WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical flooding spectroscopic

  1. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Flood Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Bruce D.

    1983-01-01

    Describes events leading to a flood in the Wehr Chemistry Laboratory at Marquette University, discussing steps taken to minimize damage upon discovery. Analyzes the problem of flooding in the chemical laboratory and outlines seven steps of flood control: prevention; minimization; early detection; stopping the flood; evaluation; clean-up; and…

  2. Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor); Lane, Arthur L. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  3. A NEW GENERATION CHEMICAL FLOODING SIMULATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori; Mojdeh Delshad

    2005-01-01

    The premise of this research is that a general-purpose reservoir simulator for several improved oil recovery processes can and should be developed so that high-resolution simulations of a variety of very large and difficult problems can be achieved using state-of-the-art algorithms and computers. Such a simulator is not currently available to the industry. The goal of this proposed research is to develop a new-generation chemical flooding simulator that is capable of efficiently and accurately simulating oil reservoirs with at least a million gridblocks in less than one day on massively parallel computers. Task 1 is the formulation and development of solution scheme, Task 2 is the implementation of the chemical module, and Task 3 is validation and application. In this final report, we will detail our progress on Tasks 1 through 3 of the project.

  4. POISON SPIDER FIELD CHEMICAL FLOOD PROJECT, WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Arnell; Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi

    2004-11-01

    -rock compatibility, polymer injectivity, dynamic chemical retention by rock, and recommended injected polymer concentration. Average initial oil saturation was 0.796 Vp. Produced water injection recovered 53% OOIP leaving an average residual oil saturation of 0.375 Vp. Poison Spider rock was strongly water-wet with a mobility ratio for produced water displacing the 280 cp crude oil of 8.6. Core was not sensitive to either alkali or surfactant injection. Injectivity increased 60 to 80% with alkali plus surfactant injection. Low and medium molecular weight polyacrylamide polymers (Flopaam 3330S and Flopaam 3430S) dissolved in either an alkaline-surfactant solution or softened produced water injected and flowed through Poison Spider rock. Recommended injected polyacrylamide concentration is 2,100 mg/L for both polymers for a unit mobility ratio. Radial corefloods were performed to evaluate oil recovery efficiency of different chemical solutions. Waterflood oil recovery averaged 46.4 OOIP and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery averaged an additional 18.1% OIP for a total of 64.6% OOIP. Oil cut change due to injection of a 1.5 wt% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} plus 0.05 wt% Petrostep B-100 plus 0.05 wt% Stepantan AS1216 plus 2100 mg/L Flopaam 3430S was from 2% to a peak of 23.5%. Additional study might determine the impact on oil recovery of a lower polymer concentration. An alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood field implementation outline report was written.

  5. Stellar Abundance and Galactic Chemical Evolution through LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Zhao; Yu-Qin Chen; Jian-RongShi; Yan-Chun Liang; Jin-Liang Hou; Li Chen; Hua-Wei Zhang; Ai-Gen Li

    2006-01-01

    A project of a spectroscopic survey of Galactic structure and evolution with a Large sky Area Multi-Object fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) is presented. The spectroscopic survey consists of two observational modes for various targets in our Galaxy. One is a major survey of the Milky Way aimed at a systematic study of the stellar abundance and Galactic chemical evolution through low resolution (R=1000 - 2000) spectroscopy.Another is a follow-up observation with medium resolution (R=10000) spectrographs aimed at detailed studies of the selected stars with different chemical composition, kinematicsand dynamics.

  6. Bridging the Gap between Chemical Flooding and Independent Oil Producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan McCool; Tony Walton; Paul Whillhite; Mark Ballard; Miguel Rondon; Kaixu Song; Zhijun Liu; Shahab Ahmed; Peter Senior

    2012-03-31

    Ten Kanas oil reservoirs/leases were studied through geological and engineering analysis to assess the potential performance of chemical flooding to recover oil. Reservoirs/leases that have been efficiently waterflooded have the highest performance potential for chemical flooding. Laboratory work to identify efficient chemical systems and to test the oil recovery performance of the systems was the major effort of the project. Efficient chemical systems were identified for crude oils from nine of the reservoirs/leases. Oil recovery performance of the identified chemical systems in Berea sandstone rocks showed 90+ % recoveries of waterflood residual oil for seven crude oils. Oil recoveries increased with the amount of chemical injected. Recoveries were less in Indiana limestone cores. One formulation recovered 80% of the tertiary oil in the limestone rock. Geological studies for nine of the oil reservoirs are presented. Pleasant Prairie, Trembley, Vinland and Stewart Oilfields in Kansas were the most favorable of the studied reservoirs for a pilot chemical flood from geological considerations. Computer simulations of the performance of a laboratory coreflood were used to predict a field application of chemical flooding for the Trembley Oilfield. Estimates of field applications indicated chemical flooding is an economically viable technology for oil recovery.

  7. Efficient Scheme for Chemical Flooding Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braconnier Benjamin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate an efficient implicit scheme for the numerical simulation of chemical enhanced oil recovery technique for oil fields. For the sake of brevity, we only focus on flows with polymer to describe the physical and numerical models. In this framework, we consider a black oil model upgraded with the polymer modeling. We assume the polymer only transported in the water phase or adsorbed on the rock following a Langmuir isotherm. The polymer reduces the water phase mobility which can change drastically the behavior of water oil interfaces. Then, we propose a fractional step technique to resolve implicitly the system. The first step is devoted to the resolution of the black oil subsystem and the second to the polymer mass conservation. In such a way, jacobian matrices coming from the implicit formulation have a moderate size and preserve solvers efficiency. Nevertheless, the coupling between the black-oil subsystem and the polymer is not fully resolved. For efficiency and accuracy comparison, we propose an explicit scheme for the polymer for which large time step is prohibited due to its CFL (Courant-Friedrichs-Levy criterion and consequently approximates accurately the coupling. Numerical experiments with polymer are simulated : a core flood, a 5-spot reservoir with surfactant and ions and a 3D real case. Comparisons are performed between the polymer explicit and implicit scheme. They prove that our polymer implicit scheme is efficient, robust and resolves accurately the coupling physics. The development and the simulations have been performed with the software PumaFlow [PumaFlow (2013 Reference manual, release V600, Beicip Franlab].

  8. Proper Use of Capillary Number in Chemical Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Capillary number theory is very important for chemical flooding enhanced oil recovery. The difference between microscopic capillary number and the microscopic one is easy to confuse. After decades of development, great progress has been made in capillary number theory and it has important but sometimes incorrect application in EOR. The capillary number theory was based on capillary tube bundles and Darcy’s law hypothesis, and this should always be kept in mind when used in chemical flooding EOR. The flow in low permeability porous media often shows obvious non-Darcy effects, which is beyond Darcy’s law. Experiments data from ASP flooding and SP flooding showed that remaining oil saturation was not always decreasing as capillary number kept on increasing. Relative permeability was proved function of capillary number; its rate dependence was affected by capillary end effects. The mobility control should be given priority rather than lowering IFT. The displacement efficiency was not increased as displacement velocity increased as expected in heavy oil chemical flooding. Largest capillary number does not always make highest recovery in chemical flooding in heterogeneous reservoir. Misuse of CDC in EOR included the ignorance of mobility ratio, Darcy linear flow hypothesis, difference between microscopic capillary number and the microscopic one, and heterogeneity caused flow regime alteration. Displacement of continuous oil or remobilization of discontinuous oil was quite different.

  9. Spectroscopic probes of vibrationally excited molecules at chemically significant energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, T.R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project involves the application of multiple-resonance spectroscopic techniques for investigating energy transfer and dissociation dynamics of highly vibrationally excited molecules. Two major goals of this work are: (1) to provide information on potential energy surfaces of combustion related molecules at chemically significant energies, and (2) to test theoretical modes of unimolecular dissociation rates critically via quantum-state resolved measurements.

  10. Experimental study of chemical concentration variation of ASP flooding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A physical modeling system of long slim tube was established. Several pressure measuring and sampling points were laid out at different positions along the tube. Through real-time measurements of pressures and chemical concentrations at different points, the mass transfer and chemical concentration of ASP flooding in porous media are studied. The concentration of chemicals declines gradually during the fluid flow from the inlet to the outlet of the model. The concentration increases in the front edge of the slug faster than the concentration decreases in the rear edge of the slug. The concentration variation of the chemicals is an asymmetrical and offset process. The order of motion velocities of the chemicals from fast to slow is polymer, alkali and surfactant. The motion lag and comprehensive diffusion are strong in the vicinity of the inlet, the motion velocities of the chemicals are high, the difference of flow velocities among the three chemicals is significant and the chromatographic separation of the chemicals is obvious. In the area near the outlet, the comprehensive diffusion and motion lag become weak, the concentrations of the chemicals decrease, the motion velocities of the chemicals are slow, the difference among the motion velocities of the chemicals becomes small, the chromatographic separation is not obvious, the adsorption and retention of chemicals gradually increase as the chemical slug moves further along the tube, the adsorption and retention of polymer is the most serious.

  11. A spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD207561

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, S; Martinez, P; Sachkov, M; Joshi, Y C; Seetha, S; Chakradhari, N K; Mary, D L; Girish, V; Ashoka, B N

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a high-resolution spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD207561. During a survey programme to search for new roAp stars in the Northern hemisphere, Joshi et al. (2006) observed significant photometric variability on two consecutive nights in the year 2000. The amplitude spectra of the light curves obtained on these two nights showed oscillations with a frequency of 2.79 mHz [P~6-min]. However, subsequent follow-up observations could not confirm any rapid variability. In order to determine the spectroscopic nature of HD207561, high-resolution spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric observations were carried out. A reasonable fit of the calculated Hbeta line profile to the observed one yields the effective temperature (Teff) and surface gravity (log g) as 7300 K and 3.7 dex, respectively. The derived projected rotational velocity (vsin i) for HD207561 is 74 km/sec indicative of a relatively fast rotator. The position of HD207561 in the H-R diagram implies that this is s...

  12. Models of chemical biosignatures - a vibrational spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bödeker, B.; Böttger, U.; Hübers, H.-W.; deVera, J.-P.; Fox, S.; Strasdeit, H.

    2013-09-01

    Investigating possible biosignatures is of central interest in the search for the oldest traces of terrestrial life. Possible biosignatures are: (i) physical structures, such as fossilized single-celled or colonyforming microorganisms; (ii) biomolecules and their altered residues (chemical biosignatures); (iii) altered element, isotope and mineral compositions in former microbial habitats and related effects caused by metabolic activity [1]. New insights in this field of research are also important in the search for life on other planets and moons, especially Mars. However, abiotically formed organic compounds are widely distributed in the universe. Therefore, in future Mars missions, it will be essential to know whether organic molecules are actually of biological origin. Here, we describe the syntheses and spectroscopic (Raman and infrared) properties of artificial chemical biosignatures that might help answering this question.

  13. Next Generation Surfactants for Improved Chemical Flooding Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura Wesson; Prapas Lohateeraparp; Jeffrey Harwell; Bor-Jier Shiau

    2012-05-31

    The principle objective of this project was to characterize and test current and next generation high performance surfactants for improved chemical flooding technology, focused on reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian-aged (Penn) sands. In order to meet this objective the characteristic curvatures (Cc) of twenty-eight anionic surfactants selected for evaluation for use in chemical flooding formulations were determined. The Cc values ranged from -6.90 to 2.55 with the majority having negative values. Crude oil samples from nine Penn sand reservoirs were analyzed for several properties pertinent to surfactant formulation for EOR application. These properties included equivalent alkane carbon numbers, total acid numbers, and viscosity. The brine samples from these same reservoirs were analyzed for several cations and for total dissolved solids. Surfactant formulations were successfully developed for eight reservoirs by the end of the project period. These formulations were comprised of a tertiary mixture of anionic surfactants. The identities of these surfactants are considered proprietary, but suffice to say the surfactants in each mixture were comprised of varying chemical structures. In addition to the successful development of surfactant formulations for EOR, there were also two successful single-well field tests conducted. There are many aspects that must be considered in the development and implementation of effective surfactant formulations. Taking into account these other aspects, there were four additional studies conducted during this project. These studies focused on the effect of the stability of surfactant formulations in the presence of polymers with an associated examination of polymer rheology, the effect of the presence of iron complexes in the brine on surfactant stability, the potential use of sacrificial agents in order to minimize the loss of surfactant to adsorption, and the effect of electrolytes on surfactant adsorption. In these last four studies

  14. Combined spectroscopic and quantum chemical studies of ezetimibe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Preeti; Pandey, Jaya; Shimpi, Manishkumar R.; Srivastava, Anubha; Tandon, Poonam; Velaga, Sitaram P.; Sinha, Kirti

    2016-12-01

    Ezetimibe (EZT) is a hypocholesterolemic agent used for the treatment of elevated blood cholesterol levels as it lowers the blood cholesterol by blocking the absorption of cholesterol in intestine. Study aims to combine experimental and computational methods to provide insights into the structural and vibrational spectroscopic properties of EZT which is important for explaining drug substance physical and biological properties. Computational study on molecular properties of ezetimibe is presented using density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP functional and 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. A detailed vibrational assignment has been done for the observed IR and Raman spectra of EZT. In addition to the conformational study, hydrogen bonding and molecular docking studies have been also performed. For conformational studies, the double well potential energy curves have been plotted for the rotation around the six flexible bonds of the molecule. UV absorption spectrum was examined in methanol solvent and compared with calculated one in solvent environment (IEF-PCM) using TD-DFT/6-31G basis set. HOMO-LUMO energy gap of both the conformers have also been calculated in order to predict its chemical reactivity and stability. The stability of the molecule was also examined by means of natural bond analysis (NBO) analysis. To account for the chemical reactivity and site selectivity of the molecules, molecular electrostatic potential (MEPS) map has been plotted. The combination of experimental and calculated results provide an insight into the structural and vibrational spectroscopic properties of EZT. In order to give an insight for the biological activity of EZT, molecular docking of EZT with protein NPC1L1 has been done.

  15. Numerical simulation of pore-scale flow in chemical flooding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chemical flooding is one of the effective technologies to increase oil recovery of petroleum reservoirs after water flooding.Above the scale of representative elementary volume(REV), phenomenological modeling and numerical simulations of chemical flooding have been reported in literatures,but the studies alike are rarely conducted at the pore-scale,at which the effects of physicochemical hydrodynamics are hardly resolved either by experimental observations or by traditional continuum-based simulations.In...

  16. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD AND ANALYSIS FOR CHEMICAL-FLOODING SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Yirang

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the enhanced oil recovery numerical simulation of the chemical-flooding (such as surfactants, alcohol, polymers) composed of three-dimensional multicomponent, multiphase and incompressible mixed fluids. The mathematical model can be described as a coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equations with initialboundary value problems. From the actual conditions such as the effect of cross interference and the three-dimensional characteristic of large-scale science-engineering computation, this article puts forward a kind of characteristic finite element fractional step schemes and obtain the optimal order error estimates in L2 norm. Thus we have thoroughly solved the well-known theoretical problem proposed by a famous scientist, R. E. Ewing.

  17. Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods are common in the United States. Weather such as heavy rain, thunderstorms, hurricanes, or tsunamis can ... is breached, or when a dam breaks. Flash floods, which can develop quickly, often have a dangerous ...

  18. How much can we trust high-resolution spectroscopic stellar chemical abundances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Nordlander, T.; Heiter, U.; Jofré, P.; Masseron, T.; Casamiquela, L.; Tabernero, H. M.; Bhat, S. S.; Casey, A. R.; Meléndez, J.; Ramírez, I.

    2017-03-01

    To study stellar populations, it is common to combine chemical abundances from different spectroscopic surveys/studies where different setups were used. These inhomogeneities can lead us to inaccurate scientific conclusions. In this work, we studied one aspect of the problem: When deriving chemical abundances from high-resolution stellar spectra, what differences originate from the use of different radiative transfer codes?

  19. How much can we trust high-resolution spectroscopic stellar chemical abundances?

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S; Heiter, U; Jofré, P; Masseron, T; Casamiquela, L; Tabernero, H M; Bhat, S S; Casey, A R; Meléndez, J; Ramírez, I

    2016-01-01

    To study stellar populations, it is common to combine chemical abundances from different spectroscopic surveys/studies where different setups were used. These inhomogeneities can lead us to inaccurate scientific conclusions. In this work, we studied one aspect of the problem: When deriving chemical abundances from high-resolution stellar spectra, what differences originate from the use of different radiative transfer codes?

  20. Use of amine oxide surfactants for chemical flooding EOR (enhanced oil recovery)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.

    1989-11-01

    The use of amine oxides with and without alcohols as cosolvents, and in combination with other surfactants as mixed micellar formulations for enhanced oil recovery by surfactant flooding was investigated. Amine oxides are a salt-tolerant class of surfactants that produce low interfacial tension and can develop viscosity without the addition of polymers. These salt-tolerant formulations generate three-phase regions with hydrocarbons over a broad salinity range, develop moderate solubilization, and produce low interfacial tensions, however oil recovery from amine oxide-alcohol phase behavior optimized formulations was directly dependent upon the quantity of surfactant injected. The large pore volume and high concentration of surfactant required prohibits their economic use as the primary surfactant in chemical flooding EOR. Dimethylalkylamine oxides are useful as cosurfactants and viscosifiers in formulations with other surfactants for chemical flooding EOR but the use of ethoxylated and propoxylated amine oxides should be avoided due to the decomposition of these amine oxides under reservoir conditions. Phase behavior, phase inversion temperatures, and viscosity scans have been correlated with surfactant structures to provide a guide for amine oxide applications in chemical flooding. 36 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Spectroscopic, quantum chemical calculation and molecular docking of dipfluzine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Karnica; Srivastava, Anubha; Tandon, Poonam; Sinha, Kirti; Wang, Jing

    2016-12-01

    Molecular structure and vibrational analysis of dipfluzine (C27H29FN2O) were presented using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. The theoretical ground state geometry and electronic structure of dipfluzine are optimized by the DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) method and compared with those of the crystal data. The 1D potential energy scan was performed by varying the dihedral angle using B3LYP functional at 6-31G(d,p) level of theory and thus the most stable conformer of the compound were determined. Molecular electrostatic potential surface (MEPS), frontier orbital analysis and electronic reactivity descriptor were used to predict the chemical reactivity of molecule. Energies of intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonds in molecule and their electronic aspects were investigated by natural bond orbital (NBO). To find out the anti-apoptotic activity of the title compound molecular docking studies have been performed against protein Fas.

  2. Vibrational spectroscopic studies of Isoleucine by quantum chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthi, P P; Gunasekaran, S; Ramkumaar, G R

    2014-04-24

    In this work, we reported a combined experimental and theoretical study on molecular structure, vibrational spectra and NBO analysis of Isoleucine (2-Amino-3-methylpentanoic acid). The optimized molecular structure, vibrational frequencies, corresponding vibrational assignments, thermodynamics properties, NBO analyses, NMR chemical shifts and ultraviolet-visible spectral interpretation of Isoleucine have been studied by performing MP2 and DFT/cc-pVDZ level of theory. The FTIR, FT-Raman spectra were recorded in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and 3500-50 cm(-1) respectively. The UV-visible absorption spectra of the compound were recorded in the range of 200-800 nm. Computational calculations at MP2 and B3LYP level with basis set of cc-pVDZ is employed in complete assignments of Isoleucine molecule on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes, calculated using VEDA-4 program. The calculated wavenumbers are compared with the experimental values. The difference between the observed and calculated wavenumber values of most of the fundamentals is very small. (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results. The formation of hydrogen bond was investigated in terms of the charge density by the NBO calculations. Based on the UV spectra and TD-DFT calculations, the electronic structure and the assignments of the absorption bands were carried out. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were investigated using theoretical calculations.

  3. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical analysis of Isonicotinic acid methyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoba, D.; Periandy, S.; Govindarajan, M.; Gayathri, P.

    2015-02-01

    In this present study, an organic compound Isonicotinic acid methyl ester (INAME) was structurally characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman, and NMR and UV spectroscopy. The optimized geometrical parameters and energies of all different and possible conformers of INAME are obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. There are three conformers (SI, SII-1, and SII-2) for this molecule (ground state). The most stable conformer of INAME is SI conformer. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of INAME in the ground state have been calculated by using HF and density functional method (B3LYP) 6-311++G (d,p) basis set. Detailed vibrational spectral analysis has been carried out and assignments of the observed fundamental bands have been proposed on the basis of peak positions and relative intensities. The computed vibrational frequencies were compared with the experimental frequencies, which yield good agreement between observed and calculated frequencies. A study on the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies were performed by time independent DFT approach. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed. The electric dipole moment (μ) and first hyper polarizability (β) values of the investigated molecule were computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculated results show that the INAME molecule may have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non zero values. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method.

  4. GAS PHASE MOLECULAR DYNAMICS: HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPIC PROBES OF CHEMICAL DYNAMICS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HALL, G.E.

    2006-05-30

    This research is carried out as part of the Gas Phase Molecular Dynamics group program in the Chemistry Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. High-resolution spectroscopic tools are developed and applied to problems in chemical dynamics. Recent topics have included the state-resolved studies of collision-induced electronic energy transfer, dynamics of barrierless unimolecular reactions, and the kinetics and spectroscopy of transient species.

  5. Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of a vegetable oil used as dielectric coolant in distribution transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Neffer A.; Abonia, Rodrigo, E-mail: rodrigo.abonia@correounivalle.edu.co [Departamento de Quimica, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Cadavid, Hector [Grupo GRALTA, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Vargas, Ines H. [Area de Ingenieria de Distribucion, Empresas Publicas de Medellin (EPM), Medellin (Colombia)

    2011-09-15

    In this work, a complete UV-Vis, IR and (1H, 13C and DEPT) NMR spectroscopic analysis was performed for a FR3 vegetable oil sample used as dielectric coolant in an experimental distribution transformer. The same spectroscopic analysis was performed for three used FR3 oil samples (i.e., 4 months in use, 8 months in use and 7 years in use), removed from several operating distribution transformers. Comparison of the data indicated that no significant spectroscopic changes, and hence, no structural changes occurred to the oils by the use. Chemical transformations like catalytic hydrogenation (hardening) and hydrolysis were performed to the FR3 oil sample and the obtained products were analyzed by spectroscopic methods in order to collect further structural information about the FR3 oil. Accelerated aging tests in laboratory were also performed for three FR3 oil samples affording interesting information about the structure of the degradation products. These findings would be valuable to search for a spectroscopy-based technique for monitoring the lifetime and performance of this insulating vegetable oil. (author)

  6. Spectroscopic analyses of chemical adaptation processes within microalgal biomass in response to changing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Frank, E-mail: fvogt@utk.edu; White, Lauren

    2015-03-31

    Highlights: • Microalgae transform large quantities of inorganics into biomass. • Microalgae interact with their growing environment and adapt their chemical composition. • Sequestration capabilities are dependent on cells’ chemical environments. • We develop a chemometric hard-modeling to describe these chemical adaptation dynamics. • This methodology will enable studies of microalgal compound sequestration. - Abstract: Via photosynthesis, marine phytoplankton transforms large quantities of inorganic compounds into biomass. This has considerable environmental impacts as microalgae contribute for instance to counter-balancing anthropogenic releases of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2}. On the other hand, high concentrations of nitrogen compounds in an ecosystem can lead to harmful algae blooms. In previous investigations it was found that the chemical composition of microalgal biomass is strongly dependent on the nutrient availability. Therefore, it is expected that algae’s sequestration capabilities and productivity are also determined by the cells’ chemical environments. For investigating this hypothesis, novel analytical methodologies are required which are capable of monitoring live cells exposed to chemically shifting environments followed by chemometric modeling of their chemical adaptation dynamics. FTIR-ATR experiments have been developed for acquiring spectroscopic time series of live Dunaliella parva cultures adapting to different nutrient situations. Comparing experimental data from acclimated cultures to those exposed to a chemically shifted nutrient situation reveals insights in which analyte groups participate in modifications of microalgal biomass and on what time scales. For a chemometric description of these processes, a data model has been deduced which explains the chemical adaptation dynamics explicitly rather than empirically. First results show that this approach is feasible and derives information about the chemical biomass

  7. Ultra-Trace Chemical Sensing with Long-Wave Infrared Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopic Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Myers, Tanya L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Williams, Richard M.; Schultz, John F.

    2003-02-20

    The infrared sensors task of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) Remote Spectroscopy Project (Task B of Project PL211) is focused on the science and technology of remote and in-situ spectroscopic chemical sensors for detecting proliferation and coun-tering terrorism. Missions to be addressed by remote chemical sensor development in-clude detecting proliferation of nuclear or chemical weapons, and providing warning of terrorist use of chemical weapons. Missions to be addressed by in-situ chemical sensor development include countering terrorism by screening luggage, personnel, and shipping containers for explosives, firearms, narcotics, chemical weapons, or chemical weapons residues, and mapping contaminated areas. The science and technology is also relevant to chemical weapons defense, air operations support, monitoring emissions from chemi-cal weapons destruction or industrial activities, law enforcement, medical diagnostics, and other applications. Sensors for most of these missions will require extreme chemical sensitivity and selectiv-ity because the signature chemicals of importance are expected to be present in low con-centrations or have low vapor pressures, and the ambient air is likely to contain pollutants or other chemicals with interfering spectra. Cavity-enhanced chemical sensors (CES) that draw air samples into optical cavities for laser-based interrogation of their chemical content promise real-time, in-situ chemical detection with extreme sensitivity to specified target molecules and superb immunity to spectral interference and other sources of noise. PNNL is developing CES based on quantum cascade (QC) lasers that operate in the mid-wave infrared (MWIR - 3 to 5 microns) and long-wave infrared (LWIR - 8 to 14 mi-crons), and CES based on telecommunications lasers operating in the short-wave infrared (SWIR - 1 to 2 microns). All three spectral regions are promising because smaller mo-lecular absorption cross sections in the SWIR

  8. Dissipative particle dynamics simulation of wettability alternation phenomena in the chemical flooding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaobo Li; Yuewu Liu; Jianfei Tang; Shujiao Li

    2009-01-01

    Wettability alternation phenomena is considered one of the most important enhanced oil recovery (EOR) mechanisms in the chemical flooding process and induced by the adsorption of surfactant on the rock surface. These phenomena are studied by a mesoscopic method named as dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). Both the alteration phenomena of water-wet to oil-wet and that of oil-wet to waterwet are simulated based on reasonable definition of interaction parameters between beads. The wetting hysteresis phenomenon and the process of oil-drops detachment from rock surfaces with different wettability are simulated by adding long-range external forces on the fluid particles. The simulation results show that, the oil drop is liable to spread on the oil-wetting surface and move in the form of liquid film flow, whereas it is likely to move as a whole on the waterwetting surface. There are the same phenomena occuring in wettability-alternated cases. The results also show that DPD method provides a feasible approach to the problems of seepage flow with physicochemical phenomena and can be used to study the mechanism of EOR of chemical flooding.

  9. Comparative spectroscopic analysis of urinary calculi inhibition by Larrea Tridentata infusion and NDGA chemical extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciu, Felicia

    2012-10-01

    In the present comparative spectroscopic study we try to understand calcium oxalate kidney stone formation as well as its inhibition by using a traditional medicine approach with Larrea Tridentata (LT) herbal extracts and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), which is a chemical extract of the LT bush. The samples were synthesized without and with LT or NDGA using a simplified single diffusion gel growth technique. While the use of infusion from LT decreases the sizes of calcium oxalate crystals and also changes their structure from monohydrate for pure crystals to dihydrate for crystals grown with different amounts of inhibitor, both Raman and infrared absorption spectroscopic techniques, which are the methods of analysis employed in this work, reveal that NDGA is not responsible for the change in the morphology of calcium oxalate crystals and does not contribute significantly to the inhibition process. The presence of NDGA slightly affects the structure of the crystals by modifying the strength of the C-C bonds as seen in the Raman data. Also, the current infrared absorption results demonstrate the presence of NDGA in the samples through a vibrational line that corresponds to the double bond between carbon atoms of the ester group of NDGA.

  10. Quantum chemical calculations and spectroscopic measurements of spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties of given uranyl complexes in aqueous solutions with possible environmental and industrial applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višňak Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief introduction into computational methodology and preliminary results for spectroscopic (excitation energies, vibrational frequencies in ground and excited electronic states and thermodynamic (stability constants, standard enthalpies and entropies of complexation reactions properties of some 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 uranyl sulphato- and selenato- complexes in aqueos solutions will be given. The relativistic effects are included via Effective Core Potential (ECP, electron correlation via (TDDFT/B3LYP (dispersion interaction corrected and solvation is described via explicit inclusion of one hydration sphere beyond the coordinated water molecules. We acknowledge limits of this approximate description – more accurate calculations (ranging from semi-phenomenological two-component spin-orbit coupling up to four-component Dirac-Coulomb-Breit hamiltonian and Molecular Dynamics simulations are in preparation. The computational results are compared with the experimental results from Time-resolved Laser-induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS and UV-VIS spectroscopic studies (including our original experimental research on this topic. In case of the TRLFS and UV-VIS speciation studies, the problem of complex solution spectra decomposition into individual components is ill-conditioned and hints from theoretical chemistry could be very important. Qualitative agreement between our quantum chemical calculations of the spectroscopic properties and experimental data was achieved. Possible applications for geochemical modelling (e.g. safety studies of nuclear waste repositories, modelling of a future mining site and analytical chemical studies (including natural samples are discussed.

  11. Quantum chemical calculations and spectroscopic measurements of spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties of given uranyl complexes in aqueous solutions with possible environmental and industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Višňak, Jakub; Sobek, Lukáš

    2016-11-01

    A brief introduction into computational methodology and preliminary results for spectroscopic (excitation energies, vibrational frequencies in ground and excited electronic states) and thermodynamic (stability constants, standard enthalpies and entropies of complexation reactions) properties of some 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 uranyl sulphato- and selenato- complexes in aqueos solutions will be given. The relativistic effects are included via Effective Core Potential (ECP), electron correlation via (TD)DFT/B3LYP (dispersion interaction corrected) and solvation is described via explicit inclusion of one hydration sphere beyond the coordinated water molecules. We acknowledge limits of this approximate description - more accurate calculations (ranging from semi-phenomenological two-component spin-orbit coupling up to four-component Dirac-Coulomb-Breit hamiltonian) and Molecular Dynamics simulations are in preparation. The computational results are compared with the experimental results from Time-resolved Laser-induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS) and UV-VIS spectroscopic studies (including our original experimental research on this topic). In case of the TRLFS and UV-VIS speciation studies, the problem of complex solution spectra decomposition into individual components is ill-conditioned and hints from theoretical chemistry could be very important. Qualitative agreement between our quantum chemical calculations of the spectroscopic properties and experimental data was achieved. Possible applications for geochemical modelling (e.g. safety studies of nuclear waste repositories, modelling of a future mining site) and analytical chemical studies (including natural samples) are discussed.

  12. Generation of chemical movies: FT-IR spectroscopic imaging of segmented flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K L Andrew; Niu, X; deMello, A J; Kazarian, S G

    2011-05-01

    We have previously demonstrated that FT-IR spectroscopic imaging can be used as a powerful, label-free detection method for studying laminar flows. However, to date, the speed of image acquisition has been too slow for the efficient detection of moving droplets within segmented flow systems. In this paper, we demonstrate the extraction of fast FT-IR images with acquisition times of 50 ms. This approach allows efficient interrogation of segmented flow systems where aqueous droplets move at a speed of 2.5 mm/s. Consecutive FT-IR images separated by 120 ms intervals allow the generation of chemical movies at eight frames per second. The technique has been applied to the study of microfluidic systems containing moving droplets of water in oil and droplets of protein solution in oil. The presented work demonstrates the feasibility of the use of FT-IR imaging to study dynamic systems with subsecond temporal resolution.

  13. Improving oil recovery in the CO2 flooding process by utilizing nonpolar chemical modifiers☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Yang; Xiangliang Li; Ping Guo; Yayun Zhuo; Yong Sha

    2016-01-01

    By means of experiments of CO2 miscibility with crude oil, four nonpolar chemicals were evaluated in order to enhance the miscibility of CO2 with crude oil. Through pre-slug injection and joint injection of toluene in CO2, crude oil displacement experiments in the slim-tube were conducted to investigate effects of the toluene-enhanced CO2 flooding under simulated subterranean reservoir conditions. Experimental results showed that toluene can enhance extraction of oil into CO2 and dissolution of CO2 into oil with the increment of 251%and 64%respectively. Addition of toluene can obviously improve the oil recovery in either pre-slug injection or joint injection, and the crude oil recovery increased with the increase of the toluene concentration. The oil recov-ery can increase by 22.5%in pre-slug injection with the high toluene concentration. Pre-slug injection was recom-mended because it can consume less toluene than joint injection. This work could be useful to development and application of the CO2 flooding in the oil recovery as wel as CO2 emission reduction.

  14. Chemical Flooding in Heavy-Oil Reservoirs: From Technical Investigation to Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Le Van

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy-oil resources represent a large percentage of global oil and gas reserves, however, owing to the high viscosity, enhanced oil recovery (EOR techniques are critical issues for extracting this type of crude oil from the reservoir. According to the survey data in Oil & Gas Journal, thermal methods are the most widely utilized in EOR projects in heavy oil fields in the US and Canada, and there are not many successful chemical flooding projects for heavy oil reported elsewhere in the world. However, thermal methods such as steam injection might be restricted in cases of thin formations, overlying permafrost, or reservoir depths over 4500 ft, for which chemical flooding becomes a better option for recovering crude oil. Moreover, owing to the considerable fluctuations in the oil price, chemical injection plans should be employed consistently in terms of either technical or economic viewpoints. The numerical studies in this work aim to clarify the predominant chemical injection schemes among the various combinations of chemical agents involving alkali (A, surfactant (S and polymer (P for specific heavy-oil reservoir conditions. The feasibilities of all potential injection sequences are evaluated in the pre-evaluation stage in order to select the most efficient injection scheme according to the variation in the oil price which is based on practical market values. Finally, optimization procedures in the post-evaluation stage are carried out for the most economic injection plan by an effective mathematic tool with the purpose of gaining highest Net Present Value (NPV of the project. In technical terms, the numerical studies confirm the predominant performances of sequences in which alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP solution is injected after the first preflushing water whereby the recovery factor can be higher than 47%. In particular, the oil production performances are improved by injecting a buffering viscous fluid right after the first chemical slug

  15. Developing a Robust Surrogate Model of Chemical Flooding Based on the Artificial Neural Network for Enhanced Oil Recovery Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ahmadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of chemical flooding in petroleum reservoirs turns into hot topic of the recent researches. Development strategies of the aforementioned technique are more robust and precise when we consider both economical points of view (net present value, NPV and technical points of view (recovery factor, RF. In current study many attempts have been made to propose predictive model for estimation of efficiency of chemical flooding in oil reservoirs. To gain this end, a couple of swarm intelligence and artificial neural network (ANN is employed. Also, lucrative and high precise chemical flooding data banks reported in previous attentions are utilized to test and validate proposed intelligent model. According to the mean square error (MSE, correlation coefficient, and average absolute relative deviation, the suggested swarm approach has acceptable reliability, integrity and robustness. Thus, the proposed intelligent model can be considered as an alternative model to predict the efficiency of chemical flooding in oil reservoir when the required experimental data are not available or accessible.

  16. Micro-Spectroscopic Chemical Imaging of Individual Identified Marine Biogenic and Ambient Organic Ice Nuclei (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopf, D. A.; Alpert, P. A.; Wang, B.; OBrien, R. E.; Moffet, R. C.; Aller, J. Y.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric ice formation represents one of the least understood atmospheric processes with important implications for the hydrological cycle and climate. Current freezing descriptions assume that ice active sites on the particle surface initiate ice nucleation, however, the nature of these sites remains elusive. Here, we present a new experimental method that allows us to relate physical and chemical properties of individual particles with observed water uptake and ice nucleation ability using a combination of micro-spectroscopic and optical single particle analytical techniques. We apply this method to field-collected particles and particles generated via bursting of bubbles produced by glass frit aeration and plunging water impingement jets in a mesocosm containing artificial sea water and bacteria and/or phytoplankton. The most efficient ice nuclei (IN) within a particle population are identified and characterized. Single particle characterization is achieved by computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. A vapor controlled cooling-stage coupled to an optical microscope is used to determine the onsets of water uptake, immersion freezing, and deposition ice nucleation of the individual particles as a function of temperature (T) as low as 200 K and relative humidity (RH) up to water saturation. In addition, we perform CCSEM/EDX to obtain on a single particle level the elemental composition of the entire particle population. Thus, we can determine if the IN are exceptional in nature or belong to a major particle type class with respect to composition and size. We find that ambient and sea spray particles are coated by organic material and can induce ice formation under tropospheric relevant conditions. Micro-spectroscopic single particle analysis of the investigated particle samples invokes a potential

  17. The effect of the 2011 flood on agricultural chemical and sediment movement in the lower Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, H.; Coupe, R.; Aulenbach, B.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme hydrologic events, such as floods, can overwhelm a surface water system's ability to process chemicals and can move large amounts of material downstream to larger surface water bodies. The Mississippi River is the 3rd largest River in the world behind the Amazon in South America and the Congo in Africa. The Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin grows much of the country's corn, soybean, rice, cotton, pigs, and chickens. This is large-scale modern day agriculture with large inputs of nutrients to increase yields and large applied amounts of crop protection chemicals, such as pesticides. The basin drains approximately 41% of the conterminous United States and is the largest contributor of nutrients to the Gulf of Mexico each spring. The amount of water and nutrients discharged from the Mississippi River has been related to the size of the low dissolved oxygen area that forms off of the coast of Louisiana and Texas each summer. From March through April 2011, the upper Mississippi River basin received more than five times more precipitation than normal, which combined with snow melt from the Missouri River basin, created a historic flood event that lasted from April through July. The U.S. Geological Survey, as part of the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN), collected samples from six sites located in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin, as well as, samples from the three flow-diversion structures or floodways: the Birds Point-New Madrid in Missouri and the Morganza and Bonnet Carré in Louisiana, from April through July. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediments, and particle size; results were used to determine the water quality of the river during the 2011 flood. Monthly loads for nitrate, phosphorus, pesticides (atrazine, glyphosate, fluometuron, and metolachlor), and sediment were calculated to quantify the movement of agricultural chemicals and sediment into the Gulf of Mexico. Nutrient loads were

  18. Spectroscopic link between adsorption site occupation and local surface chemical reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraldi, A.; Lizzit, S.; Comelli, G.;

    2004-01-01

    In this Letter we show that sequences of adsorbate-induced shifts of surface core level (SCL) x-ray photoelectron spectra contain profound information on surface changes of electronic structure and reactivity. Energy shifts and intensity changes of time-lapsed spectral components follow simple...... rules, from which adsorption sites are directly determined. Theoretical calculations rationalize the results for transition metal surfaces in terms of the energy shift of the d-band center of mass and this proves that adsorbate-induced SCL shifts provide a spectroscopic measure of local surface...... reactivity....

  19. Phytochemical, Physico-chemical & Spectroscopic Characteristics of Ethanolic Extract of Leaf, Stem and Flower bud of Hibiscus hispidissimus Griffith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamizh Selvam N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The plant Hibiscus hispidissimus belongs to the family Malvaceae (Mallow family. The plant has wide range of medicinal uses. Considering the ethno medicinal value of Hibiscus hispidissimus, the present work has been taken up to document the physico-chemical composition, phytochemical details and spectrophotometric characteristics of the plant. The work has been carried out on ethanolic extract of leaf, stem and flower bud of H. hispidissimus. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of saponis, tannins, glycosides, diterpenes and quinones. Spectroscopic characteristics were analyzed and found to have wide range of compounds including steroids, alkaloids, pigments like chlorophyll a and b, phenolic compounds mainly gallic acid, flavanoids like anthocyanins, flavanols, flvanones and isoflavones.

  20. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Characterization of Chemically Modified Electrodes Used as Chemical Sensors and Biosensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Desimoni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of chemically modified sensors and biosensors is commonly performed by cyclic voltammetry and electron microscopies, which allow verifying electrode mechanisms and surface morphologies. Among other techniques, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS plays a unique role in giving access to qualitative, quantitative/semi-quantitative and speciation information concerning the sensor surface. Nevertheless, XPS remains rather underused in this field. The aim of this paper is to review selected articles which evidence the useful performances of XPS in characterizing the top surface layers of chemically modified sensors and biosensors. A concise introduction to X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy gives to the reader the essential background. The application of XPS for characterizing sensors suitable for food and environmental analysis is highlighted.

  1. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical analysis of a natural product - Hayatin hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rashmi; Srivastava, Anubha; Tandon, Poonam; Jain, Sudha

    2015-08-01

    Majority of drugs in use today are natural products, natural product mimics or semi synthetic derivatives. Therefore in recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world and large body of evidence has been collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. Therefore, in the present communication to aid that research, structural and spectroscopic analysis of a natural product, an alkaloid Hayatin hydrochloride was performed. Both ab initio Hartree-Fock and density functional theory employing B3LYP with complete relaxation in the potential energy surface using 6-311G (d,p) basis set were used for the calculations. The vibrational frequencies were calculated and scaled values were compared with experimental FT-IR and micro-Raman spectra. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of potential energy distribution. The structure-activity relationship has also been interpreted by mapping electrostatic potential surface, which are valuable information for the quality control of medicines and drug-receptor interactions. Electronic properties have been analysed employing TD-DFT for both gaseous and solvent phase. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis.

  2. Determination of Chemical Compositions on Adult Kidney Stones—A Spectroscopic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, K.; Rakkappan, C.

    2008-11-01

    The chemical compositions of the kidney stones of both the sexes of patients, aged from 40 to 70, living in and around Chidambaram town are determined by using FT-IR and X-RD technique. The kidney stone samples used in the present study were procured from the Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University. The FT-IR spectra of different kidney stone samples were recorded in the range of 4000-400 cm-1. By identifying the characteristic frequency, the chemical compositions of the samples are determined. The results analyzed by FTIR technique were confirmed by X-RD method, in which the recorded X-ray diffractogram are compared with JCPDS files using search match method. Further analysis of XRD pattern also reveals the same.

  3. Process Analytical Technology and On-Line Spectroscopic Measurements of Chemical Meat Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Klavs Martin

    This thesis deals with process analytical technology and how it can be implemented in the meat industry through on-line grading of chemical meat quality. The focus will be on two applications, namely the rapid quality control of fat quality and the development of a method for on-line detection...... of boar taint. The chemical makeup of fat has a large effect on meat cut quality. Fat quality has traditionally been determined by methylation of a tissue sample followed by chromatography on a GC-MS system, elucidating the composition of the individual fatty acids. As this procedure typically takes far...... of nano-molar quantification in few seconds, in addition to an accelerated extraction-free GC-MS method that through automation can deliver results much faster than other similar methods. The implementation of these high tech methods will provide the meat industry with a leading edge not only with product...

  4. Automated high-throughput assessment of prostate biopsy tissue using infrared spectroscopic chemical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassan, Paul; Sachdeva, Ashwin; Shanks, Jonathan H.; Brown, Mick D.; Clarke, Noel W.; Gardner, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) chemical imaging has been demonstrated as a promising technique to complement histopathological assessment of biomedical tissue samples. Current histopathology practice involves preparing thin tissue sections and staining them using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) after which a histopathologist manually assess the tissue architecture under a visible microscope. Studies have shown that there is disagreement between operators viewing the same tissue suggesting that a complementary technique for verification could improve the robustness of the evaluation, and improve patient care. FT-IR chemical imaging allows the spatial distribution of chemistry to be rapidly imaged at a high (diffraction-limited) spatial resolution where each pixel represents an area of 5.5 × 5.5 μm2 and contains a full infrared spectrum providing a chemical fingerprint which studies have shown contains the diagnostic potential to discriminate between different cell-types, and even the benign or malignant state of prostatic epithelial cells. We report a label-free (i.e. no chemical de-waxing, or staining) method of imaging large pieces of prostate tissue (typically 1 cm × 2 cm) in tens of minutes (at a rate of 0.704 × 0.704 mm2 every 14.5 s) yielding images containing millions of spectra. Due to refractive index matching between sample and surrounding paraffin, minimal signal processing is required to recover spectra with their natural profile as opposed to harsh baseline correction methods, paving the way for future quantitative analysis of biochemical signatures. The quality of the spectral information is demonstrated by building and testing an automated cell-type classifier based upon spectral features.

  5. DFT simulation, quantum chemical electronic structure, spectroscopic and structure-activity investigations of 2-benzothiazole acetonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Thillai Govindaraja, S.; Jose, Sujin P.; Mohan, S.

    2014-07-01

    The Fourier transform infrared and FT-Raman spectra of 2-benzothiazole acetonitrile (BTAN) have been recorded in the range 4000-450 and 4000-100 cm-1 respectively. The conformational analysis of the compound has been carried out to obtain the stable geometry of the compound. The complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound are carried out using the experimental FTIR and FT-Raman data and quantum chemical studies. The experimental vibrational frequencies are compared with the wavenumbers derived theoretically by B3LYP gradient calculations employing the standard 6-31G**, high level 6-311++G** and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The structural parameters, thermodynamic properties and vibrational frequencies of the normal modes obtained from the B3LYP methods are in good agreement with the experimental data. The 1H (400 MHz; CDCl3) and 13C (100 MHz; CDCl3) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra are also recorded. The electronic properties, the energies of the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals are measured by DFT approach. The kinetic stability of the molecule has been determined from the frontier molecular orbital energy gap. The charges of the atoms and the structure-chemical reactivity relations of the compound are determined by its chemical potential, global hardness, global softness, electronegativity, electrophilicity and local reactivity descriptors by conceptual DFT methods. The non-linear optical properties of the compound have been discussed by measuring the polarisability and hyperpolarisability tensors.

  6. Structure activity studies of an analgesic drug tapentadol hydrochloride by spectroscopic and quantum chemical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Santhanam, R.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.; Yang, Haifeng

    2015-11-01

    Tapentadol is a novel opioid pain reliever drug with a dual mechanism of action, having potency between morphine and tramadol. Quantum chemical calculations have been carried out for tapentadol hydrochloride (TAP.Cl) to determine the properties. The geometry is optimised and the structural properties of the compound were determined from the optimised geometry by B3LYP method using 6-311++G(d,p), 6-31G(d,p) and cc-pVDZ basis sets. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra are recorded in the solid phase in the region of 4000-400 and 4000-100 cm-1, respectively. Frontier molecular orbital energies, LUMO-HOMO energy gap, ionisation potential, electron affinity, electronegativity, hardness and chemical potential are also calculated. The stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalisation has been analysed using NBO analysis. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of the molecule are analysed.

  7. BEHAVIOR OF SURFACTANT MIXTURES AT SOLID/LIQUID AND OIL/LIQUID INTERFACES IN CHEMICAL FLOODING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Somasundaran

    2004-11-20

    The aim of the project is to develop a knowledge base to help the design of enhanced processes for mobilizing and extracting untrapped oil. We emphasize evaluation of novel surfactant mixtures and obtaining optimum combinations of the surfactants for efficient chemical flooding EOR processes. In this regard, an understanding of the aggregate shape, size and structure is crucial since these properties govern the crude oil removal efficiency. During the three-year period, the adsorption and aggregation behavior of sugar-based surfactants and their mixtures with other types of surfactants have been studied. Sugar-based surfactants are made from renewable resources, nontoxic and biodegradable. They are miscible with water and oil. These environmentally benign surfactants feature high surface activity, good salinity, calcium and temperature tolerance, and unique adsorption behavior. They possess the characteristics required for oil flooding surfactants and have the potential for replacing currently used surfactants in oil recovery. A novel analytical ultracentrifugation technique has been successfully employed for the first time, to characterize the aggregate species present in mixed micellar solution due to its powerful ability to separate particles based on their size and shape and monitor them simultaneously. Analytical ultracentrifugation offers an unprecedented opportunity to obtain important information on mixed micelles, structure-performance relationship for different surfactant aggregates in solution and their role in interfacial processes. Initial sedimentation velocity investigations were conducted using nonyl phenol ethoxylated decyl ether (NP-10) to choose the best analytical protocol, calculate the partial specific volume and obtain information on sedimentation coefficient, aggregation mass of micelles. Four softwares: OptimaTM XL-A/XL-I data analysis software, DCDT+, Svedberg and SEDFIT, were compared for the analysis of sedimentation velocity

  8. Quantum chemical computations, vibrational spectroscopic analysis and antimicrobial studies of 2,3-Pyrazinedicarboxylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaula, T Joselin; Packiavathi, A; Manimaran, D; Joe, I Hubert; Rastogi, V K; Jothy, V Bena

    2015-03-05

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations at B3PW91 level with 6-311G (d) basis sets were carried out for 2,3-Pyrazinedicarboxylic acid (PDCA) to analyze in detail the equilibrium geometries and vibrational spectra. Calculations reveal that the optimized geometry closely resembles the experimental XRD data. Vibrational spectra were analyzed on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED) of each vibrational mode, which provides quantitative as well as qualitative interpretation of IR and Raman spectra. Information about size, shape, charge density distribution and site of chemical reactivity of the molecule were obtained by mapping electron density isosurface with the electrostatic potential surface (ESP). Based on optimized ground state geometries, NBO analysis was performed to study donor-acceptor (bond-antibond) interactions. TD-DFT analysis was also performed to calculate energies, oscillator strength of electronic singlet-singlet transitions and the absorption wavelengths. The (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule in the ground state were calculated by gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with the experimental values. PDCA was screened for its antimicrobial activity and found to exhibit antifungal and antibacterial effects. Molecular docking was also performed for the different receptors.

  9. Chemical Bonding in Aqueous Ferrocyanide: Experimental and Theoretical X-ray Spectroscopic Study

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Nicholas; Suljoti, Edlira; Garcia-Diez, Raul; Lange, Kathrin M; Atak, Kaan; Golnak, Ronny; Kothe, Alexander; Dantz, Marcus; Kühn, Oliver; Aziz, Emad F

    2013-01-01

    Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and X-ray absorption (XA) experiments at the iron L- and nitrogen K-edge are combined with high-level first principles restricted active space self-consistent field (RASSCF) calculations for a systematic investigation of the nature of the chemical bond in potassium ferrocyanide in aqueous solution. The atom- and site-specific RIXS excitations allow for direct observation of ligand-to-metal (Fe L-edge) and metal-to-ligand (N K-edge) charge transfer bands and thereby evidence for strong {\\sigma}-donation and {\\pi}-back-donation. The effects are identified by comparing experimental and simulated spectra related to both the unoccupied and occupied molecular orbitals in solution.

  10. Spectroscopic (vibrational, NMR and UV-vis.) and quantum chemical investigations on 4-hexyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ashgar; Gökce, Halil; Bahçeli, Semiha

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the 4-hexyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde compound as one of the derivatives of vanillin which is a well known flavoring agent, C14H20O3, has been investigated by experimentally and extensively utilizing density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. In this context, the optimized geometry, vibrational frequencies, 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts, UV-vis. (in gas phase and in methanol solvent) spectra, HOMO-LUMO analysis, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), thermodynamic parameters and atomic charges of 4-hexyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde have been calculated. In addition, theoretically predicted IR, Raman and UV-vis. (in gas phase and in methanol solvent) spectra of the mentioned molecule have been constructed. The results calculated were compared with the experimental data.

  11. Spectroscopic (vibrational, NMR and UV-vis.) and quantum chemical investigations on 4-hexyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ashgar; Gökce, Halil; Bahçeli, Semiha

    2016-01-05

    In this study, the 4-hexyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde compound as one of the derivatives of vanillin which is a well known flavoring agent, C14H20O3, has been investigated by experimentally and extensively utilizing density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. In this context, the optimized geometry, vibrational frequencies, (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts, UV-vis. (in gas phase and in methanol solvent) spectra, HOMO-LUMO analysis, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), thermodynamic parameters and atomic charges of 4-hexyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde have been calculated. In addition, theoretically predicted IR, Raman and UV-vis. (in gas phase and in methanol solvent) spectra of the mentioned molecule have been constructed. The results calculated were compared with the experimental data.

  12. Effects of humic substances on the bioconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Correlations with spectroscopic and chemical properties of humic substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitzer, M.; Abbt-Braun, G.; Traunspurger, W.; Steinberg, C.E.W.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of dissolved humic substances (HS, fulvic and humic acids) generally reduces the uptake of hydrophobic organic compounds into aquatic organisms. The extent of this effect depends both on the concentration and on the origin of the HS. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of qualitative differences between HS from different origins. The effects of seven different HS on the bioconcentration of pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were related to the spectroscopic and chemical properties of the HS. The effect of each humic material on the bioconcentration of pyrene or BaP was quantified as a 'biologically determined' partition coefficient K(DOC). We observed significant linear relationships between K(DOC) and the atomic H/C ratio, the specific absorptivity at 254 nm, the content of aromatic carbons (as determined by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the copper-complexing capacity, the content of phenolic OH groups, and the molecular weight of the HS. There was no discernible relationship of K(DOC) with the atomic (N + O)/C ratio, an indicator of the polarity of HS. Taken together, our results show that the variability in the effects of HS from different origins could be related to variations in bulk properties of the HS. Parameters describing the aromaticity of the humic materials seemed to be most useful for estimating effects of HS on the bioconcentration of pyrene and BaP.

  13. Evaluation of molecular assembly, spectroscopic interpretation, intra-/inter molecular hydrogen bonding and chemical reactivity of two pyrrole precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Poonam; Singh, R. N.

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of conformational, spectroscopic, hydrogen bonding and chemical reactivity of pyrrole precursor: ethyl 3,5 dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate (EDPC) and ethyl 3,4-dimethyl-4-acetyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate (EDAPC) for the convenient characterization, synthetic usefulness and comparative evaluations. All experimental spectral values of 1H NMR, UV-Vis and FT-IR spectra coincide well with calculated values by DFT. The orbital interactions in EDPC and EDAPC are found to lengthen their Nsbnd H and Cdbnd O bonds and lowers their vibrational frequencies (red shift) resulting to dimer formation. The QTAIM and NBO analyses provide the strength of interactions and charge transfer in the hydrogen bonding unit and stability of dimers. The binding energy of EDPC and EDPAC dimer are found to be 9.92, 10.22 kcal/mol, respectively. In EDPAC and EDPC dimer, hyperconjugative interactions between monomer units is due to n1(O) → σ*(Nsbnd H) that stabilize the molecule up to 9.7 and 9.3 kcal/mol, respectively. On evaluation of molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and electronic descriptors for EDPC it has been found that it is a good precursor for synthesis of formyl and acetyl derivatives whereas EDAPC has been found to be a good precursor for synthesis of schiff base, hydrazones, hydrazide-hydrazones and chalcones.

  14. Functionalized tellurols: synthesis, spectroscopic characterization by photoelectron spectroscopy, and quantum chemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Brahim; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Bajor, Gábor; Veszprémi, Tamás

    2008-03-03

    Ethene-, cyclopropane-, 3-butene-, and cyclopropanemethanetellurol have been synthesized by reaction of tributyltin hydride with the corresponding ditellurides and characterized by 1H, 13C, and 125Te NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The tellurols of this series, with a gradually increasing distance between the tellurium atom and the unsaturated group, have been studied by photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Two stable conformations of ethenetellurol and cyclopropanetellurol, five of allyltellurol, and four of cyclopropanemethanetellurol were found. In the photoelectron spectrum of vinyltellurol, the huge split between the first two bands indicates a direct interaction between the tellurium lone electron pair and the double bond. In the allyl derivative, a hyperconjugation effect was found for the most stable conformers. In contrast to the vinyl compounds, no direct interaction between the lone electron pair of X (X = O, S, Se, and Te) and the three-membered ring could be observed in the cyclopropyl derivatives. A hyperconjugation-like effect, which is independent of the relative orientation of the X-H group, is found to increase from S to Te. Thus, the type and extent of the interaction between the TeH group and an unsaturated or cyclopropyl moiety are clarified while the first comparison of interactions between the nonradioactive unsaturated chalcogen derivatives is performed.

  15. Chemical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Methods to Assess Biodegradation of Winery-Distillery Wastes during Composting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Torres-Climent

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the co-composting process of wastes from the winery and distillery industry with animal manures, using the classical chemical methods traditionally used in composting studies together with advanced instrumental methods (thermal analysis, FT-IR and CPMAS 13C NMR techniques, to evaluate the development of the process and the quality of the end-products obtained. For this, three piles were elaborated by the turning composting system, using as raw materials winery-distillery wastes (grape marc and exhausted grape marc and animal manures (cattle manure and poultry manure. The classical analytical methods showed a suitable development of the process in all the piles, but these techniques were ineffective to study the humification process during the composting of this type of materials. However, their combination with the advanced instrumental techniques clearly provided more information regarding the turnover of the organic matter pools during the composting process of these materials. Thermal analysis allowed to estimate the degradability of the remaining material and to assess qualitatively the rate of OM stabilization and recalcitrant C in the compost samples, based on the energy required to achieve the same mass losses. FT-IR spectra mainly showed variations between piles and time of sampling in the bands associated to complex organic compounds (mainly at 1420 and 1540 cm-1 and to nitrate and inorganic components (at 875 and 1384 cm-1, respectively, indicating composted material stability and maturity; while CPMAS 13C NMR provided semi-quantitatively partition of C compounds and structures during the process, being especially interesting their variation to evaluate the biotransformation of each C pool, especially in the comparison of recalcitrant C vs labile C pools, such as Alkyl /O-Alkyl ratio.

  16. Chemical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Methods to Assess Biodegradation of Winery-Distillery Wastes during Composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Climent, A; Gomis, P; Martín-Mata, J; Bustamante, M A; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Pérez-Murcia, M D; Pérez-Espinosa, A; Paredes, C; Moral, R

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the co-composting process of wastes from the winery and distillery industry with animal manures, using the classical chemical methods traditionally used in composting studies together with advanced instrumental methods (thermal analysis, FT-IR and CPMAS 13C NMR techniques), to evaluate the development of the process and the quality of the end-products obtained. For this, three piles were elaborated by the turning composting system, using as raw materials winery-distillery wastes (grape marc and exhausted grape marc) and animal manures (cattle manure and poultry manure). The classical analytical methods showed a suitable development of the process in all the piles, but these techniques were ineffective to study the humification process during the composting of this type of materials. However, their combination with the advanced instrumental techniques clearly provided more information regarding the turnover of the organic matter pools during the composting process of these materials. Thermal analysis allowed to estimate the degradability of the remaining material and to assess qualitatively the rate of OM stabilization and recalcitrant C in the compost samples, based on the energy required to achieve the same mass losses. FT-IR spectra mainly showed variations between piles and time of sampling in the bands associated to complex organic compounds (mainly at 1420 and 1540 cm-1) and to nitrate and inorganic components (at 875 and 1384 cm-1, respectively), indicating composted material stability and maturity; while CPMAS 13C NMR provided semi-quantitatively partition of C compounds and structures during the process, being especially interesting their variation to evaluate the biotransformation of each C pool, especially in the comparison of recalcitrant C vs labile C pools, such as Alkyl /O-Alkyl ratio.

  17. Flood pulse influence and anthropic impact on the chemical composition and energy content of Oryza glumaepatula in an Amazonian lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enrich-Prast, A; Esteves, F A

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this research was to study the flood pulse influence and the anthropic impact caused by bauxite tailings on the chemical composition of O. glumaepatula in Batata lake (PA, Brazil). Sampling was carried out in stands of O. glumaepatula in the low-water, filling, high-water, and drawdown periods in impacted and natural areas of Batata lake. During the low-water and drawdown periods the stands of O. glumaepatula were exposed, and in the filling and high-water periods the water depth was respectively 1.4 and 3.8 m. The collected material was dried at 70 degrees C, ground, and concentrations of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, organic carbon, and energy content were determined. The results indicate that the biomass increase, caused by the rise in water level, has a dilution effect on nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in O. glumaepatula. The energy contents did not present significant differences in any of the studied periods. The results suggest that from the low water to filling period, nitrogen becomes more limiting to O. glumaepatula in the impacted area, whereas phosphorus becomes more limiting in the natural area. The population of O. glumaepatula contributes to the recovery of the impacted area of Batata lake as the detritus from this species accumulates over the sediment. This accumulation impedes future re-suspension of the bauxite tailings and increases the organic matter and nutrient concentrations in the impacted sediment.

  18. Measurements of the aerosol chemical composition and mixing state in the Po Valley using multiple spectroscopic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Decesari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of co-located multiple spectroscopic techniques can provide detailed information on the atmospheric processes regulating aerosol chemical composition and mixing state. So far, field campaigns heavily equipped with aerosol mass spectrometers have been carried out mainly in large conurbations and in areas directly affected by their outflow, whereas lesser efforts have been dedicated to continental areas characterized by a less dense urbanization. We present here the results obtained in San Pietro Capofiume, which is located in a sparsely inhabited sector of the Po Valley, Italy. The experiment was carried out in summer 2009 in the framework of the EUCAARI project ("European Integrated Project on Aerosol, Cloud Climate Aerosol Interaction". For the first time in Europe, six state-of-the-art techniques were used in parallel: (1 on-line TSI aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS, (2 on-line Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS, (3 soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS, (4 on-line high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer-thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (HR-ToFMS-TAG, (5 off-line twelve-hour resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR spectroscopy, and (6 chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS for the analysis of gas-phase precursors of secondary aerosol. Data from each aerosol spectroscopic method were analysed individually following ad-hoc tools (i.e. PMF for AMS, Art-2a for ATOFMS. The results obtained from each techniques are herein presented and compared. This allows us to clearly link the modifications in aerosol chemical composition to transitions in air mass origin and meteorological regimes. Under stagnant conditions, atmospheric stratification at night and early morning hours led to the accumulation of aerosols produced by anthropogenic sources distributed over the Po Valley plain. Such aerosols include primary components such as black

  19. Chemical evolution, petrogenesis, and regional chemical correlations of the flood basalt sequence in the central Deccan Traps, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Leone Melluso; Mario Barbieri; Luigi Beccaluva

    2004-12-01

    The lava sequence of the central-western Deccan Traps (from Jalgaon towards Mumbai) is formed by basalts and basaltic andesites having a significant variation in TiO2 (from 1.2 to 3.3 wt%), Zr (from 84 to 253 ppm), Nb (from 5 to 16 ppm) and Ba (from 63 to 407 ppm), at MgO ranging from 10 to 4.2 wt%. Most of these basalts follow a liquid line of descent dominated by low pressure fractionation of clinopyroxene, plagioclase and olivine, starting from the most mafic compositions, in a temperature range from 1220° to 1125°C. These rocks resemble those belonging to the lowermost formations of the Deccan Traps in the Western Ghats (Jawhar, Igatpuri and Thakurvadi) as well as those of the Poladpur formation. Samples analyzed for 87Sr/86Sr give a range of initial ratios from 0.70558 to 0.70621. A group of flows of the Dhule area has low TiO2 (1.2–1.5 wt%) and Zr (84–105 ppm) at moderate MgO (5.2–6.2 wt%), matching the composition of low-Ti basalts of Gujarat, low-Ti dykes of the Tapti swarm and Toranmal basalts, just north of the study area. This allows chemical correlations between the lavas of central Deccan, the Tapti dykes and the northwestern outcrops. The mildly enriched high field strength element contents of the samples with TiO2 < 1.5 wt% make them products of mantle sources broadly similar to those which generated the Ambenali basalts, but their high La/Nb and Ba/Nb, negative Nb anomalies in the mantle normalized diagrams, and relatively high 87Sr/86Sr, make evident a crustal input with crustally derived materials at less differentiated stages than those represented in this sample set, or even within the sub-Indian lithospheric mantle.

  20. Magnesium bicarbonate and carbonate interactions in aqueous solutions: An infrared spectroscopic and quantum chemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefánsson, Andri; Lemke, Kono H.; Bénézeth, Pascale; Schott, Jacques

    2017-02-01

    The interaction of magnesium with bicarbonate and carbonate ions in aqueous solutions was studied using infrared spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Using the infrared vibrational bands for HCO3- and CO32- at 1200-1450 cm-1 (δC-OH, vS and v3) together with their molar absorptivity (ε), the concentrations of the HCO3- and CO32- ions and the corresponding Mg ion pairs have been determined. In the absence of Mg2+, measured spectra were accurately reproduced assuming that only HCO3- and CO32- were present in solution. Upon addition of Mg2+ at fixed pH, infrared spectra were observed to shift indicating presence of the MgHCO3+ and MgCO3 (aq) ion pairs. From measurements, the second ionization constant of carbonic acid and the MgHCO3+ and MgCO3 (aq) ion pair formation constants have been obtained, these being logK2 = -10.34 ± 0.04, logKMgHCO3+ = 1.12 ± 0.11 and logKMgCO3 = 2.98 ± 0.06, respectively. To support our experimental infrared measurements and to gain further insight into the molecular nature of the ion pair formation, density functional theory (DFT) calculations with VPT2 anharmonic correction were conducted. The most stable geometries predicted for the MgHCO3+ and MgCO3 (aq) ion pairs were a bi-dentate [MgHCO3]+(H2O)n and a monodentate [MgHCO3]+(OH)(H2O)n complexes, respectively. The predicted frequencies for HCO3-, CO32- and MgHCO3+ were found to shift toward those experimentally measured with an increasing H2O solvation number where possible band shifts were predicted for MgCO3 (aq) relative to CO32-, this being dependent on the exact structure and hydration of the bulk MgCO3 (aq) ion pair. Experimentally, the ion pair formations were found to have insignificant effects on the δC-OH, vS and v3 vibrational frequencies. The speciation of dissolved inorganic carbon may be significantly influenced by ion pair formation, particularly in alkaline solutions where they may be the predominant species.

  1. Measurements of the aerosol chemical composition and mixing state in the Po Valley using multiple spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decesari, S.; Allan, J.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Williams, B. J.; Paglione, M.; Facchini, M. C.; O'Dowd, C.; Harrison, R. M.; Gietl, J. K.; Coe, H.; Giulianelli, L.; Gobbi, G. P.; Lanconelli, C.; Carbone, C.; Worsnop, D.; Lambe, A. T.; Ahern, A. T.; Moretti, F.; Tagliavini, E.; Elste, T.; Gilge, S.; Zhang, Y.; Dall'Osto, M.

    2014-11-01

    The use of co-located multiple spectroscopic techniques can provide detailed information on the atmospheric processes regulating aerosol chemical composition and mixing state. So far, field campaigns heavily equipped with aerosol mass spectrometers have been carried out mainly in large conurbations and in areas directly affected by their outflow, whereas lesser efforts have been dedicated to continental areas characterised by a less dense urbanisation. We present here the results obtained at a background site in the Po Valley, Italy, in summer 2009. For the first time in Europe, six state-of-the-art spectrometric techniques were used in parallel: aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS), two aerosol mass spectrometers (high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer - HR-ToF-AMS and soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer - SP-AMS), thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography (TAG), chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (CIMS) and (offline) proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. The results indicate that, under high-pressure conditions, atmospheric stratification at night and early morning hours led to the accumulation of aerosols produced by anthropogenic sources distributed over the Po Valley plain. Such aerosols include primary components such as black carbon (BC), secondary semivolatile compounds such as ammonium nitrate and amines and a class of monocarboxylic acids which correspond to the AMS cooking organic aerosol (COA) already identified in urban areas. In daytime, the entrainment of aged air masses in the mixing layer is responsible for the accumulation of low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) and also for the recycling of non-volatile primary species such as black carbon. According to organic aerosol source apportionment, anthropogenic aerosols accumulating in the lower layers overnight accounted for 38% of organic aerosol mass on average, another 21% was accounted for by aerosols recirculated in

  2. Spectroscopic elucidation of energy transfer in hybrid inorganic-biological organisms for solar-to-chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, Nikolay; Sakimoto, Kelsey K; Herlihy, David M; Nguyen, Son C; Alivisatos, A Paul; Harris, Charles B; Schwartzberg, Adam; Yang, Peidong

    2016-10-18

    The rise of inorganic-biological hybrid organisms for solar-to-chemical production has spurred mechanistic investigations into the dynamics of the biotic-abiotic interface to drive the development of next-generation systems. The model system, Moorella thermoacetica-cadmium sulfide (CdS), combines an inorganic semiconductor nanoparticle light harvester with an acetogenic bacterium to drive the photosynthetic reduction of CO2 to acetic acid with high efficiency. In this work, we report insights into this unique electrotrophic behavior and propose a charge-transfer mechanism from CdS to M. thermoacetica Transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy revealed that photoexcited electron transfer rates increase with increasing hydrogenase (H2ase) enzyme activity. On the same time scale as the TA spectroscopy, time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy showed spectral changes in the 1,700-1,900-cm(-1) spectral region. The quantum efficiency of this system for photosynthetic acetic acid generation also increased with increasing H2ase activity and shorter carrier lifetimes when averaged over the first 24 h of photosynthesis. However, within the initial 3 h of photosynthesis, the rate followed an opposite trend: The bacteria with the lowest H2ase activity photosynthesized acetic acid the fastest. These results suggest a two-pathway mechanism: a high quantum efficiency charge-transfer pathway to H2ase generating H2 as a molecular intermediate that dominates at long time scales (24 h), and a direct energy-transducing enzymatic pathway responsible for acetic acid production at short time scales (3 h). This work represents a promising platform to utilize conventional spectroscopic methodology to extract insights from more complex biotic-abiotic hybrid systems.

  3. THE COMPARATIVE CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF AN ISOLATED DWARF GALAXY: A VLT AND KECK SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF WLM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaman, Ryan; Venn, Kim A.; Mendel, J. Trevor [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Brooks, Alyson M. [California Institute of Technology, M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Battaglia, Giuseppina [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Cole, Andrew A. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Ibata, Rodrigo A. [Observatoire Astronomique, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, 11 rue de l' Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Irwin, Mike J. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); McConnachie, Alan W. [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Starkenburg, Else; Tolstoy, Eline, E-mail: rleaman@iac.es [Kapteyn Institute, University of Groningen, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-04-20

    Building on our previous spectroscopic and photometric analysis of the isolated Local Group dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxy WLM, we present a comparison of the metallicities of its red giant branch stars with respect to the well-studied Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) and Magellanic Clouds. We calculate a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] =-1.28 {+-} 0.02 and an intrinsic spread in metallicity of {sigma} = 0.38 {+-} 0.04 dex, similar to the mean and spread observed in the massive dSph Fornax and the Small Magellanic Cloud. Thus, despite WLM's isolated environment, its global metallicity still follows expectations for mass and its global chemical evolution is similar to other nearby luminous dwarf galaxies (gas-rich or gas-poor). The data also show a radial gradient in [Fe/H] of d[Fe/H]/dr{sub c} = -0.04 {+-} 0.04 dex r{sub c}{sup -1}, which is flatter than that seen in the unbiased and spatially extended surveys of dSphs. Comparison of the spatial distribution of [Fe/H] in WLM, the Magellanic Clouds, and a sample of Local Group dSphs shows an apparent dichotomy in the sense that the dIrrs have statistically flatter radial [Fe/H] gradients than the low angular momentum dSphs. The correlation between angular momentum and radial metallicity gradient is further supported when considering the Local Group dEs. This chemodynamic relationship offers a new and useful constraint for environment-driven dwarf galaxy evolution models in the Local Group.

  4. BEHAVIOR OF SURFACTANT MIXTURES AT SOLID/LIQUID AND OIL/LIQUID INTERFACES IN CHEMICAL FLOODING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. P. Somasundaran

    2003-03-31

    The aim of the project is to develop a knowledge base to help with the design of enhanced process for mobilizing and extracting untrapped oil. We emphasize on evaluating novel surfactant mixtures and on obtaining optimum combinations of the surfactants in chemical flooding EOR process. An understanding of the micellar shape and size is crucial since these physical properties directly determine the crude oil removal efficiency. Analytical ultracentrifugation experiments were used to test the multi-micelle model proposed earlier and formulate the relationships between mixed micelle formation and the surfactant structure. Information on partial specific volume of surfactants and their mixtures is required to treat analytical ultracentrifuge data. In the last report, it was noted that the partial specific volumes of the sugar-based surfactants obtained experimentally did not agree with those from theoretical calculations. A scrutiny of partial specific volumes of the four sugar-based surfactants revealed that conformational changes upon micelle formation are responsible for the large deviation. From sedimentation equilibrium experiments, two types of micelles were identified for the nonionic polyethylene surfactant and its mixtures with the sugar-based surfactant, dodecyl maltoside. The average aggregation numbers of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside and nonyl phenol ethoxylated decyl ether agreed with those reported in literature using other techniques. Our study displayed, for the first time, that small micelles might coexist with large micelles at high concentrations due to unique structures of the surfactant although classical thermodynamic theory supports only one type of micelle. Initial dynamic light scattering results support the results for the same mixed surfactant system from analytical ultracentrifuge equilibrium technique. The implication of this finding lies in the fact that efficiency of oil recovery will be improved due to the large micellar size, its

  5. Quantum Chemical Study of the Solvent Effect on the Anticancer Active Molecule of Iproplatin: Structural, Electronic, and Spectroscopic Properties (IR, 1H NMR, UV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, N.; Ghiasi, R.; Fazaeli, R.; Jamehbozorgi, S.

    2017-01-01

    The structural, electronic, and spectroscopic properties of the anticancer active molecule of iproplatin were investigated in the gas and liquid phases. Based on the polarizable continuum model (PCM), the solvent effect on the structural parameters, frontier orbitals, and spectroscopic parameters of the complex was investigated. The results indicate that the polarity of solvents plays a significant role in the structure and pro perties of the complex. 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts were calculated using the Gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. Pt-Cl and Pt-OH bonds were investigated through a vibrational analysis. Moreover, time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) was used to calculate the energy, oscillatory strength, and wavelength absorption maximum (λmax) of electronic transitions and its nature within the complex.

  6. Using non-invasive molecular spectroscopic techniques to detect unique aspects of protein Amide functional groups and chemical properties of modeled forage from different sourced-origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Cuiying; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-03-05

    The non-invasive molecular spectroscopic technique-FT/IR is capable to detect the molecular structure spectral features that are associated with biological, nutritional and biodegradation functions. However, to date, few researches have been conducted to use these non-invasive molecular spectroscopic techniques to study forage internal protein structures associated with biodegradation and biological functions. The objectives of this study were to detect unique aspects and association of protein Amide functional groups in terms of protein Amide I and II spectral profiles and chemical properties in the alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa L.) from different sourced-origins. In this study, alfalfa hay with two different origins was used as modeled forage for molecular structure and chemical property study. In each forage origin, five to seven sources were analyzed. The molecular spectral profiles were determined using FT/IR non-invasive molecular spectroscopy. The parameters of protein spectral profiles included functional groups of Amide I, Amide II and Amide I to II ratio. The results show that the modeled forage Amide I and Amide II were centered at 1653 cm(-1) and 1545 cm(-1), respectively. The Amide I spectral height and area intensities were from 0.02 to 0.03 and 2.67 to 3.36 AI, respectively. The Amide II spectral height and area intensities were from 0.01 to 0.02 and 0.71 to 0.93 AI, respectively. The Amide I to II spectral peak height and area ratios were from 1.86 to 1.88 and 3.68 to 3.79, respectively. Our results show that the non-invasive molecular spectroscopic techniques are capable to detect forage internal protein structure features which are associated with forage chemical properties.

  7. Using non-invasive molecular spectroscopic techniques to detect unique aspects of protein Amide functional groups and chemical properties of modeled forage from different sourced-origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Cuiying; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-03-01

    The non-invasive molecular spectroscopic technique-FT/IR is capable to detect the molecular structure spectral features that are associated with biological, nutritional and biodegradation functions. However, to date, few researches have been conducted to use these non-invasive molecular spectroscopic techniques to study forage internal protein structures associated with biodegradation and biological functions. The objectives of this study were to detect unique aspects and association of protein Amide functional groups in terms of protein Amide I and II spectral profiles and chemical properties in the alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa L.) from different sourced-origins. In this study, alfalfa hay with two different origins was used as modeled forage for molecular structure and chemical property study. In each forage origin, five to seven sources were analyzed. The molecular spectral profiles were determined using FT/IR non-invasive molecular spectroscopy. The parameters of protein spectral profiles included functional groups of Amide I, Amide II and Amide I to II ratio. The results show that the modeled forage Amide I and Amide II were centered at 1653 cm- 1 and 1545 cm- 1, respectively. The Amide I spectral height and area intensities were from 0.02 to 0.03 and 2.67 to 3.36 AI, respectively. The Amide II spectral height and area intensities were from 0.01 to 0.02 and 0.71 to 0.93 AI, respectively. The Amide I to II spectral peak height and area ratios were from 1.86 to 1.88 and 3.68 to 3.79, respectively. Our results show that the non-invasive molecular spectroscopic techniques are capable to detect forage internal protein structure features which are associated with forage chemical properties.

  8. User`s guide for UTCHEM-5.32m a three dimensional chemical flood simulator. Final report, September 30, 1992--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    UTCHEM is a three-dimensional chemical flooding simulator. The solution scheme is analogous to IMPES, where pressure is solved for implicitly, but concentrations rather than saturations are then solved for explicitly. Phase saturations and concentrations are then solved in a flash routine. An energy balance equation is solved explicitly for reservoir temperature. The energy balance equation includes heat flow between the reservoir and the over-and under-burden rocks. The major physical phenomena modeled in the simulator are: dispersion; dilution effects; adsorption; interfacial tension; relative permeability; capillary trapping; cation exchange; phase density; compositional phase viscosity; phase behavior (pseudoquaternary); aqueous reactions; partitioning of chemical species between oil and water; dissolution/precipitation; cation exchange reactions involving more than two cations; in-situ generation of surfactant from acidic crude oil; pH dependent adsorption; polymer properties: shear thinning viscosity; inaccessible pore volume; permeability reduction; adsorption; gel properties: viscosity; permeability reduction; adsorption; tracer properties: partitioning; adsorption; radioactive decay; reaction (ester hydrolization); temperature dependent properties: viscosity; tracer reaction; gel reactions The following options are available with UTCHEM: isothermal or non-isothermal conditions, a constant or variable time-step, constant pressure or constant rate well conditions, horizontal and vertical wells, and a radial or Cartesian geometry. Please refer to the dissertation {open_quotes}Field Scale Simulation of Chemical Flooding{close_quotes} by Naji Saad, August, 1989, for a more detailed discussion of the UTCHEM simulator and its formulation.

  9. Study to determine the technical and economic feasibility of reclaiming chemicals used in micellar polymer and low tension surfactant flooding. Final report. [Ultrafiltration membranes and reverse osmosis membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, R.H.; Himmelblau, A.; Donnelly, R.G.

    1978-02-01

    Energy Resources Company has developed a technology for use with enhanced oil recovery to achieve emulsion breaking and surfactant recovery. By using ultrafiltration membranes, the Energy Resources Company process can dewater an oil-in-water type emulsion expected from enhanced oil recovery projects to the point where the emulsion can be inverted and treated using conventional emulsion-treating equipment. By using a tight ultrafiltration membrane or a reverse osmosis membrane, the Energy Resources Company process is capable of recovering chemicals such as surfactants used in micellar polymer flooding.

  10. Physico-chemical spectroscopic mapping of the planetary nebula NGC 40 and the 2D_NEB, a new 2D algorithm to study ionised nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Ferreira, M L; Monteiro, H; Richards, J W

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of the physical and chemical conditions of the planetary nebula NGC 40 through spatially-resolved spectroscopic maps. We also introduce a new algorithm --2D_NEB-- based on the well-established IRAF nebular package, which was developed to enable the use of the spectroscopic maps to easily estimate the astrophysical quantities of ionised nebulae. The 2D_NEB was benchmarked, and we clearly show that it works properly, since it compares nicely with the IRAF nebular software. Using this software, we derive the maps of several physical parameters of NGC 40. From these maps, we conclude that Te[NII] shows only a slight temperature variation from region to region, with its values constrained between ~8,000 K and ~9,500 K. Electron densities, on the other hand, have a much more prominent spatial variation, as Ne[SII] values vary from ~1,000 cm^(-3) to ~3,000 cm^(-3). Maps of the chemical abundances also show significant variations. From the big picture of our work, we strongly sugg...

  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance, vibrational spectroscopic studies, physico-chemical properties and computational calculations on (nitrophenyl) octahydroquinolindiones by DFT method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, M A; Siddekha, Aisha; Mishra, Soni; Azzam, Sadeq Hamood Saleh; Umapathy, S

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, 2'-nitrophenyloctahydroquinolinedione and its 3'-nitrophenyl isomer were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, FT-Raman, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shift values of the synthesized compounds in the ground state have been calculated by using the density functional theory (DFT) method with the 6-311++G (d,p) basis set and compared with the experimental data. The complete vibrational assignments of wave numbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution using GAR2PED programme. Isotropic chemical shifts for (1)H and (13)C NMR were calculated using gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The experimental vibrational frequencies, (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shift values were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. On the basis of vibrational analysis, molecular electrostatic potential and the standard thermodynamic functions have been investigated.

  12. Spectroscopic studies of neutral and chemically oxidized species of β-carotene, lycopene and norbixin in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}: Fluorescence from intermediate compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwis, D.D.D.H [Department of Chemistry, The Open University of Sri Lanka, Nawala (Sri Lanka); Department of Chemistry, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka); Chandrika, U.G. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka); Jayaweera, P.M., E-mail: pradeep@sjp.ac.lk [Department of Chemistry, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka)

    2015-02-15

    Radical cations, dications and oxidized intermediate species of three carotenoids, namely, β-carotene, lycopene and norbixin, were generated in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} solutions via chemical oxidation using anhydrous FeCl{sub 3}. UV–vis, fluorescence and fluorescence-excitation spectroscopic studies were performed to understand and compare the nature of intermediate species generated during the chemical oxidation process and subsequent degradation. The intense emission observed at 550 nm can be assigned to the S{sub 2}→S{sub 0} (1{sup 1}B{sub u}→1{sup 1}A{sub g}) transition of the carotenoid molecules. The 350 nm excitation during the oxidation process for β-carotene, lycopene and norbixin exhibit intense fluorescence peaks at 492 nm, 493 nm and 500 nm, respectively. These peaks are assigned to intermediate peroxy/epoxy compounds of the three molecules that are formed with molecular oxygen prior to the formation of oxidized short-chain stable compounds. - Highlights: • Fluorescence and UV–vis studies on β-carotene, lycopene and norbixin. • Oxidation, induced by FeCl{sub 3} in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} shows blue shifted fluorescence peaks. • Fluorescence peaks were assigned to intermediate peroxy/epoxy forms of carotenoids. • The D0→D3 transition of radical cations are observed in the near IR region.

  13. Structural and spectroscopic studies of water-alkaline earth ion micro clusters: an alternate approach using genetic algorithm in conjunction with quantum chemical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly Neogi, S.; Chaudhury, P.

    2014-08-01

    We present an approach of using a stochastic optimization technique namely genetic algorithm in association with quantum chemical methods to first elucidate structure and then infrared spectroscopy and thermochemistry of water-alkaline earth metal ion clusters. We show that an initial determination of structure using stochastic techniques and following it up with quantum chemical calculation can lead to much faster convergence to high quality structures for these systems. Infrared spectroscopic, thermochemical calculations and natural population analysis based charges on the central metal ions are done to further ascertain the correctness of the structures using our technique. We have done a comparative study with a pure density functional theory calculation and have shown that even for very poor starting guess geometries genetic algorithm in conjunction with density functional theory indeed converges to global structure while pure density functional theory can encounter problems in certain situations to arrive at global geometry. We have also discussed usefulness of Unimodal Normal distribution crossover for handling situation with real coded variables.

  14. Dithieno[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine-based Chemical Probe for Anions: A Spectroscopic Study of Binding

    KAUST Repository

    El-Assaad, Tarek H.

    2015-04-27

    The synthesis of a new anion-responsive molecule N,N\\'-(2,5-bis(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)dithieno[3,2-a:2\\',3\\'-c]phenazine-9,10-diyl)bis(4-methylbenzenesulfonamide) (1) is reported. The sensitivities of the spectroscopic properties of 1 in the presence of various anions were examined using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence and 1H NMR titration experiments. Strong binding of 1 to carboxylate, cyanide, fluoride and dihydrogen phosphate anions results in an increase in quantum yield for emission of 1, and changes in its 1H NMR chemical shifts. A significant electrostatic interaction of the tetrabutylammonium cation with 1, upon strong binding with the counter anion, was also indicated by the chemical shifts observed in the 1H NMR titrations. Binding constants of 1 to anions are also calculated based on the binding isotherms derived from NMR and UV-Vis titrations. DFT calculations show that the anion does not significantly impact the HOMO/LUMO levels (and subsequently the S0 -> S1 transition), but rather changes the strength of the S0 -> S2 transition, which accounts for the observed changes in the UV-vis spectra.

  15. Chemical Method to Improve CO{sub 2} Flooding Sweep Efficiency for Oil Recovery Using SPI-CO{sub 2} Gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Lyle D.

    2009-04-14

    hydrocarbon combustion for energy, chemical and fertilizer plants. For example, coal fired power plants emit large amounts of CO{sub 2} in order to produce electrical energy. Carbon dioxide sequestration is gaining attention as concerns mount over possible global climate change caused by rising emissions of greenhouse gases. Removing the CO{sub 2} from the energy generation process would make these plants more environmentally friendly. In addition, CO{sub 2} flooding is an attractive means to enhance oil and natural gas recovery. Capture and use of the CO{sub 2} from these plants for recycling into CO{sub 2} flooding of marginal reservoirs provides a “dual use” opportunity prior to final CO{sub 2} sequestration in the depleted reservoir. Under the right pressure, temperature and oil composition conditions, CO{sub 2} can act as a solvent, cleaning oil trapped in the microscopic pores of the reservoir rock. This miscible process greatly increases the recovery of crude oil from a reservoir compared to recovery normally seen by waterflooding. An Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) project that uses an industrial source of CO{sub 2} that otherwise would be vented to the atmosphere has the added environmental benefit of sequestering the greenhouse gas.

  16. Raman Spectroscopic Study of Carbon Nanotubes Prepared Using Fe/ZnO-Palm Olein-Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan Afif Mohd Zobir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were synthesized using Fe/ZnO catalyst by a dual-furnace thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD method at 800–1000°C using nitrogen gas with a constant flow rate of 150 sccm/min as a gas carrier. Palm olein (PO, ferrocene in the presence of 0.05 M zinc nitrate, and a p-type silicon wafer were used as carbon source, catalyst precursor, and sample target, respectively. D, G, and G′ bands were observed at 1336–1364, 1559–1680, and 2667–2682 cm-1, respectively. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs with the highest degree of crystallinity were obtained at around 8000°C, and the smallest diameter of about 2 nm was deposited on the silicon substrate at 1000°C.

  17. Control of chemical reaction pathways by femtosecond ponderomotive forces: Time-resolved multiphoton ionization spectroscopic study of OCIO photodissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, M.; Ludowise, P.; Chen, Y.

    1997-07-01

    Femtosecond time-resolved multiphoton ionization spectroscopy is applied to the study of the photodissociation of OClO. The observed ratio of O2+/ClO+ signal increases 12-fold with a 3-fold increase of the pump laser intensity. They are attributed to the change in the branching ratio between the two independent reaction channels leading to Cl+O2 and ClO+O, respectively. We believe this is the first experimental demonstration of laser controlled chemical reactions by femtosecond ponderomotive forces. At low pump power, the photodissociation dynamics at 386 nm is shown to be a two-step process, with the OClO slowly approaching (time constant 4.6 ps) a transition state that falls apart rapidly (time constant 250 fs).

  18. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible) and quantum chemical studies of 4-Chloro-3-iodobenzophenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Prasad, K.; Muthu, S.; Santhamma, C.

    2017-01-01

    The vibrational analysis of the substituted Benzophenone molecule 4-Chloro-3-iodobenzophenone (4, 3-ClIBP) is carried out using both FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra and also quantum chemical calculations of the scaled frequencies using the DFT method B3LYP/LanL2DZ basis set. The natural bond orbital analysis of this molecule has been carried out to describe the various intramolecular interactions responsible for the stabilization of the molecule. The HOMO, LUMO energy gap have been computed with the TD-DFT theory and the differences are compared with UV-absorption spectra. The statistical thermodynamic functions are calculated for the range of 100-1000 k. The Fukui functions are evaluated to describe the activity of the sites.

  19. Low-Resolution Spectroscopic Study of the Intriguing Globular Cluster NGC 2808: Chemical Abundance Patterns among Subpopulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seungsoo; Lim, Dongwook; Han, Sang-Il; Lee, Young-Wook

    2017-01-01

    The presence of multiple stellar populations is now well established in most globular clusters (GCs) in the Milky Way. The origin of this phenomenon, however, is yet to be understood. In this respect, the study of NGC 2808, an intriguing GC which hosts subpopulations with extreme helium and light-element abundances, would help to understand this phenomenon. In order to investigate chemical abundance patterns among different subpopulations, we have performed low-resolution spectroscopy for the red-giant-branch stars and measured CN & CH bands, and Ca line strength. We have identified at least three subpopulations from the CN band strength. The CN band strength appears to be more efficient than Na abundance in separating earlier populations. We also find that this GC shows the CN-CH anti-correlation following the general trend of most GCs which are less affected by supernovae enrichment.

  20. Chemical substitution of Cd ions by Hg in CdSe nanorods and nanodots: Spectroscopic and structural examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prudnikau, Anatol [Institute for Physico-Chemical Problems, Belarussian State University, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Artemyev, Mikhail, E-mail: m_artemyev@yahoo.com [Institute for Physico-Chemical Problems, Belarussian State University, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Laboratory of Nano-Bioengineering, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, 31 Kashirskoe sh., 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Molinari, Michael; Troyon, Michel [Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 51100 Reims (France); Sukhanova, Alyona; Nabiev, Igor [Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 51100 Reims (France); Laboratory of Nano-Bioengineering, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, 31 Kashirskoe sh., 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Baranov, Alexandr V.; Cherevkov, Sergey A.; Fedorov, Anatoly V. [Saint-Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, St.-Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied cadmium-by-mercury chemical substitution in CdSe nanocrystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc blende CdSe quantum dots can be easily converted to isostructural Cd{sub x}Hg{sub 1-x}Se. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wurtzite CdSe QDs require longer time to convert to a zinc blende Cd{sub x}Hg{sub 1-x}Se. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wurtzite CdSe nanorods transform to nanoheterogeneous luminescent Cd{sub x}Hg{sub 1-x}Se rods. - Abstract: The chemical substitution of cadmium by mercury in colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and nanorods has been examined by absorption, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. The crystalline structure of original CdSe QDs used for Cd/Hg substitution (zinc blende versus wurtzite) shows a strong impact on the optical and structural properties of resultant Cd{sub x}Hg{sub 1-x}Se nanocrystals. Substitution of Cd by Hg in isostructural zinc blende CdSe QDs converts them to ternary Cd{sub x}Hg{sub 1-x}Se zinc blende nanocrystals with significant NIR emission. Whereas, the wurtzite CdSe QDs transformed first to ternary nanocrystals with almost no emission followed by slow structural reorganization to a NIR-emitting zinc blende Cd{sub x}Hg{sub 1-x}Se QDs. CdSe nanorods with intrinsic wurtzite structure show unexpectedly intense NIR emission even at early Cd/Hg substitution stage with PL active zinc blende Cd{sub x}Hg{sub 1-x}Se regions.

  1. Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of dissolved humic substances in a mangrove-fringed estuary in the eastern coast of Hainan Island, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yaoling; DU Jinzhou; PENG Bo; ZHANG Fenfen; ZHAO Xin; ZHANG Jing

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) has an important effect on estuarine and coastal area on a large scale.In order to improve the understanding of origin,composition,and fate of DOM in mangrove-fringed estuarine and coastal areas,dissolved humic substances (DHS) were isolated from one mangrove pore-water sample and one near-shore seawater sample downstream the mangrove pore-water site in the eastern coast of Hainan Island,South China.Fulvic acids,humic acids and XAD-4 fractions were obtained from the two water samples by using a two-column array of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins.Chemical and spectroscopic methods were used to analyze the features of these DHS.Compared to the mangrovepore-water DHS,the near-shore seawater DHS were found rich in 13C with lower C/N ratios and more aliphatic compounds and carbohydrates,but less aromatic structures and carboxyl groups.As for the three fractions of the two DHS,XAD-4 fractions contain more aliphatics,carbohydrates,carboxyl groups,and enrich in 13C with respect to both fulvic and humic acids.Photo-oxidation transformation and contribution from marine-derived DOM were considered as the main reasons resulted in the difference in compositional features for these DHS in this study.

  2. A Spectroscopic Study of Blue Supergiant Stars in the Sculptor Galaxy NGC 55: Chemical Evolution and Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudritzki, R. P.; Castro, N.; Urbaneja, M. A.; Ho, I.-T.; Bresolin, F.; Gieren, W.; Pietrzyński, G.; Przybilla, N.

    2016-10-01

    Low-resolution (4.5-5 Å) spectra of 58 blue supergiant stars distributed over the disk of the Magellanic spiral galaxy NGC 55 in the Sculptor group are analyzed by means of non-LTE techniques to determine stellar temperatures, gravities, and metallicities (from iron peak and α-elements). A metallicity gradient of -0.22 ± 0.06 dex/R 25 is detected. The central metallicity on a logarithmic scale relative to the Sun is [Z] = -0.37 ± 0.03. A chemical evolution model using the observed distribution of column densities of the stellar and interstellar medium gas mass reproduces the observed metallicity distribution well and reveals a recent history of strong galactic mass accretion and wind outflows with accretion and mass-loss rates of the order of the star formation rate. There is an indication of spatial inhomogeneity in metallicity. In addition, the relatively high central metallicity of the disk confirms that two extraplanar metal-poor H ii regions detected in previous work 1.13 to 2.22 kpc above the galactic plane are ionized by massive stars formed in situ outside the disk. For a subsample of supergiants, for which Hubble Space Telescope photometry is available, the flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relationship is used to determine a distance modulus of 26.85 ± 0.10 mag.

  3. A spectroscopic study of blue supergiant stars in the Sculptor galaxy NGC 55: chemical evolution and distance

    CERN Document Server

    Kudritzki, Rolf; Castro, Norberto; Ho, I-Ting; Bresolin, Fabio; Gieren, Wolfgang; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Przybilla, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Low resolution (4.5 to 5 Angstroem) spectra of 58 blue supergiant stars distributed over the disk of the Magellanic spiral galaxy NGC 55 in the Sculptor group are analyzed by means of non-LTE techniques to determine stellar temperatures, gravities and metallicities (from iron peak and alpha-elements). A metallicity gradient of -0.22 +/- 0.06$ dex/R_25 is detected. The central metallicity on a logarithmic scale relative to the Sun is [Z] = -0.37 +\\- 0.03. A chemical evolution model using the observed distribution of stellar and interstellar medium gas mass column densities reproduces the observed metallicity distribution well and reveals a recent history of strong galactic mass accretion and wind outflows with accretion and mass-loss rates of the order of the star formation rate. There is an indication of spatial inhomogeneity in metallicity. In addition, the relatively high central metallicity of the disk confirms that two extra-planar metal poor HII regions detected in previous work 1.13 to 2.22 kpc above th...

  4. Chemical and spectroscopic investigation of the Raphael's cartoon of the School of Athens from the Pinacoteca Ambrosiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioele, Marcella; Sodo, Armida; Casanova Municchia, Annalaura; Ricci, Maria Antonietta; Russo, Alfonso Pio

    2016-12-01

    The cartoon of "The School of Athens", realized by the famous artist Raffaello Sanzio, is a masterpiece of Italian Renaissance. It is a full-scale (804 × 285 cm2) preparatory cartoon, stored at the Pinacoteca Ambrosiana (Milan, Italy). In order to characterize the cartoon and the drawing and to investigate its conservation state, several scientific analyses have been performed, both in situ and on sampled fragments. This multi-analytical approach has identified most of the materials used in the original drawing and in restored areas and provided a map of previous restoration works. Here we report the results obtained by Raman and FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with X-ray micro-analysis (SEM-EDS), pH measurements and micro-chemical tests. pH measurements proved the absence of an acidic decay of the paper. The original paper from linen and hemp fibres is well preserved. It is filled with calcium carbonate and has received a light sizing with protein glue, now almost completely transformed into oxalates. 1797 French intervention paper is of lower quality and has been covered with a patina of lead white in Arabic gum, most likely in an attempt to match the colour to the tone of the original. Both papers are stuck to a support paper with flour glue (containing starch and gluten) and glued with the same adhesive to a canvas lining. In situ Raman spectroscopy has clearly shown that the original drawing was in charcoal and lead white, while the restored areas have been drawn using charcoal and graphite.

  5. Spectroscopic investigation of the chemical and electronic properties of chalcogenide materials for thin-film optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Kimberly Anne

    Chalcogen-based materials are at the forefront of technologies for sustainable energy production. This progress has come only from decades of research, and further investigation is needed to continue improvement of these materials. For this dissertation, a number of chalcogenide systems were studied, which have applications in optoelectronic devices, such as LEDs and Photovoltaics. The systems studied include Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) and CuInSe 2 (CISe) thin-film absorbers, CdTe-based photovoltaic structures, and CdTe-ZnO nanocomposite materials. For each project, a sample set was prepared through collaboration with outside institutions, and a suite of spectroscopy techniques was employed to answer specific questions about the system. These techniques enabled the investigation of the chemical and electronic structure of the materials, both at the surface and towards the bulk. CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-films produced from the roll-to-roll, ambient pressure, Nanosolar industrial line were studied. While record-breaking efficiency cells are usually prepared in high-vacuum (HV) or ultra-high vacuum (UHV) environments, these samples demonstrate competitive mass-production efficiency without the high-cost deposition environment. We found relatively low levels of C contaminants, limited Na and Se oxidation, and a S-Se intermixing at the CdS/CIGSe interface. The surface band gap compared closely to previously investigated CIGSe thin-films deposited under vacuum, illustrating that roll-to-roll processing is a promising and less-expensive alternative for solar cell production. An alternative deposition process for CuInSe2 was also studied, in collaboration with the University of Luxembourg. CuInSe2 absorbers were prepared with varying Cu content and surface treatments to investigate the potential to produce an absorber with a Cu-rich bulk and Cu-poor surface. This is desired to combine the bulk characteristics of reduced defects and larger grains in Cu-rich films, while maintaining

  6. Flooding On

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Drenched riverside towns in central and south parts of China were preparing for even worse flooding as water levels in the country's huge rivers surged and rainstorms continued. As of July 27,accumulated precipitation since June 16 in 70 percent of the drainage areas of the Yangtze River had exceeded 50 mm,after three rounds of rainstorms,said Cai Qihua,Deputy Director of the Yangtze River Flood Control and Drought Relief Headquarters.

  7. BEHAVIOR OF SURFACTANT MIXTURE AT SOLID/LIQUID AND OIL/LIQUID INTERFACE IN CHEMICAL FLOODING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. P. Somasundaran

    2002-03-01

    The aim of the project is to develop and evaluate efficient novel surfactant mixtures for enhanced oil recovery. Preliminary ultra-filtration tests suggest that two kinds of micelles may exist in binary surfactant mixtures at different concentrations. Due to the important role played in interfacial processes by micelles as determined by their structures, focus of the current work is on the delineation of the relationship between such aggregate structures and chemical compositions of the surfactants. A novel analytical centrifuge application is explored to generate information on structures of different surfactants aggregates. In this report, optical systems, typical output of the analytical ultracentrifuge results and four basic experiments are discussed. Initial sedimentation velocity investigations were conducted using nonyl phenol ethoxylated decyl ether (NP-10) to choose the best analytical protocol, calculate the partial specific volume and obtain information on sedimentation coefficient, aggregation mass of micelles. The partial specific volume was calculated to be 0.920. Four softwares: Optima{trademark} XL-A/XL-I data analysis software, DCDT+, Svedberg and SEDFIT, were compared for the analysis of sedimentation velocity experimental data. The sedimentation coefficient and aggregation number of NP-10 micelles obtained using the first three softwares at 25 C are 209, 127, and 111, respectively. The last one is closest to the result from Light Scattering. The reason for the differences in numbers obtained using the three softwares is discussed. Based on these tests, Svedberg and SEDFIT analysis are chosen for further studies. This approach using the analytical ultracentrifugation offers an unprecedented opportunity now to obtain important information on mixed micelles and their role in interfacial processes.

  8. Spectroscopic [FT-IR and FT-Raman] and molecular modeling (MM) study of benzene sulfonamide molecule using quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, K. S.; Periandy, S.; Govindarajan, M.

    2016-07-01

    The spectroscopic and molecular modeling (MM) study includes, FT-IR, FT-Raman and 13C NMR and 1H NMR spectra of the Benzene sulfonamide were recorded for the analysis. The observed experimental and theoretical frequencies (IR and Raman) were assigned according to their distinctive region. The present study of this title molecule have been carried out by hybrid computational calculations of HF and DFT (B3LYP) methods with 6-311+G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets and the corresponding results are tabulated. The structural modifications of the compound due to the substitutions of NH2 and SO2 were investigated. The minimum energy conformers of the compound were studied using conformational analysis. The alternations of the vibrational pattern of the base structure related to the substitutions were analyzed. The thermodynamic parameters (such as zero-point vibrational energy, thermal energy, specific heat capacity, rotational constants, entropy, and dipole moment) of Benzene sulfonamide have been calculated. The donor acceptor interactions of the compound and the corresponding UV transitions are found out using NBO analysis. The NMR spectra were simulated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method with B3LYP methods and the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set and their spectra were simulated and the chemical shifts related to TMS were compared. A quantum computational study on the electronic and optical properties absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies, were performed by HF and DFT methods. The energy gap of the present compound was calculated related to HOMO and LUMO energies which confirm the occurring of charge transformation between the base and ligand group. Besides frontier molecular orbitals (FMO), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) was performed. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures were calculated in gas phase and

  9. Combating Floods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    In summer and autumn of 1998, the river vatleys of the Changjiang, Songhua and Nenjiang rivers were stricken by exceptionally serious floods, As of the, 22nd of August, the flooded areas stretched over 52.4 million acres. More than 223 million people were affected by the flood. 4.97 million houses were ruined, economic losses totaled RMB 166 billion, and most tragically, 3,004 people lost their byes. It was one of the costliest disasters in Chinese history. Millions of People’s Liberation Army soldiers and local people joined hands to battle the floodwaters. Thanks to their unified efforts and tenacious struggle, they successfully withstood the rising, water, resumed production and began to rebuild their homes.

  10. Flooding On

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Drenched riverside towns in central and south parts of China were preparing for even worse flooding aswater levels in the country’s huge rivers surged and rainstorms continued.As of July 27,accumulated precipitation since June 16 in 70 percent of the drainage

  11. A Sequential Chemical Extraction and Spectroscopic Assessment of the Potential Bioavailability of Mercury Released From the Inoperative New Idria Mercury Mine, San Benito Co., CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jew, A. D.; Luong, P. N.; Rytuba, J. J.; Brown, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    The inoperative New Idria mercury mine in San Benito Co., CA, is a potential point source of Hg to the Central Valley of California. To determine the phases and the potential bioavailability of Hg present in stream bed deposits downstream of the mine, sequential chemical extractions (SCEs) targeting Hg-bearing phases and synchrotron-based spectroscopic and imaging techniques were used on sediment samples taken from the acid mine drainage (AMD) system, Hg sorbed in the laboratory to ferrihydrite (synthetic 2-line and natural), and Hg associated with diatom-rich samples. In all field samples examined, both the wet and dry seasons, removal of > 97% of the Hg required 1M KOH or harsher chemical treatments. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) showed that HgS was the dominant inorganic Hg phase present, with no detectable Hg associated with the ferrihydrite. Uptake and subsequent SCE analysis of Hg to both synthetic and natural ferrihydrite showed that 1M MgCl2 removed ≥ 90% of the total Hg, suggesting that Hg does not sorb strongly to ferrihydrite. This finding is surprising, because in most settings ferrihydrite is considered to be a strong adsorbent of heavy metals. Due to the lack of Hg sorption to ferrihydrite in field samples, another pool for the non-HgS/HgSe fraction in sediments is needed. SEM analysis of the downstream samples showed that regardless of pH, freshwater diatoms were present. To determine if diatoms were the sink for dissolved Hg in this system, SCE analysis on commercially available and diatom-rich field samples from the New Idria site and Harley Gulch (Lake County, CA) were completed. The vast majority of Hg in diatom-rich samples was removed by 1M KOH, which corresponds to the non-HgS/HgSe fraction of the New Idria field samples. Analysis for carbon and nitrogen in the diatom-rich samples showed no detectable nitrogen, indicating little to no organic material was left in the samples. We therefore infer that Hg in the diatoms is contained in

  12. Tsunami flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric; Jones, Henry; McBride, Mark; Fedors, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Panel 5 focused on tsunami flooding with an emphasis on Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) as derived from its counterpart, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) that determines seismic ground-motion hazards. The Panel reviewed current practices in PTHA and determined the viability of extending the analysis to extreme design probabilities (i.e., 10-4 to 10-6). In addition to earthquake sources for tsunamis, PTHA for extreme events necessitates the inclusion of tsunamis generated by submarine landslides, and treatment of the large attendant uncertainty in source characterization and recurrence rates. Tsunamis can be caused by local and distant earthquakes, landslides, volcanism, and asteroid/meteorite impacts. Coastal flooding caused by storm surges and seiches is covered in Panel 7. Tsunamis directly tied to earthquakes, the similarities with (and path forward offered by) the PSHA approach for PTHA, and especially submarine landslide tsunamis were a particular focus of Panel 5.

  13. Spectroscopic data

    CERN Document Server

    Melzer, J

    1976-01-01

    During the preparation of this compilation, many people contributed; the compilers wish to thank all of them. In particular they appreciate the efforts of V. Gilbertson, the manuscript typist, and those of K. C. Bregand, J. A. Kiley, and W. H. McPherson, who gave editorial assistance. They would like to thank Dr. J. R. Schwartz for his cooperation and encouragement. In addition, they extend their grati­ tude to Dr. L. Wilson of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory, who gave the initial impetus to this project. v Contents I. I ntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. Organization ofthe Spectroscopic Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Methods of Production and Experimental Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Band Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2...

  14. Structure and spectroscopic aspects of water-halide ion clusters: a study based on a conjunction of stochastic and quantum chemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Soumya Ganguly; Chaudhury, Pinaki

    2013-03-05

    In this article, we propose a stochastic search based method, namely genetic algorithm in conjunction with density functional theory to evaluate structures of water-halide microclusters, with the halide ion being Cl(-), Br(-), and I(-). Once the structures are established, we evaluate the infrared spectroscopic modes, vertical detachment energies and natural population analysis based charges. We compare our results with available experimental and theoretical results.

  15. Mississippi River flood of 2008: observations of a large freshwater diversion on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of a shallow estuarine lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J R; Fulweiler, R W; Li, C Y; Bargu, S; Walker, N D; Twilley, R R; Green, S E

    2009-08-01

    High nitrogen (N) loading to coastal aquatic systems can be expressed as increased algal production and subsequent low dissolved oxygen. In April, 2008, predictions for extreme flood stage for the Lower Mississippi River triggered the opening of the Bonnet Carré Spillway, a major release valve for the river. The spillway diverted approximately 8 km3 of water over one month of operation into Lake Pontchartrain with a concomitant 10000 t of NO3-N. Satellite imagery, physical, water quality, and chlorophyll a (chl a) measurements show that the Mississippi River plume mixed with opening of the diversion. The potential removal of a total of 7.6% of the N load from the Mississippi River during the one month of flood level flow may have been a contributing factor in the lower than predicted hypoxia zone off the Louisiana coast during the summer of 2008.

  16. C,C- and N,C-coupled dimers of 2-aminotetraphenylporphyrins: regiocontrolled synthesis, spectroscopic properties, and quantum-chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Torsten; Witterauf, Franziska; Götz, Daniel C G; Grimmer, Carina T; Würtemberger, Max; Radius, Udo; Bringmann, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    β,β'-Bisporphyrins are intrinsically chiral porphyrin dimers with fascinating properties. The configurational stability at their axes can be directed by variation of the central metal atoms. Herein, we present a regioselective functionalization of the monomeric 2-amino-tetraphenyl-porphyrin as a versatile substrate for dimerization by oxidative coupling. By simple variation of the reaction conditions (solvent and oxidant), the oxidation selectively gave either the axially chiral C,C-coupled diaminobisporphyrin in high yields or, under Ullmann conditions, the twofold N,C-linked achiral dimer, also in good yields. A generalized mechanism for the coupling reaction is proposed based on DFT calculations. The axially chiral β,β'-coupled porphyrin dimers were isolated as racemic mixtures, but can be resolved by HPLC on a chiral phase. TDDFT and coupled-cluster calculations were used to explain the spectroscopic properties of the aminoporphyrins and their dimers and to elucidate the absolute configurations of the C,C-coupled bisporphyrins.

  17. Vibrational spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman) studies, Hirshfeld surfaces analysis, and quantum chemical calculations of m-acetotoluidide and m-thioacetotoluidide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmiszek-Lindert, Wioleta Edyta; Chełmecka, Elżbieta; Góralczyk, Stefan; Kaczmarek, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical calculations of the m-acetotoluidide and m-thioacetotoluidide isolated molecules were performed by using density functional theory (DFT) method at B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) and B3LYP/6-311++G (3df,2pd) basis set levels. The Hirshfeld surfaces analysis and FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy studies have been reported. The geometrical parameters of the title amide and thioamide are in a good agreement with the XRD experiment. The vibrational frequencies were calculated and scaled, and subsequently values have been compared with the experimental Infrared and Raman spectra. The observed and calculated frequencies are found to be in good agreement. The analysis of the Hirshfeld surface has been well correlated to the spectroscopic studies. Additionally, the highest occupied molecular orbital energy (EHOMO), lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (ELUMO) and the energy gap between EHOMO and ELUMO (ΔEHOMO-LUMO) have been calculated.

  18. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  19. Structural, spectroscopic aspects, and electronic properties of (TiO2)n clusters: a study based on the use of natural algorithms in association with quantum chemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly Neogi, Soumya; Chaudhury, Pinaki

    2014-01-05

    In this article, we propose a stochastic search-based method, namely genetic algorithm (GA) and simulated annealing (SA) in conjunction with density functional theory (DFT) to evaluate global and local minimum structures of (TiO2)n clusters with n = 1-12. Once the structures are established, we evaluate the infrared spectroscopic modes, cluster formation energy, vertical excitation energy, vertical ionization potential, vertical electron affinity, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps, and so forth. We show that an initial determination of structure using stochastic techniques (GA/SA), also popularly known as natural algorithms as their working principle mimics certain natural processes, and following it up with density functional calculations lead to high-quality structures for these systems. We have shown that the clusters tend to form three-dimensional networks. We compare our results with the available experimental and theoretical results. The results obtained from SA/GA-DFT technique agree well with available theoretical and experimental data of literature.

  20. A spectroscopic study on interaction between bovine serum albumin and titanium dioxide nanoparticle synthesized from microwave-assisted hybrid chemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Shivendu; Dasgupta, Nandita; Srivastava, Priyanka; Ramalingam, Chidambaram

    2016-08-01

    The use of nanoparticles in food or pharma requires a molecular-level perceptive of how NPs interact with protein corona once exposed to a physiological environment. In this study, the conformational changes of bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated in detail when exposed to different concentration of titanium dioxide nanoparticle by various techniques. To analyze the effects of NPs on proteins, the interaction between bovine serum albumin and titanium dioxide nanoparticles at different concentrations were investigated. The interaction, BSA conformations, kinetics, and adsorption were analyzed by dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and fluorescence quenching. Dynamic light scattering analysis confirms the interaction with major changes in the size of the protein. Fluorescence quenching analysis confirms the side-on or end-on interaction of 1.1 molecules of serum albumin to titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Further, pseudo-second order kinetics was determined with equilibrium contact time of 20min. The spectroscopic analysis suggests that there is a conformational change both at secondary and tertiary structure levels. A distortion in both α-helix and β-sheets was observed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Fluorescence quenching analysis confirms the interaction of a molecule of bovine serum albumin to the single TiO2 nanoparticle. Further, pseudo-second order kinetics was determined with equilibrium contact time of 20min. The data of the present study determines the detailed evaluation of BSA adsorption on TiO2 nanoparticle along with mechanism and adsorption kinetics.

  1. Molecular structure, spectroscopic properties and quantum chemical calculations of 8-t-buthyl-4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koparir, Pelin; Sarac, Kamiran; Orek, Cahit; Koparir, Metin

    2016-11-01

    This study acquaints the 8-t-buthyl-4-methyl-2H-chromen 2-one (II) of by quantum chemical calculations and spectral ways. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies and gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) 1H and 13C NMR chemical shift values of II in the ground state have been calculated utilizing the density functional method (B3LYP) with the 6-31G(d) basis set. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and chemical shift values display well agreement with experimental values. On the other hand, DFT calculations of molecular electrostatic potentials and frontier molecular orbitals of II were implemented at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory.

  2. Flood Hazard Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  3. Flood Control Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  4. South China Flooded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Vehicles traverse a flooded street in Liuzhou, guangxi zhuang Autonomous Region, on May 19.heavy rainstorms repeatedly struck China this month, triggering floods, mudflows and landslides. hunan, guangdong and Jiangxi provinces and Chongqing Municipality were the worst hit.

  5. Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  6. Base Flood Elevation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  7. Flood Risk Regional Flood Defences: Technical report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.

    2015-01-01

    Historically the Netherlands have always had to deal with the threat of flooding, both from the rivers and the sea as well as from heavy rainfall. The country consists of a large amount of polders, which are low lying areas of land protected from flooding by embankments. These polders require an ext

  8. Acid-base titrations of functional groups on the surface of the thermophilic bacterium Anoxybacillus flavithermus: comparing a chemical equilibrium model with ATR-IR spectroscopic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Hannah T M; Bremer, Phil J; Daughney, Christopher J; McQuillan, A James

    2007-02-27

    Acid-base functional groups at the surface of Anoxybacillus flavithermus (AF) were assigned from the modeling of batch titration data of bacterial suspensions and compared with those determined from in situ infrared spectroscopic titration analysis. The computer program FITMOD was used to generate a two-site Donnan model (site 1: pKa = 3.26, wet concn = 2.46 x 10(-4) mol g(-1); site 2: pKa = 6.12, wet concn = 6.55 x 10(-5) mol g(-1)), which was able to describe data for whole exponential phase cells from both batch acid-base titrations at 0.01 M ionic strength and electrophoretic mobility measurements over a range of different pH values and ionic strengths. In agreement with information on the composition of bacterial cell walls and a considerable body of modeling literature, site 1 of the model was assigned to carboxyl groups, and site 2 was assigned to amino groups. pH difference IR spectra acquired by in situ attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of carboxyl groups. The spectra appear to show a carboxyl pKa in the 3.3-4.0 range. Further peaks were assigned to phosphodiester groups, which deprotonated at slightly lower pH. The presence of amino groups could not be confirmed or discounted by IR spectroscopy, but a positively charged group corresponding to site 2 was implicated by electrophoretic mobility data. Carboxyl group speciation over a pH range of 2.3-10.3 at two different ionic strengths was further compared to modeling predictions. While model predictions were strongly influenced by the ionic strength change, pH difference IR data showed no significant change. This meant that modeling predictions agreed reasonably well with the IR data for 0.5 M ionic strength but not for 0.01 M ionic strength.

  9. Theoretical and experimental spectroscopic analysis by FTIR in the effect of the silanes on the chemical modification of the surface of rice husk

    OpenAIRE

    R. Salgado-Delgado; A.M. Salgado-Delgado

    2016-01-01

    The development of new fibrous composites with specific properties has attracted a big interest in the development of new technologies. One of the biggest problems in this area is the improvement of the fiber/matrix interface to increase the mechanical properties in the final composite. In this work, surface chemical modifications of the rice husk (by-product of the rice industry) were carried out to achieve a better compatibility with diverse polymeric matrices. These modificatio...

  10. Flood Impact Modelling and Natural Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Gareth; Quinn, Paul; ODonnell, Greg

    2016-04-01

    Local implementation of Natural Flood Management methods are now being proposed in many flood schemes. In principal it offers a cost effective solution to a number of catchment based problem as NFM tackles both flood risk and WFD issues. However within larger catchments there is the issue of which subcatchments to target first and how much NFM to implement. If each catchment has its own configuration of subcatchment and rivers how can the issues of flood synchronisation and strategic investment be addressed? In this study we will show two key aspects to resolving these issues. Firstly, a multi-scale network water level recorder is placed throughout the system to capture the flow concentration and travel time operating in the catchment being studied. The second is a Flood Impact Model (FIM), which is a subcatchment based model that can generate runoff in any location using any hydrological model. The key aspect to the model is that it has a function to represent the impact of NFM in any subcatchment and the ability to route that flood wave to the outfall. This function allows a realistic representation of the synchronisation issues for that catchment. By running the model in interactive mode the user can define an appropriate scheme that minimises or removes the risk of synchornisation and gives confidence that the NFM investment is having a good level of impact downstream in large flood events.

  11. Urban pluvial flood prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Jensen, David Getreuer

    2016-01-01

    historically and in real-time. There is a rather untested potential in real-time prediction of urban floods. In this paper radar data observations with different spatial and temporal resolution, radar nowcasts of 0–2 h lead time, and numerical weather models with lead times up to 24 h are used as inputs......Flooding produced by high-intensive local rainfall and drainage system capacity exceedance can have severe impacts in cities. In order to prepare cities for these types of flood events – especially in the future climate – it is valuable to be able to simulate these events numerically both...... to an integrated flood and drainage systems model in order to investigate the relative difference between different inputs in predicting future floods. The system is tested on a small town Lystrup in Denmark, which has been flooded in 2012 and 2014. Results show it is possible to generate detailed flood maps...

  12. Evaluation des méthodes chimiques, spectroscopiques et chromatographiques utilisables pour l'identification des polluants pétroliers en mer Evaluation of Chemical, Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Methods Used to Identify Offshore Oil Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albaigés J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article on passe en revue les différentes méthodes utilisables pour l'identification des principaux polluants pétroliers de la mer par l'analyse quantitativé de leurs « marqueurs passifs x (soufre, azote, nickel, vanadium, paraffine et asphaltènes et la détermination d'autres caractéristiques intrinsèques. II s'agit de méthodes chimiques, spectroscop iques (infrarouge, ultraviolette et chromatographiques (chromatographie en phase gazeuse à haute résolution avec détection par ionisation de flamme, photométrie de flamme et capture d'électrons. Les mesures ont concerné une grande variété de produits susceptibles de polluer la côte méditerranéenne espagnole - pétrole brut des gisements offshore d'Amposta et de Castellôn; - pétroles bruts importés traités dans les raffineries côtières (Boscan, Es Sider, Kuwait, Arabian light, etc.; - fractions lourdes provenant de ces raffineries (fuel-cils, asphaltes, lubrifiants; - polluants réels; - échantillons altérés artificiellement en laboratoire afin de mettre en évidence l'action progressive des éléments naturels. On a trouvé que les méthodes les plus intéressantes étaient : - le dosage chimique du soufre, du nickel et du vanadium; - la spectroscopie infrarouge; - la chromatographie en phase gazeuse à haute résolution avec détection par ionisation et photométrie de flamme. This article reviews the different methods that con be used to identify the leading petroleum pollutants of the sea by quantitative analysis of their a passive markers » (sulfur, nitrogen, nickel, vanadium, paraffin, asphaltenes and by determining other intrinsic properties. These methods are chemical, spectroscopic (infrared, ultraviolet and chromatographic (high-resolution gas chromatography with flame ionization detection, flame photometry and electron capture. Measurements were made of a great variety of products capable of polluting the Spanish Mediterranean coast, including

  13. Flood management: prediction of microbial contamination in large-scale floods in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathon; Lai, Ka Man; Davies, Mike; Clifton, David; Ridley, Ian; Biddulph, Phillip

    2011-07-01

    With a changing climate and increased urbanisation, the occurrence and the impact of flooding is expected to increase significantly. Floods can bring pathogens into homes and cause lingering damp and microbial growth in buildings, with the level of growth and persistence dependent on the volume and chemical and biological content of the flood water, the properties of the contaminating microbes, and the surrounding environmental conditions, including the restoration time and methods, the heat and moisture transport properties of the envelope design, and the ability of the construction material to sustain the microbial growth. The public health risk will depend on the interaction of these complex processes and the vulnerability and susceptibility of occupants in the affected areas. After the 2007 floods in the UK, the Pitt review noted that there is lack of relevant scientific evidence and consistency with regard to the management and treatment of flooded homes, which not only put the local population at risk but also caused unnecessary delays in the restoration effort. Understanding the drying behaviour of flooded buildings in the UK building stock under different scenarios, and the ability of microbial contaminants to grow, persist, and produce toxins within these buildings can help inform recovery efforts. To contribute to future flood management, this paper proposes the use of building simulations and biological models to predict the risk of microbial contamination in typical UK buildings. We review the state of the art with regard to biological contamination following flooding, relevant building simulation, simulation-linked microbial modelling, and current practical considerations in flood remediation. Using the city of London as an example, a methodology is proposed that uses GIS as a platform to integrate drying models and microbial risk models with the local building stock and flood models. The integrated tool will help local governments, health authorities

  14. Molecular structure, spectroscopic characterization, HOMO and LUMO analysis of PU and PCL grafted onto PEMA-co-PHEMA with DFT quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Pınar; Akman, Feride

    2017-04-01

    A newly synthesized polycaprolactone (PCL) and polyurethane (PU) polymers, which grafted onto poly (ethylmethacrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PEMA-co-PHEMA) were characterized both theoretically and experimentally. The FTIR and 1H NMR spectra were recorded for the PCL and PU polymers and the experimental values were compared the theoretical values. The molecular structure evaluation, vibrational frequencies and 1H NMR chemical shift values, which carried out by using gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) approach, of the PCL and PU polymers were calculated by using density functional method (DFT/B3LYP) with 6-311G (d, p) as a basis set in the ground state. The calculated data such as vibrational frequencies and chemical shift values show good agreement with experimental values. Besides, the thermodynamic properties such as rotational temperatures, rotational constants, zero-point vibrational energy, specific heat capacity, thermal energy, entropy, enthalpy, the electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies, and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surfaces for the PCL and PU were calculated and interpreted.

  15. Combined experimental and quantum chemical studies on spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Vis, and NMR) and structural characteristics of quinoline-5-carboxaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumru, Mustafa; Altun, Ahmet; Kocademir, Mustafa; Küçük, Vesile; Bardakçı, Tayyibe; Şaşmaz, İbrahim

    2016-12-01

    Comparative experimental and theoretical studies have been performed on the structure and spectral (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Vis and NMR) features of quinoline-5-carboxaldehyde. Quantum chemical calculations have been carried out at Hartree-Fock and density functional B3LYP levels with the triple-zeta 6-311++G** basis set. Two stable conformers of quinoline-5-carboxaldehyde arising from the orientation of the carboxaldehyde moiety have been located at the room temperature. The energetic separation of these conformers is as small as 2.5 kcal/mol with a low transition barrier (around 9 kcal/mol). Therefore, these conformers are expected to coexist at the room temperature. Several molecular characteristics of quinoline-5-carboxaldehyde obtained through B3LYP and time-dependent B3LYP calculations, such as conformational stability, key geometry parameters, vibrational frequencies, IR and Raman intensities, UV-Vis vertical excitation energies and the corresponding oscillator strengths have been analyzed. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of quinoline-5-carboxaldehyde were also investigated.

  16. Covellite CuS as a matrix for "invisible" gold: X-ray spectroscopic study of the chemical state of Cu and Au in synthetic minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagirov, Boris R.; Trigub, Alexander L.; Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Shiryaev, Andrey A.; Chareev, Dmitriy A.; Nickolsky, Maximilian S.; Abramova, Vera D.; Kovalchuk, Elena V.

    2016-10-01

    Geological processes leading to formation of sulfide ores often result in precipitation of gold-bearing sulfides which can contain high concentrations of this metal in "invisible" (or "refractory") state. Covellite (CuS) is ubiquitous mineral in many types of the ore deposits, and numerous studies of the natural ores show that covellite can contain high concentrations of Au. At the same time, Au-bearing covellite withstands cooling in contrast to other minerals of the Cu-Fe-S system (chalcocite, bornite, chalcopyrite), where Au exsolves at low temperatures. This makes covellite a convenient model system for investigation of the chemical state (local environment and valence) of the "invisible" Au in copper-sulfide ores (copper-porphyry, epithermal, volcanogenic massive sulfide, SEDEX deposits). Therefore, it is necessary to determine the location of Au in the covellite matrix as it will have important implications for the methods employed by mineral processing industry to extract Au from sulfide ores. Here we investigate the chemical state of Cu and Au in synthetic covellite containing up to 0.3 wt.% of Au in the "invisible" state. The covellite crystals were synthesized by hydrothermal and salt flux methods. Formation of the chemically bound Au is indicated by strong dependence of the concentration of Au in covellite on the sulfur fugacity in the experimental system (d(log C(Au))/d(log f(S2)) ∼ 0.65). The Au concentration of covellite grows with increasing temperature from 400 to 450 °C, whereas further temperature increase to 500 °C has only minor effect. The synthesized minerals were studied using X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in high energy resolution fluorescence detection (HERFD) mode. Ab initio simulations of Cu K edge XANES spectra show that the Cu oxidation state in two structural positions in covellite (tetrahedral and triangular coordination with S atoms) is identical: the total loss of electronic charge for the 3d shell is ∼0

  17. Assessment of Hyporheic Zone, Flood-Plain, Soil-Gas, Soil, and Surface-Water Contamination at the McCoys Creek Chemical Training Area, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Georgia, assessed the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, soil, and surface water for contaminants at the McCoys Creek Chemical Training Area (MCTA) at Fort Gordon, from October 2009 to September 2010. The assessment included the detection of organic contaminants in the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, and surface water. In addition, the organic contaminant assessment included the analysis of organic compounds classified as explosives and chemical agents in selected areas. Inorganic contaminants were assessed in soil and surface-water samples. The assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to the U.S. Army at Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. Ten passive samplers were deployed in the hyporheic zone and flood plain, and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and octane were detected above the method detection level in every sampler. Other organic compounds detected above the method detection level in the hyporheic zone and flood-plain samplers were trichloroethylene, and cis- and trans- 1, 2-dichloroethylene. One trip blank detected TPH below the method detection level but above the nondetection level. The concentrations of TPH in the samplers were many times greater than the concentrations detected in the blank; therefore, all other TPH concentrations detected are considered to represent environmental conditions. Seventy-one soil-gas samplers were deployed in a grid pattern across the MCTA. Three trip blanks and three method blanks were used and not deployed, and TPH was detected above the method detection level in two trip blanks and one method blank. Detection of TPH was observed at all 71 samplers, but because TPH was detected in the trip and method blanks, TPH was

  18. FT-Raman, FT-IR, UV spectroscopic, NBO and DFT quantum chemical study on the molecular structure, vibrational and electronic transitions of clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate form 1: A comparison to form 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anubha; Mishra, Rashmi; Tandon, Poonam; Bansal, A. K.

    2013-03-01

    Clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate (+)-(S)-(2-chlorophenyl)-6,7-dihydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridine-5(4H)-acetate sulfate (1:1), is a selective adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonist often used in the treatment of coronary artery, peripheral vascular and cerebrovascular diseases. In the present communication, a comparative study of two polymorphic forms (forms 1 and 2) of clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate (CLP) has been reported. There is difference in conformation and intermolecular hydrogen bonding pattern of two forms. These differences are nicely reflected in the vibrational spectra. The molecular structure, fundamental vibrational frequencies and intensity of the vibrational bands of CLP form 1 are interpreted with the aid of structure optimizations and normal mode analysis based on ab initio HF and DFT method employing 6-311++G(d,p) basis. Polymorphism in CLP have been studied using various characterization tools like FT-Raman, FT-IR spectroscopy and DSC in combination with the quantum chemical calculations. UV-vis spectroscopic studies along with HOMO-LUMO analysis of both polymorphs were performed. The solvent effect calculated by TD-DFT/IEF-PCM/6-31G model results complements with the experimental findings. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis.

  19. FT-Raman, FT-IR, UV spectroscopic, NBO and DFT quantum chemical study on the molecular structure, vibrational and electronic transitions of clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate form 1: a comparison to form 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anubha; Mishra, Rashmi; Tandon, Poonam; Bansal, A K

    2013-03-01

    Clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate (+)-(S)-(2-chlorophenyl)-6,7-dihydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridine-5(4H)-acetate sulfate (1:1), is a selective adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonist often used in the treatment of coronary artery, peripheral vascular and cerebrovascular diseases. In the present communication, a comparative study of two polymorphic forms (forms 1 and 2) of clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate (CLP) has been reported. There is difference in conformation and intermolecular hydrogen bonding pattern of two forms. These differences are nicely reflected in the vibrational spectra. The molecular structure, fundamental vibrational frequencies and intensity of the vibrational bands of CLP form 1 are interpreted with the aid of structure optimizations and normal mode analysis based on ab initio HF and DFT method employing 6-311++G(d,p) basis. Polymorphism in CLP have been studied using various characterization tools like FT-Raman, FT-IR spectroscopy and DSC in combination with the quantum chemical calculations. UV-vis spectroscopic studies along with HOMO-LUMO analysis of both polymorphs were performed. The solvent effect calculated by TD-DFT/IEF-PCM/6-31G model results complements with the experimental findings. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis.

  20. Comprehensive quantum chemical and spectroscopic (FTIR, FT-Raman, 1H, 13C NMR) investigations of O-desmethyltramadol hydrochloride an active metabolite in tramadol - An analgesic drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Santhanam, R.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.

    2014-03-01

    O-desmethyltramadol is one of the main metabolites of tramadol widely used clinically and has analgesic activity. The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of O-desmethyl tramadol hydrochloride are recorded in the solid phase in the regions 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-100 cm-1, respectively. The observed fundamentals are assigned to different normal modes of vibration. Theoretical studies have been performed as its hydrochloride salt. The structure of the compound has been optimised with B3LYP method using 6-31G** and cc-pVDZ basis sets. The optimised bond length and bond angles are correlated with the X-ray data. The experimental wavenumbers were compared with the scaled vibrational frequencies determined by DFT methods. The IR and Raman intensities are determined with B3LYP method using cc-pVDZ and 6-31G(d,p) basic sets. The total electron density and molecular electrostatic potential surfaces of the molecule are constructed by using B3LYP/cc-pVDZ method to display electrostatic potential (electron + nuclei) distribution. The electronic properties HOMO and LUMO energies were measured. Natural bond orbital analysis of O-desmethyltramadol hydrochloride has been performed to indicate the presence of intramolecular charge transfer. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the molecule have been anlysed.

  1. Molecular structure and vibrational spectroscopic analysis of an antiplatelet drug; clopidogrel hydrogen sulphate (form 2) - A combined experimental and quantum chemical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anubha; Mishra, Soni; Tandon, Poonam; Patel, Sarasvatkumar; Ayala, A. P.; Bansal, A. K.; Siesler, H. W.

    2010-02-01

    Clopidogrel hydrogen sulphate which belongs to a class of medicine called antiplatelet drugs. Chemically it is methyl (+)-(S)-α-(2-chlorophenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno [3,2- c] pyridine-5-acetate hydrogen sulphate having the empirical formula C 16H 17ClNO 2S.HSO 4 and molecular mass 321.82 g/mol. The present study is confined to vibrational spectroscopy of the polymorph identified as form 2 of the clopidogrel hydrogen sulphate. The vibrational analysis of clopidogrel hydrogen sulphate salt (form 2) considering separately the two counterions has been performed. We also report a theoretical and experimental study of the molecular conformation and vibrational dynamics of the independent moieties of the clopidogrel hydrogen sulphate salt. The equilibrium geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities and activities of Raman scattering were calculated by ab initio Hartree-Fock and density functional theory employing B3LYP with complete relaxation in the potential energy surface using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The calculated wavenumbers after a proper scaling show a very good agreement with the observed values. A complete vibrational assignment is provided for the observed Raman and infrared spectra of clopidogrel hydrogen sulphate form 2.

  2. Combined quantum chemical density functional theory and spectroscopic Raman and UV-vis-NIR study of oligothienoacenes with five and seven rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna, Reyes Malavé; Zhang, Xinnan; Matzger, Adam Jay; Hernandez, Víctor; López Navarrete, Juan Teodomiro

    2006-04-20

    In this article, we report the characterization of novel oligothienoacenes with five and seven fused thiophene rings, materials with potential applications in organic electronics. In contrast to usual alpha-linked oligothiophenes, these fused oligothiophenes have a larger band gap than most semiconductors currently used in the fabrication of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and therefore they are expected to be more stable in air. The synthesis of these fused-ring oligomers was motivated by the notion that a more rigid and planar structure should reduce defects (such as torsion about single bonds between alpha-linked units or S-syn defects) and thus improve conjugation for better charge-carrier mobility. The conjugational properties of these two molecular materials have been investigated by means of FT-Raman spectroscopy, revealing that conjugation still increases in passing from the five-ring oligomer to that with seven-rings. DFT and TDDFT quantum chemical calculations have been performed, at the B3LYP/6-31G level, to assess information regarding the minimum-energy molecular structure, topologies, and absolute energies of the frontier molecular orbitals (MOs.) around the gap, vibrational normal modes related to the main Raman features, and vertical one-electron excitations giving rise to the main optical absorptions.

  3. RASOR flood modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Joost; Buckman, Lora; Bachmann, Daniel; Visser, Martijn; Tollenaar, Daniel; Vatvani, Deepak; Kramer, Nienke; Goorden, Neeltje

    2015-04-01

    Decision making in disaster management requires fast access to reliable and relevant information. We believe that online information and services will become increasingly important in disaster management. Within the EU FP7 project RASOR (Rapid Risk Assessment and Spatialisation of Risk) an online platform is being developed for rapid multi-hazard risk analyses to support disaster management anywhere in the world. The platform will provide access to a plethora of GIS data that are relevant to risk assessment. It will also enable the user to run numerical flood models to simulate historical and newly defined flooding scenarios. The results of these models are maps of flood extent, flood depths and flow velocities. The RASOR platform will enable to overlay historical event flood maps with observations and Earth Observation (EO) imagery to fill in gaps and assess the accuracy of the flood models. New flooding scenarios can be defined by the user and simulated to investigate the potential impact of future floods. A series of flood models have been developed within RASOR for selected case study areas around the globe that are subject to very different flood hazards: • The city of Bandung in Indonesia, which is prone to fluvial flooding induced by heavy rainfall. The flood hazard is exacerbated by land subsidence. • The port of Cilacap on the south coast of Java, subject to tsunami hazard from submarine earthquakes in the Sunda trench. • The area south of city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, prone to coastal and/or riverine flooding. • The island of Santorini in Greece, which is subject to tsunamis induced by landslides. Flood models have been developed for each of these case studies using mostly EO data, augmented by local data where necessary. Particular use was made of the new TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) product from the German Aerospace centre (DLR) and EADS Astrium. The presentation will describe the flood models and the

  4. Osmium(III) analogues of KP1019: Electrochemical and chemical synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, x-ray crystallography, hydrolytic stability, and antiproliferative activity

    KAUST Repository

    Kuhn, Paul-Steffen

    2014-10-20

    A one-electron reduction of osmium(IV) complexes trans-[OsIVCl4(Hazole)2], where Hazole = 1H-pyrazole ([1]0), 2H-indazole ([2]0), 1H-imidazole ([3]0), and 1H-benzimidazole ([4]0), afforded a series of eight new complexes as osmium analogues of KP1019, a lead anticancer drug in clinical trials, with the general formula (cation)[trans-OsIIICl4(Hazole)2], where cation = H2pz+ (H2pz[1]), H2ind+ (H2ind[2]), H2im+ (H2im[3]), Ph4P+ (Ph4P[3]), nBu4N+ (nBu4N[3]), H2bzim+ (H2bzim[4]), Ph4P+ (Ph4P[4]), and nBu4N+ (nBu4N[4]). All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, while H2pz[1], H2ind[2], and nBu4[3], in addition, by X-ray diffraction. The reduced species [1]- and [4]- are stable in aqueous media in the absence of air oxygen and do not react with small biomolecules such as amino acids and the nucleotide 5′-dGMP. Cell culture experiments in five different human cancer cell lines (HeLa, A549, FemX, MDA-MB-453, and LS-174) and one noncancerous cell line (MRC-5) were performed, and the results were discussed and compared to those for KP1019 and cisplatin. Benzannulation in complexes with similar structure enhances antitumor activity by several orders of magnitude, implicating different mechanisms of action of the tested compounds. In particular, complexes H2ind[2] and H2bzim[4] exhibited significant antiproliferative activity in vitro when compared to H2pz[1] and H2im[3]. (Chemical Equation Presented).

  5. Study on chemical steam flood to enhance recovery ratio of ninth block of Gudong oilfield%孤东油田九区稠油油藏化学蒸汽驱提高采收率技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广友

    2012-01-01

    With steam injection times and production time of steamed well increasing, the problem that production declines quickly and serious steam channels become very common, and recovery enhancing of this kind of reservoir become more difficult after the viscous oil reservoir undergoes steam soak and steam flood. Thermal chemical flood is the foam system that is acceded to steam and thermal water which is injected to reservoir, distinguishing feature of foam system that "water shutoff and not oil shutoff" and " low shutoff and more high shutoff" can change flow direction of medium, repress steam overlapping and steam channeling and supply producing energy, so that it can get the performance of enhancing recovery and economic benefit. According to numerical simulation and production reality of reservoir, injection and production parameters are designed; equally steam injection rate after foam flooding is 3.9 t/h, production/injection ratio is 1.3, quality fraction of foam is 0.5% , length of slug flow is injection 30 d and stop 60 d, and steam is injected in all process. The result indicates that, compared with old unregulated well, the ninth block can produce more llyears and increment of productive capacity is 1. 15×104 t after foam steam injection is designed, meanwhile, the recovery ratio of block can be enhanced by 14. 63%.%稠油油藏在经历了蒸汽吞吐和蒸汽驱开发后,随着注蒸汽井吞吐次数和开采时间的增加,产量递减快、汽窜严重等现象成为开发中后期面临的共性问题,同时也严重制约了该类油藏采收率的大幅提高.化学蒸汽驱在注入蒸汽或热水的同时,加入泡沫体系,利用泡沫体系“堵水不堵油”和“堵低更堵高”的特点,改变注入介质的流动方向,抑制蒸汽超覆和汽窜,补充地层能量,可达到提高稠油油藏采收率和经济效益的目的.根据数值模拟研究和开发实际,设计了孤东油田九区化学蒸汽驱注采参数:泡沫

  6. On Flood Alert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    lina braces fora particularly dangerous flood season in the wake of disastrous rainstorms Aseries of heavy storms since early May led to severe flooding and landslides in south and southwest China,causing heavy casualties and economic losses. Severe convective weather such as downpours,

  7. Spectroscopic Dosimeter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Analysis of Phase I test data demonstrates that the Photogenics Spectroscopic Dosimeter will detect neutron energies from 0.8 up to 600 MeV. The detector...

  8. Flood insurance in Canada: implications for flood management and residential vulnerability to flood hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  9. Chemical and spectroscopic characteristics of humic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, F.; Vidal-Torrado, P.; Otero, X.L.; Buurman, P.

    2013-01-01

    To characterise soil humic acids (HAs) extracted from Spanish marshes formed under different vegetation types (Spartina maritima (GSp), Juncus maritimus (GJc), Phragmites australis (GPh), and Scirpus maritimus (VSc)), soil depths (0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm), physiographic position (low and high marsh

  10. Development of flood index by characterisation of flood hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Biswa; Suman, Asadusjjaman

    2015-04-01

    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Due to climatological characteristics there are catchments where flood forecasting may have a relatively limited role and flood event management may have to be trusted upon. For example, in flash flood catchments, which often may be tiny and un-gauged, flood event management often depends on approximate prediction tools such as flash flood guidance (FFG). There are catchments fed largely by flood waters coming from upstream catchments, which are un-gauged or due to data sharing issues in transboundary catchments the flow of information from upstream catchment is limited. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of these downstream catchments will never be sufficient to provide any required forecasting lead time and alternative tools to support flood event management will be required. In FFG, or similar approaches, the primary motif is to provide guidance by synthesising the historical data. We follow a similar approach to characterise past flood hydrographs to determine a flood index (FI), which varies in space and time with flood magnitude and its propagation. By studying the variation of the index the pockets of high flood risk, requiring attention, can be earmarked beforehand. This approach can be very useful in flood risk management of catchments where information about hydro-meteorological variables is inadequate for any forecasting system. This paper presents the development of FI and its application to several catchments including in Kentucky in the USA

  11. Nogales flood detention study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Levick, Lainie; Guertin, D. Phillip; Callegary, James; Guadarrama, Jesus Quintanar; Anaya, Claudia Zulema Gil; Prichard, Andrea; Gray, Floyd; Castellanos, Edgar; Tepezano, Edgar; Huth, Hans; Vandervoet, Prescott; Rodriguez, Saul; Nunez, Jose; Atwood, Donald; Granillo, Gilberto Patricio Olivero; Ceballos, Francisco Octavio Gastellum

    2010-01-01

    Flooding in Ambos Nogales often exceeds the capacity of the channel and adjacent land areas, endangering many people. The Nogales Wash is being studied to prevent future flood disasters and detention features are being installed in tributaries of the wash. This paper describes the application of the KINEROS2 model and efforts to understand the capacity of these detention features under various flood and urbanization scenarios. Results depict a reduction in peak flow for the 10-year, 1-hour event based on current land use in tributaries with detention features. However, model results also demonstrate that larger storm events and increasing urbanization will put a strain on the features and limit their effectiveness.

  12. FLOODPLAIN, FLOOD COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  13. The Terrible Flood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorine; Houston

    1998-01-01

    Dear Xiao Lan. ’Several times a week, no matter which of the major television news networksI turn to, the screen is filled with tragic pictures of flooding along the YangtzeRiver, and I grieve for the suffering people whose lives are being so terriblydisrupted by this disaster. Even more to be grieved is the terrible number of peoplewho have been killed by the floods and their effects.

  14. Flooding in counter-current two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragland, W.A.; Ganic, E.N.

    1982-01-01

    Flooding is a phenomenon which is best described as the transition from counter-current to co-current flow. Early notice was taken of this phenomenon in the chemical engineering industry. Flooding also plays an important role in the field of two-phase heat transfer since it is a limit for many systems involving counter-current flow. Practical applications of flooding limited processes include wickless thermosyphons and the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of pressurized water nuclear reactors. The phenomenon of flooding also is involved in the behavior of nuclear reactor core materials during severe accident conditions where flooding is one of the mechanisms governing the motion of the molten fuel pin cladding.

  15. Flood Bypass Capacity Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.

  16. Magnetic and geochemical signatures of flood layers in lake sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støren, Eivind; Paasche, Øyvind; Hirt, Ann; Kumari, Monika

    2016-04-01

    Floods carry sediments that quickly become deposited whenever rivers meet lakes. In catchments that are subjected to repeated flooding, downstream lakes can therefore contain record of past events across multiple timescales. High-resolution core scanning analyses such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning and magnetic susceptibility (MS) return data that are frequently used to detect flood layers in soft sediment archives such as lakes, fjords and ocean basins. In order to delineate the copious information that can be extracted from soft sediment records we have explored ways in which high-resolution data can be utilized and subsequently vetted by high-precision measurements. By combining magnetic hysteresis measurements and first-order reversal curves (FORCs) with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) measurements of chemical elements on 36 samples, important information not only about flood dynamics and variability are acquired, but also sources of noise in high-resolution scanning techniques are identified. Specifically, we show that a lake flood record from Southern Norway containing ˜ 100 floods distributed over 10 000 years can be sub-divided into at least two groups, suggested to contain floods generated by spring snow melting and intense summer rainstorms. The temporal evolution of this pattern shows a marked shift towards spring floods around 2000 years ago compared to the earlier part of the record. The approach presented here is of universal character and should be applicable to all kinds of soft sediment archives.

  17. Flood Risk Analysis and Flood Potential Losses Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The heavy floods in the Taihu Basin showed increasing trend in recent years. In thiswork, a typical area in the northern Taihu Basin was selected for flood risk analysis and potentialflood losses assessment. Human activities have strong impact on the study area' s flood situation (asaffected by the polders built, deforestation, population increase, urbanization, etc. ), and havemade water level higher, flood duration shorter, and flood peaks sharper. Five years of differentflood return periods [(1970), 5 (1962), 10 (1987), 20 (1954), 50 (1991)] were used to cal-culate the potential flood risk area and its losses. The potential flood risk map, economic losses,and flood-impacted population were also calculated. The study's main conclusions are: 1 ) Humanactivities have strongly changed the natural flood situation in the study area, increasing runoff andflooding; 2) The flood risk area is closely related with the precipitation center; 3) Polder construc-tion has successfully protected land from flood, shortened the flood duration, and elevated waterlevel in rivers outside the polders; 4) Economic and social development have caused flood losses toincrease in recent years.

  18. Studying Young Stars with Large Spectroscopic Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Martell, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Galactic archaeology is the study of the history of star formation and chemical evolution in the Milky Way, based on present-day stellar populations. Studies of young stars are a key anchor point for Galactic archaeology, since quantities like the initial mass function and the star formation rate can be studied directly in young clusters and star forming regions. Conversely, massive spectroscopic Galactic archaeology surveys can be used as a data source for young star studies.

  19. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  20. Assessing Flood Risk Using Reservoir Flood Control Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Fu; Yadong Mei; Zhihuai Xiao

    2016-01-01

    The application of conventional flood operation regulation is restricted due to insufficient description of flood control rules for the Pubugou Reservoir in southern China. Based on the require-ments of different flood control objects, this paper proposes to optimize flood control rules with punish-ment mechanism by defining different parameters of flood control rules in response to flood inflow fore-cast and reservoir water level. A genetic algorithm is adopted for solving parameter optimization problem. The failure risk and overflow volume of the downstream insufficient flood control capacity are assessed through the reservoir operation policies. The results show that an optimised regulation can provide better performance than the current flood control rules.

  1. strong water sensitivity; heavy oil reservoir; thermal recovery; thermal compound chemical flooding; electron microscope analysisA study on a thermal compound chemical method for improving development efficiency of heavy-oil reservoirs with strong sensiti%热复合化学方法改善极强敏感性稠油油藏开发效果机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹嫣镔; 于田田; 林吉生; 刘冬青; 何绍群; 王全; 夏道宏

    2013-01-01

    Heavy-oil reservoirs with extremely strong water sensitivity in the Shengli oilfield are mainly distributed in the Jinjia oilfield and their reserves amount to more than 20 million tons. In addition, the thermal recovery effect only by steam injection seems poor and it is difficult to effectively produce these reserves because the water sensitivity index for this kind of reservoirs exceeds 0. 9. In view of the above contradiction, a thermal compound chemical method research was carried out, in which real cores from the Jinjia oilfield were used to evaluate different displacement manners based on thermal compound chemical flooding, such as the vapor + high-temperature antiswelling agent, steam + high-performance oil displacement agent, and steam + high-performance oil displacement a-gent + high-temperature condensation agent. Composition changes of clay minerals, clay distributions in pore throats and radius distributions of pore throats were measured by means of X diffraction, scanning electron microscope, cast thin section and mercury-injection in order to explore principle mechanisms of the enhanced oil recovery with the thermal compound chemical method under high-temperature conditions. The results showed that the thermal compound chemical displacement manner with the steam + high-temperature oil displacement agent + high-temperature condensation agent can promote the transformation of montmorillonite to illite and the dissolution of part kaolinite at the same time, which can greatly improve pore-throat flow channels of reservoirs to form large "hot-wormholes" that remarkably increase the permeability and flooding displacement efficiency of heavy-oil reservoirs with strong water sensitivity.%胜利油田极强水敏性稠油油藏主要分布在金家油田,储量在2 000×104 t以上,该类油藏水敏指数在0.9以上,单纯注蒸汽热采开发效果差,无法实现有效动用.笔者针对以上矛盾,开展了热复合化学方法开采技术研究.利用

  2. Flood Risk Management In Europe: European flood regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Bakker, M.H.; Green, C.; Driessen, Peter; Delvaux, B.; Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van; Suykens, C.; Beyers, J-C.; Deketelaere, K.; Doorn-Hoekveld, W. van; Dieperink, C.

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, water management is moving from flood defense to a risk management approach, which takes both the probability and the potential consequences of flooding into account. In this report, we will look at Directives and (non-)EU- initiatives in place to deal with flood risk in Europe indirectly

  3. Improving Global Flood Forecasting using Satellite Detected Flood Extent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revilla Romero, B.

    2016-01-01

    Flooding is a natural global phenomenon but in many cases is exacerbated by human activity. Although flooding generally affects humans in a negative way, bringing death, suffering, and economic impacts, it also has potentially beneficial effects. Early flood warning and forecasting systems, as well

  4. Shell model and spectroscopic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poves, P. [Madrid Univ. Autonoma and IFT, UAM/CSIC, E-28049 (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    In these lectures, I introduce the notion of spectroscopic factor in the shell model context. A brief review is given of the present status of the large scale applications of the Interacting Shell Model. The spectroscopic factors and the spectroscopic strength are discussed for nuclei in the vicinity of magic closures and for deformed nuclei. (author)

  5. 2013 FEMA Flood Control Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  6. National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) is a compilation of GIS data that comprises a nationwide digital Flood Insurance Rate Map. The GIS data and services are...

  7. Base Flood Elevation (BFE) Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally if...

  8. 2013 FEMA Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  9. FEMA DFIRM Base Flood Elevations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally,...

  10. 2013 FEMA Base Flood Elevation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  11. FEMA DFIRM Flood Hazard Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA flood hazard delineations are used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to designate the Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) and for insurance rating...

  12. FEMA 100 year Flood Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Q3 Flood Data product is a digital representation of certain features of FEMA's Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) product, intended for use with desktop mapping...

  13. FEMA Q3 Flood Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Q3 Flood Data are derived from the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMS) published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The file is georeferenced to...

  14. The Global Flood Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P.; Huddelston, M.; Michel, G.; Thompson, S.; Heynert, K.; Pickering, C.; Abbott Donnelly, I.; Fewtrell, T.; Galy, H.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Winsemius, H.; Weerts, A.; Nixon, S.; Davies, P.; Schiferli, D.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, a Global Flood Model (GFM) initiative has been proposed by Willis, UK Met Office, Esri, Deltares and IBM. The idea is to create a global community platform that enables better understanding of the complexities of flood risk assessment to better support the decisions, education and communication needed to mitigate flood risk. The GFM will provide tools for assessing the risk of floods, for devising mitigation strategies such as land-use changes and infrastructure improvements, and for enabling effective pre- and post-flood event response. The GFM combines humanitarian and commercial motives. It will benefit: - The public, seeking to preserve personal safety and property; - State and local governments, seeking to safeguard economic activity, and improve resilience; - NGOs, similarly seeking to respond proactively to flood events; - The insurance sector, seeking to understand and price flood risk; - Large corporations, seeking to protect global operations and supply chains. The GFM is an integrated and transparent set of modules, each composed of models and data. For each module, there are two core elements: a live "reference version" (a worked example) and a framework of specifications, which will allow development of alternative versions. In the future, users will be able to work with the reference version or substitute their own models and data. If these meet the specification for the relevant module, they will interoperate with the rest of the GFM. Some "crowd-sourced" modules could even be accredited and published to the wider GFM community. Our intent is to build on existing public, private and academic work, improve local adoption, and stimulate the development of multiple - but compatible - alternatives, so strengthening mankind's ability to manage flood impacts. The GFM is being developed and managed by a non-profit organization created for the purpose. The business model will be inspired from open source software (eg Linux): - for non-profit usage

  15. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ootegem, Luc [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium); SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Verhofstadt, Elsy [SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.

  16. Optimal strategies for flood prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijgenraam, Carel; Brekelmans, Ruud; den Hertog, Dick; Roos, C.

    2016-01-01

    Flood prevention policy is of major importance to the Netherlands since a large part of the country is below sea level and high water levels in rivers may also cause floods. In this paper we propose a dike height optimization model to determine economically efficient flood protection standards. We i

  17. Rethinking the relationship between flood risk perception and flood management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, S; Muro, M; Jeffrey, P; Smith, H M

    2014-04-15

    Although flood risk perceptions and their concomitant motivations for behaviour have long been recognised as significant features of community resilience in the face of flooding events, there has, for some time now, been a poorly appreciated fissure in the accompanying literature. Specifically, rationalist and constructivist paradigms in the broader domain of risk perception provide different (though not always conflicting) contexts for interpreting evidence and developing theory. This contribution reviews the major constructs that have been applied to understanding flood risk perceptions and contextualises these within broader conceptual developments around risk perception theory and contemporary thinking around flood risk management. We argue that there is a need to re-examine and re-invigorate flood risk perception research, in a manner that is comprehensively underpinned by more constructivist thinking around flood risk management as well as by developments in broader risk perception research. We draw attention to an historical over-emphasis on the cognitive perceptions of those at risk to the detriment of a richer understanding of a wider range of flood risk perceptions such as those of policy-makers or of tax-payers who live outside flood affected areas as well as the linkages between these perspectives and protective measures such as state-supported flood insurance schemes. Conclusions challenge existing understandings of the relationship between risk perception and flood management, particularly where the latter relates to communication strategies and the extent to which those at risk from flooding feel responsible for taking protective actions.

  18. Fast Flooding over Manhattan

    CERN Document Server

    Clementi, Andrea; Silvestri, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    We consider a Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET) formed by n agents that move at speed V according to the Manhattan Random-Way Point model over a square region of side length L. The resulting stationary (agent) spatial probability distribution is far to be uniform: the average density over the "central zone" is asymptotically higher than that over the "suburb". Agents exchange data iff they are at distance at most R within each other. We study the flooding time of this MANET: the number of time steps required to broadcast a message from one source agent to all agents of the network in the stationary phase. We prove the first asymptotical upper bound on the flooding time. This bound holds with high probability, it is a decreasing function of R and V, and it is tight for a wide and relevant range of the network parameters (i.e. L, R and V). A consequence of our result is that flooding over the sparse and highly-disconnected suburb can be as fast as flooding over the dense and connected central zone. Rather surprisin...

  19. On Flood Alert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Aseries of heavy storms since early May led to severe flooding and landslides in south and southwest China,causing heaw casualties and economic losses.Severe convective weather such as downpours,gusts,hail and thunderstorms attacked these areas over a week from May 5.

  20. Flooding on Elbe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Heavy rains in Central Europe over the past few weeks have led to some of the worst flooding the region has witnessed in more than a century. The floods have killed more than 100 people in Germany, Russia, Austria, Hungary, and the Czech Republic and have led to as much as $20 billion in damage. This false-color image of the Elbe River and its tributaries was taken on August 20, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The floodwaters that inundated Dresden, Germany, earlier this week have moved north. As can be seen, the river resembles a fairly large lake in the center of the image just south of the town of Wittenberg. Flooding was also bad further downriver in the towns of Maqgdeburge and Hitzacker. Roughly 20,000 people were evacuated from their homes in northern Germany. Fifty thousand troops, border police, and technical assistance workers were called in to combat the floods along with 100,000 volunteers. The floodwaters are not expected to badly affect Hamburg, which sits on the mouth of the river on the North Sea. Credit:Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  1. Flood marks of the 1813 flood in the Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklanek, Pavol; Pekárová, Pavla; Halmová, Dana; Pramuk, Branislav; Bačová Mitková, Veronika

    2014-05-01

    In August 2013, 200 years have passed since the greatest and most destructive floods known in the Slovak river basins. The flood affected almost the entire territory of Slovakia, northeastern Moravia, south of Poland. River basins of Váh (Orava, Kysuca), Poprad, Nitra, Hron, Torysa, Hornád, upper and middle Vistula, Odra have been most affected. The aim of this paper is to map the flood marks documenting this catastrophic flood in Slovakia. Flood marks and registrations on the 1813 flood in the Váh river basin are characterized by great diversity and are written in Bernolák modification of Slovak, in Latin, German and Hungarian. Their descriptions are stored in municipal chronicles and Slovak and Hungarian state archives. The flood in 1813 devastated the entire Váh valley, as well as its tributaries. Following flood marks were known in the Vah river basin: Dolná Lehota village in the Orava river basin, historical map from 1817 covering the Sučany village and showing three different cross-sections of the Váh river during the 1813 flood, flood mark in the city of Trenčín, Flood mark in the gate of the Brunovce mansion, cross preserved at the old linden tree at Drahovce, and some records in written documents, e.g. Cifer village. The second part of the study deals with flood marks mapping in the Hron, Hnilec and Poprad River basins, and Vistula River basin in Krakow. On the basis of literary documents and the actual measurement, we summarize the peak flow rates achieved during the floods in 1813 in the profile Hron: Banská Bystrica. According to recent situation the 1813 flood peak was approximately by 1.22 m higher, than the flood in 1974. Also in the Poprad basin is the August 1813 flood referred as the most devastating flood in last 400 years. The position of the flood mark is known, but the building was unfortunately removed later. The water level in 1813 was much higher than the water level during the recent flood in June 2010. In Cracow the water level

  2. Flood risk assessment in The Netherlands: a case study for dike ring South Holland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, Sebastiaan N; Kok, Matthijs; Vrijling, Johannes K

    2008-10-01

    Large parts of The Netherlands are below sea level. Therefore, it is important to have insight into the possible consequences and risks of flooding. In this article, an analysis of the risks due to flooding of the dike ring area South Holland in The Netherlands is presented. For different flood scenarios the potential number of fatalities is estimated. Results indicate that a flood event in this area can expose large and densely populated areas and result in hundreds to thousands of fatalities. Evacuation of South Holland before a coastal flood will be difficult due to the large amount of time required for evacuation and the limited time available. By combination with available information regarding the probability of occurrence of different flood scenarios, the flood risks have been quantified. The probability of death for a person in South Holland due to flooding, the so-called individual risk, is small. The probability of a flood disaster with many fatalities, the so-called societal risk, is relatively large in comparison with the societal risks in other sectors in The Netherlands, such as the chemical sector and aviation. The societal risk of flooding appears to be unacceptable according to some of the existing risk limits that have been proposed in literature. These results indicate the necessity of a further societal discussion on the acceptable level of flood risk in The Netherlands and the need for additional risk reducing measures.

  3. Citizen involvement in flood risk governance: flood groups and networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twigger-Ross Clare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade has been a policy shift withinUK flood risk management towards localism with an emphasis on communities taking ownership of flood risk. There is also an increased focus on resilience and, more specifically, on community resilience to flooding. This paper draws on research carried out for UK Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs to evaluate the Flood Resilience Community Pathfinder (FRCP scheme in England. Resilience is conceptualised as multidimensional and linked to exisiting capacities within a community. Creating resilience to flooding is an ongoing process of adaptation, learning from past events and preparing for future risks. This paper focusses on the development of formal and informal institutions to support improved flood risk management: institutional resilience capacity. It includes new institutions: e.g. flood groups, as well as activities that help to build inter- and intra- institutional resilience capacity e.g. community flood planning. The pathfinder scheme consisted of 13 projects across England led by local authorities aimed at developing community resilience to flood risk between 2013 – 2015. This paper discusses the nature and structure of flood groups, the process of their development, and the extent of their linkages with formal institutions, drawing out the barriers and facilitators to developing institutional resilience at the local level.

  4. Enhancing forensic science with spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Camilla; Kazarian, Sergei G.

    2006-09-01

    This presentation outlines the research we are developing in the area of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging with the focus on materials of forensic interest. FTIR spectroscopic imaging has recently emerged as a powerful tool for characterisation of heterogeneous materials. FTIR imaging relies on the ability of the military-developed infrared array detector to simultaneously measure spectra from thousands of different locations in a sample. Recently developed application of FTIR imaging using an ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection) mode has demonstrated the ability of this method to achieve spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit of infrared light in air. Chemical visualisation with enhanced spatial resolution in micro-ATR mode broadens the range of materials studied with FTIR imaging with applications to pharmaceutical formulations or biological samples. Macro-ATR imaging has also been developed for chemical imaging analysis of large surface area samples and was applied to analyse the surface of human skin (e.g. finger), counterfeit tablets, textile materials (clothing), etc. This approach demonstrated the ability of this imaging method to detect trace materials attached to the surface of the skin. This may also prove as a valuable tool in detection of traces of explosives left or trapped on the surfaces of different materials. This FTIR imaging method is substantially superior to many of the other imaging methods due to inherent chemical specificity of infrared spectroscopy and fast acquisition times of this technique. Our preliminary data demonstrated that this methodology will provide the means to non-destructive detection method that could relate evidence to its source. This will be important in a wider crime prevention programme. In summary, intrinsic chemical specificity and enhanced visualising capability of FTIR spectroscopic imaging open a window of opportunities for counter-terrorism and crime-fighting, with applications ranging

  5. Atmospheric Rivers, Floods, and Flash Floods in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelly, Klint T.

    Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) are long (>2000 km), narrow (<1000 km) corridors of enhanced vertically integrated water vapor (IWV) and enhanced IWV transport (IVT). The landfall of ARs along the U.S. West Coast have been linked to extreme precipitation and flooding/flash flooding in regions of complex topography. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between a 10 water-year (2005-2014) climatology of floods, flash floods, and landfalling ARs. The ARs in this study are defined using IVT following the Rutz et al. (2013) methodology, whereas floods and flash floods are identified by the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Storm Events Database. The results of this study indicate that landfalling ARs are present on a majority of days that there are floods in northern California. Landfalling ARs are predominantly present on a majority of days that there are flash flood reports during the cold-season (November-March); however, the North American monsoon is present on days that there are flash flood reports during the warm-season (April-October). Two exemplary case studies are provided to illustrate the hydrologic impact of landfalling ARs. The first case study illustrated a flood event that occurred in associated with three landfalling ARs that produced 800 mm in regions over the Russian River watershed in northern California and the second case study illustrated a flash flood event that occurred in association with a landfalling AR that produced ˜225 mm of precipitation in regions over the Santa Ynez xii watershed in which produced a flash flood over the southern portions of Santa Barbara County in southern California.

  6. Recent advances in flood forecasting and flood risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arduino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent large floods in Europe have led to increased interest in research and development of flood forecasting systems. Some of these events have been provoked by some of the wettest rainfall periods on record which has led to speculation that such extremes are attributable in some measure to anthropogenic global warming and represent the beginning of a period of higher flood frequency. Whilst current trends in extreme event statistics will be difficult to discern, conclusively, there has been a substantial increase in the frequency of high floods in the 20th century for basins greater than 2x105 km2. There is also increasing that anthropogenic forcing of climate change may lead to an increased probability of extreme precipitation and, hence, of flooding. There is, therefore, major emphasis on the improvement of operational flood forecasting systems in Europe, with significant European Community spending on research and development on prototype forecasting systems and flood risk management projects. This Special Issue synthesises the most relevant scientific and technological results presented at the International Conference on Flood Forecasting in Europe held in Rotterdam from 3-5 March 2003. During that meeting 150 scientists, forecasters and stakeholders from four continents assembled to present their work and current operational best practice and to discuss future directions of scientific and technological efforts in flood prediction and prevention. The papers presented at the conference fall into seven themes, as follows.

  7. Sealing Channeling and Chemical Flooding Composite Technology Research on the Heterogeneous Reservoir%非均质油藏封窜及化学驱复合技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宏明; 侯吉瑞; 赵凤兰; 李伟娜; 张磊; 张建忠; 冷光耀

    2013-01-01

    利用单层均质模型及并联填砂管模型,评价改性淀粉凝胶体系的调剖性能.该凝胶体系由4%改性淀粉、4%丙烯酰胺单体、成胶控制剂按一定比例组成.凝胶体系成胶前的选择注入性良好,成胶后的残余阻力系数为834~2548,突破压力梯度高于50 MPa/m,封堵率大于99%,可有效解决水窜流问题.利用双层非均质岩心模型,考察3种后续驱替段塞对提高采收率的影响.由0.3%聚丙烯酰胺、0.3%烷基苯磺酸钠和0.1 g/L NaOH组成的三元驱、0.3%聚丙烯酰胺及水驱的采收率增幅分别为20%、17%和10%.“改性淀粉凝胶体系+三元复合驱”组合调驱中,改性淀粉凝胶可进一步开采高渗层位残余油,三元复合驱在封堵后可有效启动低渗层位,整体提高采收率37%.%The profile control characteristics of modified starch gel system were studied by monolayer homogeneous core model and parallel sand filling tube model. The gel composed of 4% modified starch, 4% acrylamide monomer and gelatinizing control agent in appropriate proportion. The results showed that the injection performance before gelling was good and the residual resistance factor was 834—2548 after gelling, breakthrough pressure gradient was greater than 50 MPa/m as well as the sealing rate was greater than 99%. So water channeling problem could be solved effectively. The influence of three flooding methods on enhanced oil recovery was evaluated based on double-layer inhomogeneous core model. The oil recovery ratio of ternary flooding including 0.3% polyacrylamide, 0.3% sodium alkyl benzene sulfonate and 0.1 g/L NaOH, 0.3% polyacrylamide flooding and water flooding was 20%, 17% and 10%, respectively. Residual oil in high permeability layer would be further produced by modified starch gel system. After gelling, oil in low permeability layer would be produced effectively by ternary flooding system. The recovery ratio increased 37% by combining modified

  8. Automated pipelines for spectroscopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende Prieto, C.

    2016-09-01

    The Gaia mission will have a profound impact on our understanding of the structure and dynamics of the Milky Way. Gaia is providing an exhaustive census of stellar parallaxes, proper motions, positions, colors and radial velocities, but also leaves some glaring holes in an otherwise complete data set. The radial velocities measured with the on-board high-resolution spectrograph will only reach some 10 % of the full sample of stars with astrometry and photometry from the mission, and detailed chemical information will be obtained for less than 1 %. Teams all over the world are organizing large-scale projects to provide complementary radial velocities and chemistry, since this can now be done very efficiently from the ground thanks to large and mid-size telescopes with a wide field-of-view and multi-object spectrographs. As a result, automated data processing is taking an ever increasing relevance, and the concept is applying to many more areas, from targeting to analysis. In this paper, I provide a quick overview of recent, ongoing, and upcoming spectroscopic surveys, and the strategies adopted in their automated analysis pipelines.

  9. Flood Risk and Flood hazard maps - Visualisation of hydrological risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spachinger, Karl; Dorner, Wolfgang; Metzka, Rudolf [University of Applied Sciences Deggendorf (Germany); Serrhini, Kamal [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, Genie des Systemes Urbains, France, and Universite Francois Rabelais, Unite Mixte de Recherche, Tours (France); Fuchs, Sven [Institute of Mountain Risk Engineering, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: karl.spachinger@fhd.edu

    2008-11-01

    Hydrological models are an important basis of flood forecasting and early warning systems. They provide significant data on hydrological risks. In combination with other modelling techniques, such as hydrodynamic models, they can be used to assess the extent and impact of hydrological events. The new European Flood Directive forces all member states to evaluate flood risk on a catchment scale, to compile maps of flood hazard and flood risk for prone areas, and to inform on a local level about these risks. Flood hazard and flood risk maps are important tools to communicate flood risk to different target groups. They provide compiled information to relevant public bodies such as water management authorities, municipalities, or civil protection agencies, but also to the broader public. For almost each section of a river basin, run-off and water levels can be defined based on the likelihood of annual recurrence, using a combination of hydrological and hydrodynamic models, supplemented by an analysis of historical records and mappings. In combination with data related to the vulnerability of a region risk maps can be derived. The project RISKCATCH addressed these issues of hydrological risk and vulnerability assessment focusing on the flood risk management process. Flood hazard maps and flood risk maps were compiled for Austrian and German test sites taking into account existing national and international guidelines. These maps were evaluated by eye-tracking using experimental graphic semiology. Sets of small-scale as well as large-scale risk maps were presented to test persons in order to (1) study reading behaviour as well as understanding and (2) deduce the most attractive components that are essential for target-oriented risk communication. A cognitive survey asking for negative and positive aspects and complexity of each single map complemented the experimental graphic semiology. The results indicate how risk maps can be improved to fit the needs of different user

  10. GIS Support for Flood Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Gengsheng; Mioc, Darka; Anton, François

    2007-01-01

    developed an adaptive web-based transportation network application using Oracle technology. Moreover, the geographic relationships between the road network and flood areas are taken into account. The overlay between the road network and flood polygons is computed on the fly. This application allows users...... to retrieve the shortest and safest route in Fredericton road network during flood event. It enables users to make a timely decision for flood rescue. We are using Oracle Spatial to deal with emergency situations that can be applied to other constrained network applications as well....

  11. Magnetic and geochemical signatures of flood layers in a lake system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støren, Eivind W. N.; Paasche, Øyvind; Hirt, Ann M.; Kumari, Monika

    2016-10-01

    River floods holds the capasity to erode and transport sediments that are deposited whenever the discharge is reduced. In catchments that are subjected to repeated flooding, downstream lakes can therefore contain a record of past events across multiple timescales. High-resolution core scanning analyses, such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning and magnetic susceptibility (MS) provide data that are frequently used to detect flood layers in soft sediment archives, such as lakes, fjords and ocean basins. Deposits of past floods also can potentially reveal information about the evolution of flood events as well as source area. Here we explore ways in which subtle variability in high-resolution data can be utilized and subsequently vetted by high-precision measurements in order to delineate the copious information that can be extracted from soft sediment records. By combining magnetic hysteresis measurements and first-order reversal curves (FORCs) with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) measurements of chemical elements on 36 samples, questions about flood dynamics and variability are raised, and also sources of noise in high-resolution scanning techniques are discussed. Specifically, we show that a lake flood record from Southern Norway containing 92 floods distributed over 10,000 years can be subdivided into two groups of floods that were generated either by spring snow melting, intense summer rainstorms, or a combination of both. The temporal evolution of this pattern shows a marked shift toward spring floods around 2000 years ago compared to the earlier part of the record.

  12. Flood resilience urban territories. Flood resilience urban territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraud, Hélène; Barroca, Bruno; Hubert, Gilles

    2010-05-01

    The flood's impact during the last twenty years on French territory reveals our lack of preparation towards large-extended floods which might cause the stopping of companies' activity, services, or lead to housing unavailability during several months. New Orleans' case has to exemplify us: four years after the disaster, the city still couldn't get back its dynamism. In France, more than 300 towns are flood-exposed. While these towns are the mainspring of territory's development, it is likely that the majority of them couldn't get up quickly after a large-extended flood. Therefore, to understand and improve the urban territory's resilience facing floods is a real stake for territory's development. Urban technical networks supply, unify and irrigate all urban territories' constituents. Characterizing their flood resilience can be interesting to understand better urban resilience. In this context, waste management during and after floods is completely crucial. During a flood, the waste management network can become dysfunctional (roads cut, waste storage installations or waste treatment flooded). How can the mayor respect his obligation to guarantee salubrity and security in his city? In post flood the question is even more problematic. The waste management network presents a real stake for territory's restart. After a flood, building materials, lopped-of branches, furniture, business stocks, farm stocks, mud, rubbles, animal cadavers are wet, mixed, even polluted by hydrocarbons or toxic substances. The waste's volume can be significant. Sanitary and environmental risks can be crucial. In view of this situation, waste's management in post crisis period raises a real problem. What to make of this waste? How to collect it? Where to stock it? How to process it? Who is responsible? Answering these questions is all the more strategic since this waste is the mark of disaster. Thus, cleaning will be the first population's and local actor's reflex in order to forget the

  13. Application of flood index in monitoring Flood-plain ecosystems (by the example of the Middle Ob flood-plain)

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotnov, V. P.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of regional hydroecological monitoring has been developed for the flood-plain of the Middle Ob. Its object is to control the state of flood-plain ecosystem productivity for organization of scientific, regional-adopted and ecologically regulated nature management. For this purpose hydroecological zoning of flood-plain territory performed, the most representative stations of water-gauge observations for each flood-plain zone organized, the scheme of flood-plain flooding was prepared...

  14. Probabilistic Flood Defence Assessment Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slomp Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The WTI2017 project is responsible for the development of flood defence assessment tools for the 3600 km of Dutch primary flood defences, dikes/levees, dunes and hydraulic structures. These tools are necessary, as per January 1st 2017, the new flood risk management policy for the Netherlands will be implemented. Then, the seven decades old design practice (maximum water level methodology of 1958 and two decades old safety standards (and maximum hydraulic load methodology of 1996 will formally be replaced by a more risked based approach for the national policy in flood risk management. The formal flood defence assessment is an important part of this new policy, especially for flood defence managers, since national and regional funding for reinforcement is based on this assessment. This new flood defence policy is based on a maximum allowable probability of flooding. For this, a maximum acceptable individual risk was determined at 1/100 000 per year, this is the probability of life loss of for every protected area in the Netherlands. Safety standards of flood defences were then determined based on this acceptable individual risk. The results were adjusted based on information from cost -benefit analysis, societal risk and large scale societal disruption due to the failure of critical infrastructure e.g. power stations. The resulting riskbased flood defence safety standards range from a 300 to a 100 000 year return period for failure. Two policy studies, WV21 (Safety from floods in the 21st century and VNK-2 (the National Flood Risk in 2010 provided the essential information to determine the new risk based safety standards for flood defences. The WTI2017 project will provide the safety assessment tools based on these new standards and is thus an essential element for the implementation of this policy change. A major issue to be tackled was the development of user-friendly tools, as the new assessment is to be carried out by personnel of the

  15. Temporal clustering of floods in Germany: Do flood-rich and flood-poor periods exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Bruno; Nguyen, Viet Dung; Vorogushyn, Sergiy

    2016-10-01

    The repeated occurrence of exceptional floods within a few years, such as the Rhine floods in 1993 and 1995 and the Elbe and Danube floods in 2002 and 2013, suggests that floods in Central Europe may be organized in flood-rich and flood-poor periods. This hypothesis is studied by testing the significance of temporal clustering in flood occurrence (peak-over-threshold) time series for 68 catchments across Germany for the period 1932-2005. To assess the robustness of the results, different methods are used: Firstly, the index of dispersion, which quantifies the departure from a homogeneous Poisson process, is investigated. Further, the time-variation of the flood occurrence rate is derived by non-parametric kernel implementation and the significance of clustering is evaluated via parametric and non-parametric tests. Although the methods give consistent overall results, the specific results differ considerably. Hence, we recommend applying different methods when investigating flood clustering. For flood estimation and risk management, it is of relevance to understand whether clustering changes with flood severity and time scale. To this end, clustering is assessed for different thresholds and time scales. It is found that the majority of catchments show temporal clustering at the 5% significance level for low thresholds and time scales of one to a few years. However, clustering decreases substantially with increasing threshold and time scale. We hypothesize that flood clustering in Germany is mainly caused by catchment memory effects along with intra- to inter-annual climate variability, and that decadal climate variability plays a minor role.

  16. Towards Interactive Flood Governance: changing approaches in Dutch flood policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. van Ast (Jacko)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In the course of history, flooding of rivers and the sea brought misery to humanity. Low lying delta’s of large rivers like Bangladesh, New Orleans, the Nile delta or the Netherlands belong to the most vulnerable for flood disasters. Since ancient times people pondered

  17. FLOOD AND FLOOD CONTROL OF THE YELLOW RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxue LI; Huirang WANG; Yunqi SU; Naiqian JIANG; Yuanfeng ZHANG

    2002-01-01

    The Yellow River is the cradle of China. It had long been the center of politics, economics and culture of China in history. Large coverage flood disaster occurred frequently in the Yellow River basin and the losses were often heavy. Thus, the Yellow River is also considered as the serious hidden danger of China. Since the founding of new China, structural and non-structural systems of flood control have been established basically. Tremendous successes have been made on flood control. Into the 21century, flood control standard of the Lower Yellow River has been increased significantly with the operation of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir. However, problems of the Yellow River are complicated and the tasks for solving these problems are arduous. Particularly, the sedimentation problem can't be solved completely in the near future. The situation of "suspended river" and threat of flood will long exist.Therefore, supported by rapid social and economical development of the nation and relied on advanced technology, the flood control system shall be perfected. Meantime, study of the Yellow River shall be enhanced in order to better understand the flood, get with it and use it thus to reduce flood disaster.

  18. Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Base Flood Elevations, FIRM, DFIRM, BFE - MO 2010 Springfield FEMA Base Flood Elevations (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This polyline layer indicates the approximate effective FEMA Base Flood Elevations (BFE) associated with the corresponding Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA). Each...

  19. Elephant Butte Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  20. Sierra County Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  1. Estancia Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  2. The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, Charles

    2015-04-01

    As population growth and economic growth take place, and as climate change accelerates, many regions across the globe are finding themselves increasingly vulnerable to flooding. A recent OECD study of the exposure of the world's large port cities to coastal flooding found that 40 million people were exposed to a 1 in 100 year coastal flood event in 2005, and the total value of exposed assets was about US 3,000 billion, or 5% of global GDP. By the 2070s, those numbers were estimated to increase to 150 million people and US 35,000 billion, or roughly 9% of projected global GDP. Impoverished people in developing countries are particularly at risk because they often live in flood-prone areas and lack the resources to respond. WRI and its Dutch partners - Deltares, IVM-VU University Amsterdam, Utrecht University, and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - are in the initial stages of developing a robust set of river flood and coastal storm surge risk measures that show the extent of flooding under a variety of scenarios (both current and future), together with the projected human and economic impacts of these flood scenarios. These flood risk data and information will be accessible via an online, easy-to-use Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer. We will also investigate the viability, benefits, and costs of a wide array of flood risk reduction measures that could be implemented in a variety of geographic and socio-economic settings. Together, the activities we propose have the potential for saving hundreds of thousands of lives and strengthening the resiliency and security of many millions more, especially those who are most vulnerable. Mr. Iceland will present Version 1.0 of the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer and provide a preview of additional elements of the Analyzer to be released in the coming years.

  3. Flood Risk, Flood Mitigation, and Location Choice: Evaluating the National Flood Insurance Program's Community Rating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qin; Davlasheridze, Meri

    2016-06-01

    Climate change is expected to worsen the negative effects of natural disasters like floods. The negative impacts, however, can be mitigated by individuals' adjustments through migration and relocation behaviors. Previous literature has identified flood risk as one significant driver in relocation decisions, but no prior study examines the effect of the National Flood Insurance Program's voluntary program-the Community Rating System (CRS)-on residential location choice. This article fills this gap and tests the hypothesis that flood risk and the CRS-creditable flood control activities affect residential location choices. We employ a two-stage sorting model to empirically estimate the effects. In the first stage, individuals' risk perception and preference heterogeneity for the CRS activities are considered, while mean effects of flood risk and the CRS activities are estimated in the second stage. We then estimate heterogeneous marginal willingness to pay (WTP) for the CRS activities by category. Results show that age, ethnicity and race, educational attainment, and prior exposure to risk explain risk perception. We find significant values for the CRS-creditable mitigation activities, which provides empirical evidence for the benefits associated with the program. The marginal WTP for an additional credit point earned for public information activities, including hazard disclosure, is found to be the highest. Results also suggest that water amenities dominate flood risk. Thus, high amenity values may increase exposure to flood risk, and flood mitigation projects should be strategized in coastal regions accordingly.

  4. Geomorphological factors of flash floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Yulia

    2016-04-01

    Growing anthropogenic load, rise of extreme meteorological events frequency and total precipitation depth often lead to increasing danger of catastrophic fluvial processes worldwide. Flash floods are one of the most dangerous and less understood types of them. Difficulties of their study are mainly related to short duration of single events, remoteness and hard access to origin areas. Most detailed researches of flash floods focus on hydrological parameters of the flow itself and its meteorological factors. At the same time, importance of the basin geological and geomorphological structure for flash floods generation and the role they play in global sediment redistribution is yet poorly understood. However, understanding and quantitative assessment of these features is a real basis for a complete concept of factors, characteristics and dynamics of flash floods. This work is a review of published data on flash floods, and focuses on the geomorphological factors of the phenomenon. We consider both individual roles and interactions between different geomorphological features (the whole basin parameters, characteristics of the single slopes and valley bottom). Special attention is paid to critical values of certain factors. This approach also highlights the gaps or less studied factors of flash floods. Finally, all data is organized into a complex diagram that may be used for flash floods modeling. This also may help to reach a new level of flash flood predictions and risk assessment.

  5. Extreme flooding tolerance in Rorippa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akman, M.; Bhikharie, A.; Mustroph, A.; Sasidharan, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Low oxygen stress imposed by floods creates a strong selection force shaping plant ecosystems in flood-prone areas. Plants inhabiting these environments adopt various adaptations and survival strategies to cope with increasing water depths. Two Rorippa species, R. sylvestris and R. amphibia that gro

  6. Developing a Malaysia flood model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseldine, Lucy; Baxter, Stephen; Wheeler, Phil; Thomson, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Faced with growing exposures in Malaysia, insurers have a need for models to help them assess their exposure to flood losses. The need for an improved management of flood risks has been further highlighted by the 2011 floods in Thailand and recent events in Malaysia. The increasing demand for loss accumulation tools in Malaysia has lead to the development of the first nationwide probabilistic Malaysia flood model, which we present here. The model is multi-peril, including river flooding for thousands of kilometres of river and rainfall-driven surface water flooding in major cities, which may cause losses equivalent to river flood in some high-density urban areas. The underlying hazard maps are based on a 30m digital surface model (DSM) and 1D/2D hydraulic modelling in JFlow and RFlow. Key mitigation schemes such as the SMART tunnel and drainage capacities are also considered in the model. The probabilistic element of the model is driven by a stochastic event set based on rainfall data, hence enabling per-event and annual figures to be calculated for a specific insurance portfolio and a range of return periods. Losses are estimated via depth-damage vulnerability functions which link the insured damage to water depths for different property types in Malaysia. The model provides a unique insight into Malaysian flood risk profiles and provides insurers with return period estimates of flood damage and loss to property portfolios through loss exceedance curve outputs. It has been successfully validated against historic flood events in Malaysia and is now being successfully used by insurance companies in the Malaysian market to obtain reinsurance cover.

  7. Spectroscopic characterization of genetically modified flax fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymińska, L.; Gągor, A.; Hanuza, J.; Kulma, A.; Preisner, M.; Żuk, M.; Szatkowski, M.; Szopa, J.

    2014-09-01

    The principal goal of this paper is an analysis of flax fiber composition. Natural and genetically modified flax fibers derived from transgenic flax have been analyzed. Development of genetic engineering enables to improve the quality of fibers. Three transgenic plant lines with different modifications were generated based on fibrous flax plants as the origin. These are plants with: silenced cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) gene; overexpression of polygalacturonase (PGI); and expression of three genes construct containing β-ketothiolase (phb A), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phb B), and poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid synthase (phb C). Flax fibers have been studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of the IR bands have been used for estimation of the chemical content of the normal and transgenic flaxes. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from chemical analysis of flax fibers. X-ray studies have been used to characterize the changes of the crystalline structure of the flax cellulose fibers.

  8. Flash Flooding and 'Muddy Floods' on Arable Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flash flooding is often associated with upland, grazed catchments. It does, however, occur in lowland arable-dominated areas. In southern England, notable examples have occurred at Rottingdean (Brighton) in 1987, at Faringdon (Oxfordshire) in 1993 and at Breaky Bottom vineyard (near Brighton) in 1987 and 2000. All resulted in damage to nearby property. Runoff was largely from recently cultivated ground. The characteristics of such floods are: Rapid runoff from bare soil surfaces. Saturated excess overland flow is likely in the early parts of storms but high intensity rainfall on loamy soils results in crusting and Hortonian overland flow; High rates of erosion; Sediment transport to downvalley sites causing property damage ('muddy flooding'). Muddy floods are known from several areas of Europe e.g. Belgium, northern France, South Limburg (Netherlands) and Slovakia (Boardman et al 2006). In other areas they occur but have gone unreported or are classified under different terms. The necessary conditions for occurrence are areas of arable land which is bare at times of the year when there is a risk of storms. For muddy floods to cause damage (and hence be reported), vulnerable property must lie downstream from such areas of arable land. In some areas the incidence of muddy floods relates to autumn and early winter rainfall and winter cereal crops (e.g. southern England). In continental Europe, flooding is more common in summer and is associated with convectional storms and land uses including sugar beet, maize and potatoes. Predictions of increased numbers of high-intensity storms with future climate change, suggest that arable areas will continue to generate both flash floods and muddy floods.

  9. Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

    2008-03-31

    This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability

  10. Flood hazard and management: a UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheater, Howard S

    2006-08-15

    This paper discusses whether flood hazard in the UK is increasing and considers issues of flood risk management. Urban development is known to increase fluvial flood frequency, hence design measures are routinely implemented to minimize the impact. Studies suggest that historical effects, while potentially large at small scale, are not significant for large river basins. Storm water flooding within the urban environment is an area where flood hazard is inadequately defined; new methods are needed to assess and manage flood risk. Development on flood plains has led to major capital expenditure on flood protection, but government is attempting to strengthen the planning role of the environmental regulator to prevent this. Rural land use management has intensified significantly over the past 30 years, leading to concerns that flood risk has increased, at least at local scale; the implications for catchment-scale flooding are unclear. New research is addressing this issue, and more broadly, the role of land management in reducing flood risk. Climate change impacts on flooding and current guidelines for UK practice are reviewed. Large uncertainties remain, not least for the occurrence of extreme precipitation, but precautionary guidance is in place. Finally, current levels of flood protection are discussed. Reassessment of flood hazard has led to targets for increased flood protection, but despite important developments to communicate flood risk to the public, much remains to be done to increase public awareness of flood hazard.

  11. Somerset County Flood Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Heidi L.

    2007-01-01

    The timely warning of a flood is crucial to the protection of lives and property. One has only to recall the floods of August 2, 1973, September 16 and 17, 1999, and April 16, 2007, in Somerset County, New Jersey, in which lives were lost and major property damage occurred, to realize how costly, especially in terms of human life, an unexpected flood can be. Accurate forecasts and warnings cannot be made, however, without detailed information about precipitation and streamflow in the drainage basin. Since the mid 1960's, the National Weather Service (NWS) has been able to forecast flooding on larger streams in Somerset County, such as the Raritan and Millstone Rivers. Flooding on smaller streams in urban areas was more difficult to predict. In response to this problem the NWS, in cooperation with the Green Brook Flood Control Commission, installed a precipitation gage in North Plainfield, and two flash-flood alarms, one on Green Brook at Seeley Mills and one on Stony Brook at Watchung, in the early 1970's. In 1978, New Jersey's first countywide flood-warning system was installed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Somerset County. This system consisted of a network of eight stage and discharge gages equipped with precipitation gages linked by telephone telemetry and eight auxiliary precipitation gages. The gages were installed throughout the county to collect precipitation and runoff data that could be used to improve flood-monitoring capabilities and flood-frequency estimates. Recognizing the need for more detailed hydrologic information for Somerset County, the USGS, in cooperation with Somerset County, designed and installed the Somerset County Flood Information System (SCFIS) in 1990. This system is part of a statewide network of stream gages, precipitation gages, weather stations, and tide gages that collect data in real time. The data provided by the SCFIS improve the flood forecasting ability of the NWS and aid Somerset County and municipal agencies in

  12. Lateral Flooding Associated to Wave Flood Generation on River Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Núñez, C.; Parrot, J.-F.

    2016-06-01

    This research provides a wave flood simulation using a high resolution LiDAR Digital Terrain Model. The simulation is based on the generation of waves of different amplitudes that modify the river level in such a way that water invades the adjacent areas. The proposed algorithm firstly reconstitutes the original river surface of the studied river section and then defines the percentage of water loss when the wave floods move downstream. This procedure was applied to a gently slope area in the lower basin of Coatzacoalcos river, Veracruz (Mexico) defining the successive areas where lateral flooding occurs on its downstream movement.

  13. From flood management systems to flood resilient systems: integration of flood resilient technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salagnac, J.-L.; Diez, J.; Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flooding has always been a major risk world-wide. Humans chose to live and develop settlements close to water (rivers, seas) due to the resources water brings, i.e. food, energy, capacity to economically transport persons and goods, and recreation. However, the risk from flooding, including pluvial flooding, often offsets these huge advantages. Floods sometimes have terrible consequences from both a human and economic point of view. The permanence and growth of urban areas in flood-prone zones despite these risks is a clear indication of the choices of concerned human groups. The observed growing concentration of population along the sea shore, the increase of urban population worldwide, the exponential growth of the world population and possibly climate change are factors that confirm flood will remain a major issue for the next decades. Flood management systems are designed and implemented to cope with such situations. In spite of frequent events, lessons look to be difficult to draw out and progresses are rather slow. The list of potential triggers to improve flood management systems is nevertheless well established: information, education, awareness raising, alert, prevention, protection, feedback from events, ... Many disciplines are concerned which cover a wide range of soft and hard sciences. A huge amount of both printed and electronic literature is available. Regulations are abundant. In spite of all these potentially favourable elements, similar questions spring up after each new significant event: • Was the event forecast precise enough? • Was the alert system efficient? • Why were buildings built in identified flood prone areas? • Why did the concerned population not follow instructions? • Why did the dike break? • What should we do to avoid it happens again? • What about damages evaluation, wastes and debris evacuation, infrastructures and buildings repair, activity recovery, temporary relocation of inhabitants, health concerns, insurance

  14. Local Flood Action Groups: Governance And Resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forrest, Steven; Trell, Elen-Maarja; Woltjer, Johan; Macoun, Milan; Maier, Karel

    2015-01-01

    A diverse range of citizen groups focusing on flood risk management have been identified in several European countries. The paper discusses the role of flood action (citizen) groups in the context of flood resilience and will do this by analysing the UK and its diverse range of flood groups. These c

  15. Adaptive flood risk management in urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, H.L.P.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Runhaar, H.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    In recent times a shift has occurred from traditional flood management focused on the prevention of flooding (reduction of the probability) only, to more adaptive strategies focused on the reduction of the impacts of floods as a means to improve the resilience of occupied flood plains to increased r

  16. Natural Flood Management in context: evaluating and enhancing the impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Peter; Beven, Keith; Hankin, Barry; Lamb, Rob

    2016-04-01

    The series of flood events in the UK throughout December 2015 have led to calls for a reappraisal of the country's approach to flood management. In parts of Cumbria so-called "1 in 100" year floods have occurred three times in the last ten years, leading to significant infrastructure damage. Hard-engineered defences upgraded to cope with an anticipated 20% increase in peak flows and these 1% AEP events have been overwhelmed. It has become more widely acknowledged that unsympathetic agricultural and upland management practices, mainly since the Second World War, have led to a significant loss of storage in mid and upper catchments and their consequent ability to retain and slow storm run-off. Natural Flood Management (NFM) is a nature-based solution to restoring this storage and flood peak attenuation through a network of small-scale features exploiting natural topography and materials. Combined with other "soft" interventions such as restoring flood plain roughness and tree-planting, NFM offers the attractive prospect of an intervention that can target both the ecological and chemical objectives of the Water Framework Directive and the resilience demanded by the Floods Directive. We developed a simple computerised physical routing model that can account for the presence of in-channel and offline features such as would be found in a NFM scheme. These will add storage to the channel and floodplain and throttle the downstream discharge at storm flows. The model was applied to the heavily-modified channel network of an agricultural catchment in North Yorkshire using the run-off simulated for two storm events that caused flooding downstream in the autumn of 2012. Using up to 60 online features we demonstrated some gains in channel storage and a small impact on the flood hydrograph which would, however, have been insufficient to prevent the downstream floods in either of the storms. Complementary research at JBA has applied their hydrodynamic model JFLOW+ to identify

  17. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-08-05

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation.

  18. Flood damage, vulnerability and risk perception - challenges for flood damage research

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in flood damage analysis mainly focuses on the economic evaluation of tangible flood effects. It is contended in this discussion paper that important economic, social and ecological aspects of flood-related vulnerabilities are neglected. It is a challenge for flood research to develop a wider perspective for flood damage evaluation.

  19. Urban flood risk assessment using sewer flooding databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caradot, Nicolas; Granger, Damien; Chapgier, Jean; Cherqui, Frédéric; Chocat, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable water management is a global challenge for the 21st century. One key aspect remains protection against urban flooding. The main objective is to ensure or maintain an adequate level of service for all inhabitants. However, level of service is still difficult to assess and the high-risk locations difficult to identify. In this article, we propose a methodology, which (i) allows water managers to measure the service provided by the urban drainage system with regard to protection against urban flooding; and (ii) helps stakeholders to determine effective strategies for improving the service provided. One key aspect of this work is to use a database of sewer flood event records to assess flood risk. Our methodology helps urban water managers to assess the risk of sewer flooding; this approach does not seek to predict flooding but rather to inform decision makers on the current level of risk and on actions which need to be taken to reduce the risk. This work is based on a comprehensive definition of risk, including territorial vulnerability and perceptions of urban water stakeholders. This paper presents the results and the methodological contributions from implementing the methodology on two case studies: the cities of Lyon and Mulhouse.

  20. Flood Resilient Systems and their Application for Flood Resilient Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, N.; Gabalda, V.; Antanaskovic, D.; Gershovich, I.; Pasche, E.

    2012-04-01

    Following the paradigm shift in flood management from traditional to more integrated approaches, and considering the uncertainties of future development due to drivers such as climate change, one of the main emerging tasks of flood managers becomes the development of (flood) resilient cities. It can be achieved by application of non-structural - flood resilience measures, summarised in the 4As: assistance, alleviation, awareness and avoidance (FIAC, 2007). As a part of this strategy, the key aspect of development of resilient cities - resilient built environment can be reached by efficient application of Flood Resilience Technology (FReT) and its meaningful combination into flood resilient systems (FRS). FRS are given as [an interconnecting network of FReT which facilitates resilience (including both restorative and adaptive capacity) to flooding, addressing physical and social systems and considering different flood typologies] (SMARTeST, http://www.floodresilience.eu/). Applying the system approach (e.g. Zevenbergen, 2008), FRS can be developed at different scales from the building to the city level. Still, a matter of research is a method to define and systematise different FRS crossing those scales. Further, the decision on which resilient system is to be applied for the given conditions and given scale is a complex task, calling for utilisation of decision support tools. This process of decision-making should follow the steps of flood risk assessment (1) and development of a flood resilience plan (2) (Manojlovic et al, 2009). The key problem in (2) is how to match the input parameters that describe physical&social system and flood typology to the appropriate flood resilient system. Additionally, an open issue is how to integrate the advances in FReT and findings on its efficiency into decision support tools. This paper presents a way to define, systematise and make decisions on FRS at different scales of an urban system developed within the 7th FP Project

  1. 大庆油田提高原油采收率技术综述(英文)%What is After Water Flooding in Daqing Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德民; 廖广志

    2001-01-01

    Many EOR methods have been tested after water flooding in Daqing Oilfield.CO2,natural gas, micellar, microbial, steam, polymer and ASP flooding have been tested in the lab and field (some field tests have been performed). Most of the results are good. CO2、natural gas、micellar are not suitable to be used in Daqing Oilfield. Polymer flooding of pilots and industrial scale have been successful. The results of polymer flooding are related closely to the injection parameters and injection methods. The incremental oil productions are 100 to 140 tons of oil per ton of polymer injected. The oil recovery increased 10% to 14%OOIP. ASP flooding is successful. The cost of chemicals per barrel of incremental oil is $4.0 to $6.2.The incremental recovery is 18% to 20% OOIP over water flooding.Daqing Oilfield;Polymer flooding;ASP flooding

  2. Flood Fighting Products Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A wave research basin at the ERDC Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory has been modified specifically for testing of temporary, barrier-type, flood fighting products....

  3. FEMA Flood Insurance Studies Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital data set provides an inventory of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) that have been conducted for communities and...

  4. Elk River Watershed - Flood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding has the potential to cause significant impacts to economic activities as well as to disrupt or displace populations. Changing climate regimes such as extreme precipitation events increase flood vulnerability and put additional stresses on infrastructure. Potential flooding from just under 100 (2009 NPRI Reviewed Facility Data Release, Environment Canada) toxic tailings ponds located in Canada increase risk to human safety and the environment. One such geotechnical failure spilt billions of litres of toxic tailings into the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, when a tailings pond dam breach occurred in August 2014. Damaged and washed out roadways cut access to essential services as seen by the extensive floods that occurred in Saskatchewan and Manitoba in July 2014, and in Southern Alberta in 2013. Recovery efforts from events such as these can be lengthy, and have substantial social and economic impacts both in loss of revenue and cost of repair. The objective of this study is to investigate existing conditions in the Elk River watershed and model potential future hydrological changes that can increase flood risk hazards. By analyzing existing hydrology, meteorology, land cover, land use, economic, and settlement patterns a baseline is established for existing conditions in the Elk River watershed. Coupling the Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model with flood hazard analysis methodology, high-resolution flood vulnerability base line maps are created using historical climate conditions. Further work in 2015 will examine possible impacts for a range of climate change and land use change scenarios to define changes to future flood risk and vulnerability.

  5. Development of alkaline/surfactant/polymer (ASP flooding technology for recovery of Karazhanbas oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birzhan Zhappasbaev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The tertiary oil recovery methods like alkaline, surfactant and polymer (ASP flooding are very perspective in order to achieve the synergetic effect out of the different impacts which are caused by these chemicals, which affect oil and water filtration in the reservoir and increase oil recovery. In this communication, we consider the applicability of hydrophobically modified polyampholyte – poly(hexadecylaminocrotonatebetaine (PHDACB as ASP flooding agent for recovery of oil from Karazhanbas oilfield. As “polysoap”, the aqueous solution of PHDACB dissolved in aqueous KOH was used. This system combines the advantages of alkaline, surfactant and polymer and exhibits the synergistic effect. The laboratory results showed that the ASP flooding considerably increases the oil recovery in addition to water flooding. In perspective, the ASP flooding may substitute the steam injection and other thermal enhanced oil recovery (EOR technologies.

  6. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  7. Scales of Natural Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Alex; Quinn, Paul; Owen, Gareth; Hetherington, David; Piedra Lara, Miguel; O'Donnell, Greg

    2016-04-01

    The scientific field of Natural flood Management (NFM) is receiving much attention and is now widely seen as a valid solution to sustainably manage flood risk whilst offering significant multiple benefits. However, few examples exist looking at NFM on a large scale (>10km2). Well-implemented NFM has the effect of restoring more natural catchment hydrological and sedimentological processes, which in turn can have significant flood risk and WFD benefits for catchment waterbodies. These catchment scale improvements in-turn allow more 'natural' processes to be returned to rivers and streams, creating a more resilient system. Although certain NFM interventions may appear distant and disconnected from main stem waterbodies, they will undoubtedly be contributing to WFD at the catchment waterbody scale. This paper offers examples of NFM, and explains how they can be maximised through practical design across many scales (from feature up to the whole catchment). New tools to assist in the selection of measures and their location, and to appreciate firstly, the flooding benefit at the local catchment scale and then show a Flood Impact Model that can best reflect the impacts of local changes further downstream. The tools will be discussed in the context of our most recent experiences on NFM projects including river catchments in the north east of England and in Scotland. This work has encouraged a more integrated approach to flood management planning that can use both traditional and novel NFM strategies in an effective and convincing way.

  8. FLOODING ATTACK AWARE SECURE AODV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Madhavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing security in a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a challenging task due to its inherent nature. Flooding is a type of Denial of Service (DoS attack in MANET. Intentional flooding may lead to disturbances in the networking operation. This kind of attack consumes battery power, storage space and bandwidth. Flooding the excessive number of packets may degrade the performance of the network. This study considers hello flooding attack. As the hello packets are continuously flooded by the malicious node, the neighbor node is not able to process other packets. The functioning of the legitimate node is diverted and destroys the networking operation. Absence of hello packet during the periodical hello interval may lead to wrong assumption that the neighbor node has moved away. So one of the intermediate neighbor nodes sends Route Error (RERR message and the source node reinitiates the route discovery process. In a random fashion the hello interval values are changed and convey this information to other nodes in the network in a secured manner. This study identifies and prevents the flooding attack. This methodology considers the performance parameters such as packet delivery ratio, delay and throughput. This algorithm is implemented in Secure AODV and tested in ad hoc environment. The result of the proposed algorithm decreases the control overhead by 2%.

  9. Extreme flooding tolerance in Rorippa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Melis; Bhikharie, Amit; Mustroph, Angelika; Sasidharan, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Low oxygen stress imposed by floods creates a strong selection force shaping plant ecosystems in flood-prone areas. Plants inhabiting these environments adopt various adaptations and survival strategies to cope with increasing water depths. Two Rorippa species, R. sylvestris and R. amphibia that grow in naturally flooded areas, have high submergence tolerance achieved by the so-called quiescence and escape strategies, respectively. In order to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved in these strategies, we investigated submergence-induced changes in gene expression in flooded roots of Rorippa species. There was a higher induction of glycolysis and fermentation genes and faster carbohydrate reduction in R. amphibia, indicating a higher demand for energy potentially leading to faster mortality by starvation. Moreover, R. sylvestris showed induction of genes improving submergence tolerance, potentially enhancing survival in prolonged floods. Additionally, we compared transcript profiles of these 2 tolerant species to relatively intolerant Arabidopsis and found that only Rorippa species induced various inorganic pyrophosphate dependent genes, alternatives to ATP demanding pathways, thereby conserving energy, and potentially explaining the difference in flooding survival between Rorippa and Arabidopsis.

  10. Flooding Effect on Earth Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Banimahd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Earth building is a sustainable, environmentally friendly and economical method of construction that has been used worldwide for many centuries. For the past three decades, earth has seen a revival as a building material for a modern construction method due to its benefits in terms of low carbon content, low cost and energy involved during construction, as well as the fact that it is a sustainable technology of building. Climate change is influencing precipitation levels and patterns around the world, and as a consequence, flood risk is increasing rapidly. When flooding occurs, earth buildings are exposed to water by submersion, causing an increase in the degree of saturation of the earth structures and therefore a decrease of the suction between particles. This study investigated the effect of cycles of flooding (consecutive events of flooding followed by dry periods on earth walls. A series of characterization tests were carried out to obtain the physical and mechanical properties of the studied earth material. In a second stage, Flooding Simulation Tests (FST were performed to explore the earth walls’ response to repeated flooding events. The results obtained for the tested earth wall/samples with reinforced material (straw reveal hydraulic hysteresis when wall/samples are subject to cycles of wetting and drying.

  11. The Elbe flood in August 2002--organic contaminants in sediment samples taken after the flood event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachel, Burkhard; Jantzen, Eckard; Knoth, Wilhelm; Krüger, Frank; Lepom, Peter; Oetken, Matthias; Reincke, Heinrich; Sawal, Georg; Schwartz, René; Uhlig, Steffen

    2005-01-01

    In the course of this study 37 sediment samples were analyzed. They were taken after the flooding in September 2002 along the Elbe and at the mouths of its major tributaries. The sampling program covered the entire river stretch that was affected by the floods, from Obristvi (Czech Republic) to the Elbe estuary (North Sea) on the German coast. Analyses were performed for dioxins, nonylphenols, nonylphenol ethoxylates, bisphenol A, DEHP, musk fragrances, polybrominated diphenylethers, chloroalkylphosphates, organochlorine compounds, PAH, and organotin compounds. The results show that only a few weeks after the flood, contaminant concentrations in solid matter were comparable to those prevailing beforehand. Significant sources of contaminant input proved to be the tributaries Vltava (Moldau), Bilina (both in the Czech Republic), and the Mulde (Germany), as well as industrial and municipal sewage treatment works (STW) located along the Elbe. Further point sources are to be found in still water zones such as harbors and abandoned channels. These sources are activated when erosive action stirs up older sediments. Statistical analyses of the congener distribution of the dioxins provided evidence on the sources of these contaminants and freight levels in different river sections. The chemical analyses were complemented by results of ecotoxicological investigations with two sediment organisms (Chironomus riparius and Potamopyrgus antipodarum).

  12. Science capabilities of the Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devost, Daniel; McConnachie, Alan; Flagey, Nicolas; Cote, Patrick; Balogh, Michael; Driver, Simon P.; Venn, Kim

    2017-01-01

    The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer (MSE) project will transform the CFHT 3.6m optical telescope into a 10m class dedicated multiobject spectroscopic facility, with an ability to simultaneously measure thousands of objects with a spectral resolution range spanning 2,000 to 20,000. The project is currently in design phase, with full science operations nominally starting in 2025. MSE will enable transformational science in areas as diverse as exoplanetary host characterization; stellar monitoring campaigns; tomographic mapping of the interstellar and intergalactic media; the in-situ chemical tagging of the distant Galaxy; connecting galaxies to the large scale structure of the Universe; measuring the mass functions of cold dark matter sub-halos in galaxy and cluster-scale hosts; reverberation mapping of supermassive black holes in quasars. MSE is an essential follow-up facility to current and next generations of multi-wavelength imaging surveys, including LSST, Gaia, Euclid, eROSITA, SKA, and WFIRST, and is an ideal feeder facility for E-ELT, TMT and GMT. I will give an update on the status of the project and review some of the most exciting scientific capabilities of the observatory.

  13. Beyond Flood Hazard Maps: Detailed Flood Characterization with Remote Sensing, GIS and 2d Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, J. R.; Marqueso, J. T.; Makinano-Santillan, M.; Serviano, J. L.

    2016-09-01

    Flooding is considered to be one of the most destructive among many natural disasters such that understanding floods and assessing the risks associated to it are becoming more important nowadays. In the Philippines, Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) are two main technologies used in the nationwide modelling and mapping of flood hazards. Although the currently available high resolution flood hazard maps have become very valuable, their use for flood preparedness and mitigation can be maximized by enhancing the layers of information these maps portrays. In this paper, we present an approach based on RS, GIS and two-dimensional (2D) flood modelling to generate new flood layers (in addition to the usual flood depths and hazard layers) that are also very useful in flood disaster management such as flood arrival times, flood velocities, flood duration, flood recession times, and the percentage within a given flood event period a particular location is inundated. The availability of these new layers of flood information are crucial for better decision making before, during, and after occurrence of a flood disaster. The generation of these new flood characteristic layers is illustrated using the Cabadbaran River Basin in Mindanao, Philippines as case study area. It is envisioned that these detailed maps can be considered as additional inputs in flood disaster risk reduction and management in the Philippines.

  14. BEYOND FLOOD HAZARD MAPS: DETAILED FLOOD CHARACTERIZATION WITH REMOTE SENSING, GIS AND 2D MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Santillan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is considered to be one of the most destructive among many natural disasters such that understanding floods and assessing the risks associated to it are becoming more important nowadays. In the Philippines, Remote Sensing (RS and Geographic Information System (GIS are two main technologies used in the nationwide modelling and mapping of flood hazards. Although the currently available high resolution flood hazard maps have become very valuable, their use for flood preparedness and mitigation can be maximized by enhancing the layers of information these maps portrays. In this paper, we present an approach based on RS, GIS and two-dimensional (2D flood modelling to generate new flood layers (in addition to the usual flood depths and hazard layers that are also very useful in flood disaster management such as flood arrival times, flood velocities, flood duration, flood recession times, and the percentage within a given flood event period a particular location is inundated. The availability of these new layers of flood information are crucial for better decision making before, during, and after occurrence of a flood disaster. The generation of these new flood characteristic layers is illustrated using the Cabadbaran River Basin in Mindanao, Philippines as case study area. It is envisioned that these detailed maps can be considered as additional inputs in flood disaster risk reduction and management in the Philippines.

  15. Evidence for trends in UK flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Alice J

    2002-07-15

    Recent major flooding in the UK has raised concern that climate change is causing increases in flood frequency and flood magnitude. This paper considers whether UK flood data provide evidence of increasing trends in fluvial floods. The analysis examines both local and national flood series and investigates the effect of climate variability on trend detection. The results suggest that there have been trends towards more protracted high flows over the last 30-50 years, but that this could be accounted for as part of climatic variation rather than climate change. There is no statistical evidence of a long-term trend in flooding over the last 80-120 years. Thus, although climate change could be influencing floods, direct analysis of flood records does not yet provide proof.

  16. Spectroscopic analysis of optoelectronic semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with standard spectroscopic techniques which can be used to analyze semiconductor samples or devices, in both, bulk, micrometer and submicrometer scale. The book aims helping experimental physicists and engineers to choose the right analytical spectroscopic technique in order to get specific information about their specific demands. For this purpose, the techniques including technical details such as apparatus and probed sample region are described. More important, also the expected outcome from experiments is provided. This involves also the link to theory, that is not subject of this book, and the link to current experimental results in the literature which are presented in a review-like style. Many special spectroscopic techniques are introduced and their relationship to the standard techniques is revealed. Thus the book works also as a type of guide or reference book for people researching in optical spectroscopy of semiconductors.

  17. Flood risks and willingness to purchase flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlinger, M.R.; Attanasi, E.D.

    1980-01-01

    Computer simulation experiments were conducted to determine the effects of alternative sources of uncertainty on the willingness to pay for flood insurance. Two alternative insurance protection schemes were investigated: coinsurance and fixed coverage. The question investigated is to what extent does the insurance scheme influence how purchasers respond to risks? Floods were assumed to be log normally distributed and the effects on the purchase of insurance of uncertainties in the parameters of the distribution were explored using response surface analysis. Results indicate that fixed coverage insurance provisions shift most of the uncertainty in the physical parameters governing natural disaster occurrences away from the insuree and onto the insurer. The results also show that the form of the damage function has little effect on the demand for flood insurance.- Authors

  18. Uncertainty in flood risk mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Luisa M. S.; Fonte, Cidália C.; Gomes, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    A flood refers to a sharp increase of water level or volume in rivers and seas caused by sudden rainstorms or melting ice due to natural factors. In this paper, the flooding of riverside urban areas caused by sudden rainstorms will be studied. In this context, flooding occurs when the water runs above the level of the minor river bed and enters the major river bed. The level of the major bed determines the magnitude and risk of the flooding. The prediction of the flooding extent is usually deterministic, and corresponds to the expected limit of the flooded area. However, there are many sources of uncertainty in the process of obtaining these limits, which influence the obtained flood maps used for watershed management or as instruments for territorial and emergency planning. In addition, small variations in the delineation of the flooded area can be translated into erroneous risk prediction. Therefore, maps that reflect the uncertainty associated with the flood modeling process have started to be developed, associating a degree of likelihood with the boundaries of the flooded areas. In this paper an approach is presented that enables the influence of the parameters uncertainty to be evaluated, dependent on the type of Land Cover Map (LCM) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM), on the estimated values of the peak flow and the delineation of flooded areas (different peak flows correspond to different flood areas). The approach requires modeling the DEM uncertainty and its propagation to the catchment delineation. The results obtained in this step enable a catchment with fuzzy geographical extent to be generated, where a degree of possibility of belonging to the basin is assigned to each elementary spatial unit. Since the fuzzy basin may be considered as a fuzzy set, the fuzzy area of the basin may be computed, generating a fuzzy number. The catchment peak flow is then evaluated using fuzzy arithmetic. With this methodology a fuzzy number is obtained for the peak flow

  19. Spectroscopic studies of the protein-methylglyoxal adduct.

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Spectroscopic measurements are reported for the effects of pH, time, solvent, and chemical modification of arginine and lysine side chains on the reaction of proteins with methylglyoxal. The reaction responsible for the appearance of a brown coloration and increased submolecular electronic activity in the proteins involves the epsilon-amino groups of the lysine residues. It is concluded that the primary step in the reaction involves the formation of a Schiff base linkage between the lysine si...

  20. Principles of Vibrational Spectroscopic Methods and their Application to Bioanalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Volka, Karel

    2014-01-01

    or nanostructures. Finally, terahertz spectroscopy has given many new possibilities for studies of low-frequency interactions between electromagnetic radiation and biomaterials. In contrast to spectroscopic techniques at shorter wavelengths, THz spectroscopy directly probes long-range dynamics in biomolecules (such...... excitation laser irradiance to avoid sample damage are also discussed. This chapter then reviews applications of Raman spectroscopy to bioanalysis. Areas discussed include pathology, cytopathology, single-cell analysis, in vivo and in vitro tissue characterization, chemical composition of cell components...

  1. 2D NMR-spectroscopic screening reveals polyketides in ladybugs

    OpenAIRE

    Deyrup, Stephen T.; Eckman, Laura E.; McCarthy, Patrick H.; Smedley, Scott R.; Meinwald, Jerrold; Schroeder, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    Small molecules of biological origin continue to yield the most promising leads for drug design, but systematic approaches for exploring nature’s cache of structural diversity are lacking. Here, we demonstrate the use of 2D NMR spectroscopy to screen a library of biorationally selected insect metabolite samples for partial structures indicating the presence of new chemical entities. This NMR-spectroscopic survey enabled detection of novel compounds in complex metabolite mixtures without prior...

  2. Analysis of molecular structure, spectroscopic properties (FT-IR, micro-Raman and UV-vis) and quantum chemical calculations of free and ligand 2-thiopheneglyoxylic acid in metal halides (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Zn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökce, Halil; Bahçeli, Semiha

    2013-12-01

    In this study, molecular geometries, experimental vibrational wavenumbers, electronic properties and quantum chemical calculations of 2-thiopheneglyoxylic acid molecule, (C6H4O3S), and its metal halides (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Zn) which are used as pharmacologic agents have been investigated experimentally by FT-IR, micro-Raman and UV-visible spectroscopies and elemental analysis. Meanwhile the vibrational calculations were verified by DFT/B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) and LANL2DZ basis sets in the ground state, for free TPGA molecule and its metal halide complexes, respectively, for the first time. The calculated fundamental vibrational frequencies for the title compounds are in a good agreement with the experimental data.

  3. Synthesis, NMR spectroscopic characterization and structure of a divinyldisilazane-(triphenylphosphine)platinum(0) complex: observation of isotope-induced chemical shifts (1)Δ(12/13)C((195)Pt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrackmeyer, Bernd; Klimkina, Elena V; Schmalz, Thomas; Milius, Wolfgang

    2013-05-01

    Tetramethyldivinyldisilazane-(triphenylphosphine)platinum(0) was prepared, characterized in solid state by X-ray crystallography and in solution by multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C, (15)N, (29)Si, (31)P and (195)Pt NMR). Numerous signs of spin-spin coupling constants were determined by two-dimensional heteronuclear shift correlations (HETCOR) and two-dimensional (1)H/(1)H COSY experiments. Isotope-induced chemical shifts (1)Δ(12/13)C((195)Pt) were measured from (195)Pt NMR spectra of the title compound as well as of other Pt(0), Pt(II) and Pt(IV) compounds for comparison. In contrast to other heavy nuclei such as (199)Hg or (207)Pb, the "normal" shifts of the heavy isotopomers to low frequencies are found, covering a range of >500 ppb.

  4. Synthesis, spectroscopic and X-ray structural characterization, quantum chemical studies and investigation of gama-irradiated effects of the novel hydrazone compound: [(E)-3-(2-nitrophenyl)-(E)-1-(2-phenylhydrazono)]-1-phenylallylidene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakalı, Gül; Çakıcı, Abban; Eke, Canel; Cin, Günseli Turgut; Aygün, Muhittin

    2017-04-01

    The novel hydrazone compound, [(E)-3-(2-nitrophenyl)-(E)-1-(2-phenylhydrazono)]-1-phenylallylidene (2), has been synthesized, characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR techniques, elemental analysis, X-ray structure analysis and has been investigated gama-irradiated effect. Additionally, the molecular geometrical parameters, frontier molecular orbital energies (HOMO, LUMO), their energy gap (Δ E) , molecular electrostatic potential analysis of the compound have been calculated by using DFT/B3LYP with 6-311G (d, p) level. Also, IR frequencies, 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the compound were calculated by using DFT calculations at the same level basis and changing in lattice parameters, unit cell volume and density of the compound are observed after gama irradiated at XRD data. Unirradiated state of the title compound (C21H17N3O2) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n with a = 9.1782(7) Å, b = 16.1359(12) Å, c = 11.9709(12) Å, β = 101.022(8)o, V = 1740.2(3) Å3, Dcalc = 1.3106 g/cm3 and Z = 4 while irradiated state of title compound showed significant changes in lattice parameters, crystal volume and density. In contrast, the crystal system is found to be the same at after and before irradiation. The calculated geometrical parameters, IR frequencies, 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the compound were in good agreement with the observed single crystal- XRD data, IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectra.

  5. A DVD Spectroscope: A Simple, High-Resolution Classroom Spectroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Fumitaka; Hamada, Kiyohito

    2006-01-01

    Digital versatile disks (DVDs) have successfully made up an inexpensive but high-resolution spectroscope suitable for classroom experiments that can easily be made with common material and gives clear and fine spectra of various light sources and colored material. The observed spectra can be photographed with a digital camera, and such images can…

  6. King Tide floods in Tuvalu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C.-C.; Ho, C.-R.; Cheng, Y.-H.

    2013-05-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of sea level rise present regional floods in some certain areas. The low-lying island countries are obviously the spots affected severely. Tuvalu, an atoll island country located in the south-west Pacific Ocean, is suffering the devastating effects of losing life, property, and intending migration caused by floods. They blame the regional flooding to King Tide, a term used but not clearly identified by Pacific islanders. In this study, we clarify what King Tide is first. By the tide gauge and topography data, we estimated the reasonable value of 3.2 m as the threshold of King Tide. This definition also fits to the statement by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of King Tide occurring once or twice a year. In addition, We cross validate the 19 yr data of tide gauge and satellite altimeter (1993-2012), the correlation coefficient indicates King Tide phenomenon is considerable connected to warm water mass. The 28 King Tide events revealed the fact that flooding can be referenced against spring tide levels, so can it be turned up by warm water mass. The warm water mass pushes up sea level; once spring tide, storm surge, or other climate variability overlaps it, the rising sea level might overflow and so has been called "King Tide" for the floods in Tuvalu. This study provides more understanding of the signals of King Tide and an island country case study of regional sea level rise.

  7. Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Base Flood Elevations, FIRM, DFIRM, BFE - MO 2014 Springfield FEMA Base Flood Elevations (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This polyline layer indicates the approximate effective FEMA Base Flood Elevation (BFE) associated with the corresponding Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA). Each line...

  8. EEL spectroscopic tomography: Towards a new dimension in nanomaterials analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yedra, Lluis, E-mail: llyedra@el.ub.es [Laboratory of Electron Nanoscopies (LENS)-MIND/IN2UB, Dept. d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, c/ Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); CCiT, Scientific and Technological Centers, Universitat de Barcelona, C/Lluis Sole i Sabaris 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Eljarrat, Alberto [Laboratory of Electron Nanoscopies (LENS)-MIND/IN2UB, Dept. d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, c/ Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Arenal, Raul [Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas (LMA), Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA), Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Fundacion ARAID, E-50004 Zaragoza (Spain); Pellicer, Eva; Cabo, Moises [Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Lopez-Ortega, Alberto; Estrader, Marta [CIN2(CIN-CSIC) and Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology, Campus de la UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Sort, Jordi [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Baro, Maria Dolors [Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); and others

    2012-11-15

    Electron tomography is a widely spread technique for recovering the three dimensional (3D) shape of nanostructured materials. Using a spectroscopic signal to achieve a reconstruction adds a fourth chemical dimension to the 3D structure. Up to date, energy filtering of the images in the transmission electron microscope (EFTEM) is the usual spectroscopic method even if most of the information in the spectrum is lost. Unlike EFTEM tomography, the use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectrum images (SI) for tomographic reconstruction retains all chemical information, and the possibilities of this new approach still remain to be fully exploited. In this article we prove the feasibility of EEL spectroscopic tomography at low voltages (80 kV) and short acquisition times from data acquired using an aberration corrected instrument and data treatment by Multivariate Analysis (MVA), applied to Fe{sub x}Co{sub (3-x)}O{sub 4}@Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} mesoporous materials. This approach provides a new scope into materials; the recovery of full EELS signal in 3D. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EELS-SI tomography was performed at low voltage and low acquisition times. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MVA has been applied for noise reduction and information extraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tomographic reconstruction has been achieved for chemical information. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elemental distribution extraction in 3D has been proved.

  9. Groundwater flood hazards in lowland karst terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Owen; McCormack, Ted

    2016-04-01

    The spatial and temporal complexity of flooding in karst terrains pose unique flood risk management challenges. Lowland karst landscapes can be particularly susceptible to groundwater flooding due to a combination of limited drainage capacity, shallow depth to groundwater and a high level of groundwater-surface water interactions. Historically the worst groundwater flooding to have occurred in the Rep. of Ireland has been centred on the Gort Lowlands, a karst catchment on the western coast of Ireland. Numerous notable flood events have been recorded throughout the 20th century, but flooding during the winters of 2009 and 2015 were the most severe on record, inundating an area in excess of 20km2 and causing widespread and prolonged disruption and damage to property and infrastructure. Effective flood risk management requires an understanding of the recharge, storage and transport mechanisms during flood conditions, but is often hampered by a lack of adequate data. Using information gathered from the 2009 and 2015 events, the main hydrological and geomorphological factors which influence flooding in this complex lowland karst groundwater system under are elucidated. Observed flood mechanisms included backwater flooding of sinks, overland flow caused by the overtopping of sink depressions, high water levels in turlough basins, and surface ponding in local epikarst watersheds. While targeted small-scale flood measures can locally reduce the flood risk associated with some mechanisms, they also have the potential to exacerbate flooding down-catchment and must be assessed in the context of overall catchment hydrology. This study addresses the need to improve our understanding of groundwater flooding in karst terrains, in order to ensure efficient flood prevention and mitigation in future and thus help achieve the aims of the EU Floods Directive.

  10. 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The Central United States experienced record-setting flooding during 2011, with floods that extended from headwater streams in the Rocky Mountains, to transboundary rivers in the upper Midwest and Northern Plains, to the deep and wide sand-bedded lower Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of its mission, collected extensive information during and in the aftermath of the 2011 floods to support scientific analysis of the origins and consequences of extreme floods. The information collected for the 2011 floods, combined with decades of past data, enables scientists and engineers from the USGS to provide syntheses and scientific analyses to inform emergency managers, planners, and policy makers about life-safety, economic, and environmental-health issues surrounding flood hazards for the 2011 floods and future floods like it. USGS data, information, and scientific analyses provide context and understanding of the effect of floods on complex societal issues such as ecosystem and human health, flood-plain management, climate-change adaptation, economic security, and the associated policies enacted for mitigation. Among the largest societal questions is "How do we balance agricultural, economic, life-safety, and environmental needs in and along our rivers?" To address this issue, many scientific questions have to be answered including the following: * How do the 2011 weather and flood conditions compare to the past weather and flood conditions and what can we reasonably expect in the future for flood magnitudes?

  11. Collecting data for quantitative research on pluvial flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekkers, M.H.; Ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2011-01-01

    Urban pluvial flood management requires detailed spatial and temporal information on flood characteristics and damaging consequences. There is lack of quantitative field data on pluvial flooding resulting in large uncertainties in urban flood model calculations and ensuing decisions for investments

  12. Spectroscopic study of low pressure, low temperature H2-CH4-CO2 microwave plasmas used for large area deposition of nanocrystalline diamond films. Part II: on plasma chemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, A. S. C.; Baudrillart, B.; Hamann, S.; Bénédic, F.; Lombardi, G.; Gicquel, A.; van Helden, J. H.; Röpcke, J.

    2016-12-01

    In a distributed antenna array (DAA) reactor, microwave H2 plasmas with admixtures of 2.5% CH4 and 1% CO2 used for the deposition of nanocrystalline diamond films have been studied by infrared laser absorption and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) techniques. The experiments were carried out in order to analyze the dependence of plasma chemical phenomena on power and pressure at relatively low pressures, up to 0.55 mbar, and power values, up to 3 kW. The evolution of the concentration of the methyl radical, CH3, of five stable molecules, CH4, CO2, CO, C2H2 and C2H6, and of vibrationally excited CO in the first and second hot band was monitored in the plasma processes by in situ infrared laser absorption spectroscopy using tunable lead salt diode lasers (TDL) and an external-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) as radiation sources. OES was applied simultaneously to obtain complementary information about the degree of dissociation of the H2 precursor and of its gas temperature. The experimental results are presented in two separate parts. In Part I, the first paper in a two-part series, the measurement of the gas (T gas), rotational (T rot) and vibrational (T vib) temperatures of the various species in the complex plasma was the main focus of interest. Depending on the different plasma zones the gas temperature was found to range between about 360 and 1000 K inside the DAA reactor (Nave et al 2016 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 25 065002). In Part II, the present paper, taking into account the temperatures determined in the first paper, the concentrations of the various species, which were found to be in a range between 1011 and 1015 cm-3, are the focus of interest. The influence of the discharge parameters power and pressure on the molecular concentrations has been studied. To achieve further insight into general plasma chemical aspects the dissociation of the carbon precursor gases including their fragmentation and conversion to the reaction products has been

  13. Flooding, flood risks and coping strategies in urban informal residential areas: The case of Keko Machungwa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumpale Sakijege

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents findings from a study carried out in Keko Machungwa informal settlement in Dar es Salaam under the auspices of the Disaster Management Training Centre of Ardhi University, Tanzania. The settlement has experienced frequent flooding in the past five years, and this study explores the causes, risks, extent of flooding and coping strategies of residents as well as municipality and city officials. Key methods employed in capturing empirical evidence included mapping of zones by severity of flooding, interviews with households, sub-ward leaders, and municipal and city officials. Non-participant observation, primarily taking photographs, complemented these methods. Laboratory tests of water samples taken from shallow wells in the settlement were performed to establish the level of pollution. In addition, records of prevalence of water-borne diseases were gathered from a dispensary within the settlement to corroborate flooding events, water pollution and occurrence of such diseases. Findings show that flooding is contributed to by the lack of a coordinated stormwater drainage system; haphazard housing development within the valley; and blocking of the water stream by haphazard dumping of solid waste and construction. Risks associated with flooding include water and air pollution, diseases, waterlogging and blocked accessibility. The most common coping strategies at household level are use of sandbags and tree logs; raised pit latrines and doorsteps; provision of water outlet pipes above plinth level; construction of embankments, protection walls and elevation of house foundations; seasonal displacement; and boiling and chemical treatment of water. Recommendations for future action at household, community and city level are made.

  14. Spectroscopic investigations and molecular docking study of (2E)-1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-[4-(propan-2-yl)phenyl]prop-2-en-1-one using quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Shana; Al-Alshaikh, Monirah A.; Panicker, C. Yohannan; El-Emam, Ali A.; Salian, Vinutha V.; Narayana, B.; Sarojini, B. K.; van Alsenoy, C.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy of (2E)-1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-[4-(propan-2-yl)phenyl]prop-2-en-1-one. The computations were performed at DFT level of theory to get the optimizedgeometry and vibrational wave numbers of the normal modes of the title compound using Gaussian09 software. The complete vibrational assignments of wave numbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show chemical activity of the molecule. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. The hyperpolarizability values are reported and the first hyperpolarizability of the title compound is 83.85 times that of standard NLO material urea. From the MEP plot, the negative electrostatic potential regions are mainly localized over the carbonyl group, the phenyl rings and are possible sites for electrophilic attack. The positive regions are localized over all the hydrogen atoms and are possible sites for nucleophilic attack. The molecular docking results suggest that the compound might exhibit inhibitory activity against lymphocyte-specific kinase and may results in design of novel T-cell immunosuppressants.

  15. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Visible) investigations, NMR chemical shielding anisotropy (CSA) parameters of 2,6-Diamino-4-chloropyrimidine for dye sensitized solar cells using density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladis Anitha, E; Joseph Vedhagiri, S; Parimala, K

    2015-02-05

    The molecular structure, geometry optimization, vibrational frequencies of organic dye sensitizer 2,6-Diamino-4-chloropyrimidine (DACP) were studied based on Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrum was investigated by time dependent DFT (TD-DFT). Features of the electronic absorption spectrum in the UV-Visible regions were assigned based on TD-DFT calculation. The absorption bands are assigned to transitions. The interfacial electron transfer between semiconductor TiO2 electrode and dye sensitizer DACP is due to an electron injection process from excited dye to the semiconductor's conduction band. The observed and the calculated frequencies are found to be in good agreement. The energies of the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOS) have also been determined. The chemical shielding anisotropic (CSA) parameters are calculated from the NMR analysis, Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis.

  16. Comprehensive quantum chemical and spectroscopic (FTIR, FT-Raman, 1H, 13C NMR) investigations of (1,2-epoxyethyl)benzene and (1,2-epoxy-2-phenyl)propane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Anitha, R.; Devi, L.; Mohan, S.; Yang, Haifeng

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic epoxides are causative factors for mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of polycyclic arenes. The 1,2- or 2,3-epoxy compounds are widely used to a considerable extent in the textile, plastics, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, detergent and photochemical industries. The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of (1,2-epoxyethyl)benzene and (1,2-epoxy-2-phenyl)propane are recorded in the regions 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-100 cm-1, respectively. The observed fundamentals are assigned to different normal modes of vibration. The structure of the compound has been optimised with B3LYP method using 6-311++G** and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The IR and Raman intensities are determined. The total electron density and molecular electrostatic potential surfaces of the molecule are constructed by using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method to display electrostatic potential (electron + nuclei) distribution. The electronic properties HOMO and LUMO energies were measured. Natural bond orbital analysis of the compounds has been performed to indicate the presence of intramolecular charge transfer. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the molecules have been analysed.

  17. Flood mapping with remote sensing and hydrochemistry: A new method to distinguish the origin of flood water during floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chormanski, J.; Okruszko, T.; Ignar, S.; Batelaan, O.; Rebel, K.T.; Wassen, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    River flooding is important for the ecological functioning of river floodplains. It is implicitly assumed that in many river floodplains during floods, river water is spreading all over the floodplain. We hypothesize that during flood events a spatial distribution of water types exists, which is cor

  18. Flooding in Thailand: flee, fight or float

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan S Sophonpanich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The severity of recent flooding in Thailand and the probability of future flooding have triggered a re-assessment of coping mechanisms employed by both the Thai population and the government.

  19. Flood-frequency characteristics of Wisconsin streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, W.R.; Conger, D.H.; Gebert, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Flood-frequency characteristics for 269 gaged sites on Wisconsin streams are presented for recurrence intervals of 2 to 100 years. Annual flood peaks for the period of record for each gaged site are included.

  20. Sept 2013 NFHL Flood Hazard Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  1. Flood Insurance Rate Map, Scott County, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  2. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, , USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  3. Sept 2013 NFHL Flood Control Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  4. Sept 2013 NFHL Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  5. Sept 2013 NFHL Flood Risk Project Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  6. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE,

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  7. Multilevel integrated flood management aproach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilly, Mitja; Rusjan, Simon

    2013-04-01

    The optimal solution for complex flood management is integrated approach. Word »integration« used very often when we try to put something together, but should distinguish full multiple integrated approach of integration by parts when we put together and analyse only two variables. In doing so, we lost complexity of the phenomenon. Otherwise if we try to put together all variables we should take so much effort and time and we never finish the job properly. Solution is in multiple integration captures the essential factors, which are different on a case-by-case (Brilly, 2000). Physical planning is one of most important activity in which flood management should be integrated. The physical planning is crucial for vulnerability and its future development and on other hand our structural measures must be incorporate in space and will very often dominated in. The best solution is if space development derived on same time with development of structural measures. There are good examples with such approach (Vienna, Belgrade, Zagreb, and Ljubljana). Problems stared when we try incorporating flood management in already urbanised area or we would like to decrease risk to some lower level. Looking to practice we learn that middle Ages practices were much better than to day. There is also »disaster by design« when hazard increased as consequence of upstream development or in stream construction or remediation. In such situation we have risk on areas well protected in the past. Good preparation is essential for integration otherwise we just lost time what is essential for decision making and development. We should develop clear picture about physical characteristics of phenomena and possible solutions. We should develop not only the flood maps; we should know how fast phenomena could develop, in hour, day or more. Do we need to analyse ground water - surface water relations, we would like to protected area that was later flooded by ground water. Do we need to take care about

  8. A rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment: considering multiple flood sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X.; Tatano, H.

    2015-08-01

    Information about the spatial distribution of flood risk is important for integrated urban flood risk management. Focusing on urban areas, spatial flood risk assessment must reflect all risk information derived from multiple flood sources: rivers, drainage, coastal flooding etc. that may affect the area. However, conventional flood risk assessment deals with each flood source independently, which leads to an underestimation of flood risk in the floodplain. Even in floodplains that have no risk from coastal flooding, flooding from river channels and inundation caused by insufficient drainage capacity should be considered simultaneously. For integrated flood risk management, it is necessary to establish a methodology to estimate flood risk distribution across a floodplain. In this paper, a rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment, which considers the joint effects of multiple flood sources, is proposed. The concept of critical rainfall duration determined by the concentration time of flooding is introduced to connect response characteristics of different flood sources with rainfall. A copula method is then adopted to capture the correlation of rainfall amount with different critical rainfall durations. Rainfall events are designed taking advantage of the copula structure of correlation and marginal distribution of rainfall amounts within different critical rainfall durations. A case study in the Otsu River Basin, Osaka prefecture, Japan was conducted to demonstrate this methodology.

  9. A rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment: considering multiple flood sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Jiang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Information about the spatial distribution of flood risk is important for integrated urban flood risk management. Focusing on urban areas, spatial flood risk assessment must reflect all risk information derived from multiple flood sources: rivers, drainage, coastal flooding etc. that may affect the area. However, conventional flood risk assessment deals with each flood source independently, which leads to an underestimation of flood risk in the floodplain. Even in floodplains that have no risk from coastal flooding, flooding from river channels and inundation caused by insufficient drainage capacity should be considered simultaneously. For integrated flood risk management, it is necessary to establish a methodology to estimate flood risk distribution across a floodplain. In this paper, a rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment, which considers the joint effects of multiple flood sources, is proposed. The concept of critical rainfall duration determined by the concentration time of flooding is introduced to connect response characteristics of different flood sources with rainfall. A copula method is then adopted to capture the correlation of rainfall amount with different critical rainfall durations. Rainfall events are designed taking advantage of the copula structure of correlation and marginal distribution of rainfall amounts within different critical rainfall durations. A case study in the Otsu River Basin, Osaka prefecture, Japan was conducted to demonstrate this methodology.

  10. Learning about Flood Risk: Comparing the Web-Based and Physical Flood-Walk Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu; Nyberg, Lars; Evers, Mariele; Alexandersson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Numerous of sustainable development related challenges are emerging today, e.g. flooding problems. Our group has developed "the flood walk" project since 2010 to convey flood risk knowledge in an authentic context. Considering the limitation of time and space to educate people the flood risk knowledge, we tried to transform the physical…

  11. Field note from Pakistan floods: Preventing future flood disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Oxley

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Unusually heavy monsoon rains in Northern Pakistan have caused disproportionate levels of extreme flooding and unprecedented flood losses across the entire Indus River basin. Extensive land use changes and environmental degradation in the uplands and lowlands of the river basin together with the construction of a “built environment” out of balance with the functioning, capacities, scale and limits of the local ecosystems have exposed millions of people to an increased risk of extreme #ooding. The catastrophic nature of the August #ooding provides a unique opportunity to fundamentally change Pakistan’s current socio-economic development path by incorporating disaster risk reduction and climate change measures into the post-disaster recovery process to rebuild a safer, more resilient nation. In January 2005 one hundred and sixty-eight nations adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA2005-2015 to bring about a “substantial reduction in disaster losses” by 2015. Despite this global initiative a series of major disasters, including the recent flooding in Pakistan, all indicate that we are not on track to achieve the substantial reduction of disaster losses. The following fieldnote considers what can be done to accelerate progress towards implementation of the Hyogo Framework, drawing on insights and lessons learnt from the August flooding to understand how Pakistan and neighbouring countries can prevent a repeat of such catastrophic disasters in future years.

  12. Molecular orbital studies (hardness, chemical potential, electronegativity and electrophilicity), vibrational spectroscopic investigation and normal coordinate analysis of 5-{1-hydroxy-2-[(propan-2-yl)amino]ethyl}benzene-1,3-diol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, S; Renuga, S

    2014-01-24

    FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 5-{1-hydroxy-2-[(propan-2-yl) amino] ethyl} benzene-1,3-diol (abbrevi- 54 ated as HPAEBD) were recorded in the region 4000-450 cm(-1) and 4000-100 cm(-1) respectively. The structure of the molecule was optimized and the structural characteristics were determined by density functional theory (B3LYP) and HF method with 6-31 G(d,p) as basis set. The theoretical wave numbers were scaled and compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. A detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra of this compound has been made on the basis of the calculated Potential energy distribution (PED). Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugation and charge delocalization is confirmed by the natural bond orbital analysis (NBO). The results show that electron density (ED) in the σ antibonding orbitals and E (2) energies confirm the occurrence of intra molecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. The molecule orbital contributions were studied by using the total (TDOS), sum of α and β electron (αβDOS) density of States. Mulliken population analysis of atomic charges is also calculated. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energy gap shows that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The electron density-based local reactivity descriptors such as Fukui functions were calculated to explain the chemical selectivity or reactivity site in this compound. On the basis of vibrational analyses, the thermodynamic properties of title compound at different temperatures have been calculated.

  13. Flood Risk Management in the People’s Republic of China: Learning to Live with Flood Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2012-01-01

    This publication presents a shift in the People’s Republic of China from flood control depending on structural measures to integrated flood management using both structural and non-structural measures. The core of the new concept of integrated flood management is flood risk management. Flood risk management is based on an analysis of flood hazard, exposure to flood hazard, and vulnerability of people and property to danger. It is recommended that people learn to live with flood risks, gaining...

  14. Flood forecasting using artificial neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varoonchotikul, P.

    2003-01-01

    Flood disasters continue to occur In many countries around the world and cause tremendous casualtles and properties damage. To mitigate the effects of floods, both structural and non-structural measures can be employed, such as dykes, channelisatlon, flood proofing of properties, land-use regulation

  15. Flood Progression Modelling and Impact Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mioc, Darka; Anton, François; Nickerson, B.

    People living in the lower valley of the St. John River, New Brunswick, Canada, frequently experience flooding when the river overflows its banks during spring ice melt and rain. To better prepare the population of New Brunswick for extreme flooding, we developed a new flood prediction model...

  16. The European Flood Risk Directive and Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, E.; Doorn, N.

    2012-01-01

    The European Flood risk directive (2007/60/EC) requires EU Member States to review their system of flood risk management. In doing so, they will have to face ethical issues inherent in flood risk management. This paper discusses three such issues, using examples from the Netherlands. These issues ar

  17. Economic optimisation of flood risk management projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsimopoulou, V.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands has developed a flood risk management policy based on an economic rationale. After the flood disaster of 1953, when a large area of the south-western part of the country was flooded and more than 1800 people lost their lives, the so-called Delta Committee was installed, whose main pu

  18. Tangible and Intangible Flood damage evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frongia Sara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding and flash floods that cause significant economic and social damage have been widely studied in the last few decades. The European Commission Flood Directive 2007/60 Flood Risk Management Plans require the assessment of potential damage to give an appreciation of the magnitude of the consequences of a flood event and so help stakeholders to use a cost benefit approach to planning flood mitigation measures. This paper evaluates the direct tangible flood damage applying the JRC water depth-damage functions for the European territory to estimate the potential economic damage. Intangible damage is evaluated with the Life Safety Model (LSM to study the dynamic interactions among people, vehicles, buildings and the flood wave. LSM assesses potential flood damage and allows the development of a Flood Evacuation Plan in case of an emergency, underlining the evacuation routes adopted by people and vehicles. This enables emergency managers to avoid evacuation bottleneck problems and identify areas of potential high mortality. The impact of changes such as road network improvements, the location of safe havens and timing of flood warnings can be assessed in terms of potential loss of life. The developed methodology has been applied on the Sardinian Flood Risk Management Plan pilot basin, the Coghinas river lowland basin.

  19. The August 1975 Flood over Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Smith, James; Liu, Maofeng; Baeck, MaryLynn

    2016-04-01

    The August 1975 flood in Central China was one of the most destructive floods in history, resulting in 26 000 fatalities, leaving about 10 million people with insufficient shelter, and producing long-lasting famine and disease. Extreme rainfall responsible for this flood event was associated with typhoon Nina during 5-7 August 1975. Despite the prominence of the August 1975 flood, analyses of the storms producing the flood and the resulting flood are sparse. Even fewer attempts were made from the perspective of numerical simulations. We examine details of extreme rainfall for the August 1975 flood based on downscaling simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model driven by 20th Century Reanalysis fields. We further placed key hydrometeorological features for the flood event in a climatological context through the analyses of the 20th Century Reanalysis fields. Results indicate interrelated roles of multiple mesoscale ingredients for deep, moist convection in producing extreme rainfall for the August 1975 flood, superimposed over an anomalous synoptic environment. Attribution analyses on the source of water vapor for this flood event will be conducted based on a Lagrangian parcel tracking algorithm LAGRANTO. Analytical framework developed in this study aims to explore utilization of hydrometeorological approach in flood-control engineering designs by providing details on key elements of flood-producing storms.

  20. Resilience to flooding: Draft building code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarkson, J.D.; Braun, K.; Desoto-Duncan, A.; Forsyth, G.; De Gijt, J.G.; Huber, N.P.; Miller, D.; Rigo, P.; Sullivan, D.

    2013-01-01

    A significant issue associated Flood Defence Systems (FDS) is the difficulty of predicting how these structures will behave when inevitably they have been loaded beyond their designed capacity by a flood. The flood can cause these structures to fail catastrophically with loss of life and substantial

  1. Correlações entre atributos químicos do solo e atributos da cultura e da produtividade de arroz irrigado determinadas com técnicas de manejo localizado Correlations between soil chemical attributes and flooded rice yield through the site-specific management techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reges Durigon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O sistema de agricultura tradicional desconsidera a variabilidade espacial dos atributos dos solos utilizados na produção vegetal, enquanto que o manejo localizado visa a identificar e propor o manejo dessa variabilidade. Com o objetivo de determinar as correlações entre atributos de solo, da cultura e produtividade de arroz irrigado por meio de técnicas de manejo localizado, foi conduzido um experimento de 70ha. A malha de amostragem de solo utilizada foi de um ponto por hectare, e os resultados da análise de solo foram usados para elaborar os mapas de atributos químicos do solo. A amostragem para determinação do rendimento de grãos foi realizada em malha de um hectare, por meio da coleta manual de quatro subamostras de plantas por ponto georreferenciado. A variabilidade espacial e as correlações entre mapas de atributos de solo e produtividade de arroz irrigado foram geradas por meio do Software Campeiro 6.0. As maiores correlações positivas entre produtividade de arroz e atributos de solo foram verificadas para cálcio e magnésio, enquanto a saturação de alumínio apresentou a maior correlação negativa.The traditional agricultural system disregards spatial variability of the attributes of soil used in crop production, while the site-specific management aims to identify and to propose a management of this variability. An experiment of 70ha was conducted with the purpose of determining the correlation between soil attributes, of crop and flooded rice yield through site-specific management techniques. It was collected one sample per hectare, and the soil analysis results were used to elaborate the map of its chemical attributes. The sampling to determne the grain yield was made in a grid with one point per hectare and four plant sub-samples per point georreferenced were hand plucked. The spatial variability and the correlations between soil attribute maps and flooded rice yield were done using the Campeiro Software 6.0. The

  2. Structural, spectroscopic, and multiconfigurational quantum chemical investigations of the electron-rich metal-metal triple-bonded Tc(2)X(4)(PMe(3))(4) (X = Cl, Br) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poineau, Frederic; Forster, Paul M; Todorova, Tanya K; Gagliardi, Laura; Sattelberger, Alfred P; Czerwinski, Kenneth R

    2010-07-19

    The compounds Tc(2)Cl(4)(PMe(3))(4) and Tc(2)Br(4)(PMe(3))(4) were formed from the reaction between (n-Bu(4)N)(2)Tc(2)X(8) (X = Cl, Br) and trimethylphosphine. The Tc(II) dinuclear species were characterized by single-crystal XRD, UV-visible spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry techniques, and the results are compared to those obtained from density functional theory and multiconfigurational (CASSCF/CASPT2) quantum chemical studies. The compound Tc(2)Cl(4)(PMe(3))(4) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c [a = 17.9995(9) A, b = 9.1821(5) A, c = 17.0090(9) A, beta = 115.4530(10) degrees ] and is isostructural to M(2)Cl(4)(PMe(3))(4) (M = Re, Mo, W) and to Tc(2)Br(4)(PMe(3))(4). The metal-metal distance (2.1318(2) A) is similar to the one found in Tc(2)Br(4)(PMe(3))(4) (2.1316(5) A). The calculated molecular structures of the ground states are in excellent agreement with the structures determined experimentally. Calculations of effective bond orders for Tc(2)X(8)(2-) and Tc(2)X(4)(PMe(3))(4) (X = Cl, Br) indicate stronger pi bonds in the Tc(2)(4+) core than in Tc(2)(6+) core. The electronic spectra were recorded in benzene and show a series of low intensity bands in the range 10 000-26 000 cm(-1). Assignment of the bands as well as computing their excitation energies and intensities were performed at both TD-DFT and CASSCF/CASPT2 levels of theory. Calculations predict that the lowest energy band corresponds to the delta* --> sigma* transition, the difference between calculated and experimental values being 228 cm(-1) for X = Cl and 866 cm(-1) for X = Br. The next bands are attributed to delta* --> pi*, delta --> sigma*, and delta --> pi* transitions. The cyclic voltammograms exhibit two reversible waves and indicate that Tc(2)Br(4)(PMe(3))(4) exhibits more positive oxidation potentials than Tc(2)Cl(4)(PMe(3))(4.) This phenomenon is discussed and ascribed to stronger metal (d) to halide (d) back bonding in the bromo complex. Further analysis indicates that Tc

  3. Flood Risk and Asset Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Neal J, Villanueva I, Wright N et al. (2011) How much physical complexity is needed to model flood inundation? Hydrological Processes 26, http...unpublished’’. 14: Neal J, Villanueva I, Wright N et al. (2011) – include publication details as well as DOI. 15: Romanowicz R and Beven K (2003

  4. Impact of the exceptionally high flood from the Changjiang River on the aquatic chemical distributions on the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea shelves in the summer of 1998

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Baodong; WANG Xiulin

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the field observation in the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea in the summer of 1998, a rare event of exceptionally high discharge from the Changjiang River was described and how this high discharge altered water masses as well as chemical distributions on the shelves of the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea. The maximal extending ranges of the Changjiang diluted water and the nutrients in the freshwater from the Changjiang River were recorded for the first time. It was also found that there was a closed area with high oxygen and pH values in the offshore area of the southern Huanghai Sea and the northern East China Sea, indicating that the extensive spreading of nutrients due to the high discharge led to photosynthesis of phytoplankton mostly taking place in the offshore area far from the river mouth. The presence of "excess nitrogen" in almost all the northern East China Sea and the south of the Huanghai Sea suggests that these areas are potentially phosphorus-limited rather than nitrogen-limited, manifesting more like an estuarine ecosystem rather than a common marine ecosystem.

  5. Feedback on flood risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

    2009-09-01

    For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To manage repeated crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. In this objective, after 3 years of test and improvement since 2003, the initiative Predict-Services was developped in South of France: it aims at helping communities and companies to face repeated flood crisis. The principle is to prepare emergency plans, to organize crisis management and reduce risks; to help and assist communities and companies during crisis to activate and adapt their emergency plans with enough of anticipation; and to analyse floods effects and improve emergency plans afterwards. In order to reduce risks, and to keep the benefits of such an initiative, local communities and companies have to maintain the awareness of risk of the citizens and employees. They also have to maintain their safety plans to keep them constantly operational. This is a part of the message relayed. Companies, Local communities, local government authorities and basin stakeholders are the decision makers. Companies and local communities have to involve themselves in the elaboration of safety plans. They are also completely involved in their activation that is their own responsability. This applies to other local government authorities, like districts one's and basin stakeholders, which participle in the financing community safety plans and adminitrative district which are responsible of the transmission of meteorological alert and of rescue actions. In the crossing of the géo-information stemming from the

  6. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Apel, H.

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk is dynamic and influenced by many processes related to hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Flood damage increased significantly over the past decades, however, resulting overall economic loss per event is an aggregated indicator and it is difficult to attribute causes to this increasing...... example are the 2002 and 2013 floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany. The 2002 flood caused the highest economic damage (EUR 11600 million) due to a natural hazard event in Germany. Damage was so high due to extreme flood hazard triggered by extreme precipitation and a high number...

  7. Flood inundation extent in storage cell mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.; Farahi; Saeed; Reza; Khodashenas; B.; Ghahraman; K.; Esmaeeli

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of floodplain processes in general and floodplains flooding in particular are vital issues for river engineers and managers. Insufficient observations of flood inundation extent and the infrequent nature of flood inundation necessitate some sort of predictive tools. In this paper flood inundation extent has been simulated by HEC-RAS software in two storage cell and normal modes and capabilities and limitations of the two models have been determined by comparing simulated and observed flood inundation extent which occurred in the study area on Feb 4th, 2004.

  8. Flood inundation extent in storage cell mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Farahi; Saeed Reza Khodashenas; B.Ghahraman; K.Esmaeeli

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of floodplaln processes In general and floodplains flooding in particular are vital issues for river engineers and managers.Insufficient observations of flood inundation extent and the infrequent nature of flood inundation necessitate some sort of predictive tools.In this paper flood in-undation extent has been simulated by HEC-RAS software in two storage cell and normal modes and capabilities and limitations of the two models have been determined by comparing simulated and ob-served flood inundation extent which occurred in the study area on Feb 4th, 2004.

  9. Phosphorus Mobilization from Manure-Amended and Unamended Alkaline Soils to Overlying Water during Simulated Flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarawansha, E A G S; Kumaragamage, D; Flaten, D; Zvomuya, F; Tenuta, M

    2015-07-01

    Anaerobic soil conditions resulting from flooding often enhance release of phosphorus (P) to overlying water. Enhanced P release is well documented for flooded acidic soils; however, there is little information for flooded alkaline soils. We examined the effect of flooding and anaerobic conditions on P mobilization using 12 alkaline soils from Manitoba that were either unamended or amended with solid cattle manure. Pore water and floodwater were analyzed over 8 wk of simulated flooding for dissolved reactive P (DRP), Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn. As expected, manured soils had significantly greater pore and floodwater DRP concentrations than unamended. Flooding increased pore water DRP concentrations significantly in all soils and treatments except one manured clay in which concentrations increased initially and then decreased. Floodwater DRP concentrations increased significantly by two- to 15-fold in 10 soils regardless of amendment treatment but remained relatively stable in the two soils with greatest clay content. Phosphorus release at the onset of flooding was associated with the release of Ca, Mg, and Mn, suggesting that P release may be controlled by the dissolution of Mg and Ca phosphates and reductive dissolution of Mn phosphates. Thereafter, P release was associated with release of Fe, suggesting the reductive dissolution of Fe phosphates. Differences in pore water and floodwater DRP concentrations among soils and amendment treatments and the high variability in P mobilization from pore water to floodwater among soils indicate the need to further investigate chemical reactions responsible for P release and mobility under anaerobic conditions.

  10. EEL spectroscopic tomography: towards a new dimension in nanomaterials analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedra, Lluís; Eljarrat, Alberto; Arenal, Raúl; Pellicer, Eva; Cabo, Moisés; López-Ortega, Alberto; Estrader, Marta; Sort, Jordi; Baró, Maria Dolors; Estradé, Sònia; Peiró, Francesca

    2012-11-01

    Electron tomography is a widely spread technique for recovering the three dimensional (3D) shape of nanostructured materials. Using a spectroscopic signal to achieve a reconstruction adds a fourth chemical dimension to the 3D structure. Up to date, energy filtering of the images in the transmission electron microscope (EFTEM) is the usual spectroscopic method even if most of the information in the spectrum is lost. Unlike EFTEM tomography, the use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectrum images (SI) for tomographic reconstruction retains all chemical information, and the possibilities of this new approach still remain to be fully exploited. In this article we prove the feasibility of EEL spectroscopic tomography at low voltages (80 kV) and short acquisition times from data acquired using an aberration corrected instrument and data treatment by Multivariate Analysis (MVA), applied to Fe(x)Co((3-x))O(4)@Co(3)O(4) mesoporous materials. This approach provides a new scope into materials; the recovery of full EELS signal in 3D.

  11. The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquinet-Husson, N.; Arie, E.; Ballard, J.; Barbe, A.; Bjoraker, G.; Bonnet, B.; Brown, L. R.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Champion, J. P.; Chedin, A.; Chursin, A.; Clerbaux, C.; Duxbury, G.; Flaud, J.-M.; Fourrie, N.; Fayt, A.; Graner, G.; Gamache, R.; Goldman, A.; Golovko, V.; Guelachvili, G.; Hartmann, J. M.; Hilico, J. C.; Hillman, J.; Lefevre, G.; Lellouch, E.; Mikhailenko, S. N.; Naumenko, O. V.; Nemtchinov, V.; Newnham, D. A.; Nikitin, A.; Orphal, J.; Perrin, A.; Reuter, D. C.; Rinsland, C. P.; Rosenmann, L.; Rothman, L. S.; Scott, N. A.; Selby, J.; Sinitsa, L. N.; Sirota, J. M.; Smith, A. M.; Smith, K. M.; Tyuterev, V. G.; Tipping, R. H.; Urban, S.; Varanasi, P.; Weber, M.

    1999-05-01

    The current version GEISA-97 of the computer-accessible database system GEISA (Gestion et Etude des Informations Spectroscopiques Atmospheriques: Management and Study of Atmospheric Spectroscopic Information) is described. This catalogue contains 1,346,266 entries. These are the spectroscopic parameters required to describe adequately the individual spectral lines belonging to 42 molecules (96 isotopic species) and located between 0 and 22656 cm-1. The featured molecules are of interest in studies of the terrestrial as well as the other planetary atmospheres, especially those of the giant planets. GEISA-97 contains also a catalog of absorption cross-sections of molecules such as chlorofluorocarbons which exhibit unresolvable spectra. The modifications and improvements made to the earlier edition (GEISA-92) and the data management software are described.

  12. Comparing Simple Flood Reservoir Operation Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Connaughton

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of three simple flood operating rules in reducing the peak flow is compared for four simplified hydrograph shapes. The Minimize Flood Peak rule uses available flood storage capacity to store peak flows from an accurate hydrograph forecast. The less demanding Minimize Flooding Frequency operating rule releases water at or below channel capacity until the flood storage pool is filled and outflows are forced to exceed the channel capacity. The Short Forecast Peak Minimization rule minimizes flood peak over a short foreseeable future with existing flood storage capacity. Four simplified hydrograph shapes (triangular, abrupt wave, flood pulse and broad peak were used. The Minimize Flood Peak rule reduces peak flows better than alternatives, but is often impractical. The Short Forecast Peak Minimization rule reduces peak flows for a wide range of conditions. The Minimize Flood Frequency rule may be more relevant where damages occur abruptly, as in many leveed systems. All rules reduce peak outflow more efficiently for more steeply rising hydrographs. The approach suggests some general insights for flood operations of reservoirs.

  13. Coping with Pluvial Floods by Private Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Rözer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pluvial floods have caused severe damage to urban areas in recent years. With a projected increase in extreme precipitation as well as an ongoing urbanization, pluvial flood damage is expected to increase in the future. Therefore, further insights, especially on the adverse consequences of pluvial floods and their mitigation, are needed. To gain more knowledge, empirical damage data from three different pluvial flood events in Germany were collected through computer-aided telephone interviews. Pluvial flood awareness as well as flood experience were found to be low before the respective flood events. The level of private precaution increased considerably after all events, but is mainly focused on measures that are easy to implement. Lower inundation depths, smaller potential losses as compared with fluvial floods, as well as the fact that pluvial flooding may occur everywhere, are expected to cause a shift in damage mitigation from precaution to emergency response. However, an effective implementation of emergency measures was constrained by a low dissemination of early warnings in the study areas. Further improvements of early warning systems including dissemination as well as a rise in pluvial flood preparedness are important to reduce future pluvial flood damage.

  14. Single nanoparticle tracking spectroscopic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haw; Cang, Hu; Xu, Cangshan; Wong, Chung M.

    2011-07-19

    A system that can maintain and track the position of a single nanoparticle in three dimensions for a prolonged period has been disclosed. The system allows for continuously imaging the particle to observe any interactions it may have. The system also enables the acquisition of real-time sequential spectroscopic information from the particle. The apparatus holds great promise in performing single molecule spectroscopy and imaging on a non-stationary target.

  15. Living behind dikes: mimicking flooding experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaalberg, Ruud; Midden, Cees J H

    2013-05-01

    Delta areas like the Netherlands are threatened by global climate change. Awareness is, however, rather low. Our research objective was to investigate whether coping responses to flooding risks could be enhanced in a virtual environment (VE). A laboratory experiment was conducted in which participants were exposed to a simulated dike breach and consequent flooding of their virtual residence. We tested the hypothesis that an interactive 3D flood simulation facilitates coping responses compared to noninteractive film and slide simulations. Our results showed that information search, the motivation to evacuate, and the motivation to buy flood insurance increased after exposure to the 3D flood simulation compared to the film and slide simulations. Mediation analyses revealed that some of these presentation mode effects were mediated by a greater sense of being present in the VE. Implications to use high-end flood simulations in a VE to communicate real-world flooding risks and coping responses to threatened residents will be discussed.

  16. Flood risk assessment: concepts, modelling, applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tsakiris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural hazards have caused severe consequences to the natural, modified and human systems, in the past. These consequences seem to increase with time due to both higher intensity of the natural phenomena and higher value of elements at risk. Among the water related hazards flood hazards have the most destructive impacts. The paper presents a new systemic paradigm for the assessment of flood hazard and flood risk in the riverine flood prone areas. Special emphasis is given to the urban areas with mild terrain and complicated topography, in which 2-D fully dynamic flood modelling is proposed. Further the EU flood directive is critically reviewed and examples of its implementation are presented. Some critical points in the flood directive implementation are also highlighted.

  17. Can we predict the next urban flood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Jensen, David Getreuer;

    2015-01-01

    historically and in real-time. There is a rather untested potential in real-time prediction of urban floods. In this paper radar data observations with different spatial and temporal resolution, radar nowcasts of 0-2 hours leadtime, and numerical weather models with leadtimes up to 24 h are used as inputs......Flooding produced by high-intensive local rainfall and drainage system capacity exceedance can have severe impacts in cities. In order to prepare cities for these types of flood events – especially in the future climate – it is valuable to be able to simulate these events numericallyboth...... to an integrated flood and drainage systems model with the purpose to investigate the potential for predicting future floods. The system is tested on a small town Lystrup in Denmark, which has been recently flooded. Results show that it is possible to generate detailed flood maps in real-time with high resolution...

  18. 75 FR 7522 - United States Section; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Flood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Environmental Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and Partial Levee Relocation, Presidio Flood Control... EIS) for flood control improvements to the Presidio Flood Control Project, Presidio, Texas (Presidio... Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and Partial Levee Relocation, USIBWC Presidio Flood......

  19. Multi-pass spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehle, Jean-Louis [Sopralab, 7 rue du Moulin des Bruyeres, 92400 Courbevoie (France); Samartzis, Peter C., E-mail: sama@iesl.forth.gr [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation of Research and Technology-Hellas, Vassilika Vouton 71110, Heraklion Crete (Greece); Stamataki, Katerina [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation of Research and Technology-Hellas, Vassilika Vouton 71110, Heraklion Crete (Greece); Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Voutes, 71003, Heraklion (Greece); Piel, Jean-Philippe [Sopralab, 7 rue du Moulin des Bruyeres, 92400 Courbevoie (France); Katsoprinakis, George E.; Papadakis, Vassilis [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation of Research and Technology-Hellas, Vassilika Vouton 71110, Heraklion Crete (Greece); Schimowski, Xavier [Sopralab, 7 rue du Moulin des Bruyeres, 92400 Courbevoie (France); Rakitzis, T. Peter [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation of Research and Technology-Hellas, Vassilika Vouton 71110, Heraklion Crete (Greece); Department of Physics, University of Crete, Voutes, 71003, Heraklion (Greece); Loppinet, Benoit [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation of Research and Technology-Hellas, Vassilika Vouton 71110, Heraklion Crete (Greece)

    2014-03-31

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry is an established technique, particularly useful for thickness measurements of thin films. It measures polarization rotation after a single reflection of a beam of light on the measured substrate at a given incidence angle. In this paper, we report the development of multi-pass spectroscopic ellipsometry where the light beam reflects multiple times on the sample. We have investigated both theoretically and experimentally the effect of sample reflectivity, number of reflections (passes), angles of incidence and detector dynamic range on ellipsometric observables tanΨ and cosΔ. The multiple pass approach provides increased sensitivity to small changes in Ψ and Δ, opening the way for single measurement determination of optical thickness T, refractive index n and absorption coefficient k of thin films, a significant improvement over the existing techniques. Based on our results, we discuss the strengths, the weaknesses and possible applications of this technique. - Highlights: • We present multi-pass spectroscopic ellipsometry (MPSE), a multi-pass approach to ellipsometry. • Different detectors, samples, angles of incidence and number of passes were tested. • N passes improve polarization ratio sensitivity to the power of N. • N reflections improve phase shift sensitivity by a factor of N. • MPSE can significantly improve thickness measurements in thin films.

  20. Chemical constituents from Schisandra sphenanthera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Tao Li; Zhi Ying Weng; Jian Xin Pu; Han Dong Sun

    2008-01-01

    The chemical constituents of the stems of Schisandra sphenanthera are described for the first time. This investigation has resulted in the isolation of a new phenolic glycoside (1), along with seven known compounds. The structure of 1 was assigned by using spectroscopic techniques, including 2D NMR spectra.

  1. Urban flooding and health risk analysis by use of quantitative microbial risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Signe Tanja

    according to location, as demonstrated for microbial, chemical and physical parameters between sub-catchments. Variations in wastewater quality, as well as rainfall, system and environmental effects (solar radiation), cause knock-on variations in floodwater composition, because they are functions...... of these parameters. Variations between locations have been demonstrated through measurements of microbial concentrations in flooding episodes, while changes in microbial concentrations over time have been demonstrated through a survival and decay study, where decay was substantial in the presence of UV light......, the drainage model was validated by comparison of modelled and measured microbial concentrations in CSOs. The model result was used in the analysis of the risk of infection from exposure to urban flooding which resulted in a risk of 10.3 to 10-1 from exposure to flooding, both from cleaning up flooding...

  2. Use of documentary sources on past flood events for flood risk management and land planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cœur, Denis; Lang, Michel

    2008-09-01

    The knowledge of past catastrophic events can improve flood risk mitigation policy, with a better awareness against risk. As such historical information is usually available in Europe for the past five centuries, historians are able to understand how past society dealt with flood risk, and hydrologists can include information on past floods into an adapted probabilistic framework. In France, Flood Risk Mitigation Maps are based either on the largest historical known flood event or on the 100-year flood event if it is greater. Two actions can be suggested in terms of promoting the use of historical information for flood risk management: (1) the development of a regional flood data base, with both historical and current data, in order to get a good feedback on recent events and to improve the flood risk education and awareness; (2) the commitment to keep a persistent/perennial management of a reference network of hydrometeorological observations for climate change studies.

  3. Sobre inundaciones y anegamientos / Reflections on floods and flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrando A., Francisco J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Respecto a anegamientos e inundaciones, el autor realiza algunas precisiones conceptuales que afectan la gestión de acciones preventivas, la planificación y el ordenamiento territorial; además se ofrece una sistematización del quehacer sobre las inundaciones./ The author punctualizes the concepts regarding preventive actions and territorial planning. Also the article includes a systematized list of actions related to flood management.

  4. Flooded: an auto-ethnography of the 2011 Bangkok flood

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Cohen

    2012-01-01

    "In this personal account I report my perceptions, experiences, and conduct during the 2011 Bangkok flood, in which my home and neighbourhood have been badly inundated and damaged. Therefore, I draw on auto-ethnography as an increasingly popular, though controversial qualitative methodology in social sciences. Though personal, the account has some broader implications, deriving primarily from the examination of the relationship between my perceptions and conduct in the disaster and my life ex...

  5. Nano-spectroscopic imaging of intermolecular structure, coupling and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pollard, Benjamin; Hinrichs, Karsten; Raschke, Markus B

    2013-01-01

    Molecular self-assembly, the function of biomembranes, and the performance of organic solar cells rely on molecular interactions on the nanoscale. The understanding and design of such intrinsic or engineered heterogeneous functional soft matter has long been impeded by a lack of spectroscopic tools with sufficient nanometer spatial resolution, attomolar sensitivity, and intermolecular spectroscopic specificity. We implement vibrational scattering-scanning near-field optical microscopy ($s$-SNOM) in a multi-spectral modality with unprecedented spectral precision to investigate the structure-function relationship in nano-phase separated block-copolymers. We use a vibrational resonance as a sensitive reporter of the local chemical environment and resolve, with few nanometer spatial resolution and 0.2 cm$^{-1}$ spectral precision, spectral Stark shifts and line broadening correlated with molecular-scale morphologies. By creating images of solvatochromic vibrational shifts we discriminate local variations in elect...

  6. A Detailed Spectroscopic and Photometric Analysis of DQ White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Dufour, P; Fontaine, G

    2005-01-01

    We present an analysis of spectroscopic and photometric observations of cool DQ white dwarfs based on improved model atmosphere calculations. In particular, we revise the atmospheric parameters of the trigonometric parallax sample of Bergeron, Leggett, & Ruiz, and discuss the astrophysical implications on the temperature scale and mean mass, as well as the chemical evolution of these stars. We also analyze 40 new DQ stars discovered in the first data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our analysis confirms that effective temperatures derived from model atmospheres including carbon are significantly lower than the temperatures obtained from pure helium models. Similarly the mean mass of the trigonometric parallax sample, = 0.62 Mo, is significantly lower than that obtained from pure helium models, = 0.73 Mo, and more consistent with the spectroscopic mean mass of DB stars, = 0.59 Mo, the most likely progenitors of DQ white dwarfs. We find that DQ stars form a remarkably well defined sequence in a ...

  7. Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of thin-film silicon nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jellison, G.E. Jr.; Modine, F.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Doshi, P.; Rohatgi, A. [Georiga Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    We have measured and analyzed the optical characteristics of a series of silicon nitride thin films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on silicon substrates for photovoltaic applications. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were made by using a two-channel spectroscopic polarization modulator ellipsometer that measures N, S, and C data simultaneously. The data were fit to a model consisting of air / roughness / SiN / crystalline silicon. The roughness was modeled using the Bruggeman effective medium approximation, assuming 50% SiN, 50% voids. The optical functions of the SiN film were parameterized using a model by Jellison and Modine. All the {Chi}{sup 2} are near 1, demonstrating that this model works extremely well for all SiN films. The measured dielectric functions were used to make optimized SiN antireflection coatings for crystalline silicon solar cells.

  8. Urban flood simulation based on the SWMM model

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    China is the nation with the fastest urbanization in the past decades which has caused serious urban flooding. Flood forecasting is regarded as one of the important flood mitigation methods, and is widely used in catchment flood mitigation, but is not widely used in urban flooding mitigation. This paper, employing the SWMM model, one of the widely used urban flood planning and management models, simulates the urban flooding of Dongguan City in the rapidly urbanized southern China. SWMM is fir...

  9. Application of optical spectroscopic techniques for disease diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anushree

    Optical spectroscopy, a truly non-invasive tool for remote diagnostics, is capable of providing valuable information on the structure and function of molecules. However, most spectroscopic techniques suffer from drawbacks, which limit their application. As a part of my dissertation work, I have developed theoretical and experimental methods to address the above mentioned issues. I have successfully applied these methods for monitoring the physical, chemical and biochemical parameters of biomolecules involved in some specific life threatening diseases like lead poisoning and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). I presented optical studies of melanosomes, which are one of the vital organelles in the human eye, also known to be responsible for a disease called age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a condition of advanced degeneration which causes progressive blindness. I used Raman spectroscopy, to first chemically identify the composition of melanosome, and then monitor the changes in its functional and chemical behavior due to long term exposure to visible light. The above study, apart from explaining the role of melanosomes in AMD, also sets the threshold power for lasers used in surgeries and other clinical applications. In the second part of my dissertation, a battery of spectroscopic techniques was successfully applied to explore the different binding sites of lead ions with the most abundant carrier protein molecule in our circulatory system, human serum albumin. I applied optical spectroscopic tools for ultrasensitive detection of heavy metal ions in solution which can also be used for lead detection at a very early stage of lead poisoning. Apart from this, I used Raman microspectroscopy to study the chemical alteration occurring inside a prostate cancer cell as a result of a treatment with a low concentrated aqueous extract of a prospective drug, Nerium Oleander. The experimental methods used in this study has tremendous potential for clinical

  10. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk is dynamic and influenced by many processes related to hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Flood damage increased significantly over the past decades, however, resulting overall economic loss per event is an aggregated indicator and it is difficult to attribute causes to this increasing trend. Much has been learned about damaging processes during floods at the micro-scale, e.g. building level. However, little is known about the main factors determining the amount of flood damage on event level. Thus, we analyse and compare paired flood events, i.e. consecutive, similar damaging floods that occurred in the same area. In analogy to 'Paired catchment studies' - a well-established method in hydrology to understand how changes in land use affect streamflow - we will investigate how and why resulting flood damage in a region differed between the first and second consecutive flood events. One example are the 2002 and 2013 floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany. The 2002 flood caused the highest economic damage (EUR 11600 million) due to a natural hazard event in Germany. Damage was so high due to extreme flood hazard triggered by extreme precipitation and a high number of resulting dyke breaches. Additionally, exposure hotspots like the city of Dresden at the Elbe river as well as some smaller municipalities at the river Mulde (e.g. Grimma, Eilenburg, Bitterfeld, Dessau) were severely impacted. However, affected parties and authorities learned from the extreme flood in 2002, and many governmental flood risk programs and initiatives were launched. Considerable improvements since 2002 occurred on many levels that deal with flood risk reduction and disaster response, in particular in 1) increased flood prevention by improved spatial planning, 2) an increased number of property-level mitigation measures, 3) more effective early warning and improved coordination of disaster response and 4) a more targeted maintenance of flood defence systems and their

  11. Real-time flood forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C.; Tsay, T.-K.; Chien, C.-H.; Wu, I.-L.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers at the Hydroinformatic Research and Development Team (HIRDT) of the National Taiwan University undertook a project to create a real time flood forecasting model, with an aim to predict the current in the Tamsui River Basin. The model was designed based on deterministic approach with mathematic modeling of complex phenomenon, and specific parameter values operated to produce a discrete result. The project also devised a rainfall-stage model that relates the rate of rainfall upland directly to the change of the state of river, and is further related to another typhoon-rainfall model. The geographic information system (GIS) data, based on precise contour model of the terrain, estimate the regions that were perilous to flooding. The HIRDT, in response to the project's progress, also devoted their application of a deterministic model to unsteady flow of thermodynamics to help predict river authorities issue timely warnings and take other emergency measures.

  12. Detection of the spectroscopic signatures of explosives and their degradation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Vivian; Cabanzo, Andrea; Baez, Bibiana; Correa, Sandra; Irrazabal, Maik; Briano, Julio G.; Castro, Miguel E.; Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2005-06-01

    Detection and removal of antipersonnel and antitank landmines is a great challenge and a worldwide enviromental and humanitarian problem. Sensors tuned on the spectroscopic signature of the chemicals released from mines are a potential solution. Enviromental factors (temperature, relative humidity, rainfall precipitation, wind, sun irradiation, pressure, etc.) as well as soil characteristics (water content, compaction, porosity, chemical composition, particle size distribution, topography, vegetation, etc), have a direct impact on the fate and transport of the chemicals released from landmines. Chemicals such as TNT, DNT and their degradation products, are semi-volatile, and somewhat soluble in water. Also, they may adsorb strongly to soil particles, and are susceptible to degradation by microorganisms, light, or chemical agents. Here we show an experimental procedure to quantify the effect of the above variables on the spectroscopic signature. A number of soil tanks under controlled conditions are used to study the effect of temperature, water content, relative humidity and light radiation.

  13. Visual Sensing for Urban Flood Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing climatic extremes, the frequency and severity of urban flood events have intensified worldwide. In this study, image-based automated monitoring of flood formation and analyses of water level fluctuation were proposed as value-added intelligent sensing applications to turn a passive monitoring camera into a visual sensor. Combined with the proposed visual sensing method, traditional hydrological monitoring cameras have the ability to sense and analyze the local situation of flood events. This can solve the current problem that image-based flood monitoring heavily relies on continuous manned monitoring. Conventional sensing networks can only offer one-dimensional physical parameters measured by gauge sensors, whereas visual sensors can acquire dynamic image information of monitored sites and provide disaster prevention agencies with actual field information for decision-making to relieve flood hazards. The visual sensing method established in this study provides spatiotemporal information that can be used for automated remote analysis for monitoring urban floods. This paper focuses on the determination of flood formation based on image-processing techniques. The experimental results suggest that the visual sensing approach may be a reliable way for determining the water fluctuation and measuring its elevation and flood intrusion with respect to real-world coordinates. The performance of the proposed method has been confirmed; it has the capability to monitor and analyze the flood status, and therefore, it can serve as an active flood warning system.

  14. Visual Sensing for Urban Flood Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-08-14

    With the increasing climatic extremes, the frequency and severity of urban flood events have intensified worldwide. In this study, image-based automated monitoring of flood formation and analyses of water level fluctuation were proposed as value-added intelligent sensing applications to turn a passive monitoring camera into a visual sensor. Combined with the proposed visual sensing method, traditional hydrological monitoring cameras have the ability to sense and analyze the local situation of flood events. This can solve the current problem that image-based flood monitoring heavily relies on continuous manned monitoring. Conventional sensing networks can only offer one-dimensional physical parameters measured by gauge sensors, whereas visual sensors can acquire dynamic image information of monitored sites and provide disaster prevention agencies with actual field information for decision-making to relieve flood hazards. The visual sensing method established in this study provides spatiotemporal information that can be used for automated remote analysis for monitoring urban floods. This paper focuses on the determination of flood formation based on image-processing techniques. The experimental results suggest that the visual sensing approach may be a reliable way for determining the water fluctuation and measuring its elevation and flood intrusion with respect to real-world coordinates. The performance of the proposed method has been confirmed; it has the capability to monitor and analyze the flood status, and therefore, it can serve as an active flood warning system.

  15. Floods in Brno: history, causes and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázdil, R.; Dobrovolný, P.; Halíčková, M.; Macková, J.; Øezníčková, L.; Soukalová, E.; Valášek, H.

    2009-09-01

    Brno is the second largest city in the Czech Republic (cca 400,000 inhabitants), a centre of southern Moravia. It was always endangered by floods occurring on the Svratka River and the Svitava River. Observed floods were related mainly to intense snow-melting (with rains and also ice-damming) in winter/early spring or heavy precipitation in the summer half-year. Historical and recent changes in catchments of the both rivers influencing floods are described (land-use, regulations of rivers, water reservoirs). Basic analysis of floods is presented for the period of systematic hydrological measurements (water stages or discharges) with respect to their severity (expressed by N-year return period) and seasonality of floods for the four hydrological stations in Brno and its surroundings. Examples of selected flood events with analysis of meteorological causes, hydrological course and impacts are presented. The most severe floods occurred in March 1941 and August-September 1938. Information about floods from the instrumental period is extended by flood information derived from different documentary evidence. Long-term chronology of Brno floods (since 1650) combining documentary and instrumental data is presented and discussed in the context of climate variability.

  16. Flood-related contamination in catchments affected by historical metal mining: an unexpected and emerging hazard of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, S A; Brewer, P A; Macklin, M G; Haresign, W; Betson, R E; Rassner, S M E

    2014-04-01

    Floods in catchments affected by historical metal mining result in the remobilisation of large quantities of contaminated sediment from floodplain soils and old mine workings. This poses a significant threat to agricultural production and is preventing many European river catchments achieving a 'good chemical and ecological status', as demanded by the Water Framework Directive. Analysis of overbank sediment following widespread flooding in west Wales in June 2012 showed that flood sediments were contaminated above guideline pollution thresholds, in some samples by a factor of 82. Most significantly, silage produced from flood affected fields was found to contain up to 1900 mg kg(-1) of sediment associated Pb, which caused cattle poisoning and mortality. As a consequence of climate related increases in flooding this problem is likely to continue and intensify. Management of contaminated catchments requires a geomorphological approach to understand the spatial and temporal cycling of metals through the fluvial system.

  17. Floods Risk Management in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Güiza Suárez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The last rainy season 2010-2011 resulted in Colombia in around 500 casualties and more than 3.6 million of victims. Although this rainfall term accounted for one of the strongest it was not an unprecedented event since for more than fifty years this phenomenon has been taking place in the same Colombian regions producing casualties and victims. This fact makes us to think about the public management by authorities regarding flooding prevention in our country. This article elaborates on this topic explaining the risk management system in case of flooding in Colombia. It shows some national figures of the main ravages brought about by the 2010 2011 rainy seasons. Finally the article analyzes two cases of study of how operational is this public policy in risk management: La Mojana and Canal del Dique regions. It was evident that the state failed in managing the risk management from flooding because despite the important investment, every year the victims, casualties and material damages are increasing steadily.

  18. Flood risk modelling based on tangible and intangible urban flood damage quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Veldhuis, J A E; Clemens, F H L R

    2010-01-01

    The usual way to quantify flood damage is by application stage-damage functions. Urban flood incidents in flat areas mostly result in intangible damages like traffic disturbance and inconvenience for pedestrians caused by pools at building entrances, on sidewalks and parking spaces. Stage-damage functions are not well suited to quantify damage for these floods. This paper presents an alternative method to quantify flood damage that uses data from a municipal call centre. The data cover a period of 10 years and contain detailed information on consequences of urban flood incidents. Call data are linked to individual flood incidents and then assigned to specific damage classes. The results are used to draw risk curves for a range of flood incidents of increasing damage severity. Risk curves for aggregated groups of damage classes show that total flood risk related to traffic disturbance is larger than risk of damage to private properties, which in turn is larger than flood risk related to human health. Risk curves for detailed damage classes show how distinctions can be made between flood risks related to many types of occupational use in urban areas. This information can be used to support prioritisation of actions for flood risk reduction. Since call data directly convey how citizens are affected by urban flood incidents, they provide valuable information that complements flood risk analysis based on hydraulic models.

  19. Vibration spectroscopic analysis and quantum chemical calculation of thymine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FU Yichen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper,Raman and IR spectra of thymine(Th were measured respectively in this paper.Molecular structure of Th was optimized and it’s Raman and IR bands were calculated using B3LYP/6-311G(contain Density functional theory,DFT method.It was found that the calculated values match well with the experimental ones.The vibratinal frequencies of Th molecules were completely assigned with the assistance of Gauss View visualization software.

  20. Moessbauer spectroscopic, chemical and mineralogical characterization of Iberian Pottery

    OpenAIRE

    Ruíz García, Casilda

    1985-01-01

    Characterization of andent pottery is threefold: the provenance of the clay, non-plastics added and firing technology (kiln atmosphere and associated thermal cycle). Very often sherds of different provenance have similar appearance although, conversely, different manufacturing techniques can produce a wide variety of pottery from the sanle clay. Therefore a classification of the sherds based solely upan macroscopic and stylistic grounds could lead to serious mistakes. Physicoch...

  1. Recent Development in Spectroscopic and Chemical Characterization of Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    the I β form. As noted earlier, the nomenclature chosen was intended to avoid confusion with the IA and IB forms previously used to clas- sify the...cellulose suspended in a mixture of acetic anhydride / acetic acid/H2SO4 around 60°C. Cellulose triacetate is soluble in chlorinated hydrocarbons such as

  2. Spectroscopic properties of chlorophyll f.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaqiong; Cai, Zheng-Li; Chen, Min

    2013-09-26

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of chlorophyll f (newly discovered in 2010) have been measured in acetone and methanol at different temperatures. The spectral analysis and assignment are compared with the spectra of chlorophyll a and d under the same experimental conditions. The spectroscopic properties of these chlorophylls have further been studied by the aid of density functional CAM-B3LYP and high-level symmetric adapted coupled-cluster configuration interaction calculations. The main Q and Soret bands and possible sidebands of chlorophylls have been determined. The photophysical properties of chlorophyll f are discussed.

  3. Advances in Remote Sensing of Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With the publication of eight original research articles, four types of advances in the remote sensing of floods are achieved. The uncertainty of modeled outputs using precipitation datasets derived from in situ observations and remote sensors is further understood. With the terrestrial laser scanner and airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR coupled with high resolution optical and radar imagery, researchers improve accuracy levels in estimating the surface water height, extent, and flow of floods. The unmanned aircraft system (UAS can be the game changer in the acquisition and application of remote sensing data. The UAS may fly everywhere and every time when a flood event occurs. With the development of urban structure maps, the flood risk and possible damage is well assessed. The flood mitigation plans and response activities become effective and efficient using geographic information system (GIS-based urban flood vulnerability and risk maps.

  4. Visualization and Damage Assessment for Flooded Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Guozhong; YAN Li; LIU Nan; LIU Renyi

    2004-01-01

    A practical method for visualizing flood area and evaluating damage is presented, which consists of two technical approaches: self-programming and adapting commercial GIS platforms. The low-cost and easy-to-use GIS-Based model developed by self-programming can meet current requirements of most local authorities, especially in developing countries. In this model, two cases, non-source flood and source flood, are distinguished and the Seed-spread algorithm suitable for source-flood is discussed; The flood damage is assessed by overlaying the flood area range with thematic maps and other related social and economic data. and all thematic maps are converted to raster format before overlay analysis. Two measures are taken to improve the operation efficiency of speed seed-spread algorithm. The accuracy of the model mainly depends on the resolution and precision of the DEM data, and the accuracy of registering all raster layers and the quality of attribute data.

  5. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... flood plain. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) flood insurance maps, other available... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood-plain management. 650.25 Section 650.25... Flood-plain management. Through proper planning, flood plains can be managed to reduce the threat...

  6. 12 CFR 339.7 - Forced placement of flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forced placement of flood insurance. 339.7... GENERAL POLICY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 339.7 Forced placement of flood insurance. If... not covered by flood insurance or is covered by flood insurance in an amount less than the...

  7. 25 CFR 256.24 - Will I need flood insurance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will I need flood insurance? 256.24 Section 256.24... Will I need flood insurance? You will need flood insurance if your dwelling is located in an area identified as having special flood hazards under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L....

  8. 12 CFR 614.4945 - Forced placement of flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forced placement of flood insurance. 614.4945... OPERATIONS Flood Insurance Requirements § 614.4945 Forced placement of flood insurance. If a System... not covered by flood insurance or are covered by flood insurance in an amount less than the...

  9. 12 CFR 572.7 - Forced placement of flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forced placement of flood insurance. 572.7... HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 572.7 Forced placement of flood insurance. If a savings association, or a... not covered by flood insurance or is covered by flood insurance in an amount less than the...

  10. 12 CFR 760.7 - Forced placement of flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forced placement of flood insurance. 760.7... LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 760.7 Forced placement of flood insurance. If a credit... not covered by flood insurance, or is covered by flood insurance in an amount less than the...

  11. 44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood Mitigation Plan development. A Flood Mitigation Plan will articulate...

  12. LAMINATION METHOD OF FLOOD WADIS AND PROJECTION OF THE LAMINATED FLOOD HYDROGRAPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ladjel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The catastrophic floods in semi-arid areas are often caused by floods storm that occur at any time during the year, including the hot season. The prevention of these floods could be done by the construction of small dam hills. This requires the control of theoretical concepts hydrological sizing, especially the hydrological structure to evacuate floods. We suggest a method to calculate the optimal regulation flow of the flood and also the development of a direct calculation formula of a laminated maximum flow. The analysis of the hydro graph’s analogy at the input and the output of the dam, allow searching the dependencies between their characteristics. knowing the characteristics of the hydrograph flood of the project and the reserved capacity for the amortization of the flood, we can directly determine the laminated maximum flow and project the hydrograph of the laminated flood.

  13. Influence of flood risk characteristics on flood insurance demand: a comparison between Germany and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, I.; Botzen, W. J. W.; Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2013-07-01

    The existence of sufficient demand for insurance coverage against infrequent losses is important for the adequate function of insurance markets for natural disaster risks. This study investigates how characteristics of flood risk influence household flood insurance demand based on household surveys undertaken in Germany and the Netherlands. Our analyses confirm the hypothesis that willingness to pay (WTP) for insurance against medium-probability medium-impact flood risk in Germany is higher than WTP for insurance against low-probability high-impact flood risk in the Netherlands. These differences in WTP can be related to differences in flood experience, individual risk perceptions, and the charity hazard. In both countries there is a need to stimulate flood insurance demand if a relevant role of private insurance in flood loss compensation is regarded as desirable, for example, by making flood insurance compulsory or by designing information campaigns.

  14. Flood early warning system: sensors and internet

    OpenAIRE

    Pengel, B.E.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Melnikova, N.B.; Shirshov, G.S.; Koelewijn, A.R.; Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Chavoshian, A.; Takeuchi,K.

    2013-01-01

    The UrbanFlood early warning system (EWS) is designed to monitor data from very large sensornetworks in flood defences such as embankments, dikes, levees, and dams. The EWS, based on the internet, uses real-time sensor information and Artificial Intelligence (AI) to immediately calculate the probability of dike failure, the ensuing scenarios of dike breaching, predicted flood spreading and escape routes for people from the affected areas. Results are presented on interactive decision support ...

  15. Identification and classification of Serbia's historic floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prohaska Stevan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available River flooding in Serbia is a natural phenomenon which largely exceeds the scope of water management and hydraulic engineering, and has considerable impact on the development of Serbian society. Today, the importance and value of areas threatened by floods are among the key considerations of sustainable development. As a result, flood protection techniques and procedures need to be continually refined and updated, following innovations in the fields of science and technology. Knowledge of high flows is key for sizing hydraulic structures and for gauging the cost-effectiveness and safety of the component structures of flood protection systems. However, sizing of hydraulic structures based on computed high flows does not ensure absolute safety; there is a residual flood risk and a risk of structural failure, if a flood exceeds computed levels. In hydrological practice, such floods are often referred to as historic/loads. The goal of this paper is to present a calculation procedure for the objective identification of historic floods, using long, multiple-year series of data on high flows of natural watercourses in Serbia. At its current stage of development, the calculation procedure is based on maximum annual discharges recorded at key monitoring stations of the Hydro-Meteorological Service of Serbia (HMS Serbia. When applied, the procedure results in the identification of specific historic maximum stages/floods (if any at all gauge sites included in the analysis. The probabilistic theory is then applied to assess the statistical significance of each identified historic flood and to classify the historic flood, as appropriate. At the end of the paper, the results of the applied methodology are shown in tabular and graphic form for various Serbian rivers. All identified historic floods are ranked based on their probability of occurrence (i.e., return period.

  16. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general proc...

  17. A Co-Opted Hormonal Cascade Activates Dormant Adventitious Root Primordia upon Flooding in Solanum dulcamara1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Thikra; Kensche, Philip R.; Cristescu, Simona M.; Mariani, Celestina

    2016-01-01

    Soil flooding is a common stress factor affecting plants. To sustain root function in the hypoxic environment, flooding-tolerant plants may form new, aerenchymatous adventitious roots (ARs), originating from preformed, dormant primordia on the stem. We investigated the signaling pathway behind AR primordium reactivation in the dicot species Solanum dulcamara. Transcriptome analysis indicated that flooding imposes a state of quiescence on the stem tissue, while increasing cellular activity in the AR primordia. Flooding led to ethylene accumulation in the lower stem region and subsequently to a drop in abscisic acid (ABA) level in both stem and AR primordia tissue. Whereas ABA treatment prevented activation of AR primordia by flooding, inhibition of ABA synthesis was sufficient to activate them in absence of flooding. Together, this reveals that there is a highly tissue-specific response to reduced ABA levels. The central role for ABA in the response differentiates the pathway identified here from the AR emergence pathway known from rice (Oryza sativa). Flooding and ethylene treatment also induced expression of the polar auxin transporter PIN2, and silencing of this gene or chemical inhibition of auxin transport inhibited primordium activation, even though ABA levels were reduced. Auxin treatment, however, was not sufficient for AR emergence, indicating that the auxin pathway acts in parallel with the requirement for ABA reduction. In conclusion, adaptation of S. dulcamara to wet habitats involved co-option of a hormonal signaling cascade well known to regulate shoot growth responses, to direct a root developmental program upon soil flooding. PMID:26850278

  18. Subcellular Proteomics of Soybean under Flooding Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Setsuko Komatsu

    2012-01-01

    Flooding is an environmental stress found worldwide and may increase in frequency due to changes in global climate,and causes significant reductions in the growth and yield of several crops.The application of proteomics techniques to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying crop responses to flooding stress may facilitate the development of flood tolerant crops.To understand the response mechanism of soybean under flooding stress,proteomics analysis was carried out.Especially,subcellular proteomics studies have led to a better understanding of the mechanism of flooding stress tolerance in soybean.The effects of flooding stress on root plasma membrane were analyzed using an aqueous two-phase partitioning method in combination with gel-based and gel-free proteomics techniques.The results led to the following conclusions:proteins located in the cell wall were increased in the plasma membrane of flooded plants,indicating the contribution of plasma membrane to modification of the cell wall; superoxide dismutase was increased,indicating that the antioxidative system may play a crucial role in protecting cells from oxidative damage following exposure to flooding stress; heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein likely plays a significant role in protecting other proteins from denaturation and degradation during flooding stress; and signaling proteins might work cooperatively to regulate plasma membrane H +-ATPase and maintain ion homeostasis.Cell wall proteins were isolated from root of flooding stressed plants via sucrose gradient centrifugation and analyzed using gel-based proteomics technique.Cell wall proteins identified were related to lignification,and these results indicated that a decrease of lignification-related proteins is related to flooding decreased ROS and jasmonate biosynthesis.And also,lignin staining confirmed that lignification was suppressed in the roots of flooding stressed soybeans.Mitochondrial fractions were purified from root of flooding stressed

  19. After the flood is before the next flood - post event review of the Central European Floods of June 2013. Insights, recommendations and next steps for future flood prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoenyi, Michael; Mechler, Reinhard; McCallum, Ian

    2015-04-01

    In early June 2013, severe flooding hit Central and Eastern Europe, causing extensive damage, in particular along the Danube and Elbe main watersheds. The situation was particularly severe in Eastern Germany, Austria, Hungary and the Czech Republic. Based on the Post Event Review Capability (PERC) approach, developed by Zurich Insurance's Flood Resilience Program to provide independent review of large flood events, we examine what has worked well (best practice) and opportunities for further improvement. The PERC overall aims to thoroughly examine aspects of flood resilience, flood risk management and catastrophe intervention in order to help build back better after events and learn for future events. As our research from post event analyses shows a lot of losses are in fact avoidable by taking the right measures pre-event and these measures are economically - efficient with a return of 4 Euro on losses saved for every Euro invested in prevention on average (Wharton/IIASA flood resilience alliance paper on cost benefit analysis, Mechler et al. 2014) and up to 10 Euros for certain countries. For the 2013 flood events we provide analysis on the following aspects and in general identify a number of factors that worked in terms of reducing the loss and risk burden. 1. Understanding risk factors of the Central European Floods 2013 We review the precursors leading up to the floods in June, with an extremely wet May 2013 and an atypical V-b weather pattern that brought immense precipitation in a very short period to the watersheds of Elbe, Donau and partially the Rhine in the D-A-CH countries and researched what happened during the flood and why. Key questions we asked revolve around which protection and risk reduction approaches worked well and which did not, and why. 2. Insights and recommendations from the post event review The PERC identified a number of risk factors, which need attention if risk is to be reduced over time. • Yet another "100-year flood" - risk

  20. 78 FR 9406 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... Georgetown......... Georgetown Township Office, 1515 Baldwin Street, Jenison, MI 49428. Charter Township of... Domestic Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance.'') James A. Walke, Acting Deputy Associate...

  1. Fault tree analysis for urban flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Veldhuis, J A E; Clemens, F H L R; van Gelder, P H A J M

    2009-01-01

    Traditional methods to evaluate flood risk generally focus on heavy storm events as the principal cause of flooding. Conversely, fault tree analysis is a technique that aims at modelling all potential causes of flooding. It quantifies both overall flood probability and relative contributions of individual causes of flooding. This paper presents a fault model for urban flooding and an application to the case of Haarlem, a city of 147,000 inhabitants. Data from a complaint register, rainfall gauges and hydrodynamic model calculations are used to quantify probabilities of basic events in the fault tree. This results in a flood probability of 0.78/week for Haarlem. It is shown that gully pot blockages contribute to 79% of flood incidents, whereas storm events contribute only 5%. This implies that for this case more efficient gully pot cleaning is a more effective strategy to reduce flood probability than enlarging drainage system capacity. Whether this is also the most cost-effective strategy can only be decided after risk assessment has been complemented with a quantification of consequences of both types of events. To do this will be the next step in this study.

  2. Urban Flood Warning Systems using Radar Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, N.; Bedient, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    There have been an increasing number of urban areas that rely on weather radars to provide accurate precipitation information for flood warning purposes. As non-structural tools, radar-based flood warning systems can provide accurate and timely warnings to the public and private entities in urban areas that are prone to flash floods. The wider spatial and temporal coverage from radar increases flood warning lead-time when compared to rain and stream gages alone. The Third Generation Rice and Texas Medical Center (TMC) Flood Alert System (FAS3) has been delivering warning information with 2 to 3 hours of lead time and a R2 value of 93% to facility personnel in a readily understood format for more than 50 events in the past 15 years. The current FAS utilizes NEXRAD Level II radar rainfall data coupled with a real-time hydrologic model (RTHEC-1) to deliver warning information. The system has a user-friendly dashboard to provide rainfall maps, Google Maps based inundation maps, hydrologic predictions, and real-time monitoring at the bayou. This paper will evaluate its reliable performance during the recent events occurring in 2012 and 2013 and the development of a similar radar-based flood warning system for the City of Sugar Land, Texas. Having a significant role in the communication of flood information, FAS marks an important step towards the establishment of an operational and reliable flood warning system for flood-prone urban areas.

  3. Forecasting Extreme Flooding in South Asia (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    In most years there is extensive flooding across India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. On average, 40 million people are displaced by floods in India and half that many again in Bangladesh. Occasionally, even more extensive and severe flooding occurs across South Asia. In 2007 and 2008 the Brahmaputra flooded three times causing severe disruption of commerce, agriculture and life in general. Systems set up by an international collaboration predicted these Bangladesh floods with an operational system at the 10 and 15-day horizon. These forecasts determined the risk of flooding and allowed the Bangladeshis in peril to prepare, harvesting crops and storing of household and agricultural assets. Savings in increments of annual income resulted form the forecasts. In July and August 2010, severe flooding occurred in Pakistan causing horrendous damage and loss of life. But these floods were also predictable at the 10-day time scale if the same forecasting system developed for Bangladesh had been implemented. Similar systems could be implemented in India but would require local cooperation. We describe the manner in which quantified probabilistic precipitation forecasts, coupled with hydrological models can provide useful and timely extended warnings of flooding.

  4. Flooding in Illinois, April-June 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Charles; Smith, D.F.

    2002-01-01

    Widespread flooding occurred throughout most of Illinois in spring 2002 as a result of multiple intense rainstorms that moved through the State during an extended 2-month period from the third week in April through the month of May in central and southern Illinois, the first week in June in northern Illinois, and the second week in June in west-central Illinois. The scale of flooding was highly variable in time and intensity throughout the State. A Federal disaster was declared for central and southern Illinois to deal with the extensive damage incurred during the severe weather, and to provide emergency aid relief. Discharge and stage records for the flood periods described above are presented for 193 streamflow-gaging stations throughout Illinois and in drainages just upstream of the State. New maximum instantaneous discharge was recorded at 12 stations during this flood period, and new maximum stage was recorded at 15 stations. Flood stage was exceeded for at least 1 day during this 2-month period at 67 of the 82 stations with established flood-stage elevations given by the National Weather Service. Of the 162 streamflowgaging stations with an established flood-frequency distribution, a 5-year or greater flood discharge was recorded at 87 stations, and a 100-year or greater flood discharge occurred at six stations.

  5. Future flood losses in major coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallegatte, Stephane; Green, Colin; Nicholls, Robert J.; Corfee-Morlot, Jan

    2013-09-01

    Flood exposure is increasing in coastal cities owing to growing populations and assets, the changing climate, and subsidence. Here we provide a quantification of present and future flood losses in the 136 largest coastal cities. Using a new database of urban protection and different assumptions on adaptation, we account for existing and future flood defences. Average global flood losses in 2005 are estimated to be approximately US$6billion per year, increasing to US$52billion by 2050 with projected socio-economic change alone. With climate change and subsidence, present protection will need to be upgraded to avoid unacceptable losses of US$1trillion or more per year. Even if adaptation investments maintain constant flood probability, subsidence and sea-level rise will increase global flood losses to US$60-63billion per year in 2050. To maintain present flood risk, adaptation will need to reduce flood probabilities below present values. In this case, the magnitude of losses when floods do occur would increase, often by more than 50%, making it critical to also prepare for larger disasters than we experience today. The analysis identifies the cities that seem most vulnerable to these trends, that is, where the largest increase in losses can be expected.

  6. How spectroscopic ellipsometry can aid graphene technology?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losurdo, Maria, E-mail: maria.losurdo@cnr.it; Giangregorio, Maria M.; Bianco, Giuseppe V.; Capezzuto, Pio; Bruno, Giovanni

    2014-11-28

    We explore the effects of substrate, grain size, oxidation and cleaning on the optical properties of chemical vapor deposited polycrystalline monolayer graphene exploiting spectroscopic ellipsometry in the NIR-Vis–UV range. Both Drude–Lorentz oscillators' and point-by-point fit approaches are used to analyze the ellipsometric spectra. For monolayer graphene, since anisotropy cannot be resolved, an isotropic model is used. A prominent absorption peak at approximately 4.8 eV, which is a mixture of π–π* interband transitions at the M-point of the Brillouin zone and of the π-plasmonic excitation, is observed. We discuss the sensitivity of this peak to the structural and cleaning quality of graphene. The comparison with previous published dielectric function spectra of graphene is discussed giving a rationale for the observed differences. - Highlights: • Optical properties of graphene are determined by ellipsometry on copper and on glass. • Optical spectra reveal the cleaning quality of transferred graphene. • Sensitivity of absorption peak to graphene structural quality is proven. • Optical properties are proven to be sensitive to oxidation of graphene. • Electronic interaction with substrate affects graphene optical properties.

  7. Hydrochemical characteristics of the natural waters associated with the flooding of the Meirama open pit (A Coruna, NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.; Vazquez, A.; Falcon, I.; Canal, J.; Hernandez, H.; Padilla, F.; Rodriguez-Vellando, P.; Delgado, J.L. [University of La Coruna, La Coruna (Spain). School of Civil Engineering

    2008-02-15

    In December, 2007, after 30 years of operations, the mine of Meirama ceased extraction of brown lignite. Since then operations have begun which will lead to the formation of a big mining lake (about 2 km{sup 2} surface and up to 180 m deep) after controlled flooding of the open pit. In the process of flooding, both surface and ground waters are involved, each with their own chemical signature. According to the information available, the diversion of surface waters towards the pit hole should lead to the formation of a water body of acceptable quality. However, all unassisted flooding process could eventually form all acidic lake.

  8. 76 FR 72961 - Flood Hazard Determinations (Including Flood Elevation Determinations)-Change in Notification and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ..., etc.) and provide both a physical address and an internet address where the specific flood elevations... both a physical address and an internet address where the specific flood hazards (as shown in a Flood... published in the Federal Register on or after December 1, 2011. ADDRESSES: The docket for this notice...

  9. Toward more flood resilience: Is a diversification of flood risk management strategies the way forward?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Wiering, M.A.; Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van; Kundzewicz, P.; Matczak, A.; Crabbé, A.; Raadgever, T.; Bakker, M.H.N.; Priest, S.; Larrue, C.; Ek, K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT. European countries face increasing flood risks because of urbanization, increase of exposure and damage potential, and the effects of climate change. In literature and in practice, it is argued that a diversification of strategies for flood risk management (FRM), including flood risk preve

  10. Toward more flood resilience: Is a diversification of flood risk management strategies the way forward?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Wiering, Mark; van Rijswick, H.F.M.W.; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Matczak, Piotr; Crabbé, Ann; Raadgever, G.T.; Bakker, M.H.N.; Priest, Sally; Larrue, Corinne; Ek, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    European countries face increasing flood risks because of urbanization, increase of exposure and damage potential, and the effects of climate change. In literature and in practice, it is argued that a diversification of strategies for flood risk management (FRM), including flood risk prevention (thr

  11. Floods and climate: emerging perspectives for flood risk assessment and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Merz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Flood estimation and flood management have traditionally been the domain of hydrologists, water resources engineers and statisticians, and disciplinary approaches have abound. Dominant views have been shaped; one example is the catchment perspective: floods are formed and influenced by the interaction of local, catchment-specific characteristics, such as meteorology, topography and geology. These traditional views have been beneficial, but they have a narrow framing. In this paper we contrast traditional views with broader perspectives that are emerging from an improved understanding of the climatic context of floods. We conclude: (1 extending the traditional system boundaries (local catchment, recent decades, hydrological/hydraulic processes opens up exciting possibilities for better understanding and improved tools for flood risk assessment and management. (2 Statistical approaches in flood estimation need to be complemented by the search for the causal mechanisms and dominant processes in the atmosphere, catchment and river system that leave their fingerprints on flood characteristic. (3 Natural climate variability leads to time-varying flood characteristics, and this variation may be partially quantifiable and predictable, with the perspective of a dynamic, climate informed flood risk management. (4 Efforts are needed to fully account for factors that contribute to changes in all three risk components (hazard, exposure, vulnerability, and to better understand the interactions between society and floods. (5 Given the global scale and societal importance, we call for the organization of an international multidisciplinary collaboration and data sharing initiative to understand further the links between climate and flooding and to advance flood research.

  12. Flood Risk Management in Europe: Similarities and Differences between the STAR-FLOOD consortium countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Green, C.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Bakker, M.H.N.; Dieperink, C.; Crabbe, A.; Deketelaere, K.; Delvaux, B.; Suykens, C.; Beyers, J-C.; Fournier, M.; Larrue, C.; Manson, C.; van Doorn-Hoekveld, W.; van Rijswick, H.F.M.W.; Kundzewicz, Z.W.; Goytia Casermeiro, S.

    2013-01-01

    This report has been compiled as part of the STAR-FLOOD project, a European FP7 project focused on flood risk governance. The project investigates strategies for dealing with flood risks in 18 vulnerable urban regions in six European countries: Belgium, The UK (more precisely: England and Scotland),

  13. FloodAlert: a simplified radar-based EWS for urban flood warning

    OpenAIRE

    Llort Pavon, Xavier; Sánchez-Diezma Guijarro, Rafael; Rodríguez, Álvaro; De Sancho, David; Berenguer Ferrer, Marc; Sempere Torres, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present FloodAlert, a simplified flood Early Warning System [EWS] based on the use of radar observations and radar nowcasting to issue local flood warnings. It is a web-based platform and it is complemented with a flexible and powerful dissemination module.

  14. Development of Integrated Flood Analysis System for Improving Flood Mitigation Capabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Young-Il; Kim, Jong-suk

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the needs of people are growing for a more safety life and secure homeland from unexpected natural disasters. Flood damages have been recorded every year and those damages are greater than the annual average of 2 trillion won since 2000 in Korea. It has been increased in casualties and property damages due to flooding caused by hydrometeorlogical extremes according to climate change. Although the importance of flooding situation is emerging rapidly, studies related to development of integrated management system for reducing floods are insufficient in Korea. In addition, it is difficult to effectively reduce floods without developing integrated operation system taking into account of sewage pipe network configuration with the river level. Since the floods result in increasing damages to infrastructure, as well as life and property, structural and non-structural measures should be urgently established in order to effectively reduce the flood. Therefore, in this study, we developed an integrated flood analysis system that systematized technology to quantify flood risk and flood forecasting for supporting synthetic decision-making through real-time monitoring and prediction on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information in Korea. Keywords: Flooding, Integrated flood analysis system, Rainfall forecasting, Korea Acknowledgments This work was carried out with the support of "Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science & Technology Development (Project No. PJ011686022015)" Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea

  15. Issues and challenges in flood risk management: Editorial for the special issue on flood risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Dawson, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent flood-related disasters (Japan, Thailand, US, Australia) emphasize the need for an effective management of flood risks. As an introduction to this special issue, this editorial summarizes some of the key challenges in the field. Flood risk management needs to recognize the interconnections be

  16. Applying the Flood Vulnerability Index as a Knowledge base for flood risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balica, S-F.

    2012-01-01

    Floods are one of the most common and widely distributed natural risks to life and property worldwide. An important part of modern flood risk management is to evaluate vulnerability to floods. This evaluation can be done only by using a parametric approach. Worldwide there is a need to enhance our

  17. Spectroscopic studies of microwave plasmas containing hexamethyldisiloxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, A. S. C.; Mitschker, F.; Awakowicz, P.; Röpcke, J.

    2016-10-01

    Low-pressure microwave discharges containing hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) with admixtures of oxygen and nitrogen, used for the deposition of silicon containing films, have been studied spectroscopically. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) in the visible spectral range has been combined with infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (IRLAS). The experiments were carried out in order to analyze the dependence of plasma chemical phenomena on power and gas mixture at relatively low pressures, up to 50 Pa, and power values, up to 2 kW. The evolution of the concentration of the methyl radical, CH3, and of seven stable molecules, HMDSO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, CO and CO2, was monitored in the plasma processes by in situ IRLAS using tunable lead salt diode lasers (TDL) and external-cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL) as radiation sources. To achieve reliable values for the gas temperature inside and outside the plasma bulk as well as for the temperature in the plasma hot and colder zones, which are of great importance for calculation of species concentrations, three different methods based on emission and absorption spectroscopy data of N2, CH3 and CO have been used. In this approach line profile analysis has been combined with spectral simulation methods. The concentrations of the various species, which were found to be in the range between 1011 to 1015 cm-3, are in the focus of interest. The influence of the discharge parameters power, pressure and gas mixture on the molecular concentrations has been studied. To achieve further insight into general plasma chemical aspects the dissociation of the HMDSO precursor gas including its fragmentation and conversion to the reaction products was analyzed in detail.

  18. Caracterização química e espectroscópica de ácidos húmicos e fúlvicos isolados da camada superficial de latossolos brasileiros Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of humic and fulvic acids isolated from the surface layer of Brazilian oxisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Barros Dobbss

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A determinação de características estruturais das substâncias húmicas (SH é essencial para o entendimento do comportamento da química de superfície dos solos altamente intemperizados. Ácidos húmicos (AH e fúlvicos (AF obtidos no horizonte superficial de sete Latossolos de diferentes regiões do Brasil foram caracterizados mediante a análise da composição elementar, da acidez total e carboxílica, da capacidade de oxidação e por métodos espectroscópicos. As substâncias húmicas apresentaram elevado grau de oxidação, acidez e massa molecular relativamente baixas, caracterizando a matéria orgânica alcalina solúvel como bastante reativa. Os AF apresentaram menor teor de C e maior de O do que os AH. Foram observados valores elevados da relação entre absorvância em 465 e 665 nm (E4/E6 e a massa molar média foi estimada em 1.106 e 618 g mol-1 para AH e AF, respectivamente. A menor massa molar estimada para os AF foi compatível com sua menor complexidade química revelada pelos espectros de IV-TF, que apresentaram menor número de bandas de absorção bem definidas. A ressonância magnética nuclear (RMN ¹H mostrou a presença de H mais hidrofóbico nos AH e de H ligado a átomos de O em maior quantidade nos AF, compatível com sua maior acidez e, portanto, solubilidade em qualquer valor de pH. Apesar da mesma funcionalidade química encontrada tanto nos AH como nos AF, a análise estatística permitiu separar a maioria desses ácidos, indicando a presença de frações humificadas de natureza química individual.The determination of structural characteristics of humic substances (HS is essential to understand the behavior of surface chemistry of highly weathered soils. Humic acids (HA and fulvic acids (FA isolated from the surface horizon of seven Oxisols of different locations of Brazil were characterized by analyses of elemental composition, total and carboxylic acidity, oxidation capacity and spectroscopic techniques

  19. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1993-12-01

    The Tucker sand from Hepler field, Crawford County, Kansas, was characterized using routine and advanced analytical methods. The characterization is part of a chemical flooding pilot test to be conducted in the field, which is classified as a DOE Class I (fluvial-dominated delta) reservoir. Routine and advanced methods of characterization were compared. Traditional wireline logs indicate that the reservoir is vertically compartmentalized on the foot scale. Routine core analysis, X-ray computed tomography (CT), minipermeameter measurement, and petrographic analysis indicate that compartmentalization and lamination extend to the microscale. An idealized model of how the reservoir is probably structured (complex layering with small compartments) is presented. There was good agreement among the several methods used for characterization, and advanced characterization methods adequately explained the coreflood and tracer tests conducted with short core plugs. Tracer and chemical flooding tests were conducted in short core plugs while monitoring with CT to establish flow patterns and to monitor oil saturations in different zones of the core plugs. Channeling of injected fluids occurred in laboratory experiments because, on core plug scale, permeability streaks extended the full length of the core plugs. A graphic example of how channeling in field core plugs can affect oil recovery during chemical injection is presented. The small scale of compartmentalization indicated by plugs of the Tucker sand may actually help improve sweep between wells. The success of field-scale waterflooding and the fluid flow patterns observed in highly heterogeneous outcrop samples are reasons to expect that reservoir flow patterns are different from those observed with short core plugs, and better sweep efficiency may be obtained in the field than has been observed in laboratory floods conducted with short core plugs.

  20. Dynamics of water and nutrients for potted plants induced by flooded bench fertigation: experiments and simulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, W.

    1994-01-01

    Dynamics of water and nutrients as affected by physical and chemical characteristics of a substrate, fertigation method and schedule, and plant uptake were studied for a flooded bench fertigation system for potted plants, through a detailed experimental study of the root environment and a simulation

  1. Effects of global warming on floods and droughts and related water quality of rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, B.

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on the effect of global warming on droughts, rainstorms and floods and related water quality of rivers. Relations of temperature, rainstorms and river discharges with water quality variables like water temperature, chemical concentrations and microbiological activity are discusse

  2. German flooding of the Pontine Marshes in World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Erhard; Guillemin, Jeanne

    2010-03-01

    The German army's 1943 flooding of the Pontine Marshes south of Rome, which later caused a sharp rise in malaria cases among Italian civilians, has recently been described by historian Frank Snowden as a unique instance of biological warfare and bioterrorism in the European theater of war and, consequently, as a violation of the 1925 Geneva Protocol prohibiting chemical and biological warfare. We argue that archival documents fail to support this allegation, on several counts. As a matter of historical record, Hitler prohibited German biological weapons (BW) development and consistently adhered to the Geneva Protocol. Rather than biological warfare against civilians, the Wehrmacht used flooding, land mines, and the destruction of vital infrastructure to obstruct the Allied advance. To protect its own troops in the area, the German army sought to contain the increased mosquito breeding likely to be caused by the flooding. Italians returning to the Pontine Marshes after the German retreat in 1944 suffered malaria as a result of environmental destruction, which was banned by the 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions and by subsequent treaties. In contrast, a state's violation of the Geneva Protocol, whether past or present, involves the use of germ weapons and, by inference, a state-level capability. Any allegation of such a serious violation demands credible evidence that meets high scientific and legal standards of proof.

  3. Development of cost-effective surfactant flooding technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, G.A.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1996-11-01

    Task 1 of this research was the development of a high-resolution, fully implicit, finite-difference, multiphase, multicomponent, compositional simulator for chemical flooding. The major physical phenomena modeled in this simulator are dispersion, heterogeneous permeability and porosity, adsorption, interfacial tension, relative permeability and capillary desaturation, compositional phase viscosity, compositional phase density and gravity effects, capillary pressure, and aqueous-oleic-microemulsion phase behavior. Polymer and its non-Newtonian rheology properties include shear-thinning viscosity, permeability reduction, inaccessible pore volume, and adsorption. Options of constant or variable space grids and time steps, constant-pressure or constant-rate well conditions, horizontal and vertical wells, and multiple slug injections are also available in the simulator. The solution scheme used in this simulator is fully implicit. The pressure equation and the mass-conservation equations are solved simultaneously for the aqueous-phase pressure and the total concentrations of each component. A third-order-in-space, second-order-in-time finite-difference method and a new total-variation-diminishing (TVD) third-order flux limiter are used that greatly reduce numerical dispersion effects. Task 2 was the optimization of surfactant flooding. The code UTCHEM was used to simulate surfactant polymer flooding.

  4. A spectroscopic survey of thick disc stars outside the solar neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordopatis, G.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Gilmore, G.; Hill, V.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Helmi, A.; Bijaoui, A.; Zoccali, M.; Bienayme, O.

    2011-01-01

    Context. In the era of large spectroscopic surveys, Galactic archaeology aims to understand the formation and evolution of the Milky Way by means of large datasets. In particular, the kinematic and chemical study of the thick disc can give valuable information on the merging history of the Milky Way

  5. Pulsed-source MOCVD of high-k dielectric thin films with in situ monitoring by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuchiya, Y; Tung, R T; Oda, S; Kurosawa, M; Hattori, T

    2003-01-01

    The formation of high-k thin films by pulsed-source metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has been investigated with in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. It is demonstrated that spectroscopic ellipsometry is an effective method for in situ monitoring of the fabrication of high-k dielectric thin films with thicknesses of several nm's. Thin yttrium oxide films with average roughnesses smaller than the thickness of a single molecular layer, and with a capacitance equivalent thickness approx 1.7 nm were obtained. Thicknesses and optical properties of each individual layer were also extracted from spectroscopic ellipsometry, by fitting to appropriate structural models. (author)

  6. Concept of Flood Risk Map and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yuanchang

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 The concept of flood risk map and its mapping procedure Flood risk management is the process for analysis and assessment of flood risks as well as to form nd implement the disaster mitigation plans. Flood risk analysis is the basic work of flood risk assessment and management that can provide people with the possibilities of flood occurrence and its risk in specific areas and consequently raise the public awareness of flood help to form a reasonable flood prevention plan. However, flood risk mapping is a popular measure adopted by many countries and it provides possible flood areas and water levels as well as possible losses in a friendly way. To form a flood risk map, it is neccessary to allocate the historical information,compute the flood risk and analyze the data.

  7. Truth or Consequences Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  8. Raman Spectroscopic Studies of Methane Gas Hydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.

    2009-01-01

    A brief review of the Raman spectroscopic studies of methane gas hydrates is given, supported by some new measurements done in our laboratory.......A brief review of the Raman spectroscopic studies of methane gas hydrates is given, supported by some new measurements done in our laboratory....

  9. The TNG EROs Spectroscopic Identification Survey (TESIS)

    CERN Document Server

    Saracco, P; Ceca, R D; Severgnini, P; Braito, V; Bender, R; Drory, N; Feulner, G; Hopp, U; Mannucci, F; Maraston, C

    2003-01-01

    We are carrying on a near-IR very low resolution spectroscopic follow-up in parallel with XMM-Newton observations of a complete sample of ~30 bright (K'<18.5) Extremely Red Objects (EROs) selected over an area of 360 arcmin^2 of the MUNICS survey. We here present the preliminary results of the spectroscopic and X-ray data analysis.

  10. Implementing the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) in Austria: Flood Risk Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhold, Clemens

    2013-04-01

    he Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks (EFD) aims at the reduction of the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity associated with floods in the Community. This task is to be achieved based on three process steps (1) preliminary flood risk assessment (finalised by the end of 2011), (2) flood hazard maps and flood risk maps (due 2013) and (3) flood risk management plans (due 2015). Currently, an interdisciplinary national working group is defining the methodological framework for flood risk management plans in Austria supported by a constant exchange with international bodies and experts. Referring to the EFD the components of the flood risk management plan are (excerpt): 1. conclusions of the preliminary flood risk assessment 2. flood hazard maps and flood risk maps and the conclusions that can be drawn from those maps 3. a description of the appropriate objectives of flood risk management 4. a summary of measures and their prioritisation aiming to achieve the appropriate objectives of flood risk management The poster refers to some of the major challenges in this process, such as the legal provisions, coordination of administrative units, definition of public relations, etc. The implementation of the EFD requires the harmonisation of legal instruments of various disciplines (e.g. water management, spatial planning, civil protection) enabling a coordinated - and ideally binding - practice of flood risk management. This process is highly influenced by the administrative organisation in Austria - federal, provincial and municipality level. The Austrian approach meets this organisational framework by structuring the development of the flood risk management plan into 3 time-steps: (a) federal blueprint, (b) provincial editing and (c) federal finishing as well as reporting to the European Commission. Each time

  11. Social media for disaster response during floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilander, D.; van de Vries, C.; Baart, F.; van Swol, R.; Wagemaker, J.; van Loenen, A.

    2015-12-01

    During floods it is difficult to obtain real-time accurate information about the extent and severity of the hazard. This information is very important for disaster risk reduction management and crisis relief organizations. Currently, real-time information is derived from few sources such as field reports, traffic camera's, satellite images and areal images. However, getting a real-time and accurate picture of the situation on the ground remains difficult. At the same time, people affected by natural hazards increasingly share their observations and their needs through digital media. Unlike conventional monitoring systems, Twitter data contains a relatively large number of real-time ground truth observations representing both physical hazard characteristics and hazard impacts. In the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, the intensity of unique flood related tweets during a flood event, peaked at almost 900 tweets per minute during floods in early 2015. Flood events around the world in 2014/2015 yielded large numbers of flood related tweets: from Philippines (85.000) to Pakistan (82.000) to South-Korea (50.000) to Detroit (20.000). The challenge here is to filter out useful content from this cloud of data, validate these observations and convert them to readily usable information. In Jakarta, flood related tweets often contain information about the flood depth. In a pilot we showed that this type of information can be used for real-time mapping of the flood extent by plotting these observations on a Digital Elevation Model. Uncertainties in the observations were taken into account by assigning a probability to each observation indicating its likelihood to be correct based on statistical analysis of the total population of tweets. The resulting flood maps proved to be correct for about 75% of the neighborhoods in Jakarta. Further cross-validation of flood related tweets against (hydro-) meteorological data is to likely improve the skill of the method.

  12. Spectroscopic characterizations of organic/inorganic nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govani, Jayesh R.

    2009-12-01

    In the present study, pure and 0.3 wt%, 0.4 wt%, as well as 0.5 wt% L-arginine doped potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals were grown using solution growth techniques and further subjected to infrared (IR) absorption and Raman studies for confirmation of chemical group functionalization for investigating the incorporation mechanism of the L-arginine organic material into the KDP crystal structure. Infrared spectroscopic analysis suggests that structural changes are occurring for the L-arginine molecule as a result of its interaction with the KPD crystal. Infrared spectroscopic technique confirms the disturbance of the N-H, C-H and C-N bonds of the amino acid, suggesting successful incorporation of L-arginine into the KDP crystals. Raman analysis also reveals modification of the N-H, C-H and C-N bonds of the amino acid, implying successful inclusion of L-arginine into the KDP crystals. With the help of Gaussian software, a prediction of possible incorporation mechanisms of the organic material was obtained from comparison of the simulated infrared and Raman vibrational spectra with the experimental results. Furthermore, we also studied the effect of L-arginine doping on the thermal stability of the grown KDP crystal by employing Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA suggests that increasing the level of L-arginine doping speeds the decomposition process and it weakens the KDP crystal, which indicates successful doping of the KDP crystals with L-arginine amino acid. Urinary stones are one of the oldest and most widely spread diseases in humans, animals and birds. Many remedies have been employed through the ages for the treatment of urinary stones. Recent medicinal measures reflect the modern advances, which are based on surgical removal, percutaneous techniques and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Although these procedures are valuable, they are quite expensive for most people. Furthermore, recurrence of these diseases is awfully frequent with

  13. Spectroscopic signatures of quantum friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Juliane; Bennett, Robert; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2016-12-01

    We present a formula for the spectroscopically accessible level shifts and decay rates of an atom moving at an arbitrary angle relative to a surface. Our Markov formulation leads to an intuitive analytic description whereby the shifts and rates are obtained from the coefficients of the Heisenberg equation of motion for the atomic flip operators but with complex Doppler-shifted (velocity-dependent) transition frequencies. Our results conclusively demonstrate that for the limiting case of parallel motion the shifts and rates are quadratic or higher in the atomic velocity. We show that a stronger, linear velocity dependence is exhibited by the rates and shifts for perpendicular motion, thus opening the prospect of experimentally probing the Markovian approach to the phenomenon of quantum friction.

  14. Sick, the spectroscopic inference crank

    CERN Document Server

    Casey, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives which remain severely under-utilised. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analysing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this Article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbour estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimised point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalise on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-di...

  15. Evaluating flood potential with GRACE in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molodtsova, Tatiana; Molodtsov, Sergey; Kirilenko, Andrei; Zhang, Xiaodong; VanLooy, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    Reager and Famiglietti (2009) proposed an index, Reager's Flood Potential Index (RFPI), for early large-scale flood risk monitoring using the Terrestrial Water Storage Anomaly (TWSA) product derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). We evaluated the efficacy of the RFPI for flood risk assessment over the continental USA using multi-year flood observation data from 2003 to 2012 by the US Geological Survey and Dartmouth Flood Observatory. In general, we found a good agreement between the RFPI flood risks and the observed floods on regional and even local scales. RFPI demonstrated skill in predicting the large-area, long-duration floods, especially during the summer season.

  16. 77 FR 46994 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ..., it addresses the following flooding sources: Jones Bayou, Mississippi River, and Porter Bayou. DATES... Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Jones Bayou, Mississippi River, and Porter Bayou.... Approximately 8.1 miles None +162 upstream of the Arkansas River confluence. Porter Bayou Approximately 0.8...

  17. Assessing infrastructure vulnerability to major floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenssen, Lars

    1998-12-31

    This thesis proposes a method for assessing the direct effects of serious floods on a physical infrastructure or utility. This method should be useful in contingency planning and in the design of structures likely to be damaged by flooding. A review is given of (1) methods of floodplain management and strategies for mitigating floods, (2) methods of risk analysis that will become increasingly important in flood management, (3) methods for hydraulic computations, (4) a variety of scour assessment methods and (5) applications of geographic information systems (GIS) to the analysis of flood vulnerability. Three computer codes were developed: CULVCAP computes the headwater level for circular and box culverts, SCOUR for assessing riprap stability and scour depths, and FASTFLOOD prepares input rainfall series and input files for the rainfall-runoff model used in the case study. A road system in central Norway was chosen to study how to analyse the flood vulnerability of an infrastructure. Finally, the thesis proposes a method for analysing the flood vulnerability of physical infrastructure. The method involves a general stage that will provide data on which parts of the infrastructure are potentially vulnerable to flooding and how to analyse them, and a specific stage which is concerned with analysing one particular kind of physical infrastructure in a study area. 123 refs., 59 figs., 17 tabs= .

  18. Flooding Capability for River-based Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Prescott, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ryan, Emerald [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Calhoun, Donna [Boise State Univ., ID (United States); Sampath, Ramprasad [Centroid Labs., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Anderson, S. Danielle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Casteneda, Cody [Boise State Univ., ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the initial investigation into modeling and simulation tools for application of riverine flooding representation as part of the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway external hazards evaluations. The report provides examples of different flooding conditions and scenarios that could impact river and watershed systems. Both 2D and 3D modeling approaches are described.

  19. Economic hotspots: Visualizing Vulnerability to Flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der A.; Logtmeijer, C.J.J.

    2005-01-01

    We simulate a large-scale flooding in the province of South-Holland in the economic centre of the Netherlands. In traditional research, damage due to flooding is computed with a unit loss method coupling land use information to depth-damage functions. Normally only direct costs are incorporated as a

  20. Flood planning; the politics of water security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Floods are amongst the most common and devastating natural disasters. In the wake of such an event, the pressure to initiate flood protection schemes that will provide security is enormous, and politicians promise quick solutions in the national interest. Jeroen Warner examines a number of such proj

  1. Rhine Cities - Urban Flood Integration (UFI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redeker, C.

    2013-01-01

    While agglomerations along the Rhine are confronted with the uncertainties of an increasing flood risk due to climate change, different programs are claiming urban river front sites. Simultaneously, urban development, flood management, as well as navigation and environmental protection are negotiati

  2. Extreme flash floods in Barcelona County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barrera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the catastrophic and extraordinary floods occurring in Barcelona County (Catalonia, NE Spain are studied, in order to characterise the temporal evolution of extreme flash floods in that area and their main features. These events usually cause economical losses and major problems for undertaking daily activity in Barcelona city. This kind of floods is a very common feature in the North-east of Spain and they are recorded every year in some point of Catalonia. This contribution also shows the frequency of those events, within the framework of all the floods that have occurred in Barcelona since the 14th century, but also describes the flooded area, urban evolution, impacts and the weather conditions for any of most severe events. The evolution of flood occurrence shows the existence of oscillations in the earlier and later modern age periods that can be attributed to climatic variability, evolution of the perception threshold and changes in vulnerability. A great increase of vulnerability can be assumed for the period 1850-1900. The analysis of the time evolution for the Barcelona rainfall series (1854-2000 shows that no trend exists, although, due to the changes in urban planning, flash-floods impact has changed over this time. The number of catastrophic flash floods has diminished, although the extraordinary ones have increased.

  3. Coastal flooding in Denmark – future outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C.; Knudsen, P.; Andersen, O. B.

    2014-01-01

    Water loading from all directions due to river discharge, precipitation, groundwater and the sea state (i.e. mean and extreme water levels) need to be carefully considered when dealing with flooding hazards at the coast. Flooding hazard and risk mapping are major topics in low-lying coastal are- ...

  4. Flood early warning system: sensors and internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pengel, B.E.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Melnikova, N.B.; Shirshov, G.S.; Koelewijn, A.R.; Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Chavoshian, A.; Takeuchi, K.

    2013-01-01

    The UrbanFlood early warning system (EWS) is designed to monitor data from very large sensornetworks in flood defences such as embankments, dikes, levees, and dams. The EWS, based on the internet, uses real-time sensor information and Artificial Intelligence (AI) to immediately calculate the probabi

  5. 76 FR 43923 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) showing BFEs and modified BFEs for each community. This date may be obtained by... Approximately 275 feet downstream of Big Bethel +9 Road. Approximately 20 feet upstream of the confluence...

  6. 75 FR 14091 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) showing BFEs and modified BFEs for each community. This date may be obtained by...-1035 Big Creek South Ely Street......... + 713 City of Bertram. Big Creek Road + 719 Cedar Lake...

  7. 75 FR 8814 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  8. 78 FR 52956 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... 77662. City of Pinehurst Pinehurst City Hall, 2497 Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, Orange, TX 77630. City... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency... Register (78 FR 36220-36222) a proposed flood hazard determination notice that contained an erroneous...

  9. 12 CFR 741.216 - Flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood insurance. 741.216 Section 741.216 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR... Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.216 Flood insurance. Any...

  10. Stakeholder initiatives in flood risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelenbos, Jurian; Buuren, Van Arwin; Roth, Dik; Winnubst, Madelinde

    2017-01-01

    In recent years stakeholder participation has become a popular topic in flood management. Little is known about how and under which circumstances local stakeholders initiate and develop successful flood management strategies and how governmental actors respond to them. Drawing on theories of soci

  11. Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Related Topics: Natural Disasters Share ... harmful to adults, particularly pregnant women, and children. Important information about post-disaster renovations and lead-based ...

  12. Selenium mobilization during a flood experiment in a contaminated wetland: Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, D.L.; Yahnke, J.; Miller, J.; Noyes, S.

    2005-01-01

    Constructed and natural wetlands can accumulate elevated levels of Se; however, few data are available on cost-effective methods for remobilization and removal of Se from these areas. A field experiment was conducted to assess the effectiveness of flooding on the removal of Se from dry surface sediments. The 83-m2 flood-experiment plot contained 10 monitoring wells, a water-quality minimonitor (continuous measurement of pH, specific conductance, water temperature, and dissolved O2), a down-hole Br electrode, and 2 pressure transducers. Flooding was initiated on August 27, 2002, and a Br tracer was added to water delivered through a pipeline to the flood plot during the first 1.2 h. Standing water depth in the flood plot was maintained at 0.3 m through September 1, 2002. The Br tracer data indicate a dual porosity system that includes fracture (mud cracks) and matrix flow components. Mean vertical water velocities for the matrix flow component were estimated to range from 0.002 to 0.012 m/h. Dissolved (less than 0.45 ??m) Se increased from pre-flood concentrations of less than 10 ??g/L to greater than 800 ??g/L during flooding in samples from deep (2.0 m below land surface) ground water. Selenium concentrations exceeded 5500 ??g/L in samples from shallow (0.8 m below land surface) ground water. Ratios of Se to Br in water samples indicate that Se moved conservatively during the experiment and was derived from leaching of near-surface sediments. Cumulative Se flux to the deep ground water during the experiment ranged from 9.0 to 170 mg/m2. Pre- and post-flood surface soil sampling indicated a mean Se flux of 720 mg/m2 through the top 15 cm of soil. Ground-water samples collected 8 months after termination of the flood experiment contained Se concentrations of less than 20 ??g/L. The minimonitor data indicate a rapid return to chemically reducing conditions in the deep ground water, limiting the mobility of the Se dissolved in the water pulse introduced during the

  13. Catchment scale afforestation for mitigating flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Mhari; Quinn, Paul; Bathurst, James; Birkinshaw, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    After the 2013-14 floods in the UK there were calls to 'forest the uplands' as a solution to reducing flood risk across the nation. At present, 1 in 6 homes in Britain are at risk of flooding and current EU legislation demands a sustainable, 'nature-based solution'. However, the role of forests as a natural flood management technique remains highly controversial, due to a distinct lack of robust evidence into its effectiveness in reducing flood risk during extreme events. SHETRAN, physically-based spatially-distributed hydrological models of the Irthing catchment and Wark forest sub-catchments (northern England) have been developed in order to test the hypothesis of the effect trees have on flood magnitude. The advanced physically-based models have been designed to model scale-related responses from 1, through 10, to 100km2, a first study of the extent to which afforestation and woody debris runoff attenuation features (RAFs) may help to mitigate floods at the full catchment scale (100-1000 km2) and on a national basis. Furthermore, there is a need to analyse the extent to which land management practices, and the installation of nature-based RAFs, such as woody debris dams, in headwater catchments can attenuate flood-wave movement, and potentially reduce downstream flood risk. The impacts of riparian planting and the benefits of adding large woody debris of several designs and on differing sizes of channels has also been simulated using advanced hydrodynamic (HiPIMS) and hydrological modelling (SHETRAN). With the aim of determining the effect forestry may have on flood frequency, 1000 years of generated rainfall data representative of current conditions has been used to determine the difference between current land-cover, different distributions of forest cover and the defining scenarios - complete forest removal and complete afforestation of the catchment. The simulations show the percentage of forestry required to have a significant impact on mitigating

  14. Floods in the Skagit River basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James E.; Bodhaine, George Lawrence

    1961-01-01

    According to Indian tradition, floods of unusually great magnitude harassed the Skagit River basin about 1815 and 1856. The heights of these floods were not recorded at the time; so they are called historical floods. Since the arrival of white men about 1863, a number of large and damaging floods have been witnessed and recorded. Data concerning and verifying the early floods, including those of 1815 and 1856, were collected prior to 1923 by James E. Stewart. He talked with many of the early settlers in the valley who had listened to Indians tell about the terrible floods. Some of these settlers had referenced the maximum stages of floods they had witnessed by cutting notches at or measuring to high-water marks on trees. In order to verify flood stages Stewart spent many weeks finding and levelling to high-water marks such as drift deposits, sand layers in coves, and silt in the bark of certain types of trees. Gaging stations have been in operation at various locations on the Skagit River and its tributaries since 1909, so recorded peak stages are available at certain sites for floods occurring since that date. All peak discharge data available for both historical and recorded floods have been listed in this report. The types of floods as to winter and summer, the duration of peaks, and the effect of reservoirs are discussed. In 1899 Sterling Dam was constructed at the head of Gages Slough near Sedro Woolley. This was the beginning of major diking in the lower reaches of the Skagit River. Maps included in the report show the location of most of the dike failures that have occurred during the last 73 years and the area probably inundated by major floods. The damage resulting from certain floods is briefly discussed. The report is concluded with a brief discussion of the U.S. Geological Survey method of computing flood-frequency curves as applied to the Skagit River basin. The treatment of single-station records and a means of combining these records for expressing

  15. Floods in mountain environments: A synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Markus; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Marston, Richard A.

    2016-11-01

    Floods are a crucial agent of geomorphic change in the channels and valley floors of mountains watercourses. At the same time, they can be highly damaging to property, infrastructure, and life. Because of their high energy, mountain watercourses are highly vulnerable to environmental changes affecting their catchments and channels. Many factors have modified and frequently still tend to modify the environmental conditions in mountain areas, with impacts on geomorphic processes and the frequency, magnitude, and timing of floods in mountain watercourses. The ongoing climate changes vary between regions but may affect floods in mountain areas in many ways. In many mountain regions of Europe, widespread afforestation took place over the twentieth century, considerably increasing the amounts of large wood delivered to the channels and the likelihood of jamming bridges. At the same time, deforestation continues in other mountain areas, accelerating runoff and amplifying the magnitude and frequency of floods in foreland areas. In many countries, in-channel gravel mining has been a common practice during recent decades; the resultant deficit of bed material in the affected channels may suddenly manifest during flood events, resulting in the failure of scoured bridges or catastrophic channel widening. During the past century many rivers in mountain and foreland areas incised deeply; the resultant loss of floodplain water storage has decreased attenuation of flood waves, hence increasing flood hazard to downstream river reaches. On the other hand, a large amount of recent river restoration activities worldwide may provide examples of beneficial changes to flood risk, attained as a result of increased channel storage or reestablished floodplain water storage. Relations between geomorphic processes and floods operate in both directions, which means that changes in flood probability or the character of floods (e.g., increased wood load) may significantly modify the morphology

  16. Re-thinking urban flood management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sörensen, Johanna; Persson, Andreas; Sternudd, Catharina

    2016-01-01

    Urban flooding is of growing concern due to increasing densification of urban areas, changes in land use, and climate change. The traditional engineering approach to flooding is designing single-purpose drainage systems, dams, and levees. These methods, however, are known to increase the long......-term flood risk and harm the riverine ecosystems in urban as well as rural areas. In the present paper, we depart from resilience theory and suggest a concept to improve urban flood resilience. We identify areas where contemporary challenges call for improved collaborative urban flood management. The concept...... emphasizes resiliency and achieved synergy between increased capacity to handle stormwater runoff and improved experiential and functional quality of the urban environments. We identify research needs as well as experiments for improved sustainable and resilient stormwater management namely, flexibility...

  17. Floods and droughts on the lower Vistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzenna Sztobryn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses floods and droughts on the lower Vistula based on the data (water levels and flow rates recorded in stations of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB in Warsaw, Kępa Polska, Toruń and Tczew. It also includes the causes of flooding and drought in the lower Vistula with the hydrological characteristics from the years 1951–2010. The variability in maximum and minimum annual and monthly flow rates has been analysed for the aforementioned period as well. In addition, the authors have analysed changes in the shape of the flood wave after passing through the reservoir and cascade in Włocławek based on the hydrograph of May and June 2010. It has been found that the flood wave is flattened and extended. This phenomenon is favourable from the point of view of flood actions.

  18. Flood damage modelling: ambition and reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerl, Tina; Kreibich, Heidi; Franco, Guillermo; Marechal, David; Schröter, Kai

    2015-04-01

    Flood damage modelling is of increasing importance for reliable risk assessment and management. Research efforts have improved the understanding of damaging processes and more sophisticated flood damage models have been developed. However, research seems to focus on a limited number of sectors and regions and validation of models still receives too little attention. We present a global inventory of flood damage models which is compiled from a review of scientific papers and research reports on flood damage models. The models are catalogued according to model specifications, geographical characteristics, sectors addressed, input variables used, model validation, transferability and model functions. The inventory is evaluated to position the current state of science and technology in flood damage modelling as well as to derive requirements for benchmarking damage models.

  19. Characterization of remarkable floods in France, a transdisciplinary approach applied on generalized floods of January 1910

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudou, Martin; Lang, Michel; Vinet, Freddy; Coeur, Denis

    2014-05-01

    The 2007 Flood Directive promotes the integration and valorization of historical and significant floods in flood risk management (Flood Directive Text, chapter II, and article 4). Taking into account extreme past floods analysis seems necessary in the mitigation process of vulnerability face to flooding risk. In France, this aspect of the Directive was carried out through the elaboration of Preliminary Flood Risk Assessment (PFRA) and the establishment of a 2000 floods list. From this first list, a sample of 176 floods, considered as remarkable has been selected. These floods were compiled in discussion with local authorities in charge of flood management (Lang et al., 2012) and have to be integrated in priority in local risk management policies. However, a consideration emerges about this classification: how a remarkable flood can be defined? According which criteria can it be considered as remarkable? To answer these questions, a methodology has been established by building an evaluation grid of remarkable floods in France. The primary objective of this grid is to analyze the remarkable flood's characteristics (hydrological and meteorological characteristics, sociological- political and economic impacts), and secondly to propose a classification of significant floods selected in the 2011 PFRA. To elaborate this evaluation grid, several issues had to be taken into account. First, the objective is to allow the comparison of events from various periods. These temporal disparities include the integration of various kinds of data and point out the importance of historical hydrology. It is possible to evaluate accurately the characteristics of recent floods by interpreting quantitative data (for example hydrological records. However, for floods that occurred before the 1960's it is necessary resorting to qualitative information such as written sources is necessary (Coeur, Lang, 2008). In a second part the evaluation grid requires equitable criteria in order not to

  20. Effect of Urban Green Spaces and Flooded Area Type on Flooding Probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyomin Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Countermeasures to urban flooding should consider long-term perspectives, because climate change impacts are unpredictable and complex. Urban green spaces have emerged as a potential option to reduce urban flood risks, and their effectiveness has been highlighted in notable urban water management studies. In this study, flooded areas in Seoul, Korea, were divided into four flooded area types by cluster analysis based on topographic and physical characteristics and verified using discriminant analysis. After division by flooded area type, logistic regression analysis was performed to determine how the flooding probability changes with variations in green space area. Type 1 included regions where flooding occurred in a drainage basin that had a flood risk management infrastructure (FRMI. In Type 2, the slope was steep; the TWI (Topographic Wetness Index was relatively low; and soil drainage was favorable. Type 3 represented the gentlest sloping areas, and these were associated with the highest TWI values. In addition, these areas had the worst soil drainage. Type 4 had moderate slopes, imperfect soil drainage and lower than average TWI values. We found that green spaces exerted a considerable influence on urban flooding probabilities in Seoul, and flooding probabilities could be reduced by over 50% depending on the green space area and the locations where green spaces were introduced. Increasing the area of green spaces was the most effective method of decreasing flooding probability in Type 3 areas. In Type 2 areas, the maximum hourly precipitation affected the flooding probability significantly, and the flooding probability in these areas was high despite the extensive green space area. These findings can contribute towards establishing guidelines for urban spatial planning to respond to urban flooding.

  1. Review of the flood risk management system in Germany after the major flood in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annegret H. Thieken

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Widespread flooding in June 2013 caused damage costs of €6 to 8 billion in Germany, and awoke many memories of the floods in August 2002, which resulted in total damage of €11.6 billion and hence was the most expensive natural hazard event in Germany up to now. The event of 2002 does, however, also mark a reorientation toward an integrated flood risk management system in Germany. Therefore, the flood of 2013 offered the opportunity to review how the measures that politics, administration, and civil society have implemented since 2002 helped to cope with the flood and what still needs to be done to achieve effective and more integrated flood risk management. The review highlights considerable improvements on many levels, in particular (1 an increased consideration of flood hazards in spatial planning and urban development, (2 comprehensive property-level mitigation and preparedness measures, (3 more effective flood warnings and improved coordination of disaster response, and (4 a more targeted maintenance of flood defense systems. In 2013, this led to more effective flood management and to a reduction of damage. Nevertheless, important aspects remain unclear and need to be clarified. This particularly holds for balanced and coordinated strategies for reducing and overcoming the impacts of flooding in large catchments, cross-border and interdisciplinary cooperation, the role of the general public in the different phases of flood risk management, as well as a transparent risk transfer system. Recurring flood events reveal that flood risk management is a continuous task. Hence, risk drivers, such as climate change, land-use changes, economic developments, or demographic change and the resultant risks must be investigated at regular intervals, and risk reduction strategies and processes must be reassessed as well as adapted and implemented in a dialogue with all stakeholders.

  2. Flood-rich and flood-poor periods in Spain in 1942-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediero, Luis; Santillán, David; Garrote, Luis

    2016-04-01

    Several studies to detect trends in flood series at either national or trans-national scales have been conducted. Mediero et al. (2015) studied flood trends by using the longest streamflow records available in Europe. They found a decreasing trend in the Atlantic, Continental and Scandinavian regions. More specifically, Mediero et al. (2014) found a general decreasing trend in flood series in Spain in the period 1959-2009. Trends in flood series are usually detected by the Mann-Kendall test applied to a given period. However, the result of the Mann-Kendall test can change in terms of the starting and ending year of the series. Flood oscillations can occur and flood-rich and flood-poor periods could condition the results, especially when they are located at the beginning or end of the series. A methodology to identify statistically significant flood-rich and flood-poor periods is developed, based on the comparison between the expected sampling variability of floods when stationarity is assumed and the observed variability of floods in a given series. The methodology is applied to the longest series of annual maximum floods, peaks over threshold and counts of annual occurrences in peaks over threshold series observed in Spain in the period 1942-2009. A flood-rich period in 1950-1970 and a flood-poor period in 1970-1990 are identified in most of the selected sites. The generalised decreasing trend in flood series found by Mediero et al. (2014) could be explained by a flood-rich period placed at the beginning of the series and a flood-poor period located at the end of the series. References: Mediero, L., Kjeldsen, T.R., Macdonald, N., Kohnova, S., Merz, B., Vorogushyn, S., Wilson, D., Alburquerque, T., Blöschl, G., Bogdanowicz, E., Castellarin, A., Hall, J., Kobold, M., Kriauciuniene, J., Lang, M., Madsen, H., Onuşluel Gül, G., Perdigão, R.A.P., Roald, L.A., Salinas, J.L., Toumazis, A.D., Veijalainen, N., Óðinn Þórarinsson. Identification of coherent flood

  3. Probabilistic, meso-scale flood loss modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Botto, Anna; Schröter, Kai; Merz, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk analyses are an important basis for decisions on flood risk management and adaptation. However, such analyses are associated with significant uncertainty, even more if changes in risk due to global change are expected. Although uncertainty analysis and probabilistic approaches have received increased attention during the last years, they are still not standard practice for flood risk assessments and even more for flood loss modelling. State of the art in flood loss modelling is still the use of simple, deterministic approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel probabilistic, multi-variate flood loss models have been developed and validated on the micro-scale using a data-mining approach, namely bagging decision trees (Merz et al. 2013). In this presentation we demonstrate and evaluate the upscaling of the approach to the meso-scale, namely on the basis of land-use units. The model is applied in 19 municipalities which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany (Botto et al. submitted). The application of bagging decision tree based loss models provide a probability distribution of estimated loss per municipality. Validation is undertaken on the one hand via a comparison with eight deterministic loss models including stage-damage functions as well as multi-variate models. On the other hand the results are compared with official loss data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB). The results show, that uncertainties of loss estimation remain high. Thus, the significant advantage of this probabilistic flood loss estimation approach is that it inherently provides quantitative information about the uncertainty of the prediction. References: Merz, B.; Kreibich, H.; Lall, U. (2013): Multi-variate flood damage assessment: a tree-based data-mining approach. NHESS, 13(1), 53-64. Botto A, Kreibich H, Merz B, Schröter K (submitted) Probabilistic, multi-variable flood loss modelling on the meso-scale with BT-FLEMO. Risk Analysis.

  4. Final Report, Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2003-05-31

    The Flooding Predictor is an advanced process control strategy comprising a patented pattern-recognition methodology that identifies pre-flood patterns discovered to precede flooding events in distillation columns. The grantee holds a U.S. patent on the modeling system. The technology was validated at the Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin under a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy, Inventions & Innovation Program. Distillation tower flooding occurs at abnormally high vapor and/or liquid rates. The loss in tray efficiencies is attributed to unusual behavior of liquid inventories inside the column leading to conditions of flooding of the space in between trays with liquid. Depending on the severity of the flood condition, consequences range from off spec products to equipment damage and tower shutdown. This non-intrusive pattern recognition methodology, processes signal data obtained from existing column instrumentation. Once the pattern is identified empirically, it is modeled and coded into the plant's distributed control system. The control system is programmed to briefly "unload" the tower each time the pattern appears. The unloading takes the form of a momentary reduction in column severity, e.g., decrease bottom temperature, reflux or tower throughput. Unloading the tower briefly at the pre-flood state causes long-term column operation to become significantly more stable - allowing an increase in throughput and/or product purity. The technology provides a wide range of value between optimization and flooding. When a distillation column is not running at capacity, it should be run in such a way ("pushed") that optimal product purity is achieved. Additional benefits include low implementation and maintenance costs, and a high level of console operator acceptance. The previous commercial applications experienced 98% uptime over a four-year period. Further, the technology is unique in its ability to distinguish between

  5. Mm-Wave Spectroscopic Sensors, Catalogs, and Uncatalogued Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Ivan; Neese, Christopher F.; De Lucia, Frank C.

    2014-06-01

    Analytical chemical sensing based on high resolution rotational molecular spectra has been recognized as a viable technique for decades. We recently demonstrated a compact implementation of such a sensor. Future generations of these sensors will rely on automated algorithms for quantification of chemical dilutions based on their spectral libraries, as well as identification of spectral features not present in spectral catalogs. Here we present an algorithm aimed at detection of unidentified lines in complex molecular species based on spectroscopic libraries developed in our previous projects. We will discuss the approaches suitable for data mining in feature-rich rotational molecular spectra. Neese, C.F., I.R. Medvedev, G.M. Plummer, A.J. Frank, C.D. Ball, and F.C. De Lucia, "A Compact Submillimeter/Terahertz Gas Sensor with Efficient Gas Collection, Preconcentration, and ppt Sensitivity." Sensors Journal, IEEE, 2012. 12(8): p. 2565-2574

  6. Semi-Synthesis of Labeled Proteins for Spectroscopic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Domenico D'Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of SPPS by Merrifield in the 60s, peptide chemists have considered the possibility of preparing large proteins. The introduction of native chemical ligation in the 90s and then of expressed protein ligation have opened the way to the preparation of synthetic proteins without size limitations. This review focuses on semi-synthetic strategies useful to prepare proteins decorated with spectroscopic probes, like fluorescent labels and stable isotopes, and their biophysical applications. We show that expressed protein ligation, combining the advantages of organic chemistry with the easy and size limitless recombinant protein expression, is an excellent strategy for the chemical synthesis of labeled proteins, enabling a single protein to be functionalized at one or even more distinct positions with different probes.

  7. Beyond 'flood hotspots': Modelling emergency service accessibility during flooding in York, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Daniel; Yu, Dapeng; Wilby, Robert L.; Green, Daniel; Herring, Zara

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes the development of a method that couples flood modelling with network analysis to evaluate the accessibility of city districts by emergency responders during flood events. We integrate numerical modelling of flood inundation with geographical analysis of service areas for the Ambulance Service and the Fire & Rescue Service. The method was demonstrated for two flood events in the City of York, UK to assess the vulnerability of care homes and sheltered accommodation. We determine the feasibility of emergency services gaining access within the statutory 8- and 10-min targets for high-priority, life-threatening incidents 75% of the time, during flood episodes. A hydrodynamic flood inundation model (FloodMap) simulates the 2014 pluvial and 2015 fluvial flood events. Predicted floods (with depth >25 cm and areas >100 m2) were overlain on the road network to identify sites with potentially restricted access. Accessibility of the city to emergency responders during flooding was quantified and mapped using; (i) spatial coverage from individual emergency nodes within the legislated timeframes, and; (ii) response times from individual emergency service nodes to vulnerable care homes and sheltered accommodation under flood and non-flood conditions. Results show that, during the 2015 fluvial flood, the area covered by two of the three Fire & Rescue Service stations reduced by 14% and 39% respectively, while the remaining station needed to increase its coverage by 39%. This amounts to an overall reduction of 6% and 20% for modelled and observed floods respectively. During the 2014 surface water flood, 7 out of 22 care homes (32%) and 15 out of 43 sheltered accommodation nodes (35%) had modelled response times above the 8-min threshold from any Ambulance station. Overall, modelled surface water flooding has a larger spatial footprint than fluvial flood events. Hence, accessibility of emergency services may be impacted differently depending on flood mechanism

  8. Hydrologic sensitivity of flood runoff and inundation: 2011 Thailand floods in the Chao Phraya River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayama, T.; Tatebe, Y.; Iwami, Y.; Tanaka, S.

    2015-07-01

    The Thailand floods in 2011 caused unprecedented economic damage in the Chao Phraya River basin. To diagnose the flood hazard characteristics, this study analyses the hydrologic sensitivity of flood runoff and inundation to rainfall. The motivation is to address why the seemingly insignificant monsoon rainfall, or 1.2 times more rainfall than for past large floods, including the ones in 1995 and 2006, resulted in such devastating flooding. To quantify the hydrologic sensitivity, this study simulated long-term rainfall-runoff and inundation for the entire river basin (160 000 km2). The simulation suggested that the flood inundation volume was 1.6 times more in 2011 than for the past flood events. Furthermore, the elasticity index suggested that a 1 % increase in rainfall causes a 2.3 % increase in runoff and a 4.2 % increase in flood inundation. This study highlights the importance of sensitivity quantification for a better understanding of flood hazard characteristics; the presented basin-wide rainfall-runoff-inundation simulation was an effective approach to analyse the sensitivity of flood runoff and inundation at the river basin scale.

  9. National flood modelling for insurance purposes: using IFSAR for flood risk estimation in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sanders

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk poses a major problem for insurers and governments who ultimately pay the financial costs of losses resulting from flood events. Insurers therefore face the problem of how to assess their exposure to floods and how best to price the flood element of their insurance products. This paper looks at the insurance implications of recent flood events in Europe and the issues surrounding insurance of potential future events. In particular, the paper will focus on the flood risk information needs of insurers and how these can be met. The data requirements of national and regional flood models are addressed in the context of the accuracy of available data on property location. Terrain information is generally the weakest component of sophisticated flood models. Therefore, various sources of digital terrain models (DTM are examined and discussed with consideration of the vertical and horizontal accuracy, the speed of acquisition, the costs and the comprehensiveness of the data. The NEXTMap DTM series from Intermap Technologies Inc. is proposed as a suitable DTM for flood risk identification and mapping, following its use in the UK. Its acquisition, processing and application is described and future plans discussed. Examples are included of the application of flood information to insurance property information and the potential benefits and advantages of using suitable hazard modelling data sources are detailed.

  10. Physical parameters of Fluvisols on flooded and non-flooded terraces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kercheva, Milena; Sokołowska, Zofia; Hajnos, Mieczysław; Skic, Kamil; Shishkov, Toma

    2017-01-01

    The heterogeneity of soil physical properties of Fluvisols, lack of large pristine areas, and different moisture regimes on non-flooded and flooded terraces impede the possibility to find a soil profile which can serve as a baseline for estimating the impact of natural or anthropogenic factors on soil evolution. The aim of this study is to compare the pore size distribution of pristine Fluvisols on flooded and non-flooded terraces using the method of the soil water retention curve, mercury intrusion porosimetry, nitrogen adsorption isotherms, and water vapour sorption. The pore size distribution of humic horizons of pristine Fluvisols on the non-flooded terrace differs from pore size distribution of Fluvisols on the flooded terrace. The peaks of textural and structural pores are higher in the humic horizons under more humid conditions. The structural characteristics of subsoil horizons depend on soil texture and evolution stage. The peaks of textural pores at about 1 mm diminish with lowering of the soil organic content. Structureless horizons are characterized by uni-modal pore size distribution. Although the content of structural pores of the subsoil horizons of Fluvisols on the non-flooded terrace is low, these pores are represented by biopores, as the coefficient of filtration is moderately high. The difference between non-flooded and flooded profiles is well expressed by the available water storage, volume and mean radius of pores, obtained by mercury intrusion porosimetry and water desorption, which are higher in the surface horizons of frequently flooded Fluvisols.

  11. Transcriptomic analysis reveals the flooding tolerant mechanism in flooding tolerant line and abscisic acid treated soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaojian; Hiraga, Susumu; Hajika, Makita; Nishimura, Minoru; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2017-03-01

    Soybean is highly sensitive to flooding stress and exhibits markedly reduced plant growth and grain yield under flooding conditions. To explore the mechanisms underlying initial flooding tolerance in soybean, RNA sequencing-based transcriptomic analysis was performed using a flooding-tolerant line and ABA-treated soybean. A total of 31 genes included 12 genes that exhibited similar temporal patterns were commonly changed in these plant groups in response to flooding and they were mainly involved in RNA regulation and protein metabolism. The mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, ATPase family AAA domain-containing protein 1, and cytochrome P450 77A1 was up-regulated in wild-type soybean under flooding conditions; however, no changes were detected in the flooding-tolerant line or ABA-treated soybean. The mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 77A1 was specifically up-regulated in root tips by flooding stress, but returned to the level found in control plants following treatment with the P450 inhibitor uniconazole. The survival ratio and root fresh weight of plants were markedly improved by 3-h uniconazole treatment under flooding stress. Taken together, these results suggest that cytochrome P450 77A1 is suppressed by uniconazole treatment and that this inhibition may enhance soybean tolerance to flooding stress.

  12. 3-D hydrodynamic modelling of flood impacts on a building and indoor flooding processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gems, Bernhard; Mazzorana, Bruno; Hofer, Thomas; Sturm, Michael; Gabl, Roman; Aufleger, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Given the current challenges in flood risk management and vulnerability assessment of buildings exposed to flood hazards, this study presents three-dimensional numerical modelling of torrential floods and its interaction with buildings. By means of a case study application, the FLOW-3D software is applied to the lower reach of the Rio Vallarsa torrent in the village of Laives (Italy). A single-family house on the flood plain is therefore considered in detail. It is exposed to a 300-year flood hydrograph. Different building representation scenarios, including an entire impervious building envelope and the assumption of fully permeable doors, light shafts and windows, are analysed. The modelling results give insight into the flooding process of the building's interior, the impacting hydrodynamic forces on the exterior and interior walls, and further, they quantify the impact of the flooding of a building on the flow field on the surrounding flood plain. The presented study contributes to the development of a comprehensive physics-based vulnerability assessment framework. For pure water floods, this study presents the possibilities and limits of advanced numerical modelling techniques within flood risk management and, thereby, the planning of local structural protection measures.

  13. Real-time flood forecasting of Huai River with flood diversion and retarding areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhijia; Bao Hongjun; Xue Cangsheng; Hu Yuzhong; Fang Hong

    2008-01-01

    A combination of the rainfall-runoff module of the Xin'anjiang model, the Muskingum routing method, the water stage simulating hydrologic method, the diffusion wave nonlinear water stage method, and the real-time error correction method is applied to the real-time flood forecasting and regulation of the Huai River with flood diversion and retarding areas. The Xin'anjiang model is used to forecast the flood discharge hydrograph of the upstream and tributary. The flood routing of the main channel and flood diversion areas is based on the Muskingum method. The water stage of the downstream boundary condition is calculated with the water stage simulating hydrologic method and the water stages of each cross section are calculated from downstream to upstream with the diffusion wave nonlinear water stage method. The input flood discharge hydrograph from the main channel to the flood diversion area is estimated with the fixed split ratio of the main channel discharge. The flood flow inside the flood retarding area is calculated as a reservoir with the water balance method. The faded-memory forgetting factor least square of error series is used as the real-time error correction method for forecasting discharge and water stage. As an example, the combined models were applied to flood forecasting and regulation of the upper reaches of the Huai River above Lutaizi during the 2007 flood season. The forecast achieves a high accuracy and the results show that the combined models provide a scientific way of flood forecasting and regulation for a complex watershed with flood diversion and retarding areas.

  14. Determination of design floods using storm data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Eugene A.

    1987-12-01

    A brief historical perspective of hydrologic analyses used in the determination of spillway sizing is presented. The paper describes the procedures for determining a reasonable upper limit of flood potential for a given drainage basin. A previous paper by the National Weather Service detailed the development of probable maximum precipitation estimates. These estimates form the basis for the determination of spillway design floods which are used to size spillways of major reservoirs for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Nationwide, the Corps has constructed hundreds of reservoirs which are operated for flood control, navigation, hydroelectric power and other purposes. These reservoirs are sized based on storm data and must withstand the most severe flood likely to occur. The paper also describes the design data including antecedent storms, infiltration, unit hydrographs and other hydrologic data used to convert probable maximum precipitation estimates into spillway design floods. Emphasis is given on designing safe reservoirs versus design flood selection based on economical considerations. Finally, a brief discussion of the similarities of design floods used by the other Federal construction agencies is presented.

  15. Increasing river floods: fiction or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöschl, Günter; Gaál, Ladislav; Hall, Julia; Kiss, Andrea; Komma, Jürgen; Nester, Thomas; Parajka, Juraj; Perdigão, Rui A P; Plavcová, Lenka; Rogger, Magdalena; Salinas, José Luis; Viglione, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    There has been a surprisingly large number of major floods in the last years around the world, which suggests that floods may have increased and will continue to increase in the next decades. However, the realism of such changes is still hotly discussed in the literature. This overview article examines whether floods have changed in the past and explores the driving processes of such changes in the atmosphere, the catchments and the river system based on examples from Europe. Methods are reviewed for assessing whether floods may increase in the future. Accounting for feedbacks within the human-water system is important when assessing flood changes over lead times of decades or centuries. It is argued that an integrated flood risk management approach is needed for dealing with future flood risk with a focus on reducing the vulnerability of the societal system. WIREs Water 2015, 2:329-344. doi: 10.1002/wat2.1079 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  16. Flood inundation map library, Fort Kent, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred in northern Maine from April 28 to May 1, 2008, and damage was extensive in the town of Fort Kent (Lombard, 2010). Aroostook County was declared a Federal disaster area on May 9, 2008. The extent of flooding on both the Fish and St. John Rivers during this event showed that the current Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Study (FIS) and Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1979) were out of date. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to develop a flood inundation map library showing the areas and depths for a range of flood stages from bankfull to the flood of record for Fort Kent to complement an updated FIS (Federal Emergency Management Agency, in press). Hydrologic analyses that support the maps include computer models with and without the levee and with various depths of backwater on the Fish River. This fact sheet describes the methods used to develop the maps and describes how the maps can be accessed.

  17. Popular myths about flooding in Western Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Floods are the most destructive natural hazard in the Nation, causing more deaths and financial loss in the 20th century than any other natural disaster. The most significant 20 riverine floods of the 20th century for which data are available have killed more than 1,843 people and caused more than $50 billion (uninflated) in damages (Perry, 2000). One of the most common means of describing the severity of a flood is a comparison to the "100-year flood." In the last decade, increasing attention has been paid to the fact that some regions, notably the Pacific Northwest, have experienced numerous so-called "100-year" floods in the span of a few years. Part of the confusion stems from the statistical nature of the "100-year flood" (Greene, 1996); however, another part of the confusion is the fact that the statistics are calculated for specific sites (streamgages) on specific rivers, rather than for a region as a whole. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey have begun to investigate how the likelihood of flooding may be determined on a regional basis (Troutman and Karlinger, 2003).

  18. Time resolved spectroscopic studies on some nanophosphors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harish Chander; Santa Chawla

    2008-06-01

    Time resolved spectroscopy is an important tool for studying photophysical processes in phosphors. Present work investigates the steady state and time resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic characteristics of ZnS, ZnO and (Zn, Mg)O nanophosphors both in powder as well as thin film form. Photoluminescence (PL) of ZnS nanophosphors typically exhibit a purple/blue emission peak termed as self activated (SA) luminescence and emission at different wavelengths arising due to dopant impurities e.g. green emission for ZnS : Cu, orange emission for ZnS : Mn and red emission for ZnS : Eu. The lifetimes obtained from decay curves range from ns to ms level and suggest the radiative recombination path involving donor–acceptor pair recombination or internal electronic transitions of the impurity atom. A series of ZnMgO nanophosphor thin films with varied Zn : Mg ratios were prepared by chemical bath deposition. Photoluminescence (PL) excitation and emission spectra exhibit variations with changing Mg ratio. Luminescence lifetime as short as 10-10 s was observed for ZnO and ZnMgO (100 : 10) nanophosphors. With increasing Mg ratio, PL decay shifts into microsecond range. ZnO and ZnMgO alloys up to 50% Mg were prepared as powder by solid state mixing and sintering at high temperature in reducing atmosphere. Time resolved decay of PL indicated lifetime in the microsecond time scale. The novelty of the work lies in clear experimental evidence of dopants (Cu, Mn, Eu and Mg) in the decay process and luminescence life times in II–VI semiconductor nanocrystals of ZnS and ZnO. For ZnS, blue self activated luminescence decays faster than Cu and Mn related emission. For undoped ZnO nanocrystals, PL decay is in the nanosecond range whereas with Mg doping the decay becomes much slower in the microsecond range.

  19. The SPHEREx All-Sky Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; SPHEREx Science Team, SPHEREx Project Team

    2016-06-01

    SPHEREx is a mission to conduct an optical-near-IR survey of the entire sky with a spectrum at every pixel location. It was selected by NASA for a Phase A study in its Small Explorer Program; if selected, development would begin in 2016, and the observatory would start a 2-year prime mission in 2020. An all-sky spectroscopic survey can be used to tackle a wide range of science questions. The SPHEREx science team is focusing on three: (1) Probing the physics of inflation through measuring non-Gaussianity from the study of large-scale structure; (2) Studying the origin of water and biogenic molecules in a wide range of physical and chemical environments via ice absorption spectra; (3) Charting the history of star formation in the universe through intensity mapping of the large-scale spatial power. The instrument is a small wide-field telescope operating in the range of 0.75 - 4.8 µm at a spectral resolution of 41.5 in the optical and 150 at the long-wavelength end. It observes in a sun-sync low-earth orbit, covering the sky like WISE and COBE. SPHEREx is a simple instrument that requires no new technology. The Phase A design has substantial technical and resource margins and can be built with low risk. It is a partnership between Caltech and JPL, with Ball Aerospace and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute as major partners. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  20. The chemical diversity of comets

    CERN Document Server

    Crovisier, J; Bockelée-Morvan, D; Boissier, J; Colom, P; Lis, D C

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental question in cometary science is whether the different dynamical classes of comets have different chemical compositions, which would reflect different initial conditions. From the ground or Earth orbit, radio and infrared spectroscopic observations of a now significant sample of comets indeed reveal deep differences in the relative abundances of cometary ices. However, no obvious correlation with dynamical classes is found. Further results come, or are expected, from space exploration. Such investigations, by nature limited to a small number of objects, are unfortunately focussed on short-period comets (mainly Jupiter-family). But these in situ studies provide "ground truth" for remote sensing. We discuss the chemical differences in comets from our database of spectroscopic radio observations, which has been recently enriched by several Jupiter-family and Halley-type comets.

  1. Application of Spectroscopic Methods for Structural Analysis of Chitin and Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Kumirska

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Chitin, the second most important natural polymer in the world, and its N-deacetylated derivative chitosan, have been identified as versatile biopolymers for a broad range of applications in medicine, agriculture and the food industry. Two of the main reasons for this are firstly the unique chemical, physicochemical and biological properties of chitin and chitosan, and secondly the unlimited supply of raw materials for their production. These polymers exhibit widely differing physicochemical properties depending on the chitin source and the conditions of chitosan production. The presence of reactive functional groups as well as the polysaccharide nature of these biopolymers enables them to undergo diverse chemical modifications. A complete chemical and physicochemical characterization of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives is not possible without using spectroscopic techniques. This review focuses on the application of spectroscopic methods for the structural analysis of these compounds.

  2. Evidence of floods on the Potomac River from anatomical abnormalities in the wood of flood-plain trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanosky, Thomas M.

    1983-01-01

    Ash trees along the Potomac River flood plain near Washington, D.C., were studied to determine changes in wood anatomy related to flood damage, and anomalous growth was compared to flood records for April 15 to August 31, 1930-79. Collectively, anatomical evidence was detected for 33 of the 34 growing-season floods during the study period. Evidence of 12 floods prior to 1930 was also noted, including catastrophic ones in 1889 and 1924. Trees damaged after the transition from earlywood to latewood growth typically formed ' flood rings ' of enlarged vessels within the latewood zone. Trees damaged near the beginning of the growth year developed flood rings within, or contiguous with, the earlywood. Both patterns are assumed to have developed when flood-damaged trees produced a second crop of leaves. Trees damaged by high-magnitude floods developed well formed flood rings along the entire height and around the entire circumference of the stem. Small floods were generally associated wtih diffuse or discontinuous anomalies restricted to stem apices. Frequency of flood rings was positively related to flood magnitude, and time of flood generation during the tree-growth season was estimated from the radial position of anomalous growth relative to annual ring width. Reconstructing tree heights in a year of flood-ring formation gives a minimum stage estimate along local stream reaches. Some trees provided evidence of numerous floods. Those with the greatest number of flood rings grew on frequently flooded surfaces subject to flood-flow velocities of at least 1 m/s, and more typically greater than 2 m/s. Tree size, more than age, was related to flood-ring formation. Trees kept small by frequent flood damage had more flood rings than taller trees of comparable age. (USGS)

  3. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding: Buffering at intermediate alkaline pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, J.; Wasan, D.T. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States))

    1993-11-01

    The alkaline flooding process involves injecting alkaline agents into the reservoir to produce more oil than is produced through conventional waterflooding. The interaction of the alkali in the flood water with the naturally occurring acids in the reservoir oil results in in-situ formation of soaps, which are partially responsible for lowering IFT and improving oil recovery. The extent to which IFT is lowered depends on the specific oil and injection water properties. Numerous investigators have attempted to clarify the relationship between system chemical composition and IFT. An experimental investigation of buffered alkaline flooding system chemistry was undertaken to determine the influence of various species present on interfacial tension (IFT) as a function of pH and ionic strength. IFT was found to go through an ultralow minimum in certain pH ranges. This synergism results from simultaneous adsorption of un-ionized and ionized acid species on the interface.

  4. MDM OSMOS Spectroscopic classification of Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Subhash; Dong, Subo; Chen, Ping; Klusmeyer, J.; Prieto, Jose Luis; Shappee, B.; Shields, J.; Brown, J.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C.

    2016-11-01

    We report optical spectroscopic classification of supernova candidates 2016hgd (ATel #9651), 2016hli (ATel #9685), CSS161013:015319+171853 and CSS161013:020130+141534 (http://nesssi.cacr.caltech.edu/catalina/AllSN.html).

  5. SDSS spectroscopic survey of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ivezic, Z; Uomoto, A; Bond, N; Beers, T; Allende-Prieto, C; Wilhelm, R; Lee, Y S; Sivarani, T; Juric, M; Lupton, R; Rockosi, C M; Knapp, G; Gunn, J; Yanny, B; Jester, S; Kent, S; Pier, J; Munn, J A; Richards, G; Newberg, H; Blanton, M; Eisenstein, D; Hawley, S; Anderson, S; Harris, H; Kiuchi, F; Chen, A; Bushong, J; Sohi, H; Haggard, D; Kimball, A; Barentine, J; Brewington, H; Harvanek, M; Kleinman, S; Krzesínski, J; Long, D; Nitta, A; Snedden, S A

    2007-01-01

    In addition to optical photometry of unprecedented quality, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is also producing a massive spectroscopic database. We discuss determination of stellar parameters, such as effective temperature, gravity and metallicity from SDSS spectra, describe correlations between kinematics and metallicity, and study their variation as a function of the position in the Galaxy. We show that stellar parameter estimates by Beers et al. show a good correlation with the position of a star in the g-r vs. u-g color-color diagram, thereby demonstrating their robustness as well as a potential for photometric parameter estimation methods. Using Beers et al. parameters, we find that the metallicity distribution of the Milky Way stars at a few kpc from the galactic plane is bimodal with a local minimum at [Z/Zo]~ -1.3. The median metallicity for the low-metallicity [Z/Zo] -1.3 sample. We also find that the low-metallicity sample has ~2.5 times larger velocity dispersion and that it does not rotate (at ...

  6. Vibrational spectroscopic characterization of fluoroquinolones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, U.; Szeghalmi, A.; Schmitt, M.; Kiefer, W.; Popp, J.; Holzgrabe, U.

    2005-05-01

    Quinolones are important gyrase inhibitors. Even though they are used as active agents in many antibiotics, the detailed mechanism of action on a molecular level is so far not known. It is of greatest interest to shed light on this drug-target interaction to provide useful information in the fight against growing resistances and obtain new insights for the development of new powerful drugs. To reach this goal, on a first step it is essential to understand the structural characteristics of the drugs and the effects that are caused by the environment in detail. In this work we report on Raman spectroscopical investigations of a variety of gyrase inhibitors (nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid, cinoxacin, flumequine, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, enoxacin, sarafloxacin and moxifloxacin) by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy excited with various excitation wavelengths, both in the off-resonance region (532, 633, 830 and 1064 nm) and in the resonance region (resonance Raman spectroscopy at 244, 257 and 275 nm). Furthermore DFT calculations were performed to assign the vibrational modes, as well as for an identification of intramolecular hydrogen bonding motifs. The effect of small changes in the drug environment was studied by adding successively small amounts of water until physiological low concentrations of the drugs in aqueous solution were obtained. At these low concentrations resonance Raman spectroscopy proved to be a useful and sensitive technique. Supplementary information was obtained from IR and UV/vis spectroscopy.

  7. Spectroscopic Detection of Caries Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Ruohonen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A caries lesion causes changes in the optical properties of the affected tissue. Currently a caries lesion can be detected only at a relatively late stage of development. Caries diagnosis also suffers from high interobserver variance. Methods. This is a pilot study to test the suitability of an optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for caries diagnosis. Reflectance visible/near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/NIRS was used to measure caries lesions and healthy enamel on extracted human teeth. The results were analysed with a computational algorithm in order to find a rule-based classification method to detect caries lesions. Results. The classification indicated that the measured points of enamel could be assigned to one of three classes: healthy enamel, a caries lesion, and stained healthy enamel. The features that enabled this were consistent with theory. Conclusions. It seems that spectroscopic measurements can help to reduce false positives at in vitro setting. However, further research is required to evaluate the strength of the evidence for the method’s performance.

  8. Effectiveness and reliability of emergency measures for flood prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.; Jonkman, S.N.; Kok, M.

    2014-01-01

    Floods in the summer of 2013 in Central Europe demonstrated once again that floods account for a large part of damage and loss of life caused by natural disasters. During flood threats emergency measures, such as sand bags and big bags, are often applied to strengthen the flood defences and attempt

  9. Advances in Operational Flood Risk Management in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojciechowska, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Operational flood risk management refers to activities that aim to reduce the probability and/or negative consequences of flooding just prior to the expected flood event. An inherent feature of operational flood risk management is that outcomes of decisions taken are uncertain. The main goal of this

  10. An urban flood in the kashio river basin

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, Iware

    1987-01-01

    An urban flood is one of knotty problems derived from land development. Taking the Kashio River basin of Kanagawa Prefecture as an example, the relationships between urbanization and flood hazards were historically discussed. It was explained that a flood prevention work in one area affects other areas. The historical change in conditions for flood hazards can be divided into six stages.

  11. 44 CFR 78.6 - Flood Mitigation Plan approval process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.6 Flood Mitigation Plan approval process. The State POC will forward all...

  12. 44 CFR 71.3 - Denial of flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Denial of flood insurance. 71... OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF COASTAL BARRIER LEGISLATION § 71.3 Denial of flood insurance. (a) No new flood insurance...

  13. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  14. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions of... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44...

  15. Floods and climate: emerging perspectives for flood risk assessment and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merz, B.; Aerts, J.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    , and this variation may be partially quantifiable and predictable, with the perspective of dynamic, climate-informed flood risk management. (4) Efforts are needed to fully account for factors that contribute to changes in all three risk components (hazard, exposure, vulnerability) and to better understand...... context of floods. We come to the following conclusions: (1) extending the traditional system boundaries (local catchment, recent decades, hydrological/hydraulic processes) opens up exciting possibilities for better understanding and improved tools for flood risk assessment and management. (2) Statistical......Flood estimation and flood management have traditionally been the domain of hydrologists, water resources engineers and statisticians, and disciplinary approaches abound. Dominant views have been shaped; one example is the catchment perspective: floods are formed and influenced by the interaction...

  16. 2 Dimensional Hydrodynamic Flood Routing Analysis on Flood Forecasting Modelling for Kelantan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Wan Hazdy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood disaster occurs quite frequently in Malaysia and has been categorized as the most threatening natural disaster compared to landslides, hurricanes, tsunami, haze and others. A study by Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID show that 9% of land areas in Malaysia are prone to flood which may affect approximately 4.9 million of the population. 2 Dimensional floods routing modelling demonstrate is turning out to be broadly utilized for flood plain display and is an extremely viable device for evaluating flood. Flood propagations can be better understood by simulating the flow and water level by using hydrodynamic modelling. The hydrodynamic flood routing can be recognized by the spatial complexity of the schematization such as 1D model and 2D model. It was found that most of available hydrological models for flood forecasting are more focus on short duration as compared to long duration hydrological model using the Probabilistic Distribution Moisture Model (PDM. The aim of this paper is to discuss preliminary findings on development of flood forecasting model using Probabilistic Distribution Moisture Model (PDM for Kelantan river basin. Among the findings discuss in this paper includes preliminary calibrated PDM model, which performed reasonably for the Dec 2014, but underestimated the peak flows. Apart from that, this paper also discusses findings on Soil Moisture Deficit (SMD and flood plain analysis. Flood forecasting is the complex process that begins with an understanding of the geographical makeup of the catchment and knowledge of the preferential regions of heavy rainfall and flood behaviour for the area of responsibility. Therefore, to decreases the uncertainty in the model output, so it is important to increase the complexity of the model.

  17. How the choice of flood damage metrics influences urban flood risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. E. ten Veldhuis

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a first attempt to quantify tangible and intangible flood damage according to two different damage metrics: monetary values and number of people affected by flooding. Tangible damage includes material damage to buildings and infrastructure; intangible damage includes damages that are difficult to quantify exactly, such as stress and inconvenience. The data used are representative of lowland flooding incidents with return periods up to 10 years. The results show that moneta...

  18. Karst flash floods: an example from the Dinaric karst (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bonacci

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Flash floods constitute one of the deadliest and costliest natural disasters worldwide. This paper explains the karst flash flood phenomenon, which represents a special kind of flash flood. As the majority of flash floods karst flash floods are caused by intensive short-term precipitation in an area whose surface rarely exceeds a few square kilometres. The characteristics of all flash floods are their short duration, small areal extent, high flood peaks and rapid flows, and heavy loss of life and property. Karst flash floods have specific characteristics due to special conditions for water circulation, which exist in karst terrains. During karst flash floods a sudden rise of groundwater levels occurs, which causes the appearance of numerous, unexpected, abundant and temporary karst springs. This paper presents in detail an example of a karst flash flood in the Marina bay (Dinaric karst region of Croatia, which occurred in December 2004.

  19. 44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.5 Section 60.5 Emergency Management and Assistance... National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for Flood...

  20. Assessment of static flood modeling techniques: application to contrasting marshes flooded during Xynthia (western France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Breilh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the performance of raster-based flood modeling methods on a wide diversity of coastal marshes. These methods are applied to the flooding associated with the storm Xynthia, which severely hit the western coast of France in February 2010. Static and semi-dynamic methods are assessed using a combination of LiDAR data, post-storm delineation of flooded areas and sea levels originating from both tide gauge measurements and storm surge modeling. Static methods are applied to 27 marshes showing a wide geomorphological diversity. It appears that these methods are suitable for marshes with a small distance between the coastline and the landward boundary of the marsh, which causes these marshes to flood rapidly. On the contrary, these methods overpredict flooded areas for large marshes where the distance between the coastline and the landward boundary of the marsh is large, because the flooding cannot be considered as instantaneous. In this case, semi-dynamic methods based on surge overflowing volume calculations can improve the flooding prediction significantly. This study suggests that static and semi-dynamic flood modeling methods can be attractive and quickly deployed to rapidly produce predictive flood maps of vulnerable areas under certain conditions, particularly for small distances between the coastline and the landward boundary of the low-lying coastal area.

  1. Hydrological simulation of flood transformations in the upper Danube River: Case study of large flood events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitková Veronika Bačová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of understand natural processes as factors that restrict, limit or even jeopardize the interests of human society is currently of great concern. The natural transformation of flood waves is increasingly affected and disturbed by artificial interventions in river basins. The Danube River basin is an area of high economic and water management importance. Channel training can result in changes in the transformation of flood waves and different hydrographic shapes of flood waves compared with the past. The estimation and evolution of the transformation of historical flood waves under recent river conditions is only possible by model simulations. For this purpose a nonlinear reservoir cascade model was constructed. The NLN-Danube nonlinear reservoir river model was used to simulate the transformation of flood waves in four sections of the Danube River from Kienstock (Austria to Štúrovo (Slovakia under relatively recent river reach conditions. The model was individually calibrated for two extreme events in August 2002 and June 2013. Some floods that occurred on the Danube during the period of 1991–2002 were used for the validation of the model. The model was used to identify changes in the transformational properties of the Danube channel in the selected river reach for some historical summer floods (1899, 1954 1965 and 1975. Finally, a simulation of flood wave propagation of the most destructive Danube flood of the last millennium (August 1501 is discussed.

  2. Improvements on flood alleviation in Germany: lessons learned from the Elbe flood in August 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrow, Theresia; Thieken, Annegret H; Kreibich, Heidi; Bahlburg, Cord Heinrich; Merz, Bruno

    2006-11-01

    The increase in damage due to natural disasters is directly related to the number of people who live and work in hazardous areas and continuously accumulate assets. Therefore, land use planning authorities have to manage effectively the establishment and development of settlements in flood-prone areas in order to avoid the further increase of vulnerable assets. Germany faced major destruction during the flood in August 2002 in the Elbe and Danube catchments, and many changes have been suggested in the existing German water and planning regulations. This article presents some findings of a "Lessons Learned" study that was carried out in the aftermath of the flood and discusses the following topics: 1) the establishment of comprehensive hazard maps and flood protection concepts, 2) the harmonization of regulations of flood protection at the federal level, 3) the communication of the flood hazard and awareness strategies, and 4) how damage potential can be minimized through measures of area precaution such as resettlement and risk-adapted land use. Although attempts towards a coordinated and harmonized creation of flood hazard maps and concepts have been made, there is still no uniform strategy at all planning levels and for all states (Laender) of the Federal Republic of Germany. The development and communication of possible mitigation strategies for "unthinkable extreme events" beyond the common safety level of a 100-year flood are needed. In order to establish a sustainable and integrated flood risk management, interdisciplinary and catchment-based approaches are needed.

  3. Interpreting the impact of flood forecasts by combining policy analysis studies and flood defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slomp Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood forecasting is necessary to save lives and reduce damages. Reducing damages is important to save livelihoods and to reduce the recovery time. Flood alerts should contain expected time of the event, location and extent of the event. A flood alert is not only one message but part of a rehearsed flow of information using multiple canals. First people have to accept the fact that there might be a threat and what the threat is about. People need a reference to understand the situation and be aware of possible measures they can take to assure their own safety and reduce damages. Information to the general public has to be consistent with the information used by emergency services and has to be very clear about consequences and context of possible measures (as shelter in place or preventive evacuation. Emergency services should monitor how the public is responding to adapt their communication en operation during a crisis. Flood warnings and emergency services are often coordinated by different government organisations. This is an extra handicap for having consistent information out on time for people to use. In an information based society, where everyone has twitter, email and a camera, public organisations may have to trust the public more and send out the correct information as it comes in. In the Netherlands Rijkswaterstaat, the National Water Authority and the National Public Works Department, is responsible for or involved in forecasting in case of floods, policy studies on flood risk, policy studies on maintenance, assessment and design of flood defences, elaborating rules and regulations for flood defences, advice on crisis management to the national government and for maintaining the main infrastructure in the Netherlands (high ways and water ways. The Water Management Center in the Netherlands (WMCN has developed a number of models to provide flood forecasts. WMCN is run for and by all managers of flood defences and is hosted by

  4. Environment Agency England flood warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Chris; Walters, Mark; Haynes, Elizabeth; Dobson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Context In England around 5 million homes are at risk of flooding. We invest significantly in flood prevention and management schemes but we can never prevent all flooding. Early alerting systems are fundamental to helping us reduce the impacts of flooding. The Environment Agency has had the responsibility for flood warning since 1996. In 2006 we invested in a new dissemination system that would send direct messages to pre-identified recipients via a range of channels. Since then we have continuously improved the system and service we offer. In 2010 we introduced an 'opt-out' service where we pre-registered landline numbers in flood risk areas, significantly increasing the customer base. The service has performed exceptionally well under intense flood conditions. Over a period of 3 days in December 2013, when England was experiencing an east coast storm surge, the system sent nearly 350,000 telephone messages, 85,000 emails and 70,000 text messages, with a peak call rate of around 37,000 per hour and 100% availability. The Floodline Warnings Direct (FWD) System FWD provides warnings in advance of flooding so that people at risk and responders can take action to minimise the impact of the flood. Warnings are sent via telephone, fax, text message, pager or e-mail to over 1.1 million properties located within flood risk areas in England. Triggers for issuing alerts and warnings include attained and forecast river levels and rainfall in some rapidly responding locations. There are three levels of warning: Flood Alert, Flood Warning and Severe Flood Warning, and a stand down message. The warnings can be updated to include relevant information to help inform those at risk. Working with our current provider Fujitsu, the system is under a programme of continuous improvement including expanding the 'opt-out' service to mobile phone numbers registered to at risk addresses, allowing mobile registration to the system for people 'on the move' and providing access to

  5. 76 FR 8906 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ....: FEMA-B-1014 Sugar Creek Approximately 2,000 feet +469 Town of West Terre Haute, downstream of Conrail... Mexico Base Flood Elevation +6-17 City of Lake Charles, changes ranging from 6 City of Sulphur, City...

  6. A methodology for urban flood resilience assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Serge; Serre, Damien; Diab, Youssef; Laganier, Richard

    2010-05-01

    In Europe, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity [Szöllösi-Nagy and Zevenbergen, 2005]. Moreover, climate change is expected to exacerbate the frequency and intensity of hydro meteorological disaster [IPCC, 2007]. Despite efforts made to maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe levee failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although benefiting continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties arising all along data calculation processes. In the same time, the year 2007 marks a turning point in history: half of the world population now lives in cities (UN-Habitat, 2007). Moreover, the total urban population is expected to double from two to four billion over the next 30 to 35 years (United Nations, 2006). This growing rate is equivalent to the creation of a new city of one million inhabitants every week, and this during the next four decades [Flood resilience Group]. So, this quick urban development coupled with technical failures and climate change have increased flood risk and corresponding challenges to urban flood risk management [Ashley et al., 2007], [Nie et al., 2009]. These circumstances oblige to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like urban resilience. In recent years, resilience has become a central concept for risk management. This concept has emerged because a more resilient system is less vulnerable to risk and, therefore, more sustainable [Serre et al., 2010]. But urban flood resilience is a concept that has not yet been directly assessed. Therefore, when decision makers decide to use the resilience concept to manage urban flood, they have no tool to help them. That is why this paper proposes a methodology to assess urban flood resilience in order to make this concept operational. Networks affect the well-being of the people and the smooth functioning of services and, more generally, of economical activities. Yet

  7. 76 FR 26980 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Lake Michigan and White Ditch in La Porte County, Indiana. The City of Michiana Shores should have been... Porte County, Indiana, and Incorporated Areas'' addressed several flooding sources, including...

  8. Urban flood risk warning under rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangbo; Zhou, Haolan; Zhang, Hui; Du, Guoming; Zhou, Jinhui

    2015-05-01

    In the past decades, China has observed rapid urbanization, the nation's urban population reached 50% in 2000, and is still in steady increase. Rapid urbanization in China has an adverse impact on urban hydrological processes, particularly in increasing the urban flood risks and causing serious urban flooding losses. Urban flooding also increases health risks such as causing epidemic disease break out, polluting drinking water and damaging the living environment. In the highly urbanized area, non-engineering measurement is the main way for managing urban flood risk, such as flood risk warning. There is no mature method and pilot study for urban flood risk warning, the purpose of this study is to propose the urban flood risk warning method for the rapidly urbanized Chinese cities. This paper first presented an urban flood forecasting model, which produces urban flood inundation index for urban flood risk warning. The model has 5 modules. The drainage system and grid dividing module divides the whole city terrain into drainage systems according to its first-order river system, and delineates the drainage system into grids based on the spatial structure with irregular gridding technique; the precipitation assimilation module assimilates precipitation for every grids which is used as the model input, which could either be the radar based precipitation estimation or interpolated one from rain gauges; runoff production module classifies the surface into pervious and impervious surface, and employs different methods to calculate the runoff respectively; surface runoff routing module routes the surface runoff and determines the inundation index. The routing on surface grid is calculated according to the two dimensional shallow water unsteady flow algorithm, the routing on land channel and special channel is calculated according to the one dimensional unsteady flow algorithm. This paper then proposed the urban flood risk warning method that is called DPSIR model based

  9. Historical floods in the Dutch Rhine Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Glaser

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical records provide direct information about the climatic impact on society. Especially great natural disasters such as river floods have been for long attracting the attention of humankind. Time series for flood development on the Rhine branches Waal, Nederrijn/Lek and IJssel in the Dutch Rhine Delta are presented in this paper. In the case of the Waal it is even possible to compare historical flood frequencies based on documentary data with the recent development reconstructed from standardized instrumental measurements. In brief, we will also discuss various parameters concerning the structure of the flood series and the "human dimension" of natural disaster, i.e. the vulnerability of society when facing natural disasters.

  10. A Methodology to Define Flood Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flood resilience has become an internationally used term with an ever-increasing number of entries on the Internet. The SMARTeST Project is looking at approaches to flood resilience through case studies at cities in various countries, including Washington D.C. in the United States. In light of U.S. experiences a methodology is being proposed by the author that is intended to meet ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. It concludes that: "Flood resilience combines (1) spatial, (2) structural, (3) social, and (4) risk management levels of flood preparedness." Flood resilience should incorporate all four levels, but not necessarily with equal emphasis. Stakeholders can assign priorities within different flood resilience levels and the considerations they contain, dividing 100% emphasis into four levels. This evaluation would be applied to planned and completed projects, considering existing conditions, goals and concepts. We have long known that the "road to market" for the implementation of flood resilience is linked to capacity building of stakeholders. It is a multidisciplinary enterprise, involving the integration of all the above aspects into the decision-making process. Traditional flood management has largely been influenced by what in the UK has been called "Silo Thinking", involving constituent organizations that are responsible for different elements, and are interested only in their defined part of the system. This barrier to innovation also has been called the "entrapment effect". Flood resilience is being defined as (1) SPATIAL FLOOD RESILIENCE implying the management of land by floodplain zoning, urban greening and management to reduce storm runoff through depression storage and by practicing Sustainable Urban Drainage (SUD's), Best Management Practices (BMP's, or Low Impact Development (LID). Ecologic processes and cultural elements are included. (2) STRUCTURAL FLOOD RESILIENCE referring to permanent flood defense

  11. Assessment of flood peak simulations by Global Hydrological Models

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, James; Kjeldsen, Thomas; Prudhomme, Christel

    2011-01-01

    With significant changes to flood frequency anticipated as a result of climate change it becomes important to investigate how global hydrological models process climate forcing data. Flood frequency distribution describes the relationship between flood peak magnitude and its return period, indicating the average period of time between exceedance of a certain flood magnitude. The steepness of the distribution (or of the growth curve) is a measure of the variability of the flood peak series. An...

  12. Looking for Similarities Between Lowland (Flash) Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, C.; Teuling, R.; Torfs, P.; Hobbelt, L.; Jansen, F.; Melsen, L.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2012-12-01

    On 26 August 2010 the eastern part of The Netherlands and the bordering part of Germany were struck by a series of rainfall events. Over an area of 740 km2 more than 120 mm of rainfall were observed in 24 h. We investigated the unprecedented flash flood triggered by this exceptionally heavy rainfall event (return period > 1000 years) in the 6.5 km2 Hupsel Brook catchment, which has been the experimental watershed employed by Wageningen University since the 1960s. This study improved our understanding of the dynamics of such lowland flash floods (Brauer et al., 2011). These observations, however, only show how our experimental catchment behaved and the results cannot be extrapolated directly to different floods in other (neighboring) lowland catchments. Therefore, it is necessary to use the information collected in one well-monitored catchment in combination with data from other, less well monitored catchments to find common signatures which could describe the runoff response during a lowland flood as a function of catchment characteristics. Because of the large spatial extent of the rainfall event in August 2010, many brooks and rivers in the Netherlands and Germany flooded. With data from several catchments we investigated the influence of rainfall and catchment characteristics (such as slope, size and land use) on the reaction of discharge to rainfall. We also investigated the runoff response in these catchments during previous floods by analyzing the relation between storage and discharge and the recession curve. In addition to the flood in August 2010, two other floods occurred in The Netherlands in recently. The three floods occurred in different parts of the country, after different types of rainfall events and with different initial conditions. We selected several catchments during each flood to compare their response and find out if these cases are fundamentally different or that they were produced by the same underlying processes and can be treated in a

  13. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  14. Flood-Ring Formation and Root Development in Response to Experimental Flooding of Young Quercus robur Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copini, Paul; den Ouden, Jan; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Tardif, Jacques C.; Loesberg, Walter A.; Goudzwaard, Leo; Sass-Klaassen, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Spring flooding in riparian forests can cause significant reductions in earlywood-vessel size in submerged stem parts of ring-porous tree species, leading to the presence of ‘flood rings’ that can be used as a proxy to reconstruct past flooding events, potentially over millennia. The mechanism of flood-ring formation and the relation with timing and duration of flooding are still to be elucidated. In this study, we experimentally flooded 4-year-old Quercus robur trees at three spring phenophases (late bud dormancy, budswell, and internode expansion) and over different flooding durations (2, 4, and 6 weeks) to a stem height of 50 cm. The effect of flooding on root and vessel development was assessed immediately after the flooding treatment and at the end of the growing season. Ring width and earlywood-vessel size and density were measured at 25- and 75-cm stem height and collapsed vessels were recorded. Stem flooding inhibited earlywood-vessel development in flooded stem parts. In addition, flooding upon budswell and internode expansion led to collapsed earlywood vessels below the water level. At the end of the growing season, mean earlywood-vessel size in the flooded stem parts (upon budswell and internode expansion) was always reduced by approximately 50% compared to non-flooded stem parts and 55% compared to control trees. This reduction was already present 2 weeks after flooding and occurred independent of flooding duration. Stem and root flooding were associated with significant root dieback after 4 and 6 weeks and mean radial growth was always reduced with increasing flooding duration. By comparing stem and root flooding, we conclude that flood rings only occur after stem flooding. As earlywood-vessel development was hampered during flooding, a considerable number of narrow earlywood vessels present later in the season, must have been formed after the actual flooding events. Our study indicates that root dieback, together with strongly reduced hydraulic

  15. Flood risk assessment and associated uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Apel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood disaster mitigation strategies should be based on a comprehensive assessment of the flood risk combined with a thorough investigation of the uncertainties associated with the risk assessment procedure. Within the 'German Research Network of Natural Disasters' (DFNK the working group 'Flood Risk Analysis' investigated the flood process chain from precipitation, runoff generation and concentration in the catchment, flood routing in the river network, possible failure of flood protection measures, inundation to economic damage. The working group represented each of these processes by deterministic, spatially distributed models at different scales. While these models provide the necessary understanding of the flood process chain, they are not suitable for risk and uncertainty analyses due to their complex nature and high CPU-time demand. We have therefore developed a stochastic flood risk model consisting of simplified model components associated with the components of the process chain. We parameterised these model components based on the results of the complex deterministic models and used them for the risk and uncertainty analysis in a Monte Carlo framework. The Monte Carlo framework is hierarchically structured in two layers representing two different sources of uncertainty, aleatory uncertainty (due to natural and anthropogenic variability and epistemic uncertainty (due to incomplete knowledge of the system. The model allows us to calculate probabilities of occurrence for events of different magnitudes along with the expected economic damage in a target area in the first layer of the Monte Carlo framework, i.e. to assess the economic risks, and to derive uncertainty bounds associated with these risks in the second layer. It is also possible to identify the contributions of individual sources of uncertainty to the overall uncertainty. It could be shown that the uncertainty caused by epistemic sources significantly alters the results

  16. Loss of life in flood events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špitalar, Maruša

    2013-04-01

    Natural disasters per se give a negative connotation. They are destructive to material elements in a space, nature itself and represent a threat to peoples' lives and health. Floods, especially flash floods due to its power and happening suddenly cause extensive damage. Hence, they are hard to predict and are characterized with violent movement, lots of lives are lost. Floods are among natural hazards the one causing the highest number of fatalities. Having said that very important aspects are humans' vulnerability, risk perception, their behavior when confronted with hazardous situations and on the other hand issues related to adequate warning signs and canals of communication. It is very important to take into consideration this segments also and not mainly just structural measures. However the aim of this paper is to emphasis mainly the social aspects of floods. It consists of two main parts. First one refers to mans' vulnerability, risk perception when it comes to danger caused by rising waters and how does culture influences peoples' response and reaction to flood causalities. The second part consists of data about detailed information on circumstances of death that have been collected from several different sources from several EU countries. There has been also available information on the age and gender of people who lost lives in flood events. With gender males dominated among death people since tend to risk more in risky situations. There has been also defined a vulnerable age group among flood fatalities. Analysis of circumstance of death enabled us to define risky groups that are very important for flood managers. Further on this is very beneficial also for risk prevention, early warning systems and creating the best canals in order to information about upcoming danger would successfully reach people at hazardous areas and also for the others to avoid them.

  17. Concepts of Urban Drainage and Flood Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul

    1990-01-01

    to calculate surcharging and flooding, rather than just relating to pipe capacity performance criteria; the capability of calculating long series of rain record in order to derive proper statistics on the pollutional load on the environment; and finally the capability of dynamically controlling the system...... in real time in order to decrease the pollutional load by optimization of the usage of storage at rains smaller than the design rain, without increasing the risk of floods....

  18. Fugacity based modeling for pollutant fate and transport during floods. Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deda, M.; Fiorini, M.; Massabo, M.; Rudari, R.

    2010-09-01

    Fugacity based modeling for pollutant fate and transport during floods. Preliminary results Miranda Deda, Mattia Fiorini, Marco Massabò, Roberto Rudari One of the concerns that arises during floods is whether the wide-spreading of chemical contamination is associated with the flooding. Many potential sources of toxics releases during floods exists in cities or rural area; hydrocarbons fuel storage system, distribution facilities, commercial chemical storage, sewerage system are only few examples. When inundated homes and vehicles can also be source of toxics contaminants such as gasoline/diesel, detergents and sewage. Hazardous substances released into the environment are transported and dispersed in complex environmental systems that include air, plant, soil, water and sediment. Effective environmental models demand holistic modelling of the transport and transformation of the materials in the multimedia arena. Among these models, fugacity-based models are distribution based models incorporating all environmental compartments and are based on steady-state fluxes of pollutants across compartment interfaces (Mackay "Multimedia Environmental Models" 2001). They satisfy the primary objective of environmental chemistry which is to forecast the concentrations of pollutants in the environments with respect to space and time variables. Multimedia fugacity based-models has been used to assess contaminant distribution at very different spatial and temporal scales. The applications range from contaminant leaching to groundwater, runoff to surface water, partitioning in lakes and streams, distribution at regional and even global scale. We developped a two-dimensional fugacity based model for fate and transport of chemicals during floods. The model has three modules: the first module estimates toxins emission rates during floods; the second modules is the hydrodynamic model that simulates the water flood and the third module simulate the dynamic distribution of chemicals in

  19. Estimating magnitude and frequency of floods in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Duane H.

    1971-01-01

    This report provides methods for estimating flood characteristics at most sites where flood information may be needed for planning and design and summatizes the significant flood data and related information available on Wisconsin streams. Individual equations are presented for estimating flood discharges for selected recurrence intervals up to a 25-year flood for drainage areas 0.5 square miles and larger, a 50-year flood for drainage areas 20 square miles and larger, and a 100-year flood for drainage areas 50 square miles and larger. A ratio method is used for estimating a 50-year flood for drainage areas 0.5 to 20 square miles. The equations were defined from multiple-regression analysis of flood peak records and basin characteristics for 119 continuous-record gaging stations and 114 crest-stage partial-record stations in Wisconsin and adjoining States. Of the severai basin characteristics used in this study, only drainage area, main-channel slope, lake and marsh area, and areal factors were found to be statistically significant at the 99 percent effectiveness level for all flood frequencies. Solution of a hypothetical problem is given for using the flood-frequency equations. Graphs are presented for solution of flood discharges on regulated streams where the formulas are not applicable. Flood-frequency characteristics, 2-year flood to 100-year flood, and drainage basin characteristics for stations used in the multiple regression are presented in the appendices of this report.

  20. Estimation of peak discharges of historical floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Herget

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt, that the hazard assessment of future floods especially under consideration of the recent environmental change can be significantly improved by the consideration of historic flood events. While flood frequency inventories on local, regional and even European scale are already developed and published, the estimation of their magnitudes indicated by discharges is still challenging. Such data are required due to significant human impact on river channels and floodplains though historic flood levels cannot be related to recent ones or recent discharges. Based on own experiences from single local key studies the general outline of an approach to estimate the discharge of the previous flood based on handed down flood level and topographic data is presented. The model for one-dimensional steady flow is based on the empirical Manning equation for the mean flow velocity. Background and potential sources of information, acceptable simplifications and data transformation for each element of the model-equation are explained and discussed. Preliminary experiences on the accuracy of ±10% are documented and potential approaches for the validation of individual estimations given. A brief discussion on benefits and limitations including a generalized statement on alternative approaches closes the review presentation of the approach.

  1. Methodology for qualitative urban flooding risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, João P; Almeida, Maria do Céu; Simões, Nuno E; Martins, André

    2013-01-01

    Pluvial or surface flooding can cause significant damage and disruption as it often affects highly urbanised areas. Therefore it is essential to accurately identify consequences and assess the risks associated with such phenomena. The aim of this study is to present the results and investigate the applicability of a qualitative flood risk assessment methodology in urban areas. This methodology benefits from recent developments in urban flood modelling, such as the dual-drainage modelling concept, namely one-dimensional automatic overland flow network delineation tools (e.g. AOFD) and 1D/1D models incorporating both surface and sewer drainage systems. To assess flood risk, the consequences can be estimated using hydraulic model results, such as water velocities and water depth results; the likelihood was estimated based on the return period of historical rainfall events. To test the methodology two rainfall events with return periods of 350 and 2 years observed in Alcântara (Lisbon, Portugal) were used and three consequence dimensions were considered: affected public transportation services, affected properties and pedestrian safety. The most affected areas in terms of flooding were easily identified; the presented methodology was shown to be easy to implement and effective to assess flooding risk in urban areas, despite the common difficulties in obtaining data.

  2. Global Aspects of Flood Risk Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wolfgang Kron

    2015-01-01

    Various flood disasters in the last decade have confirmed that the risk from flooding has been increasing significantly worldwide. The driving factors for the risk are the unabated increase in global population, the concentration of people in high-risk areas such as coasts and flood plains, the rise in vulnerability of assets, infrastructure and social systems, and the consequences of climate change. Risk reduction is based on comprehensive risk management from identification of the hazard and assessing the risk to building defenses. To achieve this, general awareness at all levels in a society is key. It is not sufficient merely to be aware of the situation-findings must be acted upon with no significant delay. Flood-related computations have progressed considerably in recent years, but model results can only be as good as their input data. Modeling floods and flood losses is very complex, as model parameters are subject to change during an event and conditions sometimes greatly depend on small-scale factors.

  3. Changing Climate; Bangladesh Facing the Challenge of Severe Flood Problems; A Comparison of Flood Management between Bangladesh and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    BISWAS, KALLOL KUMAR

    2010-01-01

    Both Bangladesh and the Netherlands are the most flood prone countries in two continents Asia and Europe. Bangladesh is known to be highly vulnerable to floods. Frequent floods have put enormous constraints on its development potential. Unfortunately, the frequency of high intensity floods is increasing every year. So far the country has struggled to put a sizeable infrastructure in place to prevent flooding in many parts of the country with limited success. Where, the Netherlands has develop...

  4. Development of Flood Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy J. Labo,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-based early warning systems (CBEWS is a “people-centered” system and empowers individuals and communities threatened by hazards to act on sufficient time and in an appropriate manner to reduce the possibility of personal injury, loss of life, damage to property, environment and loss of livelihood. These things lead to the development of the device necessary for the protection of the community against flood hazards as it allows people to get prepared with sufficient time. An alarm system was developed to monitor the water level on Salog River that overflows during heavy rains. The water level sensors were submerged in a canal of water to test the functionality of the device before its installation. Computer programs were created to enhance the monitoring of water level: the River Monitor Software and the Water Level Monitor. The LED arrays emit light according to water level; green for low, orange for medium, and red for high. A siren also alarms with different intervals (30 seconds for low, 15 seconds for medium, and a continuous alarm for high. Automatic emergency lighting was integrated in the design and lights up during power outages powered by rechargeable sealed battery that charges when ac power is supplied to the device. Levels were established based on available data; low water level means awareness; medium water level means preparedness and high water level means immediate response is necessary.

  5. Rapid Response Flood Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policelli, Fritz; Brakenridge, G. R.; Coplin, A.; Bunnell, M.; Wu, L.; Habib, Shahid; Farah, H.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of operation of the MODIS instrument on the NASA Terra satellite at the end of 1999, an exceptionally useful sensor and public data stream have been available for many applications including the rapid and precise characterization of terrestrial surface water changes. One practical application of such capability is the near-real time mapping of river flood inundation. We have developed a surface water mapping methodology based on using only bands 1 (620-672 nm) and 2 (841-890 nm). These are the two bands at 250 m, and the use of only these bands maximizes the resulting map detail. In this regard, most water bodies are strong absorbers of incoming solar radiation at the band 2 wavelength: it could be used alone, via a thresholding procedure, to separate water (dark, low radiance or reflectance pixels) from land (much brighter pixels) (1, 2). Some previous water mapping procedures have in fact used such single band data from this and other sensors that include similar wavelength channels. Adding the second channel of data (band 1), however, allows a band ratio approach which permits sediment-laden water, often relatively light at band 2 wavelengths, to still be discriminated, and, as well, provides some removal of error by reducing the number of cloud shadow pixels that would otherwise be misclassified as water.

  6. Chemical engineering of Mycobacterium tuberculosis dodecin hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinzenz, Xenia; Grosse, Wolfgang; Linne, Uwe; Meissner, Britta; Essen, Lars-Oliver

    2011-10-21

    The suitability for chemical engineering of the highly symmetrical Mycobacterium tuberculosis dodecin was investigated, its inner cavity providing a large compartment shields introduced compounds from bulk solvent. Hybrids were obtained by S-alkylation of cysteine mutants and characterized by spectroscopic methods, including the crystal structures of wild type and biohybrid dodecins.

  7. What are the hydro-meteorological controls on flood characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nied, Manuela; Schröter, Kai; Lüdtke, Stefan; Nguyen, Viet Dung; Merz, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    Flood events can be expressed by a variety of characteristics such as flood magnitude and extent, event duration or incurred loss. Flood estimation and management may benefit from understanding how the different flood characteristics relate to the hydrological catchment conditions preceding the event and to the meteorological conditions throughout the event. In this study, we therefore propose a methodology to investigate the hydro-meteorological controls on different flood characteristics, based on the simulation of the complete flood risk chain from the flood triggering precipitation event, through runoff generation in the catchment, flood routing and possible inundation in the river system and floodplains to flood loss. Conditional cumulative distribution functions and regression tree analysis delineate the seasonal varying flood processes and indicate that the effect of the hydrological pre-conditions, i.e. soil moisture patterns, and of the meteorological conditions, i.e. weather patterns, depends on the considered flood characteristic. The methodology is exemplified for the Elbe catchment. In this catchment, the length of the build-up period, the event duration and the number of gauges undergoing at least a 10-year flood are governed by weather patterns. The affected length and the number of gauges undergoing at least a 2-year flood are however governed by soil moisture patterns. In case of flood severity and loss, the controlling factor is less pronounced. Severity is slightly governed by soil moisture patterns whereas loss is slightly governed by weather patterns. The study highlights that flood magnitude and extent arise from different flood generation processes and concludes that soil moisture patterns as well as weather patterns are not only beneficial to inform on possible flood occurrence but also on the involved flood processes and resulting flood characteristics.

  8. Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Base Flood Elevations, FIRM, DFIRM, BFE, flood plains, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Base Flood Elevations, FIRM, DFIRM, BFE dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other...

  9. Optical and laser spectroscopic diagnostics for energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Markandey Mani

    The continuing need for greater energy security and energy independence has motivated researchers to develop new energy technologies for better energy resource management and efficient energy usage. The focus of this dissertation is the development of optical (spectroscopic) sensing methodologies for various fuels, and energy applications. A fiber-optic NIR sensing methodology was developed for predicting water content in bio-oil. The feasibility of using the designed near infrared (NIR) system for estimating water content in bio-oil was tested by applying multivariate analysis to NIR spectral data. The calibration results demonstrated that the spectral information can successfully predict the bio-oil water content (from 16% to 36%). The effect of ultraviolet (UV) light on the chemical stability of bio-oil was studied by employing laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. To simulate the UV light exposure, a laser in the UV region (325 nm) was employed for bio-oil excitation. The LIF, as a signature of chemical change, was recorded from bio-oil. From this study, it was concluded that phenols present in the bio-oil show chemical instability, when exposed to UV light. A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)-based optical sensor was designed, developed, and tested for detection of four important trace impurities in rocket fuel (hydrogen). The sensor can simultaneously measure the concentrations of nitrogen, argon, oxygen, and helium in hydrogen from storage tanks and supply lines. The sensor had estimated lower detection limits of 80 ppm for nitrogen, 97 ppm for argon, 10 ppm for oxygen, and 25 ppm for helium. A chemiluminescence-based spectroscopic diagnostics were performed to measure equivalence ratios in methane-air premixed flames. A partial least-squares regression (PLS-R)-based multivariate sensing methodology was investigated. It was found that the equivalence ratios predicted with the PLS-R-based multivariate calibration model matched with the

  10. Flooded: An Auto-Ethnography of the 2011 Bangkok Flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this personal account I report my perceptions, experiences, and conduct during the 2011 Bangkok flood, in which my home and neighbourhood have been badly inundated and damaged. Therefore, I draw on auto-ethnography as an increasingly popular, though controversial qualitative methodology in social sciences. Though personal, the account has some broader implications, deriving primarily from the examination of the relationship between my perceptions and conduct in the disaster and my life experiences and present social position, as set against the perceptions and conduct of my Thai wife, our neighbours, and the broader community. The contrast throws some light on an aspect of Thai culture rarely discussed in the literature: the Thai response to disaster. ----- In dieser persönlichen Darstellung berichte ich über meine Wahrnehmungen, Erfahrungen und mein Verhalten während der Überschwemmungen 2011 in Bangkok, in denen mein Heim und die Nachbarschaft überschwemmt und schwer beschädigt wurden. In diesem Zusammenhang stütze ich mich auf die Autoethnografie als zunehmend populäre, wenn auch umstrittene qualitative Methode in der sozialwissenschaftlichen Forschung. Trotz des persönlichen Zugangs einer Autoethnografie lässt diese breitere Schlussfolgerungen zu, die sich hauptsächlich aus der Betrachtung der Beziehung zwi- schen meinen Wahrnehmungen und Verhalten während der Katastrophe sowie meinen persönlichen Erfahrungen und meiner sozialen Stellung im Gegensatz zu den Wahrnehmungen und Verhalten meiner thailändischen Ehefrau, unserer Nachbarn und der Community ableiten lassen. Dieser Kontrast wirft Licht auf einen bisher in der Literatur wenig diskutierten Aspekt der thailändischen Kultur: der thailändischen Antwort auf Katastrophen.

  11. Flood resilience technology, systems and toolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, S.; Kelly, D.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years there has been a general acceptance that the risk from flooding is increasing, primarily due to increased urbanization and the impact of climate change (Zevenbergen et al, 2010). Flood resilience technology (FRe T) is a term used to describe a collection of technologies, materials and products that are used to protect and allow recovery of buildings, communities and infrastructure from flooding. River or coastal flooding is the focus of the legislation, regulation and guidance that is intended to control development and ensure the risk to new properties is low. However, the cost of building and maintaining primary flood defense systems for rivers and coasts is becoming prohibitive and as such future flood management needs to consider a range of measures to manage risk, in particular improving the resilience of buildings, infrastructure and communities. Surface water flooding is now known to cause as much damage as coastal and riverine flooding combined and is as likely to be experienced by both existing and new developments. Therefore FRe T solutions need to be adaptable and flexible. Previous research has shown that barriers exist to the acceptance and use of FRe T by a range of stakeholders. This includes the need to deploy household level items in time, the uncertainty over the performance of FRe T in actual flood situations or reluctance to adopt new or unknown solutions. Investment by public authorities in FRe Technology in recent years has typically increased in countries such as the UK. However, there has been to date little consideration of the system within which the technology has been employed and there is a lack of tools to assist decision makers. The SMARTeST project (an EU FP7 research project) is addressing the issues involved in FRe technology implementation. The findings of the research will be presented, including case studies where the integrated approaches of technology, systems and tools have been considered. SMARTeST seeks to

  12. Spatiotemporal characteristics of flood protection level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoue, M.; Ikeuchi, H.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding is the most frequent natural hazard and its global impacts will be rising associated with climate change and socioeconomic growth. So, the understanding of the physical and spatial-temporal patterns of risk drivers (exposure, damage, and flood protection level) are required to conduct effective adaptation and reduce the negative impacts of flooding. Although the understanding of exposure and damage has greatly improved using a combination of numerical model simulation and spatiotemporal distributions of population and asset, that of flood protection level is still lacking in particular spatial patterns. Previous research clarifies its temporal variation and relationship with per-capita income, however they do not consider its spatial variation. Flood protection level was associated with geographical characteristics (e.g., soil type and tectonic zone etc). This study tried to estimate spatiotemporal of flood protection level at country level and discuss about relationship between its spatial patterns and geographical characteristics. Mortality rate (percentage of fatalities in modeled exposed population) and loss rate (percentage of losses in modeled exposed GDP) to fluvial river flooding across the world suggested by Jongmann et al. (2015) were estimated from modeled flood exposure and damage statistics taken from the International Emergency Disasters Database. The result indicated that mortality rate reduced across the world from 1990 to 2005. The degree of its reduction decreased with increasing per-capita income level. On the other hand, loss rate at high income and middle low income levels reduced, while that at middle high income and low income levels drastically increased between 1995 and 2000 due to growth economic and occurrence of serious fluvial river flooding. Spatial distribution of mortality and loss rates were high in East Asia, the western part of South America, and the eastern part of Europe. These regions seem to be corresponded to the

  13. 2D NMR-spectroscopic screening reveals polyketides in ladybugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyrup, Stephen T; Eckman, Laura E; McCarthy, Patrick H; Smedley, Scott R; Meinwald, Jerrold; Schroeder, Frank C

    2011-06-14

    Small molecules of biological origin continue to yield the most promising leads for drug design, but systematic approaches for exploring nature's cache of structural diversity are lacking. Here, we demonstrate the use of 2D NMR spectroscopy to screen a library of biorationally selected insect metabolite samples for partial structures indicating the presence of new chemical entities. This NMR-spectroscopic survey enabled detection of novel compounds in complex metabolite mixtures without prior fractionation or isolation. Our screen led to discovery and subsequent isolation of two families of tricyclic pyrones in Delphastus catalinae, a tiny ladybird beetle that is employed commercially as a biological pest control agent. The D. catalinae pyrones are based on 23-carbon polyketide chains forming 1,11-dioxo-2,6,10-trioxaanthracene and 4,8-dioxo-1,9,13-trioxaanthracene derivatives, representing ring systems not previously found in nature. This study highlights the utility of 2D NMR-spectroscopic screening for exploring nature's structure space and suggests that insect metabolomes remain vastly underexplored.

  14. Albumin adsorption on oxide thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva-Bermudez, P., E-mail: suriel21@yahoo.com [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, C.U., 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CU, 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rodil, S.E.; Muhl, S. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, C.U., 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    Thin films of tantalum, niobium, zirconium and titanium oxides were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering and their wettability and surface energy, optical properties, roughness, chemical composition and microstructure were characterized using contact angle measurements, spectroscopic ellipsometry, profilometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The purpose of the work was to correlate the surface properties of the films to the Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) adsorption, as a first step into the development of an initial in vitro test of the films biocompatibility, based on standardized protein adsorption essays. The films were immersed into BSA solutions with different protein concentrations and protein adsorption was monitored in situ by dynamic ellipsometry; the adsorption-rate was dependent on the solution concentration and the immersion time. The overall BSA adsorption was studied in situ using spectroscopic ellipsometry and it was found to be influenced by the wettability of the films; larger BSA adsorption occurred on the more hydrophobic surface, the ZrO{sub 2} film. On the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and TiO{sub 2} films, hydrophilic surfaces, the overall BSA adsorption increased with the surface roughness or the polar component of the surface energy.

  15. SICK: THE SPECTROSCOPIC INFERENCE CRANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Andrew R., E-mail: arc@ast.cam.ac.uk [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambdridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  16. How the choice of flood damage metrics influences urban flood risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a first attempt to quantify tangible and intangible flood damage according to two different damage metrics: monetary values and number of people affected by flooding. Tangible damage includes material damage to buildings and infrastructure; intangible damage includes damages that

  17. Flood Management: A technical solution for the flooding problems encountered in the Lower Moshi area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eitjes, W.T.A.M.; Elshof, A.A.; Guijt, K.; Van Loon, O.D.M.; Mureau, M.D.A.

    2016-01-01

    This report focuses on the flooding problems in the Lower Moshi area, Tanzania. These floods are the result of the extremely large catchment of the Kilimanjaro region in combination with large peaks in precipitation during the short and the long rainy seasons. The river bordering the area of interes

  18. Identifying heavy metal levels in historical flood water deposits using sediment cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintern, Anna; Leahy, Paul J; Heijnis, Henk; Zawadzki, Atun; Gadd, Patricia; Jacobsen, Geraldine; Deletic, Ana; Mccarthy, David T

    2016-11-15

    When designing mitigation and restoration strategies for aquatic systems affected by heavy metal contamination, we must first understand the sources of these pollutants. In this study, we introduce a methodology that identifies the heavy metal levels in floodplain lake sediments deposited by one source; fluvial floods. This is done by comparing sediment core heavy metal profiles (i.e., historical pollution trends) to physical and chemical properties of sediments in these cores (i.e., historical flooding trends). This methodology is applied to Willsmere and Bolin Billabongs, two urban floodplain lakes (billabongs) of the Yarra River (South-East Australia). Both billabongs are periodically inundated by flooding of the Yarra River and one billabong (Willsmere Billabong) is connected to an urban stormwater drainage network. 1-2-m long sediment cores (containing sediment deposits up to 500 years old) were taken from the billabongs and analysed for heavy metal concentrations (arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc). In cores from both billabongs, arsenic concentrations are high in the flood-borne sediments. In Bolin Billabong, absolute metal levels are similar in flood and non-flood deposits. In Willsmere Billabong, absolute copper, lead and zinc levels were generally lower in fluvial flood-borne sediments in the core compared to non-fluvial sediments. This suggests that heavy metal concentrations in Bolin Billabong sediments are relatively similar regardless of whether or not fluvial flooding is occurring. However for Willsmere Billabong, heavy metal concentrations are high when overland runoff, direct urban stormwater discharges or atmospheric deposition is occurring. As such, reducing the heavy metal concentrations in these transport pathways will be of great importance when trying to reduce heavy metal concentrations in Willsmere Billabong sediments. This study presents a proof-of-concept that can be applied to other polluted aquatic systems, to understand the

  19. Flooding of property by runoff from agricultural land in northwestern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, John; Ligneau, Laurence; de Roo, Ad; Vandaele, Karel

    1994-08-01

    In the last twenty years there has been an increase in the incidence of flooding of property by runoff from agricultural land in many areas of northwestern Europe. These events take the form of inundations by soil-laden water associated with erision and the formation of ephemeral or talweg gullies developed in normally dry valley bottoms. Costs of such events may be considerable e.g. almost US$2M at Rottingdean, southern England, in 1987. These costs are largely borne by individual house occupants, insurance companies and local councils. The distribution of flooding is widespread but areas of high risk can be identified: the hilly area of central Belgium, parts of northern France, the South Downs in southern England and South-Limburg (the Netherlands). All these areas have silty, more or less loessial soils. Two types of flooding may be distinguished: winter flooding associated with wet soils and the cultivation of winter cereals, and summer flooding due to thunderstorm activity and runoff particularly from sugar beet, maize and potato crops. The distribution of these types of erosion varies in relation to the interaction between physical characteristics (soils and topography), climatic conditions and land use across the region. The reason for the recent increase in flooding events appears to be changes in land use, in the area of arable cropping, and the continued intensification of farming such as the use of chemical fertilizers, the decline in aggregate stability, the increase in the size of fields and compaction by farm vehicles. In some regions the risk of flooding has also increased because of expansion of urban areas in valley bottom locations. Communities have responded to the flooding hazard with emergency or protective measures usually involving engineered structures rather than land use change. The policy response to the increased risk of flooding has been very limited especially at the national and provincial level, the exception being plans developed

  20. Geochemistry and flooding as determining factors of plant species composition in Dutch winter-flooded riverine grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beumer, Victor; van Wirdum, Geert; Beltman, Boudewijn; Griffioen, Jasper; Grootjans, Ab P; Verhoeven, Jos T A

    2008-08-25

    Dutch water policy aims for more frequent, controlled flooding of river valley floodplains to avoid unwanted flooding elsewhere; in anticipation of increased flooding risks resulting from climate changes. Controlled flooding usually takes place in winter in parts of the valleys which had not been subject to flooding in the last decades. It may thus affect existing nature with its conservation values. The goal of this study was to clarify the geochemical and hydrological factors determining plant species composition of winter-flooded river valley grasslands. A correlative study was carried out in 43 sites in 13 Dutch river valley floodplains, with measurements of flooding regime, vegetation composition, soil nutrients and soil pH status. With the use of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) the plant species composition was investigated in relation to the geochemical variables and the winter winter-flooding regime. We found that the distributions of target species and non-target species were clearly correlated with geochemical characteristics and flooding regime. Clustering of sites within the CCA plots has led us to distinguish between four types of winter flooding in our areas: floodplains with (a) accumulating rain water, (b) low groundwater levels flooded with river water, (c) discharging groundwater and (d) high groundwater levels flooded with river water. Our major conclusions are (1) the winter groundwater level of winter-flooded grasslands was important for evaluating the effects of winter flooding on the geochemistry and plant species composition, and (2) winter winter-flooding effects were largely determined by the nature of the flooding. A high frequency of flooding particularly favoured a small set of common plant species. In areas with groundwater seepage, winter flooding may provide geochemical conditions suitable for diverse vegetation types with rare species. Rainwater flooded sites appeared less suitable for most target species.

  1. Potential and limitations of 1D modelling of urban flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Ole; Weesakul, Sutat; Apirumanekul, Chusit; Aroonnet, Surajate Boonya; Djordjević, Slobodan

    2004-12-01

    Urban flooding is an inevitable problem for many cities around the world. In the present paper, modelling approaches and principles for analyses of urban flooding are outlined. The paper shows how urban flooding can be simulated by one-dimensional hydrodynamic modelling incorporating the interaction between (i) the buried pipe system, (ii) the streets (with open channel flow) and (iii) the areas flooded with stagnant water. The modelling approach is generic in the sense that it handles both urban flooding with and without flood water entry into houses. In order to visualize flood extent and impact, the modelling results are presented in the form of flood inundation maps produced in GIS. In this paper, only flooding from local rainfall is considered together with the impact in terms of flood extent, flood depth and flood duration. Finally, the paper discusses the data requirement for verification of urban flood models together with an outline of a simple cost function for estimation of the cost of the flood damages.

  2. A new French flash flood warning service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Saint-Aubin Céline

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The French State services in charge of flood forecasting supervise about 22,000 km among the 120,000 km of the French rivers within a warning procedure called Vigilance Crues (http://www.vigicrues.gouv.fr. Some recent dramatic flood events on small watershed not covered by Vigilance Crues highlight the need for a new warning procedure to anticipate violent flash floods that regularly affect rapid river-basins. Thus the concept emerged of an automatic warning service specifically dedicated to local crisis managers. This service will be less elaborated than Vigilance Crues, probably with false alarms and missed events sometimes, but it will deliver a first information. The generation of the warning is based on a simple rainfall-runoff hydrological model developed by Irstea on all French rivers, fed with radar-gauge rainfall grids provided by Meteo-France. Every fifteen minutes, the hydrological model estimates the discharges on the rivers eligible to the service and determine if certain thresholds corresponding to a high or very high flood are likely to be exceeded. The last step of the real-time system is to determine which municipalities are concerned with flood risk and send them an automatic warning by voice call, optionally by sms or email. A specific web interface is available for users to monitor the evolution of the flood risk on maps that are updated every 15 minutes. This new flash flood warning service will be operational early 2017 as a free service for about 8,000 French municipalities.

  3. FloodNet: Coupling Adaptive Sampling with Energy Aware Routing in a Flood Warning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Zhou; David De Roure

    2007-01-01

    We describe the design of FloodNet, a flood warning system, which uses a grid-based flood predictor model developed by environmental experts to make flood predictions based on readings of water level collected by a set of sensor nodes.To optimize battery consumption, the reporting frequency of sensor nodes is required to be adaptive to local conditions as well as the flood predictor model.We therefore propose an energy aware routing protocol which allows sensor nodes to consume energy according to this need.This system is notable both for the adaptive sampling regime and the methodology adopted in the design of the adaptive behavior, which involved development of simulation tools and very close collaboration with environmental experts.

  4. Detection and characterization of enteric viruses in flood water from the 2011 thai flood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaosuwankul, Nathamon; Thippornchai, Narin; Yamashita, Akifumi; Vargas, Ronald E Morales; Tunyong, Witawat; Mahakunkijchareon, Yuvadee; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Leaungwutiwong, Pornsawan

    2013-01-01

    Severe flooding, which is associated with numerous outbreaks of a wide range of infectious diseases, particularly those caused by enteric viruses, occurred in all areas of Thailand in 2011. To determine the prevalence of five human enteric viruses, namely enterovirus, rotavirus (RV), norovirus (NV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and hepatitis E virus, in the flood water, 100 water samples were collected from flood-damaged areas in central Thailand. Viral RNA was extracted from concentrated samples and analyzed by RT-PCR and sequencing. NV was the most commonly detected pathogen in the tested samples (14%). RV and HAV were detected in 9% and 7% of samples, respectively. This study is the first to detect enteric viral genes in flood water in Thailand. Furthermore, it is the first to detect an NV gene in any type of environmental water in Thailand. These results provide useful information for estimating the risk of flood waterborne viral infection.

  5. Outburst flood at 1920 BCE supports historicity of China's Great Flood and the Xia dynasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinglong; Zhao, Zhijun; Liu, Li; Granger, Darryl E; Wang, Hui; Cohen, David J; Wu, Xiaohong; Ye, Maolin; Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Lu, Bin; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Peizhen; Yuan, Daoyang; Qi, Wuyun; Cai, Linhai; Bai, Shibiao

    2016-08-05

    China's historiographical traditions tell of the successful control of a Great Flood leading to the establishment of the Xia dynasty and the beginning of civilization. However, the historicity of the flood and Xia remain controversial. Here, we reconstruct an earthquake-induced landslide dam outburst flood on the Yellow River about 1920 BCE that ranks as one of the largest freshwater floods of the Holocene and could account for the Great Flood. This would place the beginning of Xia at ~1900 BCE, several centuries later than traditionally thought. This date coincides with the major transition from the Neolithic to Bronze Age in the Yellow River valley and supports hypotheses that the primary state-level society of the Erlitou culture is an archaeological manifestation of the Xia dynasty.

  6. Analysis of flood-rich and flood-poor periods across Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Bruno; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Vorogushyn, Sergiy

    2016-04-01

    It has often been suggested that flood occurrence is clustered in flood-rich and flood-poor periods. We test this suggestion for 68 catchments across Germany for the common period 1932-2005. For assessing the robustness of the results, we use three methods to derive the significance of temporal clustering. Clustering is assessed for different thresholds and time scales to understand whether it changes with flood severity and time scale. The majority of catchments show temporal clustering at the 5 % significance level for low thresholds and time scales of one to a few years. However, clustering decreases substantially with increasing threshold and time scale. We hypothesize that flood clustering in Germany is mainly caused by catchment memory effects along with intra- to inter-annual climate variability, and that decadal climate variability plays a minor role.

  7. Evaluation of various modelling approaches in flood routing simulation and flood area mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, George; Loukas, Athanasios; Vasiliades, Lampros; Aronica, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    An essential process of flood hazard analysis and mapping is the floodplain modelling. The selection of the modelling approach, especially, in complex riverine topographies such as urban and suburban areas, and ungauged watersheds may affect the accuracy of the outcomes in terms of flood depths and flood inundation area. In this study, a sensitivity analysis implemented using several hydraulic-hydrodynamic modelling approaches (1D, 2D, 1D/2D) and the effect of modelling approach on flood modelling and flood mapping was investigated. The digital terrain model (DTMs) used in this study was generated from Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) point cloud data. The modelling approaches included 1-dimensional hydraulic-hydrodynamic models (1D), 2-dimensional hydraulic-hydrodynamic models (2D) and the coupled 1D/2D. The 1D hydraulic-hydrodynamic models used were: HECRAS, MIKE11, LISFLOOD, XPSTORM. The 2D hydraulic-hydrodynamic models used were: MIKE21, MIKE21FM, HECRAS (2D), XPSTORM, LISFLOOD and FLO2d. The coupled 1D/2D models employed were: HECRAS(1D/2D), MIKE11/MIKE21(MIKE FLOOD platform), MIKE11/MIKE21 FM(MIKE FLOOD platform), XPSTORM(1D/2D). The validation process of flood extent achieved with the use of 2x2 contingency tables between simulated and observed flooded area for an extreme historical flash flood event. The skill score Critical Success Index was used in the validation process. The modelling approaches have also been evaluated for simulation time and requested computing power. The methodology has been implemented in a suburban ungauged watershed of Xerias river at Volos-Greece. The results of the analysis indicate the necessity of sensitivity analysis application with the use of different hydraulic-hydrodynamic modelling approaches especially for areas with complex terrain.

  8. A spectroscopic case for SPSi detection: The third-row in a single molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Brian; Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Peterson, Kirk A.

    2016-09-01

    In moving beyond the second row of the periodic table for molecules of astronomical and atmospheric significance, the exploration of sulfur and phosphorus chemistry is essential. Additionally, silicon is abundant in most astrophysical environments and is a major component of most rocky bodies. The triatomic molecule composed of each of these atoms is therefore a tantalizing candidate for spectroscopic characterization for astrophysical reasons as well as gaining further understanding into the chemical physics of molecules that are not carbon-based. The current work employs high-level quantum chemical techniques to provide new insights into this simplest of heterogeneous third-row atom systems. The fundamental vibrational frequencies are all within the 350-600 cm-1 range and do not demonstrate strong anharmonicities. These frequencies, rotational constants, vibrationally excited state spectroscopic data, and related isotopic substitution information produced will aid in laboratory experimentation and, even potentially, telescopic observation since modern instruments possess the power to resolve extremely fine details.

  9. Isolation and Purification Chemical Compound from Melissa officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal A Nasser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical study was done on the leaves of Melissa officinalis. The separations of the chemical components were carried out by different chromatographic techniques and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic method including nuclear magnetic resonance as well as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three compounds were isolated and identified as friedoolean-7-one , stigmasterol and betulinic acid.

  10. Amino Acid and Peptide Immobilization on Oxidized Nanocellulose: Spectroscopic Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Daneault

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, oxidized nanocellulose (ONC was synthesized and chemically coupled with amino acids and peptides using a two step coupling method at room temperature. First, ONC was activated by N-ethyl-N’-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide hydrochloride, forming a stable active ester in the presence of N-hydroxysuccinimide. Second, the active ester was reacted with the amino group of the amino acid or peptide, forming an amide bond between ONC and the grafted molecule. Using this method, the intermolecular interaction of amino acids and peptides was avoided and uniform coupling of these molecules on ONC was achieved. The coupling reaction was very fast in mild conditions and without alteration of the polysaccharide. The coupling products (ONC-amino acids and ONC-peptides were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and by the absorption, emission, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS spectroscopic techniques.

  11. Spectroscopic Analysis of Impurity Precipitates in CdS Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, J. D.; Keane, J.; Ribelin, R.; Gedvilas, L.; Swartzlander, A.; Ramanathan, K.; Albin, D. S.; Noufi, R.

    1999-10-31

    Impurities in cadmium sulfide (CdS) films are a concern in the fabrication of copper (indium, gallium) diselenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic devices. Devices incorporating chemical-bath-deposited (CBD) CdS are comparable in quality to devices incorporating purer CdS films grown using vacuum deposition techniques, despite the higher impurity concentrations typically observed in the CBD CdS films. In this paper, we summarize and review the results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Auger, electron microprobe, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analyses of the impurities in CBD CdS films. We show that these impurities differ as a function of substrate type and film deposition conditions. We also show that some of these impurities exist as 10{sup 2} micron-scale precipitates.

  12. Spectroscopic Signature of Stacking Disorder in Ice I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Thomas H G; Shephard, Jacob J; Salzmann, Christoph G

    2014-07-17

    There is a growing realization that the presence of stacking disorder in ice I strongly influences its physical and chemical properties. Using Raman spectroscopy, we gain new fundamental insights into the spectroscopic properties of ice. We show that stacking disorder can be detected and quantified by comparing the spectra of stacking disordered ice with spectra of the "ordinary" hexagonal ice Ih. The spectral signature of stacking disorder is thought to arise from a greater structural diversity on the local length scale, vibrational modes that appear due to the lower-symmetry environments, and a strengthening of the covalent bonds. Our findings are compared to results from diffraction and calorimetry, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the three techniques with respect to detecting stacking disorder in ice I. Apart from characterizing stacking disordered ice in the research lab, our new method is perfectly suited for remote or telescopic applications aiming at the identification of stacking disordered ice in nature.

  13. Flood of April 2007 in Southern Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    Up to 8.5 inches of rain fell from April 15 through 18, 2007, in southern Maine. The rain - in combination with up to an inch of water from snowmelt - resulted in extensive flooding. York County, Maine, was declared a presidential disaster area following the event. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), determined peak streamflows and recurrence intervals at 24 locations and peak water-surface elevations at 63 sites following the April 2007 flood. Peak streamflows were determined with data from continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations where available and through hydraulic models where station data were not available. The flood resulted in peak streamflows with recurrence intervals greater than 100 years throughout most of York County, and recurrence intervals up to 50 years in Cumberland County. Peak flows for selected recurrence intervals varied from less than 10 percent to greater than 100 percent different than those in the current FEMA flood-insurance studies due to additional data or newer regression equations. Water-surface elevations observed during the April 2007 flood were bracketed by elevation profiles in FEMA flood-insurance studies with the same recurrence intervals as the recurrence intervals bracketing the observed peak streamflows at seven sites, with higher elevation-profile recurrence intervals than streamflow recurrence intervals at six sites, and with lower elevation-profile recurrence intervals than streamflow recurrence intervals at one site. The April 2007 flood resulted in higher peak flows and water-surface elevations than the flood of May 2006 in coastal locations in York County, and lower peak flows and water-surface elevations than the May 2006 flood further from the coast and in Cumberland County. The Mousam River watershed with over 13 dams and reservoirs was severely impacted by both events. Analyses indicate that the April 2007 peak streamflows in the Mousam River watershed

  14. Past and future flooding in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele-Eich, Insa; Hopson, Thomas; Simmer, Clemens; Simon, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Currently, an average of about 20 % of the land surface in Bangladesh is flooded each year, affecting one of the most densely populated regions in the world. We aim to understand the processes currently determining flooding in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin, in particular the role of precipitation and sea-level rise, as well as to assess how climate change might impact flood characteristics in the future. Water level and discharge data were provided by the Bangladesh Water Development Board on a daily basis for a period of 1909-2009. Monthly maps based on daily sea level anomalies from the Data Unification Altimeter Combination System DUACS are available on a 0.25° by 0.25° grid for the time period 1993-2014. Ensemble model output for upper catchment precipitation and annual mean thermosteric sea-level rise is taken from historical and RCP scenario runs conducted with the CCSM4. We first analyzed daily water levels of the past 100 years in order to detect potential shifts in extremes. The available observations are then used to set up a generalized linear model to detect how precipitation influences flooding in the GBM basin. This model can then be used to give a prognosis on changes in future flooding. Our analysis suggests that water levels have indeed changed over the course of the past century. While the magnitude and duration of average flood events decreased, the frequency of extreme flood events has increased. Low water levels have also changed, with a significant decrease in the annual minimum water level most noticeable when we compare the time periods 1909-1939 and 1979-2009. For the future, first results confirm the decrease in return periods of strong flood events found in previous studies. The impact of climate change on flooding will also be compared to the impact of man-made structures such as Farakka barrage, built across the Ganges on the border between India and Bangladesh and operating since 1975. This is of particular interest as

  15. Societal landslide and flood risk in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Salvati

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed societal landslide and flood risk to the population of Italy. The assessment was conducted at the national (synoptic and at the regional scales. For the assessment, we used an improved version of the catalogue of historical landslide and flood events that have resulted in loss of life, missing persons, injuries and homelessness in Italy, from 1850 to 2008. This is the recent portion of a larger catalogue spanning the 1941-year period from 68 to 2008. We started by discussing uncertainty and completeness in the historical catalogue, and we performed an analysis of the temporal and geographical pattern of harmful landslide and flood events, in Italy. We found that sites affected by harmful landslides or floods are not distributed evenly in Italy, and we attributed the differences to different physiographical settings. To determine societal risk, we investigated the distribution of the number of landslide and flood casualties (deaths, missing persons, and injured people in Italy, and in the 20 Italian Regions. Using order statistics, we found that the intensity of a landslide or flood event – measured by the total number of casualties in the event – follows a general negative power law trend. Next, we modelled the empirical distributions of the frequency of landslide and flood events with casualties in Italy and in each Region using a Zipf distribution. We used the scaling exponent s of the probability mass function (PMF of the intensity of the events, which controls the proportion of small, medium, and large events, to compare societal risk levels in different geographical areas and for different periods. Lastly, to consider the frequency of the events with casualties, we scaled the PMF obtained for the individual Regions to the total number of events in each Region, in the period 1950–2008, and we used the results to rank societal landslide and flood risk in Italy. We found that in the considered period societal landslide

  16. Societal landslide and flood risk in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, P.; Bianchi, C.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

    2010-03-01

    We assessed societal landslide and flood risk to the population of Italy. The assessment was conducted at the national (synoptic) and at the regional scales. For the assessment, we used an improved version of the catalogue of historical landslide and flood events that have resulted in loss of life, missing persons, injuries and homelessness in Italy, from 1850 to 2008. This is the recent portion of a larger catalogue spanning the 1941-year period from 68 to 2008. We started by discussing uncertainty and completeness in the historical catalogue, and we performed an analysis of the temporal and geographical pattern of harmful landslide and flood events, in Italy. We found that sites affected by harmful landslides or floods are not distributed evenly in Italy, and we attributed the differences to different physiographical settings. To determine societal risk, we investigated the distribution of the number of landslide and flood casualties (deaths, missing persons, and injured people) in Italy, and in the 20 Italian Regions. Using order statistics, we found that the intensity of a landslide or flood event - measured by the total number of casualties in the event - follows a general negative power law trend. Next, we modelled the empirical distributions of the frequency of landslide and flood events with casualties in Italy and in each Region using a Zipf distribution. We used the scaling exponent s of the probability mass function (PMF) of the intensity of the events, which controls the proportion of small, medium, and large events, to compare societal risk levels in different geographical areas and for different periods. Lastly, to consider the frequency of the events with casualties, we scaled the PMF obtained for the individual Regions to the total number of events in each Region, in the period 1950-2008, and we used the results to rank societal landslide and flood risk in Italy. We found that in the considered period societal landslide risk is largest in Trentino

  17. Influence of different water-ethanol solvent systems on the spectroscopic and physico-chemical properties of the macrocyclic compounds pheophytin and chlorophyll a; Influencia de diferentes sistemas de solvente agua-etanol sobre as propriedades fisico-quimicas e espectroscopicas dos compostos macrociclicos feofitina e clorofila a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Leonardo M.; Rodrigues, Maira R.; Oliveira, Hueder P. M. de [Universidade Camilo Castelo Branco, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Lima, Adriana [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Soares, Rafael R. S.; Batistela, Vagner R.; Gerola, Adriana P.; Hioka, Noboru [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Severino, Divinomar; Baptista, Mauricio S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Machado, Antonio Eduardo da Hora [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    This work focus on the influence of solvent on the photophysical properties of chlorophyll a and pheophytin. Both compounds are related to the photosynthesis process and are considered prototypes of photosensitizers in Photodynamic Therapy. Fluorescence measurements were developed using water/ethanol mixtures at different compositions, since both solvents could be employed in biological applications. The spectroscopic properties of these compounds undergo profound changes depending on water content in the ethanol due to auto-aggregation processes. The major hydrophobicity and the lower dielectric constant of ethanol when compared with water precluded significantly the auto-aggregation process of these compounds. (author)

  18. Development of a flood-warning system and flood-inundation mapping in Licking County, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostheimer, Chad J.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for selected reaches of South Fork Licking River, Raccoon Creek, North Fork Licking River, and the Licking River in Licking County, Ohio, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Ohio Department of Transportation; U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration; Muskingum Watershed Conservancy District; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service; and the City of Newark and Village of Granville, Ohio. The inundation maps depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to water levels (stages) at the following USGS streamgages: South Fork Licking River at Heath, Ohio (03145173); Raccoon Creek below Wilson Street at Newark, Ohio (03145534); North Fork Licking River at East Main Street at Newark, Ohio (03146402); and Licking River near Newark, Ohio (03146500). The maps were provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into a Web-based flood-warning system that can be used in conjunction with NWS flood-forecast data to show areas of predicted flood inundation associated with forecasted flood-peak stages. As part of the flood-warning streamflow network, the USGS re-installed one streamgage on North Fork Licking River, and added three new streamgages, one each on North Fork Licking River, South Fork Licking River, and Raccoon Creek. Additionally, the USGS upgraded a lake-level gage on Buckeye Lake. Data from the streamgages and lake-level gage can be used by emergency-management personnel, in conjunction with the flood-inundation maps, to help determine a course of action when flooding is imminent. Flood profiles for selected reaches were prepared by calibrating steady-state step-backwater models to selected, established streamgage rating curves. The step-backwater models then were used to determine water-surface-elevation profiles for up to 10 flood stages at a streamgage with corresponding streamflows ranging from approximately

  19. Validation of a global hydrodynamic flood inundation model against high resolution observation data of urban flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Paul; Sampson, Chris; Smith, Andy; Neal, Jeff

    2015-04-01

    In this work we present further validation results for a hyper-resolution global flood inundation model. We use a true hydrodynamic model that uses highly efficient numerical algorithms (LISFLOOD-FP) to simulate flood inundation at ~1km resolution globally and then use downscaling algorithms to determine flood extent and water depth at 3 seconds of arc spatial resolution (~90m at the equator). The global model has ~150 million cells and requires ~180 hours of CPU time for a 10 year simulation period. Terrain data are taken from a custom version of the SRTM data set that has been processed specifically for hydrodynamic modelling. Return periods of flood flows along the entire global river network are determined using: (1) empirical relationships between catchment characteristics and index flood magnitude in different hydroclimatic zones derived from global runoff data; and (2) an index flood growth curve, also empirically derived. Bankful return period flow is then used to set channel width and depth, and flood defence impacts are modelled using empirical relationships between GDP, urbanization and defence standard of protection. The results of these simulations are global flood hazard maps for a number of different return period events from 1 in 5 to 1 in 1000 years. This method has already been show to compare well to return period flood hazard maps derived from models built with high resolution and accuracy local data (Sampson et al., submitted), yet the output from the global flood model has not yet been compared to real flood observations. Whilst the spatial resolution of the global model is high given the size of the model domain, ~1km resolution is still coarse compared to the models typically used to simulate urban flooding and the data typically used to validate these (~25m or less). Comparison of the global model to real-world observations or urban flooding therefore represents an exceptionally stringent test of model skill. In this paper we therefore

  20. Global drivers of future river flood risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsemius, Hessel C.; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; Bouwman, Arno; Jongman, Brenden; Kwadijk, Jaap C. J.; Ligtvoet, Willem; Lucas, Paul L.; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Ward, Philip J.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding global future river flood risk is a prerequisite for the quantification of climate change impacts and planning effective adaptation strategies. Existing global flood risk projections fail to integrate the combined dynamics of expected socio-economic development and climate change. We present the first global future river flood risk projections that separate the impacts of climate change and socio-economic development. The projections are based on an ensemble of climate model outputs, socio-economic scenarios, and a state-of-the-art hydrologic river flood model combined with socio-economic impact models. Globally, absolute damage may increase by up to a factor of 20 by the end of the century without action. Countries in Southeast Asia face a severe increase in flood risk. Although climate change contributes significantly to the increase in risk in Southeast Asia, we show that it is dwarfed by the effect of socio-economic growth, even after normalization for gross domestic product (GDP) growth. African countries face a strong increase in risk mainly due to socio-economic change. However, when normalized to GDP, climate change becomes by far the strongest driver. Both high- and low-income countries may benefit greatly from investing in adaptation measures, for which our analysis provides a basis.

  1. The Complexity of Flood Filling Games

    CERN Document Server

    Arthur, David; Jalsenius, Markus; Montanaro, Ashley; Sach, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    We study the complexity of the popular one player combinatorial game known as Flood-It. In this game the player is given an n by n board of tiles where each tile is allocated one of c colours. The goal is to make the colours of all tiles equal via the shortest possible sequence of flooding operations. In the standard version, a flooding operation consists of the player choosing a colour k, which then changes the colour of all the tiles in the monochromatic region connected to the top left tile to k. After this operation has been performed, neighbouring regions which are already of the chosen colour k will then also become connected, thereby extending the monochromatic region of the board. We show that finding an optimal solution for Flood-It is NP-hard if c is at least 3 and that this even holds when the player can perform flooding operations from any position on the board. Next we show how a (c-1) approximation and a randomised 2c/3 approximation algorithm can be derived, and that no polynomial time constant...

  2. Achieving Natural Flood Management through collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Alex; Byers, Samantha; Thomas, Ted; Welton, Phil

    2016-04-01

    Recent flooding in the UK has brought much attention to the field of Natural flood Management (NFM) as a means of helping to reduce flood risk to communities. Key questions exist in the field, which include quantifying the impact of NFM and maintaining it. In addition, agencies and at-risk communities look for ways of delivering NFM in a tightly stretched financial climate. Well-implemented NFM has the effect of restoring more natural catchment hydrological and sedimentological processes, which in turn can have significant flood risk and WFD benefits for catchment waterbodies. These catchment scale improvements in-turn allow more 'natural' processes to be returned to rivers and streams, creating a more resilient system. NFM can tick many boxes and target many funding opportunities. This paper discusses the NFM component of the Lustrum Beck Flood Alleviation Scheme (Stockton-On-Tees, UK), and explains how a multi-agency approach had to be considered to allow elements of the scheme to be delivered. A startling 70 different landowners and agencies manage the land in the Lustrum Beck catchment (~40km2). A partnership between the Environment Agency and the Forestry Commission is planning to work on a demonstration site in the centre of the catchment. The paper goes on to explain the importance of this demonstration area in the context of the wider scheme.

  3. Channel Shallowing as Mitigation of Coastal Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Orton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we demonstrate that reductions in the depth of inlets or estuary channels can be used to reduce or prevent coastal flooding. A validated hydrodynamic model of Jamaica Bay, New York City (NYC, is used to test nature-based adaptation measures in ameliorating flooding for NYC's two largest historical coastal flood events. In addition to control runs with modern bathymetry, three altered landscape scenarios are tested: (1 increasing the area of wetlands to their 1879 footprint and bathymetry, but leaving deep shipping channels unaltered; (2 shallowing all areas deeper than 2 m in the bay to be 2 m below Mean Low Water; (3 shallowing only the narrowest part of the inlet to the bay. These three scenarios are deliberately extreme and designed to evaluate the leverage each approach exerts on water levels. They result in peak water level reductions of 0.3%, 15%, and 6.8% for Hurricane Sandy, and 2.4%, 46% and 30% for the Category-3 hurricane of 1821, respectively (bay-wide averages. These results suggest that shallowing can provide greater flood protection than wetland restoration, and it is particularly effective at reducing "fast-pulse" storm surges that rise and fall quickly over several hours, like that of the 1821 storm. Nonetheless, the goal of flood mitigation must be weighed against economic, navigation, and ecological needs, and practical concerns such as the availability of sediment.

  4. Water availability and flood hazards in the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Frank J.; Oster, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    The rock formations of the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument area are aquifers that can be expected to yield less than 10 gallons of water per minute to wells. The most permeable of the geologic units is the alluvium that occurs at low elevations along the John Day River and most of the smaller streams. Wells in the alluvial deposits can be expected to yield adequate water supplies for recreational areas; also, wells completed in the underlying bedrock at depths ranging from 50 to 200 feet could yield as much as 10 gallons per minute. Pumping tests on two unused wells indicated yields of 8 gallons per minute and 2 gallons per minute. Nine of the ten springs measured in and near the monument area in late August of 1978 were flowing 0.2 to 30 gallons per minute. Only the Cant Ranch spring and the Johnny Kirk Spring near the Sheep Rock unit had flows exceeding 6 gallons per minute. Chemical analyses of selected constituents of the ground water indicated generally low concentrations of dissolved minerals. Although cloudbursts in the Painted Hills unit could generate a flood wave on the valley floors, flood danger can be reduced by locating recreational sites on high ground. The campground in Indian Canyon of the Clarno unit is vulnerable to cloudburst flooding. About 80 percent of the proposed campground on the John Day River in the Sheep Rock unit is above the estimated level of 1-percent chance flood (100-year flood) of the river. The 1-percent chance flood would extend about 120 feet from the riverbank into the upstream end of the campground. (USGS).

  5. Flood loss reduction of private households due to building precautionary measures -- lessons learned from the Elbe flood in August 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kreibich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Building houses in inundation areas is always a risk, since absolute flood protection is impossible. Where settlements already exist, flood damage must be kept as small as possible. Suitable means are precautionary measures such as elevated building configuration or flood adapted use. However, data about the effects of such measures are rare, and consequently, the efficiency of different precautionary measures is unclear. To improve the knowledge about efficient precautionary measures, approximately 1200 private households, which were affected by the 2002 flood at the river Elbe and its tributaries, were interviewed about the flood damage of their buildings and contents as well as about their precautionary measures. The affected households had little flood experience, i.e. only 15% had experienced a flood before. 59% of the households stated that they did not know, that they live in a flood prone area. Thus, people were not well prepared, e.g. just 11% had used and furnished their house in a flood adapted way and only 6% had a flood adapted building structure. Building precautionary measures are mainly effective in areas with frequent small floods. But also during the extreme flood event in 2002 building measures reduced the flood loss. From the six different building precautionary measures under study, flood adapted use and adapted interior fitting were the most effective ones. They reduced the damage ratio for buildings by 46% and 53%, respectively. The damage ratio for contents was reduced by 48% due to flood adapted use and by 53% due to flood adapted interior fitting. The 2002 flood motivated a relatively large number of people to implement private precautionary measures, but still much more could be done. Hence, to further reduce flood losses, people's motivation to invest in precaution should be improved. More information campaigns and financial incentives should be issued to encourage precautionary measures.

  6. FAST CARS: Engineering a Laser Spectroscopic Technique for Rapid Identification of Bacterial Spores

    OpenAIRE

    Scully, M. O.; Kattawar, G. W.; Lucht, R. P.; Opatrný, T.; Pilloff, H.; Rebane, A.; Sokolov, A.V.(Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, akademika Lavrentieva prospect, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia); Zubairy, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    Airborne contaminants, e.g., bacterial spores, are usually analyzed by time-consuming microscopic, chemical, and biological assays. Current research into real-time laser spectroscopic detectors of such contaminants is based on e.g., resonance fluorescence. The present approach derives from recent experiments in which atoms and molecules are prepared by one (or more) coherent laser(s) and probed by another set of lasers. However, generating and using maximally coherent oscillation in macromole...

  7. Toward more flood resilience: Is a diversification of flood risk management strategies the way forward?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dries L. T. Hegger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available European countries face increasing flood risks because of urbanization, increase of exposure and damage potential, and the effects of climate change. In literature and in practice, it is argued that a diversification of strategies for flood risk management (FRM, including flood risk prevention (through proactive spatial planning, flood defense, flood risk mitigation, flood preparation, and flood recovery, makes countries more flood resilient. Although this thesis is plausible, it should still be empirically scrutinized. We aim to do this. Drawing on existing literature we operationalize the notion of "flood resilience" into three capacities: capacity to resist; capacity to absorb and recover; and capacity to transform and adapt. Based on findings from the EU FP7 project STAR-FLOOD, we explore the degree of diversification of FRM strategies and related flood risk governance arrangements at the national level in Belgium, England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden, as well as these countries' achievement in terms of the three capacities. We found that the Netherlands and to a lesser extent Belgium have a strong capacity to resist, France a strong capacity to absorb and recover, and especially England a high capacity to transform and adapt. Having a diverse portfolio of FRM strategies in place may be conducive to high achievements related to the capacities to absorb/recover and to transform and adapt. Hence, we conclude that diversification of FRM strategies contributes to resilience. However, the diversification thesis should be nuanced in the sense that there are different ways to be resilient. First, the three capacities imply different rationales and normative starting points for flood risk governance, the choice between which is inherently political. Second, we found trade-offs between the three capacities, e.g., being resistant seems to lower the possibility to be absorbent. Third, to explain countries' achievements in terms of

  8. Flood Risk Management in Iowa through an Integrated Flood Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ibrahim; Krajewski, Witold

    2013-04-01

    The Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, flood-related data, information and interactive visualizations for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and rainfall conditions are available in the IFIS by streaming data from automated IFC bridge sensors, USGS stream gauges, NEXRAD radars, and NWS forecasts. Simple 2D and 3D interactive visualizations in the IFIS make the data more understandable to general public. Users are able to filter data sources for their communities and selected rivers. The data and information on IFIS is also accessible through web services and mobile applications. The IFIS is optimized for various browsers and screen sizes to provide access through multiple platforms including tablets and mobile devices. The IFIS includes a rainfall-runoff forecast model to provide a five-day flood risk estimate for around 1100 communities in Iowa. Multiple view modes in the IFIS accommodate different user types from general public to researchers and decision makers by providing different level of tools and details. River view mode allows users to visualize data from multiple IFC bridge sensors and USGS stream gauges to follow flooding condition along a river. The IFIS will help communities make better-informed decisions on the occurrence of floods, and will alert

  9. Measuring flood footprint of a regional economy - A case study for the UK flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, D.

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of the urban economy and society is central to understanding the broad impacts of flooding and to identify cost-effective adaptation and mitigation measures. Assessments of the flooding impacts on cities have traditionally focused on the initial impact on people and assets. These initial estimates (so-called ';direct damage') are useful both in understanding the immediate implications of damage, and in marshalling the pools of capital and supplies required for re-building after an event. Since different economies as well as societies are coupled, especially under the current economic crisis, any small-scale damage may be multiplied and cascaded throughout wider economic systems and social networks. The direct and indirect damage is currently not evaluated well and could be captured by quantification of what we call the flood footprint. Flooding in one location can impact the whole UK economy. Neglecting these knock-on costs (i.e. the true footprint of the flood) means we might be ignoring the economic benefits and beneficiaries of flood risk management interventions. In 2007, for example, floods cost the economy about £3.2 bn directly, but the wider effect might actually add another 50% to 250% to that. Flood footprint is a measure of the exclusive total socioeconomic impact that is directly and indirectly caused by a flood event to the flooding region and wider economic systems and social networks. We adopt the UK 2012 flooding. An input-output basic dynamic inequalities (BDI) model is used to assess the impact of the floodings on the level of a Yorkshire economy, accounting for interactions between industries through demand and supply of intermediate consumption goods with a circular flow. After the disaster the economy will be unbalanced. The recovery process finishes when the economy is completely balance, i.e., when labour production capacity equals demands and production and all the variables reach pre-disaster levels. The analysis is carried out

  10. Flood loss assessment in Can Tho City, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, T. C.; Kreibich, H.

    2012-04-01

    Floods are recurring events in the Lower Mekong Basin resulting in loss of life and property, causing damage to agriculture and rural infrastructure, and disrupting social and economic activities. Flood management and mitigation has become a priority issue at the national and regional levels. Besides, it is expected that large areas of the Mekong delta, the Red River delta and the central coast will be flooded by sea-level rise due to climate change. Can Tho City is ranked under the five most flood-tide-influenced cities of Vietnam. It is the biggest city in the Mekong delta and it is located near the Hau river. Like other region of the Mekong delta, Can Tho suffers due to floods from upstream and flood tides from the sea. In the flood season large rural areas of the city are flooded, particularly during tidal days. Flood risk management policy includes preparative measures for living with floods and to minimise the damage caused by floods as well as to take advantage of floods for sustainable development. An intensive literature review, including administrative reports as well as expert interviews have been undertaken to gain more insight into flood characteristics, their consequences and risk mitigation. Therefore, flood damaging processes and trends have been reviewed for Can Tho City and the Mekong Basin in Vietnam. Additionally, suitable flood damage estimation methodologies have been collected as important input for flood risk analyses. On this basis it has been investigated which flood risk mitigation and management strategies promise to be effective in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

  11. High-magnitude flooding across Britain since AD 1750

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Neil; Sangster, Heather

    2017-03-01

    The last decade has witnessed severe flooding across much of the globe, but have these floods really been exceptional? Globally, relatively few instrumental river flow series extend beyond 50 years, with short records presenting significant challenges in determining flood risk from high-magnitude floods. A perceived increase in extreme floods in recent years has decreased public confidence in conventional flood risk estimates; the results affect society (insurance costs), individuals (personal vulnerability) and companies (e.g. water resource managers). Here, we show how historical records from Britain have improved understanding of high-magnitude floods, by examining past spatial and temporal variability. The findings identify that whilst recent floods are notable, several comparable periods of increased flooding are identifiable historically, with periods of greater frequency (flood-rich periods). Statistically significant relationships between the British flood index, the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation Index are identified. The use of historical records identifies that the largest floods often transcend single catchments affecting regions and that the current flood-rich period is not unprecedented.

  12. The Emergence of Flood Insurance in Canada: Navigating Institutional Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thistlethwaite, Jason

    2016-08-11

    Flood insurance has remained unavailable in Canada based on an assessment that it lacks economic viability. In response to Canada's costliest flood event to date in 2013, the Canadian insurance industry has started to develop a framework to expand existing property insurance to cover flood damage. Research on flood insurance has overlooked why and how insurance systems transition to expand insurance coverage without evidence of economic viability. This article will address this gap through a case study on the emergence of flood insurance in Canada, and the approach to its expansion. Between 2013 and 2016, insurance industry officials representing over 60% of premiums collected in Canada were interviewed. These interviews revealed that flood insurance is being expanded in response to institutional pressure, specifically external stakeholder expectations that the insurance industry will adopt a stronger role in managing flood risk through coverage of flood damage. Further evidence of this finding is explored by assessing the emergence of a unique flood insurance model that involves a risk-adjusted and optional product along with an expansion of government policy supporting flood risk mitigation. This approach attempts to balance industry concerns about economic viability with institutional pressure to reduce flood risk through insurance. This analysis builds on existing research by providing the first scholarly analysis of flood insurance in Canada, important "empirical" teeth to existing conceptual analysis on the availability of flood insurance, and the influence of institutional factors on risk analysis within the insurance sector.

  13. Adapting flood preparedness tools to changing flood risk conditions: the situation in Poland⁎ The preparation of this paper was funded from the EU FP7 STAR-FLOOD Project (STrengthening And Redesigning European FLOOD risk practices: Towards appropriate and resilient flood risk governance arrangements. This project also provided funding for the author’s participation at the BALTEX Conference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is the most destructive natural hazard in the Baltic Sea Basin in general and in Poland in particular. The notion includes floods from rivers and mountain torrents, as well as floods from sea surges in coastal areas, and floods from sewage systems. There have been several large floods in Poland in the last century and in recent decades, with damage exceeding 1% of the Polish GDP. The spatial and temporal characteristics of the flood risk in Poland are reviewed and observations and projections of changes in the flood hazard in the country are discussed. Furthermore, flood defences and flood preparedness systems in Poland are examined, with particular reference to the European Union (EU Floods Directive, which is being implemented in Poland, an EU country. Finally, the public debate on flood risk and flood preparedness is reviewed.

  14. The Bosna River floods in May 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, Andrej; Globevnik, Lidija; Koprivšek, Maja; Sečnik, Matej; Zabret, Katarina; Đurović, Blažo; Anzeljc, Darko; Kastelic, Janez; Kobold, Mira; Sušnik, Mojca; Borojevič, Darko; Kupusović, Tarik; Kupusović, Esena; Vihar, Anja; Brilly, Mitja

    2016-10-01

    In May 2014, extreme floods occurred in the lower Sava River basin, causing major damage, with catastrophic consequences. Based on the data gathered, the weather situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina's (BiH) Bosna River basin was analysed and the hydrological conditions were provided, including the results of the probability analysis of the size of the recorded precipitation and flow rates. According to the observed data, extremely high precipitation intensities produced specific discharges of 1.0 m3 s-1 km-2. A hydrological model of the Bosna River basin was developed using HBV light for the purposes of reconstructing and forecasting such events more effectively. All analyses confirmed that the May 2014 event was an extreme extraordinary event whose return period greatly exceeds 100 years. The study is the basis for further flood safety measures and flood forecast development in the Bosna River basin.

  15. Mental models of flash floods and landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Klaus

    2007-06-01

    Perceptions of flash floods and landslides were analyzed in four communities of the Bavarian Alps using the mental model approach. Thirty-eight qualitative interviews, two telephone surveys with 600 respondents, and two onsite interviews (74/95 respondents) were conducted. Mental models concerning flash floods are much better developed than those for landslides because the key physical processes for flash floods are easier for the general public to recognize and understand. Mental models are influenced by the local conditions. People who have a better knowledge about the hazards are those who use many different sources to inform themselves, express fear about natural hazards, or have previous experience with hazards. Conclusions for how to improve information for the general public are discussed.

  16. Developing Fast and Reliable Flood Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrysøe, Cecilie; Toke, Jens; Borup, Morten;

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art flood modelling in urban areas are based on distributed physically based models. However, their usage is impeded by high computational demands and numerical instabilities, which make calculations both difficult and time consuming. To address these challenges we develop and test....... A surrogate model is set up for a case study area in Aarhus, Denmark, to replace a MIKE FLOOD model. The drainage surrogates are able to reproduce the MIKE URBAN results for a set of rain inputs. The coupled drainage-surface surrogate model lacks details in the surface description which reduces its overall...... is modelled by response surface surrogates, which are empirical data driven models. These are trained using the volume-discharge relations by piecewise linear functions. (ii) The surface flooding is modelled by lower-fidelity physically based surrogates, which are based on surface depressions and flow paths...

  17. Assessment of Flooded Areas Projections and Floods Potential Impacts Applying Remote Sensing Imagery and Demographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, D. A.; Carriello, F.; Fernandes, P. J. F.; Garofolo Lopes, L.; Siqueira Júnior, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Assessing vulnerability and potential impacts associated with extreme discharges requires an accurate topographic description in order to estimate the extension of flooded areas. However, in most populated regions, topographic data obtained by in-situ measurements is not available. In this case, digital elevation models derived from remote sensing date are usually applied. Moreover, this digital elevation models have intrinsic errors that introduce bigger uncertainty in results than the associated to hydrological projections. On the other hand, estimations of flooded areas through remote sensing images provide accurate information, which could be used for the construction of river level-flooded area relationships regarding vulnerability assessment. In this work, this approach is applied for the city of Porto Velho in the Brazilian Amazonia to assess potential vulnerability to floods associated with climate change projections. The approach is validated using census data, provided by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, and information about socio-economical injuries associated to historical floods, provided by the Brazilian Civil Defence. Hydrological projections under climate change are carried out using several downscaling of climate projections as inputs in a hydrological model. Results show more accurate estimation of flood impacts than the obtained using digital elevation models derivate from remote sensing data. This reduces uncertainties in the assessment of vulnerability to floods associated with climate change in the region.

  18. Design flood hydrographs from the relationship between flood peak and volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mediero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological frequency analyses are usually focused on flood peaks. Flood volumes and durations have not been studied as extensively, although there are many practical situations, such as when designing a dam, in which the full hydrograph is of interest. A flood hydrograph may be described by a multivariate function of the peak, volume and duration. Most standard bivariate and trivariate functions do not produce univariate three-parameter functions as marginal distributions, however, three-parameter functions are required to fit highly skewed data, such as flood peak and flood volume series. In this paper, the relationship between flood peak and hydrograph volume is analysed to overcome this problem. A Monte Carlo experiment was conducted to generate an ensemble of hydrographs that maintain the statistical properties of marginal distributions of the peaks, volumes and durations. This ensemble can be applied to determine the Design Flood Hydrograph (DFH for a reservoir, which is not a unique hydrograph, but rather a curve in the peak-volume space. All hydrographs on that curve have the same return period, which can be understood as the inverse of the probability to exceed a certain water level in the reservoir in any given year. The procedure can also be applied to design the length of the spillway crest in terms of the risk of exceeding a given water level in the reservoir.

  19. Delivering integrated HAZUS-MH flood loss analyses and flood inundation maps over the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn,, Paul P.; Longenecker, Herbert E.; Aguinaldo, John J.; Rahav, Ami N.

    2013-01-01

    Catastrophic flooding is responsible for more loss of life and damages to property than any other natural hazard. Recently developed flood inundation mapping technologies make it possible to view the extent and depth of flooding on the land surface over the Internet; however, by themselves these technologies are unable to provide estimates of losses to property and infrastructure. The Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA's) HAZUS-MH software is extensively used to conduct flood loss analyses in the United States, providing a nationwide database of population and infrastructure at risk. Unfortunately, HAZUS-MH requires a dedicated Geographic Information System (GIS) workstation and a trained operator, and analyses are not adapted for convenient delivery over the Web. This article describes a cooperative effort by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and FEMA to make HAZUS-MH output GIS and Web compatible and to integrate these data with digital flood inundation maps in USGS’s newly developed Inundation Mapping Web Portal. By running the computationally intensive HAZUS-MH flood analyses offline and converting the output to a Web-GIS compatible format, detailed estimates of flood losses can now be delivered to anyone with Internet access, thus dramatically increasing the availability of these forecasts to local emergency planners and first responders.

  20. Review article "Assessment of economic flood damage"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, B.; Kreibich, H.; Schwarze, R.; Thieken, A.

    2010-08-01

    Damage assessments of natural hazards supply crucial information to decision support and policy development in the fields of natural hazard management and adaptation planning to climate change. Specifically, the estimation of economic flood damage is gaining greater importance as flood risk management is becoming the dominant approach of flood control policies throughout Europe. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and identifies research directions of economic flood damage assessment. Despite the fact that considerable research effort has been spent and progress has been made on damage data collection, data analysis and model development in recent years, there still seems to be a mismatch between the relevance of damage assessments and the quality of the available models and datasets. Often, simple approaches are used, mainly due to limitations in available data and knowledge on damage mechanisms. The results of damage assessments depend on many assumptions, e.g. the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries, and there are many pitfalls in economic evaluation, e.g. the choice between replacement costs or depreciated values. Much larger efforts are required for empirical and synthetic data collection and for providing consistent, reliable data to scientists and practitioners. A major shortcoming of damage modelling is that model validation is scarcely performed. Uncertainty analyses and thorough scrutiny of model inputs and assumptions should be mandatory for each damage model development and application, respectively. In our view, flood risk assessments are often not well balanced. Much more attention is given to the hazard assessment part, whereas damage assessment is treated as some kind of appendix within the risk analysis. Advances in flood damage assessment could trigger subsequent methodological improvements in other natural hazard areas with comparable time-space properties.