WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical flooding spectroscopic

  1. Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Annual report, September 30, 1993--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1995-06-01

    The aim of this project is to elucidate the mechanisms underlying adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effect of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations, other inorganic and polymeric species is being studied. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro and nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability is used to achieve the goals. The results of this study should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and also in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. During the second year of this three year contract, adsorption/desorption of single surfactants and select surfactant mixtures on alumina and silica was studied. Surfactants studied include the anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (TTAC), nonionic pentadecylethoxylated nonyl phenol (NP-15) and the nonionic octaethylene glycol n-dodecyl ether (C{sub 12}EO{sub 8}) of varying hydrocarbon chain length. The microstructure of the adsorbed layer in terms of micropolarity and aggregation numbers was probed using fluorescence spectroscopy. Changes of microstructure upon dilution (desorption) were also studied. Presence of the nonionic surfactant in the mixed aggregate led to shielding of the charge of the ionic surfactant which in-turn promoted aggregation but reduced electrostatic attraction between the charged surfactant and the mineral surface. Strong consequences of surfactant interactions in solution upon adsorption as well as correlations between monomer concentrations in mixtures and adsorption were revealed.

  2. Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Annual report, September 30, 1992--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1994-07-01

    The aim of this research project is to investigate mechanisms underlying adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effects of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations, various inorganic and polymeric species, and solids mineralogy will be determined. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro & nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability; is used in this study. The results obtained should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. During the first year of this three year contract, adsorption of single surfactants and select surfactant mixtures was studied at the solid-liquid and gas-liquid interfaces. Surfactants studied include alkyl xylene sulfonates, polyethoxylated alkyl phenols, octaethylene glycol mono n-decyl ether, and tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride. Adsorption of surfactant mixtures of varying composition was also investigated. The microstructure of the adsorbed layer was characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy. Changes interfacial properties such as wettability, electrokinetics and stability of reservoir minerals were correlated with the amount of reagent adsorbed. Strong effects of the structure of the surfactant and position of functional groups were revealed.

  3. Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1993-08-31

    The aim of this contract is to elucidate the mechanisms underlying adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. The results of this study should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and also in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. Adsorption of single surfactants on silica and alumina as well as the solution behavior of surfactant mixtures was studied during this quarter. The adsorption of surfactants at the solid-liquid interface was correlated with changes in interfacial behavior such as wettability and zeta potential. Surface tension was used to study interactions between surfactant mixtures in solution. Mixed micellization of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyl phenoxy polyethoxylated alcohol was found to be non-ideal. Regular solution theory adequately describes the interactions. The adsorption isotherm of a cationic surfactant, tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (TTAC), on alumina was determined at two values of pH. Changes in the settling rate of alumina suspensions after TTAC adsorption were also followed to describe the evolution of the adsorbed layer. At high surface coverage it was observed that the alumina surface became hydrophilic suggesting the formation of a TTAC bilayer at the surface. Wettability of silica after adsorption of nonyl phenyl polyethoxylated alcohols (with number of polyethylene oxide groups varying from 10-40) was measured using flotation to determine the orientation of the adsorbed layer. Effect of number of ethylene oxide groups was also determined. The amount of silica floated after the nonionic surfactant adsorption was same irrespective of the ethylene oxide chain length.

  4. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Flood Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Bruce D.

    1983-01-01

    Describes events leading to a flood in the Wehr Chemistry Laboratory at Marquette University, discussing steps taken to minimize damage upon discovery. Analyzes the problem of flooding in the chemical laboratory and outlines seven steps of flood control: prevention; minimization; early detection; stopping the flood; evaluation; clean-up; and…

  5. Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  6. Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F.; Reid, Ray D.

    2012-01-01

    This invention relates to non-contact spectroscopic methods and apparatus for performing chemical analysis and the ideal wavelengths and sources needed for this analysis. It employs deep ultraviolet (200- to 300-nm spectral range) electron-beam-pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor lightemitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers. Three achieved goals for this innovation are to reduce the size (under 20 L), reduce the weight [under 100 lb (.45 kg)], and reduce the power consumption (under 100 W). This method can be used in microscope or macroscope to provide measurement of Raman and/or native fluorescence emission spectra either by point-by-point measurement, or by global imaging of emissions within specific ultraviolet spectral bands. In other embodiments, the method can be used in analytical instruments such as capillary electrophoresis, capillary electro-chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, and related instruments for detection and identification of unknown analytes using a combination of native fluorescence and/or Raman spectroscopic methods. This design provides an electron-beampumped semiconductor radiation-producing method, or source, that can emit at a wavelength (or wavelengths) below 300 nm, e.g. in the deep ultraviolet between about 200 and 300 nm, and more preferably less than 260 nm. In some variations, the method is to produce incoherent radiation, while in other implementations it produces laser radiation. In some variations, this object is achieved by using an AlGaN emission medium, while in other implementations a diamond emission medium may be used. This instrument irradiates a sample with deep UV radiation, and then uses an improved filter for separating wavelengths to be detected. This provides a multi-stage analysis of the sample. To avoid the difficulties related to producing deep UV semiconductor sources, a pumping approach has been developed that uses

  7. Efficient Scheme for Chemical Flooding Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braconnier Benjamin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate an efficient implicit scheme for the numerical simulation of chemical enhanced oil recovery technique for oil fields. For the sake of brevity, we only focus on flows with polymer to describe the physical and numerical models. In this framework, we consider a black oil model upgraded with the polymer modeling. We assume the polymer only transported in the water phase or adsorbed on the rock following a Langmuir isotherm. The polymer reduces the water phase mobility which can change drastically the behavior of water oil interfaces. Then, we propose a fractional step technique to resolve implicitly the system. The first step is devoted to the resolution of the black oil subsystem and the second to the polymer mass conservation. In such a way, jacobian matrices coming from the implicit formulation have a moderate size and preserve solvers efficiency. Nevertheless, the coupling between the black-oil subsystem and the polymer is not fully resolved. For efficiency and accuracy comparison, we propose an explicit scheme for the polymer for which large time step is prohibited due to its CFL (Courant-Friedrichs-Levy criterion and consequently approximates accurately the coupling. Numerical experiments with polymer are simulated : a core flood, a 5-spot reservoir with surfactant and ions and a 3D real case. Comparisons are performed between the polymer explicit and implicit scheme. They prove that our polymer implicit scheme is efficient, robust and resolves accurately the coupling physics. The development and the simulations have been performed with the software PumaFlow [PumaFlow (2013 Reference manual, release V600, Beicip Franlab].

  8. Bridging the Gap between Chemical Flooding and Independent Oil Producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan McCool; Tony Walton; Paul Willhite; Mark Ballard; Miguel Rondon; Kaixu Song; Zhijun Liu; Shahab Ahmend; Peter Senior

    2012-03-31

    Ten Kanas oil reservoirs/leases were studied through geological and engineering analysis to assess the potential performance of chemical flooding to recover oil. Reservoirs/leases that have been efficiently waterflooded have the highest performance potential for chemical flooding. Laboratory work to identify efficient chemical systems and to test the oil recovery performance of the systems was the major effort of the project. Efficient chemical systems were identified for crude oils from nine of the reservoirs/leases. Oil recovery performance of the identified chemical systems in Berea sandstone rocks showed 90+ % recoveries of waterflood residual oil for seven crude oils. Oil recoveries increased with the amount of chemical injected. Recoveries were less in Indiana limestone cores. One formulation recovered 80% of the tertiary oil in the limestone rock. Geological studies for nine of the oil reservoirs are presented. Pleasant Prairie, Trembley, Vinland and Stewart Oilfields in Kansas were the most favorable of the studied reservoirs for a pilot chemical flood from geological considerations. Computer simulations of the performance of a laboratory coreflood were used to predict a field application of chemical flooding for the Trembley Oilfield. Estimates of field applications indicated chemical flooding is an economically viable technology for oil recovery.

  9. Feasibility of oil recovery by chemical flooding through horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Abbas, A.M.; El-Sallaly, M. E.; Sayyouh, M. H.; El-Batanony, M. H.; Darwich, T. M.; Desouky, S. M. [Cairo Univ (Egypt)

    1998-12-31

    Crude oil production in the Gulf of Suez by polymer, surfactant, and surfactant/polymer flooding from a horizontal well in a scaled five-spot sandpacked model was studied. The suitability of the enhanced oil recovery predictive models, developed by the U.S. Department of Energy, was investigated for their ability to predict the experimental data and to assess the feasibility of oil recovery by chemical flooding. Good agreement was found between the predicted and experimental values. Experimental results showed that oil recovery was significantly affected by the physical properties of the crude oil and chemical solutions; that oil recovery was higher for a polymer flooding than for a surfactant flooding operation; and that oil recovery was improved by increasing the perforated length ratio up to a value of 0.81. A tendency for oil recovery to decrease was observed when the horizontal well was positioned below or above the central axis path of the formation at the advanced injection stages; and oil recovery by surfactant or polymer flooding was significantly affected by the onset timing of the surfactant or polymer slug injection. The oil-water bank stability in surfactant and polymer flooding processes was found to be dependent on slug size and slug injection time. 23 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  10. Multivariate Chemical Image Fusion of Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Aoife A; Dorrepaal, Ronan M

    2016-01-01

    Chemical image fusion refers to the combination of chemical images from different modalities for improved characterisation of a sample. Challenges associated with existing approaches include: difficulties with imaging the same sample area or having identical pixels across microscopic modalities, lack of prior knowledge of sample composition and lack of knowledge regarding correlation between modalities for a given sample. In addition, the multivariate structure of chemical images is often overlooked when fusion is carried out. We address these challenges by proposing a framework for multivariate chemical image fusion of vibrational spectroscopic imaging modalities, demonstrating the approach for image registration, fusion and resolution enhancement of chemical images obtained with IR and Raman microscopy. PMID:27384549

  11. Spectroscopic probes of vibrationally excited molecules at chemically significant energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, T.R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project involves the application of multiple-resonance spectroscopic techniques for investigating energy transfer and dissociation dynamics of highly vibrationally excited molecules. Two major goals of this work are: (1) to provide information on potential energy surfaces of combustion related molecules at chemically significant energies, and (2) to test theoretical modes of unimolecular dissociation rates critically via quantum-state resolved measurements.

  12. Thermal, Spectroscopic and Chemical Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Anisole

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the thermal, spectroscopic, and chemical properties of anisole by various analytical methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The anisole sample was divided into two parts, control and treated. The ...

  13. Experimental study of chemical concentration variation of ASP flooding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG JiaLu; YUAN ShiYi; SHI FaShun; JIA Xu

    2009-01-01

    A physical modeling system of long slim tube was established. Several pressure measuring and sampling points were laid out at different positions along the tube. Through real-time measurements of pressures and chemical concentrations at different points, the mass transfer and chemical concentration of ASP flooding in porous media are studied. The concentration of chemicals declines gradually during the fluid flow from the inlet to the outlet of the model. The concentration increases in the front edge of the slug faster than the concentration decreases in the rear edge of the slug. The concentration variation of the chemicals is an asymmetrical and offset process. The order of motion velocities of the chemicals from fast to slow is polymer, alkali and surfactant. The motion lag and comprehensive diffusion are strong in the vicinity of the inlet, the motion velocities of the chemicals are high, the difference of flow velocities among the three chemicals is significant and the chromatographic separation of the chemicals is obvious. In the area near the outlet, the comprehensive diffusion and motion lag become weak, the concentrations of the chemicals decrease, the motion velocities of the chemicals are slow,the difference among the motion velocities of the chemicals becomes small, the chromatographic separation is not obvious, the adsorption and retention of chemicals gradually increase as the chemical slug moves further along the tube, the adsorption and retention of polymer is the most serious.

  14. Experimental study of chemical concentration variation of ASP flooding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A physical modeling system of long slim tube was established. Several pressure measuring and sampling points were laid out at different positions along the tube. Through real-time measurements of pressures and chemical concentrations at different points, the mass transfer and chemical concentration of ASP flooding in porous media are studied. The concentration of chemicals declines gradually during the fluid flow from the inlet to the outlet of the model. The concentration increases in the front edge of the slug faster than the concentration decreases in the rear edge of the slug. The concentration variation of the chemicals is an asymmetrical and offset process. The order of motion velocities of the chemicals from fast to slow is polymer, alkali and surfactant. The motion lag and comprehensive diffusion are strong in the vicinity of the inlet, the motion velocities of the chemicals are high, the difference of flow velocities among the three chemicals is significant and the chromatographic separation of the chemicals is obvious. In the area near the outlet, the comprehensive diffusion and motion lag become weak, the concentrations of the chemicals decrease, the motion velocities of the chemicals are slow, the difference among the motion velocities of the chemicals becomes small, the chromatographic separation is not obvious, the adsorption and retention of chemicals gradually increase as the chemical slug moves further along the tube, the adsorption and retention of polymer is the most serious.

  15. A spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD207561

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, S; Martinez, P; Sachkov, M; Joshi, Y C; Seetha, S; Chakradhari, N K; Mary, D L; Girish, V; Ashoka, B N

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a high-resolution spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD207561. During a survey programme to search for new roAp stars in the Northern hemisphere, Joshi et al. (2006) observed significant photometric variability on two consecutive nights in the year 2000. The amplitude spectra of the light curves obtained on these two nights showed oscillations with a frequency of 2.79 mHz [P~6-min]. However, subsequent follow-up observations could not confirm any rapid variability. In order to determine the spectroscopic nature of HD207561, high-resolution spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric observations were carried out. A reasonable fit of the calculated Hbeta line profile to the observed one yields the effective temperature (Teff) and surface gravity (log g) as 7300 K and 3.7 dex, respectively. The derived projected rotational velocity (vsin i) for HD207561 is 74 km/sec indicative of a relatively fast rotator. The position of HD207561 in the H-R diagram implies that this is s...

  16. Next Generation Surfactants for Improved Chemical Flooding Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura Wesson; Prapas Lohateeraparp; Jeffrey Harwell; Bor-Jier Shiau

    2012-05-31

    The principle objective of this project was to characterize and test current and next generation high performance surfactants for improved chemical flooding technology, focused on reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian-aged (Penn) sands. In order to meet this objective the characteristic curvatures (Cc) of twenty-eight anionic surfactants selected for evaluation for use in chemical flooding formulations were determined. The Cc values ranged from -6.90 to 2.55 with the majority having negative values. Crude oil samples from nine Penn sand reservoirs were analyzed for several properties pertinent to surfactant formulation for EOR application. These properties included equivalent alkane carbon numbers, total acid numbers, and viscosity. The brine samples from these same reservoirs were analyzed for several cations and for total dissolved solids. Surfactant formulations were successfully developed for eight reservoirs by the end of the project period. These formulations were comprised of a tertiary mixture of anionic surfactants. The identities of these surfactants are considered proprietary, but suffice to say the surfactants in each mixture were comprised of varying chemical structures. In addition to the successful development of surfactant formulations for EOR, there were also two successful single-well field tests conducted. There are many aspects that must be considered in the development and implementation of effective surfactant formulations. Taking into account these other aspects, there were four additional studies conducted during this project. These studies focused on the effect of the stability of surfactant formulations in the presence of polymers with an associated examination of polymer rheology, the effect of the presence of iron complexes in the brine on surfactant stability, the potential use of sacrificial agents in order to minimize the loss of surfactant to adsorption, and the effect of electrolytes on surfactant adsorption. In these last four studies

  17. Numerical simulation of pore-scale flow in chemical flooding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chemical flooding is one of the effective technologies to increase oil recovery of petroleum reservoirs after water flooding.Above the scale of representative elementary volume(REV), phenomenological modeling and numerical simulations of chemical flooding have been reported in literatures,but the studies alike are rarely conducted at the pore-scale,at which the effects of physicochemical hydrodynamics are hardly resolved either by experimental observations or by traditional continuum-based simulations.In...

  18. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD AND ANALYSIS FOR CHEMICAL-FLOODING SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Yirang

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the enhanced oil recovery numerical simulation of the chemical-flooding (such as surfactants, alcohol, polymers) composed of three-dimensional multicomponent, multiphase and incompressible mixed fluids. The mathematical model can be described as a coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equations with initialboundary value problems. From the actual conditions such as the effect of cross interference and the three-dimensional characteristic of large-scale science-engineering computation, this article puts forward a kind of characteristic finite element fractional step schemes and obtain the optimal order error estimates in L2 norm. Thus we have thoroughly solved the well-known theoretical problem proposed by a famous scientist, R. E. Ewing.

  19. Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods are common in the United States. Weather such as heavy rain, thunderstorms, hurricanes, or tsunamis can ... is breached, or when a dam breaks. Flash floods, which can develop quickly, often have a dangerous ...

  20. Spectroscopic Observation of Chemical Interaction Between Impact-induced Vapor Clouds and the Ambient Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, S.; Heineck, J. T.; Schultz, P. H.

    2000-01-01

    Chemical reactions within impact-induced vapor clouds were observed in laboratory experiments using a spectroscopic method. The results indicate that projectile-derived carbon-rich vapor reacts intensively with atmospheric nitrogen.

  1. Sacrificial adsorbate for surfactants utilized in chemical floods of enhanced oil recovery operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jr., James S.; Westmoreland, Clyde G.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sacrificial or competitive adsorbate for surfactants contained in chemical flooding emulsions for enhanced oil recovery operations. The adsorbate to be utilized in the method of the present invention is a caustic effluent from the bleach stage or the weak black liquor from the digesters and pulp washers of the kraft pulping process. This effluent or weak black liquor is injected into an oil-bearing subterranean earth formation prior to or concurrent with the chemical flood emulsion and is adsorbed on the active mineral surfaces of the formation matrix so as to effectively reduce adsorption of surfactant in the chemical flood. Alternatively, the effluent or liquor can be injected into the subterranean earth formation subsequent to a chemical flood to displace the surfactant from the mineral surfaces for the recovery thereof.

  2. Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... security and resilience of drinking water and wastewater infrastructure . Green infrastructure for climate resiliency . During flooding State and local ... or damaged and release their contents into the environment, causing soil, surface water, and groundwater contamination. Learn ...

  3. Anisotropic Chemical Reactor with Correlation Spectroscopic Control of Nanoparticles Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Lazarenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new kind of chemical reactor for nanoparticles synthesis with real-time control of size by correlation spectroscopy methods. The liquid pumping in the reactor is attained by a heater and / or cooler anisotropic placing in a reactor with a bath consisting of two communicating vessels connected by two tubes with transparent portion. When driving the fluid through the transparent area of the narrowed tube particle size is measured by a sensor or sensors. To increase the speed of cyclic movement and mixing of liquid the chemical rector can be supplemented with a mechanical stirrer also anisotropic in shape.

  4. Anisotropic Chemical Reactor with Correlation Spectroscopic Control of Nanoparticles Size

    OpenAIRE

    A.G. Lazarenko; A.N. Andreev; A.V. Kanaev; K. Chhor

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new kind of chemical reactor for nanoparticles synthesis with real-time control of size by correlation spectroscopy methods. The liquid pumping in the reactor is attained by a heater and / or cooler anisotropic placing in a reactor with a bath consisting of two communicating vessels connected by two tubes with transparent portion. When driving the fluid through the transparent area of the narrowed tube particle size is measured by a sensor or sensors. To increase the spe...

  5. Quantum chemical and spectroscopic investigations of 5-aminoquinoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Mohan, S.; Balamourougane, P. S.; Ravindran, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and FT-Raman spectra of 5-aminoquinoline (5AQ) have been recorded in the range 4000-400 and 3500-100 cm -1, respectively. The complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compounds were carried out using the observed FTIR and FT-Raman data. 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. UV-vis spectrum of the compound was recorded and the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The geometric parameters, chemical shifts and absorption wavelengths were compared with the experimental data of the molecule. The vibrational frequencies which were determined experimentally are compared with those obtained theoretically from ab initio HF and DFT-B3LYP gradient calculations employing the 6-31G** and 6-311++G** basis sets for optimized geometries of the compound. The interactions of NH-π and the influence of amino group on the skeletal modes are investigated.

  6. A Framework to Design and Optimize Chemical Flooding Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

    2006-08-31

    The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

  7. Moessbauer spectroscopic determination of chemical state of iron in bauxite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical state of iron contained in several kinds of bauxite, which are utilized as a raw material in the aluminum industry in Japan, were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The main compounds of iron were identified from the results, which showed variations of the Moessbauer absorption spectra with calcination and measuring temperature. Although the absorption intensities of the spectra differed significantly, major species identified were paramagnetic or superparamagnetic α-Fe2O3 in all of these bauxite samples. The superparamagnetic α-Fe2O3 was found mainly in the gibbsite-type bauxite, but not in the boehmite/gibbsite-type or the boehmite-type bauxite. The Moessbauer absorption spectra of red mud and its calcined products were also given. (author)

  8. Chemical flooding in a virtual environment - a survivor`s guide to VR development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethel, W.

    1994-03-01

    Building something which could be called {open_quotes}virtual reality{close_quotes} (VR) is something of a challenge, particularly when nobody really seems to agree on a definition of VR. The author wanted to combine scientific visualization with VR, resulting in an environment useful for assisting scientific research. He demonstrates the combination of VR and scientific visualization in a prototype application. The VR application constructed consists of a dataflow based system for performing scientific visualization (AVS), extensions to the system to support VR input devices and a numerical simulation ported into the dataflow environment. The VR system includes two inexpensive, off-the-shelf VR devices and some custom code. A working system was assembled with about two man-months of effort. The system allows the user to specify parameters for a chemical flooding simulation as well as some viewing parameters using VR input devices, as well as view the output using VR output devices. In chemical flooding, there is a subsurface region that contains chemicals which are to be removed. Secondary oil recovery and environmental remediation are typical applications of chemical flooding. The process assumes one or more injection wells, and one or more production wells. Chemicals or water are pumped into the ground, mobilizing and displacing hydrocarbons or contaminants. The placement of the production and injection wells, and other parameters of the wells, are the most important variables in the simulation.

  9. A non-chemical spectroscopic determination of atmospheric beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium in the atmosphere is determined by emission spectroscopy using a non-chemical method of analysis. Long term effects of beryllium poisoning result in respiratory and skin disease, and this is partly reflected by the low threshold limits (0.002 mg/m3). In comparison the threshhold values for lead and cadmium are 0.2 and 0.16 mg/m3 respectively. Air samples are collected at 2 litres/ minute using cellulose filters, and sampling time is dependent on the individual process being monitored, but can be as short as five minutes, eg. dental laboratories. The filters are initially divided in two parts, and one portion is carefully pelletised using a steel press. The pellet is placed in an electrode cup and 'wetted' using isopropanol and ethylene glycol. Wetting is necessary because the pellets tended to explode out of the arcing zone. Calibration graphs were produced using an internal cobalt standard, and the 234.8 nm, 313.0 nm emission lines were used. No spectral and inter-element effects were observed, and the minimum detection limit was one nanogram. Under normal working conditions a 25% precision was obtained. (author)

  10. Raman spectroscopic studies of chemical speciation in calcium chloride melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, Charles F.; Lavender, Curt A.

    2005-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy was applied to CaCl2 melts at 900 degrees C under both non-electrolyzed and electrolyzed conditions. The later used titania cathodes supplied by TIMET, Inc. and graphite anodes. Use of pulse-gating to collect the Raman spectra successfully eliminated any interference from black-body radiation and other stray light. The spectrum of molten CaCl2 exhibited no distinct, resolvable bands that could be correlated with a calcium chloride complex similar to MgCl42- in MgCl2 melts. Rather, the low frequency region of the spectrum was dominated by a broad “tail” arising from collective oscillations of both charge and mass in the molten salt “network.” Additions of both CaO and Ca at concentrations of a percent or two resulted in no new features in the spectra. Addition of CO2, both chemically and via electrolysis at concentrations dictated by stability and solubility at 900 degrees C and 1 bar pressure, also produced no new bands that could be correlated with either dissolved CO2 or the carbonate ion. These results indicated that Raman spectroscopy, at least under the conditions evaluated in the research, was not well suited for following the reactions and coordination chemistry of calcium ions, nor species such as dissolved metallic Ca and CO2 that are suspected to impact current efficiency in titanium electrolysis cells using molten CaCl2. Raman spectra of TIMET titania electrodes were successfully obtained as a function of temperature up to 900 degrees C, both in air and in-situ in CaCl2 melts. However, spectra of these electrodes could only be obtained when the material was in the unreduced state. When reduced, either with hydrogen or within an electrolysis cell, the resulting electrodes exhibited no measurable Raman bands under the conditions used in this work.

  11. Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of a vegetable oil used as dielectric coolant in distribution transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Neffer A.; Abonia, Rodrigo, E-mail: rodrigo.abonia@correounivalle.edu.co [Departamento de Quimica, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Cadavid, Hector [Grupo GRALTA, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Vargas, Ines H. [Area de Ingenieria de Distribucion, Empresas Publicas de Medellin (EPM), Medellin (Colombia)

    2011-09-15

    In this work, a complete UV-Vis, IR and (1H, 13C and DEPT) NMR spectroscopic analysis was performed for a FR3 vegetable oil sample used as dielectric coolant in an experimental distribution transformer. The same spectroscopic analysis was performed for three used FR3 oil samples (i.e., 4 months in use, 8 months in use and 7 years in use), removed from several operating distribution transformers. Comparison of the data indicated that no significant spectroscopic changes, and hence, no structural changes occurred to the oils by the use. Chemical transformations like catalytic hydrogenation (hardening) and hydrolysis were performed to the FR3 oil sample and the obtained products were analyzed by spectroscopic methods in order to collect further structural information about the FR3 oil. Accelerated aging tests in laboratory were also performed for three FR3 oil samples affording interesting information about the structure of the degradation products. These findings would be valuable to search for a spectroscopy-based technique for monitoring the lifetime and performance of this insulating vegetable oil. (author)

  12. Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of a vegetable oil used as dielectric coolant in distribution transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a complete UV-Vis, IR and (1H, 13C and DEPT) NMR spectroscopic analysis was performed for a FR3 vegetable oil sample used as dielectric coolant in an experimental distribution transformer. The same spectroscopic analysis was performed for three used FR3 oil samples (i.e., 4 months in use, 8 months in use and 7 years in use), removed from several operating distribution transformers. Comparison of the data indicated that no significant spectroscopic changes, and hence, no structural changes occurred to the oils by the use. Chemical transformations like catalytic hydrogenation (hardening) and hydrolysis were performed to the FR3 oil sample and the obtained products were analyzed by spectroscopic methods in order to collect further structural information about the FR3 oil. Accelerated aging tests in laboratory were also performed for three FR3 oil samples affording interesting information about the structure of the degradation products. These findings would be valuable to search for a spectroscopy-based technique for monitoring the lifetime and performance of this insulating vegetable oil. (author)

  13. Spectroscopic analyses of chemical adaptation processes within microalgal biomass in response to changing environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Microalgae transform large quantities of inorganics into biomass. • Microalgae interact with their growing environment and adapt their chemical composition. • Sequestration capabilities are dependent on cells’ chemical environments. • We develop a chemometric hard-modeling to describe these chemical adaptation dynamics. • This methodology will enable studies of microalgal compound sequestration. - Abstract: Via photosynthesis, marine phytoplankton transforms large quantities of inorganic compounds into biomass. This has considerable environmental impacts as microalgae contribute for instance to counter-balancing anthropogenic releases of the greenhouse gas CO2. On the other hand, high concentrations of nitrogen compounds in an ecosystem can lead to harmful algae blooms. In previous investigations it was found that the chemical composition of microalgal biomass is strongly dependent on the nutrient availability. Therefore, it is expected that algae’s sequestration capabilities and productivity are also determined by the cells’ chemical environments. For investigating this hypothesis, novel analytical methodologies are required which are capable of monitoring live cells exposed to chemically shifting environments followed by chemometric modeling of their chemical adaptation dynamics. FTIR-ATR experiments have been developed for acquiring spectroscopic time series of live Dunaliella parva cultures adapting to different nutrient situations. Comparing experimental data from acclimated cultures to those exposed to a chemically shifted nutrient situation reveals insights in which analyte groups participate in modifications of microalgal biomass and on what time scales. For a chemometric description of these processes, a data model has been deduced which explains the chemical adaptation dynamics explicitly rather than empirically. First results show that this approach is feasible and derives information about the chemical biomass adaptations

  14. Spectroscopic analyses of chemical adaptation processes within microalgal biomass in response to changing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Frank, E-mail: fvogt@utk.edu; White, Lauren

    2015-03-31

    Highlights: • Microalgae transform large quantities of inorganics into biomass. • Microalgae interact with their growing environment and adapt their chemical composition. • Sequestration capabilities are dependent on cells’ chemical environments. • We develop a chemometric hard-modeling to describe these chemical adaptation dynamics. • This methodology will enable studies of microalgal compound sequestration. - Abstract: Via photosynthesis, marine phytoplankton transforms large quantities of inorganic compounds into biomass. This has considerable environmental impacts as microalgae contribute for instance to counter-balancing anthropogenic releases of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2}. On the other hand, high concentrations of nitrogen compounds in an ecosystem can lead to harmful algae blooms. In previous investigations it was found that the chemical composition of microalgal biomass is strongly dependent on the nutrient availability. Therefore, it is expected that algae’s sequestration capabilities and productivity are also determined by the cells’ chemical environments. For investigating this hypothesis, novel analytical methodologies are required which are capable of monitoring live cells exposed to chemically shifting environments followed by chemometric modeling of their chemical adaptation dynamics. FTIR-ATR experiments have been developed for acquiring spectroscopic time series of live Dunaliella parva cultures adapting to different nutrient situations. Comparing experimental data from acclimated cultures to those exposed to a chemically shifted nutrient situation reveals insights in which analyte groups participate in modifications of microalgal biomass and on what time scales. For a chemometric description of these processes, a data model has been deduced which explains the chemical adaptation dynamics explicitly rather than empirically. First results show that this approach is feasible and derives information about the chemical biomass

  15. Infrared spectroscopic imaging detects chemical modifications in liver fibrosis due to diabetes and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedhar, Hari; Varma, Vishal K.; Gambacorta, Francesca V.; Guzman, Grace; Walsh, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of stroma as a rich diagnostic region in tissue biopsies is growing as there is an increasing understanding that disease processes in multiple organs can affect the composition of adjacent connective tissue regions. This may be especially true in the liver, since this organ’s central metabolic role exposes it to multiple disease processes. We use quantum cascade laser infrared spectroscopic imaging to study changes in the chemical status of hepatocytes and fibrotic regions of liver tissue that result from the progression of liver cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma and the potentially confounding effects of diabetes mellitus. PMID:27375956

  16. Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of a suite of Mars soil analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has begun preparations for the flight of the Mars Observer Mission in the early 1990s. An advanced ground-based study is being conducted on a usefully limited suite of Mars Soil Analog Materials (MarSAM) intended to simulate the aeolian material covering the surface of Mars. A series of variably proportioned iron/calcium smectite clays were prepared from a typical montmorillonite clay using the Banin method. The effect of increasing iron on a diverse set of chemical and spectroscopic properties of the suite of clays is discussed. In order to chemically characterize the MarSAM and compare them with the Martian soil studied by Viking, the clays were analyzed for their major and minor elemental compositions by X-ray fluorescence and ion-coupled plasma techniques. It was concluded that the surface iron has a complex and hitherto uninvestigated impact on the catalytic and spectroscopic properties of clays and on the ability of these material to store energy

  17. Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of a suite of Mars soil analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, L. M.; Banin, A.; Orenberg, J. B.; Carle, G. C.; Chang, S.; Scattergood, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has begun preparations for the flight of the Mars Observer Mission in the early 1990s. An advanced ground-based study is being conducted on a usefully limited suite of Mars Soil Analog Materials (MarSAM) intended to simulate the aeolian material covering the surface of Mars. A series of variably proportioned iron/calcium smectite clays were prepared from a typical montmorillonite clay using the Banin method. The effect of increasing iron on a diverse set of chemical and spectroscopic properties of the suite of clays is discussed. In order to chemically characterize the MarSAM and compare them with the Martian soil studied by Viking, the clays were analyzed for their major and minor elemental compositions by X-ray fluorescence and ion-coupled plasma techniques. It was concluded that the surface iron has a complex and hitherto uninvestigated impact on the catalytic and spectroscopic properties of clays and on the ability of these material to store energy.

  18. Ultra-Trace Chemical Sensing with Long-Wave Infrared Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopic Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Myers, Tanya L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Williams, Richard M.; Schultz, John F.

    2003-02-20

    The infrared sensors task of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) Remote Spectroscopy Project (Task B of Project PL211) is focused on the science and technology of remote and in-situ spectroscopic chemical sensors for detecting proliferation and coun-tering terrorism. Missions to be addressed by remote chemical sensor development in-clude detecting proliferation of nuclear or chemical weapons, and providing warning of terrorist use of chemical weapons. Missions to be addressed by in-situ chemical sensor development include countering terrorism by screening luggage, personnel, and shipping containers for explosives, firearms, narcotics, chemical weapons, or chemical weapons residues, and mapping contaminated areas. The science and technology is also relevant to chemical weapons defense, air operations support, monitoring emissions from chemi-cal weapons destruction or industrial activities, law enforcement, medical diagnostics, and other applications. Sensors for most of these missions will require extreme chemical sensitivity and selectiv-ity because the signature chemicals of importance are expected to be present in low con-centrations or have low vapor pressures, and the ambient air is likely to contain pollutants or other chemicals with interfering spectra. Cavity-enhanced chemical sensors (CES) that draw air samples into optical cavities for laser-based interrogation of their chemical content promise real-time, in-situ chemical detection with extreme sensitivity to specified target molecules and superb immunity to spectral interference and other sources of noise. PNNL is developing CES based on quantum cascade (QC) lasers that operate in the mid-wave infrared (MWIR - 3 to 5 microns) and long-wave infrared (LWIR - 8 to 14 mi-crons), and CES based on telecommunications lasers operating in the short-wave infrared (SWIR - 1 to 2 microns). All three spectral regions are promising because smaller mo-lecular absorption cross sections in the SWIR

  19. Dissipative particle dynamics simulation of wettability alternation phenomena in the chemical flooding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaobo Li; Yuewu Liu; Jianfei Tang; Shujiao Li

    2009-01-01

    Wettability alternation phenomena is considered one of the most important enhanced oil recovery (EOR) mechanisms in the chemical flooding process and induced by the adsorption of surfactant on the rock surface. These phenomena are studied by a mesoscopic method named as dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). Both the alteration phenomena of water-wet to oil-wet and that of oil-wet to waterwet are simulated based on reasonable definition of interaction parameters between beads. The wetting hysteresis phenomenon and the process of oil-drops detachment from rock surfaces with different wettability are simulated by adding long-range external forces on the fluid particles. The simulation results show that, the oil drop is liable to spread on the oil-wetting surface and move in the form of liquid film flow, whereas it is likely to move as a whole on the waterwetting surface. There are the same phenomena occuring in wettability-alternated cases. The results also show that DPD method provides a feasible approach to the problems of seepage flow with physicochemical phenomena and can be used to study the mechanism of EOR of chemical flooding.

  20. Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis and Raman Spectroscopic Characterization of Large-Area Graphene Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chun-Da; Lu, Yi-Ying; Tamalampudi, Srinivasa Reddy; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Chen, Yit-Tsong

    2013-10-01

    We present a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method to catalytically synthesize large-area, transferless, single- to few-layer graphene sheets using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) on a SiO2/Si substrate as a carbon source and thermally evaporated alternating Ni/Cu/Ni layers as a catalyst. The as-synthesized graphene films were characterized by Raman spectroscopic imaging to identify single- to few-layer sheets. This HMDS-derived graphene layer is continuous over the entire growth substrate, and single- to trilayer mixed sheets can be up to 30 -m in the lateral dimension. With the synthetic CVD method proposed here, graphene can be grown into tailored shapes directly on a SiO2/Si surface through vapor priming of HMDS onto predefined photolithographic patterns. The transparent and conductive HMDS-derived graphene exhibits its potential for widespread electronic and opto-electronic applications.

  1. A Filter-based Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopic Assay for Rapid Detection of Chemical Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Siyue; Glasser, Jessica; He, Lili

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a method to fabricate highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) substrates using a filter syringe system that can be applied to the detection of various chemical contaminants. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are synthesized via reduction of silver nitrate by sodium citrate. Then the NPs are aggregated by sodium chloride to form nanoclusters that could be trapped in the pores of the filter membrane. A syringe is connected to the filter holder, with a filter membrane inside. By loading the nanoclusters into the syringe and passing through the membrane, the liquid goes through the membrane but not the nanoclusters, forming a SERS-active membrane. When testing the analyte, the liquid sample is loaded into the syringe and flowed through the Ag NPs coated membrane. The analyte binds and concentrates on the Ag NPs coated membrane. Then the membrane is detached from the filter holder, air dried and measured by a Raman instrument. Here we present the study of the volume effect of Ag NPs and sample on the detection sensitivity as well as the detection of 10 ppb ferbam and 1 ppm ampicillin using the developed assay. PMID:26966831

  2. Molecular structure and spectroscopic characterization of Carbamazepine with experimental techniques and DFT quantum chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhasini, M; Sailatha, E; Gunasekaran, S; Ramkumaar, G R

    2015-04-15

    A systematic vibrational spectroscopic assignment and analysis of Carbamazepine has been carried out by using FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV spectral data. The vibrational analysis were aided by electronic structure calculations - ab initio (RHF) and hybrid density functional methods (B3LYP) performed with standard basis set 6-31G(d,p). Molecular equilibrium geometries, electronic energies, natural bond order analysis, harmonic vibrational frequencies and IR intensities have been computed. A detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra of the molecule has been made on the basis of the calculated Potential Energy Distribution (PED) by VEDA program. UV-visible spectrum of the compound was also recorded and the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies and λmax were determined by HF/6-311++G(d,p) Time-Dependent method. The thermodynamic functions of the title molecule were also performed using the RHF and DFT methods. The restricted Hartree-Fock and density functional theory-based nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) calculation procedure was also performed, and it was used for assigning the (13)C and (1)H NMR chemical shifts of Carbamazepine. PMID:25682215

  3. Micro-Spectroscopic Chemical Imaging of Individual Identified Marine Biogenic and Ambient Organic Ice Nuclei (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopf, D. A.; Alpert, P. A.; Wang, B.; OBrien, R. E.; Moffet, R. C.; Aller, J. Y.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric ice formation represents one of the least understood atmospheric processes with important implications for the hydrological cycle and climate. Current freezing descriptions assume that ice active sites on the particle surface initiate ice nucleation, however, the nature of these sites remains elusive. Here, we present a new experimental method that allows us to relate physical and chemical properties of individual particles with observed water uptake and ice nucleation ability using a combination of micro-spectroscopic and optical single particle analytical techniques. We apply this method to field-collected particles and particles generated via bursting of bubbles produced by glass frit aeration and plunging water impingement jets in a mesocosm containing artificial sea water and bacteria and/or phytoplankton. The most efficient ice nuclei (IN) within a particle population are identified and characterized. Single particle characterization is achieved by computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. A vapor controlled cooling-stage coupled to an optical microscope is used to determine the onsets of water uptake, immersion freezing, and deposition ice nucleation of the individual particles as a function of temperature (T) as low as 200 K and relative humidity (RH) up to water saturation. In addition, we perform CCSEM/EDX to obtain on a single particle level the elemental composition of the entire particle population. Thus, we can determine if the IN are exceptional in nature or belong to a major particle type class with respect to composition and size. We find that ambient and sea spray particles are coated by organic material and can induce ice formation under tropospheric relevant conditions. Micro-spectroscopic single particle analysis of the investigated particle samples invokes a potential

  4. Chemical Characterization of Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter Using a Combination of Spectroscopic and Pyrolytic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templier, J.; Derenne, S.

    2006-12-01

    It is now well established that riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM) play a major role in environmental processes. However natural organic matter exhibit different properties depending on their sources and the fractions considered. As a result chemical characterization of DOM has appeared essential for a better understanding of their reactivity. The purpose of this work was to characterize all of the DOM at molecular level, including the non-hydrolysable fraction, which is a major part of this OM. To this aim a new analytical approach had to be considered. A combination of spectroscopic and pyrolytic methods has been applied to various fractions of DOM originating from different catchments (French and Amazonian rivers). The fractions were termed hydrophilic, transphilic and colloids according to the IHSS fractionation procedure, and account for at least 70% of the total dissolved organic carbon. Solid state 13C NMR and FTIR afford information on the nature and relative abundance of the chemical functions occurring in macromolecules. Differential thermogravimetric analysis allows to determine the thermal behaviour of the studied material and hence to optimize analytical pyrolysis conditions. Curie point pyrolysis combined to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry leads to identification of characteristic pyrolysis products, some of them being specific of a macromolecular source. Additional information can be provided by thermochemolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). TMAH was shown to allow an increase in the efficiency of the cracking of macromolecular structures and an enhancement of the detection of the polar pyrolysis products especially due to methylation of the alcohol, phenol and acid groups. The results obtained have established the importance of terrestrial contribution to DOM. Hydrophobic fractions mainly originate from lignin-derived units, whereas transphilic fractions mostly contain cellulose units together with lignin derived ones and

  5. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical study of the structure of a new paramagnetic dimeric palladium(II,III) complex with creatine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitewa, Mariana; Enchev, Venelin; Bakalova, Tatyana

    2002-05-01

    The structure and coordination mode of the newly synthesized dimeric paramagnetic Pd(II,III) complex are studied using magneto-chemical, EPR and IR spectroscopic methods. In order to perform reliable assignment of the IR bands, the structure and IR spectrum of the free creatine were calculated using ab initio method. For calculation of the configuration of its deprotonated and doubly deprotonated forms the semiempirical AM1 method was used.

  6. Floods and Flash Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods and flash flooding Now is the time to determine your area’s flood risk. If you are not sure whether you ... If you are in a floodplain, consider buying flood insurance. Do not drive around barricades. If your ...

  7. Challenge toward breakage of RLS trade-off for EUV lithography by Photosensitized Chemically Amplified Resist (PSCAR) with flood exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Seiji; Carcasi, Michael; Nakagawa, Hisashi; Buitrago, Elizabeth; Yildirim, Oktay; Shiraishi, Gosuke; Terashita, Yuichi; Minekawa, Yukie; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Tomono, Masaru; Mizoguchi, Hironori; Estrella, Joel; Nagai, Tomoki; Naruoka, Takehiko; Dei, Satoshi; Hori, Masafumi; Oshima, Akihiro; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Ekinci, Yasin; Meeuwissen, Marieke; Verspaget, Coen; Hoefnagels, Rik; Rispens, Gijsbert; Maas, Raymond; Nakashima, Hideo; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a promising approach to break the resolution (R), line-edge-roughness (LER), and sensitivity (S) trade-off (RLS trade-off) relationships that limit the ultimate lithographic performance of standard chemically amplified resists (CAR). This is accomplished in a process that uses a Photosensitized Chemically Amplified Resist (PSCAR) in combination with a flood-exposure in an in-line track connected to a pattern exposure tool. PSCAR is a modified CAR which contains a photosensitizer precursor (PP) in addition to other standard CAR components such as a protected polymer, a photo acid generator (PAG) and a quencher. In this paper, the PSCAR concept and the required conditions in resist formulation are carefully explained. In the PSCAR process, the sensitivity improvement is accomplished by PAG decomposition to selectively generate more acid at the pattern exposed areas during the flood exposure. The selective photosensitization happens through the excitation of the photosensitizer (PS) generated by the deprotection of the PP at the pattern exposed areas. A higher resist chemical gradient which leads to an improved resolution and lower LER values is also predicted using the PSCAR simulator. In the PSCAR process, the improved chemical gradient can be realized by dual acid quenching steps with the help of increased quencher concentration. Acid quenching first happens simultaneously with acid catalytic PP to PS reactions. As a result, a sharpened PS latent image is created in the PSCAR. This image is subsequently excited by the flood exposure creating additional acid products at the pattern exposed areas only. Much the same as in the standard CAR system, unnecessary acid present in the non-pattern exposed areas can be neutralized by the remaining quencher to therefore produce sharper acid latent images. EUV exposure results down to 15 nm half pitch (HP) line/space (L/S) patterns using a PSCAR resist indicate that the use of PSCAR has the potential to

  8. CD-ROM Spectroscope: A Simple and Inexpensive Tool for Classroom Demonstrations on Chemical Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Fumitaka; Hamada, Kiyohito; Sone, Kozo

    1998-01-01

    Describes the construction and use of a spectroscope using a compact disk as a reflection grating. Lists instructions for viewing emission spectra of white or fluorescent light sources or discharge tubes, and absorption spectra of colored solutions. Includes modified directions and expanded activities. Contains 16 references. (WRM)

  9. CD-ROM Spectroscope: A Simple and Inexpensive Tool for Classroom Demonstrations on Chemical Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Fumitaka; Hamada, Kiyohito; Sone, Kozo

    1998-12-01

    Construction of a handy spectroscope using a compact disk (CD) or a CD-ROM and its application to the observation of emission and absorption spectra are described. Using this simple cardboard-made spectroscope, one can readily observe line emission spectra of fluorescent lamps, gas discharge tubes, etc. The spectroscope is also used to observe the absorption spectra of colored solutions; the absorption bands are observed as distinct black bands on the rainbow-colored continuous spectrum of an incandescent lamp. The results for the aqueous solution of potassium permanganate, the methanol and ethanol solutions of cobalt chloride, and Fe(III)-thiocyanate complex are described. These results clearly show the general rule that a colored solution absorbs the complementary color of the color of the solution. Thus, the CD-ROM spectroscope is a useful tool in primary and secondary schools to teach what color is and what spectra are. Furthermore, it can be used effectively in introductory courses in colleges and universities to teach that spectra are really beautiful natural phenomena which can be observed simply.

  10. The effect of the 2011 flood on agricultural chemical and sediment movement in the lower Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, H.; Coupe, R.; Aulenbach, B.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme hydrologic events, such as floods, can overwhelm a surface water system's ability to process chemicals and can move large amounts of material downstream to larger surface water bodies. The Mississippi River is the 3rd largest River in the world behind the Amazon in South America and the Congo in Africa. The Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin grows much of the country's corn, soybean, rice, cotton, pigs, and chickens. This is large-scale modern day agriculture with large inputs of nutrients to increase yields and large applied amounts of crop protection chemicals, such as pesticides. The basin drains approximately 41% of the conterminous United States and is the largest contributor of nutrients to the Gulf of Mexico each spring. The amount of water and nutrients discharged from the Mississippi River has been related to the size of the low dissolved oxygen area that forms off of the coast of Louisiana and Texas each summer. From March through April 2011, the upper Mississippi River basin received more than five times more precipitation than normal, which combined with snow melt from the Missouri River basin, created a historic flood event that lasted from April through July. The U.S. Geological Survey, as part of the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN), collected samples from six sites located in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin, as well as, samples from the three flow-diversion structures or floodways: the Birds Point-New Madrid in Missouri and the Morganza and Bonnet Carré in Louisiana, from April through July. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediments, and particle size; results were used to determine the water quality of the river during the 2011 flood. Monthly loads for nitrate, phosphorus, pesticides (atrazine, glyphosate, fluometuron, and metolachlor), and sediment were calculated to quantify the movement of agricultural chemicals and sediment into the Gulf of Mexico. Nutrient loads were

  11. Correlated analysis of chemical variations with spectroscopic features of the K-Na jarosite solid solutions relevant to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zongcheng; Cao, Fengke; Ni, Yuheng; Wu, Zhongchen; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Detailed chemical, structural and spectroscopic properties of jarosite solid solution minerals are key information for their potential discoveries by future remote sensing and in-situ detections on Mars. We successfully synthesized seven homogeneous K-Na jarosite solid solutions under hydrothermal conditions at 140 °C, whose phase identifications and chemical compositions are confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The chemical ratios of K/(K+Na) in jarosite solid solutions lead to systematic shifts of their characteristic Raman peaks ν1 (SO4)2- (from 1006 to 1011.3 cm-1), ν3 (SO4)2- (from 1100.6 to 1111.2 cm-1), ν2 (SO4)2- (from 434.2 to 444.8 cm-1) with the increase of Na content. While the OH stretching mode decreases with even larger peak position variations (e.g., ∼3410 cm-1 peak shifts from 3410.5 to 3385.7 cm-1) as the K-Na jarosite solid solutions are enriched in Na content. Raman spectroscopic measurements of the seven K-Na jarosite solid solutions enabled us to build a calibration that uses Raman peak positions to estimate K-Na variation in jarosite, which is the key step for their possible applications in the future Raman applications on Mars' missions (e.g., ExoMars and Mars 2020 missions). The band assignments and compositional related variations of their XRD, near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectra also provide informative clues for identifying the jarosite minerals and inferring their composition during martian in-situ and remote sensing measurements.

  12. Phytochemical, Physico-chemical & Spectroscopic Characteristics of Ethanolic Extract of Leaf, Stem and Flower bud of Hibiscus hispidissimus Griffith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamizh Selvam N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The plant Hibiscus hispidissimus belongs to the family Malvaceae (Mallow family. The plant has wide range of medicinal uses. Considering the ethno medicinal value of Hibiscus hispidissimus, the present work has been taken up to document the physico-chemical composition, phytochemical details and spectrophotometric characteristics of the plant. The work has been carried out on ethanolic extract of leaf, stem and flower bud of H. hispidissimus. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of saponis, tannins, glycosides, diterpenes and quinones. Spectroscopic characteristics were analyzed and found to have wide range of compounds including steroids, alkaloids, pigments like chlorophyll a and b, phenolic compounds mainly gallic acid, flavanoids like anthocyanins, flavanols, flvanones and isoflavones.

  13. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical analysis of a natural product - Hayatin hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rashmi; Srivastava, Anubha; Tandon, Poonam; Jain, Sudha

    2015-08-01

    Majority of drugs in use today are natural products, natural product mimics or semi synthetic derivatives. Therefore in recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world and large body of evidence has been collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. Therefore, in the present communication to aid that research, structural and spectroscopic analysis of a natural product, an alkaloid Hayatin hydrochloride was performed. Both ab initio Hartree-Fock and density functional theory employing B3LYP with complete relaxation in the potential energy surface using 6-311G (d,p) basis set were used for the calculations. The vibrational frequencies were calculated and scaled values were compared with experimental FT-IR and micro-Raman spectra. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of potential energy distribution. The structure-activity relationship has also been interpreted by mapping electrostatic potential surface, which are valuable information for the quality control of medicines and drug-receptor interactions. Electronic properties have been analysed employing TD-DFT for both gaseous and solvent phase. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis.

  14. Process Analytical Technology and On-Line Spectroscopic Measurements of Chemical Meat Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Klavs Martin

    This thesis deals with process analytical technology and how it can be implemented in the meat industry through on-line grading of chemical meat quality. The focus will be on two applications, namely the rapid quality control of fat quality and the development of a method for on-line detection of...... boar taint. The chemical makeup of fat has a large effect on meat cut quality. Fat quality has traditionally been determined by methylation of a tissue sample followed by chromatography on a GC-MS system, elucidating the composition of the individual fatty acids. As this procedure typically takes far...... surgical castration will be in effect starting 2018. With the ban, the risk of meat products with the malodorous taint reaching the consumer is highly increased, and thus, detection of boar taint is a necessity. No current on-line detection system is available; the only alternative is chemical extraction...

  15. Spectroscopic characterization of the chemical composition of the potent sweetener Vartamil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosova, T. E.; Prokhodchenko, L. K.; Pilipenko, V. V.; Suboch, V. P.

    2008-03-01

    The chemical composition of the potent sweetener Vartamil was characterized using spectral methods. It was demonstrated that Vartamil is a mixture of saccharose chloro derivatives, the main one of which is 4,1',6'-trichloro-4,1',6'-trideoxygalactosaccharose (Sucralose).

  16. Comparison of some spectroscopic and physico-chemical properties of humic acids extracted from sewage sludge and bottom sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, J.; Bartoszek, M.; Sułkowski, W. W.

    2009-04-01

    Comparison of the physico-chemical properties was carried out for humic acids extracted from sewage sludge and bottom sediments. The isolated humic acids were investigated by means of EPR, IR, UV/vis spectroscopic methods and elementary analysis AE. On the basis of earlier studies it was stated that humic acids extracted from sewage sludge can be divided into humic acids extracted from raw sewage sludge and from sewage sludge after the digestion process. The digestion process was found to have the most significant effect on the physico-chemical properties of humic acids extracted from sludge during sewage treatment. Humic acids extracted from sewage sludge had higher free radical concentration than humic acid extracted from bottom sediments. Values of the g-factor were similar for all studied samples. However, it is noteworthy that g-factor values for humic acid extracted from raw sewage sludge and from bottom sediments were lower in comparison to the humic acid extracted from sewage sludge after the fermentation processes. The IR spectra of all studied humic acids confirmed the presence of functional groups characteristic for humic substances. It was also observed that humic acids extracted from bottom sediments had a more aromatic character and contained less carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen than those extracted from the sewage sludge.

  17. Polychloride monoanions from [Cl3]- to [Cl9]- : a Raman spectroscopic and quantum chemical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Robin; Haller, Heike; Ellwanger, Mathias; Riedel, Sebastian

    2012-04-27

    Polychloride monoanions stabilized by quaternary ammonium salts are investigated using Raman spectroscopy and state-of-the-art quantum-chemical calculations. A regular V-shaped pentachloride is characterized for the [N(Me)(4)][Cl(5)] salt, whereas a hockey-stick-like structure is tentatively assigned for [N(Et)(4)][Cl(2)⋅⋅⋅Cl(3)(-)]. Increasing the size of the cation to the quaternary ammonium salts [NPr(4)](+) and [NBu(4)](+) leads to the formation of the [Cl(3)](-) anion. The latter is found to be a pale yellow liquid at about 40 °C, whereas all the other compounds exist as powders. Further to these observations, the novel [Cl(9)](-) anion is characterized by low-temperature Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with quantum-chemical calculations. PMID:22461376

  18. Determination of Chemical Compositions on Adult Kidney Stones—A Spectroscopic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, K.; Rakkappan, C.

    2008-11-01

    The chemical compositions of the kidney stones of both the sexes of patients, aged from 40 to 70, living in and around Chidambaram town are determined by using FT-IR and X-RD technique. The kidney stone samples used in the present study were procured from the Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University. The FT-IR spectra of different kidney stone samples were recorded in the range of 4000-400 cm-1. By identifying the characteristic frequency, the chemical compositions of the samples are determined. The results analyzed by FTIR technique were confirmed by X-RD method, in which the recorded X-ray diffractogram are compared with JCPDS files using search match method. Further analysis of XRD pattern also reveals the same.

  19. Automated high-throughput assessment of prostate biopsy tissue using infrared spectroscopic chemical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassan, Paul; Sachdeva, Ashwin; Shanks, Jonathan H.; Brown, Mick D.; Clarke, Noel W.; Gardner, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) chemical imaging has been demonstrated as a promising technique to complement histopathological assessment of biomedical tissue samples. Current histopathology practice involves preparing thin tissue sections and staining them using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) after which a histopathologist manually assess the tissue architecture under a visible microscope. Studies have shown that there is disagreement between operators viewing the same tissue suggesting that a complementary technique for verification could improve the robustness of the evaluation, and improve patient care. FT-IR chemical imaging allows the spatial distribution of chemistry to be rapidly imaged at a high (diffraction-limited) spatial resolution where each pixel represents an area of 5.5 × 5.5 μm2 and contains a full infrared spectrum providing a chemical fingerprint which studies have shown contains the diagnostic potential to discriminate between different cell-types, and even the benign or malignant state of prostatic epithelial cells. We report a label-free (i.e. no chemical de-waxing, or staining) method of imaging large pieces of prostate tissue (typically 1 cm × 2 cm) in tens of minutes (at a rate of 0.704 × 0.704 mm2 every 14.5 s) yielding images containing millions of spectra. Due to refractive index matching between sample and surrounding paraffin, minimal signal processing is required to recover spectra with their natural profile as opposed to harsh baseline correction methods, paving the way for future quantitative analysis of biochemical signatures. The quality of the spectral information is demonstrated by building and testing an automated cell-type classifier based upon spectral features.

  20. Structure activity studies of an analgesic drug tapentadol hydrochloride by spectroscopic and quantum chemical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Santhanam, R.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.; Yang, Haifeng

    2015-11-01

    Tapentadol is a novel opioid pain reliever drug with a dual mechanism of action, having potency between morphine and tramadol. Quantum chemical calculations have been carried out for tapentadol hydrochloride (TAP.Cl) to determine the properties. The geometry is optimised and the structural properties of the compound were determined from the optimised geometry by B3LYP method using 6-311++G(d,p), 6-31G(d,p) and cc-pVDZ basis sets. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra are recorded in the solid phase in the region of 4000-400 and 4000-100 cm-1, respectively. Frontier molecular orbital energies, LUMO-HOMO energy gap, ionisation potential, electron affinity, electronegativity, hardness and chemical potential are also calculated. The stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalisation has been analysed using NBO analysis. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of the molecule are analysed.

  1. Flooding, flood sources and flood defences

    OpenAIRE

    Blanksby, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    The EU Flood Directive defines “flood” as the temporary covering by water of land not normally covered by water. This shall include floods from rivers, mountain torrents, Mediterranean ephemeral water courses, and floods from the sea in coastal areas, and may exclude floods from sewerage systems. The exclusion of floods from sewerage systems is concerned with operational or managerial failures, often in dry weather, but sewer flooding caused by rainfall is not excluded. “Flood risk” is define...

  2. BEHAVIOR OF SURFACTANT MIXTURES AT SOLID/LIQUID AND OIL/LIQUID INTERFACES IN CHEMICAL FLOODING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Somasundaran

    2004-11-20

    The aim of the project is to develop a knowledge base to help the design of enhanced processes for mobilizing and extracting untrapped oil. We emphasize evaluation of novel surfactant mixtures and obtaining optimum combinations of the surfactants for efficient chemical flooding EOR processes. In this regard, an understanding of the aggregate shape, size and structure is crucial since these properties govern the crude oil removal efficiency. During the three-year period, the adsorption and aggregation behavior of sugar-based surfactants and their mixtures with other types of surfactants have been studied. Sugar-based surfactants are made from renewable resources, nontoxic and biodegradable. They are miscible with water and oil. These environmentally benign surfactants feature high surface activity, good salinity, calcium and temperature tolerance, and unique adsorption behavior. They possess the characteristics required for oil flooding surfactants and have the potential for replacing currently used surfactants in oil recovery. A novel analytical ultracentrifugation technique has been successfully employed for the first time, to characterize the aggregate species present in mixed micellar solution due to its powerful ability to separate particles based on their size and shape and monitor them simultaneously. Analytical ultracentrifugation offers an unprecedented opportunity to obtain important information on mixed micelles, structure-performance relationship for different surfactant aggregates in solution and their role in interfacial processes. Initial sedimentation velocity investigations were conducted using nonyl phenol ethoxylated decyl ether (NP-10) to choose the best analytical protocol, calculate the partial specific volume and obtain information on sedimentation coefficient, aggregation mass of micelles. Four softwares: OptimaTM XL-A/XL-I data analysis software, DCDT+, Svedberg and SEDFIT, were compared for the analysis of sedimentation velocity

  3. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic study of crude petroleum oils: influence of chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Alan G

    2004-05-01

    The fluorescence of crude petroleum oils is sensitive to changes in chemical composition and many different fluorescence methods have been used to characterize crude oils. The use of fluorescence lifetimes to quantitatively characterize oil composition has practical advantages over steady-state measurements, but there have been comparatively few studies in which the lifetime behavior is correlated with gross chemical compositional data. In this study, the fluorescence lifetimes for a series of 23 crude petroleum oils with American Petroleum Institute (API) gravities of between 10 and 50 were measured at several emission wavelengths (450-785 nm) using a 380 nm light emitting diode (LED) excitation source. It was found that the intensity average fluorescence lifetime (tau) at any emission wave-length does not correlate well with either API gravity or aromatic concentration. However, it was found that tau is strongly negatively correlated with both the polar and sulfur concentrations and positively correlated with the corrected alkane concentration. This indicates that the fluorescence behavior of crude petroleum oils is governed primarily by the concentration of quenching species. All the strong lifetime-concentration correlations are nonlinear and show a high degree of scatter, especially for medium to light oils with API gravities of between 25 and 40. The degree of scatter is greatest for oils where the concentrations (wt %) of the polar fraction is approximately 10 +/- 4%, the asphaltene component is approximately 1 +/- 0.5%, and sulfur is 0.5 +/- 0.4%. This large degree of scatter precludes the use of average fluorescence lifetime data obtained with 380 nm excitation for the accurate prediction of the common chemical compositional parameters of crude petroleum oils. PMID:15165340

  4. Aggregation of deuterodichlormethane molecules with benzene molecules. Quantum-chemical calculations and spectroscopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C-D vibration band of deuterodichlormethane CD2Cl2 at its low concentration in benzene is slitted into components with frequency 2198 and 2193 cm-1 that is related to formation of weak benzene+deuterodichlormethane complexes. Quantum-chemical calculations confirm a formation of deuterodichlormethane+benzene dimer with participation of benzene's π -electron. Steric factors lead to a difference in orientation of one of deuterium atoms from the central orientation with respect to benzene ring. According to calculations the energy of deuterodichlormethane+benzene dimer is 1.2 kcal/mole. (author)

  5. Quantum chemical computations, vibrational spectroscopic analysis and antimicrobial studies of 2,3-Pyrazinedicarboxylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaula, T Joselin; Packiavathi, A; Manimaran, D; Joe, I Hubert; Rastogi, V K; Jothy, V Bena

    2015-03-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations at B3PW91 level with 6-311G (d) basis sets were carried out for 2,3-Pyrazinedicarboxylic acid (PDCA) to analyze in detail the equilibrium geometries and vibrational spectra. Calculations reveal that the optimized geometry closely resembles the experimental XRD data. Vibrational spectra were analyzed on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED) of each vibrational mode, which provides quantitative as well as qualitative interpretation of IR and Raman spectra. Information about size, shape, charge density distribution and site of chemical reactivity of the molecule were obtained by mapping electron density isosurface with the electrostatic potential surface (ESP). Based on optimized ground state geometries, NBO analysis was performed to study donor-acceptor (bond-antibond) interactions. TD-DFT analysis was also performed to calculate energies, oscillator strength of electronic singlet-singlet transitions and the absorption wavelengths. The (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule in the ground state were calculated by gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with the experimental values. PDCA was screened for its antimicrobial activity and found to exhibit antifungal and antibacterial effects. Molecular docking was also performed for the different receptors. PMID:25544188

  6. Chemical Bonding in Aqueous Ferrocyanide: Experimental and Theoretical X-ray Spectroscopic Study

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Nicholas; Suljoti, Edlira; Garcia-Diez, Raul; Lange, Kathrin M; Atak, Kaan; Golnak, Ronny; Kothe, Alexander; Dantz, Marcus; Kühn, Oliver; Aziz, Emad F

    2013-01-01

    Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and X-ray absorption (XA) experiments at the iron L- and nitrogen K-edge are combined with high-level first principles restricted active space self-consistent field (RASSCF) calculations for a systematic investigation of the nature of the chemical bond in potassium ferrocyanide in aqueous solution. The atom- and site-specific RIXS excitations allow for direct observation of ligand-to-metal (Fe L-edge) and metal-to-ligand (N K-edge) charge transfer bands and thereby evidence for strong {\\sigma}-donation and {\\pi}-back-donation. The effects are identified by comparing experimental and simulated spectra related to both the unoccupied and occupied molecular orbitals in solution.

  7. Spectroscopic (vibrational, NMR and UV-vis.) and quantum chemical investigations on 4-hexyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ashgar; Gökce, Halil; Bahçeli, Semiha

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the 4-hexyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde compound as one of the derivatives of vanillin which is a well known flavoring agent, C14H20O3, has been investigated by experimentally and extensively utilizing density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. In this context, the optimized geometry, vibrational frequencies, 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts, UV-vis. (in gas phase and in methanol solvent) spectra, HOMO-LUMO analysis, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), thermodynamic parameters and atomic charges of 4-hexyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde have been calculated. In addition, theoretically predicted IR, Raman and UV-vis. (in gas phase and in methanol solvent) spectra of the mentioned molecule have been constructed. The results calculated were compared with the experimental data.

  8. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of gold nanobipyramids prepared by a chemical reduction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Ngo, Vo Ke; Phat Huynh, Trong; Giang Nguyen, Dang; Phuong Uyen Nguyen, Hoang; Lam, Quang Vinh; Dat Huynh, Thanh

    2015-12-01

    Gold nanobipyramids (NBPs) have attracted much attention because they have potential for applications in smart sensing devices, such as medical diagnostic equippments. This is due to the fact that they show more advantageous plasmonic properties than other gold nanostructures. We describe a chemical reduction method for synthesizing NBPs using conventional heating with ascorbic acid reduction and cetyltrimethylamonium bromide (CTAB) + AgNO3 as capping agents. The product was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The results showed that gold nanoparticles were formed with bipyramid shape (tip-to-tip distance of 88.4 ± 9.4 nm and base length of 29.9 ± 3.2 nm) and face-centered-cubic crystalline structure. Optimum parameters for preparation of NBPs are also found.

  9. Spectroscopic Studies of Azide compounds: Thermochemistry, Chemical Kinetics and Photodissociation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto Hernandez, Alfredo

    Some of the most difficult chemical systems, either to observe or produce in significant quantities, are polynitrogen molecules. One example of this type of molecules in the early stages of investigation is cyclic-N3, whose molecular geometry and promising technological applications have attracted our attention to define optimal experimental conditions for being photoproduced. High-resolution synchrotron-radiation-based Photoionization Mass Spectrometry (PIMS) was applied to study the dissociative photoionization of three azide precursors for cyclic-N3; chlorine azide (ClN3), hydrogen azide (HN3), and methyl azide (CH3N3). In our attempts to detect cyclic-N3, the thermochemistry derived in the PIMS studies stimulated our work to perform photodissociation dynamics experiments of CH3N3 at 193 nm using Photofragment Translational Spectroscopy (PTS) with electron impact (EI) detection under collision-free conditions, and chemical kinetic studies based on Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) in matrix-isolated ices formed from rare gases (Argon, Nitrogen and Xenon). PTS experiments lead us to derive the branching ratio between reactions CH 3+N3 (radical channel) vs CH3N+N2 (molecular channel), and to conclude that cyclic-N3 is the dominant product in the radical channel. In contrast, in the matrix isolation experiments we found no evidence of the radical channel, possibly due to barrier-less recombination. However, since no mechanistic reports of methyl azide dissociation exist at these conditions, these studies could have significant implications for future experiments addressed to detect cylic-N3 under matrix environments.

  10. Raman spectroscopic insights into the chemical gradients within the wound plug of the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissflog, Ina A; Grosser, Katharina; Bräutigam, Maximilian; Dietzek, Benjamin; Pohnert, Georg; Popp, Juergen

    2013-04-15

    The invasive unicellular green macroalga Caulerpa taxifolia has spread dramatically in the Mediterranean Sea over the last decades. Its success is based on rapid plug formation after wounding, to prevent the loss of cell content. This quick and efficient process involves the rapid transformation of the secondary metabolite caulerpenyne to the reactive 1,4-dialdehyde oxytoxin 2, which acts as a protein crosslinker. The main metabolites of the wound plug were identified as proteins, caulerpenyne derivatives, and sulfated polysaccharides. Because of a methodological deficit, however, the detailed distribution of the compounds within the wound plug of C. taxifolia was unknown. This study demonstrates the suitability of FT-Raman spectroscopy for the noninvasive in vivo determination of caulerpenyne and its derivatives, as well as β-carotene, from signals with special spectral features within the wound plug and the adjacent intact alga tissue, with a resolution of 100 μm. FT-Raman spectra allowed four different zones with distinct chemical compositions around the region of wounds to be characterized. Gradients of the investigated metabolites within the wound plug and the alga could be determined. Moreover, various caulerpenyne derivatives could be identified spectroscopically, and this has led to a mechanistic proposal for the internal and the external wound plug formation. PMID:23526760

  11. Uranium(VI) interaction with pyrite (FeS{sub 2}). Chemical and spectroscopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eglizaud, N.; Descostes, M. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DPC/SECR/Lab. de Mesures et Modelisation de la Migration des Radionucleides, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Miserque, F.; Schlegel, M. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DPC/SCP/Lab. de Reactivite aux Surfaces et Interfaces, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Simoni, E. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, Univ. Paris Sud, Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    The mechanism of uranium(VI) interaction with pyrite was studied by solution chemistry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Natural pyrite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After equilibration in 10{sup -2}molL{sup -1} NaNO{sub 3}, pyrite was reacted with uranium(VI) by the batch method in an anoxic glove box (P{sub O{sub 2}} < 1 ppm) at ambient temperature. The reaction products of uranium, iron and sulphur were characterized (oxidation state, chemical environment) by XPS. Quantitative analysis revealed that only a few atomic percent of uranium is retained at the pyrite surface. The U4f core level binding energies are consistent with the coexistence of an uranium(VI) species and of uranium in a reduced form. No sulphur oxidation products were observed by XPS, but spectral decomposition of the Fe2p lines revealed the presence of iron(III) oxide or (oxy)hydroxide. These results seem to point to a redox reaction between uranium(VI) and pyrite. (orig.)

  12. The spectroscopic chemical and photophysical properties of Martian soils and their analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Lelia M.

    1987-01-01

    The program of research outlined should advance significantly the understanding of the spectral signal of montmorillonites in general and the variations produced in it by structural and surface ferric and ferrous iron and interlayer water as a function of several environmental conditions that are different between Earth and Mars. In addition, an extensive data base was collected providing spectral characterization of several features (iron, both surface and structural, OH-groups, both structural and from adsorbed water and O(-) centers) that are known, or thought to be, influential in directing the surface activity of these important materials. With this data base with which to assess the results of the Viking labeled release simulation studies, it should be possible to gain important insights into the mechanisms of surface reactivity for this important chemical reaction. The results to be gained from these studies will provide a significant body of ground base truth from which to assess: the presence of smectite clays on Mars; the mineralogical form in which the Martian iron is bound; establish upper limits on the present surface water content of Martian soils; perhaps provide insights on the Martian surface radiation history; and to make strong predictions about the nature of surface chemistry on Mars, if iron-bearing clays are a significant component of the surface mineralogical assemblage.

  13. Structural and spectroscopic evidence for stable chemical bonds and the correlation with high Tc superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is discovered that in the high-Tc superconducting YBa2−xLaxCu3Oz system, by structural analysis and Raman spectroscopy, a stable ‘fixed triangle’ structure exists in the CuO2 planes. All chemical bonds and angles constituting the O(3)–Cu(2)–O(2) triangle are almost constant with doping. The frequencies and linewidths of the out-of-phase c-axis O(2)–O(3) buckling modes around 337 cm−1 and the in-plane Cu(2)–O(2) bond stretching modes around 534 cm−1 are both independent of the doping level, providing direct evidence for the stability of this fixed triangle. It was previously revealed that just these two phonons couple strongly with the antinodal and nodal electronic states, respectively, resulting in an anisotropic electron–phonon interaction in the cuprates. This work implies that the stability of the CuO2 subunit and phonons related to it might be quite important in inducing the d-wave high-Tc superconductivity and should be paid more attention. (paper)

  14. Uranium (VI) interaction with pyrite (FeS{sub 2}): chemical and spectroscopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eglizaud, N.; Descostes, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Saclay, DEN/DPC/SECR/Laboratoire de Mesures et Modelisation de la Migration des Radionucleides, bat. 450, BP11, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Miserque, F.; Schlegel, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Saclay, DEN/DPC/SCP/Laboratoire de Reactivite des Surfaces et Interfaces, bat 191, BP11, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Simoni, E. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, Universite Paris XI, bat 100, 91406 Orsay cedex (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Actinides released from nuclear waste repositories may be retained by natural solids, either by coprecipitation or by sorption reactions. Sorption of actinides on natural minerals has already been extensively studied but the coupling of this retention with redox reactions has been scarcely investigated. Pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) is a ubiquitous, redox-sensitive mineral that may possibly adsorb and reduce redox-sensitive species such as uranium (VI). However, the molecular mechanism of uranium (VI) possible sorption and reduction on pyrite has not been clarified yet. Natural pyrite, well characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), zeta potential measurements and mass titration, was ground to 50 {mu}m to 100 {mu}m particles, and chemically treated to remove mineralogical impurities and oxidation products. As pyrite may dissolve and oxidize when immersed alone in aqueous solutions, both the solution composition and the properties of the solid surface in presence, or in absence of uranium, were analysed. Pyrite hydrous equilibration and sorption experiments were performed in an anoxic glove box (vpm O{sub 2} < 1 ppm), at ambient temperature. After equilibration in 10{sup -2} mol.L{sup -1} NaNO{sub 3}, pyrite was reacted with uranium (VI) by the batches method. Reaction kinetics, pH (imposed by either HNO{sub 3} or NaOH), Eh, and dissolved uranium concentration (using both natural uranium and radiotracers) were analysed. Dissolved and colloidal iron and sulphur were measured to quantify pyrite dissolution. Pyrite surface was studied by XPS to clarify the oxidation degree and chemical environment of uranium, iron, sulphur and oxygen species. At elevated uranium concentrations (2.10{sup -3} mol.L{sup -1}), pH decreases (from 6.1 to 3.7) whereas no uranium uptake could be quantified from solution concentrations. At lower uranium concentrations (10{sup -7} mol.L{sup -1}) no such p

  15. Chemical evolution, petrogenesis, and regional chemical correlations of the flood basalt sequence in the central Deccan Traps, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Leone Melluso; Mario Barbieri; Luigi Beccaluva

    2004-12-01

    The lava sequence of the central-western Deccan Traps (from Jalgaon towards Mumbai) is formed by basalts and basaltic andesites having a significant variation in TiO2 (from 1.2 to 3.3 wt%), Zr (from 84 to 253 ppm), Nb (from 5 to 16 ppm) and Ba (from 63 to 407 ppm), at MgO ranging from 10 to 4.2 wt%. Most of these basalts follow a liquid line of descent dominated by low pressure fractionation of clinopyroxene, plagioclase and olivine, starting from the most mafic compositions, in a temperature range from 1220° to 1125°C. These rocks resemble those belonging to the lowermost formations of the Deccan Traps in the Western Ghats (Jawhar, Igatpuri and Thakurvadi) as well as those of the Poladpur formation. Samples analyzed for 87Sr/86Sr give a range of initial ratios from 0.70558 to 0.70621. A group of flows of the Dhule area has low TiO2 (1.2–1.5 wt%) and Zr (84–105 ppm) at moderate MgO (5.2–6.2 wt%), matching the composition of low-Ti basalts of Gujarat, low-Ti dykes of the Tapti swarm and Toranmal basalts, just north of the study area. This allows chemical correlations between the lavas of central Deccan, the Tapti dykes and the northwestern outcrops. The mildly enriched high field strength element contents of the samples with TiO2 < 1.5 wt% make them products of mantle sources broadly similar to those which generated the Ambenali basalts, but their high La/Nb and Ba/Nb, negative Nb anomalies in the mantle normalized diagrams, and relatively high 87Sr/86Sr, make evident a crustal input with crustally derived materials at less differentiated stages than those represented in this sample set, or even within the sub-Indian lithospheric mantle.

  16. Measurements of the aerosol chemical composition and mixing state in the Po Valley using multiple spectroscopic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Decesari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of co-located multiple spectroscopic techniques can provide detailed information on the atmospheric processes regulating aerosol chemical composition and mixing state. So far, field campaigns heavily equipped with aerosol mass spectrometers have been carried out mainly in large conurbations and in areas directly affected by their outflow, whereas lesser efforts have been dedicated to continental areas characterized by a less dense urbanization. We present here the results obtained in San Pietro Capofiume, which is located in a sparsely inhabited sector of the Po Valley, Italy. The experiment was carried out in summer 2009 in the framework of the EUCAARI project ("European Integrated Project on Aerosol, Cloud Climate Aerosol Interaction". For the first time in Europe, six state-of-the-art techniques were used in parallel: (1 on-line TSI aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS, (2 on-line Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS, (3 soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS, (4 on-line high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer-thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (HR-ToFMS-TAG, (5 off-line twelve-hour resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR spectroscopy, and (6 chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS for the analysis of gas-phase precursors of secondary aerosol. Data from each aerosol spectroscopic method were analysed individually following ad-hoc tools (i.e. PMF for AMS, Art-2a for ATOFMS. The results obtained from each techniques are herein presented and compared. This allows us to clearly link the modifications in aerosol chemical composition to transitions in air mass origin and meteorological regimes. Under stagnant conditions, atmospheric stratification at night and early morning hours led to the accumulation of aerosols produced by anthropogenic sources distributed over the Po Valley plain. Such aerosols include primary components such as black

  17. Measurements of the aerosol chemical composition and mixing state in the Po Valley using multiple spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decesari, S.; Allan, J.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Williams, B. J.; Paglione, M.; Facchini, M. C.; O'Dowd, C.; Harrison, R. M.; Gietl, J. K.; Coe, H.; Giulianelli, L.; Gobbi, G. P.; Lanconelli, C.; Carbone, C.; Worsnop, D.; Lambe, A. T.; Ahern, A. T.; Moretti, F.; Tagliavini, E.; Elste, T.; Gilge, S.; Zhang, Y.; Dall'Osto, M.

    2014-11-01

    The use of co-located multiple spectroscopic techniques can provide detailed information on the atmospheric processes regulating aerosol chemical composition and mixing state. So far, field campaigns heavily equipped with aerosol mass spectrometers have been carried out mainly in large conurbations and in areas directly affected by their outflow, whereas lesser efforts have been dedicated to continental areas characterised by a less dense urbanisation. We present here the results obtained at a background site in the Po Valley, Italy, in summer 2009. For the first time in Europe, six state-of-the-art spectrometric techniques were used in parallel: aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS), two aerosol mass spectrometers (high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer - HR-ToF-AMS and soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer - SP-AMS), thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography (TAG), chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (CIMS) and (offline) proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. The results indicate that, under high-pressure conditions, atmospheric stratification at night and early morning hours led to the accumulation of aerosols produced by anthropogenic sources distributed over the Po Valley plain. Such aerosols include primary components such as black carbon (BC), secondary semivolatile compounds such as ammonium nitrate and amines and a class of monocarboxylic acids which correspond to the AMS cooking organic aerosol (COA) already identified in urban areas. In daytime, the entrainment of aged air masses in the mixing layer is responsible for the accumulation of low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) and also for the recycling of non-volatile primary species such as black carbon. According to organic aerosol source apportionment, anthropogenic aerosols accumulating in the lower layers overnight accounted for 38% of organic aerosol mass on average, another 21% was accounted for by aerosols recirculated in

  18. Magmatic differentiation evidences of the basaltic floods of the Arapey formation:(Uruguay). Brief discussion obtained from the interpretation about some chemical analysis of mayor element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studying the data obtained from some chemical of mayor element, it is possible to define a general trend of magmatic differentiation of the basaltic floods of the Arapey Formation due to crystal-liquid fractionation in the magmatic chamber. The apparent chaos of the chemical composition of the lavas from the point of view of the chronostratigrafic position is explained using a petrogenetic model that tales in account the trends of variation diagrams. It is also demonstrated the inconsistency of the hypothesis of assimilation of eolic sandstone by the lavas as the process responsible for the variation in the chonostratigrafic sequence mentioned above. (author)

  19. CHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES AND ORGANIC MATTER IN FOREST COMPLEX SEASONALLY FLOODED IN RESTINGA OF MARAMBAIA, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranieri Ribeiro Paula

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812337This study aimed to evaluate and characterize the chemical properties of soil organic matter under twoperiodically flooded forest formations on the island of Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro. These formations differon the degree of soil water saturation, caused by the influence of water table, and in the (F1 formationpresents the water table nearer the surface compared to the (F2 formation. Samples were collected in layersfrom 0.00 to 0.05, 0.05-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m. The soil properties evaluated were: pH, H+ + Al+3, Ca+2, Mg+2,Na+, K+, P, N, total organic carbon (TOC and base saturation (V%, humin carbon fraction (C-HUM,carbon of humic acid fraction (HAF-C and fulvic acid fraction carbon (FAF-C. Statistically higher pHvalues were observed for F1. In F2 there are higher values of Mg+2, P, N and V% value. Correlation wasfound between the concentrations of Mg+2, N, humic acid and fulvic acid with water table in F1, and watertable in F2 with Na+ and K+. Fraction C-HUM was more representative of the total organic carbon, followedby C-HAF and C-FAF. The TOC levels were higher in F1. The C / N ratio was lower in F2, with valuesranging between 9 and 12, and F1 were found higher values of this relationship, ranging from 9 to 15.Among the pathways of formation of organic soils in both areas it appears that the major route for organicmatter accumulation is the inheritance route

  20. Overcoming Heterogeneity Effects Through Polymer-Enhanced Groundwater Remediation Techniques: Coupling Polymer Floods with Chemical Oxidants and Bio-agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. M.; Silva, J. A.; Munakata-Marr, J.; McCray, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    Even small heterogeneity contrasts in contaminated systems (resulting from differences in permeability or contaminant saturation) can affect the distribution of injected remediation agents by channeling fluids through high-permeability flowpaths, thus bypassing some regions and leaving contaminants uncontacted. The addition of a viscous polymer solution to the remediation agent may enhance agent delivery as a result of increased cross-flow (or "sweep efficiency") into different layers of the system, if the polymer solution remains stable in the presence of the remediation agent. Our research combines various non-toxic, food- grade polymer solutions with the remediation techniques of chemical oxidation and bio-remediation, to increase the effectiveness of treatment at sites contaminated with non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). The coupling of polymer floods with oxidants may help to combat contaminant "rebound" sometimes associated with incomplete contaminant destruction in low-permeability zones. Initial compatibility testing has shown that certain robust polymer/oxidant mixtures possess stable viscosities and pose low additional oxidant demands over multi-day timescales. Transport of these solutions through natural porous media was studied in column experiments, and small two-dimensional experiments with heterogeneous layering were conducted to assess effectiveness of contaminant destruction. Limitations of these compatible polymer/oxidant combinations as well as possible experimental strategies to optimize delivery are also discussed. In addition, results of polymer/microbial screening tests reveal that polymer solutions do not inhibit the dechlorinating capabilities of a microbial consortium. Preliminary findings have also raised the possibility that certain polymers may successfully serve as electron donors in the subsurface. The implications of these results for either bioaugmentation or delivery of biostimulants are presented.

  1. Flash floods

    OpenAIRE

    Grubač, Jovana

    2015-01-01

    The thesis presents flash floods phenomenon and the differences between flash floods and other types of floods. Flooding is usually caused by intense or long-lasting rainfall event. These kinds of events are more often in the last years and climate changes could cause even more natural disasters. Flash floods are quite known phenomenon in Slovenia which is situated in many upper parts of river basins. Flash floods and erosion are most common in northwestern hilly landscape of ...

  2. Using non-invasive molecular spectroscopic techniques to detect unique aspects of protein Amide functional groups and chemical properties of modeled forage from different sourced-origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Cuiying; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-03-01

    The non-invasive molecular spectroscopic technique-FT/IR is capable to detect the molecular structure spectral features that are associated with biological, nutritional and biodegradation functions. However, to date, few researches have been conducted to use these non-invasive molecular spectroscopic techniques to study forage internal protein structures associated with biodegradation and biological functions. The objectives of this study were to detect unique aspects and association of protein Amide functional groups in terms of protein Amide I and II spectral profiles and chemical properties in the alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa L.) from different sourced-origins. In this study, alfalfa hay with two different origins was used as modeled forage for molecular structure and chemical property study. In each forage origin, five to seven sources were analyzed. The molecular spectral profiles were determined using FT/IR non-invasive molecular spectroscopy. The parameters of protein spectral profiles included functional groups of Amide I, Amide II and Amide I to II ratio. The results show that the modeled forage Amide I and Amide II were centered at 1653 cm- 1 and 1545 cm- 1, respectively. The Amide I spectral height and area intensities were from 0.02 to 0.03 and 2.67 to 3.36 AI, respectively. The Amide II spectral height and area intensities were from 0.01 to 0.02 and 0.71 to 0.93 AI, respectively. The Amide I to II spectral peak height and area ratios were from 1.86 to 1.88 and 3.68 to 3.79, respectively. Our results show that the non-invasive molecular spectroscopic techniques are capable to detect forage internal protein structure features which are associated with forage chemical properties.

  3. Chemical and spectroscopic characterizations, ESI-QTOF mass spectrometric measurements and DFT studies of new complexes of palladium(II) with tryptamine and mefenamic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Marcos A.; Arruda, Eduardo G. R.; Profirio, Daniel M.; Gomes, Alexandre F.; Gozzo, Fábio C.; Formiga, André L. B.; Corbi, Pedro P.

    2015-11-01

    New palladium(II) complexes with tryptamine (Pd-tra) and mefenamic acid (Pd-mef) were prepared and characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Elemental, ESI-QTOF mass spectrometric and thermogravimetric analyses of the compounds confirm the composition [PdCl2(tra)2] for Pd-tra and [Pd(mef)2(bipy)] for Pd-mef. Infrared data indicate the coordination of tryptamine to Pd(II) by the nitrogen atom of the amino group, while for mefenamic acid coordination occurs by the oxygen atom of carboxylate group in a monodentate form. The 1H, 13C and {15N,1H} NMR spectroscopic data confirm the nitrogen coordination of the NH2 group of trypatmine to Pd(II) in the Pd-tra complex and also the oxygen coordination of the carboxylate group of mefenamic acid to Pd(II) in the Pd-mef complex. Density functional theory (DFT) studies were applied to determine the difference in energy between the geometric isomers (cis/trans) of Pd-tra and to optimize the structure of the Pd-mef complex. Raman spectroscopic measurements reinforce the nitrogen coordination of tryptamine to Pd(II) in the Pd-tra complex and confirms the presence of the cis-[PdCl2(tra)2] isomer in the solid state. The complexes are insoluble in water.

  4. Study to determine the technical and economic feasibility of reclaiming chemicals used in micellar polymer and low tension surfactant flooding. Final report. [Ultrafiltration membranes and reverse osmosis membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, R.H.; Himmelblau, A.; Donnelly, R.G.

    1978-02-01

    Energy Resources Company has developed a technology for use with enhanced oil recovery to achieve emulsion breaking and surfactant recovery. By using ultrafiltration membranes, the Energy Resources Company process can dewater an oil-in-water type emulsion expected from enhanced oil recovery projects to the point where the emulsion can be inverted and treated using conventional emulsion-treating equipment. By using a tight ultrafiltration membrane or a reverse osmosis membrane, the Energy Resources Company process is capable of recovering chemicals such as surfactants used in micellar polymer flooding.

  5. ENHANCED OIL-RECOVERY EXPERIMENT AFTER POLYMER FLOOD BY COMBINING HORIZONTAL WELL WITH CHEMICAL FLOODINGS%水平井与化学驱结合提高聚驱后采收率实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘平; 李宜强; 李瑞升

    2011-01-01

    为了老油田可采储量进一步挖潜,提高特高含水油田厚油层采收率,开展了水平井聚合物驱后剩余油室内实验,研制了含黏土矿物的三维正韵律物理模型,优选了适合于水平势的化学驱油剂(高浓度聚合物、聚表剂、二元复合体系、三元复合体系),设计了台理的井网模式.实验结果表明,水平井最佳化学驱油剂为二元复合体系,最佳井网模式为水平井一注一采井网.在聚合物驱基础上采收率可再提高17.69个百分点,得到了聚驱后进一步提高采收率的新方法.%In order to further tap the potentials of mature oilfield reserves and enhance the recovery of the thick oil reservoirs for ultra-high watercut oilfield, the lab. Experiments of the remained oil after polymer flooding in a horizontal well are performed; the 3D positive-rhythm physical model, which contains clay minerals, is developed; the chemical oil-flooding agents (including high-concentration polymer, functional polymer, binary and ASP composite systems) are optimized for horizontal wells, and furthermore the reasonable well patterns are designed. The experimental results show that optimal displacing method for the horizontal well is binary (polymer-surfactant) composite system; the optimal well pattern for the horizontal well is composed of one injector and one producer. On the basis of polymer flooding, the oil recovery has been enhanced 17. 69%. In a word, a new approach to further improve oil recovery after polymer flooding is achieved.

  6. Mapping tropical biodiversity using spectroscopic imagery : characterization of structural and chemical diversity with 3-D radiative transfer modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feret, J. B.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.; Lefèvre-Fonollosa, M. J.; Proisy, C.; Asner, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    The accelerating loss of biodiversity is a major environmental trend. Tropical ecosystems are particularly threatened due to climate change, invasive species, farming and natural resources exploitation. Recent advances in remote sensing of biodiversity confirmed the potential of high spatial resolution spectroscopic imagery for species identification and biodiversity mapping. Such information bridges the scale-gap between small-scale, highly detailed field studies and large-scale, low-resolution satellite observations. In order to produce fine-scale resolution maps of canopy alpha-diversity and beta-diversity of the Peruvian Amazonian forest, we designed, applied and validated a method based on spectral variation hypothesis to CAO AToMS (Carnegie Airborne Observatory Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System) images, acquired from 2011 to 2013. There is a need to understand on a quantitative basis the physical processes leading to this spectral variability. This spectral variability mainly depends on canopy chemistry, structure, and sensor's characteristics. 3D radiative transfer modeling provides a powerful framework for the study of the relative influence of each of these factors in dense and complex canopies. We simulated series of spectroscopic images with the 3D radiative model DART, with variability gradients in terms of leaf chemistry, individual tree structure, spatial and spectral resolution, and applied methods for biodiversity mapping. This sensitivity study allowed us to determine the relative influence of these factors on the radiometric signal acquired by different types of sensors. Such study is particularly important to define the domain of validity of our approach, to refine requirements for the instrumental specifications, and to help preparing hyperspectral spatial missions to be launched at the horizon 2015-2025 (EnMAP, PRISMA, HISUI, SHALOM, HYSPIRI, HYPXIM). Simulations in preparation include topographic variations in order to estimate the robustness

  7. Co-treatment of fruit and vegetable waste in sludge digesters: Chemical and spectroscopic investigation by fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Maria Rosaria; Cavallo, Ornella; Malerba, Anna Daniela; Di Maria, Francesco; Cucina, Mirko; Massaccesi, Luisa; Gigliotti, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    In a previous work co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludge was performed in a pilot apparatus reproducing operating conditions of an existing full scale digester and processing waste mixed sludge (WMS) and fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) at different organic loading rates. An analysis of the relationship among bio-methane generation, process stability and digestate phytotoxicity was conducted. In this paper we considered humification parameters and spectroscopic analysis. Humification parameters indicated a higher not humified fraction (NH) and a lower degree of humification (DH) of FVW with respect to WMS (NH=19.22 and 5.10%; DH=36.65 and 61.94% for FVW and WMS, respectively) associated with their different chemical compositions and with the stabilization process previously undergone by sludge. FVW additions seemed to be favourable from an agronomical point of view since a lower percentage of organic carbon was lost. Fourier transform infrared spectra suggested consumption of aliphatics associated with rising in bio-methane generation followed by accumulation of aliphatics and carboxylic acids when the biogas production dropped. The trend of peaks ratios can be used as an indicator of the process efficiency. Fluorescence intensity of peak B associated with tryptophan-like substances and peak D associated with humic-like substances observed on tridimensional Excitation Emission Matrix maps increased up to sample corresponding to the highest rate of biogas production. Overall spectroscopic results provided evidence of different chemical pathways of anaerobic digestion associated with increasing amount of FVW which led to different levels of biogas production. PMID:26946935

  8. Spectroscopic study of chemical composition of high-frequency glow-discharge in halogen-containing gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a spectroscopic study of high-frequency (HF) gas discharge in mixtures of fluorine- and chlorine-containing gases: trichlorotrifluoroethane (C2F3Cl3), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and tetrafluoromethane (CF4). The optical emission spectrum of the plasma was recorded in the range of 200-800 nm by the photoelectric method, using an MDR-23 monochromator, FEU-79 and FEU-39A radiation dectectors. A small amount of argon was added to the plasma-forming gas to determine the concentration of atoms and radicals and change in the plasma parameters when the discharge burning regimes are changed. The experiments showed that the most probable molecule emitting the 280-335-nm band with a maximum at lambdamax = 306 nm is si /SUB x/ S /SUB y/ Fz. It can be formed as a result of the interaction of sulfur-fluorine containing radicals with the silicon surface, or in the bulk of the material, due to the reaction of SiF /SUB m/ and SF /SUB n/ radicals

  9. Chemical and physical properties of the normal and aging lens: spectroscopic (UV, fluorescence, phosphorescence, and NMR) analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro [UV absorption, fluorescence, phosphorescence, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)] spectroscopic studies on the normal human lens demonstrate age-related changes which can be correlated with biochemical and photobiologic mechanisms occurring during our lifetime. Chronic cumulative UV exposure results in an age-related increase of photochemically induced chromophores and in color of the lens nucleus. This enables the lens to filter the incident UV radiation, thereby protecting the underlying aging retina from UV photodamage. We have measured the age-related increase in lens fluorescence in vivo on more than 300 normal subjects (1st to 9th decade) by UV slitlamp densitography. These data show a good correlation with the in vitro lens fluorescence studies reported previously and demonstrate that molecular photodamage can be monitored in the lens. In vitro NMR (human and animal lenses) and in vivo experiments currently in progress are rapidly elucidating the physicochemical basis for transparency and the development of light scattering areas. Surface scanning NMR can monitor organophosphate metabolism in the ocular lens in vivo as well as in vitro. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using biophysical methods (optical spectroscopy and NMR analyses) to delineate age-related parameters in the lens, in vivo as well as in vitro. 46 references

  10. Ultrafast internal rotational dynamics of the azido group in (4S)-azidoproline: Chemical exchange 2DIR spectroscopic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Internal rotational dynamics of the azido group in SA (Ac-(4S)-Azp-NHMe) was studied in real time by using ultrafast 2DIR spectroscopic method. The time constant of the internal rotation around the Cγ–Nδ bond in SA was determined to be τir = 5.1 ps, which is found to be much faster than that around the C–C bond in ethane. Highlights: ► Femtosecond two-dimensional IR spectroscopy of internal rotational dynamics. ► Stereo-electronic effects of azido group in azido-derivatized proline peptide. ► The timescale of the azido group internal rotation is about 5.1 ps. - Abstract: The azido group in 4-azidoproline (Azp) derivative, SA (Ac-(4S)-Azp-NHMe), can form an intramolecular electrostatic interaction with the backbone peptide in the s-trans and Cγ-endo conformations of SA. As a result, the azido group exists as two forms, bound and free, which are defined by the presence and absence of such interaction, respectively. The bound and free azido forms are spectrally resolved in the azido IR spectrum of SA in CHCl3. Using the two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) and polarization-controlled IR pump–probe methods, we investigated the internal rotational and orientational relaxation dynamics of the azido group and determined the internal rotational time constant of the azido group to be 5.1 ps. The internal rotational motion is found to be responsible for the early part of the orientational relaxation of the azido group in SA. Thus, the femtosecond 2DIR spectroscopy is shown to be an ideal tool for studying ultrafast conformational dynamics of SA.

  11. Photoelectron spectroscopic imaging and device applications of large-area patternable single-layer MoS2 synthesized by chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woanseo; Baik, Jaeyoon; Kim, Tae-Young; Cho, Kyungjune; Hong, Woong-Ki; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Lee, Takhee

    2014-05-27

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) films, which are only a single atomic layer thick, have been synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and have gained significant attention due to their band-gap semiconducting properties. However, in order for them to be useful for the fabrication of practical devices, patterning processes that can be used to form specific MoS2 structures must be integrated with the existing synthetic approaches. Here, we report a method for the synthesis of centimeter-scale, high-quality single-layer MoS2 that can be directly patterned during CVD, so that postpatterning processes can be avoided and device fabrication can be streamlined. Utilizing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic imaging, we characterize the chemical states of these CVD-synthesized single-layer MoS2 films and demonstrate that the triangular-shaped MoS2 are single-crystalline single-domain monolayers. We also demonstrate the use of these high-quality and directly patterned MoS2 films in electronic device applications by fabricating and characterizing field effect transistors. PMID:24730654

  12. Dielectric properties and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of niobium oxide thin films prepared by direct liquid injection chemical vapor deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niobium oxide thin films were grown by direct liquid injection chemical vapor deposition using Nb(OC2H5)5 precursor. Influence of reactant's molar ratios [oxygen:Nb(OC2H5)5] and deposition temperatures on films properties such as growth rate, stoichiometry, crystal structure, morphology, dielectric constant and leakage current were studied. Films start crystallizing above 340 °C in O2 atmosphere and become crystalline at 400 °C. The surface roughness of weakly crystalline and crystalline films was significantly affected by deposition temperatures and reactant's molar ratios. It was found that decrease in surface roughness improved leakage current. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies showed that films were in different oxidation states (Nb2+, Nb4+ and Nb5+). The dielectric constants of films were improved by increasing oxygen ratios. At ratio (150:1), the film showed high dielectric constant value (47) at 340 °C and leakage current density of 2.0 × 10−5 A/cm2 (at 3 V). - Highlights: • High dielectric constant (47) of Nb2O5 thin film with chemical vapor deposition • The change in morphology as a function of growth temperature and O2 molar ratio • A stoichiometric Nb2O5 phase and smooth surface show better electrical properties

  13. Dithieno[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine-based Chemical Probe for Anions: A Spectroscopic Study of Binding

    KAUST Repository

    El-Assaad, Tarek H.

    2015-04-27

    The synthesis of a new anion-responsive molecule N,N\\'-(2,5-bis(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)dithieno[3,2-a:2\\',3\\'-c]phenazine-9,10-diyl)bis(4-methylbenzenesulfonamide) (1) is reported. The sensitivities of the spectroscopic properties of 1 in the presence of various anions were examined using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence and 1H NMR titration experiments. Strong binding of 1 to carboxylate, cyanide, fluoride and dihydrogen phosphate anions results in an increase in quantum yield for emission of 1, and changes in its 1H NMR chemical shifts. A significant electrostatic interaction of the tetrabutylammonium cation with 1, upon strong binding with the counter anion, was also indicated by the chemical shifts observed in the 1H NMR titrations. Binding constants of 1 to anions are also calculated based on the binding isotherms derived from NMR and UV-Vis titrations. DFT calculations show that the anion does not significantly impact the HOMO/LUMO levels (and subsequently the S0 -> S1 transition), but rather changes the strength of the S0 -> S2 transition, which accounts for the observed changes in the UV-vis spectra.

  14. Spectroscopic studies of neutral and chemically oxidized species of β-carotene, lycopene and norbixin in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}: Fluorescence from intermediate compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwis, D.D.D.H [Department of Chemistry, The Open University of Sri Lanka, Nawala (Sri Lanka); Department of Chemistry, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka); Chandrika, U.G. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka); Jayaweera, P.M., E-mail: pradeep@sjp.ac.lk [Department of Chemistry, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka)

    2015-02-15

    Radical cations, dications and oxidized intermediate species of three carotenoids, namely, β-carotene, lycopene and norbixin, were generated in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} solutions via chemical oxidation using anhydrous FeCl{sub 3}. UV–vis, fluorescence and fluorescence-excitation spectroscopic studies were performed to understand and compare the nature of intermediate species generated during the chemical oxidation process and subsequent degradation. The intense emission observed at 550 nm can be assigned to the S{sub 2}→S{sub 0} (1{sup 1}B{sub u}→1{sup 1}A{sub g}) transition of the carotenoid molecules. The 350 nm excitation during the oxidation process for β-carotene, lycopene and norbixin exhibit intense fluorescence peaks at 492 nm, 493 nm and 500 nm, respectively. These peaks are assigned to intermediate peroxy/epoxy compounds of the three molecules that are formed with molecular oxygen prior to the formation of oxidized short-chain stable compounds. - Highlights: • Fluorescence and UV–vis studies on β-carotene, lycopene and norbixin. • Oxidation, induced by FeCl{sub 3} in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} shows blue shifted fluorescence peaks. • Fluorescence peaks were assigned to intermediate peroxy/epoxy forms of carotenoids. • The D0→D3 transition of radical cations are observed in the near IR region.

  15. Chemical Method to Improve CO{sub 2} Flooding Sweep Efficiency for Oil Recovery Using SPI-CO{sub 2} Gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Lyle D.

    2009-04-14

    hydrocarbon combustion for energy, chemical and fertilizer plants. For example, coal fired power plants emit large amounts of CO{sub 2} in order to produce electrical energy. Carbon dioxide sequestration is gaining attention as concerns mount over possible global climate change caused by rising emissions of greenhouse gases. Removing the CO{sub 2} from the energy generation process would make these plants more environmentally friendly. In addition, CO{sub 2} flooding is an attractive means to enhance oil and natural gas recovery. Capture and use of the CO{sub 2} from these plants for recycling into CO{sub 2} flooding of marginal reservoirs provides a “dual use” opportunity prior to final CO{sub 2} sequestration in the depleted reservoir. Under the right pressure, temperature and oil composition conditions, CO{sub 2} can act as a solvent, cleaning oil trapped in the microscopic pores of the reservoir rock. This miscible process greatly increases the recovery of crude oil from a reservoir compared to recovery normally seen by waterflooding. An Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) project that uses an industrial source of CO{sub 2} that otherwise would be vented to the atmosphere has the added environmental benefit of sequestering the greenhouse gas.

  16. Quantum Chemical and Spectroscopic Investigations of (Ethyl 4 hydroxy-3-((E-(pyren-1-yliminomethylbenzoate by DFT Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we have reported the optimized ground state geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, NMR chemical shifts, NBO analysis, and molecular electrostatic potential surface map of the title compound using DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(2d, 2p level of theory. We have compared our calculated results with the experimentally obtained values and found that both are in close agreement with each other. We have used the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO approach to calculate the NMR (13C and 1H chemical shifts using Gaussian 09 package. TD-DFT (time-dependent DFT approach has been used to simulate the electronic spectra of the title compound in order to account for excited states. Other molecular properties such as HOMO-LUMO energies, NBO analysis, and PED distribution analysis have been studied and reported using DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(2d, 2p level of theory.

  17. Spectroscopic Characterization and Simulation of Chemical Sputtering Using the DiMES Porous Plug Injector in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, A G; Davis, J W; Stangeby, P C; Brooks, N H; Whyte, D G; Allen, S L; Bray, B D; Brezinsek, S; Elder, J D; Fenstermacher, M E; Groth, M; Haasz, A A; Hollmann, E M; Isler, R; Lasnier, C J; Rudakov, D L; Watkins, J G; West, W P; Wong, C C

    2006-05-15

    A self-contained gas injection system for the Divertor Material Evaluation System (DiMES) on DIII-D has been employed for in-situ study of chemical erosion in the tokamak divertor environment. The Porous Plug Injector (PPI) releases methane, a major component of molecular influx due to chemical sputtering of graphite, from the tile surface into the plasma at a controlled rate through a porous graphite surface. Perturbation to local plasma is minimized, while also simulating the immediate environment of methane molecules released from a solid graphite surface. The release rate was chosen to be of the same order of magnitude as natural sputtering. Photon efficiencies of CH{sub 4} for measured local plasma conditions are reported. The contribution of chemical versus physical sputtering to the source of C{sup +} at the target is assessed through measurement of CII and CD/CH band emissions during release of CH{sub 4} from the PPI, and due to intrinsic emission.

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance, vibrational spectroscopic studies, physico-chemical properties and computational calculations on (nitrophenyl) octahydroquinolindiones by DFT method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, M A; Siddekha, Aisha; Mishra, Soni; Azzam, Sadeq Hamood Saleh; Umapathy, S

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, 2'-nitrophenyloctahydroquinolinedione and its 3'-nitrophenyl isomer were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, FT-Raman, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shift values of the synthesized compounds in the ground state have been calculated by using the density functional theory (DFT) method with the 6-311++G (d,p) basis set and compared with the experimental data. The complete vibrational assignments of wave numbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution using GAR2PED programme. Isotropic chemical shifts for (1)H and (13)C NMR were calculated using gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The experimental vibrational frequencies, (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shift values were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. On the basis of vibrational analysis, molecular electrostatic potential and the standard thermodynamic functions have been investigated. PMID:25440584

  19. The linkage between uranium, iron and carbon cycling. Processes at interfaces: evidences from combined solution chemical and spectroscopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interfacial processes have a critical role in many reactions and phenomena in the environment, including mineral weathering, particle stability in surface waters, transport of chemical species and element cycling in natural environments. In order to predict the environmental impact of human activities such as uranium mining and radioactive waste disposal, it is necessary to understand the migration of actinides, uranium among them, in the environment. Iron oxides and oxyhydroxides are ubiquitous in nature and they are of particular interest due to their large capacity to sorb radionuclides onto their surface. The Fe and U cycles are also linked to the carbon one and aqueous carbonate plays a major role in the transport of radionuclides due to its high affinity to form complexes with hexavalent uranium. On the other hand, dissolved carbonate can compete for the sorption sites of the iron oxides, promoting the dissolution of these oxides and consequently increasing the mobility of the associated radionuclides in natural systems. Our understanding of how radionuclides impact the environment is dependent on our ability to measure chemical reactions at environmental interfaces. (orig.)

  20. Spectroscopic characterization and simulation of chemical sputtering using the DiMES porous plug injector in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, A.G. [University of Toronto, Institute for Aerospace Studies, 4925 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ont., M3H 5T6 (Canada)]. E-mail: adam.mclean@utoronto.ca; Davis, J.W. [University of Toronto, Institute for Aerospace Studies, 4925 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ont., M3H 5T6 (Canada); Stangeby, P.C. [University of Toronto, Institute for Aerospace Studies, 4925 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ont., M3H 5T6 (Canada); Brooks, N.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Whyte, D.G. [M.I.T. Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MA 02139 (United States); Allen, S.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Bray, B.D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Brezinsek, S. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik Forschungszentrum, Juelich GmbH 52425, Juelich (Germany); Elder, J.D. [University of Toronto, Institute for Aerospace Studies, 4925 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ont., M3H 5T6 (Canada); Fenstermacher, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Groth, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Haasz, A.A. [University of Toronto, Institute for Aerospace Studies, 4925 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ont., Canada M3H 5T6 (Canada); Hollmann, E.M. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Isler, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Lasnier, C.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Rudakov, D.L. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Watkins, J.G. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); West, W.P. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Wong, C.P.C. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    A self-contained gas injection system for the Divertor Material Evaluation System (DiMES) on DIII-D has been employed for in situ study of chemical erosion in the tokamak divertor environment. The porous plug injector (PPI) releases methane into the plasma at a controlled rate through a porous graphite surface flush to a tile. In this way, the perturbation to the local plasma can be minimized, while also simulating the immediate environment of methane molecules released from a solid graphite surface. Photon efficiencies of CH{sub 4} for measured local plasma conditions are reported. The contribution of chemical vs physical sputtering to the source of C{sup +} at the target can, in principle, be assessed through measurement of CII and CD/CH band emissions during release of CH{sub 4} from the PPI, and due to intrinsic emission. These first results from this new experimental tool demonstrate the potential for the PPI to provide definitive results in future applications in DIII-D and indicate the improvements required to obtain firm quantitative conclusions.

  1. Spectroscopic characterization and simulation of chemical sputtering using the DiMES porous plug injector in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A self-contained gas injection system for the Divertor Material Evaluation System (DiMES) on DIII-D has been employed for in situ study of chemical erosion in the tokamak divertor environment. The porous plug injector (PPI) releases methane into the plasma at a controlled rate through a porous graphite surface flush to a tile. In this way, the perturbation to the local plasma can be minimized, while also simulating the immediate environment of methane molecules released from a solid graphite surface. Photon efficiencies of CH4 for measured local plasma conditions are reported. The contribution of chemical vs physical sputtering to the source of C+ at the target can, in principle, be assessed through measurement of CII and CD/CH band emissions during release of CH4 from the PPI, and due to intrinsic emission. These first results from this new experimental tool demonstrate the potential for the PPI to provide definitive results in future applications in DIII-D and indicate the improvements required to obtain firm quantitative conclusions

  2. Photo-induced isomerization of three nitrotoluene isomers: A matrix-isolation infrared spectroscopic and quantum-chemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The photo-induced isomerization reactions of ortho-, meta- and para-nitrotoluene molecules were investigated by matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy. Besides the previously reported hydrogen atom transfer isomer of ortho-nitrotoluene, the nitrite isomers as well as the dissociation product tolyloxy radicals were formed upon UV excitation of the three nitrotoluene molecules. Infrared spectra and vibrational frequency assignments are reported. Highlights: ► Photo-induced isomerization reactions of three nitrotoluene isomers are studied. ► The nitrite isomers as well as the dissociation product tolyloxy radicals are formed. ► Infrared spectra and vibrational frequency assignments are reported. - Abstract: The photo-induced isomerization reactions of ortho-, meta- and para-nitrotoluene molecules were investigated by matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Under UV irradiation of ortho-nitrotoluene in solid argon, the hydrogen atom transfer isomer was formed, as reported previously. It was found that the hydrogen atom transfer isomer is unstable and rearranged to its nitro isomer upon annealing. In addition, the nitrite isomer as well as its dissociation product tolyloxy radical was also formed. Only the nitrite isomers and the tolyloxy radicals were formed upon UV excitation of the meta- and para-nitrotoluene molecules. Infrared spectra and vibrational frequency assignments of the newly observed nitrite isomers and tolyloxy radicals are reported, which are supported by quantum chemical calculations.

  3. Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1994-05-31

    Since surfactants are often present as mixtures, effort is being made to understand the synergetic and competitive forces involving determining adsorption of surfactants from their mixtures. Adsorption of tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (TTAC) and polyethoxylated nonyl phenol (NP-15) surfactant mixture at the alumina-water interface was studied during this reporting period. It was found that the nonionic surfactant NP-15 does not adsorb on alumina by itself, but was forced to adsorb by cationic TTAC. The adsorption density and the nature of adsorption isotherm of NP-15 were markedly dependent upon the quantity of TTAC present in the mixture and the procedure of surfactant addition. In the low concentration range the adsorption of both TTAC and NP-15 was enhanced by coadsorption, but in the high concentration range the adsorption of TTAC was depressed due to the competitive adsorption and steric hindrance. Electrokinetic behavior of alumina suspensions was also monitored along with the adsorption in order to delineate the role of electrostatic force in determining the mechanism of adsorption. Surface tension of surfactant mixtures before and after adsorption was measured to obtain information needed for developing mechanisms.

  4. Moessbauer spectroscopic study on chemical changes of iron compounds with the aid of sulfate-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    57Fe Moessbauer spectra were measured of reaction products formed during an incubation experiment with sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were isolated from estuarine sediments of the Tama River in Tokyo. The spectrum of the product incubated for several days showed some overlapping sextets. This product had a different chemical form from amorphous iron monosulfide produced by inorganic reaction between ferrous and sulfide ions. It was estimated that the structure of nearest neighbor of iron in this product was similar to that of pyrrhotite (Fe1-xS). After several months of incubation, other singlet and doublet appeared successively on the spectrum, corresponding to mackinawite (FeS1-x) and new sulfide, respectively. Both values of isomer shift and quadrupole splitting of new sulfide increased with increasing incubation time and approached those of pyrite (FeS2). Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) showed that iron atoms were coordinated by sulfur in the incubation product

  5. Raman Spectroscopic Study of Carbon Nanotubes Prepared Using Fe/ZnO-Palm Olein-Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan Afif Mohd Zobir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were synthesized using Fe/ZnO catalyst by a dual-furnace thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD method at 800–1000°C using nitrogen gas with a constant flow rate of 150 sccm/min as a gas carrier. Palm olein (PO, ferrocene in the presence of 0.05 M zinc nitrate, and a p-type silicon wafer were used as carbon source, catalyst precursor, and sample target, respectively. D, G, and G′ bands were observed at 1336–1364, 1559–1680, and 2667–2682 cm-1, respectively. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs with the highest degree of crystallinity were obtained at around 8000°C, and the smallest diameter of about 2 nm was deposited on the silicon substrate at 1000°C.

  6. Structure analysis and spectroscopic characterization of 2-Fluoro-3-Methylpyridine-5-Boronic Acid with experimental (FT-IR, Raman, NMR and XRD) techniques and quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, Özgür; Dikmen, Gökhan

    2016-03-01

    Possible stable conformers, geometrical molecular structures, vibrational properties as well as band assignments, nuclear magnetic shielding tensors of 2-Fluoro-3-Methylpyridine-5-Boronic Acid (2F3MP5BA) were studied experimentally and theoretically using FT-IR, Raman, (CP/MAS) NMR and XRD spectroscopic methods. FT-IR and Raman spectra were evaluated in the region of 3500-400 cm-1, and 3200-400 cm-1, respectively. The optimized geometric structures, vibrational wavenumbers and nuclear magnetic shielding tensors were examined using Becke-3-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) hybrid density functional theory method with 6-311++G(d, p) basis set. 1H, 13C NMR chemical shifts were calculated using the gauge invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. 1H, 13C, APT and HETCOR NMR experiments of title molecule were carried out in DMSO solution. 13C CP/MAS NMR measurement was done with 4 mm zirconium rotor and glycine was used as an external standard. Single crystal of 2F3MP5BA was also prepared for XRD measurements. Assignments of vibrational wavenumbers were also strengthened by calculating the total energy distribution (TED) values using scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method.

  7. An in vitro systematic spectroscopic examination of the photostabilities of a random set of commercial sunscreen lotions and their chemical UVB/UVA active agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpone, Nick; Salinaro, Angela; Emeline, Alexei V; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Hidaka, Hisao; Zhao, Jincai

    2002-12-01

    The photostabilities of a random set of commercially available sunscreen lotions and their active ingredients are examined spectroscopically subsequent to simulated sunlight UV exposure. Loss of filtering efficacy can occur because of possible photochemical modifications of the sunscreen active agents. Changes in absorption of UVA/ UVB sunlight by agents in sunscreen lotions also leads to a reduction of the expected photoprotection of human skin and DNA against the harmful UV radiation. The active ingredients were investigated in aqueous media and in organic solvents of various polarities (methanol, acetonitrile, and n-hexane) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions The UV absorption features are affected by the nature of the solvents with properties closely related to oil-in-water (o/w) or water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions actually used in sunscreen formulations, and by the presence of molecular oxygen. The photostabilities of two combined chemical ingredients (oxybenzone and octyl methoxycinnamate) and the combination oxybenzone/titanium dioxide were also explored. In the latter case, oxybenzone undergoes significant photodegradation in the presence of the physical filter TiO2. PMID:12661594

  8. Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of dissolved humic substances in a mangrove-fringed estuary in the eastern coast of Hainan Island, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yaoling; DU Jinzhou; PENG Bo; ZHANG Fenfen; ZHAO Xin; ZHANG Jing

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) has an important effect on estuarine and coastal area on a large scale.In order to improve the understanding of origin,composition,and fate of DOM in mangrove-fringed estuarine and coastal areas,dissolved humic substances (DHS) were isolated from one mangrove pore-water sample and one near-shore seawater sample downstream the mangrove pore-water site in the eastern coast of Hainan Island,South China.Fulvic acids,humic acids and XAD-4 fractions were obtained from the two water samples by using a two-column array of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins.Chemical and spectroscopic methods were used to analyze the features of these DHS.Compared to the mangrovepore-water DHS,the near-shore seawater DHS were found rich in 13C with lower C/N ratios and more aliphatic compounds and carbohydrates,but less aromatic structures and carboxyl groups.As for the three fractions of the two DHS,XAD-4 fractions contain more aliphatics,carbohydrates,carboxyl groups,and enrich in 13C with respect to both fulvic and humic acids.Photo-oxidation transformation and contribution from marine-derived DOM were considered as the main reasons resulted in the difference in compositional features for these DHS in this study.

  9. Changes in cerebral blood flow during olfactory stimulation in patients with multiple chemical sensitivity: a multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Azuma

    Full Text Available Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS is characterized by somatic distress upon exposure to odors. Patients with MCS process odors differently from controls. This odor-processing may be associated with activation in the prefrontal area connecting to the anterior cingulate cortex, which has been suggested as an area of odorant-related activation in MCS patients. In this study, activation was defined as a significant increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF because of odorant stimulation. Using the well-designed card-type olfactory test kit, changes in rCBF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC were investigated after olfactory stimulation with several different odorants. Near-infrared spectroscopic (NIRS imaging was performed in 12 MCS patients and 11 controls. The olfactory stimulation test was continuously repeated 10 times. The study also included subjective assessment of physical and psychological status and the perception of irritating and hedonic odors. Significant changes in rCBF were observed in the PFC of MCS patients on both the right and left sides, as distinct from the center of the PFC, compared with controls. MCS patients adequately distinguished the non-odorant in 10 odor repetitions during the early stage of the olfactory stimulation test, but not in the late stage. In comparison to controls, autonomic perception and negative affectivity were poorer in MCS patients. These results suggest that prefrontal information processing associated with odor-processing neuronal circuits and memory and cognition processes from past experience of chemical exposure play significant roles in the pathology of this disorder.

  10. Chemical characterisation of old cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) seed oil by liquid chromatography and different spectroscopic detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, Francesco; Beccaria, Marco; Oteri, Marianna; Utczas, Margita; Giuffrida, Daniele; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-07-01

    We report an extensive chemical characterisation of fatty acids, triacylglycerols, tocopherols, carotenoids and polyphenols contained in the oil extracted from old cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) by cold-pressing of the seeds. Analyses were performed by GC-FID combined with mass spectrometry, HPLC with photodiode array, fluorescence and mass spectrometry detection. The 94% of the total fatty acids were unsaturated, rappresented by erucic acid (more than 50%) followed by linoleic, linolenic and oleic acids accounting for approximately 10% each. The most abundant triacylglycerols (>13%) were represented by erucic-gadolenic-linoleic, erucic-eruci-linoleic and erucic-erucic-oleic. Among tocopherols, γ-tocopherol accounted for over 70% of the total content. Thirteen carotenoids and 11 polyphenols were identified and measured. In particular, the total content in carotenoids was 10.9 ppm and all-E-lutein was the main component (7.7 ppm); among polyphenols, six hydroxycinnamic acids and five flavonoids, were identified by combining information from retention times, PDA and MS data. PMID:27314571

  11. A spectroscopic study of blue supergiant stars in the Sculptor galaxy NGC 55: chemical evolution and distance

    CERN Document Server

    Kudritzki, Rolf; Castro, Norberto; Ho, I-Ting; Bresolin, Fabio; Gieren, Wolfgang; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Przybilla, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Low resolution (4.5 to 5 Angstroem) spectra of 58 blue supergiant stars distributed over the disk of the Magellanic spiral galaxy NGC 55 in the Sculptor group are analyzed by means of non-LTE techniques to determine stellar temperatures, gravities and metallicities (from iron peak and alpha-elements). A metallicity gradient of -0.22 +/- 0.06$ dex/R_25 is detected. The central metallicity on a logarithmic scale relative to the Sun is [Z] = -0.37 +\\- 0.03. A chemical evolution model using the observed distribution of stellar and interstellar medium gas mass column densities reproduces the observed metallicity distribution well and reveals a recent history of strong galactic mass accretion and wind outflows with accretion and mass-loss rates of the order of the star formation rate. There is an indication of spatial inhomogeneity in metallicity. In addition, the relatively high central metallicity of the disk confirms that two extra-planar metal poor HII regions detected in previous work 1.13 to 2.22 kpc above th...

  12. Primordial matter in the outer solar system: A study of its chemical composition from remote spectroscopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our knowledge of the primordial matter from the objects of the outer solar system has made a considerable progress over the past years, in spite of the lack of any in situ measurements of these objects at the present time. The recent progress of ground-based instrumentation and the launch of the two Voyager fly-by missions have provided a huge amount of new informations about the origin and the evolution of the 'primitive' Solar System objects. The most significant discoveries concerning the atmospheres of the Giant Planets can be summarized as follows: (1) there does not seem to be any differentiation in the internal structure of Jupiter during the planet's history; thus, the H2/He ratio measured on Jupiter seems to be representative of the H/He ratio of the Primordial Nebula; (2) there is some evidence for a helium differentiation, relative to hydrogen, in Saturn's interior; (3) there seems to be a carbon enrichment on both Jupiter and Saturn by a factor about 2; this result is consistent with a model in which the planetary core is formed first, and the atmosphere accreted by this core in a second stage; (4) the D/H ratio measured on Jupiter should be representative of the D/H value in the Primordial Nebula, 4.5 billion years ago; this value is 2 to 5 times larger than the mean value measured in the local interstellar medium now; (5) Titan's atmosphere is dominated by nitrogen and contains traces of organic and prebiotic molecules (HCN, C2N2, HC3N); the chemical composition of Titan's atmosphere could be favorable for the early stages of life development. (orig./HM)

  13. Spectroscopic investigation of the chemical and electronic properties of chalcogenide materials for thin-film optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Kimberly Anne

    Chalcogen-based materials are at the forefront of technologies for sustainable energy production. This progress has come only from decades of research, and further investigation is needed to continue improvement of these materials. For this dissertation, a number of chalcogenide systems were studied, which have applications in optoelectronic devices, such as LEDs and Photovoltaics. The systems studied include Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) and CuInSe 2 (CISe) thin-film absorbers, CdTe-based photovoltaic structures, and CdTe-ZnO nanocomposite materials. For each project, a sample set was prepared through collaboration with outside institutions, and a suite of spectroscopy techniques was employed to answer specific questions about the system. These techniques enabled the investigation of the chemical and electronic structure of the materials, both at the surface and towards the bulk. CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-films produced from the roll-to-roll, ambient pressure, Nanosolar industrial line were studied. While record-breaking efficiency cells are usually prepared in high-vacuum (HV) or ultra-high vacuum (UHV) environments, these samples demonstrate competitive mass-production efficiency without the high-cost deposition environment. We found relatively low levels of C contaminants, limited Na and Se oxidation, and a S-Se intermixing at the CdS/CIGSe interface. The surface band gap compared closely to previously investigated CIGSe thin-films deposited under vacuum, illustrating that roll-to-roll processing is a promising and less-expensive alternative for solar cell production. An alternative deposition process for CuInSe2 was also studied, in collaboration with the University of Luxembourg. CuInSe2 absorbers were prepared with varying Cu content and surface treatments to investigate the potential to produce an absorber with a Cu-rich bulk and Cu-poor surface. This is desired to combine the bulk characteristics of reduced defects and larger grains in Cu-rich films, while maintaining

  14. Flooding On

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Drenched riverside towns in central and south parts of China were preparing for even worse flooding as water levels in the country's huge rivers surged and rainstorms continued. As of July 27,accumulated precipitation since June 16 in 70 percent of the drainage areas of the Yangtze River had exceeded 50 mm,after three rounds of rainstorms,said Cai Qihua,Deputy Director of the Yangtze River Flood Control and Drought Relief Headquarters.

  15. BEHAVIOR OF SURFACTANT MIXTURE AT SOLID/LIQUID AND OIL/LIQUID INTERFACE IN CHEMICAL FLOODING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. P. Somasundaran

    2002-03-01

    The aim of the project is to develop and evaluate efficient novel surfactant mixtures for enhanced oil recovery. Preliminary ultra-filtration tests suggest that two kinds of micelles may exist in binary surfactant mixtures at different concentrations. Due to the important role played in interfacial processes by micelles as determined by their structures, focus of the current work is on the delineation of the relationship between such aggregate structures and chemical compositions of the surfactants. A novel analytical centrifuge application is explored to generate information on structures of different surfactants aggregates. In this report, optical systems, typical output of the analytical ultracentrifuge results and four basic experiments are discussed. Initial sedimentation velocity investigations were conducted using nonyl phenol ethoxylated decyl ether (NP-10) to choose the best analytical protocol, calculate the partial specific volume and obtain information on sedimentation coefficient, aggregation mass of micelles. The partial specific volume was calculated to be 0.920. Four softwares: Optima{trademark} XL-A/XL-I data analysis software, DCDT+, Svedberg and SEDFIT, were compared for the analysis of sedimentation velocity experimental data. The sedimentation coefficient and aggregation number of NP-10 micelles obtained using the first three softwares at 25 C are 209, 127, and 111, respectively. The last one is closest to the result from Light Scattering. The reason for the differences in numbers obtained using the three softwares is discussed. Based on these tests, Svedberg and SEDFIT analysis are chosen for further studies. This approach using the analytical ultracentrifugation offers an unprecedented opportunity now to obtain important information on mixed micelles and their role in interfacial processes.

  16. Spectroscopic [FT-IR and FT-Raman] and molecular modeling (MM) study of benzene sulfonamide molecule using quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, K. S.; Periandy, S.; Govindarajan, M.

    2016-07-01

    The spectroscopic and molecular modeling (MM) study includes, FT-IR, FT-Raman and 13C NMR and 1H NMR spectra of the Benzene sulfonamide were recorded for the analysis. The observed experimental and theoretical frequencies (IR and Raman) were assigned according to their distinctive region. The present study of this title molecule have been carried out by hybrid computational calculations of HF and DFT (B3LYP) methods with 6-311+G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets and the corresponding results are tabulated. The structural modifications of the compound due to the substitutions of NH2 and SO2 were investigated. The minimum energy conformers of the compound were studied using conformational analysis. The alternations of the vibrational pattern of the base structure related to the substitutions were analyzed. The thermodynamic parameters (such as zero-point vibrational energy, thermal energy, specific heat capacity, rotational constants, entropy, and dipole moment) of Benzene sulfonamide have been calculated. The donor acceptor interactions of the compound and the corresponding UV transitions are found out using NBO analysis. The NMR spectra were simulated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method with B3LYP methods and the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set and their spectra were simulated and the chemical shifts related to TMS were compared. A quantum computational study on the electronic and optical properties absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies, were performed by HF and DFT methods. The energy gap of the present compound was calculated related to HOMO and LUMO energies which confirm the occurring of charge transformation between the base and ligand group. Besides frontier molecular orbitals (FMO), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) was performed. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures were calculated in gas phase and

  17. Signal Processing for Spectroscopic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gudmundson, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic techniques allow for studies of materials and organisms on the atomic and molecular level. Examples of such techniques are nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy—one of the principal techniques to obtain physical, chemical, electronic and structural information about molecules—and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)—an important medical imaging technique for, e.g., visualization of the internal structure of the human body. The less well-known spectroscopic technique of nucle...

  18. Combating Floods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    In summer and autumn of 1998, the river vatleys of the Changjiang, Songhua and Nenjiang rivers were stricken by exceptionally serious floods, As of the, 22nd of August, the flooded areas stretched over 52.4 million acres. More than 223 million people were affected by the flood. 4.97 million houses were ruined, economic losses totaled RMB 166 billion, and most tragically, 3,004 people lost their byes. It was one of the costliest disasters in Chinese history. Millions of People’s Liberation Army soldiers and local people joined hands to battle the floodwaters. Thanks to their unified efforts and tenacious struggle, they successfully withstood the rising, water, resumed production and began to rebuild their homes.

  19. Impact of contaminants on aquatic systems and inundated sites with respect to flood events - In vitro biotests, chemical target analysis and fractionation methods

    OpenAIRE

    Wölz, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Scope of the present study is the development and application of aquatic in vitro bioassays and methods of effect-directed analysis (EDA). It aims at investigating contamination of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and pollution of inundated sites and riparian aquifer, respectively. In the first part of this study, SPM was sampled during flood events and toxicological activities were determined. The second part of the study dealt with possible conflict of interests between flood management (...

  20. Spectroscopic characterization of uranium in evaporation basin sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaporation ponds in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV), CA, used for the containment of irrigation drainage waters contain elevated levels of uranium (U) resulting from the extensive leaching by carbonate-rich irrigation waters of the local agricultural soils that contain low levels of naturally-occurring U. The SJV ponds are subjected to changes in redox chemistry with cycles of drying and flooding. Past studies have shown that U in the SJV Pont 14 surface sediments is present as mostly the oxidized and soluble form, U(VI). However, the authors were uncertain whether the U in the soil was only present as a U oxide of mixed stoichiometry, such as U3O8(s) (pitchblende) or other species. Here they present characterization information, which includes wet chemical and in situ spectroscopic techniques (X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and low temperature time-resolved luminescence spectroscopies) for samples from two SJV Pond sediments. Surface sediments from SJV Pont 16 were characterized for average oxidation state of U with XANES spectroscopy. The wet chemical extractions and in situ spectroscopic techniques provided fundamental and basic knowledge about the fraction of U(IV) to U(VI), the speciation of luminescent U(VI), and the susceptibility of the sediment U species to leaching

  1. Flooding On

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Drenched riverside towns in central and south parts of China were preparing for even worse flooding aswater levels in the country’s huge rivers surged and rainstorms continued.As of July 27,accumulated precipitation since June 16 in 70 percent of the drainage

  2. Integrated Flood Management in Urban Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V R Sawant

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Flood Hazards are most common and destructives of all natural disaster. The study has major objectives of evaluating flood risk mitigation strategies in Mumbai, which has suffered perennial flooding and needs establishment of coastal management zoning authority, Land use zoning , legislation Building codes, flood fore casting and warning system. Flood insurance based on concept of Vulnerability index, Standards of preparedness and Integrated Water Resource management techniques presented in this paper.

  3. Spectroscopic data

    CERN Document Server

    Melzer, J

    1976-01-01

    During the preparation of this compilation, many people contributed; the compilers wish to thank all of them. In particular they appreciate the efforts of V. Gilbertson, the manuscript typist, and those of K. C. Bregand, J. A. Kiley, and W. H. McPherson, who gave editorial assistance. They would like to thank Dr. J. R. Schwartz for his cooperation and encouragement. In addition, they extend their grati­ tude to Dr. L. Wilson of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory, who gave the initial impetus to this project. v Contents I. I ntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. Organization ofthe Spectroscopic Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Methods of Production and Experimental Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Band Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2...

  4. Floodplain sediments of the 2002 catastrophic flood at the Vltava (Moldau) River and its tributaries: mineralogy, chemical composition, and post-sedimentary evolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Rohovec, Jan; Žák, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2008), s. 399-412. ISSN 0943-0105 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Vltava (Moldau) River * Berounka River * floodplain sediments * 2002 catastrophic flood (Czech Republic) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.026, year: 2008

  5. Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging of Latent Fingerprints and Associated Forensic Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Tsoching; Schultz, Zachary D.; Ira W. Levin

    2009-01-01

    Fingerprints reflecting a specific chemical history, such as exposure to explosives, are clearly distinguished from overlapping, and interfering latent fingerprints using infrared spectroscopic imaging techniques and multivariate analysis.

  6. Floods, flood control, and bottomland vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan M.; Auble, Gregor T.

    2000-01-01

    Bottomland plant communities are typically dominated by the effects of floods. Floods create the surfaces on which plants become established, transport seeds and nutrients, and remove establish plants. Floods provide a moisture subsidy that allows development of bottomland forests in arid regions and produce anoxic soils, which can control bottomland plant distribution in humid regions. Repeated flooding produces a mosaic of patches of different age, sediment texture, and inundation duration; this mosaic fosters high species richness.

  7. Influence of different water-ethanol solvent systems on the spectroscopic and physico-chemical properties of the macrocyclic compounds pheophytin and chlorophyll a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work focus on the influence of solvent on the photophysical properties of chlorophyll a and pheophytin. Both compounds are related to the photosynthesis process and are considered prototypes of photosensitizers in Photodynamic Therapy. Fluorescence measurements were developed using water/ethanol mixtures at different compositions, since both solvents could be employed in biological applications. The spectroscopic properties of these compounds undergo profound changes depending on water content in the ethanol due to auto-aggregation processes. The major hydrophobicity and the lower dielectric constant of ethanol when compared with water precluded significantly the auto-aggregation process of these compounds. (author)

  8. Recent Advances and Applications of External Cavity-QCLs towards Hyperspectral Imaging for Standoff Detection and Real-Time Spectroscopic Sensing of Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Ostendorf

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available External-cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL are now established as versatile wavelength-tunable light sources for analytical spectroscopy in the mid-infrared (MIR spectral range. We report on the realization of rapid broadband spectral tuning with kHz scan rates by combining a QCL chip with a broad gain spectrum and a resonantly driven micro-opto-electro-mechanical (MOEMS scanner with an integrated diffraction grating in Littrow configuration. The capability for real-time spectroscopic sensing based on MOEMS EC-QCLs is demonstrated by transmission measurements performed on polystyrene reference absorber sheets, as well as on hazardous substances, such as explosives. Furthermore, different applications for the EC-QCL technology in spectroscopic sensing are presented. These include the fields of process analysis with on- or even inline capability and imaging backscattering spectroscopy for contactless identification of solid and liquid contaminations on surfaces. Recent progress in trace detection of explosives and related precursors in relevant environments as well as advances in food quality monitoring by discriminating fresh and mold contaminated peanuts based on their MIR backscattering spectrum is shown.

  9. Flooding and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, flooding is the nation's most common natural disaster. Some floods develop slowly during an extended period of rain or in a warming trend following a heavy snow. Flash floods can occur quickly, without any visible sign of rain. Catastrophic floods are associated with burst dams and levees,…

  10. Flood risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Blanksby, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    The EU Flood Directive requires member states to develop flood risk management plans by 22nd December 2015. Along the way, member states are required to carry out preliminary flood risk assessments by 22nd December 2011, and detailed flood risk and hazard maps by 22nd December 2013. Following these initial submissions, the assessments, maps and plans will be reviewed and updated in six yearly cycles. Many countries have already carried out preliminary assessments and produced flood risk and h...

  11. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  12. Spectroscopic and quantum-chemical investigation of association of ions in acetonitrile - LiX (X=I, ClO4, NCS) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on association constants of ions in acetonitrile-salt binary systems, obtained from the data on intensity of IR absorption bands of acetonitrile (Acn) molecules contained in solvate shells of Li+ cations, have been analyzed. Using the CCP MO LCAO semiempirical method in the PPDP approximation, electronic structure of acetonitrile molecule and AcnkLi+ and AcnmLi+X- complexes has been studied. It is ascertained that relative stability of ionic pairs Acn3Li+X-, estimated by the squares of their dipole momenta (characterizing solvation energy) increases in the series X=I, ClO4, NCS in agreement with data of spectroscopic experiment, according to which the constant of ion association for LiNCS solution in acetonitrile is much higher than for the systems CH3CN-LiI and CH3CN-LiClO4. 13 refs.,2 figs., 2 tabs.64

  13. Synthesis, structural, and spectroscopic (FT-IR, NMR, and UV) Characterization of 1-(Cyclohexylmethyl)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1 H-benzo[ d]imidazole by experimental techniques and quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Namık; Dayan, Osman; Demirmen, Selin

    2016-05-01

    The title compound ( II), 1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1 H-benzo[ d]imidazole (C19H21N3), was synthesized via N-alkylation of 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1 H-benzo[ d]imidazole ( I). Both compounds I and II were characterized by IR, NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. Solid-state structure of compound II was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Furthermore, quantum chemical calculations employing density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with the 6-311++ G( d, p) basis set were performed for the theoretical characterization of the molecular and spectroscopic features of the compounds. Using the TD-DFT method, electronic absorption spectra of the compounds have been predicted at same level. When the obtained results were compared with the experimental findings, it is seen that theoretical results support the experimental data and a good agreement exists between them.

  14. Groundwater flood or groundwater-induced flood?

    OpenAIRE

    Robins, N.S.; Finch, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    A number of ‘groundwater flood’ events have been recorded over the Chalk aquifer in southern England since the 1994 occurrence at Chichester, Sussex. Reporting of this event and subsequent groundwater floods indicates that there are two types of groundwater flood event. Type 1 is the true groundwater flood in which the water table elevation rises above the ground elevation, and Type 2 occurs when intense groundwater discharge via bourne springs and highly permeable shallow horizons discharges...

  15. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterizations and quantum chemical computational studies of (Z)-4-[(E)-(4-fluorophenyl)diazenyl]-6-[(3-hydroxypropylamino)methylene]-2-methoxycyclohexa-2,4-dienone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Ciğdem; Odabaşoğlu, Mustafa; Ozek, Arzu; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the molecular structure and spectroscopic properties of the title compound were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopies. These properties were also investigated using DFT method. The most convenient conformation of title compound was firstly determined. The geometry optimizations in gas phase and solvent media were performed by DFT methods with B3LYP adding 6-31G(d) basis set. The differences between crystal and computational structures are due to crystal packing in which hydrogen bonds play an important role. UV-vis spectra were recorded in different organic solvents. The results show that title compound exists in both keto and enol forms in DMSO, EtOH but it tends to shift towards enol form in benzene. The polar solvents facilitate the proton transfer by decreasing the activation energy needed for Transition State. The formation of both keto and enol forms in DMSO and EtOH is due to decrease in the activation energy. TD-DFT calculations starting from optimized geometry were carried out in both gas and solution phases to calculate excitation energies of the title compound. The non-linear optical properties were computed at the theory level and the title compound showed a good second order non-linear optical property. In addition, thermodynamic properties were obtained in the range of 100-500K. PMID:22001007

  16. A spectroscopic study on interaction between bovine serum albumin and titanium dioxide nanoparticle synthesized from microwave-assisted hybrid chemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Shivendu; Dasgupta, Nandita; Srivastava, Priyanka; Ramalingam, Chidambaram

    2016-08-01

    The use of nanoparticles in food or pharma requires a molecular-level perceptive of how NPs interact with protein corona once exposed to a physiological environment. In this study, the conformational changes of bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated in detail when exposed to different concentration of titanium dioxide nanoparticle by various techniques. To analyze the effects of NPs on proteins, the interaction between bovine serum albumin and titanium dioxide nanoparticles at different concentrations were investigated. The interaction, BSA conformations, kinetics, and adsorption were analyzed by dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and fluorescence quenching. Dynamic light scattering analysis confirms the interaction with major changes in the size of the protein. Fluorescence quenching analysis confirms the side-on or end-on interaction of 1.1 molecules of serum albumin to titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Further, pseudo-second order kinetics was determined with equilibrium contact time of 20min. The spectroscopic analysis suggests that there is a conformational change both at secondary and tertiary structure levels. A distortion in both α-helix and β-sheets was observed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Fluorescence quenching analysis confirms the interaction of a molecule of bovine serum albumin to the single TiO2 nanoparticle. Further, pseudo-second order kinetics was determined with equilibrium contact time of 20min. The data of the present study determines the detailed evaluation of BSA adsorption on TiO2 nanoparticle along with mechanism and adsorption kinetics. PMID:27318604

  17. South China Flooded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Vehicles traverse a flooded street in Liuzhou, guangxi zhuang Autonomous Region, on May 19.heavy rainstorms repeatedly struck China this month, triggering floods, mudflows and landslides. hunan, guangdong and Jiangxi provinces and Chongqing Municipality were the worst hit.

  18. FLOOD EVENT MAPPING IMAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    OSEI flood products (FLD) include multichannel color composite imagery and single-channel grayscale imagery of enlarged river areas or increased sediment flow. Typically, these events are displayed by comparison to imagery taken when flooding was not occurring.

  19. Flood Hazard Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  20. Base Flood Elevation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  1. Repairing Your Flooded Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offer reduced prices, but be wary of “flood sales” that are sell- ing flood damaged items. Some insurance companies and lenders may let you delay your monthly payments. Sometimes banks will make lower interest loans available for reconstruction. ...

  2. EmergencyFlood_DFIRMT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  3. Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  4. EmergencyFlood_DFIRMC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  5. Flood Risk Regional Flood Defences: Technical report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.

    2015-01-01

    Historically the Netherlands have always had to deal with the threat of flooding, both from the rivers and the sea as well as from heavy rainfall. The country consists of a large amount of polders, which are low lying areas of land protected from flooding by embankments. These polders require an ext

  6. Estimating extreme flood probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of the exceedance probabilities of extreme floods are needed for the assessment of flood hazard at Department of Energy facilities. A new approach using a joint probability distribution of extreme rainfalls and antecedent soil moisture conditions, along with a rainfall runoff model, provides estimates of probabilities for floods approaching the probable maximum flood. This approach is illustrated for a 570 km2 catchment in Wisconsin and a 260 km2 catchment in Tennessee

  7. A novel strategy for site-directed chemical reactions in single stranded DNA--absorption and NMR spectroscopic studies of model compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    Asseline, U; Rozelle, T; Lancelot, G; Thuong, N T

    1992-01-01

    A new and simple model enabling a chemical species to be brought to a preselected site in single strand DNA is reported. Two oligonucleotides containing a propanediol linkage were hybridized to their complementary sequences with an extra-base opposite the propanediol derivative. Absorption studies results shown that the addition of a bisacridine derivative strongly increased the stabilities of both duplexes when added in a 1:1 ratio. NMR studies on one of these duplexes brought evidence of th...

  8. Theoretical and experimental spectroscopic analysis by FTIR in the effect of the silanes on the chemical modification of the surface of rice husk

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado-Delgado, R.; A.M. Salgado-Delgado

    2016-01-01

    The development of new fibrous composites with specific properties has attracted a big interest in the development of new technologies. One of the biggest problems in this area is the improvement of the fiber/matrix interface to increase the mechanical properties in the final composite. In this work, surface chemical modifications of the rice husk (by-product of the rice industry) were carried out to achieve a better compatibility with diverse polymeric matrices. These modificatio...

  9. Ge and As x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic study of homopolar bonding, chemical order, and topology in Ge-As-S chalcogenide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coordination environments of Ge and As atoms in GexAsyS1-x-y glasses with x:y=1:2, 1:1, and 2.5:1 and with wide-ranging S contents have been studied with Ge and As K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The coordination numbers of Ge and As atoms are found to be 4 and 3, respectively, in all glasses. The first coordination shells of Ge and As atoms in the stoichiometric and S-excess glasses consist of S atoms only, implying the preservation of chemical order at least over the length scale of the first coordination shell. As-As homopolar bonds are found to appear at low and intermediate levels of S deficiency, whereas Ge-Ge bonds are formed only in strongly S-deficient glasses indicating clustering of metal atoms and violation of chemical order in S-deficient glasses. The composition-dependent variation in chemical order in chalcogenide glasses has been hypothesized to result in topological changes in the intermediate-range structural units. The role of such topological transitions in controlling the structure-property relationships in chalcogenide glasses is discussed

  10. Severe Flooding in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

  11. Evaluation des méthodes chimiques, spectroscopiques et chromatographiques utilisables pour l'identification des polluants pétroliers en mer Evaluation of Chemical, Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Methods Used to Identify Offshore Oil Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albaigés J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article on passe en revue les différentes méthodes utilisables pour l'identification des principaux polluants pétroliers de la mer par l'analyse quantitativé de leurs « marqueurs passifs x (soufre, azote, nickel, vanadium, paraffine et asphaltènes et la détermination d'autres caractéristiques intrinsèques. II s'agit de méthodes chimiques, spectroscop iques (infrarouge, ultraviolette et chromatographiques (chromatographie en phase gazeuse à haute résolution avec détection par ionisation de flamme, photométrie de flamme et capture d'électrons. Les mesures ont concerné une grande variété de produits susceptibles de polluer la côte méditerranéenne espagnole - pétrole brut des gisements offshore d'Amposta et de Castellôn; - pétroles bruts importés traités dans les raffineries côtières (Boscan, Es Sider, Kuwait, Arabian light, etc.; - fractions lourdes provenant de ces raffineries (fuel-cils, asphaltes, lubrifiants; - polluants réels; - échantillons altérés artificiellement en laboratoire afin de mettre en évidence l'action progressive des éléments naturels. On a trouvé que les méthodes les plus intéressantes étaient : - le dosage chimique du soufre, du nickel et du vanadium; - la spectroscopie infrarouge; - la chromatographie en phase gazeuse à haute résolution avec détection par ionisation et photométrie de flamme. This article reviews the different methods that con be used to identify the leading petroleum pollutants of the sea by quantitative analysis of their a passive markers » (sulfur, nitrogen, nickel, vanadium, paraffin, asphaltenes and by determining other intrinsic properties. These methods are chemical, spectroscopic (infrared, ultraviolet and chromatographic (high-resolution gas chromatography with flame ionization detection, flame photometry and electron capture. Measurements were made of a great variety of products capable of polluting the Spanish Mediterranean coast, including

  12. Organometallic derivatives of furan. LII. Synthesis of carbofunctional furylsilanes and their 1H, 13C, and 29Si NMR spectroscopic and quantum-chemical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the standard conditions for the synthesis of furan compounds it is possible to obtain the carbofunctional derivatives of silylated furfural with retention of the trimethylsilyl group in the ring. By NMR and CNDO/2 LCAO MO methods and also as a result of the investigation of the chemical characteristics of silylated furfural and its carbofunctional derivatives it was established that the introduction of a trimethylsilyl group at position 5 of the furan ring does not change the reactivity of the carbofunctional substituents at position 2. The electronic effects of the substituents are hardly transmitted through the furan ring at all. The effect of substituents in the carbofunctional furylsilanes on the electronic structure of the ring is additive

  13. Influence of the preparation procedure on the chemical and microstructural properties of lanthana promoted Rh/SiO{sub 2} catalysts. A FTIR spectroscopic study of chemisorbed CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, S. [Cadiz Univ. (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias; Blanco, G. [Cadiz Univ. (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias; Calvino, J.J. [Cadiz Univ. (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias; Cauqui, M.A. [Cadiz Univ. (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias; Rodriguez-Izquierdo, J.M. [Cadiz Univ. (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias; Vidal, H. [Cadiz Univ. (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias

    1997-03-20

    In this work, the influence of the preparation procedure on the chemical and microstructural properties of a series of Rh/La{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} catalysts has been investigated. The catalysts were characterized by using HREM, H{sub 2} and CO volumetric adsorption and FTIR spectroscopy of chemisorbed CO. From our study, significant effects were observed for the following preparative variables: (a) the lanthana loading; (b) the way of introducing the metal and promoter, either consecutive (lanthana first and then the rhodium salt) or by co-impregnation; and (c) the calcination temperature (873 K or 1173 K) applied for preparing the La{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} intermediate phase onto which the noble metal was deposited. (orig.)

  14. Primidone - An antiepileptic drug - characterisation by quantum chemical and spectroscopic (FTIR, FT-Raman, 1H, 13C NMR and UV-Visible) investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Santhanam, R.; Subramanian, S.; Mohan, S.

    2013-05-01

    The solid phase FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of primidone were recorded in the regions 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-100 cm-1, respectively. The vibrational spectra were analysed and the observed fundamentals were assigned and analysed. The experimental wavenumbers were compared with the theoretical scaled vibrational wavenumbers determined by DFT methods. The Raman intensities were also determined with B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method. The total electron density and molecular electrostatic potential surface of the molecule were constructed by using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method to display electrostatic potential (electron + nuclei) distribution. The HOMO and LUMO energies were measured. Natural bond orbital analysis of primidone has been performed to indicate the presence of intramolecular charge transfer. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded and the chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated.

  15. Quantum Chemical and FTIR Spectroscopic Studies on the Linkage Isomerism of Carbon Monoxide in Alkali-Metal-Exchanged Zeolites: A Review of Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Garrone

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: When adsorbed (at a low temperature on alkali-metal-exchanged zeolites, CO forms both M(CO+ and M(OC+ carbonyl species with the extra-framework alkali-metal cation of the zeolite. Both quantum chemical and experimental results show that C-bondend adducts are characterized by a C−O stretching IR band at a frequency higher than that of 2143 cm-1 for free CO, while for O-bonded adducts this IR band appears below 2143 cm-1. The cation-CO interaction energy is higher for M(CO+ than for M(OC+ carbonyls, although the corresponding difference decreases substantially when going from Li+ to Cs+. By means of variable-temperature FTIR spectroscopy, this energy difference was determined for several alkali-metal cations, and the existence of a thermal equilibrium between M(CO+ and M(OC+ species was established. The current state of research in this field is reviewed here, with a view to gain more insight into the thermal isomerization process.

  16. Stepwise substitution of Μ3-Te ligands in octahedral cluster core (Re6Te8)2+: NMR spectroscopic evidence of equilibrium between chemical forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-temperature reactions of the (Re6Te8)Te7 rhenium telluride with elementary sulfur and selenium, leading to formation of substitution solid solutions of the (Re6Te8-xYx)Te7 type, where by Y=S, Se,; 0≤x≤8, are studied. Complex salts of the K4(Re6Te8-xYx)(CN)6 compositions, preserving the cluster nucleus of the source compounds, are synthesized through interaction of the (Re6Te8-xYx)Te7 solid phases with the KCN melt. The salts water solutions are studied through the NMR spectroscopy method on 77Se and 125Te nuclei. Complex spectra for various composition samples are obtained. The additive model applied adequately describes the NMP spectra for all studied samples. The conclusion is made on the basis of the data obtained that the (Re6Te8-xYx)Te7 phases with certain x-values contain practically the set of different chemical forms (with different values), whereby quantitative ratios between them are determined by corresponding equilibrium constants

  17. Comprehensive quantum chemical and spectroscopic (FTIR, FT-Raman, 1H, 13C NMR) investigations of O-desmethyltramadol hydrochloride an active metabolite in tramadol - An analgesic drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Santhanam, R.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.

    2014-03-01

    O-desmethyltramadol is one of the main metabolites of tramadol widely used clinically and has analgesic activity. The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of O-desmethyl tramadol hydrochloride are recorded in the solid phase in the regions 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-100 cm-1, respectively. The observed fundamentals are assigned to different normal modes of vibration. Theoretical studies have been performed as its hydrochloride salt. The structure of the compound has been optimised with B3LYP method using 6-31G** and cc-pVDZ basis sets. The optimised bond length and bond angles are correlated with the X-ray data. The experimental wavenumbers were compared with the scaled vibrational frequencies determined by DFT methods. The IR and Raman intensities are determined with B3LYP method using cc-pVDZ and 6-31G(d,p) basic sets. The total electron density and molecular electrostatic potential surfaces of the molecule are constructed by using B3LYP/cc-pVDZ method to display electrostatic potential (electron + nuclei) distribution. The electronic properties HOMO and LUMO energies were measured. Natural bond orbital analysis of O-desmethyltramadol hydrochloride has been performed to indicate the presence of intramolecular charge transfer. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the molecule have been anlysed.

  18. Effects of particle size and edge structure on the electronic structure, spectroscopic features, and chemical properties of Au(111)-supported MoS2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruix, Albert; Lauritsen, Jeppe V; Hammer, Bjørk

    2016-07-01

    Materials based on MoS2 are widely used as catalysts and their structure usually consists of single-layered MoS2 nanoparticles whose edges are known to constitute the catalytically active sites. Methods based on density functional theory are used in this work to calculate the electronic structure of representative computational models of MoS2 nanoparticles supported on Au(111). By considering nanoparticles with different edge-terminations, compositions, and sizes, we describe how the electronic structure, Mo3d core-level shifts, and chemical properties (i.e. H adsorption and S vacancy formation) depend on the MoS2 nanoparticle size and structure. In addition, site-specific properties, largely inaccessible when using only slab models of MoS2 edges, are reported, which reveal that the edge sites are not uniform along the nanoparticle and largely depend on the proximity to the corners of the triangular NPs, especially when interacting with a metallic support. Furthermore, a structural motif where H atoms adsorb favourably in a bridging position between two Mo atoms is proposed as an active site for the hydrogen evolution reaction. PMID:27076269

  19. Flood potential in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important floods in the rivers of Albania are caused mainly from the intensive rainfall during the period December-March. Occasionally snow melts have some contribution on flood magnitude. Based on the observed data in 54 hydrologic stations, the parameters of floods are calculated, using Gumbel and Pearson III distribution. Using these parameters and the floods factors, a multiple regional correlation between them is estimated. The specific discharge (module) of the peak, corresponding to a return period of 100 years and a surface of the catchment area of 100 km2 , was computed for other 50 small basins by means of the multiple regression aquation. This module was chosen as an indicator of the flood potential. A map of this indicator was established for the Albanian territory, serving as a flood potential indicator but also as a certain risk of inundation. (Author)

  20. Molecular structure, electronic properties, NLO, NBO analysis and spectroscopic characterization of Gabapentin with experimental (FT-IR and FT-Raman) techniques and quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Leena; Karabacak, Mehmet; Narayan, V.; Cinar, Mehmet; Prasad, Onkar

    2013-05-01

    Gabapentin (GP), structurally related to the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), mimics the activity of GABA and is also widely used in neurology for the treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain. It exists in zwitterionic form in solid state. The present communication deals with the quantum chemical calculations of energies, geometrical structure and vibrational wavenumbers of GP using density functional (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. In view of the fact that amino acids exist as zwitterions as well as in the neutral form depending on the environment (solvent, pH, etc.), molecular properties of both the zwitterionic and neutral form of GP have been analyzed. The fundamental vibrational wavenumbers as well as their intensities were calculated and compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The fundamental assignments were done on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method. The electric dipole moment, polarizability and the first hyperpolarizability values of the GP have been calculated at the same level of theory and basis set. The nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior of zwitterionic and neutral form has been compared. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital analysis. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrum of the title molecule has also been calculated using TD-DFT method. The thermodynamic properties of both the zwitterionic and neutral form of GP at different temperatures have been calculated.

  1. Osmium(III) analogues of KP1019: Electrochemical and chemical synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, x-ray crystallography, hydrolytic stability, and antiproliferative activity

    KAUST Repository

    Kuhn, Paul-Steffen

    2014-10-20

    A one-electron reduction of osmium(IV) complexes trans-[OsIVCl4(Hazole)2], where Hazole = 1H-pyrazole ([1]0), 2H-indazole ([2]0), 1H-imidazole ([3]0), and 1H-benzimidazole ([4]0), afforded a series of eight new complexes as osmium analogues of KP1019, a lead anticancer drug in clinical trials, with the general formula (cation)[trans-OsIIICl4(Hazole)2], where cation = H2pz+ (H2pz[1]), H2ind+ (H2ind[2]), H2im+ (H2im[3]), Ph4P+ (Ph4P[3]), nBu4N+ (nBu4N[3]), H2bzim+ (H2bzim[4]), Ph4P+ (Ph4P[4]), and nBu4N+ (nBu4N[4]). All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, while H2pz[1], H2ind[2], and nBu4[3], in addition, by X-ray diffraction. The reduced species [1]- and [4]- are stable in aqueous media in the absence of air oxygen and do not react with small biomolecules such as amino acids and the nucleotide 5′-dGMP. Cell culture experiments in five different human cancer cell lines (HeLa, A549, FemX, MDA-MB-453, and LS-174) and one noncancerous cell line (MRC-5) were performed, and the results were discussed and compared to those for KP1019 and cisplatin. Benzannulation in complexes with similar structure enhances antitumor activity by several orders of magnitude, implicating different mechanisms of action of the tested compounds. In particular, complexes H2ind[2] and H2bzim[4] exhibited significant antiproliferative activity in vitro when compared to H2pz[1] and H2im[3]. (Chemical Equation Presented).

  2. RASOR flood modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Joost; Buckman, Lora; Bachmann, Daniel; Visser, Martijn; Tollenaar, Daniel; Vatvani, Deepak; Kramer, Nienke; Goorden, Neeltje

    2015-04-01

    Decision making in disaster management requires fast access to reliable and relevant information. We believe that online information and services will become increasingly important in disaster management. Within the EU FP7 project RASOR (Rapid Risk Assessment and Spatialisation of Risk) an online platform is being developed for rapid multi-hazard risk analyses to support disaster management anywhere in the world. The platform will provide access to a plethora of GIS data that are relevant to risk assessment. It will also enable the user to run numerical flood models to simulate historical and newly defined flooding scenarios. The results of these models are maps of flood extent, flood depths and flow velocities. The RASOR platform will enable to overlay historical event flood maps with observations and Earth Observation (EO) imagery to fill in gaps and assess the accuracy of the flood models. New flooding scenarios can be defined by the user and simulated to investigate the potential impact of future floods. A series of flood models have been developed within RASOR for selected case study areas around the globe that are subject to very different flood hazards: • The city of Bandung in Indonesia, which is prone to fluvial flooding induced by heavy rainfall. The flood hazard is exacerbated by land subsidence. • The port of Cilacap on the south coast of Java, subject to tsunami hazard from submarine earthquakes in the Sunda trench. • The area south of city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, prone to coastal and/or riverine flooding. • The island of Santorini in Greece, which is subject to tsunamis induced by landslides. Flood models have been developed for each of these case studies using mostly EO data, augmented by local data where necessary. Particular use was made of the new TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) product from the German Aerospace centre (DLR) and EADS Astrium. The presentation will describe the flood models and the

  3. Spectroscopic properties of porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research of composition and spectroscopic properties of porous silicon (por-Si) surface has been done. Complex of photoluminescence (PL), electroluminescence (EL), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), thermostimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE), electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy methods have been applied to study the chemical composition of the surface, that plays a decisive role in light-emitting properties of pot-Si. The studies were done on the composition of por-Si real surface containing pure silicon or SiHy species mixture with silicon oxides and carbon atoms as well as background impurities of chlorine, fluorine and nitrogen. (author)

  4. THE ANALYSIS OF FLOOD WAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Pandi Gavril

    2010-01-01

    The floods are an important phase of the hydrologic regime. Based on both genetically and influential factors, it can be identified several types of floods. The main criterion of analysis is the identification of flood that can be achieved using many methods. The type of flood, the morphology and the goal of analysis are taken into account for the identification of the flood. Then, parameters of the flood hydrograph can be specified, those parameters characterizing the laws of maximum water f...

  5. Discover Floods Educators Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project WET Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Now available as a Download! This valuable resource helps educators teach students about both the risks and benefits of flooding through a series of engaging, hands-on activities. Acknowledging the different roles that floods play in both natural and urban communities, the book helps young people gain a global understanding of this common--and…

  6. On Flood Alert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    lina braces fora particularly dangerous flood season in the wake of disastrous rainstorms Aseries of heavy storms since early May led to severe flooding and landslides in south and southwest China,causing heavy casualties and economic losses. Severe convective weather such as downpours,

  7. Flood Risk Regional Flood Defences: Technical report

    OpenAIRE

    Lendering, K.T.

    2015-01-01

    Historically the Netherlands have always had to deal with the threat of flooding, both from the rivers and the sea as well as from heavy rainfall. The country consists of a large amount of polders, which are low lying areas of land protected from flooding by embankments. These polders require an extensive water storage and drainage system to discharge excess water to the surrounding ‘outside water’. Through a large system of ditches water is pumped onto large storage canals which in turn drai...

  8. Insurance flood maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dear Client, in half an hour you will be hit by a flood, please get ready. Your insurance company. Such a phone call or SMS could only mean two things: drunk friends or an insurance company using a flood map. In the second case, the best thing to do on receiving such a message is to act quickly. The advantage of flood maps do not necessarily have to start at the moment a flood becomes an immediate threat. The primary role of flood maps is to allow for a fairer calculation of insurance rates. Insurance companies can save on re-insurance costs as if the risk level is predictable re-insurance companies may offer better rates. The three largest insurance companies: Allianz - Slovenska poistovna, Kooperativa and Ceska poistovna Slovensko have begun introducing flood maps. These three companies control about 75% of the market. And if competition does not force other market participants to adopt the same approach, re-insurance companies certainly will. They will charge more for a less specifically defined risk level. So far insurance companies have not encountered this pressure, re-insurance companies are helping them set up the flood maps and in the coming years flood maps will become a common tool. Then the pressure will be there: if a insurance company uses a different calculation method, the final price may differ greatly from the competition's. If the price is higher, the company will lose clients and if the price is much lower, the risk has probably not been calculated correctly and the insurance company may suffer substantial losses in the event of a major flood. In short, the investment of several million Sk in a flood map is essential

  9. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  10. Spectroscopic Dosimeter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Analysis of Phase I test data demonstrates that the Photogenics Spectroscopic Dosimeter will detect neutron energies from 0.8 up to 600 MeV. The detector...

  11. Flood Insurance in Canada: Implications for Flood Management and Residential Vulnerability to Flood Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  12. Development of flood index by characterisation of flood hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Biswa; Suman, Asadusjjaman

    2015-04-01

    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Due to climatological characteristics there are catchments where flood forecasting may have a relatively limited role and flood event management may have to be trusted upon. For example, in flash flood catchments, which often may be tiny and un-gauged, flood event management often depends on approximate prediction tools such as flash flood guidance (FFG). There are catchments fed largely by flood waters coming from upstream catchments, which are un-gauged or due to data sharing issues in transboundary catchments the flow of information from upstream catchment is limited. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of these downstream catchments will never be sufficient to provide any required forecasting lead time and alternative tools to support flood event management will be required. In FFG, or similar approaches, the primary motif is to provide guidance by synthesising the historical data. We follow a similar approach to characterise past flood hydrographs to determine a flood index (FI), which varies in space and time with flood magnitude and its propagation. By studying the variation of the index the pockets of high flood risk, requiring attention, can be earmarked beforehand. This approach can be very useful in flood risk management of catchments where information about hydro-meteorological variables is inadequate for any forecasting system. This paper presents the development of FI and its application to several catchments including in Kentucky in the USA

  13. Flood Damage Mitigation in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    James, L. Douglas; Larson, Dean T.; Hoggan, Daniel H.; Glover, Terrence L.

    1980-01-01

    Utah is subjected to flash flooding in mountain canyons, mudflows and shallow water flooding on lowlands at the canyon outlets, storm water flooding after thunderstorms in urban areas, and prolonged periods of inundation in certain lowland areas during snowmelt periods. In response to these problems, individuals are making private land use and flood proofing decisions, larger communities have storm water collectio...

  14. Simulation demonstrates economics of minnelusa polymer floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defining some variables with a probability distribution can establish more precisely the economic value of such projects as polymer flooding in the Minnelusa formation. An enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) project often presents a difficult investment decision. The substantial risks and performance uncertainties must be carefully weighted against the investment costs. a Monte Carlo simulation model was used to characterize the incremental economics of a Minnelusa polymer flood. The principal questions addressed in this paper are: What is the likelihood of the EOR project being an economic success? What is the expected economic benefit of the polymer flood? With representative field parameters and price projections, the typical Minnelusa polymer flood was found to have a 93% chance of economic success. The expected monetary value (EMV) for the project is $1.6 million. This expected net gain results from the incremental cost of about $50,000 for additional surface equipment and about $480,000 for chemicals. Although each project must be evaluated on its own merits, these results present a strong case of considering polymer-augmented floods in the Minnelusa

  15. Initial external events: floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial external event, specifically flood in a Nuclear power plant, and the calculation necessary to determine the contribution of this type of event in a Probabilistic Safety Analysis, are presented. (M.I.)

  16. Flood-proof motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even before the Fukushima event occurred some German nuclear power plants (NPP) have considered flooding scenarios. As a result of one of these studies, AREVA performed an upgrade project in NPP Isar 1 with flood-proof motors as a replacement of existing air-cooled low-voltage and high-voltage motors of the emergency cooling chain. After the Fukushima event, in which the cooling chains failed, the topic flood-proof equipment gets more and more into focus. This compact will introduce different kinds of flood-proof electrical motors which are currently installed or planned for installation into NPPs over the world. Moreover the process of qualification, as it was performed during the project in NPP Isar 1, will be shown. (orig.)

  17. FLOODPLAIN, FLOOD COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  18. FLOODING ATTACK AWARE SECURE AODV

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavi, S; K. Duraiswamy

    2013-01-01

    Providing security in a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a challenging task due to its inherent nature. Flooding is a type of Denial of Service (DoS) attack in MANET. Intentional flooding may lead to disturbances in the networking operation. This kind of attack consumes battery power, storage space and bandwidth. Flooding the excessive number of packets may degrade the performance of the network. This study considers hello flooding attack. As the hello packets are continuously flooded by the ...

  19. Flood Resilient Technological Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez Gonzalez, J. J.; Monnot, J. V.; Marquez Paniagua, P.; Pámpanas, P.; Paz Abuín, S.; Prendes, P.; Videra, O.; U. P. M. Smartest Team

    2012-04-01

    As a consequence of the paradigm shift of the EU water policy (Directive 2007/60/EC, EC 2003) from defense to living with flood, floods shall be faced in the future through resilient solutions, seeking to improve the permanence of flood protection, and getting thus beyond traditional temporary and human-relying solutions. But the fact is that nowadays "Flood Resilient (FRe) Building Technological Products" is an undefined concept, and concerned FRe solutions cannot be even easily identified. "FRe Building Technological materials" is a wide term involving a wide and heterogeneous range of solutions. There is an interest in offering an identification and classification of the referred products, since it will be useful for stakeholders and populations at flood risk for adopting the most adequate protections when facing floods. Thus, a previous schematic classification would enable us at least to identify most of them and to figure out autonomous FRe Technological Products categories subject all of them to intense industrial innovative processes. The flood resilience enhancement of a given element requires providing it enough water-repelling capacity, and different flood resilient solutions can be sorted out: barriers, waterproofing and anticorrosive. Barriers are palliative solutions that can be obtained either from traditional materials, or from technological ones, offering their very low weight and high maneuverability. Belonging barriers and waterproofing systems to industrial branches clearly different, from a conceptual point of view, waterproofing material may complement barriers, and even be considered as autonomous barriers in some cases. Actually, they do not only complement barriers by their application to barriers' singular weak points, like anchors, joints, but on the other hand, waterproofing systems can be applied to enhance the flood resilience of new building, as preventive measure. Anticorrosive systems do belong to a clearly different category

  20. The Terrible Flood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorine; Houston

    1998-01-01

    Dear Xiao Lan. ’Several times a week, no matter which of the major television news networksI turn to, the screen is filled with tragic pictures of flooding along the YangtzeRiver, and I grieve for the suffering people whose lives are being so terriblydisrupted by this disaster. Even more to be grieved is the terrible number of peoplewho have been killed by the floods and their effects.

  1. How wetlands affect floods

    OpenAIRE

    M. Acreman; J. Holden

    2013-01-01

    It is widely recognised that wetlands play an important role in the hydrological cycle, influencing groundwater recharge, low flows, evaporation and floods. This has led to policies being formulated world-wide to conserve and manage wetlands to deliver these key services, especially flood risk reduction. Generic statements have often been published about wetland hydrological services but the term “wetlands” covers many land types, including wet woodlands, reedbeds, peat bogs, fens, and salt m...

  2. A Methodology For Flood Vulnerability Analysis In Complex Flood Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, R.; Martina, M. L. V.; Dottori, F.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, flood risk management is gaining importance in order to mitigate and prevent flood disasters, and consequently the analysis of flood vulnerability is becoming a key research topic. In this paper, we propose a methodology for large-scale analysis of flood vulnerability. The methodology is based on a GIS-based index, which considers local topography, terrain roughness and basic information about the flood scenario to reproduce the diffusive behaviour of floodplain flow. The methodology synthetizes the spatial distribution of index values into maps and curves, used to represent the vulnerability in the area of interest. Its application allows for considering different levels of complexity of flood scenarios, from localized flood defence failures to complex hazard scenarios involving river reaches. The components of the methodology are applied and tested in two floodplain areas in Northern Italy recently affected by floods. The results show that the methodology can provide an original and valuable insight of flood vulnerability variables and processes.

  3. Flooding in counter-current two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flooding is a phenomenon which is best described as the transition from counter-current to co-current flow. Early notice was taken of this phenomenon in the chemical engineering industry. Flooding also plays an important role in the field of two-phase heat transfer since it is a limit for many systems involving counter-current flow. Practical applications of flooding limited processes include wickless thermosyphons and the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of pressurized water nuclear reactors. The phenomenon of flooding also is involved in the behavior of nuclear reactor core materials during severe accident conditions where flooding is one of the mechanisms governing the motion of the molten fuel pin cladding

  4. Flood Risk Analysis and Flood Potential Losses Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The heavy floods in the Taihu Basin showed increasing trend in recent years. In thiswork, a typical area in the northern Taihu Basin was selected for flood risk analysis and potentialflood losses assessment. Human activities have strong impact on the study area' s flood situation (asaffected by the polders built, deforestation, population increase, urbanization, etc. ), and havemade water level higher, flood duration shorter, and flood peaks sharper. Five years of differentflood return periods [(1970), 5 (1962), 10 (1987), 20 (1954), 50 (1991)] were used to cal-culate the potential flood risk area and its losses. The potential flood risk map, economic losses,and flood-impacted population were also calculated. The study's main conclusions are: 1 ) Humanactivities have strongly changed the natural flood situation in the study area, increasing runoff andflooding; 2) The flood risk area is closely related with the precipitation center; 3) Polder construc-tion has successfully protected land from flood, shortened the flood duration, and elevated waterlevel in rivers outside the polders; 4) Economic and social development have caused flood losses toincrease in recent years.

  5. Studying Young Stars with Large Spectroscopic Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Galactic archaeology is the study of the history of star formation and chemical evolution in the Milky Way, based on present-day stellar populations. Studies of young stars are a key anchor point for Galactic archaeology, since quantities like the initial mass function and the star formation rate can be studied directly in young clusters and star forming regions. Conversely, massive spectroscopic Galactic archaeology surveys can be used as a data source for young star studies.

  6. Studying Young Stars with Large Spectroscopic Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Martell, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Galactic archaeology is the study of the history of star formation and chemical evolution in the Milky Way, based on present-day stellar populations. Studies of young stars are a key anchor point for Galactic archaeology, since quantities like the initial mass function and the star formation rate can be studied directly in young clusters and star forming regions. Conversely, massive spectroscopic Galactic archaeology surveys can be used as a data source for young star studies.

  7. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  8. Assessing Flood Risk Using Reservoir Flood Control Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Fu; Yadong Mei; Zhihuai Xiao

    2016-01-01

    The application of conventional flood operation regulation is restricted due to insufficient description of flood control rules for the Pubugou Reservoir in southern China. Based on the require-ments of different flood control objects, this paper proposes to optimize flood control rules with punish-ment mechanism by defining different parameters of flood control rules in response to flood inflow fore-cast and reservoir water level. A genetic algorithm is adopted for solving parameter optimization problem. The failure risk and overflow volume of the downstream insufficient flood control capacity are assessed through the reservoir operation policies. The results show that an optimised regulation can provide better performance than the current flood control rules.

  9. Probable maximum flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility

  10. Flood Risk Management In Europe: European flood regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Bakker, M.H.; Green, C.; Driessen, Peter; Delvaux, B.; Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van; Suykens, C.; Beyers, J-C.; Deketelaere, K.; Doorn-Hoekveld, W. van; Dieperink, C.

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, water management is moving from flood defense to a risk management approach, which takes both the probability and the potential consequences of flooding into account. In this report, we will look at Directives and (non-)EU- initiatives in place to deal with flood risk in Europe indirectly

  11. Infrared spectroscopic imaging microscopy: Applications to biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coupling of imaging modalities with spectroscopic techniques adds additional dimensions to sample analysis in both the spectroscopic and spatial domains. The particular ability of infrared (IR) imaging to explore the spatial distribution of chemically distinct species on length scales ranging from microns to kilometers demonstrates the versatility and diversity of spectroscopic imaging. In this paper, we focus on the further development of our Fourier-transform (FT) based mid-IR spectroscopic imaging technique which combines the analytical capabilities of mid-IR spectroscopy with the morphological information obtained from optical imaging. The seamless combination of spectroscopy for molecular analysis with the power of visualization represents the future of infrared microscopy. Our spectroscopic imaging instrument integrates several infrared focal-plane arrays with a Michelson step-scan interferometer, generating high-fidelity and high spectral resolution mid-infrared spectroscopic images. The instrumentation produces multidimensional, chemically specific images, while simultaneously obtaining high resolution spectra for each detector pixel. The spatial resolution of the images approaches the diffraction limit for mid-infrared wavelengths, while the spectral resolution is determined by the interferometer, and can be 4 cm-1 or higher. Data derived from a variety of materials, particularly biological samples, illustrate the capabilities of the technique for readily visualizing chemical complexity and for providing statistical data on sample heterogeneity

  12. Shell model and spectroscopic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these lectures, I introduce the notion of spectroscopic factor in the shell model context. A brief review is given of the present status of the large scale applications of the Interacting Shell Model. The spectroscopic factors and the spectroscopic strength are discussed for nuclei in the vicinity of magic closures and for deformed nuclei. (author)

  13. The Global Flood Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P.; Huddelston, M.; Michel, G.; Thompson, S.; Heynert, K.; Pickering, C.; Abbott Donnelly, I.; Fewtrell, T.; Galy, H.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Winsemius, H.; Weerts, A.; Nixon, S.; Davies, P.; Schiferli, D.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, a Global Flood Model (GFM) initiative has been proposed by Willis, UK Met Office, Esri, Deltares and IBM. The idea is to create a global community platform that enables better understanding of the complexities of flood risk assessment to better support the decisions, education and communication needed to mitigate flood risk. The GFM will provide tools for assessing the risk of floods, for devising mitigation strategies such as land-use changes and infrastructure improvements, and for enabling effective pre- and post-flood event response. The GFM combines humanitarian and commercial motives. It will benefit: - The public, seeking to preserve personal safety and property; - State and local governments, seeking to safeguard economic activity, and improve resilience; - NGOs, similarly seeking to respond proactively to flood events; - The insurance sector, seeking to understand and price flood risk; - Large corporations, seeking to protect global operations and supply chains. The GFM is an integrated and transparent set of modules, each composed of models and data. For each module, there are two core elements: a live "reference version" (a worked example) and a framework of specifications, which will allow development of alternative versions. In the future, users will be able to work with the reference version or substitute their own models and data. If these meet the specification for the relevant module, they will interoperate with the rest of the GFM. Some "crowd-sourced" modules could even be accredited and published to the wider GFM community. Our intent is to build on existing public, private and academic work, improve local adoption, and stimulate the development of multiple - but compatible - alternatives, so strengthening mankind's ability to manage flood impacts. The GFM is being developed and managed by a non-profit organization created for the purpose. The business model will be inspired from open source software (eg Linux): - for non-profit usage

  14. Cultural heritage and floods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedvědová, Klára; Pergl, R.

    Milano: Politecnico di Milano, Centro per la Conservazione e Valorizzazione dei Beni Culturali, 2013 - (Boriani, B.; Gabaglio, R.; Gulotta, D.), s. 858-863 ISBN 978-88-908961-0-1. [Built Heritage 2013 - Monitoring Conservation Management. International conference. Milano (IT), 18.11.2013-20.11.2013] R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF11P01OVV009 Keywords : flood risk * cultural heritage * flood protection Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.bh2013.polimi.it/papers/bh2013_paper_335.pdf

  15. FEMA DFIRM Base Flood Elevations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally,...

  16. FEMA DFIRM Flood Hazard Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA flood hazard delineations are used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to designate the Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) and for insurance rating...

  17. National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) is a compilation of GIS data that comprises a nationwide digital Flood Insurance Rate Map. The GIS data and services are...

  18. FEMA Q3 Flood Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Q3 Flood Data are derived from the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMS) published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The file is georeferenced to...

  19. FEMA 100 year Flood Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Q3 Flood Data product is a digital representation of certain features of FEMA's Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) product, intended for use with desktop mapping...

  20. 2013 FEMA Flood Control Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  1. 2013 FEMA Flood Hazard Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  2. Surface Flood and Underground Flood in Xiangxi River Karst Basin:Characteristics, Models, and Comparisons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingming Luo; Zhihua Chen; Dechao Yin; Hamza Jakada; He Huang; Hong Zhou; Tao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Xiangxi River Basin, located in western Hubei Province in central China, is a karst ridge-trough area with an inhomogeneous and complicated distribution of water resources. This paper compares the characteristics of surface and subsurface floods in this karst basin, utilizing a one-parameter Darcian model and the traditional exponential model. The observed hydrographs and inferred water components are strikingly similar for surface and subsurface floods. The Darcian model and the exponential model are based on different views of the flood generation process, with the former fitting the entire hydrograph with a single time constant, and the latter fitting only the recession limb with multiple time constants. Due to the anisotropy and heterogeneity of karst media, a combination of physical and chemical techniques including the use of 3S (remote sensing, geographical information system, global positioning system) method is proposed for an enhanced hydrological investigation to assess and characterize karst water resources in mountainous areas.

  3. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ootegem, Luc [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium); SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Verhofstadt, Elsy [SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.

  4. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks

  5. After the Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2007-01-01

    When floodwater swept through the McVities biscuit factory in Carlisle in January 2005 few were confident that it would reopen. The factory, in the Caldewgate area of the city, was one of the first casualties of the flood, as water, nine feet deep in places, coursed trough the food preparation areas, destroying equipment and covering everything in…

  6. Landscape-ecological estimation of radionuclides migration in flood-plain of the Sozh river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work investigate a landscape - geochemical distribution of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in valley river Sozh for the subsequent determination of the possible ways optimization use of the agricultural landscapes in limits flood-plain. One of primal problems of investigation - on the basis of geochemical structure flood-plain landscape to mark out geochemical barriers, which accumulating chemical elements, including radionuclides and to exclude this areas of flood-plain from agricultural use. (Authors)

  7. Spectroscopically Unlocking Exoplanet Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nikole

    2016-05-01

    Spectroscopy plays a critical role in a number of areas of exoplanet research. The first exoplanets were detected by precisely measuring Doppler shifts in high resolution (R ~ 100,000) stellar spectra, a technique that has become known as the Radial Velocity (RV) method. The RV method provides critical constraints on exoplanet masses, but is currently limited to some degree by robust line shape predictions. Beyond the RV method, spectroscopy plays a critical role in the characterization of exoplanets beyond their mass and radius. The Hubble Space Telescope has spectroscopically observed the atmospheres of exoplanets that transit their host stars as seen from Earth giving us key insights into atmospheric abundances of key atomic and molecular species as well as cloud optical properties. Similar spectroscopic characterization of exoplanet atmospheres will be carried out at higher resolution (R ~ 100-3000) and with broader wavelength coverage with the James Webb Space Telescope. Future missions such as WFIRST that seek to the pave the way toward the detection and characterization of potentially habitable planets will have the capability of directly measuring the spectra of exoplanet atmospheres and potentially surfaces. Our ability to plan for and interpret spectra from exoplanets relies heavily on the fidelity of the spectroscopic databases available and would greatly benefit from further laboratory and theoretical work aimed at optical properties of atomic, molecular, and cloud/haze species in the pressure and temperature regimes relevant to exoplanet atmospheres.

  8. GIS Support for Flood Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Gengsheng; Mioc, Darka; Anton, François

    2007-01-01

    Under flood events, the ground traffic is blocked in and around the flooded area due to damages to roads and bridges. The traditional transportation network may not always help people to make a right decision for evacuation. In order to provide dynamic road information needed for flood rescue, we...... developed an adaptive web-based transportation network application using Oracle technology. Moreover, the geographic relationships between the road network and flood areas are taken into account. The overlay between the road network and flood polygons is computed on the fly. This application allows users to...... retrieve the shortest and safest route in Fredericton road network during flood event. It enables users to make a timely decision for flood rescue. We are using Oracle Spatial to deal with emergency situations that can be applied to other constrained network applications as well....

  9. Floods and Societies: Dynamic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Baldassarre, G.; Viglione, A.; Carr, G.; Kuil, L., Jr.; Brandimarte, L.; Bloeschl, G.

    2014-12-01

    There is growing concern that future flood losses and fatalities might increase significantly in many regions of the world because of rapid urbanization in deltas and floodplains, in addition to sea level rise and climate change. To better anticipate long-term trajectories of future flood risk, there is a need to treat floodplains and deltas as fully coupled human-physical systems. Here we propose a novel approach to explore the long-term behavior emerging from the mutual interactions and feedbacks between physical and social systems. The implementation of our modeling framework shows that green societies, which cope with flooding by resettling out of floodplains, are more resilient to increasing flood frequency than technological societies, which deal with flooding by building levees. Also, we show that when coupled dynamics are accounted for, flood-poor periods could (paradoxically) be more dangerous than flood-rich periods.

  10. Micronutrient nutrition of rice in flooded soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micronutrient deficiencies in flooded rice have been recognized with increasing frequency in recent years. Zinc deficiency is the most widespread disorder, followed by Fe, Mn, and Cu deficiencies. Boron and Mo deficiencies have not been reported in field culture. The peculiar characteristics of a flooded soil are: 1) a layer of standing water; 2) absence of oxygen; 3) a soil profile largely in a reduced chemical state; 4) the presence of large biological carbon dioxide excesses; 5) the presence of high concentrations of soluble Fe++ and Mn++; 6) alteration of soil pH; 7) the presence of toxic substances; 8) increased soluble Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++, NH4+, HCO3-, H2PO4-, and Si(OH)4 in the soil solution. Micronutrient availability in flooded soils is affected by: 1) increased solubility of relatively insoluble minerals due to dilution effects; 2) pH changes in relation to solubility and plant availability; 3) changes in oxidation-reduction equilibria; 4) carbonate-bicarbonate equilibria; 5) increased ionic activity due to various exchange reactions; and 6) chemical equilibria involving dissolution, precipitation, sorption, and desorption phenomena

  11. Flood risk assessment in The Netherlands: a case study for dike ring South Holland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, Sebastiaan N; Kok, Matthijs; Vrijling, Johannes K

    2008-10-01

    Large parts of The Netherlands are below sea level. Therefore, it is important to have insight into the possible consequences and risks of flooding. In this article, an analysis of the risks due to flooding of the dike ring area South Holland in The Netherlands is presented. For different flood scenarios the potential number of fatalities is estimated. Results indicate that a flood event in this area can expose large and densely populated areas and result in hundreds to thousands of fatalities. Evacuation of South Holland before a coastal flood will be difficult due to the large amount of time required for evacuation and the limited time available. By combination with available information regarding the probability of occurrence of different flood scenarios, the flood risks have been quantified. The probability of death for a person in South Holland due to flooding, the so-called individual risk, is small. The probability of a flood disaster with many fatalities, the so-called societal risk, is relatively large in comparison with the societal risks in other sectors in The Netherlands, such as the chemical sector and aviation. The societal risk of flooding appears to be unacceptable according to some of the existing risk limits that have been proposed in literature. These results indicate the necessity of a further societal discussion on the acceptable level of flood risk in The Netherlands and the need for additional risk reducing measures. PMID:18761731

  12. Toward proton MR spectroscopic imaging of stimulated brain function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the objective of complementing local cerebral metabolic studies of PET, and as a prelude to spectroscopic imaging, the authors have performed the first localized proton spectroscopic study of the stimulated human auditory cortex. Water suppressed localized spectroscopy (voxel size 3cm x 3cm x 3cm enclosing the auditory cortex, Te = 272ms, Tr = 3s) was performed on a 1.5T MRI/MRS system and spectra were acquired during stimulation with a 1kHz tone presented at 2Hz. Measurements were conducted for 30-40 min with a temporal resolution of 3.2 min (64 averages per time block). Results included in this paper from six subjects show a lactate peak which increases during stimulation compared to baseline values. These results suggest an increase in anaerobic glycolysis during stimulation and provide unique and valuable information that should complement glucose metabolism and flood flow studies of PET

  13. Characterization of Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L.) Honey by Physico-Chemical Parameters and Chromatographic / Spectroscopic Techniques (GC-FID/MS, HPLC-DAD, UV/VIS and FTIR-ATR)

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Jerković; Carlo Ignazio Giovanni Tuberoso; Goran Baranović; Zvonimir Marijanović; Marina Kranjac; Lidija Svečnjak; Piotr Marek Kuś

    2015-01-01

    Satureja hortensis L. unifloral honey was characterized by pollen analysis, electrical conductivity, pH and extensively by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. UV / VIS spectro-scopy measurements revealed total phenol content of 682.1 mg GAE / kg by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, antiox-idant capacity by DPPH assay of 1.7 mmol TEAC / kg and by FRAP assay of 4.3 mmol Fe2+ / kg as well as CIE L*a*b*Cab*h°ab chromaticity coordinates. GC-MS after headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) r...

  14. Cultural heritage and floods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš

    Prague: Institute of theoretical and applied mechanics AS CR, v.v.i, 2011 - (Drdácký, M.; Binda, L.; Hennen, I.; Kőpp, C.; Lanza, L.), s. 15-17 ISBN 978-80-86246-37-6 Grant ostatní: evropská komise(XE) CHEF-SSPI-044251 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : flood * damage * cultural heritage Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  15. Cultural heritage and flood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedvědová, Klára; Pergl, R.

    Prague: Grada, 2013 - (Hájek, P.; Tywoniak, J.; Lupíšek, A.; Sojková, K.), s. 737-740 ISBN 978-80-247-5015-6. [CESB13 - Central Europe towards sustainable building 2013. Praha (CZ), 26.06.2013-28.06.2013] R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF11P01OVV009 Keywords : flood risk * risk mitigation * knowledge software * knowledge map Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  16. After the flood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slížková, Zuzana; Siedel, H.; Binda, L.; Cardani, G.

    Prague : Institute of theoretical and applied mechanics AS CR, v.v.i, 2011 - (Drdácký, M.; Binda, L.; Hennen, I.; Kőpp, C.; Lanza, L.), s. 66-74 ISBN 978-80-86246-37-6 Grant ostatní: evropská komise(XE) CHEF-SSPI-044251 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : flood * damage * restoration Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  17. Swiss Re Global Flood Hazard Zones: Know your flood risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinukollu, R. K.; Castaldi, A.; Mehlhorn, J.

    2012-12-01

    Floods, among all natural disasters, have a great damage potential. On a global basis, there is strong evidence of increase in the number of people affected and economic losses due to floods. For example, global insured flood losses have increased by 12% every year since 1970 and this is expected to further increase with growing exposure in the high risk areas close to rivers and coastlines. Recently, the insurance industry has been surprised by the large extent of losses, because most countries lack reliable hazard information. One example has been the 2011 Thailand floods where millions of people were affected and the total economic losses were 30 billion USD. In order to assess the flood risk across different regions and countries, the flood team at Swiss Re based on a Geomorphologic Regression approach, developed in house and patented, produced global maps of flood zones. Input data for the study was obtained from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) elevation data, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) and HydroSHEDS. The underlying assumptions of the approach are that naturally flowing rivers shape their channel and flood plain according to basin inherent forces and characteristics and that the flood water extent strongly depends on the shape of the flood plain. On the basis of the catchment characteristics, the model finally calculates the probability of a location to be flooded or not for a defined return period, which in the current study was set to 100 years. The data is produced at a 90-m resolution for latitudes 60S to 60N. This global product is now used in the insurance industry to inspect, inform and/or insure the flood risk across the world.

  18. Recent advances in flood forecasting and flood risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arduino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent large floods in Europe have led to increased interest in research and development of flood forecasting systems. Some of these events have been provoked by some of the wettest rainfall periods on record which has led to speculation that such extremes are attributable in some measure to anthropogenic global warming and represent the beginning of a period of higher flood frequency. Whilst current trends in extreme event statistics will be difficult to discern, conclusively, there has been a substantial increase in the frequency of high floods in the 20th century for basins greater than 2x105 km2. There is also increasing that anthropogenic forcing of climate change may lead to an increased probability of extreme precipitation and, hence, of flooding. There is, therefore, major emphasis on the improvement of operational flood forecasting systems in Europe, with significant European Community spending on research and development on prototype forecasting systems and flood risk management projects. This Special Issue synthesises the most relevant scientific and technological results presented at the International Conference on Flood Forecasting in Europe held in Rotterdam from 3-5 March 2003. During that meeting 150 scientists, forecasters and stakeholders from four continents assembled to present their work and current operational best practice and to discuss future directions of scientific and technological efforts in flood prediction and prevention. The papers presented at the conference fall into seven themes, as follows.

  19. Fast Flood damage estimation coupling hydraulic modeling and Multisensor Satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Mattia; Massabò, Marco; Boni, Giorgio; Rudari, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    Damage estimation requires a good representation of the elements at risk and their vulnerability, the knowledge of the flooded area extension and the description of the hydraulic forcing. In this work a simplified two dimensional hydraulic model constrained by satellite retrieved flooded areas is analyzed. The main features of such a model are simple start-up, with no need to insert complex information but a subset of simplified boundary and initial condition, and computational speed. Those characteristics allow the model to be fast enough to be used in real time for the simulation of flooding events. The model fills the gap of information left by single satellite scenes of flooded area, allowing for the estimation of the maximum flooding extension and magnitude. The static information provided by earth observation (like SAR extension of flooded areas at a certain time) are interpreted in a dynamic consistent way and very useful hydraulic information (e.g., water depth, water speed and the evolution of flooded areas)are provided. The model has been tested in many scenarios, both for large flooded areas (Polesine 1951 flood, Albania 2011 flood) and extremely urbanized areas (Genova 1970) in about ten different real scenarios. These information are merged with satellite identification of elements exposed to risk that are characterized in terms of their vulnerability to floods in order to obtain fast estimates of Food damages. The outputs of the model like water depth scalar fields, and water speed vector fields, can be easily used to feed a chemical or physical transport model to estimate areas of impact of chemical or physical components carried by the water. The outputs of the model like water depth scalar fields, and water speed vector fields, can be easily used to feed a chemical or physical transport model to estimate areas of impact of chemical or physical components carried by the water

  20. Selective spectroscopic methods for water analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidya, B.

    1997-06-24

    This dissertation explores in large part the development of a few types of spectroscopic methods in the analysis of water. Methods for the determination of some of the most important properties of water like pH, metal ion content, and chemical oxygen demand are investigated in detail. This report contains a general introduction to the subject and the conclusions. Four chapters and an appendix have been processed separately. They are: chromogenic and fluorogenic crown ether compounds for the selective extraction and determination of Hg(II); selective determination of cadmium in water using a chromogenic crown ether in a mixed micellar solution; reduction of chloride interference in chemical oxygen demand determination without using mercury salts; structural orientation patterns for a series of anthraquinone sulfonates adsorbed at an aminophenol thiolate monolayer chemisorbed at gold; and the role of chemically modified surfaces in the construction of miniaturized analytical instrumentation.

  1. Flooding correlations in narrow channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat transfer in narrow gap is considered as important phenomena in severe accidents in nuclear power plants. Also in heat removal of electric chip. Critical heat flux(CHF) in narrow gap limits the maximum heat transfer rate in narrow channel. In case of closed bottom channel, flooding limited CHF occurrence is observed. Flooding correlations will be helpful to predict the CHF in closed bottom channel. In present study, flooding data for narrow channel geometry were collected and the work to recognize the effect of the span, w and gap size, s were performed. And new flooding correlations were suggested for high-aspect-ratio geometry. Also, flooding correlation was applied to flooding limited CHF data

  2. Hierarchical decision making for flood risk reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Custer, Rocco; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    River flood events often cause large economic damages and casualties requiring stakeholders to manage flood risk. In flood prone areas, flood risk management can be achieved through a series hierarchically integrated protection structures, which together form a hierarchical flood protection system...

  3. Floods: vulnerability, risks and management

    OpenAIRE

    Hildén, Mikael; Dankers, Rutger; Kjeldsen, Thomas; Hannaford, Jamie; Kuhlicke, Christian; Kuusisto, Esko; Makropoulos, Christos; te Linde, Aline; Ludwig, Fulco; Luther, Jochen; Wolters, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Floods are extreme events that can have large impacts on human societies and ecosystems. They arise from a multitude of causes and can have very different consequences depending on regional and local circumstances. Floods are part of the natural hydrological cycle, but adverse impacts arise when water masses inundate infrastructures and land that cannot cope with the excessive water. Major flood disasters in Europe have caused loss of lives and economic loss that amount to billions of euro, b...

  4. Flood Risk and Flood hazard maps - Visualisation of hydrological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrological models are an important basis of flood forecasting and early warning systems. They provide significant data on hydrological risks. In combination with other modelling techniques, such as hydrodynamic models, they can be used to assess the extent and impact of hydrological events. The new European Flood Directive forces all member states to evaluate flood risk on a catchment scale, to compile maps of flood hazard and flood risk for prone areas, and to inform on a local level about these risks. Flood hazard and flood risk maps are important tools to communicate flood risk to different target groups. They provide compiled information to relevant public bodies such as water management authorities, municipalities, or civil protection agencies, but also to the broader public. For almost each section of a river basin, run-off and water levels can be defined based on the likelihood of annual recurrence, using a combination of hydrological and hydrodynamic models, supplemented by an analysis of historical records and mappings. In combination with data related to the vulnerability of a region risk maps can be derived. The project RISKCATCH addressed these issues of hydrological risk and vulnerability assessment focusing on the flood risk management process. Flood hazard maps and flood risk maps were compiled for Austrian and German test sites taking into account existing national and international guidelines. These maps were evaluated by eye-tracking using experimental graphic semiology. Sets of small-scale as well as large-scale risk maps were presented to test persons in order to (1) study reading behaviour as well as understanding and (2) deduce the most attractive components that are essential for target-oriented risk communication. A cognitive survey asking for negative and positive aspects and complexity of each single map complemented the experimental graphic semiology. The results indicate how risk maps can be improved to fit the needs of different user

  5. Flooding phenomena in inclined pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flooding phenomena for air-water counter-current two-phase flow in inclined pipes were investigated experimentally. The inner diameter was 16 mm. The examined pipe inclination were 30deg, 45deg and 60deg from horizontal and the pipe length ranged from 0.5 to 5.5 m respectively. The present results indicate that the pipe length affects the flooding mechanism and the onset of flooding velocity. Finally, a simple correlation to predict the void fraction at the onset of flooding is proposed. (author)

  6. Flood Risk Due to Hurricane Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera, Francisco; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Irish, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the expected economic losses caused by hurricane inundation. We used surge response functions, which are physics-based dimensionless scaling laws that give surge elevation as a function of the hurricane's parameters (i.e., central pressure, radius, forward speed, approach angle and landfall location) at specified locations along the coast. These locations were close enough to avoid significant changes in surge elevations between consecutive points, and distant enough to minimize calculations. The probability of occurrence of a surge elevation value at a given location was estimated using a joint probability distribution of the hurricane parameters. The surge elevation, at the shoreline, was assumed to project horizontally inland within a polygon of influence. Individual parcel damage was calculated based on flood water depth and damage vs. depth curves available for different building types from the HAZUS computer application developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Parcel data, including property value and building type, were obtained from the county appraisal district offices. The expected economic losses were calculated as the sum of the products of the estimated parcel damages and their probability of occurrence for the different storms considered. Anticipated changes for future climate scenarios were considered by accounting for projected hurricane intensification, as indicated by sea surface temperature rise, and sea level rise, which modify the probability distribution of hurricane central pressure and change the baseline of the damage calculation, respectively. Maps of expected economic losses have been developed for Corpus Christi in Texas, Gulfport in Mississippi and Panama City in Florida. Specifically, for Port Aransas, in the Corpus Christi area, it was found that the expected economic losses were in the range of 1% to 4% of the property value for current climate conditions, of 1% to 8% for the 2030's and

  7. Flood resilience urban territories. Flood resilience urban territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraud, Hélène; Barroca, Bruno; Hubert, Gilles

    2010-05-01

    The flood's impact during the last twenty years on French territory reveals our lack of preparation towards large-extended floods which might cause the stopping of companies' activity, services, or lead to housing unavailability during several months. New Orleans' case has to exemplify us: four years after the disaster, the city still couldn't get back its dynamism. In France, more than 300 towns are flood-exposed. While these towns are the mainspring of territory's development, it is likely that the majority of them couldn't get up quickly after a large-extended flood. Therefore, to understand and improve the urban territory's resilience facing floods is a real stake for territory's development. Urban technical networks supply, unify and irrigate all urban territories' constituents. Characterizing their flood resilience can be interesting to understand better urban resilience. In this context, waste management during and after floods is completely crucial. During a flood, the waste management network can become dysfunctional (roads cut, waste storage installations or waste treatment flooded). How can the mayor respect his obligation to guarantee salubrity and security in his city? In post flood the question is even more problematic. The waste management network presents a real stake for territory's restart. After a flood, building materials, lopped-of branches, furniture, business stocks, farm stocks, mud, rubbles, animal cadavers are wet, mixed, even polluted by hydrocarbons or toxic substances. The waste's volume can be significant. Sanitary and environmental risks can be crucial. In view of this situation, waste's management in post crisis period raises a real problem. What to make of this waste? How to collect it? Where to stock it? How to process it? Who is responsible? Answering these questions is all the more strategic since this waste is the mark of disaster. Thus, cleaning will be the first population's and local actor's reflex in order to forget the

  8. Application of flood index in monitoring Flood-plain ecosystems (by the example of the Middle Ob flood-plain)

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotnov, V. P.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of regional hydroecological monitoring has been developed for the flood-plain of the Middle Ob. Its object is to control the state of flood-plain ecosystem productivity for organization of scientific, regional-adopted and ecologically regulated nature management. For this purpose hydroecological zoning of flood-plain territory performed, the most representative stations of water-gauge observations for each flood-plain zone organized, the scheme of flood-plain flooding was prepared...

  9. Amazon flood wave hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigg, Mark A.; Wilson, Matthew D.; Bates, Paul D.; Horritt, Matthew S.; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Forsberg, Bruce R.; Vega, Maria C.

    2009-07-01

    SummaryA bathymetric survey of 575 km of the central Amazon River and one of its tributaries, the Purus, are combined with gauged data to characterise the Amazon flood wave, and for hydraulic modelling of the main channel for the period June 1995-March 1997 with the LISFLOOD-FP and HEC-RAS hydraulic models. Our investigations show that the Amazon flood wave is subcritical and diffusive in character and, due to shallow bed slopes, backwater conditions control significant reach lengths and are present for low and high water states. Comparison of the different models shows that it is necessary to include at least the diffusion term in any model, and the RMSE error in predicted water elevation at all cross sections introduced by ignoring the acceleration and advection terms is of the order of 0.02-0.03 m. The use of a wide rectangular channel approximation introduces an error of 0.10-0.15 m on the predicted water levels. Reducing the bathymetry to a simple bed slope and with mean cross section only, introduces an error in the order of 0.5 m. These results show that when compared to the mean annual amplitude of the Amazon flood wave of 11-12 m, water levels are relatively insensitive to the bathymetry of the channel model. The implication for remote sensing studies of the central Amazon channel, such as those proposed with the Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission (SWOT), is that even relatively crude assumptions regarding the channel bathymetry will be valid in order to derive discharge from water surface slope of the main channel, as long as the mean channel area is approximately correct.

  10. FLOOD AND FLOOD CONTROL OF THE YELLOW RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxue LI; Huirang WANG; Yunqi SU; Naiqian JIANG; Yuanfeng ZHANG

    2002-01-01

    The Yellow River is the cradle of China. It had long been the center of politics, economics and culture of China in history. Large coverage flood disaster occurred frequently in the Yellow River basin and the losses were often heavy. Thus, the Yellow River is also considered as the serious hidden danger of China. Since the founding of new China, structural and non-structural systems of flood control have been established basically. Tremendous successes have been made on flood control. Into the 21century, flood control standard of the Lower Yellow River has been increased significantly with the operation of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir. However, problems of the Yellow River are complicated and the tasks for solving these problems are arduous. Particularly, the sedimentation problem can't be solved completely in the near future. The situation of "suspended river" and threat of flood will long exist.Therefore, supported by rapid social and economical development of the nation and relied on advanced technology, the flood control system shall be perfected. Meantime, study of the Yellow River shall be enhanced in order to better understand the flood, get with it and use it thus to reduce flood disaster.

  11. Floods in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of true- and false-color images from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows flooding in central China on July 4, 2002. In the false-color image vegetation appears orange and water appears dark blue to black. Because of the cloud cover and the fact that some of the water is filled with sediment, the false-color image provides a clearer picture of where rivers have exceeded their banks and lakes have risen. The river in this image is the Yangtze River, and the large lake is the Poyang Hu. Credits: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  12. Sierra County Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  13. 77 FR 29678 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  14. 77 FR 46104 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  15. 77 FR 76501 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  16. 78 FR 58334 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  17. 78 FR 43906 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  18. 77 FR 25495 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  19. 78 FR 58338 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  20. 78 FR 28888 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  1. 77 FR 44650 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  2. 77 FR 44651 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  3. 78 FR 43907 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  4. 77 FR 73490 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  5. 78 FR 48701 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  6. 77 FR 27076 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  7. 78 FR 48888 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  8. 78 FR 28891 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  9. 78 FR 77481 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency ; Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  10. 77 FR 67016 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  11. 77 FR 40627 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  12. Elephant Butte Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  13. Moriarty Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  14. Williamsburg Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  15. Flood Risk, Flood Mitigation, and Location Choice: Evaluating the National Flood Insurance Program's Community Rating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qin; Davlasheridze, Meri

    2016-06-01

    Climate change is expected to worsen the negative effects of natural disasters like floods. The negative impacts, however, can be mitigated by individuals' adjustments through migration and relocation behaviors. Previous literature has identified flood risk as one significant driver in relocation decisions, but no prior study examines the effect of the National Flood Insurance Program's voluntary program-the Community Rating System (CRS)-on residential location choice. This article fills this gap and tests the hypothesis that flood risk and the CRS-creditable flood control activities affect residential location choices. We employ a two-stage sorting model to empirically estimate the effects. In the first stage, individuals' risk perception and preference heterogeneity for the CRS activities are considered, while mean effects of flood risk and the CRS activities are estimated in the second stage. We then estimate heterogeneous marginal willingness to pay (WTP) for the CRS activities by category. Results show that age, ethnicity and race, educational attainment, and prior exposure to risk explain risk perception. We find significant values for the CRS-creditable mitigation activities, which provides empirical evidence for the benefits associated with the program. The marginal WTP for an additional credit point earned for public information activities, including hazard disclosure, is found to be the highest. Results also suggest that water amenities dominate flood risk. Thus, high amenity values may increase exposure to flood risk, and flood mitigation projects should be strategized in coastal regions accordingly. PMID:26552993

  16. Environmental impacts of Major Flood Events: Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reible, D. D.

    2008-05-01

    The flooding of New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina provides many lessons for the environmental and engineering communities and raises serious public policy questions about risk management. Although serious environmental and waste management concerns were highlighted as a result of the flooding, many were not observed in the extensive environmental sampling that occurred. The potential environmental consequences were of concern because of the many chemical plants, petroleum facilities, and contaminated sites, including Superfund sites, in the areas covered by floodwaters. The potential sources of toxics and environmental contaminants included metal-contaminated soils typical of old urban areas. Compounding these concerns is the presence of hazardous chemicals commonly stored in households and commercial establishments and the fuel and motor oil in approximately 350,000 flooded automobiles. Uncontrolled biological wastes from both human and animal sources also contributed to the pollutant burden. There were concerns associated with the immediate impacts of the flooding, the disposal of the debris and wastes in the aftermath, as well as the long- term legacy associated with contaminants in homes and yards. This discussion focuses on successes and failures in responding to each of these concerns as well as lessons learned for future major flooding events. Special attention is paid to some of the unique hazards posed by Katrina, including water quality impacts associated with debris disposal, high indoor concentrations of contaminants due to fractionation from outdoor soils, and mold.

  17. Predicting Flood Hazards in Systems with Multiple Flooding Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, A.; Schubert, J.; Cheng, L.; AghaKouchak, A.; Sanders, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    Delineating flood zones in systems that are susceptible to flooding from a single mechanism (riverine flooding) is a relatively well defined procedure with specific guidance from agencies such as FEMA and USACE. However, there is little guidance in delineating flood zones in systems that are susceptible to flooding from multiple mechanisms such as storm surge, waves, tidal influence, and riverine flooding. In this study, a new flood mapping method which accounts for multiple extremes occurring simultaneously is developed and exemplified. The study site in which the method is employed is the Tijuana River Estuary (TRE) located in Southern California adjacent to the U.S./Mexico border. TRE is an intertidal coastal estuary that receives freshwater flows from the Tijuana River. Extreme discharge from the Tijuana River is the primary driver of flooding within TRE, however tide level and storm surge also play a significant role in flooding extent and depth. A comparison between measured flows at the Tijuana River and ocean levels revealed a correlation between extreme discharge and ocean height. Using a novel statistical method based upon extreme value theory, ocean heights were predicted conditioned up extreme discharge occurring within the Tijuana River. This statistical technique could also be applied to other systems in which different factors are identified as the primary drivers of flooding, such as significant wave height conditioned upon tide level, for example. Using the predicted ocean levels conditioned upon varying return levels of discharge as forcing parameters for the 2D hydraulic model BreZo, the 100, 50, 20, and 10 year floodplains were delineated. The results will then be compared to floodplains delineated using the standard methods recommended by FEMA for riverine zones with a downstream ocean boundary.

  18. Floods in the Saguenay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Footage of a natural disaster that occurred between July 20 and 25 1996, in the Saguenay region of Quebec was documented. A heavy downpour of rain raised the water level of the Kenogami Lake reservoir beyond its capacity. This created huge pressure on its dam that upset the fragile balance between nature and rock. The dam raptured, resulting in a flood of previously unseen proportions. The Riviere au Sable in Jonquiere became an overwhelming body of water. The video showed how the shores of the river were eroded and how apartment buildings were engulfed by the torrent of water. A newly constructed electricity power plant had to be decommissioned, roads were washed away and entire neighborhoods were devastated. The devastation suffered by the cities of Chicoutimi, Jonquiere, Ville de la Baie, Ferland-Boileau, and L'Anse St-Jean was recorded. Thousands of victims of the disaster were evacuated with the help of the Canadian Armed Forces. Some of the work of reconstruction, begun even before the total retreat of the flood, involved restoration of roads, bridges and communication networks, was also shown

  19. Reframing floods: proposals and politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, A.; Warner, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this special volume is to critically examine the various ways in which floods and flood management are framed in current policies, especially the “space for rivers” policies that have been adopted in many countries of Western Europe. The articles in this volume discuss different aspects o

  20. Journal of Flood Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2011-01-01

    The Journal of Flood Risk Management is dedicated to knowledge exchange in all fields related to flood risk. It is intended to hydrologists, meteorologists, geographers, geomorphologists, conservators, civil engineers, sociologists, etc. The journal was initiated by Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management and Wiley-Blackwell. It has been published in four volumes per year since 2008.

  1. Developing a Malaysia flood model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseldine, Lucy; Baxter, Stephen; Wheeler, Phil; Thomson, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Faced with growing exposures in Malaysia, insurers have a need for models to help them assess their exposure to flood losses. The need for an improved management of flood risks has been further highlighted by the 2011 floods in Thailand and recent events in Malaysia. The increasing demand for loss accumulation tools in Malaysia has lead to the development of the first nationwide probabilistic Malaysia flood model, which we present here. The model is multi-peril, including river flooding for thousands of kilometres of river and rainfall-driven surface water flooding in major cities, which may cause losses equivalent to river flood in some high-density urban areas. The underlying hazard maps are based on a 30m digital surface model (DSM) and 1D/2D hydraulic modelling in JFlow and RFlow. Key mitigation schemes such as the SMART tunnel and drainage capacities are also considered in the model. The probabilistic element of the model is driven by a stochastic event set based on rainfall data, hence enabling per-event and annual figures to be calculated for a specific insurance portfolio and a range of return periods. Losses are estimated via depth-damage vulnerability functions which link the insured damage to water depths for different property types in Malaysia. The model provides a unique insight into Malaysian flood risk profiles and provides insurers with return period estimates of flood damage and loss to property portfolios through loss exceedance curve outputs. It has been successfully validated against historic flood events in Malaysia and is now being successfully used by insurance companies in the Malaysian market to obtain reinsurance cover.

  2. Retention of an overall system during enhanced oil recovery from reservoirs by means of chemical flooding. Final report. Retention eines Gesamtchemikaliensystems bei der Mehrentoelung von Lagerstaetten durch chemisches Fluten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinitz, W.

    1990-09-01

    The economic efficiency of tertiary petroleum production processes is determined by the retention behaviour of the chemicals used in the petroleum reservoir. Application-oriented laboratory experiments on retention in an overall system were carried out in an overall system. The experiments started with an analytical characterisation of the chemical substances used, and of the surrounding rock and water phases. The following influencing parameters of material loss were considered. Deposit conditions rock composition, crude oil properties, chemical substances (o.g. mixed tensides and xanthane). (EF).

  3. Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling

    OpenAIRE

    M. J. Machado; Botero, B. A.; López, J; Francés, F.; A. Díez-Herrero; G. Benito

    2015-01-01

    Historical records are an important source of information about extreme and rare floods with a great value to establish a reliable flood return frequency. The use of long historic records for flood frequency analysis brings in the question of flood stationarity, since climatic and land-use conditions can affect the relevance of past flooding as a predictor of future flooding. In this paper, a detailed 400 year flood record from the Tagus River in Aranjuez (C...

  4. Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling

    OpenAIRE

    M. J. Machado; B. A. Botero; López, J.; F. Francés; A. Díez-Herrero; Benito, G

    2015-01-01

    Historical records are an important source of information on extreme and rare floods and fundamental to establish a reliable flood return frequency. The use of long historical records for flood frequency analysis brings in the question of flood stationarity, since climatic and land-use conditions can affect the relevance of past flooding as a predictor of future flooding. In this paper, a detailed 400 yr flood record from the Tagus River in Aranjuez (central Spain) was analy...

  5. Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

    2008-03-31

    This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability

  6. Lateral Flooding Associated to Wave Flood Generation on River Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Núñez, C.; Parrot, J.-F.

    2016-06-01

    This research provides a wave flood simulation using a high resolution LiDAR Digital Terrain Model. The simulation is based on the generation of waves of different amplitudes that modify the river level in such a way that water invades the adjacent areas. The proposed algorithm firstly reconstitutes the original river surface of the studied river section and then defines the percentage of water loss when the wave floods move downstream. This procedure was applied to a gently slope area in the lower basin of Coatzacoalcos river, Veracruz (Mexico) defining the successive areas where lateral flooding occurs on its downstream movement.

  7. A Comparison of Near- and Mid-Infrared Spectroscopic Methods for the Analysis of Several Nutritionally Important Chemical Substances in the Chinese Yam (Dioscorea opposita): Total Sugar, Polysaccharides, and Flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Hua; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2015-04-01

    The Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita) is a basic food in Asia and especially China. Consequently, an uncomplicated, reliable method should be available for the analysis of the quality and origin of the yams. Thus, near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopic methods were developed to discriminate among Chinese yam samples collected from four geographical regions. The yam samples were analyzed also for total sugar, polysaccharides, and flavonoids. These three analytes were used to compare the performance of the analytical methods. Overlapping spectra were resolved using chemometrics methods. Such spectra were compared qualitatively using principal component analysis (PCA) and quantitatively using partial least squares (PLS) and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) models. We discriminated among the four sets of yam data using PCA, and the NIR data performed somewhat better than the mid-IR data. We constructed the PLS and LS-SVM calibration models for the prediction of the three key variables, and the LS-SVM model produced better results. Also, the NIR prediction model produced better outcomes than the mid-IR prediction model. Thus, both infrared (IR) techniques performed well for the analysis of the three key analytes, and the samples were qualitatively discriminated according to their provinces of origin. Both techniques may be recommended for the analysis of Chinese yams, although the NIR technique would be preferred. PMID:25742643

  8. The Behavior of a Counter-Current Packed Bed Column Undergoing Flooding. The Behavior of a Counter-Current Packed Bed Column Undergoing Flooding. The Behavior of a Counter-Current Packed Bed Column Undergoing Flooding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Petr; Staněk, Vladimír; Jiřičný, Vladimír

    Vol. 2. Prague : Process Engineering Publisher, 2002, s. 72. ISBN 80-86059-33-2. [International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering CHISA 2002 /15./. Prague (CZ), 25.08.2002-29.08.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072004 Keywords : countercurrent packet bed * flooding * transient behavior Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  9. Radioactive contamination of flood land landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    washed out be higher layers of water to reservoirs. Thus, the processes of soil erosion and take place. When high level of water take place, lower parts of lands are flooded both on flood lands and outside their limits. The lowlands also accumulate the relative mobile forms of 90Sr, from where they are washed out to rivers. During high water season radiostrontium concentration is increased. The study of vertical distribution of radionuclides along the flood land soil profile demonstrates, that the basic concentration of 137Cs is accumulated in horizon ?1, and on different depths there are sites with higher accumulation of radionuclides, so called chemical barriers (accumulation of radionuclides in sites where ??, Fe etc. are presented). Thus, if there is an accumulation 137Cs, the concentration of 90Sr is minimum, and on the contrary. The ecological situation at present time is characterized by decrease in deposition levels of higher layers of water supply system and in out wash of radionuclides to lower terrains, reservoir flood lands and to the deeper layers of soil and resulting increase in deposition levels in lower sites and flood lands takes place. On the whole, contamination of landscapes of fluvial plains has inevitably changed due to radioactive decay, reallocation of radionuclides along a landscape and geochemical profile and out wash to rivers

  10. Flood protection of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of the partial flooding of the Blayais nuclear power plant that took place in december 1999 during an exceptionally strong storm, the ASN (French authority for nuclear safety) asked all power plant operators to re-assess the safety of their installations in case of flood. New requirements concerning flood risks have been implemented which has allowed a better safety standard. In order to assure a better and more robust taking into account of the flood risk particularly at the very design stage of a facility, the ASN has published a set of rules. The phenomena at the origin of an external flood are reviewed. For each nuclear power plant flood risks have to be re-assessed and the functions and technical means that are necessary to maintain the reactor in a safe state in case of flood have to be identified and these functions and means have to be protected according to the principle of defence-in-depth. The feedback experience of the Fukushima accident confirms this approach. The application to the Blayais power plant and to the Cruas-Meysse power plant are briefly reported. (A.C.)

  11. Spectroscopic Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALAM,M. KATHLEEN; TIMLIN,JERILYN A.; MARTIN,LAURA E.; HJELLE,DRIAN; LYONS,RICK; GARRISON,KRISTIN

    2000-11-01

    The goal of this LDRD Research project was to provide a preliminary examination of the use of infrared spectroscopy as a tool to detect the changes in cell cultures upon activation by an infectious agent. Due to a late arrival of funding, only 5 months were available to transfer and setup equipment at UTTM,develop cell culture lines, test methods of in-situ activation and collect kinetic data from activated cells. Using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) as a sampling method, live cell cultures were examined prior to and after activation. Spectroscopic data were collected from cells immediately after activation in situ and, in many cases for five successive hours. Additional data were collected from cells activated within a test tube (pre-activated), in both transmission mode as well as in ATR mode. Changes in the infrared data were apparent in the transmission data collected from the pre-activated cells as well in some of the pre-activated ATR data. Changes in the in-situ activated spectral data were only occasionally present due to (1) the limited time cells were studied and (2) incomplete activation. Comparison of preliminary data to infrared bands reported in the literature suggests the primary changes seen are due an increase in ribonucleic acid (RNA) production. This work will be continued as part of a 3 year DARPA grant.

  12. From flood management systems to flood resilient systems: integration of flood resilient technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salagnac, J.-L.; Diez, J.; Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flooding has always been a major risk world-wide. Humans chose to live and develop settlements close to water (rivers, seas) due to the resources water brings, i.e. food, energy, capacity to economically transport persons and goods, and recreation. However, the risk from flooding, including pluvial flooding, often offsets these huge advantages. Floods sometimes have terrible consequences from both a human and economic point of view. The permanence and growth of urban areas in flood-prone zones despite these risks is a clear indication of the choices of concerned human groups. The observed growing concentration of population along the sea shore, the increase of urban population worldwide, the exponential growth of the world population and possibly climate change are factors that confirm flood will remain a major issue for the next decades. Flood management systems are designed and implemented to cope with such situations. In spite of frequent events, lessons look to be difficult to draw out and progresses are rather slow. The list of potential triggers to improve flood management systems is nevertheless well established: information, education, awareness raising, alert, prevention, protection, feedback from events, ... Many disciplines are concerned which cover a wide range of soft and hard sciences. A huge amount of both printed and electronic literature is available. Regulations are abundant. In spite of all these potentially favourable elements, similar questions spring up after each new significant event: • Was the event forecast precise enough? • Was the alert system efficient? • Why were buildings built in identified flood prone areas? • Why did the concerned population not follow instructions? • Why did the dike break? • What should we do to avoid it happens again? • What about damages evaluation, wastes and debris evacuation, infrastructures and buildings repair, activity recovery, temporary relocation of inhabitants, health concerns, insurance

  13. Flood Risks and the Willingness to Purchase Flood Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlinger, M. R.; Attanasi, E. D.

    1980-08-01

    Computer simulation experiments were conducted to determine the effects of alternative sources of uncertainty on the willingness to pay for flood insurance. Two alternative insurance protection schemes were investigated: coinsurance and fixed coverage. The question investigated here is to what extent does the insurance scheme influence how purchasers respond to flood risks? Floods were assumed to be log normally distributed and the effects on the purchase of insurance of uncertainties in the parameters of the distribution were explored using response surface analysis. Results indicate that fixed coverage insurance provisions shift most of the uncertainty in the physical parameters governing natural disaster occurrences away from the insuree and onto the insurer. The results also show that the form of the damage function has little effect on the demand for flood insurance.

  14. Floods of 2005 in the State of Veracruz Book Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda, A.; Ochoa, C.

    2007-05-01

    During October of 2005, when hurricane Stan caused destruction to the center and south of the state of Veracruz, a book was elaborated. The book's called Floods of 2005 in the state of Veracruz and contains twenty chapters. The first three chapters conform a panoramic of the book and two historical and archaeological contributions. One second part takes care of the natural phenomena of floods: meteorological, hydrological aspects, and biodiversity. Economic and social aspects are the largest contents of the volume, which concludes with reflections towards the future: the possible consequences of global climatic change, the chemical component that's not considered in the evaluation and prevention of risks by hidrometeorogical phenomena, and the duty of political prevention of disasters. The frame reference for the book is through a discussion of all kind of contributions. Which means that this book presentation is for the geophysicists community of Mexico. Keywords: Floods, state of Veracruz, risks and disasters.

  15. Chemical constituents from Abutilon indicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ping-Chung; Yang, Mei-Lin; Wu, Pei-Lin; Shih, Hui-Nung; Thang, Tran Dinh; Dung, Nguyen Xuan; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2008-01-01

    The investigation on the chemical constituents of the whole plant of Abutilon indicum has resulted in the isolation of two new compounds, abutilin A (1) and (R)-N-(1'-methoxycarbonyl-2'-phenylethyl)-4-hydroxybenzamide (2), as well as 28 known compounds. The structures of the two new compounds were established on the basis of the spectroscopic analysis, and the known compounds were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic and physical data with those reported in the literature. PMID:18636384

  16. Local Flood Action Groups: Governance And Resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forrest, Steven; Trell, Elen-Maarja; Woltjer, Johan; Macoun, Milan; Maier, Karel

    2015-01-01

    A diverse range of citizen groups focusing on flood risk management have been identified in several European countries. The paper discusses the role of flood action (citizen) groups in the context of flood resilience and will do this by analysing the UK and its diverse range of flood groups. These c

  17. Flood Classification Using Support Vector Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, Lieke A.; Torfs, Paul J. J.; Brauer, Claudia C.

    2013-04-01

    Lowland floods are in general considered to be less extreme than mountainous floods. In order to investigate this, seven lowland floods in the Netherlands were selected and compared to mountainous floods from the study of Marchi et al. (2010). Both a 2D and 3D approach of the statistical two-group classification method support vector machines (Cortes and Vapnik, 1995) were used to find a statistical difference between the two flood types. Support vector machines were able to draw a decision plane between the two flood types, misclassifying one out of seven lowland floods, and one out of 67 mountainous floods. The main difference between the two flood types can be found in the runoff coefficient (with lowland floods having a lower runoff coefficient than mountainous floods), the cumulative precipitation causing the flood (which was lower for lowland floods), and, obviously, the relief ratio. Support vector machines have proved to be useful for flood classification and might be applicable in future classification studies. References Cortes, C., and V. Vapnik. "Support-Vector Networks." Machine Learning 20: (1995) 273-297. Marchi, L., M. Borga, E. Preciso, and E. Gaume. "Characterisation of selected extreme flash floods in Europe and implications for flood risk management." Journal of Hydrology 394: (2010) 118-133.

  18. LATERAL FLOODING ASSOCIATED TO WAVE FLOOD GENERATION ON RIVER SURFACE

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez-Núñez, C.; Parrot, J.-F.

    2016-01-01

    This research provides a wave flood simulation using a high resolution LiDAR Digital Terrain Model. The simulation is based on the generation of waves of different amplitudes that modify the river level in such a way that water invades the adjacent areas. The proposed algorithm firstly reconstitutes the original river surface of the studied river section and then defines the percentage of water loss when the wave floods move downstream. This procedure was applied to a gently slope area in the...

  19. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation. PMID:27527202

  20. Flood damage, vulnerability and risk perception - challenges for flood damage research

    OpenAIRE

    Messner, Frank; Meyer, Volker

    2005-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in flood damage analysis mainly focuses on the economic evaluation of tangible flood effects. It is contended in this discussion paper that important economic, social and ecological aspects of flood-related vulnerabilities are neglected. It is a challenge for flood research to develop a wider perspective for flood damage evaluation.

  1. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation. PMID:27527202

  2. Natural Flood Management in context: evaluating and enhancing the impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Peter; Beven, Keith; Hankin, Barry; Lamb, Rob

    2016-04-01

    The series of flood events in the UK throughout December 2015 have led to calls for a reappraisal of the country's approach to flood management. In parts of Cumbria so-called "1 in 100" year floods have occurred three times in the last ten years, leading to significant infrastructure damage. Hard-engineered defences upgraded to cope with an anticipated 20% increase in peak flows and these 1% AEP events have been overwhelmed. It has become more widely acknowledged that unsympathetic agricultural and upland management practices, mainly since the Second World War, have led to a significant loss of storage in mid and upper catchments and their consequent ability to retain and slow storm run-off. Natural Flood Management (NFM) is a nature-based solution to restoring this storage and flood peak attenuation through a network of small-scale features exploiting natural topography and materials. Combined with other "soft" interventions such as restoring flood plain roughness and tree-planting, NFM offers the attractive prospect of an intervention that can target both the ecological and chemical objectives of the Water Framework Directive and the resilience demanded by the Floods Directive. We developed a simple computerised physical routing model that can account for the presence of in-channel and offline features such as would be found in a NFM scheme. These will add storage to the channel and floodplain and throttle the downstream discharge at storm flows. The model was applied to the heavily-modified channel network of an agricultural catchment in North Yorkshire using the run-off simulated for two storm events that caused flooding downstream in the autumn of 2012. Using up to 60 online features we demonstrated some gains in channel storage and a small impact on the flood hydrograph which would, however, have been insufficient to prevent the downstream floods in either of the storms. Complementary research at JBA has applied their hydrodynamic model JFLOW+ to identify

  3. Urban flood risk assessment using sewer flooding databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caradot, Nicolas; Granger, Damien; Chapgier, Jean; Cherqui, Frédéric; Chocat, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable water management is a global challenge for the 21st century. One key aspect remains protection against urban flooding. The main objective is to ensure or maintain an adequate level of service for all inhabitants. However, level of service is still difficult to assess and the high-risk locations difficult to identify. In this article, we propose a methodology, which (i) allows water managers to measure the service provided by the urban drainage system with regard to protection against urban flooding; and (ii) helps stakeholders to determine effective strategies for improving the service provided. One key aspect of this work is to use a database of sewer flood event records to assess flood risk. Our methodology helps urban water managers to assess the risk of sewer flooding; this approach does not seek to predict flooding but rather to inform decision makers on the current level of risk and on actions which need to be taken to reduce the risk. This work is based on a comprehensive definition of risk, including territorial vulnerability and perceptions of urban water stakeholders. This paper presents the results and the methodological contributions from implementing the methodology on two case studies: the cities of Lyon and Mulhouse. PMID:22097068

  4. Fault tree analysis for urban flooding

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. E. ten Veldhuis; Clemens, F. H. L. R.; Van Gelder, P. H. A. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional methods to evaluate flood risk mostly focus on storm events as the main cause of flooding. Fault tree analysis is a technique that is able to model all potential causes of flooding and to quantify both the overall probability of flooding and the contributions of all causes of flooding to the overall flood probability. This paper gives the results of a fault tree analysis for urban flooding for the case of Haarlem, a city of 105.000 inhabitants. Data from a complaint register, rain...

  5. Flood Progression Modelling and Impact Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mioc, Darka; Anton, François; Nickerson, B.;

    People living in the lower valley of the St. John River, New Brunswick, Canada, frequently experience flooding when the river overflows its banks during spring ice melt and rain. To better prepare the population of New Brunswick for extreme flooding, we developed a new flood prediction model that...... computes floodplain polygons before the flood occurs. This allows emergency managers to access the impact of the flood before it occurs and make the early decisions for evacuation of the population and flood rescue. This research shows that the use of GIS and LiDAR technologies combined with hydrological...... modelling can significantly improve the decision making and visualization of flood impact needed for emergency planning and flood rescue. Furthermore, the 3D GIS application we developed for modelling flooded buildings and infrastructure provides a better platform for modelling and visualizing flood...

  6. Structural master plan of flood mitigation measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, A.

    2009-01-01

    Flood protection is one of the practical methods in damage reduction. Although it not possible to be completely protected from flood disaster but major part of damages can be reduced by mitigation plans. In this paper, the optimum flood mitigation master plan is determined by economic evaluation in trading off between the construction costs and expected value of damage reduction as the benefits. Size of the certain mitigation alternative is also be obtained by risk analysis by accepting possibility of flood overtopping. Different flood mitigation alternatives are investigated from various aspects in the Dez and Karun river floodplain areas as a case study in south west of IRAN. The results show that detention dam and flood diversion are the best alternatives of flood mitigation methods as well as enforcing the flood control purpose of upstream multipurpose reservoirs. Dyke and levees are not mostly justifiable because of negative impact on down stream by enhancing routed flood peak discharge magnitude and flood damages as well.

  7. Flood Fighting Products Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A wave research basin at the ERDC Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory has been modified specifically for testing of temporary, barrier-type, flood fighting products....

  8. FEMA Flood Insurance Studies Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital data set provides an inventory of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) that have been conducted for communities and...

  9. Flood Progression Modelling and Impact Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    D. Mioc; F. Anton; Nickerson, B.; M. Santos; Adda, P.; T. Tienaah; Ahmad, A; Mezouaghi, M.; MacGillivray, E.; Morton, A.; P. Tang

    2011-01-01

    People living in the lower valley of the St. John River, New Brunswick, Canada, frequently experience flooding when the river overflows its banks during spring ice melt and rain. To better prepare the population of New Brunswick for extreme flooding, we developed a new flood prediction model that computesfloodplain polygons before the flood occurs. This allows emergency managers to access the impact of the flood before it occurs and make the early decisions for evacuation of the population an...

  10. Enhancing flood risk system robustness in practice

    OpenAIRE

    M. J. P. Mens; Schielen, R.M.J.; F. Klijn; Schweckendiek, T.

    2012-01-01

    Decisions about flood risk management are usually based on the reduction in flood risk compared to the implementation costs of the strategy. It is common practice to express flood risk (the combination of flood probabilities and potential flood damages) into a single number. The downside of this approach is that explicit information about how the system responds to the whole range of possible discharges is lacking. This type of information is relevant when a robust system is desired. We consi...

  11. 大庆油田提高原油采收率技术综述(英文)%What is After Water Flooding in Daqing Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德民; 廖广志

    2001-01-01

    Many EOR methods have been tested after water flooding in Daqing Oilfield.CO2,natural gas, micellar, microbial, steam, polymer and ASP flooding have been tested in the lab and field (some field tests have been performed). Most of the results are good. CO2、natural gas、micellar are not suitable to be used in Daqing Oilfield. Polymer flooding of pilots and industrial scale have been successful. The results of polymer flooding are related closely to the injection parameters and injection methods. The incremental oil productions are 100 to 140 tons of oil per ton of polymer injected. The oil recovery increased 10% to 14%OOIP. ASP flooding is successful. The cost of chemicals per barrel of incremental oil is $4.0 to $6.2.The incremental recovery is 18% to 20% OOIP over water flooding.Daqing Oilfield;Polymer flooding;ASP flooding

  12. Static adsorption measurements and development of a method of analysis for an overall chemical system for enhanced recovery by means of chemical flooding. Final report. Statische Adsorptionsmessungen und Entwicklung eines Analysenverfahrens fuer ein Gesamtchemikaliensystem bei der Mehrentoelung von Lagerstaetten durch Chemisches Fluten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menz, D.

    1990-01-01

    Retention studies were verified in a model of the Eddesse Nord deposit in Niedersachsen. Enhanced recovery of petroleum is attempted using a tenside mixture consisting of an ionic tenside of the petrol sulfonate group and a non-ionic tenside of the group of alkylpropoxylated-ethoxylated polyethers. The tenside slug will be followed by the biopolymer xanthane. Quantitative analyses of the tensides and the xanthane will only be possible after isolation of the components out of the matrix 'water-salt-crude oil'. Separation methods and analytical methods were developed and optimized; they have been described in detail. The static retention measurements were carried out on 'Valentin Busch' quartz sand. No significant differences were found between anionic and ionic tensides as far as retention was concerned. Clay minerals appear to have considerable influence on the retention characteristics; although the retention efficiency was higher in this case, again there were no significant differences between the two types of tensides. Flooding experiments on quartz sand packings without oil (dynamic retention) yielded similar results as compared with static retention. Flooding experiments on enhanced recovery in Wealden sandstone cores (about 3% clay) showed varying retention patterns. The mixing ratio of the two tenside types was found to change during flooding, both in the oil phase and in the aqueous phase. (orig.).

  13. Elk River Watershed - Flood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding has the potential to cause significant impacts to economic activities as well as to disrupt or displace populations. Changing climate regimes such as extreme precipitation events increase flood vulnerability and put additional stresses on infrastructure. Potential flooding from just under 100 (2009 NPRI Reviewed Facility Data Release, Environment Canada) toxic tailings ponds located in Canada increase risk to human safety and the environment. One such geotechnical failure spilt billions of litres of toxic tailings into the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, when a tailings pond dam breach occurred in August 2014. Damaged and washed out roadways cut access to essential services as seen by the extensive floods that occurred in Saskatchewan and Manitoba in July 2014, and in Southern Alberta in 2013. Recovery efforts from events such as these can be lengthy, and have substantial social and economic impacts both in loss of revenue and cost of repair. The objective of this study is to investigate existing conditions in the Elk River watershed and model potential future hydrological changes that can increase flood risk hazards. By analyzing existing hydrology, meteorology, land cover, land use, economic, and settlement patterns a baseline is established for existing conditions in the Elk River watershed. Coupling the Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model with flood hazard analysis methodology, high-resolution flood vulnerability base line maps are created using historical climate conditions. Further work in 2015 will examine possible impacts for a range of climate change and land use change scenarios to define changes to future flood risk and vulnerability.

  14. Flood protection in historical towns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedvědová, Klára

    Vol. 168. Southampton: WIT Press, 2015 - (Brebbia, C.), s. 757-762 ISBN 978-1-78466-157-1. [Sustainable Development and Planning 2015 /7./. Istanbul (TR), 19.05.2015-21.05.2015] R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF11P01OVV009 Keywords : cultural heritage * flood protection systems * interdisciplinarity * flooding * historic towns Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.witpress.com/elibrary/wit-transactions-on-the-built-environment/168/34812

  15. Introduction to flood control science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong U; Ha, Jin Uk; Kim, Dong Ha; Shin, Hong Ryeol; Song, Seok Hwan; Kim, Jin Gyu; Moon, Heon Cheol

    2003-01-15

    This book covers introduction, industrialization disaster such as Bhopal and Chernobyl disaster, earthquake disaster, volcano disaster, avalanche disaster including loss allocation and prevention measures, and natural fire by showing California, Yellowstone park and similarity between fire and flood. It also introduces climate change and disaster, Earth's greenhouse effect and disaster due to current sea level rise, flood damage, drought disaster, famine and drought, prediction of drought, population problems, outlook of world population, and disaster prevention administration system of Korea.

  16. Introduction to flood control science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book covers introduction, industrialization disaster such as Bhopal and Chernobyl disaster, earthquake disaster, volcano disaster, avalanche disaster including loss allocation and prevention measures, and natural fire by showing California, Yellowstone park and similarity between fire and flood. It also introduces climate change and disaster, Earth's greenhouse effect and disaster due to current sea level rise, flood damage, drought disaster, famine and drought, prediction of drought, population problems, outlook of world population, and disaster prevention administration system of Korea.

  17. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  18. Flooding Effect on Earth Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Banimahd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Earth building is a sustainable, environmentally friendly and economical method of construction that has been used worldwide for many centuries. For the past three decades, earth has seen a revival as a building material for a modern construction method due to its benefits in terms of low carbon content, low cost and energy involved during construction, as well as the fact that it is a sustainable technology of building. Climate change is influencing precipitation levels and patterns around the world, and as a consequence, flood risk is increasing rapidly. When flooding occurs, earth buildings are exposed to water by submersion, causing an increase in the degree of saturation of the earth structures and therefore a decrease of the suction between particles. This study investigated the effect of cycles of flooding (consecutive events of flooding followed by dry periods on earth walls. A series of characterization tests were carried out to obtain the physical and mechanical properties of the studied earth material. In a second stage, Flooding Simulation Tests (FST were performed to explore the earth walls’ response to repeated flooding events. The results obtained for the tested earth wall/samples with reinforced material (straw reveal hydraulic hysteresis when wall/samples are subject to cycles of wetting and drying.

  19. Scales of Natural Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Alex; Quinn, Paul; Owen, Gareth; Hetherington, David; Piedra Lara, Miguel; O'Donnell, Greg

    2016-04-01

    The scientific field of Natural flood Management (NFM) is receiving much attention and is now widely seen as a valid solution to sustainably manage flood risk whilst offering significant multiple benefits. However, few examples exist looking at NFM on a large scale (>10km2). Well-implemented NFM has the effect of restoring more natural catchment hydrological and sedimentological processes, which in turn can have significant flood risk and WFD benefits for catchment waterbodies. These catchment scale improvements in-turn allow more 'natural' processes to be returned to rivers and streams, creating a more resilient system. Although certain NFM interventions may appear distant and disconnected from main stem waterbodies, they will undoubtedly be contributing to WFD at the catchment waterbody scale. This paper offers examples of NFM, and explains how they can be maximised through practical design across many scales (from feature up to the whole catchment). New tools to assist in the selection of measures and their location, and to appreciate firstly, the flooding benefit at the local catchment scale and then show a Flood Impact Model that can best reflect the impacts of local changes further downstream. The tools will be discussed in the context of our most recent experiences on NFM projects including river catchments in the north east of England and in Scotland. This work has encouraged a more integrated approach to flood management planning that can use both traditional and novel NFM strategies in an effective and convincing way.

  20. FLOODING ATTACK AWARE SECURE AODV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Madhavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing security in a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a challenging task due to its inherent nature. Flooding is a type of Denial of Service (DoS attack in MANET. Intentional flooding may lead to disturbances in the networking operation. This kind of attack consumes battery power, storage space and bandwidth. Flooding the excessive number of packets may degrade the performance of the network. This study considers hello flooding attack. As the hello packets are continuously flooded by the malicious node, the neighbor node is not able to process other packets. The functioning of the legitimate node is diverted and destroys the networking operation. Absence of hello packet during the periodical hello interval may lead to wrong assumption that the neighbor node has moved away. So one of the intermediate neighbor nodes sends Route Error (RERR message and the source node reinitiates the route discovery process. In a random fashion the hello interval values are changed and convey this information to other nodes in the network in a secured manner. This study identifies and prevents the flooding attack. This methodology considers the performance parameters such as packet delivery ratio, delay and throughput. This algorithm is implemented in Secure AODV and tested in ad hoc environment. The result of the proposed algorithm decreases the control overhead by 2%.

  1. Development of alkaline/surfactant/polymer (ASP flooding technology for recovery of Karazhanbas oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birzhan Zhappasbaev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The tertiary oil recovery methods like alkaline, surfactant and polymer (ASP flooding are very perspective in order to achieve the synergetic effect out of the different impacts which are caused by these chemicals, which affect oil and water filtration in the reservoir and increase oil recovery. In this communication, we consider the applicability of hydrophobically modified polyampholyte – poly(hexadecylaminocrotonatebetaine (PHDACB as ASP flooding agent for recovery of oil from Karazhanbas oilfield. As “polysoap”, the aqueous solution of PHDACB dissolved in aqueous KOH was used. This system combines the advantages of alkaline, surfactant and polymer and exhibits the synergistic effect. The laboratory results showed that the ASP flooding considerably increases the oil recovery in addition to water flooding. In perspective, the ASP flooding may substitute the steam injection and other thermal enhanced oil recovery (EOR technologies.

  2. National Flood Interoperability Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The National Flood Interoperability Experiment is led by the academic community in collaboration with the National Weather Service through the new National Water Center recently opened on the Tuscaloosa campus of the University of Alabama. The experiment will also involve the partners in IWRSS (Integrated Water Resources Science and Services), which include the USGS, the Corps of Engineers and FEMA. The experiment will address the following questions: (1) How can near-real-time hydrologic forecasting at high spatial resolution, covering the nation, be carried out using the NHDPlus or next generation geofabric (e.g. hillslope, watershed scales)? (2) How can this lead to improved emergency response and community resilience? (3) How can improved an improved interoperability framework support the first two goals and lead to sustained innovation in the research to operations process? The experiment will run from September 2014 through August 2015, in two phases. The mobilization phase from September 2014 until May 2015 will assemble the components of the interoperability framework. A Summer Institute to integrate the components will be held from June to August 2015 at the National Water Center involving faculty and students from the University of Alabama and other institutions coordinated by CUAHSI. It is intended that the insight that arises from this experiment will help lay the foundation for a new national scale, high spatial resolution, near-real-time hydrologic simulation system for the United States.

  3. Flood Risk and Global Change: Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Llobet, A.

    2014-12-01

    Global flood risk is increasing in response to population growth in flood-prone areas, human encroachment into natural flood paths (exacerbating flooding in areas formerly out of harm's way), and climate change (which alters variables driving floods). How will societies respond to and manage flood risk in coming decades? Analysis of flood policy evolution in the EU and US demonstrates that changes occurred in steps, in direct response to disasters. After the flood produced by the collapse of Tous Dam in 1982, Spain initiated a systematic assessment of areas of greatest flood risk and civil protection response. The devastating floods on the Elbe and elsewhere in central Europe in 2002 motivated adoption of the EU Floods Directive (2007), which requires member states to develop systematic flood risk maps (now due) and flood risk management plans (due in 2015). The flooding of New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 resulted in a nationwide levee-safety assessment and improvements in communicating risk, but overall less fundamental change in US flood management than manifest in the EU since 2007. In the developing world, large (and increasing) concentrations of populations in low-lying floodplains, deltas, and coasts are increasingly vulnerable, and governments mostly ill-equipped to implement fundamental changes in land use to prevent future increases in exposure, nor to develop responses to the current threats. Even in the developed world, there is surprisingly little research on how well residents of flood-prone lands understand their true risk, especially when they are 'protected' by '100-year' levees. Looking ahead, researchers and decision makers should prioritize improvements in flood risk perception, river-basin-scale assessment of flood runoff processes (under current and future climate and land-use conditions) and flood management alternatives, and bridging the disconnect between national and international floodplain management policies and local land

  4. Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of nano-crystalline diamondfilms prepared at various substrate temperatures and pulsed plasma frequencies using microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition apparatus with linear antenna delivery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mistrík, J.; Janíček, P.; Taylor, Andrew; Fendrych, František; Fekete, Ladislav; Jäger, Aleš; Nesládek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 571, č. 1 (2014), s. 230-237. ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Grant ostatní: COST Nano TP(XE) MP0901; OP VK(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0306 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * thin films * microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition * pulsed plasma * low deposition temperature Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.759, year: 2014

  5. National flood modelling for insurance purposes: using IFSAR for flood risk estimation in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, R.; Shaw, F.; MacKay, H.; Galy, H.; M. Foote

    2005-01-01

    Flood risk poses a major problem for insurers and governments who ultimately pay the financial costs of losses resulting from flood events. Insurers therefore face the problem of how to assess their exposure to floods and how best to price the flood element of their insurance products. This paper looks at the insurance implications of recent flood events in Europe and the issues surrounding insurance of potential future events. In particular, the paper will focus on the flood risk information...

  6. Estimation of possible Flooding Risks for Enhancement in Flood Resilience in River valleys

    OpenAIRE

    Saqib Ehsan; Silke Wieprecht

    2013-01-01

    Flood is one of the major natural hazards which could cause great disaster. In order to enhance the flood resilience, the proper estimation of flood risks mainly possible loss of life is very much important. Catastrophic flooding could occur downstream of dams in case of dam failure and the possible damages i.e. loss of life & property damage could also be quite significant. The conventional flood resilient measures are not sustainable for long-term flood risk management in developed as well ...

  7. Spectroscopic characterization of nitroaromatic landmine signature explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P.; Manrique-Bastidas, Cesar A.; Blanco, Alejandro; Primera, Oliva M.; Pacheco, Leonardo C.; Castillo-Chara, Jairo; Castro, Miguel E.; Mina, Nairmen

    2004-09-01

    TNT and DNT are important explosives used as base charges of landmines and other explosive devices. They are often combined with RDX in specific explosive formulations. Their detection in vapor phase as well as in soil in contact with the explosives is important in landmine detection technology. The spectroscopic signatures of nitroaromatic compounds in neat forms: crystals, droplets, and recrystallized samples were determined by Raman Microspectroscopy (RS), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FTIR) and Fiber Optics Coupled - Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FOC-FTIR) using a grazing angle (GA) probe. TNT exhibits a series of characteristic bands: vibrational signatures, which allow its detection in soil. The spectroscopic signature of neat TNT is dominated by strong bands about 1380 and 2970 cm-1. The intensity and position of these bands were found remarkably different in soil samples spiked with TNT. The 1380 cm-1 band is split into a number of bands in that region. The 2970 cm-1 band is reduced in intensity and new bands are observed about 2880 cm-1. The results are consistent with a different chemical environment of TNT in soil as compared to neat TNT. Interactions were found to be dependent on the physical source of the explosive. In the case of DNT-sand interactions, shifts in vibrational frequencies of the explosives as well as the substrates were found.

  8. Technical Research of Reinjection of Chemical Flooding Generated Sewage for Petroleum Energy Exploitation in Bohai Sea%化学驱产出污水回注技术在渤海石油能源开发中的研究与意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田津杰; 朱洪庆; 刘观军

    2014-01-01

    针对渤海化学驱油田产出水特点,开展产出含聚污水配制聚合物并回注地层的再利用技术研究,研究结果表明:污水中的残留聚合物、悬浮物和乳化油对储层的渗透率具有一定的影响;在污水水质的控制指标为残留聚合物≤600 mg/L、乳化油≤50 mg/L、悬浮物≤25 mg/L时,污水配成的2,000 mg/L聚合物溶液的阻力系数值为5.61,残余阻力系数为2.27,说明聚合物溶液发挥了扩大波体积的作用,对于减轻产出化学驱液处理压力,突破海上油田化学驱的产出液处理技术瓶颈,最大限度减少含油污水的危害性,实现废弃资源的再利用,具有重要意义。%In view of the characteristics of chemical flooding generated wastewater in Bohai Sea oilfields,a technical study of both polymer preparation and reinjection of polymer-bearing wastewater was carried out. The research results indicate that residual polymer,suspended solids and emulsified oil in the wastewater have a certain impact on the permeability of the reservoir;when controlling indexes of the wastewater reached:residual polymer ≤600 mg/L, emulsified oil ≤50 mg/L and suspended solids ≤25 mg/L,the resistance coefficient value of the 2,000 mg/L pre-pared polymer solution was 5.61 and residual resistance factor was 2.27,indicating that the solution enlarges the swept volume and may help in the tackling of the technical bottleneck of output liquid treatment for offshore oilfield chemical flooding;it can minimize the hazards of oily sewage,realize the recycling of waste resources,save fresh resources and help in the promotion of sustainable development.

  9. Spectroscopic analysis of optoelectronic semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with standard spectroscopic techniques which can be used to analyze semiconductor samples or devices, in both, bulk, micrometer and submicrometer scale. The book aims helping experimental physicists and engineers to choose the right analytical spectroscopic technique in order to get specific information about their specific demands. For this purpose, the techniques including technical details such as apparatus and probed sample region are described. More important, also the expected outcome from experiments is provided. This involves also the link to theory, that is not subject of this book, and the link to current experimental results in the literature which are presented in a review-like style. Many special spectroscopic techniques are introduced and their relationship to the standard techniques is revealed. Thus the book works also as a type of guide or reference book for people researching in optical spectroscopy of semiconductors.

  10. Spectroscopic behavior of bioconjugated quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chornokur, G.; Ostapenko, S.; Emirov, Yu; Korsunska, N. E.; Sellers, T.; Phelan, C.

    2008-07-01

    We report on a short-wavelength, 'blue' spectral shift of the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum in CdSeTe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) caused by bioconjugation with several monoclonal cancer-related antibodies (ABs). Scanning PL spectroscopy was performed on samples dried on solid substrates at various temperatures. The influence of the AB chemical origin on the PL spectral shift was observed. The QD-AB conjugation reaction was confirmed using the agarose gel electrophoresis technique. The spectral shift was strongly increased and the process facilitated when the samples were dried above room temperature. The PL spectroscopic mapping revealed a profile of the PL spectral shift across the dried QD-AB spot. A mechanism of the blue shift is attributed to changes in the QD electronic energy levels caused by a local stress applied to the bioconjugated QD.

  11. Uncertainty in flood risk mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Luisa M. S.; Fonte, Cidália C.; Gomes, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    A flood refers to a sharp increase of water level or volume in rivers and seas caused by sudden rainstorms or melting ice due to natural factors. In this paper, the flooding of riverside urban areas caused by sudden rainstorms will be studied. In this context, flooding occurs when the water runs above the level of the minor river bed and enters the major river bed. The level of the major bed determines the magnitude and risk of the flooding. The prediction of the flooding extent is usually deterministic, and corresponds to the expected limit of the flooded area. However, there are many sources of uncertainty in the process of obtaining these limits, which influence the obtained flood maps used for watershed management or as instruments for territorial and emergency planning. In addition, small variations in the delineation of the flooded area can be translated into erroneous risk prediction. Therefore, maps that reflect the uncertainty associated with the flood modeling process have started to be developed, associating a degree of likelihood with the boundaries of the flooded areas. In this paper an approach is presented that enables the influence of the parameters uncertainty to be evaluated, dependent on the type of Land Cover Map (LCM) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM), on the estimated values of the peak flow and the delineation of flooded areas (different peak flows correspond to different flood areas). The approach requires modeling the DEM uncertainty and its propagation to the catchment delineation. The results obtained in this step enable a catchment with fuzzy geographical extent to be generated, where a degree of possibility of belonging to the basin is assigned to each elementary spatial unit. Since the fuzzy basin may be considered as a fuzzy set, the fuzzy area of the basin may be computed, generating a fuzzy number. The catchment peak flow is then evaluated using fuzzy arithmetic. With this methodology a fuzzy number is obtained for the peak flow

  12. Integrated analysis of spectroscopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectroscopic data are analysed by fitting a collisional-radiative model to the emission spectrum of a low-temperature plasma in the wavelength range of visible light. The inference procedure employs Bayesian probability theory and accounts for all measurement and model uncertainties. This allows for the validation of model parameters, such as atomic data obtained in recent close-coupling calculations, which are ore only partly or not at all accessible by beam-type experiments. Initial results indicate that the spectroscopic data contain significant information about some Einstein coefficients for spontaneous emission of less prominent spectral lines. (author)

  13. Flooding Mechanism in Vertical Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was carried out to investigate the mechanism of flooding ina vertical liquid-gas counter current flow, along two meter length of thetube. The tube use both circular and square tube, a cross section of squaretube was made the same as a cross section of circular tube with one inchdiameter tube. The liquid enters the tube, passes through a porous wall inletand a groove inlet in a distributor and it flows downwards through a liquidoutlet in a collector. The gas is being introduced at the bottom of the tube,it flows upwards through nozzle in the collector. The results of researchshowed that the flooding occurs earlier in the circular tube than in thesquare tube, either uses a porous wall inlet or a groove inlet. In the squaretube , onset of the flooding occurs at the top of the tube, in front ofliquid injection, it is related to the formation of a film wave, just belowthe liquid feed. Whereas in the circular tube, onset of the flooding occursfrom the bottom of the tube, at the liquid outlet, it is related to theexpand of the film wave. However, in the circular tube with the groove inlet,for the higher liquid flow rate, onset of the flooding from the top, like inthe square tube. (author)

  14. Extensive Floods in United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Rain continues to fall in the United Kingdom, bringing more water to an already water-logged landscape. Some rivers there are experiencing their worst flooding in more than 50 years. Of particular note, Britain's River Ouse reached its highest levels on record since 1625. Thousands of people have been evacuated from their homes since October 30, when a large low-pressure system brought torrential rains and hurricane-force winds, placing regions around more than 40 rivers across the country on flood alert. Since then, the rains have persisted, keeping water levels high and causing additional rivers to overrun their banks. In all, at least 12 people have been killed and more than 5,000 properties flooded. Some officials estimate damages could reach 500 million pounds (roughly $715 million). These Landsat 7 scenes show a comparison of the region surrounding Exeter, England, before and after the floods. The top image was acquired September 28 and the bottom image was acquired October 30, 2000. Note the extensive flooding along the River Exe in the bottom image (blue pixels). The light bluish-white pixels in the top image are clouds, and the black splotches on the landscape are the clouds' shadows. The reddish-brown shapes are agricultural fields. Image by Robert Simmon and Brian Montgomery, NASA GSFC. Data provided by Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center.

  15. Flood trends and population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Baldassarre, G.

    2012-04-01

    Since the earliest recorded civilizations, such as those in Mesopotamia and Egypt that developed in the fertile floodplains of the Tigris and Euphrates and Nile rivers, humans tend to settle in flood prone areas as they offer favorable conditions for economic development. However, floodplains are also exposed to flood disasters that might cause severe socio-economic and environmental damages not to mention losses of human lives. A flood event turns to be a disaster when it coincides with a vulnerable environment exceeding society's capacity to manage the adverse consequences. This presentation discusses the link between hydrological risk and population change by referring to the outcomes of scientific works recently carried out in Africa and Europe. More specifically, it is shown that the severity of flood disasters, currently affecting more than 100 million people a year, might be seriously exacerbated because of population change. In fact, flood exposure and/or vulnerability might increase because of rapid population growth (and its spatial and temporal dynamics, e.g. urbanization) in the African continent and because of population ageing in many European countries. Lastly, timely and economically sustainable actions to mitigate this increasing hydrological risk are critically evaluated.

  16. Global scale predictability of floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerts, Albrecht; Gijsbers, Peter; Sperna Weiland, Frederiek

    2016-04-01

    Flood (and storm surge) forecasting at the continental and global scale has only become possible in recent years (Emmerton et al., 2016; Verlaan et al., 2015) due to the availability of meteorological forecast, global scale precipitation products and global scale hydrologic and hydrodynamic models. Deltares has setup GLOFFIS a research-oriented multi model operational flood forecasting system based on Delft-FEWS in an open experimental ICT facility called Id-Lab. In GLOFFIS both the W3RA and PCRGLOB-WB model are run in ensemble mode using GEFS and ECMWF-EPS (latency 2 days). GLOFFIS will be used for experiments into predictability of floods (and droughts) and their dependency on initial state estimation, meteorological forcing and the hydrologic model used. Here we present initial results of verification of the ensemble flood forecasts derived with the GLOFFIS system. Emmerton, R., Stephens, L., Pappenberger, F., Pagano, T., Weerts, A., Wood, A. Salamon, P., Brown, J., Hjerdt, N., Donnelly, C., Cloke, H. Continental and Global Scale Flood Forecasting Systems, WIREs Water (accepted), 2016 Verlaan M, De Kleermaeker S, Buckman L. GLOSSIS: Global storm surge forecasting and information system 2015, Australasian Coasts & Ports Conference, 15-18 September 2015,Auckland, New Zealand.

  17. Uncertainty compliant design flood estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botto, A.; Ganora, D.; Laio, F.; Claps, P.

    2014-05-01

    Hydraulic infrastructures are commonly designed with reference to target values of flood peak, estimated using probabilistic techniques, such as flood frequency analysis. The application of these techniques underlies levels of uncertainty, which are sometimes quantified but normally not accounted for explicitly in the decision regarding design discharges. The present approach aims at defining a procedure which enables the definition of Uncertainty Compliant Design (UNCODE) values of flood peaks. To pursue this goal, we first demonstrate the equivalence of the Standard design based on the return period and the cost-benefit procedure, when linear cost and damage functions are used. We then use this result to assign an expected cost to estimation errors, thus setting a framework to obtain a design flood estimator which minimizes the total expected cost. This procedure properly accounts for the uncertainty which is inherent in the frequency curve estimation. Applications of the UNCODE procedure to real cases leads to remarkable displacement of the design flood from the Standard values. UNCODE estimates are systematically larger than the Standard ones, with substantial differences (up to 55%) when large return periods or short data samples are considered.

  18. A DVD Spectroscope: A Simple, High-Resolution Classroom Spectroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Fumitaka; Hamada, Kiyohito

    2006-01-01

    Digital versatile disks (DVDs) have successfully made up an inexpensive but high-resolution spectroscope suitable for classroom experiments that can easily be made with common material and gives clear and fine spectra of various light sources and colored material. The observed spectra can be photographed with a digital camera, and such images can…

  19. Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Biofield Treated p-Chlorobenzophenone

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    p-Chlorobenzophenone (p-CBP) is the important chemical intermediate used for the synthesis of several pharmaceutical drugs like fenofibrate, cetirizine, alprazolam, and benzodiazepine. The aim of this study was set to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of p-CBP. The study was accomplished in two groups i.e. control and treated. The treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Subseque...

  20. Flood frequency analyses with annual and partial flood series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezak, N.; Brilly, M.; Sraj, M.

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the study was (1) to analyse the influence of time scale of the data on the results, (2) to analyse the relations between discharge, volume and time of flood waves of the Sava river at Litija (Slovenia), (3) to perform flood frequency analyses of peak discharges with annual and partial data series and compare the results and (4) to explore the influence of threshold value by POT method. Calculations and analyses were made for the period 1953-2010. Daily scale data sets (considering also local maximum) were used. The flood frequency analyses were based on anual and partial data series. The differences between daily and hourly time scale data sets were explored. Daily and hourly time scale hydrographs were compared and differences were analysed. Differences were adequately small. Daily time series with included maximums were logical choice because of the length of the daily time series and because hourly time series were not continuous due to gauging equipment failures. Important objective of the study was to analyse the relationship between discharge, volume and duration of flood waves. Baseflow was separated from continuous daily discharge measurements on simple and complex hydrographs. Simple graphical method with three points was used. Many different coefficients like base flow index were calculated and different combinations of correlation coefficient of wave components were examined. Annual maximum series were used to study the relationship between wave components. Flood frequency analyses were made with annual maximum series and partial duration series. Log-normal distribution, Pearson distribution type 3, log-Pearson distribution type 3, Gumbel distribution, exponential distribution, GEV distribution and GL distribution were used for annual maximum series. Simple equation of linear transformation was used to determine the design discharge and procedure which is proposed in Flood Estimation Handbook was used with GEV and GL distribution

  1. A Multiscale Vibrational Spectroscopic Approach for Identification and Biochemical Characterization of Pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Bagcioglu, Murat; Zimmermann, Boris; Kohler, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Background Analysis of pollen grains reveals valuable information on biology, ecology, forensics, climate change, insect migration, food sources and aeroallergens. Vibrational (infrared and Raman) spectroscopies offer chemical characterization of pollen via identifiable spectral features without any sample pretreatment. We have compared the level of chemical information that can be obtained by different multiscale vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Methodology Pollen from 15 different spec...

  2. The flood event explorer - a web based framework for rapid flood event analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Kai; Lüdtke, Stefan; Kreibich, Heidi; Merz, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Flood disaster management, recovery and reconstruction planning benefit from rapid evaluations of flood events and expected impacts. The near real time in-depth analysis of flood causes and key drivers for flood impacts requires a close monitoring and documentation of hydro-meteorological and socio-economic factors. Within the CEDIM's Rapid Flood Event Analysis project a flood event analysis system is developed which enables the near real-time evaluation of large scale floods in Germany. The analysis system includes functionalities to compile event related hydro-meteorological data, to evaluate the current flood situation, to assess hazard intensity and to estimate flood damage to residential buildings. A German flood event database is under development, which contains various hydro-meteorological information - in the future also impact information -for all large-scale floods since 1950. This data base comprises data on historic flood events which allow the classification of ongoing floods in terms of triggering processes and pre-conditions, critical controls and drivers for flood losses. The flood event analysis system has been implemented in a database system which automatically retrieves and stores data from more than 100 online discharge gauges on a daily basis. The current discharge observations are evaluated in a long term context in terms of flood frequency analysis. The web-based frontend visualizes the current flood situation in comparison to any past flood from the flood catalogue. The regional flood data base for Germany contains hydro-meteorological data and aggregated severity indices for a set of 76 historic large-scale flood events in Germany. This data base has been used to evaluate the key drivers for the flood in June 2013.

  3. 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    The Central United States experienced record-setting flooding during 2011, with floods that extended from headwater streams in the Rocky Mountains, to transboundary rivers in the upper Midwest and Northern Plains, to the deep and wide sand-bedded lower Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of its mission, collected extensive information during and in the aftermath of the 2011 floods to support scientific analysis of the origins and consequences of extreme floods. The information collected for the 2011 floods, combined with decades of past data, enables scientists and engineers from the USGS to provide syntheses and scientific analyses to inform emergency managers, planners, and policy makers about life-safety, economic, and environmental-health issues surrounding flood hazards for the 2011 floods and future floods like it. USGS data, information, and scientific analyses provide context and understanding of the effect of floods on complex societal issues such as ecosystem and human health, flood-plain management, climate-change adaptation, economic security, and the associated policies enacted for mitigation. Among the largest societal questions is "How do we balance agricultural, economic, life-safety, and environmental needs in and along our rivers?" To address this issue, many scientific questions have to be answered including the following: * How do the 2011 weather and flood conditions compare to the past weather and flood conditions and what can we reasonably expect in the future for flood magnitudes?

  4. Scientific developments within the Global Flood Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groeve, Tom; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Thielen, Jutta

    2015-04-01

    More than 90 scientists, end users, and decision makers in the field of flood forecasting, remote sensing, hazard and risk assessment and emergency management collaborate in the Global Flood Partnership (GFP). The Partnership, launched in 2014, aims at the development of flood observational and modelling infrastructure, leveraging on existing initiatives for better predicting and managing flood disaster impacts and flood risk globally. Scientists collaborate in the GFP in different pillars, respectively focused on (1) development of tools and systems for global flood monitoring (Flood Toolbox), (2) applying the tools for publishing near real-time impact-based flood awareness information (Flood Observatory), and (3) collecting flood maps and impact information in a distributed database (Flood Record). The talk will focus on concrete collaboration results in 2014 and 2015, showing the added value of collaborating under a partnership. These include an overview of 10 services, 5 tools (algorithms or software) and 4 datasets related to global flood forecasting and observation. Through the various results (on interoperability, standards, visualization, integration and system design of integrated systems), it will be shown that a user-centric approach can lead to effective uptake of research results, rapid prototype development and experimental services that fill a gap in global flood response.

  5. Comparing flood loss models of different complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Kai; Kreibich, Heidi; Vogel, Kristin; Riggelsen, Carsten; Scherbaum, Frank; Merz, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    Any deliberation on flood risk requires the consideration of potential flood losses. In particular, reliable flood loss models are needed to evaluate cost-effectiveness of mitigation measures, to assess vulnerability, for comparative risk analysis and financial appraisal during and after floods. In recent years, considerable improvements have been made both concerning the data basis and the methodological approaches used for the development of flood loss models. Despite of that, flood loss models remain an important source of uncertainty. Likewise the temporal and spatial transferability of flood loss models is still limited. This contribution investigates the predictive capability of different flood loss models in a split sample cross regional validation approach. For this purpose, flood loss models of different complexity, i.e. based on different numbers of explaining variables, are learned from a set of damage records that was obtained from a survey after the Elbe flood in 2002. The validation of model predictions is carried out for different flood events in the Elbe and Danube river basins in 2002, 2005 and 2006 for which damage records are available from surveys after the flood events. The models investigated are a stage-damage model, the rule based model FLEMOps+r as well as novel model approaches which are derived using data mining techniques of regression trees and Bayesian networks. The Bayesian network approach to flood loss modelling provides attractive additional information concerning the probability distribution of both model predictions and explaining variables.

  6. EEL spectroscopic tomography: Towards a new dimension in nanomaterials analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron tomography is a widely spread technique for recovering the three dimensional (3D) shape of nanostructured materials. Using a spectroscopic signal to achieve a reconstruction adds a fourth chemical dimension to the 3D structure. Up to date, energy filtering of the images in the transmission electron microscope (EFTEM) is the usual spectroscopic method even if most of the information in the spectrum is lost. Unlike EFTEM tomography, the use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectrum images (SI) for tomographic reconstruction retains all chemical information, and the possibilities of this new approach still remain to be fully exploited. In this article we prove the feasibility of EEL spectroscopic tomography at low voltages (80 kV) and short acquisition times from data acquired using an aberration corrected instrument and data treatment by Multivariate Analysis (MVA), applied to FexCo(3−x)O4@Co3O4 mesoporous materials. This approach provides a new scope into materials; the recovery of full EELS signal in 3D. -- Highlights: ► EELS–SI tomography was performed at low voltage and low acquisition times. ► MVA has been applied for noise reduction and information extraction. ► Tomographic reconstruction has been achieved for chemical information. ► Elemental distribution extraction in 3D has been proved.

  7. EEL spectroscopic tomography: Towards a new dimension in nanomaterials analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yedra, Lluis, E-mail: llyedra@el.ub.es [Laboratory of Electron Nanoscopies (LENS)-MIND/IN2UB, Dept. d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, c/ Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); CCiT, Scientific and Technological Centers, Universitat de Barcelona, C/Lluis Sole i Sabaris 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Eljarrat, Alberto [Laboratory of Electron Nanoscopies (LENS)-MIND/IN2UB, Dept. d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, c/ Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Arenal, Raul [Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas (LMA), Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA), Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Fundacion ARAID, E-50004 Zaragoza (Spain); Pellicer, Eva; Cabo, Moises [Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Lopez-Ortega, Alberto; Estrader, Marta [CIN2(CIN-CSIC) and Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology, Campus de la UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Sort, Jordi [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Baro, Maria Dolors [Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); and others

    2012-11-15

    Electron tomography is a widely spread technique for recovering the three dimensional (3D) shape of nanostructured materials. Using a spectroscopic signal to achieve a reconstruction adds a fourth chemical dimension to the 3D structure. Up to date, energy filtering of the images in the transmission electron microscope (EFTEM) is the usual spectroscopic method even if most of the information in the spectrum is lost. Unlike EFTEM tomography, the use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectrum images (SI) for tomographic reconstruction retains all chemical information, and the possibilities of this new approach still remain to be fully exploited. In this article we prove the feasibility of EEL spectroscopic tomography at low voltages (80 kV) and short acquisition times from data acquired using an aberration corrected instrument and data treatment by Multivariate Analysis (MVA), applied to Fe{sub x}Co{sub (3-x)}O{sub 4}@Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} mesoporous materials. This approach provides a new scope into materials; the recovery of full EELS signal in 3D. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EELS-SI tomography was performed at low voltage and low acquisition times. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MVA has been applied for noise reduction and information extraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tomographic reconstruction has been achieved for chemical information. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elemental distribution extraction in 3D has been proved.

  8. Comprehensive quantum chemical and spectroscopic (FTIR, FT-Raman, 1H, 13C NMR) investigations of (1,2-epoxyethyl)benzene and (1,2-epoxy-2-phenyl)propane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Anitha, R.; Devi, L.; Mohan, S.; Yang, Haifeng

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic epoxides are causative factors for mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of polycyclic arenes. The 1,2- or 2,3-epoxy compounds are widely used to a considerable extent in the textile, plastics, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, detergent and photochemical industries. The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of (1,2-epoxyethyl)benzene and (1,2-epoxy-2-phenyl)propane are recorded in the regions 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-100 cm-1, respectively. The observed fundamentals are assigned to different normal modes of vibration. The structure of the compound has been optimised with B3LYP method using 6-311++G** and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The IR and Raman intensities are determined. The total electron density and molecular electrostatic potential surfaces of the molecule are constructed by using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method to display electrostatic potential (electron + nuclei) distribution. The electronic properties HOMO and LUMO energies were measured. Natural bond orbital analysis of the compounds has been performed to indicate the presence of intramolecular charge transfer. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the molecules have been analysed.

  9. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Visible) investigations, NMR chemical shielding anisotropy (CSA) parameters of 2,6-Diamino-4-chloropyrimidine for dye sensitized solar cells using density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladis Anitha, E; Joseph Vedhagiri, S; Parimala, K

    2014-10-24

    The molecular structure, geometry optimization, vibrational frequencies of organic dye sensitizer 2,6-Diamino-4-chloropyrimidine (DACP) were studied based on Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrum was investigated by time dependent DFT (TD-DFT). Features of the electronic absorption spectrum in the UV-Visible regions were assigned based on TD-DFT calculation. The absorption bands are assigned to transitions. The interfacial electron transfer between semiconductor TiO2 electrode and dye sensitizer DACP is due to an electron injection process from excited dye to the semiconductor's conduction band. The observed and the calculated frequencies are found to be in good agreement. The energies of the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOS) have also been determined. The chemical shielding anisotropic (CSA) parameters are calculated from the NMR analysis, Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. PMID:25459717

  10. Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of nano-crystalline diamond films prepared at various substrate temperatures and pulsed plasma frequencies using microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition apparatus with linear antenna delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistrik, J., E-mail: jan.mistrik@upce.cz [Institute of Applied Physics and Mathematics, University of Pardubice, Studentska 95, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Janicek, P. [Institute of Applied Physics and Mathematics, University of Pardubice, Studentska 95, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Taylor, A.; Fendrych, F.; Fekete, L.; Jager, A. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Nesladek, M. [IMOMEC Division, IMEC, Institute for Materials Research, University Hasselt, Wetenschapspark 1, B3590 (Belgium)

    2014-11-28

    A series of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films were deposited by a custom made microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition apparatus with linear antenna delivery at different substrate temperatures (520–600 °C) and pulsed plasma frequencies (2.7–14.3 kHz) in a hydrogen rich working gas mixture of H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2}. Films were deposited onto naturally oxidized Si wafers pre-seeded with nanodiamond particles. Spectro-ellipsometry characterization of the NCD films was carried out considering various model structures (single and bi-layer models) and various NCD optical constant parameterizations (Tauc–Lorentz and effective medium approximation with different non-diamond component representations). It has been shown that substrate temperature can be lowered with a simultaneous increase in pulsed plasma frequency while still providing high quality NCD films with non-diamond component fraction in the bulk layer of about 5% (identically estimated by ellipsometry and Raman spectroscopy). Films' thickness and their surface roughness were found consistent with atomic force and secondary electron microscopies. Among various NCD structure models the most appropriate has been selected. - Highlights: • Assessment of most appropriate model structure for nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) films • Interrelation between deposition conditions and diamond quality of NCD films • Identification of non-diamond component in NCD films • Comparison of results obtained by ellipsometry and Raman spectroscopies.

  11. Incorporation of atomic carbon and hydrogen in high-melting oxide - nuclear-chemical, dilatometric and infrared spectroscopical investigations on C- and H-doped MgO and CaO-monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C and H doped monocrystals of MgO and CaO were investigated in a temperature region of 78 K to 1500 K for the chemical state of the doping agents and their temperature-dependent behaviour. Starting with monocrystals obtained by coal arcing, carbon doping was carried out via the nuclear reaction 12C (d,p)13C, whereas hydrogen doping is present from the start of the crystal growth due to remaining moisture of the initial product. Hydrogen is present in the form of OH-contained defects or secondary produced Hz bubbles. All investigations, namely laser microprobe investigations, infrared spectroscopy, CO2 and hydrocarbon formation measurements and argon and O2 atmosphere, C-profile measurements, diffusion measurements, thermal expansion, lead to the result that carbon in the atomic form is present in the lattice on interstitial places or cation vacancies. The reaction mechanisms are discussed. An interaction model (between OH and C defects) does not completely clarify the complex IR spectra in detail, however shows good agreement with the experimental results. (RB)

  12. Spectroscopic investigations and molecular docking study of (2E)-1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-[4-(propan-2-yl)phenyl]prop-2-en-1-one using quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Shana; Al-Alshaikh, Monirah A.; Panicker, C. Yohannan; El-Emam, Ali A.; Salian, Vinutha V.; Narayana, B.; Sarojini, B. K.; van Alsenoy, C.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy of (2E)-1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-[4-(propan-2-yl)phenyl]prop-2-en-1-one. The computations were performed at DFT level of theory to get the optimizedgeometry and vibrational wave numbers of the normal modes of the title compound using Gaussian09 software. The complete vibrational assignments of wave numbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show chemical activity of the molecule. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. The hyperpolarizability values are reported and the first hyperpolarizability of the title compound is 83.85 times that of standard NLO material urea. From the MEP plot, the negative electrostatic potential regions are mainly localized over the carbonyl group, the phenyl rings and are possible sites for electrophilic attack. The positive regions are localized over all the hydrogen atoms and are possible sites for nucleophilic attack. The molecular docking results suggest that the compound might exhibit inhibitory activity against lymphocyte-specific kinase and may results in design of novel T-cell immunosuppressants.

  13. Sweep efficiency improvement by alkaline flooding for Pelican Lake heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Mingzhe [University of Calgary (Canada); Ma, Shanzhou [University of Regina (Canada); Li, Aifen [China University of Petroleum (China)

    2011-07-01

    Chemical flooding has great potential for enhancing heavy oil recovery, especially for reservoirs where thermal methods are not feasible. It has been shown that the formation of emulsions during chemical flooding can effectively improve sweep efficiency and, consequently, increase heavy oil recovery. This paper presents a laboratory study aimed at studying the potential of alkaline flooding and the optimal injection strategy for improving the sweep efficiency and enhancing heavy oil recovery in the Pelican Lake reservoir in northern Alberta. The experimental results include interfacial tension measurements, micromodel observations, and some 48 one-dimensional channeled sandpack flood tests to evaluate the chemical formulas and injection strategies. The first 14 sandpack flood tests were carried out with a combination of NaOH and Na2CO3 while the other 34 flood tests were conducted with the injection of NaOH solution only. The obtained results showed that formation of water-in-oil dispersion and improvement of sweep efficiency in channeled sandpacks did occur in the tertiary recovery process through the injection of the NaOH-only solution.

  14. Flooding, flood risks and coping strategies in urban informal residential areas: The case of Keko Machungwa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumpale Sakijege

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents findings from a study carried out in Keko Machungwa informal settlement in Dar es Salaam under the auspices of the Disaster Management Training Centre of Ardhi University, Tanzania. The settlement has experienced frequent flooding in the past five years, and this study explores the causes, risks, extent of flooding and coping strategies of residents as well as municipality and city officials. Key methods employed in capturing empirical evidence included mapping of zones by severity of flooding, interviews with households, sub-ward leaders, and municipal and city officials. Non-participant observation, primarily taking photographs, complemented these methods. Laboratory tests of water samples taken from shallow wells in the settlement were performed to establish the level of pollution. In addition, records of prevalence of water-borne diseases were gathered from a dispensary within the settlement to corroborate flooding events, water pollution and occurrence of such diseases. Findings show that flooding is contributed to by the lack of a coordinated stormwater drainage system; haphazard housing development within the valley; and blocking of the water stream by haphazard dumping of solid waste and construction. Risks associated with flooding include water and air pollution, diseases, waterlogging and blocked accessibility. The most common coping strategies at household level are use of sandbags and tree logs; raised pit latrines and doorsteps; provision of water outlet pipes above plinth level; construction of embankments, protection walls and elevation of house foundations; seasonal displacement; and boiling and chemical treatment of water. Recommendations for future action at household, community and city level are made.

  15. Multilevel integrated flood management aproach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilly, Mitja; Rusjan, Simon

    2013-04-01

    The optimal solution for complex flood management is integrated approach. Word »integration« used very often when we try to put something together, but should distinguish full multiple integrated approach of integration by parts when we put together and analyse only two variables. In doing so, we lost complexity of the phenomenon. Otherwise if we try to put together all variables we should take so much effort and time and we never finish the job properly. Solution is in multiple integration captures the essential factors, which are different on a case-by-case (Brilly, 2000). Physical planning is one of most important activity in which flood management should be integrated. The physical planning is crucial for vulnerability and its future development and on other hand our structural measures must be incorporate in space and will very often dominated in. The best solution is if space development derived on same time with development of structural measures. There are good examples with such approach (Vienna, Belgrade, Zagreb, and Ljubljana). Problems stared when we try incorporating flood management in already urbanised area or we would like to decrease risk to some lower level. Looking to practice we learn that middle Ages practices were much better than to day. There is also »disaster by design« when hazard increased as consequence of upstream development or in stream construction or remediation. In such situation we have risk on areas well protected in the past. Good preparation is essential for integration otherwise we just lost time what is essential for decision making and development. We should develop clear picture about physical characteristics of phenomena and possible solutions. We should develop not only the flood maps; we should know how fast phenomena could develop, in hour, day or more. Do we need to analyse ground water - surface water relations, we would like to protected area that was later flooded by ground water. Do we need to take care about

  16. Sept 2013 NFHL Flood Hazard Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  17. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Apel, H.;

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk is dynamic and influenced by many processes related to hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Flood damage increased significantly over the past decades, however, resulting overall economic loss per event is an aggregated indicator and it is difficult to attribute causes to this increasing...... trend. Much has been learned about damaging processes during floods at the micro-scale, e.g. building level. However, little is known about the main factors determining the amount of flood damage on event level. Thus, we analyse and compare paired flood events, i.e. consecutive, similar damaging floods...... that occurred in the same area. In analogy to ’Paired catchment studies’ - a well-established method in hydrology to understand how changes in land use affect streamflow – we will investigate how and why resulting flood damage in a region differed between the first and second consecutive flood events...

  18. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, , USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  19. Chapter 2 Levees in flood risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Wallis, M; Simm, J.; Tourment, R.; Bramley, M; Schelfhout, H.; WILLIAMSON, T.

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 2 introduces the concepts and principles of flood risk management, flood risk management systems, and their components. It also introduces life cycle management frameworks, failure modes, risk analysis and the potential effects of climate change.

  20. Flooding in Thailand: flee, fight or float

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan S Sophonpanich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The severity of recent flooding in Thailand and the probability of future flooding have triggered a re-assessment of coping mechanisms employed by both the Thai population and the government.

  1. Flood risk governance arrangements in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczak, P.; Lewandowski, J.; Choryński, A.; Szwed, M.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2015-06-01

    The STAR-FLOOD (Strengthening and Redesigning European Flood Risk Practices Towards Appropriate and Resilient Flood Risk Governance Arrangements) project, funded by the European Commission, investigates strategies for dealing with flood risk in six European countries: Belgium, the UK, France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden and in 18 vulnerable urban regions in these countries. The project aims to describe, analyse, explain, and evaluate the main similarities and differences between the selected EU Member States in terms of development and performance of flood risk governance arrangements. It also discusses the scientific and societal importance of these similarities and differences. Attention is paid to identification and characterization of shifts in flood risk governance arrangements and in flood risk management strategies and to determination of triggering factors and restraining factors. An assessment of a change of resilience and appropriateness (legitimacy, effectiveness, efficiency) of flood risk governance arrangements in Poland is presented and comparison with other European countries is offered.

  2. 78 FR 29768 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the Flood... Building, 882 Wood Road, Milan, PA 18831. Township of Standing Stone Standing Stone Township...

  3. Flood Insurance Study City of Duchesne, Utah, Duchesne County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1988-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Duchesne, Duchesne County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood plain m...

  4. Flood Insurance Study, City of Salina, Utah, Sevier County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1986-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Salina, Sevier County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood plain manag...

  5. Flood Insurance Study, City of Park City, Utah, Summit County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1987-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Park City, Summit County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood plain man...

  6. Flood Insurance Study, City of St. George, Utah, Washington County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1998-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of St. George, Washington County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1964 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1971. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood pla...

  7. Flood Insurance Study, City of Draper, Utah, Salt Lake County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1994-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Draper, Salt Lake County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood plain ma...

  8. Flood Insurance Study, City of Murray, Utah, Salt Lake County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1994-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Murray, Salt Lake County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood plain ma...

  9. Flood Insurance Study, City of Richfield, Utah, Sevier County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1986-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Richfield, Sevier County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood plain ma...

  10. Perception of flood danger dependency on the site of living

    OpenAIRE

    Polic, M.; Brilly, M.; Tusak, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Slovenian contribution on FLOODAWARE is report about our recent research on inhabitants perception of flood danger and behavior concerning floods. Only a part of the data is presented here. We were interested how site of living (flooded vs. non-flooded) influences people's opinion. Therefore inhabitants from flooded and non-flooded parts of small Slovenian town Celje were questioned about the danger of floods and relevant behavior concerning prevention or mitigation of flood consequences....

  11. Reliable Energy Conservation in Wireless Sensor Networks using Flooding Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    L. Nalini Joseph; Dr.S.Shanmugavel

    2011-01-01

    A Comparison of Performance in terms of Energy conservation in Wireless Sensor Networks using different Flooding mechanism has been analyzed. The following flooding mechanisms analyzed are Classical Flooding, Location Aided Flooding, Adaptive Location Aided Flooding; Diagonal arc based Location Aided Flooding, Diagonal arc based Location Aided Flooding with reliability is considered for the study. The various mechanisms save energy when compared to conventional flooding schemes.

  12. Web-based data acquisition of flood affected people.

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi Kreibich; K. Poser; Sören Haubrock;  

    2008-01-01

    Detailed documentations and assessments of the consequences of floods as well as flood risk analyses are essential for improvements of the flood risk management. However, flood documentation and flood damage collections are difficult and expensive, especially for frequent, small flood events. This results in a lack of data for flood management and research. Therefore, the Internet shall be used for the collection of flood loss information. To make use of the knowledge of the people affected b...

  13. State-of-the-art for evaluating the potential impact of flooding on a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a review of the state-of-the-art for evaluating the potential impact of flooding on a deep radioactive-waste repository, namely, for predicting the future occurrence of catastrophic flooding and for estimating the effect of such flooding on waste containment characteristics. Several detrimental effects are identified: flooding can increase groundwater seepage velocities through a repository within the framework of the existing hydrologic system and thus increase the rate of radioactive-waste leakage to the biosphere; flooding may alter repository hydrology by reversing flow gradients, relocating sources of groundwater recharge and discharge, or shortening seepage paths, thereby producing unpredictable leakage; saturation of a vadose-zone repository during flooding can increase groundwater seepage velocities by several orders of magnitude; and flooding can damage repository-media containment properties by inducing seismic or chemical instability or increasing fracture permeability in relatively shallow repository rock as a result of redistributing in-situ stresses. Short-term flooding frequency and magnitude can be predicted statistically by analyzing historical records of flooding. However, long-term flooding events that could damage a permanent repository cannot be predicted with confidence because the geologic record is neither unique nor sufficienly complete for statistical analysis. It is more important to identify parameters characterizing containment properties (such as permeability, groundwater gradient, and shortest seepage path length to the biosphere) that could be affected by future flooding, estimate the maximum magnitude of flooding that could occur within the life of the repository by examining the geologic record, and determine the impact such flooding could have on the parameter values

  14. Field note from Pakistan floods: Preventing future flood disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Oxley

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Unusually heavy monsoon rains in Northern Pakistan have caused disproportionate levels of extreme flooding and unprecedented flood losses across the entire Indus River basin. Extensive land use changes and environmental degradation in the uplands and lowlands of the river basin together with the construction of a “built environment” out of balance with the functioning, capacities, scale and limits of the local ecosystems have exposed millions of people to an increased risk of extreme #ooding. The catastrophic nature of the August #ooding provides a unique opportunity to fundamentally change Pakistan’s current socio-economic development path by incorporating disaster risk reduction and climate change measures into the post-disaster recovery process to rebuild a safer, more resilient nation. In January 2005 one hundred and sixty-eight nations adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA2005-2015 to bring about a “substantial reduction in disaster losses” by 2015. Despite this global initiative a series of major disasters, including the recent flooding in Pakistan, all indicate that we are not on track to achieve the substantial reduction of disaster losses. The following fieldnote considers what can be done to accelerate progress towards implementation of the Hyogo Framework, drawing on insights and lessons learnt from the August flooding to understand how Pakistan and neighbouring countries can prevent a repeat of such catastrophic disasters in future years.

  15. Groundwater flooding in an urbanised floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.; Peach, D.; Dixon, A.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, risk management associated with groundwater flooding has been recognised as an area requiring improved understanding in the United Kingdom. Government figures suggest as many as 1.6 million properties may be at risk from this form of flooding. Further, the recently enforced EU Floods Directive requires hazard mapping associated with groundwater flooding to be undertaken. The city of Oxford is situated within a narrow valley in the upper reaches of the River Thames in the south of the United Kingdom. Although much of the city sits above the current floodplain of the River Thames, approximately 3600 properties are located within the 1 in 100 year return flood envelope. The floodplain is underlain by a shallow alluvial aquifer in good hydraulic connection with the River Thames and its tributaries. The city suffers from recurrent floods, most recently in July 2007, when a 1 in 20 year event impacted over 200 properties. A significant number of these properties were affected by flooding from rising groundwater which was either the sole cause of flooding or the initial cause prior to inundation from fluvial waters. A study has been undertaken by the British Geological Survey, in collaboration with the environment regulator and linked with the local flood risk management scheme, to assess the role of groundwater in flooding in Oxford. The study has shown that groundwater flooding in the city occurs in low-lying areas protected from direct fluvial flooding, at least in the early stages of an event, by high ground associated with urbanisation. Although direct rainfall recharge associated with extreme events can cause significant groundwater level rise in these low-lying areas, the primary mechanism for groundwater flooding is the movement of water through the permeable subsurface from fluvial flooded zones. Groundwater flooding is often the only form of flooding for the isolated low-lying areas for medium-to-high probability flood events. As a result

  16. A rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment: considering multiple flood sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X.; Tatano, H.

    2015-08-01

    Information about the spatial distribution of flood risk is important for integrated urban flood risk management. Focusing on urban areas, spatial flood risk assessment must reflect all risk information derived from multiple flood sources: rivers, drainage, coastal flooding etc. that may affect the area. However, conventional flood risk assessment deals with each flood source independently, which leads to an underestimation of flood risk in the floodplain. Even in floodplains that have no risk from coastal flooding, flooding from river channels and inundation caused by insufficient drainage capacity should be considered simultaneously. For integrated flood risk management, it is necessary to establish a methodology to estimate flood risk distribution across a floodplain. In this paper, a rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment, which considers the joint effects of multiple flood sources, is proposed. The concept of critical rainfall duration determined by the concentration time of flooding is introduced to connect response characteristics of different flood sources with rainfall. A copula method is then adopted to capture the correlation of rainfall amount with different critical rainfall durations. Rainfall events are designed taking advantage of the copula structure of correlation and marginal distribution of rainfall amounts within different critical rainfall durations. A case study in the Otsu River Basin, Osaka prefecture, Japan was conducted to demonstrate this methodology.

  17. Costs of flood protection in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Sapač, Klaudija

    2014-01-01

    Beacause of the frequent flooding we need to increase attention to the floods and measures to reduce and offset their harmful consequences. Measures for flood protection can be divided into structural and non-structural. Measures can be divided also into preventive, intervention and curative measures. Decision for the type of measure, that will be implemented in order to improve flood protection, depends on the available financial resources to implement the measure. In the first part of...

  18. Analysis of flood events in Slovenian streams

    OpenAIRE

    Bezak, Nejc; Horvat, Alja; Šraj, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    The detailed analysis of individual flood event elements, including peak discharge (Q), flood event volume (V), and flood event duration (D), is an important step for improving our understanding of complex hydrological processes. More than 2,500 flood events were defined based on the annual maximum (AM) peak discharge from 50 Slovenian gauging stations with catchment areas of between 10 and 10,000 km2. After baseflow separation, the stations were clustered into homogeneous groups and the r...

  19. Comprehensive analysis of sustainable flood retention basins

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Qinli

    2011-01-01

    To adapt to climate change which results in increasing flood frequency and intensity, the European Community has proposed Flood Directive 2007/60/EC. It requires member states to conduct risk assessments of all river basins and coastal areas and to establish Flood Risk Management Plans focused on prevention, protection and preparedness by 2015. Sustainable Flood Retention Basins (SFRB) that impound water are a new concept that arose in 2006. They can have a pre-defined or po...

  20. The European Flood Risk Directive and Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Mostert, E.; Doorn, N.

    2012-01-01

    The European Flood risk directive (2007/60/EC) requires EU Member States to review their system of flood risk management. In doing so, they will have to face ethical issues inherent in flood risk management. This paper discusses three such issues, using examples from the Netherlands. These issues are: (1) whether and, if so, under which conditions differentiation in flood protection levels is acceptable; (2) individual and local responsibility versus solidarity; and (3) the role of environmen...

  1. Flood risk governance arrangements in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Matczak, P.; Lewandowski, J.; Choryński, A.; Szwed, M.; Z. W. Kundzewicz

    2015-01-01

    The STAR-FLOOD (Strengthening and Redesigning European Flood Risk Practices Towards Appropriate and Resilient Flood Risk Governance Arrangements) project, funded by the European Commission, investigates strategies for dealing with flood risk in six European countries: Belgium, the UK, France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden and in 18 vulnerable urban regions in these countries. The project aims to describe, analyse, explain, and evaluate the main similarities and differen...

  2. Feedback on flood risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

    2009-09-01

    For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To manage repeated crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. In this objective, after 3 years of test and improvement since 2003, the initiative Predict-Services was developed in South of France: it aims at helping communities and companies to face repeated flood crisis. The principle is to prepare emergency plans, to organize crisis management and reduce risks; to help and assist communities and companies during crisis to activate and adapt their emergency plans with enough of anticipation; and to analyse floods effects and improve emergency plans afterwards. With the help of Meteo France datas and experts, Predict services helps local communities and companies in decision making for flood management. In order to reduce risks, and to keep the benefits of such an initiative, local communities and companies have to maintain the awareness of risk of the citizens and employees. They also have to maintain their safety plans to keep them constantly operational. This is a part of the message relayed. Companies, Local communities, local government authorities and basin stakeholders are the decision makers. Companies and local communities have to involve themselves in the elaboration of safety plans. They are also completely involved in their activation that is their own responsability. This applies to other local government authorities, like districts one's and basin stakeholders, which participle in the financing community safety plans and adminitrative district which

  3. Improving Flood Insurance and Flood Risk Management: Insights from St. Louis, Missouri

    OpenAIRE

    Kousky, Carolyn; Kunreuther, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the history of St. Louis, Missouri in coping with flood risk over the past 15 years, with a focus on flood insurance. Six challenges to the continued management of riverine flood risk are identified and discussed. They are (1) many property owners don’t buy flood insurance, (2) people underestimate flood risk, (3) we need better flood maps, (4) we have a “love affair” with levees, (5) flood risk is increasing over time, and (6) we take deep pride in rebuilding after a disa...

  4. Application of RUNTA code in flood analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flood probability analyses carried out to date indicate the need to evaluate a large number of flood scenarios. This necessity is due to a variety of reasons, the most important of which include: - Large number of potential flood sources - Wide variety of characteristics of flood sources - Large possibility of flood-affected areas becoming inter linked, depending on the location of the potential flood sources - Diversity of flood flows from one flood source, depending on the size of the rupture and mode of operation - Isolation times applicable - Uncertainties in respect of the structural resistance of doors, penetration seals and floors - Applicable degrees of obstruction of floor drainage system Consequently, a tool which carries out the large number of calculations usually required in flood analyses, with speed and flexibility, is considered necessary. The RUNTA Code enables the range of possible scenarios to be calculated numerically, in accordance with all those parameters which, as a result of previous flood analyses, it is necessary to take into account in order to cover all the possible floods associated with each flood area

  5. Floods - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Floods URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/floods.html Other topics A-Z A B C ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Floods - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  6. Implementing the European flood risk management plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Hartmann; Spit, Tejo

    2015-01-01

    In response to the extreme flood events of recent decades, the European Union has released the Floods Directive (2007/60/EC), which requires the creation of flood risk management plans. These plans do not yet exist in practice, as water management agencies have until 2015 to put them into action. Th

  7. Interconnected ponds operation for flood hazard distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, S. S.; Ridwan, B. W.

    2016-05-01

    The climatic anomaly, which comes with extreme rainfall, will increase the flood hazard in an area within a short period of time. The river capacity in discharging the flood is not continuous along the river stretch and sensitive to the flood peak. This paper contains the alternatives on how to locate the flood retention pond that are physically feasible to reduce the flood peak. The flood ponds were designed based on flood curve number criteria (TR-55, USDA) with the aim of rapid flood peak capturing and gradual flood retuning back to the river. As a case study, the hydrologic condition of upper Ciliwung river basin with several presumed flood pond locations was conceptually designed. A fundamental tank model that reproducing the operation of interconnected ponds was elaborated to achieve the designed flood discharge that will flows to the downstream area. The flood hazard distribution status, as the model performance criteria, will be computed within Ciliwung river reach in Manggarai Sluice Gate spot. The predicted hazard reduction with the operation of the interconnected retention area result had been bench marked with the normal flow condition.

  8. 7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Flood Insurance Program (see 44 CFR part 59 et seq.) provides for a standard flood insurance policy... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788.3 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) RUS FIDELITY AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRIC AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS...

  9. 13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section... to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance.... 4000 et seq.)), a loan recipient must obtain flood insurance if any building (including mobile...

  10. Economic optimisation of flood risk management projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsimopoulou, V.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands has developed a flood risk management policy based on an economic rationale. After the flood disaster of 1953, when a large area of the south-western part of the country was flooded and more than 1800 people lost their lives, the so-called Delta Committee was installed, whose main pu

  11. The August 1975 Flood over Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Smith, James; Liu, Maofeng; Baeck, MaryLynn

    2016-04-01

    The August 1975 flood in Central China was one of the most destructive floods in history, resulting in 26 000 fatalities, leaving about 10 million people with insufficient shelter, and producing long-lasting famine and disease. Extreme rainfall responsible for this flood event was associated with typhoon Nina during 5-7 August 1975. Despite the prominence of the August 1975 flood, analyses of the storms producing the flood and the resulting flood are sparse. Even fewer attempts were made from the perspective of numerical simulations. We examine details of extreme rainfall for the August 1975 flood based on downscaling simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model driven by 20th Century Reanalysis fields. We further placed key hydrometeorological features for the flood event in a climatological context through the analyses of the 20th Century Reanalysis fields. Results indicate interrelated roles of multiple mesoscale ingredients for deep, moist convection in producing extreme rainfall for the August 1975 flood, superimposed over an anomalous synoptic environment. Attribution analyses on the source of water vapor for this flood event will be conducted based on a Lagrangian parcel tracking algorithm LAGRANTO. Analytical framework developed in this study aims to explore utilization of hydrometeorological approach in flood-control engineering designs by providing details on key elements of flood-producing storms.

  12. Flood Risk Management in the People’s Republic of China: Learning to Live with Flood Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank; Yoshiaki Kobayashi

    2012-01-01

    This publication presents a shift in the People’s Republic of China from flood control depending on structural measures to integrated flood management using both structural and non-structural measures. The core of the new concept of integrated flood management is flood risk management. Flood risk management is based on an analysis of flood hazard, exposure to flood hazard, and vulnerability of people and property to danger. It is recommended that people learn to live with flood risks, gaining...

  13. Impact of the exceptionally high flood from the Changjiang River on the aquatic chemical distributions on the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea shelves in the summer of 1998

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Baodong; WANG Xiulin

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the field observation in the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea in the summer of 1998, a rare event of exceptionally high discharge from the Changjiang River was described and how this high discharge altered water masses as well as chemical distributions on the shelves of the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea. The maximal extending ranges of the Changjiang diluted water and the nutrients in the freshwater from the Changjiang River were recorded for the first time. It was also found that there was a closed area with high oxygen and pH values in the offshore area of the southern Huanghai Sea and the northern East China Sea, indicating that the extensive spreading of nutrients due to the high discharge led to photosynthesis of phytoplankton mostly taking place in the offshore area far from the river mouth. The presence of "excess nitrogen" in almost all the northern East China Sea and the south of the Huanghai Sea suggests that these areas are potentially phosphorus-limited rather than nitrogen-limited, manifesting more like an estuarine ecosystem rather than a common marine ecosystem.

  14. LAMINATION METHOD OF FLOOD WADIS AND PROJECTION OF THE LAMINATED FLOOD HYDROGRAPH

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ladjel

    2016-01-01

    The catastrophic floods in semi-arid areas are often caused by floods storm that occur at any time during the year, including the hot season. The prevention of these floods could be done by the construction of small dam hills. This requires the control of theoretical concepts hydrological sizing, especially the hydrological structure to evacuate floods. We suggest a method to calculate the optimal regulation flow of the flood and also the development of a direct calculation formula of a lamin...

  15. National flood modelling for insurance purposes: using IFSAR for flood risk estimation in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, R.; Shaw, F.; MacKay, H.; Galy, H.; M. Foote

    2005-01-01

    Flood risk poses a major problem for insurers and governments who ultimately pay the financial costs of losses resulting from flood events. Insurers therefore face the problem of how to assess their exposure to floods and how best to price the flood element of their insurance products. This paper looks at the insurance implications of recent flood events in Europe and the issues surrounding insurance of potential future events. In particular, the paper will focus on the floo...

  16. Inundation Mapping Initiatives of the Iowa Flood Center: Statewide Coverage and Detailed Urban Flooding Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Jia Chang; Harvest Schroeder; Nathan Young; Daniel Gilles; Jesse Piotrowski

    2012-01-01

    The State of Iowa, located in the Midwestern United States, has experienced an increased frequency of large floods in recent decades. After extreme flooding in the summer of 2008, the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) was established for advanced research and education specifically related to floods. IFC seeks to improve Iowa’s flood hazard awareness through the development of easily accessible, high-quality mapping products. Mapping initiatives consist of two model development approaches: (1) statewid...

  17. Estimation of Flood Warning Times for Flood Safety Management Downstream of Dams

    OpenAIRE

    Saqib Ehsan; Walter Marx; Silke Wieprecht

    2013-01-01

    Floods have always been a threat for people and property due to the extent of possible damages. The flooding could be catastrophic in case of possible dam failure and its impacts on downstream areas could also be very significant. Proper estimation of flood warning times plays a vital role in flood safety management of areas downstream of the dams. This research focuses on the realistic and precise estimation of flood warning times for the downstream areas in case of possible dam failure. As ...

  18. Importance of Flood Severity Estimation for Flood Plain Management in a River Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Saqib Ehsan; Walter Marx; Silke Wieprecht

    2013-01-01

    Climate changes strongly affect the occurrence of floods. Extreme flooding can occur due to dam failure but sometimes high outflows that exceed the downstream safe channel capacity can also cause significant flooding. This paper emphasizes the importance of flood severity estimation in a river valley for long-term flood plain management. For hydraulic analysis, about 329 km long, the Jhelum river valley downstream of Mangla dam in Pakistan has been considered. The project reach has been model...

  19. Hydrologic sensitivity of flood runoff and inundation: 2011 Thailand floods in the Chao Phraya River basin

    OpenAIRE

    T. Sayama; Y. Tatebe; Y. Iwami; Tanaka, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Thailand floods in 2011 caused unprecedented economic damage in the Chao Phraya River basin. To diagnose the flood hazard characteristics, this study analyses the hydrologic sensitivity of flood runoff and inundation to rainfall. The motivation is to address why the seemingly insignificant monsoon rainfall, or 1.2 times more rainfall than for past large floods, including the ones in 1995 and 2006, resulted in such devastating flooding. To quantify the hydrologic sensitiv...

  20. Hydrologic sensitivity of flood runoff and inundation: 2011 Thailand floods in the Chao Phraya River basin

    OpenAIRE

    T. Sayama; Y. Tatebe; Y. Iwami; Tanaka, S.

    2014-01-01

    Thailand floods in 2011 caused an unprecedented economic damage in the Chao Phraya River basin. To diagnose the flood hazard characteristics, this study analyzes the hydrologic sensitivity of flood runoff and inundation to rainfall. The motivation is to address why the seemingly insignificant monsoon rainfall, or 1.2 times more rainfall than past large floods including the ones in 1995 and 2006, resulted in such a devastating flooding. To quantify the hydrologic sensitivity, this stu...

  1. Feedback on flood risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

    2009-09-01

    For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To manage repeated crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. In this objective, after 3 years of test and improvement since 2003, the initiative Predict-Services was developped in South of France: it aims at helping communities and companies to face repeated flood crisis. The principle is to prepare emergency plans, to organize crisis management and reduce risks; to help and assist communities and companies during crisis to activate and adapt their emergency plans with enough of anticipation; and to analyse floods effects and improve emergency plans afterwards. In order to reduce risks, and to keep the benefits of such an initiative, local communities and companies have to maintain the awareness of risk of the citizens and employees. They also have to maintain their safety plans to keep them constantly operational. This is a part of the message relayed. Companies, Local communities, local government authorities and basin stakeholders are the decision makers. Companies and local communities have to involve themselves in the elaboration of safety plans. They are also completely involved in their activation that is their own responsability. This applies to other local government authorities, like districts one's and basin stakeholders, which participle in the financing community safety plans and adminitrative district which are responsible of the transmission of meteorological alert and of rescue actions. In the crossing of the géo-information stemming from the

  2. Flood inundation extent in storage cell mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.; Farahi; Saeed; Reza; Khodashenas; B.; Ghahraman; K.; Esmaeeli

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of floodplain processes in general and floodplains flooding in particular are vital issues for river engineers and managers. Insufficient observations of flood inundation extent and the infrequent nature of flood inundation necessitate some sort of predictive tools. In this paper flood inundation extent has been simulated by HEC-RAS software in two storage cell and normal modes and capabilities and limitations of the two models have been determined by comparing simulated and observed flood inundation extent which occurred in the study area on Feb 4th, 2004.

  3. Re-thinking urban flood management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sörensen, Johanna; Persson, Andreas; Sternudd, Catharina;

    2016-01-01

    Urban flooding is of growing concern due to increasing densification of urban areas, changes in land use, and climate change. The traditional engineering approach to flooding is designing single-purpose drainage systems, dams, and levees. These methods, however, are known to increase the long......-term flood risk and harm the riverine ecosystems in urban as well as rural areas. In the present paper, we depart from resilience theory and suggest a concept to improve urban flood resilience. We identify areas where contemporary challenges call for improved collaborative urban flood management. The concept...

  4. Flood inundation extent in storage cell mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Farahi; Saeed Reza Khodashenas; B.Ghahraman; K.Esmaeeli

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of floodplaln processes In general and floodplains flooding in particular are vital issues for river engineers and managers.Insufficient observations of flood inundation extent and the infrequent nature of flood inundation necessitate some sort of predictive tools.In this paper flood in-undation extent has been simulated by HEC-RAS software in two storage cell and normal modes and capabilities and limitations of the two models have been determined by comparing simulated and ob-served flood inundation extent which occurred in the study area on Feb 4th, 2004.

  5. Top flooding modeling with MAAP4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An engineering top flooding model was developed in MAAP4.04d.4, the severe accident code used in EDF, to simulate the thermal-hydraulic phenomena that should take place if emergency core cooling (ECC) water was injected in hot leg during quenching. In the framework of the ISTC (International Science and Technology Centre), a top flooding test was proposed in the PARAMETER facility (Podolsk, Russia). The MAAP calculation of the PARAMETER top flooding test is presented in this paper. A comparison between top and bottom flooding was made on the bundle test geometry. According to this study, top flooding appears to cool quickly and effectively the upper plenum internals. (author)

  6. Economic optimisation of flood risk management projects

    OpenAIRE

    Tsimopoulou, V.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands has developed a flood risk management policy based on an economic rationale. After the flood disaster of 1953, when a large area of the south-western part of the country was flooded and more than 1800 people lost their lives, the so-called Delta Committee was installed, whose main purpose was to coordinate actions towards a drastic reduction of flood risk. A key element of the Delta Committee’s recommendations, which formed the foundation of the current flood risk management p...

  7. Quantitative assessment of risk due to NaTech scenarios caused by floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floods may cause severe damages to chemical and process facilities, triggering major accidents (fires, explosions, and toxic release). Such cascading events are termed as NaTech scenarios. In the present study, a specific methodology for the implementation of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) of NaTech scenarios triggered by floods was further developed and applied to the assessment of different flood events and equipment categories. Specific vulnerability models allowed estimating the failure probability of both atmospheric and pressurized equipment, and the estimation of NaTech-induced release frequencies. A case-study representative of an industrial installation was discussed, comparing the risk due to conventional internal causes to that deriving from NaTech scenarios and identifying possible specific safety barriers. The case-study demonstrated that a significant risk increment may be associated to industrial facilities located in flood-prone areas when flood-triggered NaTech scenarios are considered. - Highlights: • A method to evaluate the risk associated to NaTech caused by flooding was developed. • Simplified fragility models to estimate equipment failure probability were applied. • The QRA of an industrial site was performed applying the developed methodology. • Conventional risk assessment results were compared to those including NaTech events. • A significant risk increase was associated to NaTech scenarios triggered by floods

  8. Analysing uncertainties associated with flood hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhold, Clemens; Stanzel, Philipp; Nachtnebel, Hans-Peter

    2010-05-01

    Risk zonation maps are mostly derived from design floods which propagate through the study area. The respective delineation of inundated flood plains is a fundamental input for the flood risk assessment of exposed objects. It is implicitly assumed that the river morphology will not vary, even though it is obvious that the river bed elevation can quickly and drastically change during flood events. The objectives of this study were (1) to integrate river bed dynamics into flood risk assessment and (2) to quantify uncertainties associated to flood hazard modelling by means of (i) hydrology (input hydrographs) (ii) sediment transport (torrential input, river bed elevation) (iii) hydrodynamics (water surface levels) The proposed concept was applied to the River Ill in the Western Austrian Alps. In total, 138 flood and associated sediment transport scenarios were considered, simulated and illustrated for the main river stem. The calculated morphological changes of the river bed during peak flow provided a basis to estimate the variability of possible water surface levels and inundated areas, necessary for flood hazard assessment. The applied multi-scenario approach was compared to the normatively defined design flood event to account for the uncertainty of flood risk management decisions based on a few scenarios. Due to the incorporation of river morphological changes and variations in rainfall characteristics into flood hazard assessment, for 12 % of considered cross sections inundations were calculated where safety was expected.

  9. Flood loss assessment in the Kota Tinggi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia is free from several destructive and widespread natural disasters but frequently affected by floods, which caused massive flood damage. In 2006 and 2007, an extreme rainfall occured in many parts of Peninsular Malaysia, which caused severe flooding in several major cities. Kota Tinggi was chosen as study area as it is one the seriously affected area in Johor state. The aim of this study is to estimate potential flood damage to physical elements in Kota Tinggi. The flood damage map contains both qualitative and quantitative information which corresponds to the consequences of flooding. This study only focuses on physical elements. Three different damage functions were adopted to calculate the potential flood damage and flood depth is considered as the main parameter. The adopted functions are United States, the Netherlands and Malaysia. The estimated flood damage for housing using United States, the Netherlands and Malaysia was RM 350/m2 RM 200/m2 and RM 100/m2 respectively. These results successfully showed the average flood damage of physical element. Such important information needed by local authority and government for urban spatial planning and aiming to reduce flood risk

  10. Flood loss assessment in the Kota Tinggi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, T. H.; Ibrahim, A. L.; Rahman, M. Z. A.; Mazura, Z.

    2014-02-01

    Malaysia is free from several destructive and widespread natural disasters but frequently affected by floods, which caused massive flood damage. In 2006 and 2007, an extreme rainfall occured in many parts of Peninsular Malaysia, which caused severe flooding in several major cities. Kota Tinggi was chosen as study area as it is one the seriously affected area in Johor state. The aim of this study is to estimate potential flood damage to physical elements in Kota Tinggi. The flood damage map contains both qualitative and quantitative information which corresponds to the consequences of flooding. This study only focuses on physical elements. Three different damage functions were adopted to calculate the potential flood damage and flood depth is considered as the main parameter. The adopted functions are United States, the Netherlands and Malaysia. The estimated flood damage for housing using United States, the Netherlands and Malaysia was RM 350/m2 RM 200/m2 and RM 100/m2 respectively. These results successfully showed the average flood damage of physical element. Such important information needed by local authority and government for urban spatial planning and aiming to reduce flood risk.

  11. Spectroscopic Analysis of Geminid Meteors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borovička, Jiří

    Paris: International Meteor Organization, 2010 - (Rendtel, J.), s. 42-51 ISBN 978-2-87355-021-9. [International Meteor Conference, Bereges, France. Bareges (FR), 07.06.2007-10.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/0543 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Geminid meteors * spectroscopic analysis Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  12. Type Ia Supernovae: Spectroscopic Surprises

    OpenAIRE

    Branch, David

    2003-01-01

    Recent observations have extended the range of diversity among spectra of Type Ia supernovae. I briefly discuss SN Ia explosion models in the spectroscopic context, the observed diversity, and some recent results from direct analysis with the Synow code for one normal and two peculiar SNe Ia. Relating the observational manifestations of diversity to their physical causes is looking like an ever more challenging problem.

  13. Living behind dikes: mimicking flooding experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaalberg, Ruud; Midden, Cees J H

    2013-05-01

    Delta areas like the Netherlands are threatened by global climate change. Awareness is, however, rather low. Our research objective was to investigate whether coping responses to flooding risks could be enhanced in a virtual environment (VE). A laboratory experiment was conducted in which participants were exposed to a simulated dike breach and consequent flooding of their virtual residence. We tested the hypothesis that an interactive 3D flood simulation facilitates coping responses compared to noninteractive film and slide simulations. Our results showed that information search, the motivation to evacuate, and the motivation to buy flood insurance increased after exposure to the 3D flood simulation compared to the film and slide simulations. Mediation analyses revealed that some of these presentation mode effects were mediated by a greater sense of being present in the VE. Implications to use high-end flood simulations in a VE to communicate real-world flooding risks and coping responses to threatened residents will be discussed. PMID:22817689

  14. Multi-pass spectroscopic ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry is an established technique, particularly useful for thickness measurements of thin films. It measures polarization rotation after a single reflection of a beam of light on the measured substrate at a given incidence angle. In this paper, we report the development of multi-pass spectroscopic ellipsometry where the light beam reflects multiple times on the sample. We have investigated both theoretically and experimentally the effect of sample reflectivity, number of reflections (passes), angles of incidence and detector dynamic range on ellipsometric observables tanΨ and cosΔ. The multiple pass approach provides increased sensitivity to small changes in Ψ and Δ, opening the way for single measurement determination of optical thickness T, refractive index n and absorption coefficient k of thin films, a significant improvement over the existing techniques. Based on our results, we discuss the strengths, the weaknesses and possible applications of this technique. - Highlights: • We present multi-pass spectroscopic ellipsometry (MPSE), a multi-pass approach to ellipsometry. • Different detectors, samples, angles of incidence and number of passes were tested. • N passes improve polarization ratio sensitivity to the power of N. • N reflections improve phase shift sensitivity by a factor of N. • MPSE can significantly improve thickness measurements in thin films

  15. Spectroscopic amplifier for pin diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photodiode remains the basic choice for the photo-detection and is widely used in optical communications, medical diagnostics and field of corpuscular radiation. In detecting radiation it has been used for monitoring radon and its progeny and inexpensive spectrometric systems. The development of a spectroscopic amplifier for Pin diode is presented which has the following characteristics: canceler Pole-Zero (P/Z) with a time constant of 8 μs; constant gain of 57, suitable for the acquisition system; 4th integrator Gaussian order to waveform change of exponential input to semi-Gaussian output and finally a stage of baseline restorer which prevents Dc signal contribution to the next stage. The operational amplifier used is the TLE2074 of BiFET technology of Texas Instruments with 10 MHz bandwidth, 25 V/μs of slew rate and a noise floor of 17 nv/(Hz)1/2. The integrated circuit has 4 operational amplifiers and in is contained the total of spectroscopic amplifier that is the goal of electronic design. The results show like the exponential input signal is converted to semi-Gaussian, modifying only the amplitude according to the specifications in the design. The total system is formed by the detector, which is the Pin diode, a sensitive preamplifier to the load, the spectroscopic amplifier that is what is presented and finally a pulse height analyzer (Mca) which is where the spectrum is shown. (Author)

  16. Betwixt Droughts and Floods: Flood Management Politics in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Maier-Knapp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to create greater understanding of the political dynamics that influence domestic disaster relief and management (DRM in Thailand, this article takes a closer look at these dynamics by outlining the main actors involved in flood-related DRM. It acknowledges the importance of international and military actors but emphasises the role of national and subnational authorities. The article then identifies the central issues of DRM governance as capacity and bureaucracy and discusses these through a chronological assessment of the flood crisis in Thailand in 2011, interweaving the colourful domestic politics with various political cleavages and dichotomies, and thereby distinguishing between three main dichotomies which it considers as the central drivers of the political dynamics and institutional development of DRM. These issues can be summarised as old versus new institutions, technocracy versus bureaucracy and centralised (but with direct people-orientation through greater channels of citizenry participation versus decentralised bureaucracy with an indirect orientation towards people.

  17. Sobre inundaciones y anegamientos / Reflections on floods and flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrando A., Francisco J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Respecto a anegamientos e inundaciones, el autor realiza algunas precisiones conceptuales que afectan la gestión de acciones preventivas, la planificación y el ordenamiento territorial; además se ofrece una sistematización del quehacer sobre las inundaciones./ The author punctualizes the concepts regarding preventive actions and territorial planning. Also the article includes a systematized list of actions related to flood management.

  18. Flood modeling for risk evaluation: a MIKE FLOOD sensitivity analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderkimpen, P.; Peeters, P

    2008-01-01

    The flood risk for a section of the Belgian coastal plain was evaluated by means of dynamically linked 1D (breach) and 2D (floodplain) hydraulic models. First, a one-at-a-time factor screening was performed to evaluate the relative importance of various model processes and parameters. Subsequently, a systematic sensitivity analysis was added to establish the contribution of the most influential factors (breach growth and surface roughness) to hydraulic modeling uncertainty. Finally, the uncer...

  19. Use of documentary sources on past flood events for flood risk management and land planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cœur, Denis; Lang, Michel

    2008-09-01

    The knowledge of past catastrophic events can improve flood risk mitigation policy, with a better awareness against risk. As such historical information is usually available in Europe for the past five centuries, historians are able to understand how past society dealt with flood risk, and hydrologists can include information on past floods into an adapted probabilistic framework. In France, Flood Risk Mitigation Maps are based either on the largest historical known flood event or on the 100-year flood event if it is greater. Two actions can be suggested in terms of promoting the use of historical information for flood risk management: (1) the development of a regional flood data base, with both historical and current data, in order to get a good feedback on recent events and to improve the flood risk education and awareness; (2) the commitment to keep a persistent/perennial management of a reference network of hydrometeorological observations for climate change studies.

  20. Development of flood profiles and flood-inundation maps for the Village of Killbuck, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostheimer, Chad J.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a reach of Killbuck Creek near the Village of Killbuck, Ohio, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Holmes County, Ohio. The inundation maps depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage Killbuck Creek near Killbuck (03139000) and were completed as part of an update to Federal Emergency Management Agency Flood-Insurance Study. The maps were provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into a Web-based flood-warning system that can be used in conjunction with NWS flood-forecast data to show areas of predicted flood inundation associated with forecasted flood-peak stages. The digital maps also have been submitted for inclusion in the data libraries of the USGS interactive Flood Inundation Mapper. Data from the streamgage can be used by emergency-management personnel, in conjunction with the flood-inundation maps, to help determine a course of action when flooding is imminent. Flood profiles for selected reaches were prepared by calibrating a steady-state step-backwater model to an established streamgage rating curve. The step-backwater model then was used to determine water-surface-elevation profiles for 10 flood stages at the streamgage with corresponding streamflows ranging from approximately the 50- to 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities. The computed flood profiles were used in combination with digital elevation data to delineate flood-inundation areas.

  1. Nano-spectroscopic imaging of intermolecular structure, coupling and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pollard, Benjamin; Hinrichs, Karsten; Raschke, Markus B

    2013-01-01

    Molecular self-assembly, the function of biomembranes, and the performance of organic solar cells rely on molecular interactions on the nanoscale. The understanding and design of such intrinsic or engineered heterogeneous functional soft matter has long been impeded by a lack of spectroscopic tools with sufficient nanometer spatial resolution, attomolar sensitivity, and intermolecular spectroscopic specificity. We implement vibrational scattering-scanning near-field optical microscopy ($s$-SNOM) in a multi-spectral modality with unprecedented spectral precision to investigate the structure-function relationship in nano-phase separated block-copolymers. We use a vibrational resonance as a sensitive reporter of the local chemical environment and resolve, with few nanometer spatial resolution and 0.2 cm$^{-1}$ spectral precision, spectral Stark shifts and line broadening correlated with molecular-scale morphologies. By creating images of solvatochromic vibrational shifts we discriminate local variations in elect...

  2. Quantifying the combined effects of multiple extreme floods on river channel geometry and on flood hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Mingfu; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Wright, Nigel G.; Sleigh, P. Andy; Staines, Kate E. H.

    2016-07-01

    Effects of flood-induced bed elevation and channel geometry changes on flood hazards are largely unexplored, especially in the case of multiple floods from the same site. This study quantified the evolution of river channel and floodplain geometry during a repeated series of hypothetical extreme floods using a 2D full hydro-morphodynamic model (LHMM). These experiments were designed to examine the consequences of channel geometry changes on channel conveyance capacity and subsequent flood dynamics. Our results revealed that extreme floods play an important role in adjusting a river channel to become more efficient for subsequent propagation of floods, and that in-channel scour and sediment re-distribution can greatly improve the conveyance capacity of a channel for subsequent floods. In our hypothetical sequence of floods the response of bed elevation was of net degradation, and sediment transport successively weakened even with floods of the same magnitude. Changes in river channel geometry led to significant impact on flood hydraulics and thereby flood hazards. We found that flood-induced in-channel erosion can disconnect the channel from its floodplain resulting in a reduction of floodwater storage. Thus, the frequency and extent of subsequent overbank flows and floodplain inundation decreased, which reduced downstream flood attenuation and increased downstream flood hazard. In combination and in summary, these results suggest that changes in channel capacity due to extreme floods may drive changes in flood hazard. The assumption of unchanging of river morphology during inundation modelling should therefore be open to question for flood risk management.

  3. Flood Handling and Emergency Action Planning for Dams

    OpenAIRE

    Midttømme, Grethe Holm

    2002-01-01

    Even though dams are designed to bypass floods of significant magnitudes, floods less severe than the design flood may pose a threat to dams. Ongoing research into climate change also shows an increasing trend towards severe floods, that is an increased probability of floods exceeding the present design floods. Therefore, acquiring understanding of floods and risk reduction measures to mitigate any of their undesired effects is of great importance. Dam safety management in ...

  4. Karst flash floods: an example from the Dinaric karst (Croatia)

    OpenAIRE

    Bonacci, O.; Ljubenkov, I.; Roje-Bonacci, T.

    2006-01-01

    International audience Flash floods constitute one of the deadliest and costliest natural disasters worldwide. This paper explains the karst flash flood phenomenon, which represents a special kind of flash flood. As the majority of flash floods karst flash floods are caused by intensive short-term precipitation in an area whose surface rarely exceeds a few square kilometres. The characteristics of all flash floods are their short duration, small areal extent, high flood peaks and rapid flo...

  5. Contaminated sediment transport during floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 48 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of parts of the White Oak Creek catchment. The contaminants presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in the White Oak Creek drainage system. The erosion of these sediments during floods can result in the transport of contaminants both within the catchment and off-site into the Clinch River. A data collection program and a modeling investigation are being used to evaluate the probability of contaminated sediment transport during floods and to develop strategies for controlling off-site transport under present and future conditions

  6. Bangladesh floods, cyclones and ENSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been found that in general there is a reduction of rainfall in all the regions of Bangladesh in all the seasons - premonsoon, monsoon and post monsoon during El Nino years. It has also been observed that in strong El Nino year Bangladesh is not hit by a catastrophic flood or a catastrophic cyclone. In the past, occurrence of famines in this region of the world coincided with El Nino years. The years of weak El Nino or when the El Nino index is positive seem to be favourable for the occurrence of floods and cyclones in Bangladesh. A theory of the modulation of the monsoon in Bangladesh by the Walker circulation has been described in the paper. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  7. Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Base Flood Elevations, FIRM, DFIRM, BFE, Elevation Points data located within the Flood data geodatabase, Published in unknown, City of Roswell, GA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Base Flood Elevations, FIRM, DFIRM, BFE dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Elevation Points data located within the Flood...

  8. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk is dynamic and influenced by many processes related to hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Flood damage increased significantly over the past decades, however, resulting overall economic loss per event is an aggregated indicator and it is difficult to attribute causes to this increasing trend. Much has been learned about damaging processes during floods at the micro-scale, e.g. building level. However, little is known about the main factors determining the amount of flood damage on event level. Thus, we analyse and compare paired flood events, i.e. consecutive, similar damaging floods that occurred in the same area. In analogy to 'Paired catchment studies' - a well-established method in hydrology to understand how changes in land use affect streamflow - we will investigate how and why resulting flood damage in a region differed between the first and second consecutive flood events. One example are the 2002 and 2013 floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany. The 2002 flood caused the highest economic damage (EUR 11600 million) due to a natural hazard event in Germany. Damage was so high due to extreme flood hazard triggered by extreme precipitation and a high number of resulting dyke breaches. Additionally, exposure hotspots like the city of Dresden at the Elbe river as well as some smaller municipalities at the river Mulde (e.g. Grimma, Eilenburg, Bitterfeld, Dessau) were severely impacted. However, affected parties and authorities learned from the extreme flood in 2002, and many governmental flood risk programs and initiatives were launched. Considerable improvements since 2002 occurred on many levels that deal with flood risk reduction and disaster response, in particular in 1) increased flood prevention by improved spatial planning, 2) an increased number of property-level mitigation measures, 3) more effective early warning and improved coordination of disaster response and 4) a more targeted maintenance of flood defence systems and their

  9. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    OpenAIRE

    Shi-Wei Lo; Jyh-Horng Wu; Fang-Pang Lin; Ching-Han Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections...

  10. Visual Sensing for Urban Flood Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing climatic extremes, the frequency and severity of urban flood events have intensified worldwide. In this study, image-based automated monitoring of flood formation and analyses of water level fluctuation were proposed as value-added intelligent sensing applications to turn a passive monitoring camera into a visual sensor. Combined with the proposed visual sensing method, traditional hydrological monitoring cameras have the ability to sense and analyze the local situation of flood events. This can solve the current problem that image-based flood monitoring heavily relies on continuous manned monitoring. Conventional sensing networks can only offer one-dimensional physical parameters measured by gauge sensors, whereas visual sensors can acquire dynamic image information of monitored sites and provide disaster prevention agencies with actual field information for decision-making to relieve flood hazards. The visual sensing method established in this study provides spatiotemporal information that can be used for automated remote analysis for monitoring urban floods. This paper focuses on the determination of flood formation based on image-processing techniques. The experimental results suggest that the visual sensing approach may be a reliable way for determining the water fluctuation and measuring its elevation and flood intrusion with respect to real-world coordinates. The performance of the proposed method has been confirmed; it has the capability to monitor and analyze the flood status, and therefore, it can serve as an active flood warning system. PMID:26287201

  11. Visual Sensing for Urban Flood Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing climatic extremes, the frequency and severity of urban flood events have intensified worldwide. In this study, image-based automated monitoring of flood formation and analyses of water level fluctuation were proposed as value-added intelligent sensing applications to turn a passive monitoring camera into a visual sensor. Combined with the proposed visual sensing method, traditional hydrological monitoring cameras have the ability to sense and analyze the local situation of flood events. This can solve the current problem that image-based flood monitoring heavily relies on continuous manned monitoring. Conventional sensing networks can only offer one-dimensional physical parameters measured by gauge sensors, whereas visual sensors can acquire dynamic image information of monitored sites and provide disaster prevention agencies with actual field information for decision-making to relieve flood hazards. The visual sensing method established in this study provides spatiotemporal information that can be used for automated remote analysis for monitoring urban floods. This paper focuses on the determination of flood formation based on image-processing techniques. The experimental results suggest that the visual sensing approach may be a reliable way for determining the water fluctuation and measuring its elevation and flood intrusion with respect to real-world coordinates. The performance of the proposed method has been confirmed; it has the capability to monitor and analyze the flood status, and therefore, it can serve as an active flood warning system.

  12. Floods and human health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu

    2012-10-15

    Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004-2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs. PMID:22750033

  13. Structural master plan of flood mitigation measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Heidari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood protection is one of the practical methods in damage reduction. Although it not possible to be completely protected from flood disaster but major part of damages can be reduced by mitigation plans. In this paper, the optimum flood mitigation master plan is determined by economic evaluation in trading off between the construction costs and expected value of damage reduction as the benefits. Size of the certain mitigation alternative is also be obtained by risk analysis by accepting possibility of flood overtopping. Different flood mitigation alternatives are investigated from various aspects in the Dez and Karun river floodplain areas as a case study in south west of IRAN. The results show that detention dam and flood diversion are the best alternatives of flood mitigation methods as well as enforcing the flood control purpose of upstream multipurpose reservoirs. Dyke and levees are not mostly justifiable because of negative impact on down stream by enhancing routed flood peak discharge magnitude and flood damages as well.

  14. Chemical and spectroscopic studies of Cercidium praecox gum exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León de Pinto, G; Martínez, M; Rivas, C

    1994-07-01

    The structure of the polysaccharide from Cercidium praecox (R&P) Harms gum exudate has been studied by Smith degradation, by sugar and methylation analyses, and by 13C NMR spectroscopy. The results showed a (1-->4)-xylan core. Some xylose residues are substituted at O-2 by alpha-D-glucuronic acid and 4-O-methyl-alpha-D-glucuronic acid residues. beta-D-Glucuronic acid is present, probably as terminal residues. The arabinose is present as alpha-L-furanose and beta-L-pyranose. PMID:8062287

  15. Evaluation of Slow Release Fertilizer Applying Chemical and Spectroscopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlled-release fertilizer offers a number of advantages in relation to crop production in newly reclaimed soils. Butadiene styrene latex emulsion is one of the promising polymer for different purposes. In this work, laboratory evaluation of butadiene styrene latex emulsion 24/76 polymer loaded with a mixed fertilizer was carried out. Macro nutrients (N, P and K) and micro-nutrients(Zn, Fe, and Cu) were extracted by basic extract from the polymer fertilizer mixtures. Micro-sampling technique was investigated and applied to measure Zn, Fe, and Cu using flame atomic absorption spectrometry in order to overcome the nebulization difficulties due to high salt content samples. The cumulative releases of macro and micro-nutrients have been assessed. From the obtained results, it is clear that the release depends on both nutrients and polymer concentration in the mixture. Macro-nutrients are released more efficient than micro-nutrients of total added. Therefore it can be used for minimizing micro-nutrients hazard in soils

  16. Chemical and Spectroscopic Studies of Carotenoids and Related Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Lutnæs, Bjart Frode

    2004-01-01

    Structure elucidation of charge delocalised carotenoid mono- and dications by NMR and VIS/NIR spectroscopy. Studies of the nucleophilic reactions of these cations. Studies of the β,β-carotene-iodine complex. Isolation and anmalysis of new carotenoid glucoside esters from extremophilic bacteria.

  17. Moessbauer spectroscopic, chemical and mineralogical characterization of Iberian Pottery

    OpenAIRE

    Ruíz García, Casilda

    1985-01-01

    Characterization of andent pottery is threefold: the provenance of the clay, non-plastics added and firing technology (kiln atmosphere and associated thermal cycle). Very often sherds of different provenance have similar appearance although, conversely, different manufacturing techniques can produce a wide variety of pottery from the sanle clay. Therefore a classification of the sherds based solely upan macroscopic and stylistic grounds could lead to serious mistakes. Physicoch...

  18. Detection of the spectroscopic signatures of explosives and their degradation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Vivian; Cabanzo, Andrea; Baez, Bibiana; Correa, Sandra; Irrazabal, Maik; Briano, Julio G.; Castro, Miguel E.; Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2005-06-01

    Detection and removal of antipersonnel and antitank landmines is a great challenge and a worldwide enviromental and humanitarian problem. Sensors tuned on the spectroscopic signature of the chemicals released from mines are a potential solution. Enviromental factors (temperature, relative humidity, rainfall precipitation, wind, sun irradiation, pressure, etc.) as well as soil characteristics (water content, compaction, porosity, chemical composition, particle size distribution, topography, vegetation, etc), have a direct impact on the fate and transport of the chemicals released from landmines. Chemicals such as TNT, DNT and their degradation products, are semi-volatile, and somewhat soluble in water. Also, they may adsorb strongly to soil particles, and are susceptible to degradation by microorganisms, light, or chemical agents. Here we show an experimental procedure to quantify the effect of the above variables on the spectroscopic signature. A number of soil tanks under controlled conditions are used to study the effect of temperature, water content, relative humidity and light radiation.

  19. Floods in the Ölfusá basin, Iceland: A geographic contribution to the assessment of flood hazard and management of flood risk

    OpenAIRE

    Pagneux, Emmanuel P., 1972-

    2011-01-01

    This research is a geographic exploration of the physical and societal components of flood risk in the Ölfusá basin, Southern Iceland. Two specific aspects were investigated: - Impact of ice jams on the extent, boundaries, and depth of historical floods; - Public perception of flood hazard and flood risk and public preferences in the management of flood risk in the town of Selfoss. The research on historical floods indicates that discharge at gauging sites is not a reliable paramete...

  20. Flood-related contamination in catchments affected by historical metal mining: an unexpected and emerging hazard of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, S A; Brewer, P A; Macklin, M G; Haresign, W; Betson, R E; Rassner, S M E

    2014-04-01

    Floods in catchments affected by historical metal mining result in the remobilisation of large quantities of contaminated sediment from floodplain soils and old mine workings. This poses a significant threat to agricultural production and is preventing many European river catchments achieving a 'good chemical and ecological status', as demanded by the Water Framework Directive. Analysis of overbank sediment following widespread flooding in west Wales in June 2012 showed that flood sediments were contaminated above guideline pollution thresholds, in some samples by a factor of 82. Most significantly, silage produced from flood affected fields was found to contain up to 1900 mg kg(-1) of sediment associated Pb, which caused cattle poisoning and mortality. As a consequence of climate related increases in flooding this problem is likely to continue and intensify. Management of contaminated catchments requires a geomorphological approach to understand the spatial and temporal cycling of metals through the fluvial system. PMID:24463253

  1. Estimation of flood environmental effects using flood zone mapping techniques in Halilrood Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaghpour, Siamak; Bagheri, Majid; Bagheri, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    High flood occurrences with large environmental damages have a growing trend in Iran. Dynamic movements of water during a flood cause different environmental damages in geographical areas with different characteristics such as topographic conditions. In general, environmental effects and damages caused by a flood in an area can be investigated from different points of view. The current essay is aiming at detecting environmental effects of flood occurrences in Halilrood catchment area of Kerman province in Iran using flood zone mapping techniques. The intended flood zone map was introduced in four steps. Steps 1 to 3 pave the way to calculate and estimate flood zone map in the understudy area while step 4 determines the estimation of environmental effects of flood occurrence. Based on our studies, wide range of accuracy for estimating the environmental effects of flood occurrence was introduced by using of flood zone mapping techniques. Moreover, it was identified that the existence of Jiroft dam in the study area can decrease flood zone from 260 hectares to 225 hectares and also it can decrease 20% of flood peak intensity. As a result, 14% of flood zone in the study area can be saved environmentally. PMID:25649059

  2. Development of flood risk mapping in Kota Tinggi, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flood risk maps provide valuable information for development of flood risk management. Geospatial technology and modeling enable us to monitor natural disasters around the world. Flooding is the most severe natural disaster that causing huge economic losses every year. Flood risk maps are an essential tool for assessing the consequences of flooding. The main aim of this study is to initiate a framework to develop a local-based flood risk map. Flood risk maps can be produced by using integration of geospatial technology and hydrodynamic modeling. Results show that a flood risk map for Kota Tinggi is produced with unsatisfactory information in term of flood damage

  3. Development of flood risk mapping in Kota Tinggi, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, T. H.

    2014-02-01

    Flood risk maps provide valuable information for development of flood risk management. Geospatial technology and modeling enable us to monitor natural disasters around the world. Flooding is the most severe natural disaster that causing huge economic losses every year. Flood risk maps are an essential tool for assessing the consequences of flooding. The main aim of this study is to initiate a framework to develop a local-based flood risk map. Flood risk maps can be produced by using integration of geospatial technology and hydrodynamic modeling. Results show that a flood risk map for Kota Tinggi is produced with unsatisfactory information in term of flood damage.

  4. High-energy spectroscopic astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güdel, Manuel; Walter, Roland

    After three decades of intense research in X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, the time was ripe to summarize basic knowledge on X-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy for interested students and researchers ready to become involved in new high-energy missions. This volume exposes both the scientific basics and modern methods of high-energy spectroscopic astrophysics. The emphasis is on physical principles and observing methods rather than a discussion of particular classes of high-energy objects, but many examples and new results are included in the three chapters as well.

  5. Visualization and Damage Assessment for Flooded Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Guozhong; YAN Li; LIU Nan; LIU Renyi

    2004-01-01

    A practical method for visualizing flood area and evaluating damage is presented, which consists of two technical approaches: self-programming and adapting commercial GIS platforms. The low-cost and easy-to-use GIS-Based model developed by self-programming can meet current requirements of most local authorities, especially in developing countries. In this model, two cases, non-source flood and source flood, are distinguished and the Seed-spread algorithm suitable for source-flood is discussed; The flood damage is assessed by overlaying the flood area range with thematic maps and other related social and economic data. and all thematic maps are converted to raster format before overlay analysis. Two measures are taken to improve the operation efficiency of speed seed-spread algorithm. The accuracy of the model mainly depends on the resolution and precision of the DEM data, and the accuracy of registering all raster layers and the quality of attribute data.

  6. Advances in Remote Sensing of Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With the publication of eight original research articles, four types of advances in the remote sensing of floods are achieved. The uncertainty of modeled outputs using precipitation datasets derived from in situ observations and remote sensors is further understood. With the terrestrial laser scanner and airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR coupled with high resolution optical and radar imagery, researchers improve accuracy levels in estimating the surface water height, extent, and flow of floods. The unmanned aircraft system (UAS can be the game changer in the acquisition and application of remote sensing data. The UAS may fly everywhere and every time when a flood event occurs. With the development of urban structure maps, the flood risk and possible damage is well assessed. The flood mitigation plans and response activities become effective and efficient using geographic information system (GIS-based urban flood vulnerability and risk maps.

  7. Flood Frequency Analysis Using the Gumbel Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Never Mujere

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of a study carried in Zimbabwe aimed at analysing the frequency of Nyanyadzi River floods using the Gumbel distribution. Extreme floods over recent years had washed away fields, destroyed infrastructure and killed animals. It was hypothesised that Nyanyadzi flood flows obey the Gumbel distribution. The scale and shape parameters of the distribution were estimated using method of moments. Maximum instantaneous flow data covering 30 water years (1969-1999 for station E119 on Nyanyadzi River were collected from the Zimbabwe National Water Authority (ZINWA. A Chisquare χ2 test revealed no significant (p =1.000 differences between recorded and predicted flood flows. Due to goodness of fit of the Gumbel distribution, it was assumed to be appropriate for modelling frequency of Nyanyadzi River floods. The magnitudes of the 100 and 200-year floods were estimated to be 276 and 310 m3/s respectively.

  8. Floods and climate: emerging perspectives for flood risk assessment and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merz, B.; Aerts, J.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten;

    2014-01-01

    Flood estimation and flood management have traditionally been the domain of hydrologists, water resources engineers and statisticians, and disciplinary approaches abound. Dominant views have been shaped; one example is the catchment perspective: floods are formed and influenced by the interaction...... climatic context of floods. We come to the following conclusions: (1) extending the traditional system boundaries (local catchment, recent decades, hydrological/hydraulic processes) opens up exciting possibilities for better understanding and improved tools for flood risk assessment and management. (2......) Statistical approaches in flood estimation need to be complemented by the search for the causal mechanisms and dominant processes in the atmosphere, catchment and river system that leave their fingerprints on flood characteristics. (3) Natural climate variability leads to time-varying flood characteristics...

  9. LAMINATION METHOD OF FLOOD WADIS AND PROJECTION OF THE LAMINATED FLOOD HYDROGRAPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ladjel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The catastrophic floods in semi-arid areas are often caused by floods storm that occur at any time during the year, including the hot season. The prevention of these floods could be done by the construction of small dam hills. This requires the control of theoretical concepts hydrological sizing, especially the hydrological structure to evacuate floods. We suggest a method to calculate the optimal regulation flow of the flood and also the development of a direct calculation formula of a laminated maximum flow. The analysis of the hydro graph’s analogy at the input and the output of the dam, allow searching the dependencies between their characteristics. knowing the characteristics of the hydrograph flood of the project and the reserved capacity for the amortization of the flood, we can directly determine the laminated maximum flow and project the hydrograph of the laminated flood.

  10. Influence of flood risk characteristics on flood insurance demand: a comparison between Germany and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, I.; Botzen, W. J. W.; Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2013-07-01

    The existence of sufficient demand for insurance coverage against infrequent losses is important for the adequate function of insurance markets for natural disaster risks. This study investigates how characteristics of flood risk influence household flood insurance demand based on household surveys undertaken in Germany and the Netherlands. Our analyses confirm the hypothesis that willingness to pay (WTP) for insurance against medium-probability medium-impact flood risk in Germany is higher than WTP for insurance against low-probability high-impact flood risk in the Netherlands. These differences in WTP can be related to differences in flood experience, individual risk perceptions, and the charity hazard. In both countries there is a need to stimulate flood insurance demand if a relevant role of private insurance in flood loss compensation is regarded as desirable, for example, by making flood insurance compulsory or by designing information campaigns.

  11. Solution of control of reservoir flood discharge in synthetic flood waves. Part 2: Results of solution

    OpenAIRE

    P. Fošumpaur; Holeček, M.; Nacházel, K.

    2007-01-01

    The second part of the study presents the results of the investigation of the flood control in the synthetic flood waves. This part is the continuation with the first part with methodology, published in 2/2007 of the JHH.

  12. Flooding hazards from sea extremes and subsidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Carlo; Vognsen, Karsten; Broge, Niels; Knudsen, Per

    2015-01-01

    If we do not understand the effects of climate change and sea level rise (SLR) we cannot live in low-lying coastal areas in the future. Permanent inundation may become a prevalent issue but more often floods related to extreme events have the largest damage potential, and the management of flooding hazards needs to integrate the water loading from various sources. Furthermore, local subsidence must be accounted for in order to evaluate current and future flooding hazards and management option...

  13. Indus Basin Floods: Mechanisms, Impacts, and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2013-01-01

    More than 138 million people in the Indus River Basin in Pakistan depend on irrigated agriculture. But rising population pressures, climate change, and the continuous degradation of ecosystem services have resulted in increased flood risks, worsened by inadequate flood planning and management. The devastating 2010 flood alone caused damage of about $10 billion. This report proposes a contemporary holistic approach, applying scientific assessments that take people, land, and water into account...

  14. Role of Insurance in Reducing Flood Risk

    OpenAIRE

    David Crichton

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the problems of flood risk management in the context of public and private insurance. It demonstrates the important role of insurance in reducing flood risk with examples from the U.K. and France. It includes a brief description of the summer 2007 floods in England. The Geneva Papers (2008) 33, 117–132. doi:10.1057/palgrave.gpp.2510151

  15. USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Program of Indiana

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Moon

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Flood Inundation Mapping Program (FIMP) focuses its efforts at state and local levels to help communities understand flood risks and make cost-effective mitigation decisions. The program partners with local communities to assist in the development and validation of flood inundation map libraries. In turn, communities use these maps to help protect lives and property. This presentation will describe the efforts of the USGS FIMP in Indiana.

  16. Investigation of Flood Inundation Probability in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Ho; Lai, Yen-Wei; Chang, Tsang-Jung

    2010-05-01

    Taiwan is located at a special point, which is in the path of typhoons from northeast Pacific Ocean. Taiwan is also situated in a tropical-subtropical transition zone. As a result, rainfall is abundant all the year round, especially in summer and autumn. For flood inundation analysis in Taiwan, there exist a lot of uncertainties in hydrological, hydraulic and land-surface topography characteristics, which can change flood inundation characteristics. According to the 7th work item of article 22 in Disaster Prevention and Protection Act in Taiwan, for preventing flood disaster being deteriorating, investigation analysis of disaster potentials, hazardous degree and situation simulation must be proceeded with scientific approaches. However, the flood potential analysis uses a deterministic approach to define flood inundation without considering data uncertainties. This research combines data uncertainty concept in flood inundation maps for showing flood probabilities in each grid. It can be an emergency evacuation basis as typhoons come and extremely torrential rain begin. The research selects Hebauyu watershed of Chiayi County as the demonstration area. Owing to uncertainties of data used, sensitivity analysis is first conducted by using Latin Hypercube sampling (LHS). LHS data sets are next input into an integrated numerical model, which is herein developed to assess flood inundation hazards in coastal lowlands, base on the extension of the 1-D river routing model and the 2-D inundation routing model. Finally, the probability of flood inundation simulation is calculated, and the flood inundation probability maps are obtained. Flood Inundation probability maps can be an alternative of the old flood potential maps for being a regard of building new hydraulic infrastructure in the future.

  17. Identification and classification of Serbia's historic floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prohaska Stevan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available River flooding in Serbia is a natural phenomenon which largely exceeds the scope of water management and hydraulic engineering, and has considerable impact on the development of Serbian society. Today, the importance and value of areas threatened by floods are among the key considerations of sustainable development. As a result, flood protection techniques and procedures need to be continually refined and updated, following innovations in the fields of science and technology. Knowledge of high flows is key for sizing hydraulic structures and for gauging the cost-effectiveness and safety of the component structures of flood protection systems. However, sizing of hydraulic structures based on computed high flows does not ensure absolute safety; there is a residual flood risk and a risk of structural failure, if a flood exceeds computed levels. In hydrological practice, such floods are often referred to as historic/loads. The goal of this paper is to present a calculation procedure for the objective identification of historic floods, using long, multiple-year series of data on high flows of natural watercourses in Serbia. At its current stage of development, the calculation procedure is based on maximum annual discharges recorded at key monitoring stations of the Hydro-Meteorological Service of Serbia (HMS Serbia. When applied, the procedure results in the identification of specific historic maximum stages/floods (if any at all gauge sites included in the analysis. The probabilistic theory is then applied to assess the statistical significance of each identified historic flood and to classify the historic flood, as appropriate. At the end of the paper, the results of the applied methodology are shown in tabular and graphic form for various Serbian rivers. All identified historic floods are ranked based on their probability of occurrence (i.e., return period.

  18. Flood control of the lower Vistula

    OpenAIRE

    Jędrzej Kosiński

    2013-01-01

    So far it has been considered that the Włocławek reservoir is of little importance for flood protection of the downstream areas. The article shows the fallacy of this opinion. The Włocławek reservoir’s potential for flood water retention is herein determined. The impact of the Lower Vistula Cascade engineering on flood risk reduction is also analysed.

  19. Structural master plan of flood mitigation measures

    OpenAIRE

    A. Heidari

    2009-01-01

    Flood protection is one of the practical methods in damage reduction. Although it not possible to be completely protected from flood disaster but major part of damages can be reduced by mitigation plans. In this paper, the optimum flood mitigation master plan is determined by economic evaluation in trading off between the construction costs and expected value of damage reduction as the benefits. Size of the certain mitigation alternative is also be obtained by risk analysis by accepting possi...

  20. Integrated flood management for Beiyun River, China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Minghong; Fang, Hongwei; Zheng, Yi; He, Guojian

    2013-01-01

    Beiyun River Basin is holistically suffering a water shortage and relatively concentrated flood risk. The current operation (level-control) of dams and floodgates, which is in passive defense mode, cannot meet the demands of both flood control and storm water resources. An integrated flood forecasting and management system is developed by the connecting of the hydrological model and hydrodynamic model and coupling of the hydrodynamic model and hydraulic model for dams and floodgates. Based up...

  1. Raising risk preparedness through flood risk communication

    OpenAIRE

    E. Maidl; Buchecker, M

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, most European countries have produced risk maps of natural hazards, but little is known about how to communicate these maps most effectively to the public. In October 2011, Zurich's local authorities informed owners of buildings located in the urban flood hazard area about potential flood damage, the probability of flood events and protection measures. The campaign was based on the assumptions that informing citizens increases their risk awaren...

  2. WATERSHED HYDROLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF JAKARTA EXTREME FLOODS

    OpenAIRE

    Yunika, Anastasia; Babel, Mukand Singh; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Jakarta flood is a routine event. It occurs annually in rainy seasons while extreme flood takes place approximately every five years. Various factors, from natural to man-induced and technical to non-technical ones, are involved in causing the detrimental impacts of the flood. Among those factors, the existence of Ciliwung as the main river flowing across Jakarta leads to the complication of the problem. This study analyzed the main hydrologic parameters, i.e. rainfall and rive...

  3. Recent advances and remaining challenges for the spectroscopic detection of explosive threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Augustus W; Christesen, Steven D; Moon, Raphael P; Guicheteau, Jason A; Emmons, Erik D

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the U.S. Army initiated a program through the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to identify viable spectroscopic signatures of explosives and initiate environmental persistence, fate, and transport studies for trace residues. These studies were ultimately designed to integrate these signatures into algorithms and experimentally evaluate sensor performance for explosives and precursor materials in existing chemical point and standoff detection systems. Accurate and validated optical cross sections and signatures are critical in benchmarking spectroscopic-based sensors. This program has provided important information for the scientists and engineers currently developing trace-detection solutions to the homemade explosive problem. With this information, the sensitivity of spectroscopic methods for explosives detection can now be quantitatively evaluated before the sensor is deployed and tested. PMID:25061781

  4. Evolution of Flood Management Policies of Pakistan and Causes of Flooding In Year 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Arslan, Muhammad; Ullah, Inaam; BAQAR, Mujtaba; Shahid, Naeem

    2016-01-01

    The problem of floods in Pakistan dates back to the year of independence, 1947, when first massive flood inflicted havoc in upper Pakistan. We have divided flood management policy of the region into three time periods; British colonial rule that managed surface water through construction of canals; pre-Indus basin development that achieved a breakthrough in the form of Indus water treaty; and it was during post-Indus basin development phase, in 1973, that federal flood commission and proper f...

  5. Effect of Urban Green Spaces and Flooded Area Type on Flooding Probability

    OpenAIRE

    Hyomin Kim; Dong-Kun Lee; Sunyong Sung

    2016-01-01

    Countermeasures to urban flooding should consider long-term perspectives, because climate change impacts are unpredictable and complex. Urban green spaces have emerged as a potential option to reduce urban flood risks, and their effectiveness has been highlighted in notable urban water management studies. In this study, flooded areas in Seoul, Korea, were divided into four flooded area types by cluster analysis based on topographic and physical characteristics and verified using discriminant ...

  6. Estimation of flood environmental effects using flood zone mapping techniques in Halilrood Kerman, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Boudaghpour, Siamak; Bagheri, Majid; Bagheri, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    High flood occurrences with large environmental damages have a growing trend in Iran. Dynamic movements of water during a flood cause different environmental damages in geographical areas with different characteristics such as topographic conditions. In general, environmental effects and damages caused by a flood in an area can be investigated from different points of view. The current essay is aiming at detecting environmental effects of flood occurrences in Halilrood catchment area of Kerma...

  7. Flood Risk Management in Europe: Similarities and Differences between the STAR-FLOOD consortium countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Green, C.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Bakker, M.H.N.; Dieperink, C.; Crabbe, A.; Deketelaere, K.; Delvaux, B.; Suykens, C.; Beyers, J-C.; Fournier, M.; Larrue, C.; Manson, C.; Doorn-Hoekveld, W. van; Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van

    2013-01-01

    This report has been compiled as part of the STAR-FLOOD project, a European FP7 project focused on flood risk governance. The project investigates strategies for dealing with flood risks in 18 vulnerable urban regions in six European countries: Belgium, The UK (more precisely: England and Scotland), France, The Netherlands, Poland and Sweden. The report highlights the main similarities and differences between the six STAR-FLOOD consortium countries, complemented with some interesting examples...

  8. Issues and challenges in flood risk management: Editorial for the special issue on flood risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Jonkman, S.N.; Dawson, R J

    2012-01-01

    Recent flood-related disasters (Japan, Thailand, US, Australia) emphasize the need for an effective management of flood risks. As an introduction to this special issue, this editorial summarizes some of the key challenges in the field. Flood risk management needs to recognize the interconnections between infrastructures, economic systems and the role of human factors in assessing and managing the risk. The challenge for flood management in the future is to develop robust and resilient solutio...

  9. Floods in Serbia in the 1999-2009 period: Hydrological analysis and flood protection measures

    OpenAIRE

    Milanović Ana; Urošev Marko; Milijašević Dragana

    2010-01-01

    The review on greatest floods recorded in Vojvodina and central Serbia within the period from 1999 to 2009 is given in this paper. For 13 hydrological stations, that recorded the greatest floods for the present period, probability of occurrence of these floods has been accomplished. Based on analysis of time series of discharge and water level maximum, performed by applying probability theory and mathematical statistics, and calculated theoretical probability distribution function of floods, ...

  10. Flood Routing Technique for Data Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jaihyung; Breen, James

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, a new routing algorithm based on a flooding method is introduced. Flooding techniques have been used previously, e.g. for broadcasting the routing table in the ARPAnet [1] and other special purpose networks [3][4][5]. However, sending data using flooding can often saturate the network [2] and it is usually regarded as an inefficient broadcast mechanism. Our approach is to flood a very short packet to explore an optimal route without relying on a pre-established routing table, a...

  11. Flooding Analysis of Urban Drainage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Linmei

    2004-01-01

    - Description of the problemsThroughout history floods have been one of the most severe natural catastrophes, which brought about loss of lives and huge economic losses in addition to the influence on community activities and adverse effects on the environment. We have witnessed enormous flood events almost all over the world, even in the early years of 21st century. The cruel lesson learnt is that we have not coped well with floods. Studying the risk of flooding is the goal of this thesis. T...

  12. Flood forecasting and warning systems in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meteorologically, there are two situations which may cause three types of floods in Indus Basin in Pakistan: i) Meteorological Situation for Category-I Floods when the seasonal low is a semi permanent weather system situated over south eastern Balochistan, south western Punjab, adjoining parts of Sindh get intensified and causes the moisture from the Arabian Sea to be brought up to upper catchments of Chenab and Jhelum rivers. (ii) Meteorological Situation for Category-11 and Category-111 Floods, which is linked with monsoon low/depression. Such monsoon systems originate in Bay of Bengal region and then move across India in general west/north westerly direction arrive over Rajasthan or any of adjoining states of India. Flood management in Pakistan is multi-functional process involving a number of different organizations. The first step in the process is issuance of flood forecast/warning, which is performed by Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) utilizing satellite cloud pictures and quantitative precipitation measurement radar data, in addition to the conventional weather forecasting facilities. For quantitative flood forecasting, hydrological data is obtained through the Provincial Irrigation Department and WAPDA. Furthermore, improved rainfall/runoff and flood routing models have been developed to provide more reliable and explicit flood information to a flood prone population.(Author)

  13. Can we predict the next urban flood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Jensen, David Getreuer;

    2015-01-01

    Flooding produced by high-intensive local rainfall and drainage system capacity exceedance can have severe impacts in cities. In order to prepare cities for these types of flood events – especially in the future climate – it is valuable to be able to simulate these events numericallyboth historic......Flooding produced by high-intensive local rainfall and drainage system capacity exceedance can have severe impacts in cities. In order to prepare cities for these types of flood events – especially in the future climate – it is valuable to be able to simulate these events numericallyboth...... historically and in real-time. There is a rather untested potential in real-time prediction of urban floods. In this paper radar data observations with different spatial and temporal resolution, radar nowcasts of 0-2 hours leadtime, and numerical weather models with leadtimes up to 24 h are used as inputs to...... an integrated flood and drainage systems model with the purpose to investigate the potential for predicting future floods. The system is tested on a small town Lystrup in Denmark, which has been recently flooded. Results show that it is possible to generate detailed flood maps in real-time with high...

  14. Subcellular Proteomics of Soybean under Flooding Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Setsuko Komatsu

    2012-01-01

    Flooding is an environmental stress found worldwide and may increase in frequency due to changes in global climate,and causes significant reductions in the growth and yield of several crops.The application of proteomics techniques to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying crop responses to flooding stress may facilitate the development of flood tolerant crops.To understand the response mechanism of soybean under flooding stress,proteomics analysis was carried out.Especially,subcellular proteomics studies have led to a better understanding of the mechanism of flooding stress tolerance in soybean.The effects of flooding stress on root plasma membrane were analyzed using an aqueous two-phase partitioning method in combination with gel-based and gel-free proteomics techniques.The results led to the following conclusions:proteins located in the cell wall were increased in the plasma membrane of flooded plants,indicating the contribution of plasma membrane to modification of the cell wall; superoxide dismutase was increased,indicating that the antioxidative system may play a crucial role in protecting cells from oxidative damage following exposure to flooding stress; heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein likely plays a significant role in protecting other proteins from denaturation and degradation during flooding stress; and signaling proteins might work cooperatively to regulate plasma membrane H +-ATPase and maintain ion homeostasis.Cell wall proteins were isolated from root of flooding stressed plants via sucrose gradient centrifugation and analyzed using gel-based proteomics technique.Cell wall proteins identified were related to lignification,and these results indicated that a decrease of lignification-related proteins is related to flooding decreased ROS and jasmonate biosynthesis.And also,lignin staining confirmed that lignification was suppressed in the roots of flooding stressed soybeans.Mitochondrial fractions were purified from root of flooding stressed

  15. Flood risk mapping at European scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barredo, J I; de Roo, A; Lavalle, C

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to illustrate a framework for flood risk mapping at pan-European scale produced by the Weather-Driven Natural Hazards (WDNH) action of the EC-JRC-IES. Early results are presented in the form of flood risk index maps. We assess several flood risk factors that contribute to the occurrence of flood disasters. Among the causal factors of a flood disaster one is triggering a natural event in the form of extreme precipitation and consequently extreme river discharge and extreme flood water levels. The threatening natural event represents the hazard component in our assessment. Furthermore exposure and vulnerability are anthropogenic factors that contribute also to flood risk. In the proposed approach, flood risk is considered on the light of exposure, vulnerability and hazard. We use a methodology with a marked territorial approach for the assessment of the flood risk. Hence, based on mathematical calculations, risk is the product of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Improvements on datasets availability and spatial scale are foreseen in the next phases of this study. This study is also a contribution to the discussion about the need for communication tools between the natural hazard scientific community and the political and decision making players in this field. PMID:17851200

  16. Flash floods and peak discharge estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Lamovec, Peter; Oštir, Krištof; Mikoš, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    More and more natural disasters are happening around the world every year: floods, tsunamis, landslides, earthquakes etc. All of them have a common point- they cause large damages and are difficult to be predicted. This paper describes an approach for analysing a flash flood event. The studied area is the Selška Sora River valley in W Slovenia, where a flash flood was caused by the extreme rainfall on 18 September 2007. In the first part of the paper, thedetermination of flooded areas was don...

  17. After the flood is before the next flood - post event review of the Central European Floods of June 2013. Insights, recommendations and next steps for future flood prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoenyi, Michael; Mechler, Reinhard; McCallum, Ian

    2015-04-01

    In early June 2013, severe flooding hit Central and Eastern Europe, causing extensive damage, in particular along the Danube and Elbe main watersheds. The situation was particularly severe in Eastern Germany, Austria, Hungary and the Czech Republic. Based on the Post Event Review Capability (PERC) approach, developed by Zurich Insurance's Flood Resilience Program to provide independent review of large flood events, we examine what has worked well (best practice) and opportunities for further improvement. The PERC overall aims to thoroughly examine aspects of flood resilience, flood risk management and catastrophe intervention in order to help build back better after events and learn for future events. As our research from post event analyses shows a lot of losses are in fact avoidable by taking the right measures pre-event and these measures are economically - efficient with a return of 4 Euro on losses saved for every Euro invested in prevention on average (Wharton/IIASA flood resilience alliance paper on cost benefit analysis, Mechler et al. 2014) and up to 10 Euros for certain countries. For the 2013 flood events we provide analysis on the following aspects and in general identify a number of factors that worked in terms of reducing the loss and risk burden. 1. Understanding risk factors of the Central European Floods 2013 We review the precursors leading up to the floods in June, with an extremely wet May 2013 and an atypical V-b weather pattern that brought immense precipitation in a very short period to the watersheds of Elbe, Donau and partially the Rhine in the D-A-CH countries and researched what happened during the flood and why. Key questions we asked revolve around which protection and risk reduction approaches worked well and which did not, and why. 2. Insights and recommendations from the post event review The PERC identified a number of risk factors, which need attention if risk is to be reduced over time. • Yet another "100-year flood" - risk

  18. Spectroscopic studies in JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the spectroscopic studies in JT-60 which was constructed to explore the break-even plasma. The content is as follows; (1) In order to study impurity behaviors in the JT-60 plasma, a spectroscopic diagnostic system, which is capable of measuring many spectra of impurity ions and their spatial distributions, has been developed. (2) A Rowland-type grazing incidence monochromator has been absolutely calibrated with a branching ratio method. And multi-channel spectrometers have been absolutely calibrated in the wavelength region of 275-1250A using synchrotron radiation. (3) The transport coefficients (D, cv) for impurity have been measured by observing the time evolutions of line intensities of titanium in ohmically heated and neutral beam heated discharges. (4) Impurity contents have been measured in limited discharges and diverted discharges with different materials for the first wall, namely metallic wall and graphite wall. (5) For the Lyman-α line of TiXXII, the intensity ratio of its fine structure components (1 2S1/2 - 2 2P1/2,3/2) has been measured in discharges with various heating modes. (6) Energy levels and oscillator strengths have been calculated for MoXV-XL. (J.P.N.)

  19. How spectroscopic ellipsometry can aid graphene technology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore the effects of substrate, grain size, oxidation and cleaning on the optical properties of chemical vapor deposited polycrystalline monolayer graphene exploiting spectroscopic ellipsometry in the NIR-Vis–UV range. Both Drude–Lorentz oscillators' and point-by-point fit approaches are used to analyze the ellipsometric spectra. For monolayer graphene, since anisotropy cannot be resolved, an isotropic model is used. A prominent absorption peak at approximately 4.8 eV, which is a mixture of π–π* interband transitions at the M-point of the Brillouin zone and of the π-plasmonic excitation, is observed. We discuss the sensitivity of this peak to the structural and cleaning quality of graphene. The comparison with previous published dielectric function spectra of graphene is discussed giving a rationale for the observed differences. - Highlights: • Optical properties of graphene are determined by ellipsometry on copper and on glass. • Optical spectra reveal the cleaning quality of transferred graphene. • Sensitivity of absorption peak to graphene structural quality is proven. • Optical properties are proven to be sensitive to oxidation of graphene. • Electronic interaction with substrate affects graphene optical properties

  20. Floods and climate: emerging perspectives for flood risk assessment and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, B.; Aerts, J.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K.; Baldi, M.; Becker, A.; Bichet, A.; Blöschl, G.; Bouwer, L. M.; Brauer, A.; Cioffi, F.; Delgado, J. M.; Gocht, M.; Guzzetti, F.; Harrigan, S.; Hirschboeck, K.; Kilsby, C.; Kron, W.; Kwon, H.-H.; Lall, U.; Merz, R.; Nissen, K.; Salvatti, P.; Swierczynski, T.; Ulbrich, U.; Viglione, A.; Ward, P. J.; Weiler, M.; Wilhelm, B.; Nied, M.

    2014-07-01

    Flood estimation and flood management have traditionally been the domain of hydrologists, water resources engineers and statisticians, and disciplinary approaches abound. Dominant views have been shaped; one example is the catchment perspective: floods are formed and influenced by the interaction of local, catchment-specific characteristics, such as meteorology, topography and geology. These traditional views have been beneficial, but they have a narrow framing. In this paper we contrast traditional views with broader perspectives that are emerging from an improved understanding of the climatic context of floods. We come to the following conclusions: (1) extending the traditional system boundaries (local catchment, recent decades, hydrological/hydraulic processes) opens up exciting possibilities for better understanding and improved tools for flood risk assessment and management. (2) Statistical approaches in flood estimation need to be complemented by the search for the causal mechanisms and dominant processes in the atmosphere, catchment and river system that leave their fingerprints on flood characteristics. (3) Natural climate variability leads to time-varying flood characteristics, and this variation may be partially quantifiable and predictable, with the perspective of dynamic, climate-informed flood risk management. (4) Efforts are needed to fully account for factors that contribute to changes in all three risk components (hazard, exposure, vulnerability) and to better understand the interactions between society and floods. (5) Given the global scale and societal importance, we call for the organization of an international multidisciplinary collaboration and data-sharing initiative to further understand the links between climate and flooding and to advance flood research.

  1. Development of Integrated Flood Analysis System for Improving Flood Mitigation Capabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Young-Il; Kim, Jong-suk

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the needs of people are growing for a more safety life and secure homeland from unexpected natural disasters. Flood damages have been recorded every year and those damages are greater than the annual average of 2 trillion won since 2000 in Korea. It has been increased in casualties and property damages due to flooding caused by hydrometeorlogical extremes according to climate change. Although the importance of flooding situation is emerging rapidly, studies related to development of integrated management system for reducing floods are insufficient in Korea. In addition, it is difficult to effectively reduce floods without developing integrated operation system taking into account of sewage pipe network configuration with the river level. Since the floods result in increasing damages to infrastructure, as well as life and property, structural and non-structural measures should be urgently established in order to effectively reduce the flood. Therefore, in this study, we developed an integrated flood analysis system that systematized technology to quantify flood risk and flood forecasting for supporting synthetic decision-making through real-time monitoring and prediction on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information in Korea. Keywords: Flooding, Integrated flood analysis system, Rainfall forecasting, Korea Acknowledgments This work was carried out with the support of "Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science & Technology Development (Project No. PJ011686022015)" Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea

  2. Issues and challenges in flood risk management: Editorial for the special issue on flood risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Dawson, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent flood-related disasters (Japan, Thailand, US, Australia) emphasize the need for an effective management of flood risks. As an introduction to this special issue, this editorial summarizes some of the key challenges in the field. Flood risk management needs to recognize the interconnections be

  3. Floods and climate: emerging perspectives for flood risk assessment and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Merz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Flood estimation and flood management have traditionally been the domain of hydrologists, water resources engineers and statisticians, and disciplinary approaches have abound. Dominant views have been shaped; one example is the catchment perspective: floods are formed and influenced by the interaction of local, catchment-specific characteristics, such as meteorology, topography and geology. These traditional views have been beneficial, but they have a narrow framing. In this paper we contrast traditional views with broader perspectives that are emerging from an improved understanding of the climatic context of floods. We conclude: (1 extending the traditional system boundaries (local catchment, recent decades, hydrological/hydraulic processes opens up exciting possibilities for better understanding and improved tools for flood risk assessment and management. (2 Statistical approaches in flood estimation need to be complemented by the search for the causal mechanisms and dominant processes in the atmosphere, catchment and river system that leave their fingerprints on flood characteristic. (3 Natural climate variability leads to time-varying flood characteristics, and this variation may be partially quantifiable and predictable, with the perspective of a dynamic, climate informed flood risk management. (4 Efforts are needed to fully account for factors that contribute to changes in all three risk components (hazard, exposure, vulnerability, and to better understand the interactions between society and floods. (5 Given the global scale and societal importance, we call for the organization of an international multidisciplinary collaboration and data sharing initiative to understand further the links between climate and flooding and to advance flood research.

  4. Hydrochemical characteristics of the natural waters associated with the flooding of the Meirama open pit (A Coruna, NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.; Vazquez, A.; Falcon, I.; Canal, J.; Hernandez, H.; Padilla, F.; Rodriguez-Vellando, P.; Delgado, J.L. [University of La Coruna, La Coruna (Spain). School of Civil Engineering

    2008-02-15

    In December, 2007, after 30 years of operations, the mine of Meirama ceased extraction of brown lignite. Since then operations have begun which will lead to the formation of a big mining lake (about 2 km{sup 2} surface and up to 180 m deep) after controlled flooding of the open pit. In the process of flooding, both surface and ground waters are involved, each with their own chemical signature. According to the information available, the diversion of surface waters towards the pit hole should lead to the formation of a water body of acceptable quality. However, all unassisted flooding process could eventually form all acidic lake.

  5. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1993-12-01

    The Tucker sand from Hepler field, Crawford County, Kansas, was characterized using routine and advanced analytical methods. The characterization is part of a chemical flooding pilot test to be conducted in the field, which is classified as a DOE Class I (fluvial-dominated delta) reservoir. Routine and advanced methods of characterization were compared. Traditional wireline logs indicate that the reservoir is vertically compartmentalized on the foot scale. Routine core analysis, X-ray computed tomography (CT), minipermeameter measurement, and petrographic analysis indicate that compartmentalization and lamination extend to the microscale. An idealized model of how the reservoir is probably structured (complex layering with small compartments) is presented. There was good agreement among the several methods used for characterization, and advanced characterization methods adequately explained the coreflood and tracer tests conducted with short core plugs. Tracer and chemical flooding tests were conducted in short core plugs while monitoring with CT to establish flow patterns and to monitor oil saturations in different zones of the core plugs. Channeling of injected fluids occurred in laboratory experiments because, on core plug scale, permeability streaks extended the full length of the core plugs. A graphic example of how channeling in field core plugs can affect oil recovery during chemical injection is presented. The small scale of compartmentalization indicated by plugs of the Tucker sand may actually help improve sweep between wells. The success of field-scale waterflooding and the fluid flow patterns observed in highly heterogeneous outcrop samples are reasons to expect that reservoir flow patterns are different from those observed with short core plugs, and better sweep efficiency may be obtained in the field than has been observed in laboratory floods conducted with short core plugs.

  6. Characterization of a natural dye by spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa Morales, Y.; Reyes, J.; Hermosín, Bernardo; Azamar-Barrios, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Natural dyes have been extracted from both plants and animal to give color to textiles and handicrafts. This is the case of purple dye extracted from Justicia spicigera Schldt, an acanthaceae used as a color source since pre-Hispanic period in the Mayan area of Mexico and Central America. Spectroscopic (UV-Vis and FT-IR) and chromatographic (PY-GC/MS) techniques were employed in order to characterize some of their chemical properties. UV-VIS absorption spectra indicates a λmaxpeak at 581 nm, ...

  7. German flooding of the Pontine Marshes in World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Erhard; Guillemin, Jeanne

    2010-03-01

    The German army's 1943 flooding of the Pontine Marshes south of Rome, which later caused a sharp rise in malaria cases among Italian civilians, has recently been described by historian Frank Snowden as a unique instance of biological warfare and bioterrorism in the European theater of war and, consequently, as a violation of the 1925 Geneva Protocol prohibiting chemical and biological warfare. We argue that archival documents fail to support this allegation, on several counts. As a matter of historical record, Hitler prohibited German biological weapons (BW) development and consistently adhered to the Geneva Protocol. Rather than biological warfare against civilians, the Wehrmacht used flooding, land mines, and the destruction of vital infrastructure to obstruct the Allied advance. To protect its own troops in the area, the German army sought to contain the increased mosquito breeding likely to be caused by the flooding. Italians returning to the Pontine Marshes after the German retreat in 1944 suffered malaria as a result of environmental destruction, which was banned by the 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions and by subsequent treaties. In contrast, a state's violation of the Geneva Protocol, whether past or present, involves the use of germ weapons and, by inference, a state-level capability. Any allegation of such a serious violation demands credible evidence that meets high scientific and legal standards of proof. PMID:20812795

  8. Flooding-limited thermal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper stratification in the cold leg due to high-pressure injection in a stagnated loop of a pressurized water reactor is considered. The working hypothesis is that at high injection Froude numbers, the extent of mixing approaches a limit controlled only by the flooding condition at the cold-leg exit. Experimental data available support this hypothesis. Predictions for reactor conditions indicate a stratification of ∼ 40 degrees C. As a consequence, the downcomer plume would be rather weak (with a low Froude number) and would be expected to decay quickly

  9. Zinc fertilization of flooded rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local scientists studied Zn fertilization of flooded rice soils in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Egypt, the Philippines, Thailand and Turkey. Diagnosis of Zn deficiency was carried out for submerged rice soils. Soil maps were prepared, designating areas as low, medium and high in Zn, based on Zn extraction with DTPA and HCl solutions and on rice leaf analysis. The effectiveness of various Zn fertilizer sources and methods of application in field and greenhouse experiments was measured, using 65Zn. The percent Zn derived from fertilizer was shown to be a much more sensitive measure of efficiency than yield or total uptake

  10. Concept of Flood Risk Map and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yuanchang

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 The concept of flood risk map and its mapping procedure Flood risk management is the process for analysis and assessment of flood risks as well as to form nd implement the disaster mitigation plans. Flood risk analysis is the basic work of flood risk assessment and management that can provide people with the possibilities of flood occurrence and its risk in specific areas and consequently raise the public awareness of flood help to form a reasonable flood prevention plan. However, flood risk mapping is a popular measure adopted by many countries and it provides possible flood areas and water levels as well as possible losses in a friendly way. To form a flood risk map, it is neccessary to allocate the historical information,compute the flood risk and analyze the data.

  11. The TNG EROs Spectroscopic Identification Survey (TESIS)

    CERN Document Server

    Saracco, P; Ceca, R D; Severgnini, P; Braito, V; Bender, R; Drory, N; Feulner, G; Hopp, U; Mannucci, F; Maraston, C

    2003-01-01

    We are carrying on a near-IR very low resolution spectroscopic follow-up in parallel with XMM-Newton observations of a complete sample of ~30 bright (K'<18.5) Extremely Red Objects (EROs) selected over an area of 360 arcmin^2 of the MUNICS survey. We here present the preliminary results of the spectroscopic and X-ray data analysis.

  12. Social media for disaster response during floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilander, D.; van de Vries, C.; Baart, F.; van Swol, R.; Wagemaker, J.; van Loenen, A.

    2015-12-01

    During floods it is difficult to obtain real-time accurate information about the extent and severity of the hazard. This information is very important for disaster risk reduction management and crisis relief organizations. Currently, real-time information is derived from few sources such as field reports, traffic camera's, satellite images and areal images. However, getting a real-time and accurate picture of the situation on the ground remains difficult. At the same time, people affected by natural hazards increasingly share their observations and their needs through digital media. Unlike conventional monitoring systems, Twitter data contains a relatively large number of real-time ground truth observations representing both physical hazard characteristics and hazard impacts. In the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, the intensity of unique flood related tweets during a flood event, peaked at almost 900 tweets per minute during floods in early 2015. Flood events around the world in 2014/2015 yielded large numbers of flood related tweets: from Philippines (85.000) to Pakistan (82.000) to South-Korea (50.000) to Detroit (20.000). The challenge here is to filter out useful content from this cloud of data, validate these observations and convert them to readily usable information. In Jakarta, flood related tweets often contain information about the flood depth. In a pilot we showed that this type of information can be used for real-time mapping of the flood extent by plotting these observations on a Digital Elevation Model. Uncertainties in the observations were taken into account by assigning a probability to each observation indicating its likelihood to be correct based on statistical analysis of the total population of tweets. The resulting flood maps proved to be correct for about 75% of the neighborhoods in Jakarta. Further cross-validation of flood related tweets against (hydro-) meteorological data is to likely improve the skill of the method.

  13. Implementing the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) in Austria: Flood Risk Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhold, Clemens

    2013-04-01

    he Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks (EFD) aims at the reduction of the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity associated with floods in the Community. This task is to be achieved based on three process steps (1) preliminary flood risk assessment (finalised by the end of 2011), (2) flood hazard maps and flood risk maps (due 2013) and (3) flood risk management plans (due 2015). Currently, an interdisciplinary national working group is defining the methodological framework for flood risk management plans in Austria supported by a constant exchange with international bodies and experts. Referring to the EFD the components of the flood risk management plan are (excerpt): 1. conclusions of the preliminary flood risk assessment 2. flood hazard maps and flood risk maps and the conclusions that can be drawn from those maps 3. a description of the appropriate objectives of flood risk management 4. a summary of measures and their prioritisation aiming to achieve the appropriate objectives of flood risk management The poster refers to some of the major challenges in this process, such as the legal provisions, coordination of administrative units, definition of public relations, etc. The implementation of the EFD requires the harmonisation of legal instruments of various disciplines (e.g. water management, spatial planning, civil protection) enabling a coordinated - and ideally binding - practice of flood risk management. This process is highly influenced by the administrative organisation in Austria - federal, provincial and municipality level. The Austrian approach meets this organisational framework by structuring the development of the flood risk management plan into 3 time-steps: (a) federal blueprint, (b) provincial editing and (c) federal finishing as well as reporting to the European Commission. Each time

  14. Flood Insurance Study Morgan County, Utah, Unincorporated Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1990-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the unincorporated areas of Morgan County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound floodplain management. Minimum floodplain...

  15. Flood Insurance Study, City of Manti, Utah, Sanpete County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1987-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Manti, Sanpete County, Utah and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound floodplain management. Minimum floodplain manageme...

  16. Flood Insurance Study, Town of Elsinore, Utah, Sevier County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1998-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the Town of Elsinore, Sevier County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood-risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and to assist the community in its efforts to promote sound floodplain management. Minimum floodplain m...

  17. Flood Insurance Study, City of Midvale, Utah, Salt Lake County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1994-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Midvale, Salt Lake County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to established [sic] actuarial flood insurance rates and to assist the community in its efforts to promote sound floodplain management. Minimum flo...

  18. Flood Insurance Study, City of Logan, Utah, Cache County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1984-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Logan, Cache County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study will be used to convert Logan to the regular program of flood insurance by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Local and regional planners will use this study in their efforts to promote sound flood plain management.

  19. The Long Term Impact of Flooding on Residential Property Values

    OpenAIRE

    C. Eves

    2001-01-01

    Current planning schemes in Australia identify areas that are potentially flood liable. This identification of flood liable land is based on flood height levels over time. Throughout New South Wales this measure of flood affectation is determined by three classifications. These classifications also influence the development of residential property within these flood areas. Prospective purchasers are advised of this flood zoning when a full title search is carried out. However, as these proper...

  20. Millennial scale variability in high magnitude flooding across Britain

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, N

    2014-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed severe flooding across much of the globe, but have these floods really been exceptional? Globally, relatively few instrumental river flow series extend beyond 50 years, with short records presenting significant challenges in determining flood risk from high-magnitude floods. A perceived increase in extreme floods in recent years has decreased public confidence in conventional flood risk estimates; the results affect society (insurance costs), in...

  1. The top ten California floods of the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, Maurice

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the biggest northern California floods of the 20th century. Flooding in California can occur from different causes. At least three types of floods occur: 1. Winter general floods, which cover a large area. 2. Spring and early summer snowmelt floods unique to the higher-elevation central and southern Sierra Nevada, which occur about once in 10 years on the average. 3. Local floods from strong thunderstorms, with intense rain over a ...

  2. Quantitative risk analysis of urban flooding in lowland areas

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. E. ten Veldhuis

    2010-01-01

    Urban flood risk analyses suffer from a lack of quantitative historical data on flooding incidents. Data collection takes place on an ad hoc basis and is usually restricted to severe events. The resulting data deficiency renders quantitative assessment of urban flood risks uncertain. The study reported in this thesis reviews existing approaches to quantitative flood risk analysis and evaluation of urban flooding guidelines. It proceeds to explore historical data on flooding incidents from mun...

  3. Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of p-Chlorobenzaldehyde: An Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    p-Chlorobenzaldehyde (p-CBA) is used as an important chemical intermediate for the preparation of pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals, dyestuffs, optical brighteners, and metal finishing products. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of p-CBA. The study was accomplished in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group was remained as untreated, while the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi&r...

  4. 77 FR 70454 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Register a ] proposed flood hazard determination notice at FR 77 44651 that contained a table which... notice published at 77 FR 44651 in the July 30, 2012, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...

  5. Extreme flash floods in Barcelona County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barrera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the catastrophic and extraordinary floods occurring in Barcelona County (Catalonia, NE Spain are studied, in order to characterise the temporal evolution of extreme flash floods in that area and their main features. These events usually cause economical losses and major problems for undertaking daily activity in Barcelona city. This kind of floods is a very common feature in the North-east of Spain and they are recorded every year in some point of Catalonia. This contribution also shows the frequency of those events, within the framework of all the floods that have occurred in Barcelona since the 14th century, but also describes the flooded area, urban evolution, impacts and the weather conditions for any of most severe events. The evolution of flood occurrence shows the existence of oscillations in the earlier and later modern age periods that can be attributed to climatic variability, evolution of the perception threshold and changes in vulnerability. A great increase of vulnerability can be assumed for the period 1850-1900. The analysis of the time evolution for the Barcelona rainfall series (1854-2000 shows that no trend exists, although, due to the changes in urban planning, flash-floods impact has changed over this time. The number of catastrophic flash floods has diminished, although the extraordinary ones have increased.

  6. Assessing infrastructure vulnerability to major floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenssen, Lars

    1998-12-31

    This thesis proposes a method for assessing the direct effects of serious floods on a physical infrastructure or utility. This method should be useful in contingency planning and in the design of structures likely to be damaged by flooding. A review is given of (1) methods of floodplain management and strategies for mitigating floods, (2) methods of risk analysis that will become increasingly important in flood management, (3) methods for hydraulic computations, (4) a variety of scour assessment methods and (5) applications of geographic information systems (GIS) to the analysis of flood vulnerability. Three computer codes were developed: CULVCAP computes the headwater level for circular and box culverts, SCOUR for assessing riprap stability and scour depths, and FASTFLOOD prepares input rainfall series and input files for the rainfall-runoff model used in the case study. A road system in central Norway was chosen to study how to analyse the flood vulnerability of an infrastructure. Finally, the thesis proposes a method for analysing the flood vulnerability of physical infrastructure. The method involves a general stage that will provide data on which parts of the infrastructure are potentially vulnerable to flooding and how to analyse them, and a specific stage which is concerned with analysing one particular kind of physical infrastructure in a study area. 123 refs., 59 figs., 17 tabs= .

  7. Enhancing flood resilience through improved risk communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, J. J.; Bradford, R. A.; Bonaiuto, M.; De Dominicis, S.; Rotko, P.; Aaltonen, J.; Waylen, K.; Langan, S. J.

    2012-07-01

    A framework of guiding recommendations for effective pre-flood and flood warning communications derived from the URFlood project (2nd ERA-Net CRUE Research Funding Initiative) from extensive quantitative and qualitative research in Finland, Ireland, Italy and Scotland is presented. Eleven case studies in fluvial, pluvial, coastal, residual and "new" flood risk locations were undertaken. The recommendations were developed from questionnaire surveys by exploring statistical correlations of actions and understandings of individuals in flood risk situations to low, moderate and high resilience groupings. Groupings were based on a conceptual relationship of self-assessed levels of awareness, preparedness and worry. Focus groups and structured interviews were used to discuss barriers in flood communications, explore implementation of the recommendations and to rank the recommendations in order of perceived importance. Results indicate that the information deficit model for flood communications that relies on the provision of more and better information to mitigate risk in flood-prone areas is insufficient, and that the communications process is very much multi-dimensional. The recommendations are aimed at addressing this complexity and their careful implementation is likely to improve the penetration of flood communications. The recommendations are applicable to other risks and are transferrable to jurisdictions beyond the project countries.

  8. 12 CFR 741.216 - Flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood insurance. 741.216 Section 741.216 Banks... INSURANCE Regulations Codified Elsewhere in NCUA's Regulations as Applying to Federal Credit Unions That Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.216 Flood insurance. Any...

  9. Rhine Cities - Urban Flood Integration (UFI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redeker, C.

    2013-01-01

    While agglomerations along the Rhine are confronted with the uncertainties of an increasing flood risk due to climate change, different programs are claiming urban river front sites. Simultaneously, urban development, flood management, as well as navigation and environmental protection are negotiati

  10. 78 FR 36213 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the Flood... LaPlaisance Road, LaSalle, MI 48145. Township of London 13613 Tuttlehill Road, Milan, MI 48160. Township of Milan 16444 Cone Road, Milan, MI 48160. Township of Raisinville 96 Ida-Maybee Road, Monroe,...

  11. Flooding Capability for River-based Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Prescott, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ryan, Emerald [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Calhoun, Donna [Boise State Univ., ID (United States); Sampath, Ramprasad [Centroid Labs., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Anderson, S. Danielle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Casteneda, Cody [Boise State Univ., ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the initial investigation into modeling and simulation tools for application of riverine flooding representation as part of the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway external hazards evaluations. The report provides examples of different flooding conditions and scenarios that could impact river and watershed systems. Both 2D and 3D modeling approaches are described.

  12. SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT IN FLOOD CONTROL DAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Pattanapanchai, Maneechit; Shah, Farhed A.; Annandale, George

    2002-01-01

    Reservoir sedimentation reduces economic value and longevity of flood control dams. Periodic sediment removal allows extension of reservoir life. An optimal control model is developed to evaluate alternative sediment management strategies for flood control dams. An illustrative empirical analysis shows that sustainable management is economically desirable for a wide range of parameter values.

  13. Flood planning; the politics of water security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Floods are amongst the most common and devastating natural disasters. In the wake of such an event, the pressure to initiate flood protection schemes that will provide security is enormous, and politicians promise quick solutions in the national interest. Jeroen Warner examines a number of such proj

  14. Partial entrainment of gravel bars during floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, C.P.; Booth, D.B.; Burges, S.J.; Montgomery, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Spatial patterns of bed material entrainment by floods were documented at seven gravel bars using arrays of metal washers (bed tags) placed in the streambed. The observed patterns were used to test a general stochastic model that bed material entrainment is a spatially independent, random process where the probability of entrainment is uniform over a gravel bar and a function of the peak dimensionless shear stress ??*0 of the flood. The fraction of tags missing from a gravel bar during a flood, or partial entrainment, had an approximately normal distribution with respect to ??*0 with a mean value (50% of the tags entrained) of 0.085 and standard deviation of 0.022 (root-mean-square error of 0.09). Variation in partial entrainment for a given ??*0 demonstrated the effects of flow conditioning on bed strength, with lower values of partial entrainment after intermediate magnitude floods (0.065 entrainment was approximately uniform over a gravel bar during individual floods and independent from flood to flood, regions of preferential stability and instability emerged at some bars over the course of a wet season. Deviations from spatially uniform and independent bed material entrainment were most pronounced for reaches with varied flow and in consecutive floods with small to intermediate magnitudes.

  15. Sick, the spectroscopic inference crank

    CERN Document Server

    Casey, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives which remain severely under-utilised. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analysing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this Article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbour estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimised point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalise on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-di...

  16. Evaluating flood potential with GRACE in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molodtsova, Tatiana; Molodtsov, Sergey; Kirilenko, Andrei; Zhang, Xiaodong; VanLooy, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    Reager and Famiglietti (2009) proposed an index, Reager's Flood Potential Index (RFPI), for early large-scale flood risk monitoring using the Terrestrial Water Storage Anomaly (TWSA) product derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). We evaluated the efficacy of the RFPI for flood risk assessment over the continental USA using multi-year flood observation data from 2003 to 2012 by the US Geological Survey and Dartmouth Flood Observatory. In general, we found a good agreement between the RFPI flood risks and the observed floods on regional and even local scales. RFPI demonstrated skill in predicting the large-area, long-duration floods, especially during the summer season.

  17. Multifunction Imaging and Spectroscopic Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis

    2004-01-01

    A proposed optoelectronic instrument would perform several different spectroscopic and imaging functions that, heretofore, have been performed by separate instruments. The functions would be reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies; variable-color confocal imaging at two different resolutions; and wide-field color imaging. The instrument was conceived for use in examination of minerals on remote planets. It could also be used on Earth to characterize material specimens. The conceptual design of the instrument emphasizes compactness and economy, to be achieved largely through sharing of components among subsystems that perform different imaging and spectrometric functions. The input optics for the various functions would be mounted in a single optical head. With the exception of a targeting lens, the input optics would all be aimed at the same spot on a specimen, thereby both (1) eliminating the need to reposition the specimen to perform different imaging and/or spectroscopic observations and (2) ensuring that data from such observations can be correlated with respect to known positions on the specimen. The figure schematically depicts the principal components and subsystems of the instrument. The targeting lens would collect light into a multimode optical fiber, which would guide the light through a fiber-selection switch to a reflection/ fluorescence spectrometer. The switch would have four positions, enabling selection of spectrometer input from the targeting lens, from either of one or two multimode optical fibers coming from a reflectance/fluorescence- microspectrometer optical head, or from a dark calibration position (no fiber). The switch would be the only moving part within the instrument.

  18. Catchment scale afforestation for mitigating flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Mhari; Quinn, Paul; Bathurst, James; Birkinshaw, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    After the 2013-14 floods in the UK there were calls to 'forest the uplands' as a solution to reducing flood risk across the nation. At present, 1 in 6 homes in Britain are at risk of flooding and current EU legislation demands a sustainable, 'nature-based solution'. However, the role of forests as a natural flood management technique remains highly controversial, due to a distinct lack of robust evidence into its effectiveness in reducing flood risk during extreme events. SHETRAN, physically-based spatially-distributed hydrological models of the Irthing catchment and Wark forest sub-catchments (northern England) have been developed in order to test the hypothesis of the effect trees have on flood magnitude. The advanced physically-based models have been designed to model scale-related responses from 1, through 10, to 100km2, a first study of the extent to which afforestation and woody debris runoff attenuation features (RAFs) may help to mitigate floods at the full catchment scale (100-1000 km2) and on a national basis. Furthermore, there is a need to analyse the extent to which land management practices, and the installation of nature-based RAFs, such as woody debris dams, in headwater catchments can attenuate flood-wave movement, and potentially reduce downstream flood risk. The impacts of riparian planting and the benefits of adding large woody debris of several designs and on differing sizes of channels has also been simulated using advanced hydrodynamic (HiPIMS) and hydrological modelling (SHETRAN). With the aim of determining the effect forestry may have on flood frequency, 1000 years of generated rainfall data representative of current conditions has been used to determine the difference between current land-cover, different distributions of forest cover and the defining scenarios - complete forest removal and complete afforestation of the catchment. The simulations show the percentage of forestry required to have a significant impact on mitigating

  19. Flood Hazard Mapping Assessment for Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Chadi; Darwich, Talal; Hamze, Mouin; Zaarour, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    Of all natural disasters, floods affect the greatest number of people worldwide and have the greatest potential to cause damage. In fact, floods are responsible for over one third of people affected by natural disasters; almost 190 million people in more than 90 countries are exposed to catastrophic floods every year. Nowadays, with the emerging global warming phenomenon, this number is expected to increase, therefore, flood prediction and prevention has become a necessity in many places around the globe to decrease damages caused by flooding. Available evidence hints at an increasing frequency of flooding disasters being witnessed in the last 25 years in Lebanon. The consequences of such events are tragic including annual financial losses of around 15 million dollars. In this work, a hydrologic-hydraulic modeling framework for flood hazard mapping over Lebanon covering 19 watershed was introduced. Several empirical, statistical and stochastic methods to calculate the flood magnitude and its related return periods, where rainfall and river gauge data are neither continuous nor available on a long term basis with an absence of proper river sections that under estimate flows during flood events. TRMM weather satellite information, automated drainage networks, curve numbers and other geometrical characteristics for each basin was prepared using WMS-software and then exported into HMS files to implement the hydrologic modeling (rainfall-runoff) for single designed storm of uniformly distributed depth along each basin. The obtained flow hydrographs were implemented in the hydraulic model (HEC-RAS) where relative water surface profiles are calculated and flood plains are delineated. The model was calibrated using the last flood event of January 2013, field investigation, and high resolution satellite images. Flow results proved to have an accuracy ranging between 83-87% when compared to the computed statistical and stochastic methods. Results included the generation of

  20. River restoration, discharge uncertainties and floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendiondo, E.M. [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Hydraulic Structures and Water-Resources Engineering]|[Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Hidraulicas; Clarke, R.T. [Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Hidraulicas; Toensmann, F. [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Hydraulic Structures and Water-Resources Engineering

    2000-07-01

    Although ecological river restoration is updated continuously, discharge uncertainties are not being addressed to practical purposes, i.e. flood mitigation. So, uncertainty-based strategies need to be addressed with resilient river habitats. Not only the flood-defence and river-restoration framework of Toensmann (1996), but also the uncertainties in rating curves pointed by Clarke et al (2000), are used as starting points to propose an alternative flood mitigation scheme, managing hydraulics, ecology and statistics for restoring watercourses. Our working hypothesis considers the likelihood and the resiliency of riparian habitats in order to encompass the routing effects caused by this alternative flood mitigation scheme. Herein we depict the strategy and assessment for the appraisal of flood mitigation due to discharge reduction in rating curves, with application examples. (orig.)