型碎石桩具有渗透性极好的特点,在巷道施工和使用期间可汲取岩体中的渗水并透过碎石桩中的插管排出,从而降低软岩层因遇水膨胀导致的变形;在力学机制方面,微型碎石桩一方面通过钻孔置换出少部分底板软岩,从体量上减少变形岩体,另一方面能利用碎石桩体的侧向可压缩性耗散岩体水平变形,底板岩层中的水平地应力得以释放,极大减缓了促使底鼓变形的力学作用;通过微型碎石桩中的插管注浆加固底板岩体,提高了底板复合地基整体承载力.通过数值分析,阐明该方法在治理软岩巷道底鼓机制上的有效性.%Focusing on two important mechanisms of physics and mechanics that give rise to the floor heave of tunnels , a new method of controlling the floor heave of deep tunnels in soft rocks was proposed by means of mini-tube grouting piles of crushed stones. In physical aspect, the method utilizes the characteristics of good permeability of crushed stone pile to absorb the water in rockmass and drainage out through the tubes in the pile during the construction and application of the tunnels, resulting in the decrease in expansion deformation of soft rock due to water saturation. In mechanical aspect, partial volume in floor stratum has been replaced, on one hand, by the installed mini piles which reduce the volume of the deforming rock body, and on the other hand, amount of horizontal deformation are dissipated through the lateral compressive deformation of the crushed stone pile, and the horizontal stress is released. As a result, the mechanical affect that induces the heave deformation in floor stratum is considerably reduced. By means of grouting the crushed stones through the tube inserted in the pile, the floor stratum is reinforced and the

  18. Gas phase chemical detection with an integrated chemical analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CASALNUOVO,STEPHEN A.; FRYE-MASON,GREGORY CHARLES; KOTTENSTETTE,RICHARD; HELLER,EDWIN J.; MATZKE,CAROLYN M.; LEWIS,PATRICK R.; MANGINELL,RONALD P.; BACA,ALBERT G.; HIETALA,VINCENT M.

    2000-04-12

    Microfabrication technology has been applied to the development of a miniature, multi-channel gas phase chemical laboratory that provides fast response, small size, and enhanced versatility and chemical discrimination. Each analysis channel includes a sample preconcentrator followed by a gas chromatographic separator and a chemically selective surface acoustic wave detector array to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity. The performance of the components, individually and collectively, is described.

  19. Errors in Chemical Sensor Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Dybko

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Various types of errors during the measurements of ion-selective electrodes, ionsensitive field effect transistors, and fibre optic chemical sensors are described. The errors were divided according to their nature and place of origin into chemical, instrumental and non-chemical. The influence of interfering ions, leakage of the membrane components, liquid junction potential as well as sensor wiring, ambient light and temperature is presented.

  20. Perfect Actions with Chemical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, W

    1998-01-01

    We show how to include a chemical potential \\mu in perfect lattice actions. It turns out that the standard procedure of multiplying the quark fields \\Psi, an example, the case of free fermions with chemical potential is worked out explicitly. Even after truncation, cut-off effects in the pressure and the baryon density are small. Using a (quasi-)perfect action, numerical QCD simulations for non-zero chemical potential become more powerful, because coarse lattices are sufficient for extracting continuum physics.

  1. Fundamentals of chemical reaction engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate for a one-semester undergraduate or first-year graduate course, this text introduces the quantitative treatment of chemical reaction engineering. It covers both homogeneous and heterogeneous reacting systems and examines chemical reaction engineering as well as chemical reactor engineering. The authors take a chemical approach, helping students develop an intuitive feeling for concepts, rather than an engineering approach, which tends to overlook the inner workings of systems and objects.Each chapter contains numerous worked-out problems and real-world vignettes involving commercia

  2. A Chemical Technology Program Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Brazosport College would be the first to admit that they owe the success of their Chemical Technology Program to the partnership that was developed between the college and the surrounding chemical industry. The college is a two-year institution located near the Texas Gulf Coast with more than twelve chemical companies in the immediate area. Dow Chemical is the largest, employing more than 5,000. Currently, the Science Department at Brazosport College offers associate of science degrees in biology, chemistry, and physics, and associate of applied science degrees in chemical technology and instrumentation technology to meet the needs of these industries. In addition, many students enroll in classes to prepare for specific occupations or to build their skills for employment. This may only require the student to take a few courses. The current Chemical Technology Program addresses skills needed for both laboratory and process technician jobs in the chemical industry. An Associate of Applied Science Degree in Chemical Technology is offered with either a laboratory or a process option. These programs were developed with input from the chemical industry, and the college trains all new process employees for BASF and Dow. Additionally, the college does customized flexible-entry training in process operations and laboratory analysis for these and several other companies.

  3. Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauchamp, R.O. Jr. [Center for Information on Toxicology and Environment, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Chemical Physics Electrons and Excitations

    CERN Document Server

    Larsson, Sven

    2012-01-01

    A full understanding of modern chemistry is impossible without quantum theory. Since the advent of quantum mechanics in 1925, a number of chemical phenomena have been explained, such as electron transfer, excitation energy transfer, and other phenomena in photochemistry and photo-physics. Chemical bonds can now be accurately calculated with the help of a personal computer. Addressing students of theoretical and quantum chemistry and their counterparts in physics, Chemical Physics: Electrons and Excitations introduces chemical physics as a gateway to fields such as photo physics, solid-state ph

  5. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) in Arkansas. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the PBA and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site- specific study. This dependent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at PBA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources, and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Chemical communication in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suravajhala, Srinivasa Sandeep; Saini, Deepak; Nott, Prabhu

    Luminescence in Vibrio fischeri is a model for quorum-sensing-gene-regulation in bacteria. We study luminescence response of V. fischeri to both internal and external cues at the single cell and population level. Experiments with ES114, a wild-type strain, and ainS mutant show that luminescence induction in cultures is not always proportional to cell-density and there is always a basal level of luminescence. At any given concentration of the exogenously added signals, C6-HSL and C8-HSL, luminescence per cell reaches a maximum during the exponential phase and decreases thereafter. We hypothesize that (1) C6-HSL production and LuxR activity are not proportional to cell-density, and (2) there is a shift in equilibrium from C6-HSL to C8-HSL during the later stages of growth of the culture. RT-PCR analysis of luxI and luxR shows that the expression of these genes is maximum corresponding to the highest level of luminescence. The shift in equilibrium is shown by studying competitive binding of C6-HSL and C8-HSL to LuxR. We argue that luminescence is a unicellular behaviour, and an intensive property like per cell luminescence is more important than gross luminescence of the population in understanding response of bacteria to chemical signalling. Funding from the Department of Science and Technology, India is acknowledged.

  8. Chemical mixtures: considering the evolution of toxicology and chemical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monosson, Emily

    2005-04-01

    The assessment of chemical mixtures is a complex topic for toxicologists, regulators, and the public. In this article the linkage between the science of toxicology and the needs of governmental regulatory agencies in the United States is explored through an overview of environmental regulations enacted over the past century and a brief history of modern toxicology. One of the goals of this overview is to encourage both regulators and scientists to consider the benefits and limitations of this science-regulatory relationship as they tackle existing issues such as chemical mixtures. It is clear that a) over the past 100 years chemical regulation and toxicologic research, have in large part, shared a common emphasis on characterization and regulation of individual chemicals. But chemical mixtures have been, and continue to be, evaluated at hazardous waste sites around the United States. For this reason the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for chemical mixtures assessment are also reviewed. These guidelines highlight the current practice of mixtures assessment, which relies primarily on the existing single-chemical database. It is also clear that b) the science and assessment of chemical mixtures are moving forward through the combined efforts of regulatory agencies and scientists from a broad range of disciplines, including toxicology. Because toxicology is at this exciting crossroads, particular attention should be paid to the forces (e.g., public demands, regulatory needs, funding, academic interests) that both promote and limit the growth of this expanding discipline.

  9. Tehran Groundwater Chemical Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M- Shariatpanahi

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventy eight wells water sample of Tehran plain were examined to determine r its groundwaters chemical pollution. Tehran s groundwaters are slightly acidic and their total dissolved solids are high and are in the hard water category."nThe nitrate concentration of wells water of west region is less than per¬missible level of W.H.O. standard, whereas, the nitrate concentration of some of the other regions wells exceed W.H.O. standard which is indication of pollution"nwith municipal wastewaters. The concentration of toxic elements Cr, Cd, As, Hg and"ni Pb of some of the west, east and south regions wells of Tehran is more than per¬missible level of W.H.O. standard, whereas, the concentration of Cu, Zn,Mn and detergents is below W.H.O. standard."n1"nIn general, the amount of dissolved materials of Tehran s groundwaters and also"ni the potential of their contamination with nitrate is increased as Tehran s ground-"nwaters move further to the south, and even though, Tehran s groundwaters contamination with toxic elements is limited to the industrial west district, industrial-residential east and south districts, but»with regard to the disposal methods of"nt municipal and industrial wastewaters, if Tehran s groundwaters pollution continues,"nlocal contamination of groundwaters is likely to spread. So that finally their quality changes in such a way that this water source may become unfit for most domestic, industrial and agricultural uses. This survey shows the necessity of collection and treatment of Tehran s wastewaters and Prevention of the disposal of untreated wastewaters into the environment.

  10. Oscillatory flow chemical reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavnić Danijela S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global market competition, increase in energy and other production costs, demands for high quality products and reduction of waste are forcing pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and biochemical industries, to search for radical solutions. One of the most effective ways to improve the overall production (cost reduction and better control of reactions is a transition from batch to continuous processes. However, the reactions of interests for the mentioned industry sectors are often slow, thus continuous tubular reactors would be impractically long for flow regimes which provide sufficient heat and mass transfer and narrow residence time distribution. The oscillatory flow reactors (OFR are newer type of tube reactors which can offer solution by providing continuous operation with approximately plug flow pattern, low shear stress rates and enhanced mass and heat transfer. These benefits are the result of very good mixing in OFR achieved by vortex generation. OFR consists of cylindrical tube containing equally spaced orifice baffles. Fluid oscillations are superimposed on a net (laminar flow. Eddies are generated when oscillating fluid collides with baffles and passes through orifices. Generation and propagation of vortices create uniform mixing in each reactor cavity (between baffles, providing an overall flow pattern which is close to plug flow. Oscillations can be created by direct action of a piston or a diaphragm on fluid (or alternatively on baffles. This article provides an overview of oscillatory flow reactor technology, its operating principles and basic design and scale - up characteristics. Further, the article reviews the key research findings in heat and mass transfer, shear stress, residence time distribution in OFR, presenting their advantages over the conventional reactors. Finally, relevant process intensification examples from pharmaceutical, polymer and biofuels industries are presented.

  11. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of the series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: ion exchange, electrphoresis, dialysis, electrochemistry, corrosion, electrolytic cells, coulometry,…

  12. Job Prospects for Chemical Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    The job situation for new chemical engineers with bachelor's degrees is continuing to reflect the gradual improvement that began in 1983. However, companies are looking for graduates with technical expertise as well as marketing, sales, or communications skills. Smaller classes may lead to shortages of chemical engineering graduates in the future.…

  13. Teaching Chemical Engineers about Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Daniel E.; Hoy, Mary; Rathman, James F.; Rohdieck, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department at The Ohio State University in collaboration with the University Center for the Advancement of Teaching developed the Chemical Engineering Mentored Teaching Experience. The Mentored Teaching Experience is an elective for Ph.D. students interested in pursuing faculty careers. Participants are…

  14. Reduction of chemical reaction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenklach, Michael

    1991-01-01

    An attempt is made to reconcile the different terminologies pertaining to reduction of chemical reaction models. The approaches considered include global modeling, response modeling, detailed reduction, chemical lumping, and statistical lumping. The advantages and drawbacks of each of these methods are pointed out.

  15. Imprinted photonic crystal chemical sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, A.; Burghoorn, M.M.A.; Saalmink, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the use of Photonic Crystals as chemical sensors. These 2D nanostructured sensors were prepared by nano-imprint lithography during which a nanostructure is transferred from a nickel template into a responsive polymer, that is be specifically tuned to interact with the chemic

  16. Chemical Control of Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural Research Center (USDA), Beltsville, MD.

    Seven experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to help students investigate the control of plant growth with chemicals. Plant growth regulators, weed control, and chemical pruning are the topics studied in the experiments which are based on investigations that have been and are being conducted at the U. S. Agricultural Research Center,…

  17. CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS FOR METAL SHAPING

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALLOYS, *CHEMICAL MILLING, *METALS, *REFRACTORY MATERIALS, AIRCRAFT, ALUMINUM ALLOYS, CARBOXYMETHYLCELLULOSE , CHEMICALS, CHROMIUM ALLOYS, GELS, HEAT...RESISTANT ALLOYS, MATERIALS, MOLYBDENUM ALLOYS, NICKEL ALLOYS, NIOBIUM, POROUS MATERIALS, PROCESSING, PRODUCTION , SOLIDS, SOLUTIONS(MIXTURES), STAINLESS STEEL, STEEL, STRUCTURES, TANTALUM, TITANIUM ALLOYS, VANADIUM ALLOYS.

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Chemical Stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Joshua; Fox, William P.; Varazo, Kristofoland

    2007-01-01

    In beginning chemistry classes, students are taught a variety of techniques for balancing chemical equations. The most common method is inspection. This paper addresses using a system of linear mathematical equations to solve for the stoichiometric coefficients. Many linear algebra books carry the standard balancing of chemical equations as an…

  19. Chemical contamination of material cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    ) chemicals in paper and plastic materials, and furthermore discuss the likely impacts of chemical contamination on material recycling. The work is part of the new Danish initiative focusing on Integrated Resource Management and Recovery (IRMAR, grant no. 11‐116775). The outcomes of the work will provide......Material recycling represents a backbone of sustainable society in the context of circular economy. Ideally, materials are converted into products, used by the consumers, and discarded, just to be recycled and converted into newly manufactured products. Furthermore, materials may also contain...... chemicals, which would be re‐introduced into the loop once a product is recycled. Such chemicals may not be removed in the recycling process, persist, and contaminate the newly manufactured products. Chemical contamination could potentially put product consumers at unnecessary risk and jeopardize public...

  20. How to control chemical hazards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Improving protection against chemical hazards is one of the 2012 CERN safety objectives identified by the Director General. Identifying and drawing up a complete inventory of chemicals, and assessing the associated risks are important steps in this direction.   The HSE Unit has drawn up safety rules, guidelines and forms to help you to meet this objective. We would like to draw your attention to: • safety guidelines C-0-0-1 and C-1-0-2 (now also available in French), which deal with the identification of hazardous chemicals and the assessment of chemical risk; • safety guideline C-1-0-1, which deals with the storage of hazardous chemicals. All safety documents can be consulted at: cern.ch/regles-securite The HSE Unit will be happy to answer any questions you may have. Write to us at: safety-general@cern.ch The HSE Unit