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Sample records for chemical flooding spectroscopic

  1. Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Annual report, September 30, 1993--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1995-06-01

    The aim of this project is to elucidate the mechanisms underlying adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effect of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations, other inorganic and polymeric species is being studied. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro and nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability is used to achieve the goals. The results of this study should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and also in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. During the second year of this three year contract, adsorption/desorption of single surfactants and select surfactant mixtures on alumina and silica was studied. Surfactants studied include the anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (TTAC), nonionic pentadecylethoxylated nonyl phenol (NP-15) and the nonionic octaethylene glycol n-dodecyl ether (C{sub 12}EO{sub 8}) of varying hydrocarbon chain length. The microstructure of the adsorbed layer in terms of micropolarity and aggregation numbers was probed using fluorescence spectroscopy. Changes of microstructure upon dilution (desorption) were also studied. Presence of the nonionic surfactant in the mixed aggregate led to shielding of the charge of the ionic surfactant which in-turn promoted aggregation but reduced electrostatic attraction between the charged surfactant and the mineral surface. Strong consequences of surfactant interactions in solution upon adsorption as well as correlations between monomer concentrations in mixtures and adsorption were revealed.

  2. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Flood Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Bruce D.

    1983-01-01

    Describes events leading to a flood in the Wehr Chemistry Laboratory at Marquette University, discussing steps taken to minimize damage upon discovery. Analyzes the problem of flooding in the chemical laboratory and outlines seven steps of flood control: prevention; minimization; early detection; stopping the flood; evaluation; clean-up; and…

  3. Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  4. A NEW GENERATION CHEMICAL FLOODING SIMULATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori; Mojdeh Delshad

    2005-01-01

    The premise of this research is that a general-purpose reservoir simulator for several improved oil recovery processes can and should be developed so that high-resolution simulations of a variety of very large and difficult problems can be achieved using state-of-the-art algorithms and computers. Such a simulator is not currently available to the industry. The goal of this proposed research is to develop a new-generation chemical flooding simulator that is capable of efficiently and accurately simulating oil reservoirs with at least a million gridblocks in less than one day on massively parallel computers. Task 1 is the formulation and development of solution scheme, Task 2 is the implementation of the chemical module, and Task 3 is validation and application. In this final report, we will detail our progress on Tasks 1 through 3 of the project.

  5. Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F.; Reid, Ray D.

    2012-01-01

    This invention relates to non-contact spectroscopic methods and apparatus for performing chemical analysis and the ideal wavelengths and sources needed for this analysis. It employs deep ultraviolet (200- to 300-nm spectral range) electron-beam-pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor lightemitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers. Three achieved goals for this innovation are to reduce the size (under 20 L), reduce the weight [under 100 lb (.45 kg)], and reduce the power consumption (under 100 W). This method can be used in microscope or macroscope to provide measurement of Raman and/or native fluorescence emission spectra either by point-by-point measurement, or by global imaging of emissions within specific ultraviolet spectral bands. In other embodiments, the method can be used in analytical instruments such as capillary electrophoresis, capillary electro-chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, and related instruments for detection and identification of unknown analytes using a combination of native fluorescence and/or Raman spectroscopic methods. This design provides an electron-beampumped semiconductor radiation-producing method, or source, that can emit at a wavelength (or wavelengths) below 300 nm, e.g. in the deep ultraviolet between about 200 and 300 nm, and more preferably less than 260 nm. In some variations, the method is to produce incoherent radiation, while in other implementations it produces laser radiation. In some variations, this object is achieved by using an AlGaN emission medium, while in other implementations a diamond emission medium may be used. This instrument irradiates a sample with deep UV radiation, and then uses an improved filter for separating wavelengths to be detected. This provides a multi-stage analysis of the sample. To avoid the difficulties related to producing deep UV semiconductor sources, a pumping approach has been developed that uses

  6. Stellar Abundance and Galactic Chemical Evolution through LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Zhao; Yu-Qin Chen; Jian-RongShi; Yan-Chun Liang; Jin-Liang Hou; Li Chen; Hua-Wei Zhang; Ai-Gen Li

    2006-01-01

    A project of a spectroscopic survey of Galactic structure and evolution with a Large sky Area Multi-Object fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) is presented. The spectroscopic survey consists of two observational modes for various targets in our Galaxy. One is a major survey of the Milky Way aimed at a systematic study of the stellar abundance and Galactic chemical evolution through low resolution (R=1000 - 2000) spectroscopy.Another is a follow-up observation with medium resolution (R=10000) spectrographs aimed at detailed studies of the selected stars with different chemical composition, kinematicsand dynamics.

  7. Efficient Scheme for Chemical Flooding Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braconnier Benjamin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate an efficient implicit scheme for the numerical simulation of chemical enhanced oil recovery technique for oil fields. For the sake of brevity, we only focus on flows with polymer to describe the physical and numerical models. In this framework, we consider a black oil model upgraded with the polymer modeling. We assume the polymer only transported in the water phase or adsorbed on the rock following a Langmuir isotherm. The polymer reduces the water phase mobility which can change drastically the behavior of water oil interfaces. Then, we propose a fractional step technique to resolve implicitly the system. The first step is devoted to the resolution of the black oil subsystem and the second to the polymer mass conservation. In such a way, jacobian matrices coming from the implicit formulation have a moderate size and preserve solvers efficiency. Nevertheless, the coupling between the black-oil subsystem and the polymer is not fully resolved. For efficiency and accuracy comparison, we propose an explicit scheme for the polymer for which large time step is prohibited due to its CFL (Courant-Friedrichs-Levy criterion and consequently approximates accurately the coupling. Numerical experiments with polymer are simulated : a core flood, a 5-spot reservoir with surfactant and ions and a 3D real case. Comparisons are performed between the polymer explicit and implicit scheme. They prove that our polymer implicit scheme is efficient, robust and resolves accurately the coupling physics. The development and the simulations have been performed with the software PumaFlow [PumaFlow (2013 Reference manual, release V600, Beicip Franlab].

  8. Bridging the Gap between Chemical Flooding and Independent Oil Producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan McCool; Tony Walton; Paul Willhite; Mark Ballard; Miguel Rondon; Kaixu Song; Zhijun Liu; Shahab Ahmend; Peter Senior

    2012-03-31

    Ten Kanas oil reservoirs/leases were studied through geological and engineering analysis to assess the potential performance of chemical flooding to recover oil. Reservoirs/leases that have been efficiently waterflooded have the highest performance potential for chemical flooding. Laboratory work to identify efficient chemical systems and to test the oil recovery performance of the systems was the major effort of the project. Efficient chemical systems were identified for crude oils from nine of the reservoirs/leases. Oil recovery performance of the identified chemical systems in Berea sandstone rocks showed 90+ % recoveries of waterflood residual oil for seven crude oils. Oil recoveries increased with the amount of chemical injected. Recoveries were less in Indiana limestone cores. One formulation recovered 80% of the tertiary oil in the limestone rock. Geological studies for nine of the oil reservoirs are presented. Pleasant Prairie, Trembley, Vinland and Stewart Oilfields in Kansas were the most favorable of the studied reservoirs for a pilot chemical flood from geological considerations. Computer simulations of the performance of a laboratory coreflood were used to predict a field application of chemical flooding for the Trembley Oilfield. Estimates of field applications indicated chemical flooding is an economically viable technology for oil recovery.

  9. Multivariate Chemical Image Fusion of Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Aoife A; Dorrepaal, Ronan M

    2016-01-01

    Chemical image fusion refers to the combination of chemical images from different modalities for improved characterisation of a sample. Challenges associated with existing approaches include: difficulties with imaging the same sample area or having identical pixels across microscopic modalities, lack of prior knowledge of sample composition and lack of knowledge regarding correlation between modalities for a given sample. In addition, the multivariate structure of chemical images is often overlooked when fusion is carried out. We address these challenges by proposing a framework for multivariate chemical image fusion of vibrational spectroscopic imaging modalities, demonstrating the approach for image registration, fusion and resolution enhancement of chemical images obtained with IR and Raman microscopy. PMID:27384549

  10. Spectroscopic probes of vibrationally excited molecules at chemically significant energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, T.R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project involves the application of multiple-resonance spectroscopic techniques for investigating energy transfer and dissociation dynamics of highly vibrationally excited molecules. Two major goals of this work are: (1) to provide information on potential energy surfaces of combustion related molecules at chemically significant energies, and (2) to test theoretical modes of unimolecular dissociation rates critically via quantum-state resolved measurements.

  11. Experimental study of chemical concentration variation of ASP flooding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A physical modeling system of long slim tube was established. Several pressure measuring and sampling points were laid out at different positions along the tube. Through real-time measurements of pressures and chemical concentrations at different points, the mass transfer and chemical concentration of ASP flooding in porous media are studied. The concentration of chemicals declines gradually during the fluid flow from the inlet to the outlet of the model. The concentration increases in the front edge of the slug faster than the concentration decreases in the rear edge of the slug. The concentration variation of the chemicals is an asymmetrical and offset process. The order of motion velocities of the chemicals from fast to slow is polymer, alkali and surfactant. The motion lag and comprehensive diffusion are strong in the vicinity of the inlet, the motion velocities of the chemicals are high, the difference of flow velocities among the three chemicals is significant and the chromatographic separation of the chemicals is obvious. In the area near the outlet, the comprehensive diffusion and motion lag become weak, the concentrations of the chemicals decrease, the motion velocities of the chemicals are slow, the difference among the motion velocities of the chemicals becomes small, the chromatographic separation is not obvious, the adsorption and retention of chemicals gradually increase as the chemical slug moves further along the tube, the adsorption and retention of polymer is the most serious.

  12. Experimental study of chemical concentration variation of ASP flooding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG JiaLu; YUAN ShiYi; SHI FaShun; JIA Xu

    2009-01-01

    A physical modeling system of long slim tube was established. Several pressure measuring and sampling points were laid out at different positions along the tube. Through real-time measurements of pressures and chemical concentrations at different points, the mass transfer and chemical concentration of ASP flooding in porous media are studied. The concentration of chemicals declines gradually during the fluid flow from the inlet to the outlet of the model. The concentration increases in the front edge of the slug faster than the concentration decreases in the rear edge of the slug. The concentration variation of the chemicals is an asymmetrical and offset process. The order of motion velocities of the chemicals from fast to slow is polymer, alkali and surfactant. The motion lag and comprehensive diffusion are strong in the vicinity of the inlet, the motion velocities of the chemicals are high, the difference of flow velocities among the three chemicals is significant and the chromatographic separation of the chemicals is obvious. In the area near the outlet, the comprehensive diffusion and motion lag become weak, the concentrations of the chemicals decrease, the motion velocities of the chemicals are slow,the difference among the motion velocities of the chemicals becomes small, the chromatographic separation is not obvious, the adsorption and retention of chemicals gradually increase as the chemical slug moves further along the tube, the adsorption and retention of polymer is the most serious.

  13. A spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD207561

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, S; Martinez, P; Sachkov, M; Joshi, Y C; Seetha, S; Chakradhari, N K; Mary, D L; Girish, V; Ashoka, B N

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a high-resolution spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD207561. During a survey programme to search for new roAp stars in the Northern hemisphere, Joshi et al. (2006) observed significant photometric variability on two consecutive nights in the year 2000. The amplitude spectra of the light curves obtained on these two nights showed oscillations with a frequency of 2.79 mHz [P~6-min]. However, subsequent follow-up observations could not confirm any rapid variability. In order to determine the spectroscopic nature of HD207561, high-resolution spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric observations were carried out. A reasonable fit of the calculated Hbeta line profile to the observed one yields the effective temperature (Teff) and surface gravity (log g) as 7300 K and 3.7 dex, respectively. The derived projected rotational velocity (vsin i) for HD207561 is 74 km/sec indicative of a relatively fast rotator. The position of HD207561 in the H-R diagram implies that this is s...

  14. Next Generation Surfactants for Improved Chemical Flooding Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura Wesson; Prapas Lohateeraparp; Jeffrey Harwell; Bor-Jier Shiau

    2012-05-31

    The principle objective of this project was to characterize and test current and next generation high performance surfactants for improved chemical flooding technology, focused on reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian-aged (Penn) sands. In order to meet this objective the characteristic curvatures (Cc) of twenty-eight anionic surfactants selected for evaluation for use in chemical flooding formulations were determined. The Cc values ranged from -6.90 to 2.55 with the majority having negative values. Crude oil samples from nine Penn sand reservoirs were analyzed for several properties pertinent to surfactant formulation for EOR application. These properties included equivalent alkane carbon numbers, total acid numbers, and viscosity. The brine samples from these same reservoirs were analyzed for several cations and for total dissolved solids. Surfactant formulations were successfully developed for eight reservoirs by the end of the project period. These formulations were comprised of a tertiary mixture of anionic surfactants. The identities of these surfactants are considered proprietary, but suffice to say the surfactants in each mixture were comprised of varying chemical structures. In addition to the successful development of surfactant formulations for EOR, there were also two successful single-well field tests conducted. There are many aspects that must be considered in the development and implementation of effective surfactant formulations. Taking into account these other aspects, there were four additional studies conducted during this project. These studies focused on the effect of the stability of surfactant formulations in the presence of polymers with an associated examination of polymer rheology, the effect of the presence of iron complexes in the brine on surfactant stability, the potential use of sacrificial agents in order to minimize the loss of surfactant to adsorption, and the effect of electrolytes on surfactant adsorption. In these last four studies

  15. Numerical simulation of pore-scale flow in chemical flooding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chemical flooding is one of the effective technologies to increase oil recovery of petroleum reservoirs after water flooding.Above the scale of representative elementary volume(REV), phenomenological modeling and numerical simulations of chemical flooding have been reported in literatures,but the studies alike are rarely conducted at the pore-scale,at which the effects of physicochemical hydrodynamics are hardly resolved either by experimental observations or by traditional continuum-based simulations.In...

  16. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD AND ANALYSIS FOR CHEMICAL-FLOODING SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Yirang

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the enhanced oil recovery numerical simulation of the chemical-flooding (such as surfactants, alcohol, polymers) composed of three-dimensional multicomponent, multiphase and incompressible mixed fluids. The mathematical model can be described as a coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equations with initialboundary value problems. From the actual conditions such as the effect of cross interference and the three-dimensional characteristic of large-scale science-engineering computation, this article puts forward a kind of characteristic finite element fractional step schemes and obtain the optimal order error estimates in L2 norm. Thus we have thoroughly solved the well-known theoretical problem proposed by a famous scientist, R. E. Ewing.

  17. The chemically peculiar double-lined spectroscopic binary HD 90264

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, C.; Torres, A. F.; Cidale, L. S.

    2010-10-01

    Context. HD 90264 is a chemically peculiar (CP) double-lined spectroscopic binary system of the type He-weak. Double-lined binaries are unique sources of data for stellar masses, physical properties, and evolutionary aspects of stars. Therefore, the determination of orbital elements is of great importance to study how the physical characteristics of CP stars are affected by a companion. Aims: We carried out a detailed spectral and polarimetric study of the spectroscopic binary system HD 90264 to characterize its orbit, determine the stellar masses, and investigate the spectral variability and possible polarization of the binary components. Methods: We employed medium-resolution échelle spectra and polarimetric data obtained at the 2.15-m telescope at CASLEO Observatory, Argentina. We measured radial velocities and line equivalent widths with IRAF packages. The radial velocity curves of both binary components were obtained combining radial velocity data derived from the single line of Hg II λ3984 Åand the double lines of Mg II λ4481 Å. Polarimetric data were studied by means of the statistical method of Clarke & Stewart and the Welch test. Results: We found that both components of the binary system are chemically peculiar stars, deficient in helium, where the primary is a He variable and the secondary is a Hg-Mn star. We derived for the first time the orbital parameters of the binary system. We found that the system has a quasi-circular orbit (e ~ 0.04) with an orbital period of 15.727 days. Taking into account the circular orbit solution, we derived a mass ratio of q = MHe-w/MHg-Mn = 1.22. We also found a rotational period of around 15-16 days, suggesting a spin-orbit synchronization. Possible signs of intrinsic polarization have also been detected. Conclusions: HD 90264 is the first known binary system comprised of a He variable star as the primary component and a Hg-Mn star as the secondary one. Based on observations taken at Complejo Astronómico El

  18. Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods are common in the United States. Weather such as heavy rain, thunderstorms, hurricanes, or tsunamis can ... is breached, or when a dam breaks. Flash floods, which can develop quickly, often have a dangerous ...

  19. Experimental Study of Chemical Flooding Using New Chemical Component to Enhance Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Arjmand

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research study is to introduce of new chemical component to Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR. Crude Terephthalic Acid (CTA as a macromolecule and one of the isomers of the three phthalic acids is an intermediate product of petrochemical industries which can be used as an alternative to the traditional Hydrolyzed Poly Acryl Amide (HPAM. Crude Oil samples from an Iranian oil field were selected to be used during the flooding tests. Comparison between water flooding and CTA flooding as a secondary oil recovery process revealed that the recovery was improved by 10% when CTA was used. The effect of various injection rates and different concentration of chemical solutions on the recovery factor have been checked and the results showed that high CTA concentrations and low injection rates are the optimum criteria for higher oil recovery efficiency and this chemical as a viscous surfactant and IFT reducer, would be stable in extreme conditions of high salinity and high temperature and therefore, it can be used for reservoirs with high salinity and temperature, too.

  20. Microbial and chemical contamination during and after flooding in the Ohio River-Kentucky, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yard, Ellen E; Murphy, Matthew W; Schneeberger, Chandra; Narayanan, Jothikumar; Hoo, Elizabeth; Freiman, Alexander; Lewis, Lauren S; Hill, Vincent R

    2014-09-19

    Surface water contaminants in Kentucky during and after 2011 flooding were characterized. Surface water samples were collected during flood stage (May 2-4, 2011; n = 15) and after (July 25-26, 2011; n = 8) from four different cities along the Ohio River and were analyzed for the presence of microbial indicators, pathogens, metals, and chemical contaminants. Contaminant concentrations during and after flooding were compared using linear and logistic regression. Surface water samples collected during flooding had higher levels of E. coli, enterococci, Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli O157:H7, adenovirus, arsenic, copper, iron, lead, and zinc compared to surface water samples collected 3-months post-flood (P water. These findings reinforce commonly recommended guidelines to limit exposure to flood water and to appropriately sanitize contaminated surfaces and drinking wells after contamination by flood water. PMID:24967556

  1. Spectroscopic Observation of Chemical Interaction Between Impact-induced Vapor Clouds and the Ambient Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, S.; Heineck, J. T.; Schultz, P. H.

    2000-01-01

    Chemical reactions within impact-induced vapor clouds were observed in laboratory experiments using a spectroscopic method. The results indicate that projectile-derived carbon-rich vapor reacts intensively with atmospheric nitrogen.

  2. Sacrificial adsorbate for surfactants utilized in chemical floods of enhanced oil recovery operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jr., James S.; Westmoreland, Clyde G.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sacrificial or competitive adsorbate for surfactants contained in chemical flooding emulsions for enhanced oil recovery operations. The adsorbate to be utilized in the method of the present invention is a caustic effluent from the bleach stage or the weak black liquor from the digesters and pulp washers of the kraft pulping process. This effluent or weak black liquor is injected into an oil-bearing subterranean earth formation prior to or concurrent with the chemical flood emulsion and is adsorbed on the active mineral surfaces of the formation matrix so as to effectively reduce adsorption of surfactant in the chemical flood. Alternatively, the effluent or liquor can be injected into the subterranean earth formation subsequent to a chemical flood to displace the surfactant from the mineral surfaces for the recovery thereof.

  3. Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... security and resilience of drinking water and wastewater infrastructure . Green infrastructure for climate resiliency . During flooding State and local ... or damaged and release their contents into the environment, causing soil, surface water, and groundwater contamination. Learn ...

  4. How much can we trust high-resolution spectroscopic stellar chemical abundances?

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S; Heiter, U; Jofré, P; Masseron, T; Casamiquela, L; Tabernero, H M; Bhat, S S; Casey, A R; Meléndez, J; Ramírez, I

    2016-01-01

    To study stellar populations, it is common to combine chemical abundances from different spectroscopic surveys/studies where different setups were used. These inhomogeneities can lead us to inaccurate scientific conclusions. In this work, we studied one aspect of the problem: When deriving chemical abundances from high-resolution stellar spectra, what differences originate from the use of different radiative transfer codes?

  5. Quantum chemical and spectroscopic investigations of 5-aminoquinoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Mohan, S.; Balamourougane, P. S.; Ravindran, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and FT-Raman spectra of 5-aminoquinoline (5AQ) have been recorded in the range 4000-400 and 3500-100 cm -1, respectively. The complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compounds were carried out using the observed FTIR and FT-Raman data. 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. UV-vis spectrum of the compound was recorded and the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The geometric parameters, chemical shifts and absorption wavelengths were compared with the experimental data of the molecule. The vibrational frequencies which were determined experimentally are compared with those obtained theoretically from ab initio HF and DFT-B3LYP gradient calculations employing the 6-31G** and 6-311++G** basis sets for optimized geometries of the compound. The interactions of NH-π and the influence of amino group on the skeletal modes are investigated.

  6. Use of amine oxide surfactants for chemical flooding EOR (enhanced oil recovery)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.

    1989-11-01

    The use of amine oxides with and without alcohols as cosolvents, and in combination with other surfactants as mixed micellar formulations for enhanced oil recovery by surfactant flooding was investigated. Amine oxides are a salt-tolerant class of surfactants that produce low interfacial tension and can develop viscosity without the addition of polymers. These salt-tolerant formulations generate three-phase regions with hydrocarbons over a broad salinity range, develop moderate solubilization, and produce low interfacial tensions, however oil recovery from amine oxide-alcohol phase behavior optimized formulations was directly dependent upon the quantity of surfactant injected. The large pore volume and high concentration of surfactant required prohibits their economic use as the primary surfactant in chemical flooding EOR. Dimethylalkylamine oxides are useful as cosurfactants and viscosifiers in formulations with other surfactants for chemical flooding EOR but the use of ethoxylated and propoxylated amine oxides should be avoided due to the decomposition of these amine oxides under reservoir conditions. Phase behavior, phase inversion temperatures, and viscosity scans have been correlated with surfactant structures to provide a guide for amine oxide applications in chemical flooding. 36 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. A Framework to Design and Optimize Chemical Flooding Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope Kamy Sepehrnoori

    2006-08-31

    The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

  8. A FRAMEWORK TO DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE CHEMICAL FLOODING PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

    2005-07-01

    The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

  9. A non-chemical spectroscopic determination of atmospheric beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium in the atmosphere is determined by emission spectroscopy using a non-chemical method of analysis. Long term effects of beryllium poisoning result in respiratory and skin disease, and this is partly reflected by the low threshold limits (0.002 mg/m3). In comparison the threshhold values for lead and cadmium are 0.2 and 0.16 mg/m3 respectively. Air samples are collected at 2 litres/ minute using cellulose filters, and sampling time is dependent on the individual process being monitored, but can be as short as five minutes, eg. dental laboratories. The filters are initially divided in two parts, and one portion is carefully pelletised using a steel press. The pellet is placed in an electrode cup and 'wetted' using isopropanol and ethylene glycol. Wetting is necessary because the pellets tended to explode out of the arcing zone. Calibration graphs were produced using an internal cobalt standard, and the 234.8 nm, 313.0 nm emission lines were used. No spectral and inter-element effects were observed, and the minimum detection limit was one nanogram. Under normal working conditions a 25% precision was obtained. (author)

  10. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical analysis of Isonicotinic acid methyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoba, D.; Periandy, S.; Govindarajan, M.; Gayathri, P.

    2015-02-01

    In this present study, an organic compound Isonicotinic acid methyl ester (INAME) was structurally characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman, and NMR and UV spectroscopy. The optimized geometrical parameters and energies of all different and possible conformers of INAME are obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. There are three conformers (SI, SII-1, and SII-2) for this molecule (ground state). The most stable conformer of INAME is SI conformer. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of INAME in the ground state have been calculated by using HF and density functional method (B3LYP) 6-311++G (d,p) basis set. Detailed vibrational spectral analysis has been carried out and assignments of the observed fundamental bands have been proposed on the basis of peak positions and relative intensities. The computed vibrational frequencies were compared with the experimental frequencies, which yield good agreement between observed and calculated frequencies. A study on the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies were performed by time independent DFT approach. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed. The electric dipole moment (μ) and first hyper polarizability (β) values of the investigated molecule were computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculated results show that the INAME molecule may have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non zero values. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method.

  11. Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of a vegetable oil used as dielectric coolant in distribution transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Neffer A.; Abonia, Rodrigo, E-mail: rodrigo.abonia@correounivalle.edu.co [Departamento de Quimica, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Cadavid, Hector [Grupo GRALTA, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Vargas, Ines H. [Area de Ingenieria de Distribucion, Empresas Publicas de Medellin (EPM), Medellin (Colombia)

    2011-09-15

    In this work, a complete UV-Vis, IR and (1H, 13C and DEPT) NMR spectroscopic analysis was performed for a FR3 vegetable oil sample used as dielectric coolant in an experimental distribution transformer. The same spectroscopic analysis was performed for three used FR3 oil samples (i.e., 4 months in use, 8 months in use and 7 years in use), removed from several operating distribution transformers. Comparison of the data indicated that no significant spectroscopic changes, and hence, no structural changes occurred to the oils by the use. Chemical transformations like catalytic hydrogenation (hardening) and hydrolysis were performed to the FR3 oil sample and the obtained products were analyzed by spectroscopic methods in order to collect further structural information about the FR3 oil. Accelerated aging tests in laboratory were also performed for three FR3 oil samples affording interesting information about the structure of the degradation products. These findings would be valuable to search for a spectroscopy-based technique for monitoring the lifetime and performance of this insulating vegetable oil. (author)

  12. Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of a vegetable oil used as dielectric coolant in distribution transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a complete UV-Vis, IR and (1H, 13C and DEPT) NMR spectroscopic analysis was performed for a FR3 vegetable oil sample used as dielectric coolant in an experimental distribution transformer. The same spectroscopic analysis was performed for three used FR3 oil samples (i.e., 4 months in use, 8 months in use and 7 years in use), removed from several operating distribution transformers. Comparison of the data indicated that no significant spectroscopic changes, and hence, no structural changes occurred to the oils by the use. Chemical transformations like catalytic hydrogenation (hardening) and hydrolysis were performed to the FR3 oil sample and the obtained products were analyzed by spectroscopic methods in order to collect further structural information about the FR3 oil. Accelerated aging tests in laboratory were also performed for three FR3 oil samples affording interesting information about the structure of the degradation products. These findings would be valuable to search for a spectroscopy-based technique for monitoring the lifetime and performance of this insulating vegetable oil. (author)

  13. Spectroscopic analyses of chemical adaptation processes within microalgal biomass in response to changing environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Microalgae transform large quantities of inorganics into biomass. • Microalgae interact with their growing environment and adapt their chemical composition. • Sequestration capabilities are dependent on cells’ chemical environments. • We develop a chemometric hard-modeling to describe these chemical adaptation dynamics. • This methodology will enable studies of microalgal compound sequestration. - Abstract: Via photosynthesis, marine phytoplankton transforms large quantities of inorganic compounds into biomass. This has considerable environmental impacts as microalgae contribute for instance to counter-balancing anthropogenic releases of the greenhouse gas CO2. On the other hand, high concentrations of nitrogen compounds in an ecosystem can lead to harmful algae blooms. In previous investigations it was found that the chemical composition of microalgal biomass is strongly dependent on the nutrient availability. Therefore, it is expected that algae’s sequestration capabilities and productivity are also determined by the cells’ chemical environments. For investigating this hypothesis, novel analytical methodologies are required which are capable of monitoring live cells exposed to chemically shifting environments followed by chemometric modeling of their chemical adaptation dynamics. FTIR-ATR experiments have been developed for acquiring spectroscopic time series of live Dunaliella parva cultures adapting to different nutrient situations. Comparing experimental data from acclimated cultures to those exposed to a chemically shifted nutrient situation reveals insights in which analyte groups participate in modifications of microalgal biomass and on what time scales. For a chemometric description of these processes, a data model has been deduced which explains the chemical adaptation dynamics explicitly rather than empirically. First results show that this approach is feasible and derives information about the chemical biomass adaptations

  14. Spectroscopic analyses of chemical adaptation processes within microalgal biomass in response to changing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Frank, E-mail: fvogt@utk.edu; White, Lauren

    2015-03-31

    Highlights: • Microalgae transform large quantities of inorganics into biomass. • Microalgae interact with their growing environment and adapt their chemical composition. • Sequestration capabilities are dependent on cells’ chemical environments. • We develop a chemometric hard-modeling to describe these chemical adaptation dynamics. • This methodology will enable studies of microalgal compound sequestration. - Abstract: Via photosynthesis, marine phytoplankton transforms large quantities of inorganic compounds into biomass. This has considerable environmental impacts as microalgae contribute for instance to counter-balancing anthropogenic releases of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2}. On the other hand, high concentrations of nitrogen compounds in an ecosystem can lead to harmful algae blooms. In previous investigations it was found that the chemical composition of microalgal biomass is strongly dependent on the nutrient availability. Therefore, it is expected that algae’s sequestration capabilities and productivity are also determined by the cells’ chemical environments. For investigating this hypothesis, novel analytical methodologies are required which are capable of monitoring live cells exposed to chemically shifting environments followed by chemometric modeling of their chemical adaptation dynamics. FTIR-ATR experiments have been developed for acquiring spectroscopic time series of live Dunaliella parva cultures adapting to different nutrient situations. Comparing experimental data from acclimated cultures to those exposed to a chemically shifted nutrient situation reveals insights in which analyte groups participate in modifications of microalgal biomass and on what time scales. For a chemometric description of these processes, a data model has been deduced which explains the chemical adaptation dynamics explicitly rather than empirically. First results show that this approach is feasible and derives information about the chemical biomass

  15. Infrared spectroscopic imaging detects chemical modifications in liver fibrosis due to diabetes and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedhar, Hari; Varma, Vishal K.; Gambacorta, Francesca V.; Guzman, Grace; Walsh, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of stroma as a rich diagnostic region in tissue biopsies is growing as there is an increasing understanding that disease processes in multiple organs can affect the composition of adjacent connective tissue regions. This may be especially true in the liver, since this organ’s central metabolic role exposes it to multiple disease processes. We use quantum cascade laser infrared spectroscopic imaging to study changes in the chemical status of hepatocytes and fibrotic regions of liver tissue that result from the progression of liver cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma and the potentially confounding effects of diabetes mellitus. PMID:27375956

  16. Dissipative particle dynamics simulation of wettability alternation phenomena in the chemical flooding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaobo Li; Yuewu Liu; Jianfei Tang; Shujiao Li

    2009-01-01

    Wettability alternation phenomena is considered one of the most important enhanced oil recovery (EOR) mechanisms in the chemical flooding process and induced by the adsorption of surfactant on the rock surface. These phenomena are studied by a mesoscopic method named as dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). Both the alteration phenomena of water-wet to oil-wet and that of oil-wet to waterwet are simulated based on reasonable definition of interaction parameters between beads. The wetting hysteresis phenomenon and the process of oil-drops detachment from rock surfaces with different wettability are simulated by adding long-range external forces on the fluid particles. The simulation results show that, the oil drop is liable to spread on the oil-wetting surface and move in the form of liquid film flow, whereas it is likely to move as a whole on the waterwetting surface. There are the same phenomena occuring in wettability-alternated cases. The results also show that DPD method provides a feasible approach to the problems of seepage flow with physicochemical phenomena and can be used to study the mechanism of EOR of chemical flooding.

  17. Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis and Raman Spectroscopic Characterization of Large-Area Graphene Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chun-Da; Lu, Yi-Ying; Tamalampudi, Srinivasa Reddy; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Chen, Yit-Tsong

    2013-10-01

    We present a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method to catalytically synthesize large-area, transferless, single- to few-layer graphene sheets using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) on a SiO2/Si substrate as a carbon source and thermally evaporated alternating Ni/Cu/Ni layers as a catalyst. The as-synthesized graphene films were characterized by Raman spectroscopic imaging to identify single- to few-layer sheets. This HMDS-derived graphene layer is continuous over the entire growth substrate, and single- to trilayer mixed sheets can be up to 30 -m in the lateral dimension. With the synthetic CVD method proposed here, graphene can be grown into tailored shapes directly on a SiO2/Si surface through vapor priming of HMDS onto predefined photolithographic patterns. The transparent and conductive HMDS-derived graphene exhibits its potential for widespread electronic and opto-electronic applications.

  18. Improving oil recovery in the CO2 flooding process by utilizing nonpolar chemical modifiers☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Yang; Xiangliang Li; Ping Guo; Yayun Zhuo; Yong Sha

    2016-01-01

    By means of experiments of CO2 miscibility with crude oil, four nonpolar chemicals were evaluated in order to enhance the miscibility of CO2 with crude oil. Through pre-slug injection and joint injection of toluene in CO2, crude oil displacement experiments in the slim-tube were conducted to investigate effects of the toluene-enhanced CO2 flooding under simulated subterranean reservoir conditions. Experimental results showed that toluene can enhance extraction of oil into CO2 and dissolution of CO2 into oil with the increment of 251%and 64%respectively. Addition of toluene can obviously improve the oil recovery in either pre-slug injection or joint injection, and the crude oil recovery increased with the increase of the toluene concentration. The oil recov-ery can increase by 22.5%in pre-slug injection with the high toluene concentration. Pre-slug injection was recom-mended because it can consume less toluene than joint injection. This work could be useful to development and application of the CO2 flooding in the oil recovery as wel as CO2 emission reduction.

  19. Micro-Spectroscopic Chemical Imaging of Individual Identified Marine Biogenic and Ambient Organic Ice Nuclei (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopf, D. A.; Alpert, P. A.; Wang, B.; OBrien, R. E.; Moffet, R. C.; Aller, J. Y.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric ice formation represents one of the least understood atmospheric processes with important implications for the hydrological cycle and climate. Current freezing descriptions assume that ice active sites on the particle surface initiate ice nucleation, however, the nature of these sites remains elusive. Here, we present a new experimental method that allows us to relate physical and chemical properties of individual particles with observed water uptake and ice nucleation ability using a combination of micro-spectroscopic and optical single particle analytical techniques. We apply this method to field-collected particles and particles generated via bursting of bubbles produced by glass frit aeration and plunging water impingement jets in a mesocosm containing artificial sea water and bacteria and/or phytoplankton. The most efficient ice nuclei (IN) within a particle population are identified and characterized. Single particle characterization is achieved by computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. A vapor controlled cooling-stage coupled to an optical microscope is used to determine the onsets of water uptake, immersion freezing, and deposition ice nucleation of the individual particles as a function of temperature (T) as low as 200 K and relative humidity (RH) up to water saturation. In addition, we perform CCSEM/EDX to obtain on a single particle level the elemental composition of the entire particle population. Thus, we can determine if the IN are exceptional in nature or belong to a major particle type class with respect to composition and size. We find that ambient and sea spray particles are coated by organic material and can induce ice formation under tropospheric relevant conditions. Micro-spectroscopic single particle analysis of the investigated particle samples invokes a potential

  20. Chemical Characterization of Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter Using a Combination of Spectroscopic and Pyrolytic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templier, J.; Derenne, S.

    2006-12-01

    It is now well established that riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM) play a major role in environmental processes. However natural organic matter exhibit different properties depending on their sources and the fractions considered. As a result chemical characterization of DOM has appeared essential for a better understanding of their reactivity. The purpose of this work was to characterize all of the DOM at molecular level, including the non-hydrolysable fraction, which is a major part of this OM. To this aim a new analytical approach had to be considered. A combination of spectroscopic and pyrolytic methods has been applied to various fractions of DOM originating from different catchments (French and Amazonian rivers). The fractions were termed hydrophilic, transphilic and colloids according to the IHSS fractionation procedure, and account for at least 70% of the total dissolved organic carbon. Solid state 13C NMR and FTIR afford information on the nature and relative abundance of the chemical functions occurring in macromolecules. Differential thermogravimetric analysis allows to determine the thermal behaviour of the studied material and hence to optimize analytical pyrolysis conditions. Curie point pyrolysis combined to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry leads to identification of characteristic pyrolysis products, some of them being specific of a macromolecular source. Additional information can be provided by thermochemolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). TMAH was shown to allow an increase in the efficiency of the cracking of macromolecular structures and an enhancement of the detection of the polar pyrolysis products especially due to methylation of the alcohol, phenol and acid groups. The results obtained have established the importance of terrestrial contribution to DOM. Hydrophobic fractions mainly originate from lignin-derived units, whereas transphilic fractions mostly contain cellulose units together with lignin derived ones and

  1. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical study of the structure of a new paramagnetic dimeric palladium(II,III) complex with creatine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitewa, Mariana; Enchev, Venelin; Bakalova, Tatyana

    2002-05-01

    The structure and coordination mode of the newly synthesized dimeric paramagnetic Pd(II,III) complex are studied using magneto-chemical, EPR and IR spectroscopic methods. In order to perform reliable assignment of the IR bands, the structure and IR spectrum of the free creatine were calculated using ab initio method. For calculation of the configuration of its deprotonated and doubly deprotonated forms the semiempirical AM1 method was used.

  2. Floods and Flash Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods and flash flooding Now is the time to determine your area’s flood risk. If you are not sure whether you ... If you are in a floodplain, consider buying flood insurance. Do not drive around barricades. If your ...

  3. Femtosecond electron diffraction and spectroscopic studies of a solid state organic chemical reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Ruel, Hubert

    Photochromic diarylethene molecules are excellent model systems for studying electrocyclic reactions, in addition to having important technological applications in optoelectronics. The photoinduced ring-closing reaction in a crystalline photochromic diarylethene derivative was fully resolved using the complementary techniques of transient absorption spectroscopy and femtosecond electron crystallography. These studies are detailed in this thesis, together with the associated technical developments which enabled them. Importantly, the time-resolved crystallographic investigation reported here represents a highly significant proof-of-principle experiment. It constitutes the first study directly probing the molecular structural changes associated with an organic chemical reaction with sub-picosecond temporal and atomic spatial resolution---to follow the primary motions directing chemistry. In terms of technological development, the most important advance reported is the implementation of a radio frequency rebunching system capable of producing femtosecond electron pulses of exceptional brightness. The temporal resolution of this newly developed electron source was fully characterized using laser ponderomotive scattering, confirming a 435 +/- 75 fs instrument response time with 0.20 pC bunches. The ultrafast spectroscopic and crystallographic measurements were both achieved by exploiting the photoreversibility of diarylethene. The transient absorption study was first performed, after developing a novel robust acquisition scheme for thermally irreversible reactions in the solid state. It revealed the formation of an open-ring excited state intermediate, following photoexcitation of the open-ring isomer with an ultraviolet laser pulse, with a time constant of approximately 200 fs. The actual ring closing was found to occur from this intermediate with a time constant of 5.3 +/- 0.3 ps. The femtosecond diffraction measurements were then performed using multiple crystal

  4. Challenge toward breakage of RLS trade-off for EUV lithography by Photosensitized Chemically Amplified Resist (PSCAR) with flood exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Seiji; Carcasi, Michael; Nakagawa, Hisashi; Buitrago, Elizabeth; Yildirim, Oktay; Shiraishi, Gosuke; Terashita, Yuichi; Minekawa, Yukie; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Tomono, Masaru; Mizoguchi, Hironori; Estrella, Joel; Nagai, Tomoki; Naruoka, Takehiko; Dei, Satoshi; Hori, Masafumi; Oshima, Akihiro; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Ekinci, Yasin; Meeuwissen, Marieke; Verspaget, Coen; Hoefnagels, Rik; Rispens, Gijsbert; Maas, Raymond; Nakashima, Hideo; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a promising approach to break the resolution (R), line-edge-roughness (LER), and sensitivity (S) trade-off (RLS trade-off) relationships that limit the ultimate lithographic performance of standard chemically amplified resists (CAR). This is accomplished in a process that uses a Photosensitized Chemically Amplified Resist (PSCAR) in combination with a flood-exposure in an in-line track connected to a pattern exposure tool. PSCAR is a modified CAR which contains a photosensitizer precursor (PP) in addition to other standard CAR components such as a protected polymer, a photo acid generator (PAG) and a quencher. In this paper, the PSCAR concept and the required conditions in resist formulation are carefully explained. In the PSCAR process, the sensitivity improvement is accomplished by PAG decomposition to selectively generate more acid at the pattern exposed areas during the flood exposure. The selective photosensitization happens through the excitation of the photosensitizer (PS) generated by the deprotection of the PP at the pattern exposed areas. A higher resist chemical gradient which leads to an improved resolution and lower LER values is also predicted using the PSCAR simulator. In the PSCAR process, the improved chemical gradient can be realized by dual acid quenching steps with the help of increased quencher concentration. Acid quenching first happens simultaneously with acid catalytic PP to PS reactions. As a result, a sharpened PS latent image is created in the PSCAR. This image is subsequently excited by the flood exposure creating additional acid products at the pattern exposed areas only. Much the same as in the standard CAR system, unnecessary acid present in the non-pattern exposed areas can be neutralized by the remaining quencher to therefore produce sharper acid latent images. EUV exposure results down to 15 nm half pitch (HP) line/space (L/S) patterns using a PSCAR resist indicate that the use of PSCAR has the potential to

  5. Flooding and Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, K.N.; Fallon, J.D.; Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.; Menard, Jason; Easter, K.W.; Perry, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Floods result in great human disasters globally and nationally, causing an average of $4 billion of damages each year in the United States. Minnesota has its share of floods and flood damages, and the state has awarded nearly $278 million to local units of government for flood mitigation projects through its Flood Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. Since 1995, flood mitigation in the Red River Valley has exceeded $146 million. Considerable local and state funding has been provided to manage and mitigate problems of excess stormwater in urban areas, flooding of farmlands, and flood damages at road crossings. The cumulative costs involved with floods and flood mitigation in Minnesota are not known precisely, but it is safe to conclude that flood mitigation is a costly business. This chapter begins with a description of floods in Minneosta to provide examples and contrasts across the state. Background material is presented to provide a basic understanding of floods and flood processes, predication, and management and mitigation. Methods of analyzing and characterizing floods are presented because they affect how we respond to flooding and can influence relevant practices. The understanding and perceptions of floods and flooding commonly differ among those who work in flood forecasting, flood protection, or water resource mamnagement and citizens and businesses affected by floods. These differences can become magnified following a major flood, pointing to the need for better understanding of flooding as well as common language to describe flood risks and the uncertainty associated with determining such risks. Expectations of accurate and timely flood forecasts and our ability to control floods do not always match reality. Striving for clarity is important in formulating policies that can help avoid recurring flood damages and costs.

  6. CD-ROM Spectroscope: A Simple and Inexpensive Tool for Classroom Demonstrations on Chemical Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Fumitaka; Hamada, Kiyohito; Sone, Kozo

    1998-12-01

    Construction of a handy spectroscope using a compact disk (CD) or a CD-ROM and its application to the observation of emission and absorption spectra are described. Using this simple cardboard-made spectroscope, one can readily observe line emission spectra of fluorescent lamps, gas discharge tubes, etc. The spectroscope is also used to observe the absorption spectra of colored solutions; the absorption bands are observed as distinct black bands on the rainbow-colored continuous spectrum of an incandescent lamp. The results for the aqueous solution of potassium permanganate, the methanol and ethanol solutions of cobalt chloride, and Fe(III)-thiocyanate complex are described. These results clearly show the general rule that a colored solution absorbs the complementary color of the color of the solution. Thus, the CD-ROM spectroscope is a useful tool in primary and secondary schools to teach what color is and what spectra are. Furthermore, it can be used effectively in introductory courses in colleges and universities to teach that spectra are really beautiful natural phenomena which can be observed simply.

  7. The effect of the 2011 flood on agricultural chemical and sediment movement in the lower Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, H.; Coupe, R.; Aulenbach, B.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme hydrologic events, such as floods, can overwhelm a surface water system's ability to process chemicals and can move large amounts of material downstream to larger surface water bodies. The Mississippi River is the 3rd largest River in the world behind the Amazon in South America and the Congo in Africa. The Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin grows much of the country's corn, soybean, rice, cotton, pigs, and chickens. This is large-scale modern day agriculture with large inputs of nutrients to increase yields and large applied amounts of crop protection chemicals, such as pesticides. The basin drains approximately 41% of the conterminous United States and is the largest contributor of nutrients to the Gulf of Mexico each spring. The amount of water and nutrients discharged from the Mississippi River has been related to the size of the low dissolved oxygen area that forms off of the coast of Louisiana and Texas each summer. From March through April 2011, the upper Mississippi River basin received more than five times more precipitation than normal, which combined with snow melt from the Missouri River basin, created a historic flood event that lasted from April through July. The U.S. Geological Survey, as part of the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN), collected samples from six sites located in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin, as well as, samples from the three flow-diversion structures or floodways: the Birds Point-New Madrid in Missouri and the Morganza and Bonnet Carré in Louisiana, from April through July. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediments, and particle size; results were used to determine the water quality of the river during the 2011 flood. Monthly loads for nitrate, phosphorus, pesticides (atrazine, glyphosate, fluometuron, and metolachlor), and sediment were calculated to quantify the movement of agricultural chemicals and sediment into the Gulf of Mexico. Nutrient loads were

  8. Spectroscopic link between adsorption site occupation and local surface chemical reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraldi, A.; Lizzit, S.; Comelli, G.;

    2004-01-01

    In this Letter we show that sequences of adsorbate-induced shifts of surface core level (SCL) x-ray photoelectron spectra contain profound information on surface changes of electronic structure and reactivity. Energy shifts and intensity changes of time-lapsed spectral components follow simple...... rules, from which adsorption sites are directly determined. Theoretical calculations rationalize the results for transition metal surfaces in terms of the energy shift of the d-band center of mass and this proves that adsorbate-induced SCL shifts provide a spectroscopic measure of local surface...... reactivity....

  9. Correlated analysis of chemical variations with spectroscopic features of the K-Na jarosite solid solutions relevant to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zongcheng; Cao, Fengke; Ni, Yuheng; Wu, Zhongchen; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Detailed chemical, structural and spectroscopic properties of jarosite solid solution minerals are key information for their potential discoveries by future remote sensing and in-situ detections on Mars. We successfully synthesized seven homogeneous K-Na jarosite solid solutions under hydrothermal conditions at 140 °C, whose phase identifications and chemical compositions are confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The chemical ratios of K/(K+Na) in jarosite solid solutions lead to systematic shifts of their characteristic Raman peaks ν1 (SO4)2- (from 1006 to 1011.3 cm-1), ν3 (SO4)2- (from 1100.6 to 1111.2 cm-1), ν2 (SO4)2- (from 434.2 to 444.8 cm-1) with the increase of Na content. While the OH stretching mode decreases with even larger peak position variations (e.g., ∼3410 cm-1 peak shifts from 3410.5 to 3385.7 cm-1) as the K-Na jarosite solid solutions are enriched in Na content. Raman spectroscopic measurements of the seven K-Na jarosite solid solutions enabled us to build a calibration that uses Raman peak positions to estimate K-Na variation in jarosite, which is the key step for their possible applications in the future Raman applications on Mars' missions (e.g., ExoMars and Mars 2020 missions). The band assignments and compositional related variations of their XRD, near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectra also provide informative clues for identifying the jarosite minerals and inferring their composition during martian in-situ and remote sensing measurements.

  10. Geochemical signature of provenance, tectonics and chemical weathering in the Quaternary flood plain sediments of the Hindon River, Gangetic plain, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, M. E. A.; Wani, H.; Mondal, Bulbul

    2012-09-01

    The Ganga basin in the Himalayan foreland is a part of the world's largest area of modern alluvial sedimentation. Flood plain sediments of the Hindon River of the Gangetic plain have been analyzed for sediment texture, major and trace elements including rare earth elements (REEs). The results have been used to characterize the source rock composition and to understand the intensity of chemical weathering, tectonics and their interplay in the Hindon flood plain. The sediments of the Hindon flood plain dominantly consist of sand sized particles with little silt and clay. The geochemistry of the Hindon sediments has been compared to the Siwalik mudstone of the Siwalik Group (Siwaliks). The Siwalik sedimentary rocks like sandstones, mudstones and conglomerates are the known source rocks for the Hindon flood plain sediments. Mudstone geochemistry has been considered best to represent the source rock characteristics. The UCC (Upper Continental Crust) normalized major and trace elements of the Hindon flood plain sediments are very similar to the Siwalik mudstone except for Th and Cr. Furthermore, the average chondrite normalized REE pattern of the Hindon flood plain sediments is similar to the Siwalik mudstone. Textural immaturity, K/Rb ratios and the average CIA (Chemical Index of Alteration) and PIA (Plagioclase Index of Alteration) values of the Hindon flood plain sediments indicate that the sediments have not been affected by chemical weathering. Our study suggests that the active tectonics of the Himalayas and monsoon climate enhances only physical erosion of the source rocks (Siwaliks) rather than the chemical alteration. These factors help the Hindon sediments to retain their parental and tectonic signature even after recycling.

  11. Phytochemical, Physico-chemical & Spectroscopic Characteristics of Ethanolic Extract of Leaf, Stem and Flower bud of Hibiscus hispidissimus Griffith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamizh Selvam N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The plant Hibiscus hispidissimus belongs to the family Malvaceae (Mallow family. The plant has wide range of medicinal uses. Considering the ethno medicinal value of Hibiscus hispidissimus, the present work has been taken up to document the physico-chemical composition, phytochemical details and spectrophotometric characteristics of the plant. The work has been carried out on ethanolic extract of leaf, stem and flower bud of H. hispidissimus. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of saponis, tannins, glycosides, diterpenes and quinones. Spectroscopic characteristics were analyzed and found to have wide range of compounds including steroids, alkaloids, pigments like chlorophyll a and b, phenolic compounds mainly gallic acid, flavanoids like anthocyanins, flavanols, flvanones and isoflavones.

  12. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical analysis of a natural product - Hayatin hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rashmi; Srivastava, Anubha; Tandon, Poonam; Jain, Sudha

    2015-08-01

    Majority of drugs in use today are natural products, natural product mimics or semi synthetic derivatives. Therefore in recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world and large body of evidence has been collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. Therefore, in the present communication to aid that research, structural and spectroscopic analysis of a natural product, an alkaloid Hayatin hydrochloride was performed. Both ab initio Hartree-Fock and density functional theory employing B3LYP with complete relaxation in the potential energy surface using 6-311G (d,p) basis set were used for the calculations. The vibrational frequencies were calculated and scaled values were compared with experimental FT-IR and micro-Raman spectra. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of potential energy distribution. The structure-activity relationship has also been interpreted by mapping electrostatic potential surface, which are valuable information for the quality control of medicines and drug-receptor interactions. Electronic properties have been analysed employing TD-DFT for both gaseous and solvent phase. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis.

  13. Process Analytical Technology and On-Line Spectroscopic Measurements of Chemical Meat Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Klavs Martin

    of boar taint. The chemical makeup of fat has a large effect on meat cut quality. Fat quality has traditionally been determined by methylation of a tissue sample followed by chromatography on a GC-MS system, elucidating the composition of the individual fatty acids. As this procedure typically takes far...

  14. Effect of flood-induced chemical load on filtrate quality at bank filtration sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C.; Soong, T.W.; Lian, Y.Q.; Roadcap, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    Riparian municipal wells, that are located on riverbanks, are specifically designed to capture a portion of the river water through induced infiltration. Runoff from agricultural watersheds is found to carry enormous amounts of pesticides and nitrate. While the risk of contamination for a vast majority of sites with small-capacity vertical wells is low, potential exists for medium to large capacity collector wells to capture a fraction of the surface water contaminants during flood. Prior monitoring and current modeling results indicate that a small-capacity (peak pumpage 0.0315 m3/s) vertical bank filtration well may not be affected by river water nitrate and atrazine even during flood periods. For a medium capacity (0.0875-0.175 m3/s) hypothetical collector well at the same site, potential exists for a portion of the river water nitrate and atrazine to enter the well during flood periods. Various combinations of hydraulic conductivity of the riverbed or bank material were used. For nitrate, it was assumed either no denitrification occurred during the period of simulation or a half-life of 2 years. Equilibrium controlled sorption (organic carbon partition coefficient of 52 ml/g) and a half-life of between 7.5 and 15 weeks were considered for atrazine. Combinations of these parameters were used in various simulations. Peak concentrations of atrazine or nitrate in pumped water could vary from less than 1% to as high as 90% of that in the river. It was found that a combination of river stage, pumping rates, hydraulic properties of the riverbed and bank, and soil/pesticide properties could affect contaminant entry from river water to any of these wells. If the hydraulic conductivity of the bed and bank material were low, atrazine would not reach the pumping well with or without sorption and degradation. However, for moderately low permeable bank and bed materials, some atrazine from river water could enter a hypothetical collector well while pumping at 0.0875 m3/s. It

  15. Polychloride monoanions from [Cl3]- to [Cl9]- : a Raman spectroscopic and quantum chemical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Robin; Haller, Heike; Ellwanger, Mathias; Riedel, Sebastian

    2012-04-27

    Polychloride monoanions stabilized by quaternary ammonium salts are investigated using Raman spectroscopy and state-of-the-art quantum-chemical calculations. A regular V-shaped pentachloride is characterized for the [N(Me)(4)][Cl(5)] salt, whereas a hockey-stick-like structure is tentatively assigned for [N(Et)(4)][Cl(2)⋅⋅⋅Cl(3)(-)]. Increasing the size of the cation to the quaternary ammonium salts [NPr(4)](+) and [NBu(4)](+) leads to the formation of the [Cl(3)](-) anion. The latter is found to be a pale yellow liquid at about 40 °C, whereas all the other compounds exist as powders. Further to these observations, the novel [Cl(9)](-) anion is characterized by low-temperature Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with quantum-chemical calculations. PMID:22461376

  16. Structure activity studies of an analgesic drug tapentadol hydrochloride by spectroscopic and quantum chemical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Santhanam, R.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.; Yang, Haifeng

    2015-11-01

    Tapentadol is a novel opioid pain reliever drug with a dual mechanism of action, having potency between morphine and tramadol. Quantum chemical calculations have been carried out for tapentadol hydrochloride (TAP.Cl) to determine the properties. The geometry is optimised and the structural properties of the compound were determined from the optimised geometry by B3LYP method using 6-311++G(d,p), 6-31G(d,p) and cc-pVDZ basis sets. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra are recorded in the solid phase in the region of 4000-400 and 4000-100 cm-1, respectively. Frontier molecular orbital energies, LUMO-HOMO energy gap, ionisation potential, electron affinity, electronegativity, hardness and chemical potential are also calculated. The stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalisation has been analysed using NBO analysis. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of the molecule are analysed.

  17. Flooding, flood sources and flood defences

    OpenAIRE

    Blanksby, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    The EU Flood Directive defines “flood” as the temporary covering by water of land not normally covered by water. This shall include floods from rivers, mountain torrents, Mediterranean ephemeral water courses, and floods from the sea in coastal areas, and may exclude floods from sewerage systems. The exclusion of floods from sewerage systems is concerned with operational or managerial failures, often in dry weather, but sewer flooding caused by rainfall is not excluded. “Flood risk” is define...

  18. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic study of crude petroleum oils: influence of chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Alan G

    2004-05-01

    The fluorescence of crude petroleum oils is sensitive to changes in chemical composition and many different fluorescence methods have been used to characterize crude oils. The use of fluorescence lifetimes to quantitatively characterize oil composition has practical advantages over steady-state measurements, but there have been comparatively few studies in which the lifetime behavior is correlated with gross chemical compositional data. In this study, the fluorescence lifetimes for a series of 23 crude petroleum oils with American Petroleum Institute (API) gravities of between 10 and 50 were measured at several emission wavelengths (450-785 nm) using a 380 nm light emitting diode (LED) excitation source. It was found that the intensity average fluorescence lifetime (tau) at any emission wave-length does not correlate well with either API gravity or aromatic concentration. However, it was found that tau is strongly negatively correlated with both the polar and sulfur concentrations and positively correlated with the corrected alkane concentration. This indicates that the fluorescence behavior of crude petroleum oils is governed primarily by the concentration of quenching species. All the strong lifetime-concentration correlations are nonlinear and show a high degree of scatter, especially for medium to light oils with API gravities of between 25 and 40. The degree of scatter is greatest for oils where the concentrations (wt %) of the polar fraction is approximately 10 +/- 4%, the asphaltene component is approximately 1 +/- 0.5%, and sulfur is 0.5 +/- 0.4%. This large degree of scatter precludes the use of average fluorescence lifetime data obtained with 380 nm excitation for the accurate prediction of the common chemical compositional parameters of crude petroleum oils. PMID:15165340

  19. BEHAVIOR OF SURFACTANT MIXTURES AT SOLID/LIQUID AND OIL/LIQUID INTERFACES IN CHEMICAL FLOODING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Somasundaran

    2004-11-20

    The aim of the project is to develop a knowledge base to help the design of enhanced processes for mobilizing and extracting untrapped oil. We emphasize evaluation of novel surfactant mixtures and obtaining optimum combinations of the surfactants for efficient chemical flooding EOR processes. In this regard, an understanding of the aggregate shape, size and structure is crucial since these properties govern the crude oil removal efficiency. During the three-year period, the adsorption and aggregation behavior of sugar-based surfactants and their mixtures with other types of surfactants have been studied. Sugar-based surfactants are made from renewable resources, nontoxic and biodegradable. They are miscible with water and oil. These environmentally benign surfactants feature high surface activity, good salinity, calcium and temperature tolerance, and unique adsorption behavior. They possess the characteristics required for oil flooding surfactants and have the potential for replacing currently used surfactants in oil recovery. A novel analytical ultracentrifugation technique has been successfully employed for the first time, to characterize the aggregate species present in mixed micellar solution due to its powerful ability to separate particles based on their size and shape and monitor them simultaneously. Analytical ultracentrifugation offers an unprecedented opportunity to obtain important information on mixed micelles, structure-performance relationship for different surfactant aggregates in solution and their role in interfacial processes. Initial sedimentation velocity investigations were conducted using nonyl phenol ethoxylated decyl ether (NP-10) to choose the best analytical protocol, calculate the partial specific volume and obtain information on sedimentation coefficient, aggregation mass of micelles. Four softwares: OptimaTM XL-A/XL-I data analysis software, DCDT+, Svedberg and SEDFIT, were compared for the analysis of sedimentation velocity

  20. Spectroscopic (vibrational, NMR and UV-vis.) and quantum chemical investigations on 4-hexyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ashgar; Gökce, Halil; Bahçeli, Semiha

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the 4-hexyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde compound as one of the derivatives of vanillin which is a well known flavoring agent, C14H20O3, has been investigated by experimentally and extensively utilizing density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. In this context, the optimized geometry, vibrational frequencies, 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts, UV-vis. (in gas phase and in methanol solvent) spectra, HOMO-LUMO analysis, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), thermodynamic parameters and atomic charges of 4-hexyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde have been calculated. In addition, theoretically predicted IR, Raman and UV-vis. (in gas phase and in methanol solvent) spectra of the mentioned molecule have been constructed. The results calculated were compared with the experimental data.

  1. Spectroscopic (vibrational, NMR and UV-vis.) and quantum chemical investigations on 4-hexyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ashgar; Gökce, Halil; Bahçeli, Semiha

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the 4-hexyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde compound as one of the derivatives of vanillin which is a well known flavoring agent, C14H20O3, has been investigated by experimentally and extensively utilizing density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. In this context, the optimized geometry, vibrational frequencies, (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts, UV-vis. (in gas phase and in methanol solvent) spectra, HOMO-LUMO analysis, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), thermodynamic parameters and atomic charges of 4-hexyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde have been calculated. In addition, theoretically predicted IR, Raman and UV-vis. (in gas phase and in methanol solvent) spectra of the mentioned molecule have been constructed. The results calculated were compared with the experimental data.

  2. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical electronic structure investigations of 3,4-dihydrocoumarin and 3-methylcoumarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivazhagan, M.; Kavitha, R.; Subhasini, V. P.

    2014-09-01

    A complete vibrational analysis of 3,4-dihydrocoumarin and 3-methylcoumarin have been performed according to SQM force field method based on ab initio and DFT calculation 6-311++G(d,p) basis set and their frequencies are compared. The influences of carbon-oxygen bond and methyl group to the vibrational frequencies of the title compounds have been discussed. The pronounced decrease of the lone pair orbital occupancy and the molecular stabilization energy show the hyperconjugation interaction from the NBO analysis. Calculations of molecular orbital geometry show that the visible absorption maxima of DHC and 3MC correspond to the electron transition between frontier orbitals such as translation from HOMO to LUMO. Gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO) 1H and 13C chemical shift calculations have been calculated. Area of high, neutral and low electrostatic potential is determined for DHC and 3MC.

  3. Chemical Bonding in Aqueous Ferrocyanide: Experimental and Theoretical X-ray Spectroscopic Study

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Nicholas; Suljoti, Edlira; Garcia-Diez, Raul; Lange, Kathrin M; Atak, Kaan; Golnak, Ronny; Kothe, Alexander; Dantz, Marcus; Kühn, Oliver; Aziz, Emad F

    2013-01-01

    Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and X-ray absorption (XA) experiments at the iron L- and nitrogen K-edge are combined with high-level first principles restricted active space self-consistent field (RASSCF) calculations for a systematic investigation of the nature of the chemical bond in potassium ferrocyanide in aqueous solution. The atom- and site-specific RIXS excitations allow for direct observation of ligand-to-metal (Fe L-edge) and metal-to-ligand (N K-edge) charge transfer bands and thereby evidence for strong {\\sigma}-donation and {\\pi}-back-donation. The effects are identified by comparing experimental and simulated spectra related to both the unoccupied and occupied molecular orbitals in solution.

  4. Effects of humic substances on the bioconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Correlations with spectroscopic and chemical properties of humic substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitzer, M.; Abbt-Braun, G.; Traunspurger, W.; Steinberg, C.E.W.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of dissolved humic substances (HS, fulvic and humic acids) generally reduces the uptake of hydrophobic organic compounds into aquatic organisms. The extent of this effect depends both on the concentration and on the origin of the HS. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of qualitative differences between HS from different origins. The effects of seven different HS on the bioconcentration of pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were related to the spectroscopic and chemical properties of the HS. The effect of each humic material on the bioconcentration of pyrene or BaP was quantified as a 'biologically determined' partition coefficient K(DOC). We observed significant linear relationships between K(DOC) and the atomic H/C ratio, the specific absorptivity at 254 nm, the content of aromatic carbons (as determined by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the copper-complexing capacity, the content of phenolic OH groups, and the molecular weight of the HS. There was no discernible relationship of K(DOC) with the atomic (N + O)/C ratio, an indicator of the polarity of HS. Taken together, our results show that the variability in the effects of HS from different origins could be related to variations in bulk properties of the HS. Parameters describing the aromaticity of the humic materials seemed to be most useful for estimating effects of HS on the bioconcentration of pyrene and BaP.

  5. Uranium(VI) interaction with pyrite (FeS{sub 2}). Chemical and spectroscopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eglizaud, N.; Descostes, M. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DPC/SECR/Lab. de Mesures et Modelisation de la Migration des Radionucleides, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Miserque, F.; Schlegel, M. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DPC/SCP/Lab. de Reactivite aux Surfaces et Interfaces, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Simoni, E. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, Univ. Paris Sud, Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    The mechanism of uranium(VI) interaction with pyrite was studied by solution chemistry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Natural pyrite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After equilibration in 10{sup -2}molL{sup -1} NaNO{sub 3}, pyrite was reacted with uranium(VI) by the batch method in an anoxic glove box (P{sub O{sub 2}} < 1 ppm) at ambient temperature. The reaction products of uranium, iron and sulphur were characterized (oxidation state, chemical environment) by XPS. Quantitative analysis revealed that only a few atomic percent of uranium is retained at the pyrite surface. The U4f core level binding energies are consistent with the coexistence of an uranium(VI) species and of uranium in a reduced form. No sulphur oxidation products were observed by XPS, but spectral decomposition of the Fe2p lines revealed the presence of iron(III) oxide or (oxy)hydroxide. These results seem to point to a redox reaction between uranium(VI) and pyrite. (orig.)

  6. Structural and spectroscopic evidence for stable chemical bonds and the correlation with high Tc superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is discovered that in the high-Tc superconducting YBa2−xLaxCu3Oz system, by structural analysis and Raman spectroscopy, a stable ‘fixed triangle’ structure exists in the CuO2 planes. All chemical bonds and angles constituting the O(3)–Cu(2)–O(2) triangle are almost constant with doping. The frequencies and linewidths of the out-of-phase c-axis O(2)–O(3) buckling modes around 337 cm−1 and the in-plane Cu(2)–O(2) bond stretching modes around 534 cm−1 are both independent of the doping level, providing direct evidence for the stability of this fixed triangle. It was previously revealed that just these two phonons couple strongly with the antinodal and nodal electronic states, respectively, resulting in an anisotropic electron–phonon interaction in the cuprates. This work implies that the stability of the CuO2 subunit and phonons related to it might be quite important in inducing the d-wave high-Tc superconductivity and should be paid more attention. (paper)

  7. Uranium (VI) interaction with pyrite (FeS{sub 2}): chemical and spectroscopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eglizaud, N.; Descostes, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Saclay, DEN/DPC/SECR/Laboratoire de Mesures et Modelisation de la Migration des Radionucleides, bat. 450, BP11, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Miserque, F.; Schlegel, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Saclay, DEN/DPC/SCP/Laboratoire de Reactivite des Surfaces et Interfaces, bat 191, BP11, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Simoni, E. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, Universite Paris XI, bat 100, 91406 Orsay cedex (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Actinides released from nuclear waste repositories may be retained by natural solids, either by coprecipitation or by sorption reactions. Sorption of actinides on natural minerals has already been extensively studied but the coupling of this retention with redox reactions has been scarcely investigated. Pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) is a ubiquitous, redox-sensitive mineral that may possibly adsorb and reduce redox-sensitive species such as uranium (VI). However, the molecular mechanism of uranium (VI) possible sorption and reduction on pyrite has not been clarified yet. Natural pyrite, well characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), zeta potential measurements and mass titration, was ground to 50 {mu}m to 100 {mu}m particles, and chemically treated to remove mineralogical impurities and oxidation products. As pyrite may dissolve and oxidize when immersed alone in aqueous solutions, both the solution composition and the properties of the solid surface in presence, or in absence of uranium, were analysed. Pyrite hydrous equilibration and sorption experiments were performed in an anoxic glove box (vpm O{sub 2} < 1 ppm), at ambient temperature. After equilibration in 10{sup -2} mol.L{sup -1} NaNO{sub 3}, pyrite was reacted with uranium (VI) by the batches method. Reaction kinetics, pH (imposed by either HNO{sub 3} or NaOH), Eh, and dissolved uranium concentration (using both natural uranium and radiotracers) were analysed. Dissolved and colloidal iron and sulphur were measured to quantify pyrite dissolution. Pyrite surface was studied by XPS to clarify the oxidation degree and chemical environment of uranium, iron, sulphur and oxygen species. At elevated uranium concentrations (2.10{sup -3} mol.L{sup -1}), pH decreases (from 6.1 to 3.7) whereas no uranium uptake could be quantified from solution concentrations. At lower uranium concentrations (10{sup -7} mol.L{sup -1}) no such p

  8. Measurements of the aerosol chemical composition and mixing state in the Po Valley using multiple spectroscopic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Decesari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of co-located multiple spectroscopic techniques can provide detailed information on the atmospheric processes regulating aerosol chemical composition and mixing state. So far, field campaigns heavily equipped with aerosol mass spectrometers have been carried out mainly in large conurbations and in areas directly affected by their outflow, whereas lesser efforts have been dedicated to continental areas characterized by a less dense urbanization. We present here the results obtained in San Pietro Capofiume, which is located in a sparsely inhabited sector of the Po Valley, Italy. The experiment was carried out in summer 2009 in the framework of the EUCAARI project ("European Integrated Project on Aerosol, Cloud Climate Aerosol Interaction". For the first time in Europe, six state-of-the-art techniques were used in parallel: (1 on-line TSI aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS, (2 on-line Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS, (3 soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS, (4 on-line high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer-thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (HR-ToFMS-TAG, (5 off-line twelve-hour resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR spectroscopy, and (6 chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS for the analysis of gas-phase precursors of secondary aerosol. Data from each aerosol spectroscopic method were analysed individually following ad-hoc tools (i.e. PMF for AMS, Art-2a for ATOFMS. The results obtained from each techniques are herein presented and compared. This allows us to clearly link the modifications in aerosol chemical composition to transitions in air mass origin and meteorological regimes. Under stagnant conditions, atmospheric stratification at night and early morning hours led to the accumulation of aerosols produced by anthropogenic sources distributed over the Po Valley plain. Such aerosols include primary components such as black

  9. Chemical evolution, petrogenesis, and regional chemical correlations of the flood basalt sequence in the central Deccan Traps, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Leone Melluso; Mario Barbieri; Luigi Beccaluva

    2004-12-01

    The lava sequence of the central-western Deccan Traps (from Jalgaon towards Mumbai) is formed by basalts and basaltic andesites having a significant variation in TiO2 (from 1.2 to 3.3 wt%), Zr (from 84 to 253 ppm), Nb (from 5 to 16 ppm) and Ba (from 63 to 407 ppm), at MgO ranging from 10 to 4.2 wt%. Most of these basalts follow a liquid line of descent dominated by low pressure fractionation of clinopyroxene, plagioclase and olivine, starting from the most mafic compositions, in a temperature range from 1220° to 1125°C. These rocks resemble those belonging to the lowermost formations of the Deccan Traps in the Western Ghats (Jawhar, Igatpuri and Thakurvadi) as well as those of the Poladpur formation. Samples analyzed for 87Sr/86Sr give a range of initial ratios from 0.70558 to 0.70621. A group of flows of the Dhule area has low TiO2 (1.2–1.5 wt%) and Zr (84–105 ppm) at moderate MgO (5.2–6.2 wt%), matching the composition of low-Ti basalts of Gujarat, low-Ti dykes of the Tapti swarm and Toranmal basalts, just north of the study area. This allows chemical correlations between the lavas of central Deccan, the Tapti dykes and the northwestern outcrops. The mildly enriched high field strength element contents of the samples with TiO2 < 1.5 wt% make them products of mantle sources broadly similar to those which generated the Ambenali basalts, but their high La/Nb and Ba/Nb, negative Nb anomalies in the mantle normalized diagrams, and relatively high 87Sr/86Sr, make evident a crustal input with crustally derived materials at less differentiated stages than those represented in this sample set, or even within the sub-Indian lithospheric mantle.

  10. Measurements of the aerosol chemical composition and mixing state in the Po Valley using multiple spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decesari, S.; Allan, J.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Williams, B. J.; Paglione, M.; Facchini, M. C.; O'Dowd, C.; Harrison, R. M.; Gietl, J. K.; Coe, H.; Giulianelli, L.; Gobbi, G. P.; Lanconelli, C.; Carbone, C.; Worsnop, D.; Lambe, A. T.; Ahern, A. T.; Moretti, F.; Tagliavini, E.; Elste, T.; Gilge, S.; Zhang, Y.; Dall'Osto, M.

    2014-11-01

    The use of co-located multiple spectroscopic techniques can provide detailed information on the atmospheric processes regulating aerosol chemical composition and mixing state. So far, field campaigns heavily equipped with aerosol mass spectrometers have been carried out mainly in large conurbations and in areas directly affected by their outflow, whereas lesser efforts have been dedicated to continental areas characterised by a less dense urbanisation. We present here the results obtained at a background site in the Po Valley, Italy, in summer 2009. For the first time in Europe, six state-of-the-art spectrometric techniques were used in parallel: aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS), two aerosol mass spectrometers (high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer - HR-ToF-AMS and soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer - SP-AMS), thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography (TAG), chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (CIMS) and (offline) proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. The results indicate that, under high-pressure conditions, atmospheric stratification at night and early morning hours led to the accumulation of aerosols produced by anthropogenic sources distributed over the Po Valley plain. Such aerosols include primary components such as black carbon (BC), secondary semivolatile compounds such as ammonium nitrate and amines and a class of monocarboxylic acids which correspond to the AMS cooking organic aerosol (COA) already identified in urban areas. In daytime, the entrainment of aged air masses in the mixing layer is responsible for the accumulation of low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) and also for the recycling of non-volatile primary species such as black carbon. According to organic aerosol source apportionment, anthropogenic aerosols accumulating in the lower layers overnight accounted for 38% of organic aerosol mass on average, another 21% was accounted for by aerosols recirculated in

  11. CHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES AND ORGANIC MATTER IN FOREST COMPLEX SEASONALLY FLOODED IN RESTINGA OF MARAMBAIA, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranieri Ribeiro Paula

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812337This study aimed to evaluate and characterize the chemical properties of soil organic matter under twoperiodically flooded forest formations on the island of Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro. These formations differon the degree of soil water saturation, caused by the influence of water table, and in the (F1 formationpresents the water table nearer the surface compared to the (F2 formation. Samples were collected in layersfrom 0.00 to 0.05, 0.05-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m. The soil properties evaluated were: pH, H+ + Al+3, Ca+2, Mg+2,Na+, K+, P, N, total organic carbon (TOC and base saturation (V%, humin carbon fraction (C-HUM,carbon of humic acid fraction (HAF-C and fulvic acid fraction carbon (FAF-C. Statistically higher pHvalues were observed for F1. In F2 there are higher values of Mg+2, P, N and V% value. Correlation wasfound between the concentrations of Mg+2, N, humic acid and fulvic acid with water table in F1, and watertable in F2 with Na+ and K+. Fraction C-HUM was more representative of the total organic carbon, followedby C-HAF and C-FAF. The TOC levels were higher in F1. The C / N ratio was lower in F2, with valuesranging between 9 and 12, and F1 were found higher values of this relationship, ranging from 9 to 15.Among the pathways of formation of organic soils in both areas it appears that the major route for organicmatter accumulation is the inheritance route

  12. Using non-invasive molecular spectroscopic techniques to detect unique aspects of protein Amide functional groups and chemical properties of modeled forage from different sourced-origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Cuiying; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-03-01

    The non-invasive molecular spectroscopic technique-FT/IR is capable to detect the molecular structure spectral features that are associated with biological, nutritional and biodegradation functions. However, to date, few researches have been conducted to use these non-invasive molecular spectroscopic techniques to study forage internal protein structures associated with biodegradation and biological functions. The objectives of this study were to detect unique aspects and association of protein Amide functional groups in terms of protein Amide I and II spectral profiles and chemical properties in the alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa L.) from different sourced-origins. In this study, alfalfa hay with two different origins was used as modeled forage for molecular structure and chemical property study. In each forage origin, five to seven sources were analyzed. The molecular spectral profiles were determined using FT/IR non-invasive molecular spectroscopy. The parameters of protein spectral profiles included functional groups of Amide I, Amide II and Amide I to II ratio. The results show that the modeled forage Amide I and Amide II were centered at 1653 cm- 1 and 1545 cm- 1, respectively. The Amide I spectral height and area intensities were from 0.02 to 0.03 and 2.67 to 3.36 AI, respectively. The Amide II spectral height and area intensities were from 0.01 to 0.02 and 0.71 to 0.93 AI, respectively. The Amide I to II spectral peak height and area ratios were from 1.86 to 1.88 and 3.68 to 3.79, respectively. Our results show that the non-invasive molecular spectroscopic techniques are capable to detect forage internal protein structure features which are associated with forage chemical properties.

  13. User`s guide for UTCHEM-5.32m a three dimensional chemical flood simulator. Final report, September 30, 1992--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    UTCHEM is a three-dimensional chemical flooding simulator. The solution scheme is analogous to IMPES, where pressure is solved for implicitly, but concentrations rather than saturations are then solved for explicitly. Phase saturations and concentrations are then solved in a flash routine. An energy balance equation is solved explicitly for reservoir temperature. The energy balance equation includes heat flow between the reservoir and the over-and under-burden rocks. The major physical phenomena modeled in the simulator are: dispersion; dilution effects; adsorption; interfacial tension; relative permeability; capillary trapping; cation exchange; phase density; compositional phase viscosity; phase behavior (pseudoquaternary); aqueous reactions; partitioning of chemical species between oil and water; dissolution/precipitation; cation exchange reactions involving more than two cations; in-situ generation of surfactant from acidic crude oil; pH dependent adsorption; polymer properties: shear thinning viscosity; inaccessible pore volume; permeability reduction; adsorption; gel properties: viscosity; permeability reduction; adsorption; tracer properties: partitioning; adsorption; radioactive decay; reaction (ester hydrolization); temperature dependent properties: viscosity; tracer reaction; gel reactions The following options are available with UTCHEM: isothermal or non-isothermal conditions, a constant or variable time-step, constant pressure or constant rate well conditions, horizontal and vertical wells, and a radial or Cartesian geometry. Please refer to the dissertation {open_quotes}Field Scale Simulation of Chemical Flooding{close_quotes} by Naji Saad, August, 1989, for a more detailed discussion of the UTCHEM simulator and its formulation.

  14. Study to determine the technical and economic feasibility of reclaiming chemicals used in micellar polymer and low tension surfactant flooding. Final report. [Ultrafiltration membranes and reverse osmosis membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, R.H.; Himmelblau, A.; Donnelly, R.G.

    1978-02-01

    Energy Resources Company has developed a technology for use with enhanced oil recovery to achieve emulsion breaking and surfactant recovery. By using ultrafiltration membranes, the Energy Resources Company process can dewater an oil-in-water type emulsion expected from enhanced oil recovery projects to the point where the emulsion can be inverted and treated using conventional emulsion-treating equipment. By using a tight ultrafiltration membrane or a reverse osmosis membrane, the Energy Resources Company process is capable of recovering chemicals such as surfactants used in micellar polymer flooding.

  15. ENHANCED OIL-RECOVERY EXPERIMENT AFTER POLYMER FLOOD BY COMBINING HORIZONTAL WELL WITH CHEMICAL FLOODINGS%水平井与化学驱结合提高聚驱后采收率实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘平; 李宜强; 李瑞升

    2011-01-01

    为了老油田可采储量进一步挖潜,提高特高含水油田厚油层采收率,开展了水平井聚合物驱后剩余油室内实验,研制了含黏土矿物的三维正韵律物理模型,优选了适合于水平势的化学驱油剂(高浓度聚合物、聚表剂、二元复合体系、三元复合体系),设计了台理的井网模式.实验结果表明,水平井最佳化学驱油剂为二元复合体系,最佳井网模式为水平井一注一采井网.在聚合物驱基础上采收率可再提高17.69个百分点,得到了聚驱后进一步提高采收率的新方法.%In order to further tap the potentials of mature oilfield reserves and enhance the recovery of the thick oil reservoirs for ultra-high watercut oilfield, the lab. Experiments of the remained oil after polymer flooding in a horizontal well are performed; the 3D positive-rhythm physical model, which contains clay minerals, is developed; the chemical oil-flooding agents (including high-concentration polymer, functional polymer, binary and ASP composite systems) are optimized for horizontal wells, and furthermore the reasonable well patterns are designed. The experimental results show that optimal displacing method for the horizontal well is binary (polymer-surfactant) composite system; the optimal well pattern for the horizontal well is composed of one injector and one producer. On the basis of polymer flooding, the oil recovery has been enhanced 17. 69%. In a word, a new approach to further improve oil recovery after polymer flooding is achieved.

  16. Chemical weathering rate, denudation rate, and atmospheric and soil CO2 consumption of Paraná flood basalts in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Conceição, Fabiano Tomazini; dos Santos, Carolina Mathias; de Souza Sardinha, Diego; Navarro, Guillermo Rafael Beltran; Godoy, Letícia Hirata

    2015-03-01

    The chemical weathering rate and atmospheric/soil CO2 consumption of Paraná flood basalts in the Preto Stream basin, São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated using major elements as natural tracers. Surface and rain water samples were collected in 2006, and analyses were performed to assess pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS), including SO42-, NO3-, PO43 -, HCO3-, Cl-, SiO2, Ca2 +, Mg2 +, Na+ and K+. Fresh rocks and C horizon samples were also collected, taking into account their geological context, abundance and spatial distribution, to analyze major elements and mineralogy. The Preto Stream, downstream from the city of Ribeirão Preto, receives several elements/compounds as a result of anthropogenic activities, with only sulfate yielding negative flux values. The negative flux of SO42 - can be attributed to atmospheric loading that is mainly related to anthropogenic inputs. After corrections were made for atmospheric inputs, the riverine transport of dissolved material was found to be 30 t km- 2 y- 1, with the majority of the dissolved material transported during the summer (wet) months. The chemical weathering rate and atmospheric/soil CO2 consumption were 6 m/Ma and 0.4 · 106 mol km- 2 y- 1, respectively. The chemical weathering rate falls within the lower range of Paraná flood basalt denudation rates between 135 and 35 Ma previously inferred from chronological studies. This comparison suggests that rates of basalt weathering in Brazil's present-day tropical climate differ by at most one order of magnitude from those prevalent at the time of hothouse Earth. The main weathering process is the monosiallitization of anorthoclase, augite, anorthite and microcline. Magnetite is not weathered and thus remains in the soil profile.

  17. Mapping tropical biodiversity using spectroscopic imagery : characterization of structural and chemical diversity with 3-D radiative transfer modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feret, J. B.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.; Lefèvre-Fonollosa, M. J.; Proisy, C.; Asner, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    The accelerating loss of biodiversity is a major environmental trend. Tropical ecosystems are particularly threatened due to climate change, invasive species, farming and natural resources exploitation. Recent advances in remote sensing of biodiversity confirmed the potential of high spatial resolution spectroscopic imagery for species identification and biodiversity mapping. Such information bridges the scale-gap between small-scale, highly detailed field studies and large-scale, low-resolution satellite observations. In order to produce fine-scale resolution maps of canopy alpha-diversity and beta-diversity of the Peruvian Amazonian forest, we designed, applied and validated a method based on spectral variation hypothesis to CAO AToMS (Carnegie Airborne Observatory Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System) images, acquired from 2011 to 2013. There is a need to understand on a quantitative basis the physical processes leading to this spectral variability. This spectral variability mainly depends on canopy chemistry, structure, and sensor's characteristics. 3D radiative transfer modeling provides a powerful framework for the study of the relative influence of each of these factors in dense and complex canopies. We simulated series of spectroscopic images with the 3D radiative model DART, with variability gradients in terms of leaf chemistry, individual tree structure, spatial and spectral resolution, and applied methods for biodiversity mapping. This sensitivity study allowed us to determine the relative influence of these factors on the radiometric signal acquired by different types of sensors. Such study is particularly important to define the domain of validity of our approach, to refine requirements for the instrumental specifications, and to help preparing hyperspectral spatial missions to be launched at the horizon 2015-2025 (EnMAP, PRISMA, HISUI, SHALOM, HYSPIRI, HYPXIM). Simulations in preparation include topographic variations in order to estimate the robustness

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance, vibrational spectroscopic studies, physico-chemical properties and computational calculations on (nitrophenyl) octahydroquinolindiones by DFT method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, M A; Siddekha, Aisha; Mishra, Soni; Azzam, Sadeq Hamood Saleh; Umapathy, S

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, 2'-nitrophenyloctahydroquinolinedione and its 3'-nitrophenyl isomer were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, FT-Raman, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shift values of the synthesized compounds in the ground state have been calculated by using the density functional theory (DFT) method with the 6-311++G (d,p) basis set and compared with the experimental data. The complete vibrational assignments of wave numbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution using GAR2PED programme. Isotropic chemical shifts for (1)H and (13)C NMR were calculated using gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The experimental vibrational frequencies, (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shift values were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. On the basis of vibrational analysis, molecular electrostatic potential and the standard thermodynamic functions have been investigated.

  19. Ultrafast internal rotational dynamics of the azido group in (4S)-azidoproline: Chemical exchange 2DIR spectroscopic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Internal rotational dynamics of the azido group in SA (Ac-(4S)-Azp-NHMe) was studied in real time by using ultrafast 2DIR spectroscopic method. The time constant of the internal rotation around the Cγ–Nδ bond in SA was determined to be τir = 5.1 ps, which is found to be much faster than that around the C–C bond in ethane. Highlights: ► Femtosecond two-dimensional IR spectroscopy of internal rotational dynamics. ► Stereo-electronic effects of azido group in azido-derivatized proline peptide. ► The timescale of the azido group internal rotation is about 5.1 ps. - Abstract: The azido group in 4-azidoproline (Azp) derivative, SA (Ac-(4S)-Azp-NHMe), can form an intramolecular electrostatic interaction with the backbone peptide in the s-trans and Cγ-endo conformations of SA. As a result, the azido group exists as two forms, bound and free, which are defined by the presence and absence of such interaction, respectively. The bound and free azido forms are spectrally resolved in the azido IR spectrum of SA in CHCl3. Using the two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) and polarization-controlled IR pump–probe methods, we investigated the internal rotational and orientational relaxation dynamics of the azido group and determined the internal rotational time constant of the azido group to be 5.1 ps. The internal rotational motion is found to be responsible for the early part of the orientational relaxation of the azido group in SA. Thus, the femtosecond 2DIR spectroscopy is shown to be an ideal tool for studying ultrafast conformational dynamics of SA.

  20. Photoelectron spectroscopic imaging and device applications of large-area patternable single-layer MoS2 synthesized by chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woanseo; Baik, Jaeyoon; Kim, Tae-Young; Cho, Kyungjune; Hong, Woong-Ki; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Lee, Takhee

    2014-05-27

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) films, which are only a single atomic layer thick, have been synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and have gained significant attention due to their band-gap semiconducting properties. However, in order for them to be useful for the fabrication of practical devices, patterning processes that can be used to form specific MoS2 structures must be integrated with the existing synthetic approaches. Here, we report a method for the synthesis of centimeter-scale, high-quality single-layer MoS2 that can be directly patterned during CVD, so that postpatterning processes can be avoided and device fabrication can be streamlined. Utilizing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic imaging, we characterize the chemical states of these CVD-synthesized single-layer MoS2 films and demonstrate that the triangular-shaped MoS2 are single-crystalline single-domain monolayers. We also demonstrate the use of these high-quality and directly patterned MoS2 films in electronic device applications by fabricating and characterizing field effect transistors. PMID:24730654

  1. Determination of conformational and spectroscopic features of ethyl trans-alfa-cyano-3-indole-acrylate compound: an experimental and quantum chemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Mehmet; Karabacak, Mehmet

    2013-03-01

    The optimized geometrical structure, vibrational and electronic transitions, chemical shifts and non-linear optical properties of ethyl trans-alfa-cyano-3-indole-acrylate (C(14)H(12)N(2)O(2)) compound were presented in this study. The ground state geometrical structure and vibrational wavenumbers were carried out by using density functional (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-311++G(d,p) as basis set. The vibrational spectra of title compound were recorded in solid state with FT-IR and FT-Raman in the range of 4000-400 cm(-1) and 4000-10 cm(-1), respectively. The fundamental assignments were done on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method. The (1)H, (13)C and DEPT NMR spectra were recorded in DMSO solution, and gauge-invariant atomic orbitals (GIAO) method was used to predict the isotropic chemical shifts. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of the compound were recorded in the range of 200-800 nm in various solvents of different polarity (acetone, benzene, chlorobenzene, chloroform, DMSO, ethanol, methanol and toluene). Solvent effects were calculated using TD-DFT and CIS method. To investigate the non-linear optical properties, the polarizability, anisotropy of polarizability and molecular first hyperpolarizability were computed. A detailed description of spectroscopic behaviors of compound was given based on the comparison of experimental measurements and theoretical computations. PMID:23274474

  2. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and quantum chemical computational studies of (S)-N-benzyl-1-phenyl-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-pent-4-yn-2-amine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Etem; Atac, Ahmet; Karabacak, Mehmet; Karaca, Caglar; Eskici, Mustafa; Karanfil, Abdullah

    2012-11-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a novel compound (S)-N-benzyl-1-phenyl-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-pent-4-yn-2-amine (abbreviated as BPPPYA) was presented in this study. The spectroscopic properties of the compound were investigated by FT-IR, NMR and UV spectroscopy experimentally and theoretically. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of the BPPPYA in the ground state were calculated by using density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method invoking 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The geometry of the BPPPYA was fully optimized, vibrational spectra were calculated and fundamental vibrations were assigned on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method and PQS program. The results of the energy and oscillator strength calculated by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and CIS approach complement with the experimental findings. Total and partial density of state (TDOS and PDOS) and also overlap population density of state (COOP or OPDOS) diagrams analysis were presented. The theoretical NMR chemical shifts ((1)H and (13)C) complement with experimentally measured ones. The dipole moment, linear polarizability and first hyperpolarizability values were also computed. The linear polarizabilities and first hyper polarizabilities of the studied molecule indicate that the compound is a good candidate of nonlinear optical materials. The calculated vibrational wavenumbers, absorption wavelengths and chemical shifts showed the best agreement with the experimental results. PMID:22820047

  3. Dielectric properties and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of niobium oxide thin films prepared by direct liquid injection chemical vapor deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niobium oxide thin films were grown by direct liquid injection chemical vapor deposition using Nb(OC2H5)5 precursor. Influence of reactant's molar ratios [oxygen:Nb(OC2H5)5] and deposition temperatures on films properties such as growth rate, stoichiometry, crystal structure, morphology, dielectric constant and leakage current were studied. Films start crystallizing above 340 °C in O2 atmosphere and become crystalline at 400 °C. The surface roughness of weakly crystalline and crystalline films was significantly affected by deposition temperatures and reactant's molar ratios. It was found that decrease in surface roughness improved leakage current. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies showed that films were in different oxidation states (Nb2+, Nb4+ and Nb5+). The dielectric constants of films were improved by increasing oxygen ratios. At ratio (150:1), the film showed high dielectric constant value (47) at 340 °C and leakage current density of 2.0 × 10−5 A/cm2 (at 3 V). - Highlights: • High dielectric constant (47) of Nb2O5 thin film with chemical vapor deposition • The change in morphology as a function of growth temperature and O2 molar ratio • A stoichiometric Nb2O5 phase and smooth surface show better electrical properties

  4. Dithieno[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine-based Chemical Probe for Anions: A Spectroscopic Study of Binding

    KAUST Repository

    El-Assaad, Tarek H.

    2015-04-27

    The synthesis of a new anion-responsive molecule N,N\\'-(2,5-bis(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)dithieno[3,2-a:2\\',3\\'-c]phenazine-9,10-diyl)bis(4-methylbenzenesulfonamide) (1) is reported. The sensitivities of the spectroscopic properties of 1 in the presence of various anions were examined using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence and 1H NMR titration experiments. Strong binding of 1 to carboxylate, cyanide, fluoride and dihydrogen phosphate anions results in an increase in quantum yield for emission of 1, and changes in its 1H NMR chemical shifts. A significant electrostatic interaction of the tetrabutylammonium cation with 1, upon strong binding with the counter anion, was also indicated by the chemical shifts observed in the 1H NMR titrations. Binding constants of 1 to anions are also calculated based on the binding isotherms derived from NMR and UV-Vis titrations. DFT calculations show that the anion does not significantly impact the HOMO/LUMO levels (and subsequently the S0 -> S1 transition), but rather changes the strength of the S0 -> S2 transition, which accounts for the observed changes in the UV-vis spectra.

  5. Spectroscopic studies of neutral and chemically oxidized species of β-carotene, lycopene and norbixin in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}: Fluorescence from intermediate compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwis, D.D.D.H [Department of Chemistry, The Open University of Sri Lanka, Nawala (Sri Lanka); Department of Chemistry, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka); Chandrika, U.G. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka); Jayaweera, P.M., E-mail: pradeep@sjp.ac.lk [Department of Chemistry, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka)

    2015-02-15

    Radical cations, dications and oxidized intermediate species of three carotenoids, namely, β-carotene, lycopene and norbixin, were generated in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} solutions via chemical oxidation using anhydrous FeCl{sub 3}. UV–vis, fluorescence and fluorescence-excitation spectroscopic studies were performed to understand and compare the nature of intermediate species generated during the chemical oxidation process and subsequent degradation. The intense emission observed at 550 nm can be assigned to the S{sub 2}→S{sub 0} (1{sup 1}B{sub u}→1{sup 1}A{sub g}) transition of the carotenoid molecules. The 350 nm excitation during the oxidation process for β-carotene, lycopene and norbixin exhibit intense fluorescence peaks at 492 nm, 493 nm and 500 nm, respectively. These peaks are assigned to intermediate peroxy/epoxy compounds of the three molecules that are formed with molecular oxygen prior to the formation of oxidized short-chain stable compounds. - Highlights: • Fluorescence and UV–vis studies on β-carotene, lycopene and norbixin. • Oxidation, induced by FeCl{sub 3} in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} shows blue shifted fluorescence peaks. • Fluorescence peaks were assigned to intermediate peroxy/epoxy forms of carotenoids. • The D0→D3 transition of radical cations are observed in the near IR region.

  6. Chemical Method to Improve CO{sub 2} Flooding Sweep Efficiency for Oil Recovery Using SPI-CO{sub 2} Gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Lyle D.

    2009-04-14

    hydrocarbon combustion for energy, chemical and fertilizer plants. For example, coal fired power plants emit large amounts of CO{sub 2} in order to produce electrical energy. Carbon dioxide sequestration is gaining attention as concerns mount over possible global climate change caused by rising emissions of greenhouse gases. Removing the CO{sub 2} from the energy generation process would make these plants more environmentally friendly. In addition, CO{sub 2} flooding is an attractive means to enhance oil and natural gas recovery. Capture and use of the CO{sub 2} from these plants for recycling into CO{sub 2} flooding of marginal reservoirs provides a “dual use” opportunity prior to final CO{sub 2} sequestration in the depleted reservoir. Under the right pressure, temperature and oil composition conditions, CO{sub 2} can act as a solvent, cleaning oil trapped in the microscopic pores of the reservoir rock. This miscible process greatly increases the recovery of crude oil from a reservoir compared to recovery normally seen by waterflooding. An Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) project that uses an industrial source of CO{sub 2} that otherwise would be vented to the atmosphere has the added environmental benefit of sequestering the greenhouse gas.

  7. Spectroscopic Characterization and Simulation of Chemical Sputtering Using the DiMES Porous Plug Injector in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, A G; Davis, J W; Stangeby, P C; Brooks, N H; Whyte, D G; Allen, S L; Bray, B D; Brezinsek, S; Elder, J D; Fenstermacher, M E; Groth, M; Haasz, A A; Hollmann, E M; Isler, R; Lasnier, C J; Rudakov, D L; Watkins, J G; West, W P; Wong, C C

    2006-05-15

    A self-contained gas injection system for the Divertor Material Evaluation System (DiMES) on DIII-D has been employed for in-situ study of chemical erosion in the tokamak divertor environment. The Porous Plug Injector (PPI) releases methane, a major component of molecular influx due to chemical sputtering of graphite, from the tile surface into the plasma at a controlled rate through a porous graphite surface. Perturbation to local plasma is minimized, while also simulating the immediate environment of methane molecules released from a solid graphite surface. The release rate was chosen to be of the same order of magnitude as natural sputtering. Photon efficiencies of CH{sub 4} for measured local plasma conditions are reported. The contribution of chemical versus physical sputtering to the source of C{sup +} at the target is assessed through measurement of CII and CD/CH band emissions during release of CH{sub 4} from the PPI, and due to intrinsic emission.

  8. Spectroscopic characterization and simulation of chemical sputtering using the DiMES porous plug injector in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, A.G. [University of Toronto, Institute for Aerospace Studies, 4925 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ont., M3H 5T6 (Canada)]. E-mail: adam.mclean@utoronto.ca; Davis, J.W. [University of Toronto, Institute for Aerospace Studies, 4925 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ont., M3H 5T6 (Canada); Stangeby, P.C. [University of Toronto, Institute for Aerospace Studies, 4925 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ont., M3H 5T6 (Canada); Brooks, N.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Whyte, D.G. [M.I.T. Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MA 02139 (United States); Allen, S.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Bray, B.D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Brezinsek, S. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik Forschungszentrum, Juelich GmbH 52425, Juelich (Germany); Elder, J.D. [University of Toronto, Institute for Aerospace Studies, 4925 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ont., M3H 5T6 (Canada); Fenstermacher, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Groth, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Haasz, A.A. [University of Toronto, Institute for Aerospace Studies, 4925 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ont., Canada M3H 5T6 (Canada); Hollmann, E.M. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Isler, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Lasnier, C.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Rudakov, D.L. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Watkins, J.G. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); West, W.P. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Wong, C.P.C. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    A self-contained gas injection system for the Divertor Material Evaluation System (DiMES) on DIII-D has been employed for in situ study of chemical erosion in the tokamak divertor environment. The porous plug injector (PPI) releases methane into the plasma at a controlled rate through a porous graphite surface flush to a tile. In this way, the perturbation to the local plasma can be minimized, while also simulating the immediate environment of methane molecules released from a solid graphite surface. Photon efficiencies of CH{sub 4} for measured local plasma conditions are reported. The contribution of chemical vs physical sputtering to the source of C{sup +} at the target can, in principle, be assessed through measurement of CII and CD/CH band emissions during release of CH{sub 4} from the PPI, and due to intrinsic emission. These first results from this new experimental tool demonstrate the potential for the PPI to provide definitive results in future applications in DIII-D and indicate the improvements required to obtain firm quantitative conclusions.

  9. Spectroscopic characterization and simulation of chemical sputtering using the DiMES porous plug injector in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A self-contained gas injection system for the Divertor Material Evaluation System (DiMES) on DIII-D has been employed for in situ study of chemical erosion in the tokamak divertor environment. The porous plug injector (PPI) releases methane into the plasma at a controlled rate through a porous graphite surface flush to a tile. In this way, the perturbation to the local plasma can be minimized, while also simulating the immediate environment of methane molecules released from a solid graphite surface. Photon efficiencies of CH4 for measured local plasma conditions are reported. The contribution of chemical vs physical sputtering to the source of C+ at the target can, in principle, be assessed through measurement of CII and CD/CH band emissions during release of CH4 from the PPI, and due to intrinsic emission. These first results from this new experimental tool demonstrate the potential for the PPI to provide definitive results in future applications in DIII-D and indicate the improvements required to obtain firm quantitative conclusions

  10. Raman Spectroscopic Study of Carbon Nanotubes Prepared Using Fe/ZnO-Palm Olein-Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan Afif Mohd Zobir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were synthesized using Fe/ZnO catalyst by a dual-furnace thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD method at 800–1000°C using nitrogen gas with a constant flow rate of 150 sccm/min as a gas carrier. Palm olein (PO, ferrocene in the presence of 0.05 M zinc nitrate, and a p-type silicon wafer were used as carbon source, catalyst precursor, and sample target, respectively. D, G, and G′ bands were observed at 1336–1364, 1559–1680, and 2667–2682 cm-1, respectively. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs with the highest degree of crystallinity were obtained at around 8000°C, and the smallest diameter of about 2 nm was deposited on the silicon substrate at 1000°C.

  11. Laboratory investigations of Mars - Chemical and spectroscopic characteristics of a suite of clays as Mars soil analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, Amos; Carle, Glenn C.; Chang, Sherwood; Coyne, Lelia M.; Orenberg, James B.

    1988-01-01

    A model system of Mars soil analog materials (MSAMs) was prepared, and the properties of these clays, such as chemical composition, surface-ion composition, water adsorption isotherms, and reflectance spectra, were examined. The results of these studies, performed along with simulations of the Viking Labeled Release Experiement using MSAMs, indicate that surface iron and adsorbed water are important determinants of clay behavior, as evidenced by changes in reflectance, water absorption, and clay surface reactions. The paper discusses the relevance of these results to the two major questions raised by prior explorations of Mars: has there ever been abundant water on Mars, and why is the iron found in the Martian soil not readily seen in the reflectance spectra of the surface?

  12. Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of dissolved humic substances in a mangrove-fringed estuary in the eastern coast of Hainan Island, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yaoling; DU Jinzhou; PENG Bo; ZHANG Fenfen; ZHAO Xin; ZHANG Jing

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) has an important effect on estuarine and coastal area on a large scale.In order to improve the understanding of origin,composition,and fate of DOM in mangrove-fringed estuarine and coastal areas,dissolved humic substances (DHS) were isolated from one mangrove pore-water sample and one near-shore seawater sample downstream the mangrove pore-water site in the eastern coast of Hainan Island,South China.Fulvic acids,humic acids and XAD-4 fractions were obtained from the two water samples by using a two-column array of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins.Chemical and spectroscopic methods were used to analyze the features of these DHS.Compared to the mangrovepore-water DHS,the near-shore seawater DHS were found rich in 13C with lower C/N ratios and more aliphatic compounds and carbohydrates,but less aromatic structures and carboxyl groups.As for the three fractions of the two DHS,XAD-4 fractions contain more aliphatics,carbohydrates,carboxyl groups,and enrich in 13C with respect to both fulvic and humic acids.Photo-oxidation transformation and contribution from marine-derived DOM were considered as the main reasons resulted in the difference in compositional features for these DHS in this study.

  13. Structure analysis and spectroscopic characterization of 2-Fluoro-3-Methylpyridine-5-Boronic Acid with experimental (FT-IR, Raman, NMR and XRD) techniques and quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, Özgür; Dikmen, Gökhan

    2016-03-01

    Possible stable conformers, geometrical molecular structures, vibrational properties as well as band assignments, nuclear magnetic shielding tensors of 2-Fluoro-3-Methylpyridine-5-Boronic Acid (2F3MP5BA) were studied experimentally and theoretically using FT-IR, Raman, (CP/MAS) NMR and XRD spectroscopic methods. FT-IR and Raman spectra were evaluated in the region of 3500-400 cm-1, and 3200-400 cm-1, respectively. The optimized geometric structures, vibrational wavenumbers and nuclear magnetic shielding tensors were examined using Becke-3-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) hybrid density functional theory method with 6-311++G(d, p) basis set. 1H, 13C NMR chemical shifts were calculated using the gauge invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. 1H, 13C, APT and HETCOR NMR experiments of title molecule were carried out in DMSO solution. 13C CP/MAS NMR measurement was done with 4 mm zirconium rotor and glycine was used as an external standard. Single crystal of 2F3MP5BA was also prepared for XRD measurements. Assignments of vibrational wavenumbers were also strengthened by calculating the total energy distribution (TED) values using scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method.

  14. An in vitro systematic spectroscopic examination of the photostabilities of a random set of commercial sunscreen lotions and their chemical UVB/UVA active agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpone, Nick; Salinaro, Angela; Emeline, Alexei V; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Hidaka, Hisao; Zhao, Jincai

    2002-12-01

    The photostabilities of a random set of commercially available sunscreen lotions and their active ingredients are examined spectroscopically subsequent to simulated sunlight UV exposure. Loss of filtering efficacy can occur because of possible photochemical modifications of the sunscreen active agents. Changes in absorption of UVA/ UVB sunlight by agents in sunscreen lotions also leads to a reduction of the expected photoprotection of human skin and DNA against the harmful UV radiation. The active ingredients were investigated in aqueous media and in organic solvents of various polarities (methanol, acetonitrile, and n-hexane) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions The UV absorption features are affected by the nature of the solvents with properties closely related to oil-in-water (o/w) or water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions actually used in sunscreen formulations, and by the presence of molecular oxygen. The photostabilities of two combined chemical ingredients (oxybenzone and octyl methoxycinnamate) and the combination oxybenzone/titanium dioxide were also explored. In the latter case, oxybenzone undergoes significant photodegradation in the presence of the physical filter TiO2. PMID:12661594

  15. A spectroscopic study of blue supergiant stars in the Sculptor galaxy NGC 55: chemical evolution and distance

    CERN Document Server

    Kudritzki, Rolf; Castro, Norberto; Ho, I-Ting; Bresolin, Fabio; Gieren, Wolfgang; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Przybilla, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Low resolution (4.5 to 5 Angstroem) spectra of 58 blue supergiant stars distributed over the disk of the Magellanic spiral galaxy NGC 55 in the Sculptor group are analyzed by means of non-LTE techniques to determine stellar temperatures, gravities and metallicities (from iron peak and alpha-elements). A metallicity gradient of -0.22 +/- 0.06$ dex/R_25 is detected. The central metallicity on a logarithmic scale relative to the Sun is [Z] = -0.37 +\\- 0.03. A chemical evolution model using the observed distribution of stellar and interstellar medium gas mass column densities reproduces the observed metallicity distribution well and reveals a recent history of strong galactic mass accretion and wind outflows with accretion and mass-loss rates of the order of the star formation rate. There is an indication of spatial inhomogeneity in metallicity. In addition, the relatively high central metallicity of the disk confirms that two extra-planar metal poor HII regions detected in previous work 1.13 to 2.22 kpc above th...

  16. A Spectroscopic Study of Blue Supergiant Stars in the Sculptor Galaxy NGC 55: Chemical Evolution and Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudritzki, R. P.; Castro, N.; Urbaneja, M. A.; Ho, I.-T.; Bresolin, F.; Gieren, W.; Pietrzyński, G.; Przybilla, N.

    2016-10-01

    Low-resolution (4.5-5 Å) spectra of 58 blue supergiant stars distributed over the disk of the Magellanic spiral galaxy NGC 55 in the Sculptor group are analyzed by means of non-LTE techniques to determine stellar temperatures, gravities, and metallicities (from iron peak and α-elements). A metallicity gradient of -0.22 ± 0.06 dex/R 25 is detected. The central metallicity on a logarithmic scale relative to the Sun is [Z] = -0.37 ± 0.03. A chemical evolution model using the observed distribution of column densities of the stellar and interstellar medium gas mass reproduces the observed metallicity distribution well and reveals a recent history of strong galactic mass accretion and wind outflows with accretion and mass-loss rates of the order of the star formation rate. There is an indication of spatial inhomogeneity in metallicity. In addition, the relatively high central metallicity of the disk confirms that two extraplanar metal-poor H ii regions detected in previous work 1.13 to 2.22 kpc above the galactic plane are ionized by massive stars formed in situ outside the disk. For a subsample of supergiants, for which Hubble Space Telescope photometry is available, the flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relationship is used to determine a distance modulus of 26.85 ± 0.10 mag.

  17. Chemical characterisation of old cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) seed oil by liquid chromatography and different spectroscopic detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, Francesco; Beccaria, Marco; Oteri, Marianna; Utczas, Margita; Giuffrida, Daniele; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-07-01

    We report an extensive chemical characterisation of fatty acids, triacylglycerols, tocopherols, carotenoids and polyphenols contained in the oil extracted from old cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) by cold-pressing of the seeds. Analyses were performed by GC-FID combined with mass spectrometry, HPLC with photodiode array, fluorescence and mass spectrometry detection. The 94% of the total fatty acids were unsaturated, rappresented by erucic acid (more than 50%) followed by linoleic, linolenic and oleic acids accounting for approximately 10% each. The most abundant triacylglycerols (>13%) were represented by erucic-gadolenic-linoleic, erucic-eruci-linoleic and erucic-erucic-oleic. Among tocopherols, γ-tocopherol accounted for over 70% of the total content. Thirteen carotenoids and 11 polyphenols were identified and measured. In particular, the total content in carotenoids was 10.9 ppm and all-E-lutein was the main component (7.7 ppm); among polyphenols, six hydroxycinnamic acids and five flavonoids, were identified by combining information from retention times, PDA and MS data. PMID:27314571

  18. Primordial matter in the outer solar system: A study of its chemical composition from remote spectroscopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our knowledge of the primordial matter from the objects of the outer solar system has made a considerable progress over the past years, in spite of the lack of any in situ measurements of these objects at the present time. The recent progress of ground-based instrumentation and the launch of the two Voyager fly-by missions have provided a huge amount of new informations about the origin and the evolution of the 'primitive' Solar System objects. The most significant discoveries concerning the atmospheres of the Giant Planets can be summarized as follows: (1) there does not seem to be any differentiation in the internal structure of Jupiter during the planet's history; thus, the H2/He ratio measured on Jupiter seems to be representative of the H/He ratio of the Primordial Nebula; (2) there is some evidence for a helium differentiation, relative to hydrogen, in Saturn's interior; (3) there seems to be a carbon enrichment on both Jupiter and Saturn by a factor about 2; this result is consistent with a model in which the planetary core is formed first, and the atmosphere accreted by this core in a second stage; (4) the D/H ratio measured on Jupiter should be representative of the D/H value in the Primordial Nebula, 4.5 billion years ago; this value is 2 to 5 times larger than the mean value measured in the local interstellar medium now; (5) Titan's atmosphere is dominated by nitrogen and contains traces of organic and prebiotic molecules (HCN, C2N2, HC3N); the chemical composition of Titan's atmosphere could be favorable for the early stages of life development. (orig./HM)

  19. Spectroscopic investigation of the chemical and electronic properties of chalcogenide materials for thin-film optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Kimberly Anne

    Chalcogen-based materials are at the forefront of technologies for sustainable energy production. This progress has come only from decades of research, and further investigation is needed to continue improvement of these materials. For this dissertation, a number of chalcogenide systems were studied, which have applications in optoelectronic devices, such as LEDs and Photovoltaics. The systems studied include Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) and CuInSe 2 (CISe) thin-film absorbers, CdTe-based photovoltaic structures, and CdTe-ZnO nanocomposite materials. For each project, a sample set was prepared through collaboration with outside institutions, and a suite of spectroscopy techniques was employed to answer specific questions about the system. These techniques enabled the investigation of the chemical and electronic structure of the materials, both at the surface and towards the bulk. CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-films produced from the roll-to-roll, ambient pressure, Nanosolar industrial line were studied. While record-breaking efficiency cells are usually prepared in high-vacuum (HV) or ultra-high vacuum (UHV) environments, these samples demonstrate competitive mass-production efficiency without the high-cost deposition environment. We found relatively low levels of C contaminants, limited Na and Se oxidation, and a S-Se intermixing at the CdS/CIGSe interface. The surface band gap compared closely to previously investigated CIGSe thin-films deposited under vacuum, illustrating that roll-to-roll processing is a promising and less-expensive alternative for solar cell production. An alternative deposition process for CuInSe2 was also studied, in collaboration with the University of Luxembourg. CuInSe2 absorbers were prepared with varying Cu content and surface treatments to investigate the potential to produce an absorber with a Cu-rich bulk and Cu-poor surface. This is desired to combine the bulk characteristics of reduced defects and larger grains in Cu-rich films, while maintaining

  20. Flooding On

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Drenched riverside towns in central and south parts of China were preparing for even worse flooding as water levels in the country's huge rivers surged and rainstorms continued. As of July 27,accumulated precipitation since June 16 in 70 percent of the drainage areas of the Yangtze River had exceeded 50 mm,after three rounds of rainstorms,said Cai Qihua,Deputy Director of the Yangtze River Flood Control and Drought Relief Headquarters.

  1. Spectroscopic [FT-IR and FT-Raman] and molecular modeling (MM) study of benzene sulfonamide molecule using quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, K. S.; Periandy, S.; Govindarajan, M.

    2016-07-01

    The spectroscopic and molecular modeling (MM) study includes, FT-IR, FT-Raman and 13C NMR and 1H NMR spectra of the Benzene sulfonamide were recorded for the analysis. The observed experimental and theoretical frequencies (IR and Raman) were assigned according to their distinctive region. The present study of this title molecule have been carried out by hybrid computational calculations of HF and DFT (B3LYP) methods with 6-311+G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets and the corresponding results are tabulated. The structural modifications of the compound due to the substitutions of NH2 and SO2 were investigated. The minimum energy conformers of the compound were studied using conformational analysis. The alternations of the vibrational pattern of the base structure related to the substitutions were analyzed. The thermodynamic parameters (such as zero-point vibrational energy, thermal energy, specific heat capacity, rotational constants, entropy, and dipole moment) of Benzene sulfonamide have been calculated. The donor acceptor interactions of the compound and the corresponding UV transitions are found out using NBO analysis. The NMR spectra were simulated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method with B3LYP methods and the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set and their spectra were simulated and the chemical shifts related to TMS were compared. A quantum computational study on the electronic and optical properties absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies, were performed by HF and DFT methods. The energy gap of the present compound was calculated related to HOMO and LUMO energies which confirm the occurring of charge transformation between the base and ligand group. Besides frontier molecular orbitals (FMO), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) was performed. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures were calculated in gas phase and

  2. BEHAVIOR OF SURFACTANT MIXTURE AT SOLID/LIQUID AND OIL/LIQUID INTERFACE IN CHEMICAL FLOODING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. P. Somasundaran

    2002-03-01

    The aim of the project is to develop and evaluate efficient novel surfactant mixtures for enhanced oil recovery. Preliminary ultra-filtration tests suggest that two kinds of micelles may exist in binary surfactant mixtures at different concentrations. Due to the important role played in interfacial processes by micelles as determined by their structures, focus of the current work is on the delineation of the relationship between such aggregate structures and chemical compositions of the surfactants. A novel analytical centrifuge application is explored to generate information on structures of different surfactants aggregates. In this report, optical systems, typical output of the analytical ultracentrifuge results and four basic experiments are discussed. Initial sedimentation velocity investigations were conducted using nonyl phenol ethoxylated decyl ether (NP-10) to choose the best analytical protocol, calculate the partial specific volume and obtain information on sedimentation coefficient, aggregation mass of micelles. The partial specific volume was calculated to be 0.920. Four softwares: Optima{trademark} XL-A/XL-I data analysis software, DCDT+, Svedberg and SEDFIT, were compared for the analysis of sedimentation velocity experimental data. The sedimentation coefficient and aggregation number of NP-10 micelles obtained using the first three softwares at 25 C are 209, 127, and 111, respectively. The last one is closest to the result from Light Scattering. The reason for the differences in numbers obtained using the three softwares is discussed. Based on these tests, Svedberg and SEDFIT analysis are chosen for further studies. This approach using the analytical ultracentrifugation offers an unprecedented opportunity now to obtain important information on mixed micelles and their role in interfacial processes.

  3. Combating Floods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    In summer and autumn of 1998, the river vatleys of the Changjiang, Songhua and Nenjiang rivers were stricken by exceptionally serious floods, As of the, 22nd of August, the flooded areas stretched over 52.4 million acres. More than 223 million people were affected by the flood. 4.97 million houses were ruined, economic losses totaled RMB 166 billion, and most tragically, 3,004 people lost their byes. It was one of the costliest disasters in Chinese history. Millions of People’s Liberation Army soldiers and local people joined hands to battle the floodwaters. Thanks to their unified efforts and tenacious struggle, they successfully withstood the rising, water, resumed production and began to rebuild their homes.

  4. Impact of contaminants on aquatic systems and inundated sites with respect to flood events - In vitro biotests, chemical target analysis and fractionation methods

    OpenAIRE

    Wölz, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Scope of the present study is the development and application of aquatic in vitro bioassays and methods of effect-directed analysis (EDA). It aims at investigating contamination of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and pollution of inundated sites and riparian aquifer, respectively. In the first part of this study, SPM was sampled during flood events and toxicological activities were determined. The second part of the study dealt with possible conflict of interests between flood management (...

  5. Flooding On

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Drenched riverside towns in central and south parts of China were preparing for even worse flooding aswater levels in the country’s huge rivers surged and rainstorms continued.As of July 27,accumulated precipitation since June 16 in 70 percent of the drainage

  6. A Sequential Chemical Extraction and Spectroscopic Assessment of the Potential Bioavailability of Mercury Released From the Inoperative New Idria Mercury Mine, San Benito Co., CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jew, A. D.; Luong, P. N.; Rytuba, J. J.; Brown, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    The inoperative New Idria mercury mine in San Benito Co., CA, is a potential point source of Hg to the Central Valley of California. To determine the phases and the potential bioavailability of Hg present in stream bed deposits downstream of the mine, sequential chemical extractions (SCEs) targeting Hg-bearing phases and synchrotron-based spectroscopic and imaging techniques were used on sediment samples taken from the acid mine drainage (AMD) system, Hg sorbed in the laboratory to ferrihydrite (synthetic 2-line and natural), and Hg associated with diatom-rich samples. In all field samples examined, both the wet and dry seasons, removal of > 97% of the Hg required 1M KOH or harsher chemical treatments. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) showed that HgS was the dominant inorganic Hg phase present, with no detectable Hg associated with the ferrihydrite. Uptake and subsequent SCE analysis of Hg to both synthetic and natural ferrihydrite showed that 1M MgCl2 removed ≥ 90% of the total Hg, suggesting that Hg does not sorb strongly to ferrihydrite. This finding is surprising, because in most settings ferrihydrite is considered to be a strong adsorbent of heavy metals. Due to the lack of Hg sorption to ferrihydrite in field samples, another pool for the non-HgS/HgSe fraction in sediments is needed. SEM analysis of the downstream samples showed that regardless of pH, freshwater diatoms were present. To determine if diatoms were the sink for dissolved Hg in this system, SCE analysis on commercially available and diatom-rich field samples from the New Idria site and Harley Gulch (Lake County, CA) were completed. The vast majority of Hg in diatom-rich samples was removed by 1M KOH, which corresponds to the non-HgS/HgSe fraction of the New Idria field samples. Analysis for carbon and nitrogen in the diatom-rich samples showed no detectable nitrogen, indicating little to no organic material was left in the samples. We therefore infer that Hg in the diatoms is contained in

  7. Spectroscopic data

    CERN Document Server

    Melzer, J

    1976-01-01

    During the preparation of this compilation, many people contributed; the compilers wish to thank all of them. In particular they appreciate the efforts of V. Gilbertson, the manuscript typist, and those of K. C. Bregand, J. A. Kiley, and W. H. McPherson, who gave editorial assistance. They would like to thank Dr. J. R. Schwartz for his cooperation and encouragement. In addition, they extend their grati­ tude to Dr. L. Wilson of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory, who gave the initial impetus to this project. v Contents I. I ntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. Organization ofthe Spectroscopic Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Methods of Production and Experimental Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Band Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2...

  8. Integrated Flood Management in Urban Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V R Sawant

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Flood Hazards are most common and destructives of all natural disaster. The study has major objectives of evaluating flood risk mitigation strategies in Mumbai, which has suffered perennial flooding and needs establishment of coastal management zoning authority, Land use zoning , legislation Building codes, flood fore casting and warning system. Flood insurance based on concept of Vulnerability index, Standards of preparedness and Integrated Water Resource management techniques presented in this paper.

  9. Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging of Latent Fingerprints and Associated Forensic Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Tsoching; Schultz, Zachary D.; Ira W. Levin

    2009-01-01

    Fingerprints reflecting a specific chemical history, such as exposure to explosives, are clearly distinguished from overlapping, and interfering latent fingerprints using infrared spectroscopic imaging techniques and multivariate analysis.

  10. Floods and flood management in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Muhammad Atiq Ur Rehman; van de Giesen, Nick

    Flooding is the most devastating natural hazard in Pakistan and the recent flooding has demonstrated its severeness. Floods are common throughout the country. However, their characteristics differ from region to region. Flooding behavior of the major basins and flood management at the national level are investigated in this article. Monsoon rainfalls are the main source of floods in the Indus Basin, while Mediterranean Waves and Cyclones, which are generated over the Arabian Sea, induce flooding in the Kharan Basin and the Makran Coastal Area. Fluvial floods in the Indus Basin have caused major economic losses. Pakistan’s government has spent vast resources on relief operations and flood works since the country came into existence in 1947. A number of provincial and federal acts, ordinances, accords, and treaties shape the national flood policy. Institutional setup for flood hazard and crisis management has evolved over the years. Nevertheless, data show no major reduction in the flood-to-damage ratio. The inter-linkage of structural and non-structural measures and their combined efficiency must be analyzed and optimized for more effective flood management.

  11. Floods, flood control, and bottomland vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan M.; Auble, Gregor T.

    2000-01-01

    Bottomland plant communities are typically dominated by the effects of floods. Floods create the surfaces on which plants become established, transport seeds and nutrients, and remove establish plants. Floods provide a moisture subsidy that allows development of bottomland forests in arid regions and produce anoxic soils, which can control bottomland plant distribution in humid regions. Repeated flooding produces a mosaic of patches of different age, sediment texture, and inundation duration; this mosaic fosters high species richness.

  12. Recent Advances and Applications of External Cavity-QCLs towards Hyperspectral Imaging for Standoff Detection and Real-Time Spectroscopic Sensing of Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Ostendorf

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available External-cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL are now established as versatile wavelength-tunable light sources for analytical spectroscopy in the mid-infrared (MIR spectral range. We report on the realization of rapid broadband spectral tuning with kHz scan rates by combining a QCL chip with a broad gain spectrum and a resonantly driven micro-opto-electro-mechanical (MOEMS scanner with an integrated diffraction grating in Littrow configuration. The capability for real-time spectroscopic sensing based on MOEMS EC-QCLs is demonstrated by transmission measurements performed on polystyrene reference absorber sheets, as well as on hazardous substances, such as explosives. Furthermore, different applications for the EC-QCL technology in spectroscopic sensing are presented. These include the fields of process analysis with on- or even inline capability and imaging backscattering spectroscopy for contactless identification of solid and liquid contaminations on surfaces. Recent progress in trace detection of explosives and related precursors in relevant environments as well as advances in food quality monitoring by discriminating fresh and mold contaminated peanuts based on their MIR backscattering spectrum is shown.

  13. Flooding and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, flooding is the nation's most common natural disaster. Some floods develop slowly during an extended period of rain or in a warming trend following a heavy snow. Flash floods can occur quickly, without any visible sign of rain. Catastrophic floods are associated with burst dams and levees,…

  14. Flood risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Blanksby, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    The EU Flood Directive requires member states to develop flood risk management plans by 22nd December 2015. Along the way, member states are required to carry out preliminary flood risk assessments by 22nd December 2011, and detailed flood risk and hazard maps by 22nd December 2013. Following these initial submissions, the assessments, maps and plans will be reviewed and updated in six yearly cycles. Many countries have already carried out preliminary assessments and produced flood risk and h...

  15. Synthesis, structural, and spectroscopic (FT-IR, NMR, and UV) Characterization of 1-(Cyclohexylmethyl)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1 H-benzo[ d]imidazole by experimental techniques and quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Namık; Dayan, Osman; Demirmen, Selin

    2016-05-01

    The title compound ( II), 1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1 H-benzo[ d]imidazole (C19H21N3), was synthesized via N-alkylation of 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1 H-benzo[ d]imidazole ( I). Both compounds I and II were characterized by IR, NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. Solid-state structure of compound II was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Furthermore, quantum chemical calculations employing density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with the 6-311++ G( d, p) basis set were performed for the theoretical characterization of the molecular and spectroscopic features of the compounds. Using the TD-DFT method, electronic absorption spectra of the compounds have been predicted at same level. When the obtained results were compared with the experimental findings, it is seen that theoretical results support the experimental data and a good agreement exists between them.

  16. Groundwater flood or groundwater-induced flood?

    OpenAIRE

    Robins, N.S.; Finch, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    A number of ‘groundwater flood’ events have been recorded over the Chalk aquifer in southern England since the 1994 occurrence at Chichester, Sussex. Reporting of this event and subsequent groundwater floods indicates that there are two types of groundwater flood event. Type 1 is the true groundwater flood in which the water table elevation rises above the ground elevation, and Type 2 occurs when intense groundwater discharge via bourne springs and highly permeable shallow horizons discharges...

  17. 三峡水库蓄水对消落带土壤理化性质的影响%The Effect of Flooding on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties of Riparian Zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常超; 谢宗强; 熊高明; 储立民

    2011-01-01

    土壤养分是三峡库区消落带生态系统的重要组成部分。通过对石宝寨消落带12个水位96个样点的土壤分析,研究了消落带不同水位土壤容重、酸碱度、有机质、全氮、全磷、全钾、速效氮、速效磷、速效钾的含量变化。结果表明:①淹水后消落带土壤由微碱性(pH值=7.91)变为碱性(pH值=8.14),养分平均含量普遍下降,速效钾含量下降最多(46.7%),淹水易造成养分流失;②消落带土壤淹水前各测定指标在不同高程之间差异均不显著(P〉0.05);③不同淹水强度的土壤容重、有机质、全氮、速效钾含量差异极显著(P〈0.01),氨%The soil physical and chemical properties play a key role in ecological environment of the riparian zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir.This research was done to analyze the variation of soil nutrients after flooding which would contribute to the study of the flooding effect on water-soil in the reservoir riparian zone.We measured the content of soil bulk density,pH,organic matter,total N,total P,total K,NO3-N,NH4-N,available P and available K in different water levels of the riparian zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir.Different water levels did not exhibit significant divergence of nutrients content before flooding.Compared to the criterion of the second national soil survey,soil pH was alkaline and the soil nutrients were limited in the reservoir riparian zone after flooding.Different water levels exhibited significant divergence in bulk density,organic matter,total N and available K(P〈0.01).pH value was significantly higher after flooding and the soil nutrients were much lower than soil without flooding.Soil organic matter,total N,total P and total K accumulated in 146 m which was always in submergence state.

  18. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  19. A spectroscopic study on interaction between bovine serum albumin and titanium dioxide nanoparticle synthesized from microwave-assisted hybrid chemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Shivendu; Dasgupta, Nandita; Srivastava, Priyanka; Ramalingam, Chidambaram

    2016-08-01

    The use of nanoparticles in food or pharma requires a molecular-level perceptive of how NPs interact with protein corona once exposed to a physiological environment. In this study, the conformational changes of bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated in detail when exposed to different concentration of titanium dioxide nanoparticle by various techniques. To analyze the effects of NPs on proteins, the interaction between bovine serum albumin and titanium dioxide nanoparticles at different concentrations were investigated. The interaction, BSA conformations, kinetics, and adsorption were analyzed by dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and fluorescence quenching. Dynamic light scattering analysis confirms the interaction with major changes in the size of the protein. Fluorescence quenching analysis confirms the side-on or end-on interaction of 1.1 molecules of serum albumin to titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Further, pseudo-second order kinetics was determined with equilibrium contact time of 20min. The spectroscopic analysis suggests that there is a conformational change both at secondary and tertiary structure levels. A distortion in both α-helix and β-sheets was observed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Fluorescence quenching analysis confirms the interaction of a molecule of bovine serum albumin to the single TiO2 nanoparticle. Further, pseudo-second order kinetics was determined with equilibrium contact time of 20min. The data of the present study determines the detailed evaluation of BSA adsorption on TiO2 nanoparticle along with mechanism and adsorption kinetics.

  20. A spectroscopic study on interaction between bovine serum albumin and titanium dioxide nanoparticle synthesized from microwave-assisted hybrid chemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Shivendu; Dasgupta, Nandita; Srivastava, Priyanka; Ramalingam, Chidambaram

    2016-08-01

    The use of nanoparticles in food or pharma requires a molecular-level perceptive of how NPs interact with protein corona once exposed to a physiological environment. In this study, the conformational changes of bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated in detail when exposed to different concentration of titanium dioxide nanoparticle by various techniques. To analyze the effects of NPs on proteins, the interaction between bovine serum albumin and titanium dioxide nanoparticles at different concentrations were investigated. The interaction, BSA conformations, kinetics, and adsorption were analyzed by dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and fluorescence quenching. Dynamic light scattering analysis confirms the interaction with major changes in the size of the protein. Fluorescence quenching analysis confirms the side-on or end-on interaction of 1.1 molecules of serum albumin to titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Further, pseudo-second order kinetics was determined with equilibrium contact time of 20min. The spectroscopic analysis suggests that there is a conformational change both at secondary and tertiary structure levels. A distortion in both α-helix and β-sheets was observed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Fluorescence quenching analysis confirms the interaction of a molecule of bovine serum albumin to the single TiO2 nanoparticle. Further, pseudo-second order kinetics was determined with equilibrium contact time of 20min. The data of the present study determines the detailed evaluation of BSA adsorption on TiO2 nanoparticle along with mechanism and adsorption kinetics. PMID:27318604

  1. Base Flood Elevation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  2. EmergencyFlood_DFIRMT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  3. Repairing Your Flooded Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offer reduced prices, but be wary of “flood sales” that are sell- ing flood damaged items. Some insurance companies and lenders may let you delay your monthly payments. Sometimes banks will make lower interest loans available for reconstruction. ...

  4. South China Flooded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Vehicles traverse a flooded street in Liuzhou, guangxi zhuang Autonomous Region, on May 19.heavy rainstorms repeatedly struck China this month, triggering floods, mudflows and landslides. hunan, guangdong and Jiangxi provinces and Chongqing Municipality were the worst hit.

  5. Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  6. Flood Hazard Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  7. Flood Risk Regional Flood Defences: Technical report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.

    2015-01-01

    Historically the Netherlands have always had to deal with the threat of flooding, both from the rivers and the sea as well as from heavy rainfall. The country consists of a large amount of polders, which are low lying areas of land protected from flooding by embankments. These polders require an ext

  8. Monomeric and dimeric structures analysis and spectroscopic characterization of 3,5-difluorophenylboronic acid with experimental (FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H and 13C NMR, UV) techniques and quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Mehmet; Kose, Etem; Atac, Ahmet; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Kurt, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The spectroscopic properties of 3,5-difluorophenylboronic acid (3,5-DFPBA, C6H3F2B(OH)2) were investigated by FT-IR, FT-Raman UV-Vis, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques. FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) and FT-Raman spectra (3500-10 cm-1) in the solid phase and 1H and 13C NMR spectra in DMSO solution were recorded. The UV spectra that dissolved in ethanol and water were recorded in the range of 200-400 nm for each solution. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule have been obtained for possible three conformers from DFT (B3LYP) with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set calculations. The geometry of the molecule was fully optimized, vibrational spectra were calculated and fundamental vibrations were assigned on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method and PQS program. Hydrogen-bonded dimer of title molecule, optimized by counterpoise correction, was also studied B3LYP at the 6-311++G(d,p) level and the effects of molecular association through O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding have been discussed. 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts were calculated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The electronic properties, such as excitation energies, oscillator strength, wavelengths, HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) results complements with the experimental findings. Total and partial density of state (TDOS and PDOS) and also overlap population density of state (OPDOS) diagrams analysis were presented. The effects due to the substitutions of boric acid group and halogen were investigated. The results of the calculations were applied to simulate spectra of the title compound, which show excellent agreement with observed spectra. Besides, frontier molecular orbitals (FMO), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), nonlinear optical properties (NLO) and thermodynamic features were performed.

  9. Theoretical and experimental spectroscopic analysis by FTIR in the effect of the silanes on the chemical modification of the surface of rice husk

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado-Delgado, R.; A.M. Salgado-Delgado

    2016-01-01

    The development of new fibrous composites with specific properties has attracted a big interest in the development of new technologies. One of the biggest problems in this area is the improvement of the fiber/matrix interface to increase the mechanical properties in the final composite. In this work, surface chemical modifications of the rice husk (by-product of the rice industry) were carried out to achieve a better compatibility with diverse polymeric matrices. These modificatio...

  10. Flood Impact Modelling and Natural Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Gareth; Quinn, Paul; ODonnell, Greg

    2016-04-01

    Local implementation of Natural Flood Management methods are now being proposed in many flood schemes. In principal it offers a cost effective solution to a number of catchment based problem as NFM tackles both flood risk and WFD issues. However within larger catchments there is the issue of which subcatchments to target first and how much NFM to implement. If each catchment has its own configuration of subcatchment and rivers how can the issues of flood synchronisation and strategic investment be addressed? In this study we will show two key aspects to resolving these issues. Firstly, a multi-scale network water level recorder is placed throughout the system to capture the flow concentration and travel time operating in the catchment being studied. The second is a Flood Impact Model (FIM), which is a subcatchment based model that can generate runoff in any location using any hydrological model. The key aspect to the model is that it has a function to represent the impact of NFM in any subcatchment and the ability to route that flood wave to the outfall. This function allows a realistic representation of the synchronisation issues for that catchment. By running the model in interactive mode the user can define an appropriate scheme that minimises or removes the risk of synchornisation and gives confidence that the NFM investment is having a good level of impact downstream in large flood events.

  11. Evaluation des méthodes chimiques, spectroscopiques et chromatographiques utilisables pour l'identification des polluants pétroliers en mer Evaluation of Chemical, Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Methods Used to Identify Offshore Oil Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albaigés J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article on passe en revue les différentes méthodes utilisables pour l'identification des principaux polluants pétroliers de la mer par l'analyse quantitativé de leurs « marqueurs passifs x (soufre, azote, nickel, vanadium, paraffine et asphaltènes et la détermination d'autres caractéristiques intrinsèques. II s'agit de méthodes chimiques, spectroscop iques (infrarouge, ultraviolette et chromatographiques (chromatographie en phase gazeuse à haute résolution avec détection par ionisation de flamme, photométrie de flamme et capture d'électrons. Les mesures ont concerné une grande variété de produits susceptibles de polluer la côte méditerranéenne espagnole - pétrole brut des gisements offshore d'Amposta et de Castellôn; - pétroles bruts importés traités dans les raffineries côtières (Boscan, Es Sider, Kuwait, Arabian light, etc.; - fractions lourdes provenant de ces raffineries (fuel-cils, asphaltes, lubrifiants; - polluants réels; - échantillons altérés artificiellement en laboratoire afin de mettre en évidence l'action progressive des éléments naturels. On a trouvé que les méthodes les plus intéressantes étaient : - le dosage chimique du soufre, du nickel et du vanadium; - la spectroscopie infrarouge; - la chromatographie en phase gazeuse à haute résolution avec détection par ionisation et photométrie de flamme. This article reviews the different methods that con be used to identify the leading petroleum pollutants of the sea by quantitative analysis of their a passive markers » (sulfur, nitrogen, nickel, vanadium, paraffin, asphaltenes and by determining other intrinsic properties. These methods are chemical, spectroscopic (infrared, ultraviolet and chromatographic (high-resolution gas chromatography with flame ionization detection, flame photometry and electron capture. Measurements were made of a great variety of products capable of polluting the Spanish Mediterranean coast, including

  12. Covellite CuS as a matrix for "invisible" gold: X-ray spectroscopic study of the chemical state of Cu and Au in synthetic minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagirov, Boris R.; Trigub, Alexander L.; Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Shiryaev, Andrey A.; Chareev, Dmitriy A.; Nickolsky, Maximilian S.; Abramova, Vera D.; Kovalchuk, Elena V.

    2016-10-01

    Geological processes leading to formation of sulfide ores often result in precipitation of gold-bearing sulfides which can contain high concentrations of this metal in "invisible" (or "refractory") state. Covellite (CuS) is ubiquitous mineral in many types of the ore deposits, and numerous studies of the natural ores show that covellite can contain high concentrations of Au. At the same time, Au-bearing covellite withstands cooling in contrast to other minerals of the Cu-Fe-S system (chalcocite, bornite, chalcopyrite), where Au exsolves at low temperatures. This makes covellite a convenient model system for investigation of the chemical state (local environment and valence) of the "invisible" Au in copper-sulfide ores (copper-porphyry, epithermal, volcanogenic massive sulfide, SEDEX deposits). Therefore, it is necessary to determine the location of Au in the covellite matrix as it will have important implications for the methods employed by mineral processing industry to extract Au from sulfide ores. Here we investigate the chemical state of Cu and Au in synthetic covellite containing up to 0.3 wt.% of Au in the "invisible" state. The covellite crystals were synthesized by hydrothermal and salt flux methods. Formation of the chemically bound Au is indicated by strong dependence of the concentration of Au in covellite on the sulfur fugacity in the experimental system (d(log C(Au))/d(log f(S2)) ∼ 0.65). The Au concentration of covellite grows with increasing temperature from 400 to 450 °C, whereas further temperature increase to 500 °C has only minor effect. The synthesized minerals were studied using X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in high energy resolution fluorescence detection (HERFD) mode. Ab initio simulations of Cu K edge XANES spectra show that the Cu oxidation state in two structural positions in covellite (tetrahedral and triangular coordination with S atoms) is identical: the total loss of electronic charge for the 3d shell is ∼0

  13. Primidone - An antiepileptic drug - characterisation by quantum chemical and spectroscopic (FTIR, FT-Raman, 1H, 13C NMR and UV-Visible) investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Santhanam, R.; Subramanian, S.; Mohan, S.

    2013-05-01

    The solid phase FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of primidone were recorded in the regions 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-100 cm-1, respectively. The vibrational spectra were analysed and the observed fundamentals were assigned and analysed. The experimental wavenumbers were compared with the theoretical scaled vibrational wavenumbers determined by DFT methods. The Raman intensities were also determined with B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method. The total electron density and molecular electrostatic potential surface of the molecule were constructed by using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method to display electrostatic potential (electron + nuclei) distribution. The HOMO and LUMO energies were measured. Natural bond orbital analysis of primidone has been performed to indicate the presence of intramolecular charge transfer. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded and the chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated.

  14. FT-Raman, FT-IR, UV spectroscopic, NBO and DFT quantum chemical study on the molecular structure, vibrational and electronic transitions of clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate form 1: A comparison to form 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anubha; Mishra, Rashmi; Tandon, Poonam; Bansal, A. K.

    2013-03-01

    Clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate (+)-(S)-(2-chlorophenyl)-6,7-dihydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridine-5(4H)-acetate sulfate (1:1), is a selective adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonist often used in the treatment of coronary artery, peripheral vascular and cerebrovascular diseases. In the present communication, a comparative study of two polymorphic forms (forms 1 and 2) of clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate (CLP) has been reported. There is difference in conformation and intermolecular hydrogen bonding pattern of two forms. These differences are nicely reflected in the vibrational spectra. The molecular structure, fundamental vibrational frequencies and intensity of the vibrational bands of CLP form 1 are interpreted with the aid of structure optimizations and normal mode analysis based on ab initio HF and DFT method employing 6-311++G(d,p) basis. Polymorphism in CLP have been studied using various characterization tools like FT-Raman, FT-IR spectroscopy and DSC in combination with the quantum chemical calculations. UV-vis spectroscopic studies along with HOMO-LUMO analysis of both polymorphs were performed. The solvent effect calculated by TD-DFT/IEF-PCM/6-31G model results complements with the experimental findings. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis.

  15. Assessment of Hyporheic Zone, Flood-Plain, Soil-Gas, Soil, and Surface-Water Contamination at the McCoys Creek Chemical Training Area, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Georgia, assessed the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, soil, and surface water for contaminants at the McCoys Creek Chemical Training Area (MCTA) at Fort Gordon, from October 2009 to September 2010. The assessment included the detection of organic contaminants in the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, and surface water. In addition, the organic contaminant assessment included the analysis of organic compounds classified as explosives and chemical agents in selected areas. Inorganic contaminants were assessed in soil and surface-water samples. The assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to the U.S. Army at Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. Ten passive samplers were deployed in the hyporheic zone and flood plain, and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and octane were detected above the method detection level in every sampler. Other organic compounds detected above the method detection level in the hyporheic zone and flood-plain samplers were trichloroethylene, and cis- and trans- 1, 2-dichloroethylene. One trip blank detected TPH below the method detection level but above the nondetection level. The concentrations of TPH in the samplers were many times greater than the concentrations detected in the blank; therefore, all other TPH concentrations detected are considered to represent environmental conditions. Seventy-one soil-gas samplers were deployed in a grid pattern across the MCTA. Three trip blanks and three method blanks were used and not deployed, and TPH was detected above the method detection level in two trip blanks and one method blank. Detection of TPH was observed at all 71 samplers, but because TPH was detected in the trip and method blanks, TPH was

  16. Molecular structure and vibrational spectroscopic analysis of an antiplatelet drug; clopidogrel hydrogen sulphate (form 2) - A combined experimental and quantum chemical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anubha; Mishra, Soni; Tandon, Poonam; Patel, Sarasvatkumar; Ayala, A. P.; Bansal, A. K.; Siesler, H. W.

    2010-02-01

    Clopidogrel hydrogen sulphate which belongs to a class of medicine called antiplatelet drugs. Chemically it is methyl (+)-(S)-α-(2-chlorophenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno [3,2- c] pyridine-5-acetate hydrogen sulphate having the empirical formula C 16H 17ClNO 2S.HSO 4 and molecular mass 321.82 g/mol. The present study is confined to vibrational spectroscopy of the polymorph identified as form 2 of the clopidogrel hydrogen sulphate. The vibrational analysis of clopidogrel hydrogen sulphate salt (form 2) considering separately the two counterions has been performed. We also report a theoretical and experimental study of the molecular conformation and vibrational dynamics of the independent moieties of the clopidogrel hydrogen sulphate salt. The equilibrium geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities and activities of Raman scattering were calculated by ab initio Hartree-Fock and density functional theory employing B3LYP with complete relaxation in the potential energy surface using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The calculated wavenumbers after a proper scaling show a very good agreement with the observed values. A complete vibrational assignment is provided for the observed Raman and infrared spectra of clopidogrel hydrogen sulphate form 2.

  17. Effects of particle size and edge structure on the electronic structure, spectroscopic features, and chemical properties of Au(111)-supported MoS2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruix, Albert; Lauritsen, Jeppe V; Hammer, Bjørk

    2016-07-01

    Materials based on MoS2 are widely used as catalysts and their structure usually consists of single-layered MoS2 nanoparticles whose edges are known to constitute the catalytically active sites. Methods based on density functional theory are used in this work to calculate the electronic structure of representative computational models of MoS2 nanoparticles supported on Au(111). By considering nanoparticles with different edge-terminations, compositions, and sizes, we describe how the electronic structure, Mo3d core-level shifts, and chemical properties (i.e. H adsorption and S vacancy formation) depend on the MoS2 nanoparticle size and structure. In addition, site-specific properties, largely inaccessible when using only slab models of MoS2 edges, are reported, which reveal that the edge sites are not uniform along the nanoparticle and largely depend on the proximity to the corners of the triangular NPs, especially when interacting with a metallic support. Furthermore, a structural motif where H atoms adsorb favourably in a bridging position between two Mo atoms is proposed as an active site for the hydrogen evolution reaction. PMID:27076269

  18. Comprehensive quantum chemical and spectroscopic (FTIR, FT-Raman, 1H, 13C NMR) investigations of O-desmethyltramadol hydrochloride an active metabolite in tramadol - An analgesic drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Santhanam, R.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.

    2014-03-01

    O-desmethyltramadol is one of the main metabolites of tramadol widely used clinically and has analgesic activity. The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of O-desmethyl tramadol hydrochloride are recorded in the solid phase in the regions 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-100 cm-1, respectively. The observed fundamentals are assigned to different normal modes of vibration. Theoretical studies have been performed as its hydrochloride salt. The structure of the compound has been optimised with B3LYP method using 6-31G** and cc-pVDZ basis sets. The optimised bond length and bond angles are correlated with the X-ray data. The experimental wavenumbers were compared with the scaled vibrational frequencies determined by DFT methods. The IR and Raman intensities are determined with B3LYP method using cc-pVDZ and 6-31G(d,p) basic sets. The total electron density and molecular electrostatic potential surfaces of the molecule are constructed by using B3LYP/cc-pVDZ method to display electrostatic potential (electron + nuclei) distribution. The electronic properties HOMO and LUMO energies were measured. Natural bond orbital analysis of O-desmethyltramadol hydrochloride has been performed to indicate the presence of intramolecular charge transfer. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the molecule have been anlysed.

  19. Molecular structure, electronic properties, NLO, NBO analysis and spectroscopic characterization of Gabapentin with experimental (FT-IR and FT-Raman) techniques and quantum chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Leena; Karabacak, Mehmet; Narayan, V; Cinar, Mehmet; Prasad, Onkar

    2013-05-15

    Gabapentin (GP), structurally related to the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), mimics the activity of GABA and is also widely used in neurology for the treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain. It exists in zwitterionic form in solid state. The present communication deals with the quantum chemical calculations of energies, geometrical structure and vibrational wavenumbers of GP using density functional (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. In view of the fact that amino acids exist as zwitterions as well as in the neutral form depending on the environment (solvent, pH, etc.), molecular properties of both the zwitterionic and neutral form of GP have been analyzed. The fundamental vibrational wavenumbers as well as their intensities were calculated and compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The fundamental assignments were done on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method. The electric dipole moment, polarizability and the first hyperpolarizability values of the GP have been calculated at the same level of theory and basis set. The nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior of zwitterionic and neutral form has been compared. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital analysis. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrum of the title molecule has also been calculated using TD-DFT method. The thermodynamic properties of both the zwitterionic and neutral form of GP at different temperatures have been calculated. PMID:23545435

  20. Molecular structure, electronic properties, NLO, NBO analysis and spectroscopic characterization of Gabapentin with experimental (FT-IR and FT-Raman) techniques and quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Leena; Karabacak, Mehmet; Narayan, V.; Cinar, Mehmet; Prasad, Onkar

    2013-05-01

    Gabapentin (GP), structurally related to the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), mimics the activity of GABA and is also widely used in neurology for the treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain. It exists in zwitterionic form in solid state. The present communication deals with the quantum chemical calculations of energies, geometrical structure and vibrational wavenumbers of GP using density functional (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. In view of the fact that amino acids exist as zwitterions as well as in the neutral form depending on the environment (solvent, pH, etc.), molecular properties of both the zwitterionic and neutral form of GP have been analyzed. The fundamental vibrational wavenumbers as well as their intensities were calculated and compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The fundamental assignments were done on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method. The electric dipole moment, polarizability and the first hyperpolarizability values of the GP have been calculated at the same level of theory and basis set. The nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior of zwitterionic and neutral form has been compared. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital analysis. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrum of the title molecule has also been calculated using TD-DFT method. The thermodynamic properties of both the zwitterionic and neutral form of GP at different temperatures have been calculated.

  1. Osmium(III) analogues of KP1019: Electrochemical and chemical synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, x-ray crystallography, hydrolytic stability, and antiproliferative activity

    KAUST Repository

    Kuhn, Paul-Steffen

    2014-10-20

    A one-electron reduction of osmium(IV) complexes trans-[OsIVCl4(Hazole)2], where Hazole = 1H-pyrazole ([1]0), 2H-indazole ([2]0), 1H-imidazole ([3]0), and 1H-benzimidazole ([4]0), afforded a series of eight new complexes as osmium analogues of KP1019, a lead anticancer drug in clinical trials, with the general formula (cation)[trans-OsIIICl4(Hazole)2], where cation = H2pz+ (H2pz[1]), H2ind+ (H2ind[2]), H2im+ (H2im[3]), Ph4P+ (Ph4P[3]), nBu4N+ (nBu4N[3]), H2bzim+ (H2bzim[4]), Ph4P+ (Ph4P[4]), and nBu4N+ (nBu4N[4]). All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, while H2pz[1], H2ind[2], and nBu4[3], in addition, by X-ray diffraction. The reduced species [1]- and [4]- are stable in aqueous media in the absence of air oxygen and do not react with small biomolecules such as amino acids and the nucleotide 5′-dGMP. Cell culture experiments in five different human cancer cell lines (HeLa, A549, FemX, MDA-MB-453, and LS-174) and one noncancerous cell line (MRC-5) were performed, and the results were discussed and compared to those for KP1019 and cisplatin. Benzannulation in complexes with similar structure enhances antitumor activity by several orders of magnitude, implicating different mechanisms of action of the tested compounds. In particular, complexes H2ind[2] and H2bzim[4] exhibited significant antiproliferative activity in vitro when compared to H2pz[1] and H2im[3]. (Chemical Equation Presented).

  2. RASOR flood modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Joost; Buckman, Lora; Bachmann, Daniel; Visser, Martijn; Tollenaar, Daniel; Vatvani, Deepak; Kramer, Nienke; Goorden, Neeltje

    2015-04-01

    Decision making in disaster management requires fast access to reliable and relevant information. We believe that online information and services will become increasingly important in disaster management. Within the EU FP7 project RASOR (Rapid Risk Assessment and Spatialisation of Risk) an online platform is being developed for rapid multi-hazard risk analyses to support disaster management anywhere in the world. The platform will provide access to a plethora of GIS data that are relevant to risk assessment. It will also enable the user to run numerical flood models to simulate historical and newly defined flooding scenarios. The results of these models are maps of flood extent, flood depths and flow velocities. The RASOR platform will enable to overlay historical event flood maps with observations and Earth Observation (EO) imagery to fill in gaps and assess the accuracy of the flood models. New flooding scenarios can be defined by the user and simulated to investigate the potential impact of future floods. A series of flood models have been developed within RASOR for selected case study areas around the globe that are subject to very different flood hazards: • The city of Bandung in Indonesia, which is prone to fluvial flooding induced by heavy rainfall. The flood hazard is exacerbated by land subsidence. • The port of Cilacap on the south coast of Java, subject to tsunami hazard from submarine earthquakes in the Sunda trench. • The area south of city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, prone to coastal and/or riverine flooding. • The island of Santorini in Greece, which is subject to tsunamis induced by landslides. Flood models have been developed for each of these case studies using mostly EO data, augmented by local data where necessary. Particular use was made of the new TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) product from the German Aerospace centre (DLR) and EADS Astrium. The presentation will describe the flood models and the

  3. On Flood Alert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    lina braces fora particularly dangerous flood season in the wake of disastrous rainstorms Aseries of heavy storms since early May led to severe flooding and landslides in south and southwest China,causing heavy casualties and economic losses. Severe convective weather such as downpours,

  4. Discover Floods Educators Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project WET Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Now available as a Download! This valuable resource helps educators teach students about both the risks and benefits of flooding through a series of engaging, hands-on activities. Acknowledging the different roles that floods play in both natural and urban communities, the book helps young people gain a global understanding of this common--and…

  5. Study on chemical steam flood to enhance recovery ratio of ninth block of Gudong oilfield%孤东油田九区稠油油藏化学蒸汽驱提高采收率技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广友

    2012-01-01

    With steam injection times and production time of steamed well increasing, the problem that production declines quickly and serious steam channels become very common, and recovery enhancing of this kind of reservoir become more difficult after the viscous oil reservoir undergoes steam soak and steam flood. Thermal chemical flood is the foam system that is acceded to steam and thermal water which is injected to reservoir, distinguishing feature of foam system that "water shutoff and not oil shutoff" and " low shutoff and more high shutoff" can change flow direction of medium, repress steam overlapping and steam channeling and supply producing energy, so that it can get the performance of enhancing recovery and economic benefit. According to numerical simulation and production reality of reservoir, injection and production parameters are designed; equally steam injection rate after foam flooding is 3.9 t/h, production/injection ratio is 1.3, quality fraction of foam is 0.5% , length of slug flow is injection 30 d and stop 60 d, and steam is injected in all process. The result indicates that, compared with old unregulated well, the ninth block can produce more llyears and increment of productive capacity is 1. 15×104 t after foam steam injection is designed, meanwhile, the recovery ratio of block can be enhanced by 14. 63%.%稠油油藏在经历了蒸汽吞吐和蒸汽驱开发后,随着注蒸汽井吞吐次数和开采时间的增加,产量递减快、汽窜严重等现象成为开发中后期面临的共性问题,同时也严重制约了该类油藏采收率的大幅提高.化学蒸汽驱在注入蒸汽或热水的同时,加入泡沫体系,利用泡沫体系“堵水不堵油”和“堵低更堵高”的特点,改变注入介质的流动方向,抑制蒸汽超覆和汽窜,补充地层能量,可达到提高稠油油藏采收率和经济效益的目的.根据数值模拟研究和开发实际,设计了孤东油田九区化学蒸汽驱注采参数:泡沫

  6. Insurance flood maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dear Client, in half an hour you will be hit by a flood, please get ready. Your insurance company. Such a phone call or SMS could only mean two things: drunk friends or an insurance company using a flood map. In the second case, the best thing to do on receiving such a message is to act quickly. The advantage of flood maps do not necessarily have to start at the moment a flood becomes an immediate threat. The primary role of flood maps is to allow for a fairer calculation of insurance rates. Insurance companies can save on re-insurance costs as if the risk level is predictable re-insurance companies may offer better rates. The three largest insurance companies: Allianz - Slovenska poistovna, Kooperativa and Ceska poistovna Slovensko have begun introducing flood maps. These three companies control about 75% of the market. And if competition does not force other market participants to adopt the same approach, re-insurance companies certainly will. They will charge more for a less specifically defined risk level. So far insurance companies have not encountered this pressure, re-insurance companies are helping them set up the flood maps and in the coming years flood maps will become a common tool. Then the pressure will be there: if a insurance company uses a different calculation method, the final price may differ greatly from the competition's. If the price is higher, the company will lose clients and if the price is much lower, the risk has probably not been calculated correctly and the insurance company may suffer substantial losses in the event of a major flood. In short, the investment of several million Sk in a flood map is essential

  7. Spectroscopic Dosimeter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Analysis of Phase I test data demonstrates that the Photogenics Spectroscopic Dosimeter will detect neutron energies from 0.8 up to 600 MeV. The detector...

  8. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  9. Flood insurance in Canada: implications for flood management and residential vulnerability to flood hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  10. Nogales flood detention study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Levick, Lainie; Guertin, D. Phillip; Callegary, James; Guadarrama, Jesus Quintanar; Anaya, Claudia Zulema Gil; Prichard, Andrea; Gray, Floyd; Castellanos, Edgar; Tepezano, Edgar; Huth, Hans; Vandervoet, Prescott; Rodriguez, Saul; Nunez, Jose; Atwood, Donald; Granillo, Gilberto Patricio Olivero; Ceballos, Francisco Octavio Gastellum

    2010-01-01

    Flooding in Ambos Nogales often exceeds the capacity of the channel and adjacent land areas, endangering many people. The Nogales Wash is being studied to prevent future flood disasters and detention features are being installed in tributaries of the wash. This paper describes the application of the KINEROS2 model and efforts to understand the capacity of these detention features under various flood and urbanization scenarios. Results depict a reduction in peak flow for the 10-year, 1-hour event based on current land use in tributaries with detention features. However, model results also demonstrate that larger storm events and increasing urbanization will put a strain on the features and limit their effectiveness.

  11. Development of flood index by characterisation of flood hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Biswa; Suman, Asadusjjaman

    2015-04-01

    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Due to climatological characteristics there are catchments where flood forecasting may have a relatively limited role and flood event management may have to be trusted upon. For example, in flash flood catchments, which often may be tiny and un-gauged, flood event management often depends on approximate prediction tools such as flash flood guidance (FFG). There are catchments fed largely by flood waters coming from upstream catchments, which are un-gauged or due to data sharing issues in transboundary catchments the flow of information from upstream catchment is limited. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of these downstream catchments will never be sufficient to provide any required forecasting lead time and alternative tools to support flood event management will be required. In FFG, or similar approaches, the primary motif is to provide guidance by synthesising the historical data. We follow a similar approach to characterise past flood hydrographs to determine a flood index (FI), which varies in space and time with flood magnitude and its propagation. By studying the variation of the index the pockets of high flood risk, requiring attention, can be earmarked beforehand. This approach can be very useful in flood risk management of catchments where information about hydro-meteorological variables is inadequate for any forecasting system. This paper presents the development of FI and its application to several catchments including in Kentucky in the USA

  12. Flood Damage Mitigation in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    James, L. Douglas; Larson, Dean T.; Hoggan, Daniel H.; Glover, Terrence L.

    1980-01-01

    Utah is subjected to flash flooding in mountain canyons, mudflows and shallow water flooding on lowlands at the canyon outlets, storm water flooding after thunderstorms in urban areas, and prolonged periods of inundation in certain lowland areas during snowmelt periods. In response to these problems, individuals are making private land use and flood proofing decisions, larger communities have storm water collectio...

  13. FLOODPLAIN, FLOOD COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  14. Flood-proof motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even before the Fukushima event occurred some German nuclear power plants (NPP) have considered flooding scenarios. As a result of one of these studies, AREVA performed an upgrade project in NPP Isar 1 with flood-proof motors as a replacement of existing air-cooled low-voltage and high-voltage motors of the emergency cooling chain. After the Fukushima event, in which the cooling chains failed, the topic flood-proof equipment gets more and more into focus. This compact will introduce different kinds of flood-proof electrical motors which are currently installed or planned for installation into NPPs over the world. Moreover the process of qualification, as it was performed during the project in NPP Isar 1, will be shown. (orig.)

  15. Flood Resilient Technological Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez Gonzalez, J. J.; Monnot, J. V.; Marquez Paniagua, P.; Pámpanas, P.; Paz Abuín, S.; Prendes, P.; Videra, O.; U. P. M. Smartest Team

    2012-04-01

    As a consequence of the paradigm shift of the EU water policy (Directive 2007/60/EC, EC 2003) from defense to living with flood, floods shall be faced in the future through resilient solutions, seeking to improve the permanence of flood protection, and getting thus beyond traditional temporary and human-relying solutions. But the fact is that nowadays "Flood Resilient (FRe) Building Technological Products" is an undefined concept, and concerned FRe solutions cannot be even easily identified. "FRe Building Technological materials" is a wide term involving a wide and heterogeneous range of solutions. There is an interest in offering an identification and classification of the referred products, since it will be useful for stakeholders and populations at flood risk for adopting the most adequate protections when facing floods. Thus, a previous schematic classification would enable us at least to identify most of them and to figure out autonomous FRe Technological Products categories subject all of them to intense industrial innovative processes. The flood resilience enhancement of a given element requires providing it enough water-repelling capacity, and different flood resilient solutions can be sorted out: barriers, waterproofing and anticorrosive. Barriers are palliative solutions that can be obtained either from traditional materials, or from technological ones, offering their very low weight and high maneuverability. Belonging barriers and waterproofing systems to industrial branches clearly different, from a conceptual point of view, waterproofing material may complement barriers, and even be considered as autonomous barriers in some cases. Actually, they do not only complement barriers by their application to barriers' singular weak points, like anchors, joints, but on the other hand, waterproofing systems can be applied to enhance the flood resilience of new building, as preventive measure. Anticorrosive systems do belong to a clearly different category

  16. FLOODING ATTACK AWARE SECURE AODV

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavi, S; K. Duraiswamy

    2013-01-01

    Providing security in a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a challenging task due to its inherent nature. Flooding is a type of Denial of Service (DoS) attack in MANET. Intentional flooding may lead to disturbances in the networking operation. This kind of attack consumes battery power, storage space and bandwidth. Flooding the excessive number of packets may degrade the performance of the network. This study considers hello flooding attack. As the hello packets are continuously flooded by the ...

  17. The Terrible Flood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorine; Houston

    1998-01-01

    Dear Xiao Lan. ’Several times a week, no matter which of the major television news networksI turn to, the screen is filled with tragic pictures of flooding along the YangtzeRiver, and I grieve for the suffering people whose lives are being so terriblydisrupted by this disaster. Even more to be grieved is the terrible number of peoplewho have been killed by the floods and their effects.

  18. Flood Bypass Capacity Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.

  19. A Methodology For Flood Vulnerability Analysis In Complex Flood Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, R.; Martina, M. L. V.; Dottori, F.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, flood risk management is gaining importance in order to mitigate and prevent flood disasters, and consequently the analysis of flood vulnerability is becoming a key research topic. In this paper, we propose a methodology for large-scale analysis of flood vulnerability. The methodology is based on a GIS-based index, which considers local topography, terrain roughness and basic information about the flood scenario to reproduce the diffusive behaviour of floodplain flow. The methodology synthetizes the spatial distribution of index values into maps and curves, used to represent the vulnerability in the area of interest. Its application allows for considering different levels of complexity of flood scenarios, from localized flood defence failures to complex hazard scenarios involving river reaches. The components of the methodology are applied and tested in two floodplain areas in Northern Italy recently affected by floods. The results show that the methodology can provide an original and valuable insight of flood vulnerability variables and processes.

  20. Flooding in counter-current two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flooding is a phenomenon which is best described as the transition from counter-current to co-current flow. Early notice was taken of this phenomenon in the chemical engineering industry. Flooding also plays an important role in the field of two-phase heat transfer since it is a limit for many systems involving counter-current flow. Practical applications of flooding limited processes include wickless thermosyphons and the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of pressurized water nuclear reactors. The phenomenon of flooding also is involved in the behavior of nuclear reactor core materials during severe accident conditions where flooding is one of the mechanisms governing the motion of the molten fuel pin cladding

  1. Studying Young Stars with Large Spectroscopic Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Martell, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Galactic archaeology is the study of the history of star formation and chemical evolution in the Milky Way, based on present-day stellar populations. Studies of young stars are a key anchor point for Galactic archaeology, since quantities like the initial mass function and the star formation rate can be studied directly in young clusters and star forming regions. Conversely, massive spectroscopic Galactic archaeology surveys can be used as a data source for young star studies.

  2. Flood Risk Analysis and Flood Potential Losses Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The heavy floods in the Taihu Basin showed increasing trend in recent years. In thiswork, a typical area in the northern Taihu Basin was selected for flood risk analysis and potentialflood losses assessment. Human activities have strong impact on the study area' s flood situation (asaffected by the polders built, deforestation, population increase, urbanization, etc. ), and havemade water level higher, flood duration shorter, and flood peaks sharper. Five years of differentflood return periods [(1970), 5 (1962), 10 (1987), 20 (1954), 50 (1991)] were used to cal-culate the potential flood risk area and its losses. The potential flood risk map, economic losses,and flood-impacted population were also calculated. The study's main conclusions are: 1 ) Humanactivities have strongly changed the natural flood situation in the study area, increasing runoff andflooding; 2) The flood risk area is closely related with the precipitation center; 3) Polder construc-tion has successfully protected land from flood, shortened the flood duration, and elevated waterlevel in rivers outside the polders; 4) Economic and social development have caused flood losses toincrease in recent years.

  3. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  4. Flooding in Bangladesh under global warming and future flood defence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, M.M.Q. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Inst. for Environmental Studies

    2000-07-01

    Bangladesh is very vulnerable to flooding due to its unique location in the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) basins and their hydrological characteristics. On average, annually floods inundate 21 percent area of the country and in exceptional cases, this may exceed 60 per cent. Global warming, due to the enhanced greenhouse effect, is likely to have significant effects on the hydrology and water resources of the GBM basins that might ultimately lead to more serious floods in Bangladesh. Use of climate change scenarios from four General Circulation Models in hydrological models demonstrates substantial increases in peak discharges in the GBM rivers. Therefore, Bangladesh may well experience a larger flooded area and a longer flooding period. The simulated results further indicate that more land could be deeply flooded under future climate change. Bangladesh needs a shift in flood management policy paradigm in the context of global warming in order to reduce increased flood hazards. (orig.)

  5. Assessing Flood Risk Using Reservoir Flood Control Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Fu; Yadong Mei; Zhihuai Xiao

    2016-01-01

    The application of conventional flood operation regulation is restricted due to insufficient description of flood control rules for the Pubugou Reservoir in southern China. Based on the require-ments of different flood control objects, this paper proposes to optimize flood control rules with punish-ment mechanism by defining different parameters of flood control rules in response to flood inflow fore-cast and reservoir water level. A genetic algorithm is adopted for solving parameter optimization problem. The failure risk and overflow volume of the downstream insufficient flood control capacity are assessed through the reservoir operation policies. The results show that an optimised regulation can provide better performance than the current flood control rules.

  6. Infrared spectroscopic imaging microscopy: Applications to biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coupling of imaging modalities with spectroscopic techniques adds additional dimensions to sample analysis in both the spectroscopic and spatial domains. The particular ability of infrared (IR) imaging to explore the spatial distribution of chemically distinct species on length scales ranging from microns to kilometers demonstrates the versatility and diversity of spectroscopic imaging. In this paper, we focus on the further development of our Fourier-transform (FT) based mid-IR spectroscopic imaging technique which combines the analytical capabilities of mid-IR spectroscopy with the morphological information obtained from optical imaging. The seamless combination of spectroscopy for molecular analysis with the power of visualization represents the future of infrared microscopy. Our spectroscopic imaging instrument integrates several infrared focal-plane arrays with a Michelson step-scan interferometer, generating high-fidelity and high spectral resolution mid-infrared spectroscopic images. The instrumentation produces multidimensional, chemically specific images, while simultaneously obtaining high resolution spectra for each detector pixel. The spatial resolution of the images approaches the diffraction limit for mid-infrared wavelengths, while the spectral resolution is determined by the interferometer, and can be 4 cm-1 or higher. Data derived from a variety of materials, particularly biological samples, illustrate the capabilities of the technique for readily visualizing chemical complexity and for providing statistical data on sample heterogeneity

  7. Improving Global Flood Forecasting using Satellite Detected Flood Extent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revilla Romero, B.

    2016-01-01

    Flooding is a natural global phenomenon but in many cases is exacerbated by human activity. Although flooding generally affects humans in a negative way, bringing death, suffering, and economic impacts, it also has potentially beneficial effects. Early flood warning and forecasting systems, as well

  8. Flood Risk Management In Europe: European flood regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Bakker, M.H.; Green, C.; Driessen, Peter; Delvaux, B.; Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van; Suykens, C.; Beyers, J-C.; Deketelaere, K.; Doorn-Hoekveld, W. van; Dieperink, C.

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, water management is moving from flood defense to a risk management approach, which takes both the probability and the potential consequences of flooding into account. In this report, we will look at Directives and (non-)EU- initiatives in place to deal with flood risk in Europe indirectly

  9. Exploitation of Documented Historical Floods for Achieving Better Flood Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Kolaković

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishing Base Flood Elevation for a stream network corresponding to a big catchment is feasible by interdisciplinary approach, involving stochastic hydrology, river hydraulics, and computer aided simulations. A numerical model calibrated by historical floods has been exploited in this study. The short presentation of the catchment of the Tisza River in this paper is followed by the overview of historical floods which hit the region in the documented period of 130 years. Several well documented historical floods provided opportunity for the calibration of the chosen numerical model. Once established, the model could be used for investigation of different extreme flood scenarios and to establish the Base Flood Elevation. The calibration has shown that the coefficient of friction in case of the Tisza River is dependent both on the actual water level and on the preceding flood events. The effect of flood plain maintenance as well as the activation of six potential detention ponds on flood mitigation has been examined. Furthermore, the expected maximum water levels have also been determined for the case if the ever observed biggest 1888 flood hit the region again. The investigated cases of flood superposition highlighted the impact of tributary Maros on flood mitigation along the Tisza River.

  10. The Global Flood Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P.; Huddelston, M.; Michel, G.; Thompson, S.; Heynert, K.; Pickering, C.; Abbott Donnelly, I.; Fewtrell, T.; Galy, H.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Winsemius, H.; Weerts, A.; Nixon, S.; Davies, P.; Schiferli, D.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, a Global Flood Model (GFM) initiative has been proposed by Willis, UK Met Office, Esri, Deltares and IBM. The idea is to create a global community platform that enables better understanding of the complexities of flood risk assessment to better support the decisions, education and communication needed to mitigate flood risk. The GFM will provide tools for assessing the risk of floods, for devising mitigation strategies such as land-use changes and infrastructure improvements, and for enabling effective pre- and post-flood event response. The GFM combines humanitarian and commercial motives. It will benefit: - The public, seeking to preserve personal safety and property; - State and local governments, seeking to safeguard economic activity, and improve resilience; - NGOs, similarly seeking to respond proactively to flood events; - The insurance sector, seeking to understand and price flood risk; - Large corporations, seeking to protect global operations and supply chains. The GFM is an integrated and transparent set of modules, each composed of models and data. For each module, there are two core elements: a live "reference version" (a worked example) and a framework of specifications, which will allow development of alternative versions. In the future, users will be able to work with the reference version or substitute their own models and data. If these meet the specification for the relevant module, they will interoperate with the rest of the GFM. Some "crowd-sourced" modules could even be accredited and published to the wider GFM community. Our intent is to build on existing public, private and academic work, improve local adoption, and stimulate the development of multiple - but compatible - alternatives, so strengthening mankind's ability to manage flood impacts. The GFM is being developed and managed by a non-profit organization created for the purpose. The business model will be inspired from open source software (eg Linux): - for non-profit usage

  11. FEMA Q3 Flood Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Q3 Flood Data are derived from the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMS) published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The file is georeferenced to...

  12. National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) is a compilation of GIS data that comprises a nationwide digital Flood Insurance Rate Map. The GIS data and services are...

  13. FEMA DFIRM Base Flood Elevations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally,...

  14. 2013 FEMA Base Flood Elevation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  15. Base Flood Elevation (BFE) Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...

  16. 2013 FEMA Flood Hazard Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  17. 2013 FEMA Flood Control Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  18. FEMA 100 year Flood Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Q3 Flood Data product is a digital representation of certain features of FEMA's Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) product, intended for use with desktop mapping...

  19. FEMA DFIRM Flood Hazard Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA flood hazard delineations are used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to designate the Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) and for insurance rating...

  20. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ootegem, Luc [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium); SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Verhofstadt, Elsy [SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.

  1. Surface Flood and Underground Flood in Xiangxi River Karst Basin:Characteristics, Models, and Comparisons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingming Luo; Zhihua Chen; Dechao Yin; Hamza Jakada; He Huang; Hong Zhou; Tao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Xiangxi River Basin, located in western Hubei Province in central China, is a karst ridge-trough area with an inhomogeneous and complicated distribution of water resources. This paper compares the characteristics of surface and subsurface floods in this karst basin, utilizing a one-parameter Darcian model and the traditional exponential model. The observed hydrographs and inferred water components are strikingly similar for surface and subsurface floods. The Darcian model and the exponential model are based on different views of the flood generation process, with the former fitting the entire hydrograph with a single time constant, and the latter fitting only the recession limb with multiple time constants. Due to the anisotropy and heterogeneity of karst media, a combination of physical and chemical techniques including the use of 3S (remote sensing, geographical information system, global positioning system) method is proposed for an enhanced hydrological investigation to assess and characterize karst water resources in mountainous areas.

  2. GIS Support for Flood Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Gengsheng; Mioc, Darka; Anton, François

    2007-01-01

    Under flood events, the ground traffic is blocked in and around the flooded area due to damages to roads and bridges. The traditional transportation network may not always help people to make a right decision for evacuation. In order to provide dynamic road information needed for flood rescue, we...

  3. After the Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2007-01-01

    When floodwater swept through the McVities biscuit factory in Carlisle in January 2005 few were confident that it would reopen. The factory, in the Caldewgate area of the city, was one of the first casualties of the flood, as water, nine feet deep in places, coursed trough the food preparation areas, destroying equipment and covering everything in…

  4. Spectroscopically Unlocking Exoplanet Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nikole

    2016-05-01

    Spectroscopy plays a critical role in a number of areas of exoplanet research. The first exoplanets were detected by precisely measuring Doppler shifts in high resolution (R ~ 100,000) stellar spectra, a technique that has become known as the Radial Velocity (RV) method. The RV method provides critical constraints on exoplanet masses, but is currently limited to some degree by robust line shape predictions. Beyond the RV method, spectroscopy plays a critical role in the characterization of exoplanets beyond their mass and radius. The Hubble Space Telescope has spectroscopically observed the atmospheres of exoplanets that transit their host stars as seen from Earth giving us key insights into atmospheric abundances of key atomic and molecular species as well as cloud optical properties. Similar spectroscopic characterization of exoplanet atmospheres will be carried out at higher resolution (R ~ 100-3000) and with broader wavelength coverage with the James Webb Space Telescope. Future missions such as WFIRST that seek to the pave the way toward the detection and characterization of potentially habitable planets will have the capability of directly measuring the spectra of exoplanet atmospheres and potentially surfaces. Our ability to plan for and interpret spectra from exoplanets relies heavily on the fidelity of the spectroscopic databases available and would greatly benefit from further laboratory and theoretical work aimed at optical properties of atomic, molecular, and cloud/haze species in the pressure and temperature regimes relevant to exoplanet atmospheres.

  5. Rethinking the relationship between flood risk perception and flood management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, S; Muro, M; Jeffrey, P; Smith, H M

    2014-04-15

    Although flood risk perceptions and their concomitant motivations for behaviour have long been recognised as significant features of community resilience in the face of flooding events, there has, for some time now, been a poorly appreciated fissure in the accompanying literature. Specifically, rationalist and constructivist paradigms in the broader domain of risk perception provide different (though not always conflicting) contexts for interpreting evidence and developing theory. This contribution reviews the major constructs that have been applied to understanding flood risk perceptions and contextualises these within broader conceptual developments around risk perception theory and contemporary thinking around flood risk management. We argue that there is a need to re-examine and re-invigorate flood risk perception research, in a manner that is comprehensively underpinned by more constructivist thinking around flood risk management as well as by developments in broader risk perception research. We draw attention to an historical over-emphasis on the cognitive perceptions of those at risk to the detriment of a richer understanding of a wider range of flood risk perceptions such as those of policy-makers or of tax-payers who live outside flood affected areas as well as the linkages between these perspectives and protective measures such as state-supported flood insurance schemes. Conclusions challenge existing understandings of the relationship between risk perception and flood management, particularly where the latter relates to communication strategies and the extent to which those at risk from flooding feel responsible for taking protective actions.

  6. Landscape-ecological estimation of radionuclides migration in flood-plain of the Sozh river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work investigate a landscape - geochemical distribution of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in valley river Sozh for the subsequent determination of the possible ways optimization use of the agricultural landscapes in limits flood-plain. One of primal problems of investigation - on the basis of geochemical structure flood-plain landscape to mark out geochemical barriers, which accumulating chemical elements, including radionuclides and to exclude this areas of flood-plain from agricultural use. (Authors)

  7. Flood marks of the 1813 flood in the Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklanek, Pavol; Pekárová, Pavla; Halmová, Dana; Pramuk, Branislav; Bačová Mitková, Veronika

    2014-05-01

    In August 2013, 200 years have passed since the greatest and most destructive floods known in the Slovak river basins. The flood affected almost the entire territory of Slovakia, northeastern Moravia, south of Poland. River basins of Váh (Orava, Kysuca), Poprad, Nitra, Hron, Torysa, Hornád, upper and middle Vistula, Odra have been most affected. The aim of this paper is to map the flood marks documenting this catastrophic flood in Slovakia. Flood marks and registrations on the 1813 flood in the Váh river basin are characterized by great diversity and are written in Bernolák modification of Slovak, in Latin, German and Hungarian. Their descriptions are stored in municipal chronicles and Slovak and Hungarian state archives. The flood in 1813 devastated the entire Váh valley, as well as its tributaries. Following flood marks were known in the Vah river basin: Dolná Lehota village in the Orava river basin, historical map from 1817 covering the Sučany village and showing three different cross-sections of the Váh river during the 1813 flood, flood mark in the city of Trenčín, Flood mark in the gate of the Brunovce mansion, cross preserved at the old linden tree at Drahovce, and some records in written documents, e.g. Cifer village. The second part of the study deals with flood marks mapping in the Hron, Hnilec and Poprad River basins, and Vistula River basin in Krakow. On the basis of literary documents and the actual measurement, we summarize the peak flow rates achieved during the floods in 1813 in the profile Hron: Banská Bystrica. According to recent situation the 1813 flood peak was approximately by 1.22 m higher, than the flood in 1974. Also in the Poprad basin is the August 1813 flood referred as the most devastating flood in last 400 years. The position of the flood mark is known, but the building was unfortunately removed later. The water level in 1813 was much higher than the water level during the recent flood in June 2010. In Cracow the water level

  8. Toward proton MR spectroscopic imaging of stimulated brain function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the objective of complementing local cerebral metabolic studies of PET, and as a prelude to spectroscopic imaging, the authors have performed the first localized proton spectroscopic study of the stimulated human auditory cortex. Water suppressed localized spectroscopy (voxel size 3cm x 3cm x 3cm enclosing the auditory cortex, Te = 272ms, Tr = 3s) was performed on a 1.5T MRI/MRS system and spectra were acquired during stimulation with a 1kHz tone presented at 2Hz. Measurements were conducted for 30-40 min with a temporal resolution of 3.2 min (64 averages per time block). Results included in this paper from six subjects show a lactate peak which increases during stimulation compared to baseline values. These results suggest an increase in anaerobic glycolysis during stimulation and provide unique and valuable information that should complement glucose metabolism and flood flow studies of PET

  9. Flooding in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, frequent, heavy rains gave rise to floods and landslides throughout China that have killed over 1,000 people and affected millions. This false-color image of the western Yangtze River and Dongting Lake in central China was acquired on August 21, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. (right) The latest flooding crisis in China centers on Dingtong Lake in the center of the image. Heavy rains have caused it to swell over its banks and swamp lakefront towns in the province of Hunan. As of August 23, 2002, more than 250,000 people have been evacuated, and over one million people have been brought in to fortify the dikes around the lake. Normally the lake would appear much smaller and more defined in the MODIS image. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

  10. Characterization of Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L.) Honey by Physico-Chemical Parameters and Chromatographic / Spectroscopic Techniques (GC-FID/MS, HPLC-DAD, UV/VIS and FTIR-ATR)

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Jerković; Carlo Ignazio Giovanni Tuberoso; Goran Baranović; Zvonimir Marijanović; Marina Kranjac; Lidija Svečnjak; Piotr Marek Kuś

    2015-01-01

    Satureja hortensis L. unifloral honey was characterized by pollen analysis, electrical conductivity, pH and extensively by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. UV / VIS spectro-scopy measurements revealed total phenol content of 682.1 mg GAE / kg by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, antiox-idant capacity by DPPH assay of 1.7 mmol TEAC / kg and by FRAP assay of 4.3 mmol Fe2+ / kg as well as CIE L*a*b*Cab*h°ab chromaticity coordinates. GC-MS after headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) r...

  11. Technology tames midwest floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Millions glued to television sets across the nation watched as record breaking floods on the giant Missouri and Mississippi rivers rampaged through the Midwest. The summer saw heavy, unprecedented storms, pelting unrelenting rainfall on Minnesota, Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, Illinois, and Missouri. During June and July heavy rains fell 39 out of 54 days. Tributary reservoirs in Kansas, Missouri, and Iowa filled. Tens of thousands of volunteers worked round the clock piling sandbags into makeshift levees. The Missouri and Mississippi, sometimes destroying and washing away everything in their paths, crested at all time highs. The same satellite transmitting technology that let television viewers see storm fronts moving across the Midwest creating the disaster is also responsible for saving untold lives and mitigating flood losses estimated at more than $6 billion in the Missouri River Basin alone. A network of hundreds of automated Satellite Data Collection Platforms (DCPs) interfaced with self-reporting gauges, used to measure such crucial data as rainfall and river levels, to provide fast, reliable realtime weather and flood data.

  12. Swiss Re Global Flood Hazard Zones: Know your flood risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinukollu, R. K.; Castaldi, A.; Mehlhorn, J.

    2012-12-01

    Floods, among all natural disasters, have a great damage potential. On a global basis, there is strong evidence of increase in the number of people affected and economic losses due to floods. For example, global insured flood losses have increased by 12% every year since 1970 and this is expected to further increase with growing exposure in the high risk areas close to rivers and coastlines. Recently, the insurance industry has been surprised by the large extent of losses, because most countries lack reliable hazard information. One example has been the 2011 Thailand floods where millions of people were affected and the total economic losses were 30 billion USD. In order to assess the flood risk across different regions and countries, the flood team at Swiss Re based on a Geomorphologic Regression approach, developed in house and patented, produced global maps of flood zones. Input data for the study was obtained from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) elevation data, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) and HydroSHEDS. The underlying assumptions of the approach are that naturally flowing rivers shape their channel and flood plain according to basin inherent forces and characteristics and that the flood water extent strongly depends on the shape of the flood plain. On the basis of the catchment characteristics, the model finally calculates the probability of a location to be flooded or not for a defined return period, which in the current study was set to 100 years. The data is produced at a 90-m resolution for latitudes 60S to 60N. This global product is now used in the insurance industry to inspect, inform and/or insure the flood risk across the world.

  13. Recent advances in flood forecasting and flood risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arduino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent large floods in Europe have led to increased interest in research and development of flood forecasting systems. Some of these events have been provoked by some of the wettest rainfall periods on record which has led to speculation that such extremes are attributable in some measure to anthropogenic global warming and represent the beginning of a period of higher flood frequency. Whilst current trends in extreme event statistics will be difficult to discern, conclusively, there has been a substantial increase in the frequency of high floods in the 20th century for basins greater than 2x105 km2. There is also increasing that anthropogenic forcing of climate change may lead to an increased probability of extreme precipitation and, hence, of flooding. There is, therefore, major emphasis on the improvement of operational flood forecasting systems in Europe, with significant European Community spending on research and development on prototype forecasting systems and flood risk management projects. This Special Issue synthesises the most relevant scientific and technological results presented at the International Conference on Flood Forecasting in Europe held in Rotterdam from 3-5 March 2003. During that meeting 150 scientists, forecasters and stakeholders from four continents assembled to present their work and current operational best practice and to discuss future directions of scientific and technological efforts in flood prediction and prevention. The papers presented at the conference fall into seven themes, as follows.

  14. Automated pipelines for spectroscopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende Prieto, C.

    2016-09-01

    The Gaia mission will have a profound impact on our understanding of the structure and dynamics of the Milky Way. Gaia is providing an exhaustive census of stellar parallaxes, proper motions, positions, colors and radial velocities, but also leaves some glaring holes in an otherwise complete data set. The radial velocities measured with the on-board high-resolution spectrograph will only reach some 10 % of the full sample of stars with astrometry and photometry from the mission, and detailed chemical information will be obtained for less than 1 %. Teams all over the world are organizing large-scale projects to provide complementary radial velocities and chemistry, since this can now be done very efficiently from the ground thanks to large and mid-size telescopes with a wide field-of-view and multi-object spectrographs. As a result, automated data processing is taking an ever increasing relevance, and the concept is applying to many more areas, from targeting to analysis. In this paper, I provide a quick overview of recent, ongoing, and upcoming spectroscopic surveys, and the strategies adopted in their automated analysis pipelines.

  15. The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Asplund, M.;

    2012-01-01

    The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey has begun and will obtain high quality spectroscopy of some 100000 Milky Way stars, in the field and in open clusters, down to magnitude 19, systematically covering all the major components of the Milky Way. This survey will provide the first homogeneous...... overview of the distributions of kinematics and chemical element abundances in the Galaxy. The motivation, organisation and implementation of the Gaia-ESO Survey are described, emphasising the complementarity with the ESA Gaia mission. Spectra from the very first observing run of the survey are presented....

  16. Floods: vulnerability, risks and management

    OpenAIRE

    Hildén, Mikael; Dankers, Rutger; Kjeldsen, Thomas; Hannaford, Jamie; Kuhlicke, Christian; Kuusisto, Esko; Makropoulos, Christos; te Linde, Aline; Ludwig, Fulco; Luther, Jochen; Wolters, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Floods are extreme events that can have large impacts on human societies and ecosystems. They arise from a multitude of causes and can have very different consequences depending on regional and local circumstances. Floods are part of the natural hydrological cycle, but adverse impacts arise when water masses inundate infrastructures and land that cannot cope with the excessive water. Major flood disasters in Europe have caused loss of lives and economic loss that amount to billions of euro, b...

  17. Flood Risk and Flood hazard maps - Visualisation of hydrological risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spachinger, Karl; Dorner, Wolfgang; Metzka, Rudolf; Serrhini, Kamal; Fuchs, Sven

    2008-11-01

    Hydrological models are an important basis of flood forecasting and early warning systems. They provide significant data on hydrological risks. In combination with other modelling techniques, such as hydrodynamic models, they can be used to assess the extent and impact of hydrological events. The new European Flood Directive forces all member states to evaluate flood risk on a catchment scale, to compile maps of flood hazard and flood risk for prone areas, and to inform on a local level about these risks. Flood hazard and flood risk maps are important tools to communicate flood risk to different target groups. They provide compiled information to relevant public bodies such as water management authorities, municipalities, or civil protection agencies, but also to the broader public. For almost each section of a river basin, run-off and water levels can be defined based on the likelihood of annual recurrence, using a combination of hydrological and hydrodynamic models, supplemented by an analysis of historical records and mappings. In combination with data related to the vulnerability of a region risk maps can be derived. The project RISKCATCH addressed these issues of hydrological risk and vulnerability assessment focusing on the flood risk management process. Flood hazard maps and flood risk maps were compiled for Austrian and German test sites taking into account existing national and international guidelines. These maps were evaluated by eye-tracking using experimental graphic semiology. Sets of small-scale as well as large-scale risk maps were presented to test persons in order to (1) study reading behaviour as well as understanding and (2) deduce the most attractive components that are essential for target-oriented risk communication. A cognitive survey asking for negative and positive aspects and complexity of each single map complemented the experimental graphic semiology. The results indicate how risk maps can be improved to fit the needs of different user

  18. Flood resilience urban territories. Flood resilience urban territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraud, Hélène; Barroca, Bruno; Hubert, Gilles

    2010-05-01

    The flood's impact during the last twenty years on French territory reveals our lack of preparation towards large-extended floods which might cause the stopping of companies' activity, services, or lead to housing unavailability during several months. New Orleans' case has to exemplify us: four years after the disaster, the city still couldn't get back its dynamism. In France, more than 300 towns are flood-exposed. While these towns are the mainspring of territory's development, it is likely that the majority of them couldn't get up quickly after a large-extended flood. Therefore, to understand and improve the urban territory's resilience facing floods is a real stake for territory's development. Urban technical networks supply, unify and irrigate all urban territories' constituents. Characterizing their flood resilience can be interesting to understand better urban resilience. In this context, waste management during and after floods is completely crucial. During a flood, the waste management network can become dysfunctional (roads cut, waste storage installations or waste treatment flooded). How can the mayor respect his obligation to guarantee salubrity and security in his city? In post flood the question is even more problematic. The waste management network presents a real stake for territory's restart. After a flood, building materials, lopped-of branches, furniture, business stocks, farm stocks, mud, rubbles, animal cadavers are wet, mixed, even polluted by hydrocarbons or toxic substances. The waste's volume can be significant. Sanitary and environmental risks can be crucial. In view of this situation, waste's management in post crisis period raises a real problem. What to make of this waste? How to collect it? Where to stock it? How to process it? Who is responsible? Answering these questions is all the more strategic since this waste is the mark of disaster. Thus, cleaning will be the first population's and local actor's reflex in order to forget the

  19. Amazon flood wave hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigg, Mark A.; Wilson, Matthew D.; Bates, Paul D.; Horritt, Matthew S.; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Forsberg, Bruce R.; Vega, Maria C.

    2009-07-01

    SummaryA bathymetric survey of 575 km of the central Amazon River and one of its tributaries, the Purus, are combined with gauged data to characterise the Amazon flood wave, and for hydraulic modelling of the main channel for the period June 1995-March 1997 with the LISFLOOD-FP and HEC-RAS hydraulic models. Our investigations show that the Amazon flood wave is subcritical and diffusive in character and, due to shallow bed slopes, backwater conditions control significant reach lengths and are present for low and high water states. Comparison of the different models shows that it is necessary to include at least the diffusion term in any model, and the RMSE error in predicted water elevation at all cross sections introduced by ignoring the acceleration and advection terms is of the order of 0.02-0.03 m. The use of a wide rectangular channel approximation introduces an error of 0.10-0.15 m on the predicted water levels. Reducing the bathymetry to a simple bed slope and with mean cross section only, introduces an error in the order of 0.5 m. These results show that when compared to the mean annual amplitude of the Amazon flood wave of 11-12 m, water levels are relatively insensitive to the bathymetry of the channel model. The implication for remote sensing studies of the central Amazon channel, such as those proposed with the Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission (SWOT), is that even relatively crude assumptions regarding the channel bathymetry will be valid in order to derive discharge from water surface slope of the main channel, as long as the mean channel area is approximately correct.

  20. Application of flood index in monitoring Flood-plain ecosystems (by the example of the Middle Ob flood-plain)

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotnov, V. P.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of regional hydroecological monitoring has been developed for the flood-plain of the Middle Ob. Its object is to control the state of flood-plain ecosystem productivity for organization of scientific, regional-adopted and ecologically regulated nature management. For this purpose hydroecological zoning of flood-plain territory performed, the most representative stations of water-gauge observations for each flood-plain zone organized, the scheme of flood-plain flooding was prepared...

  1. Flooding in Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A mixture of snowmelt and ice jams in late May and June of this year caused the Taz River (left) and the Yenisey River (right) in central Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in this image taken on June 11, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Normally, the rivers would resemble thin black lines in MODIS imagery. In the false-color images sage green and rusty orange is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  2. FLOOD AND FLOOD CONTROL OF THE YELLOW RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxue LI; Huirang WANG; Yunqi SU; Naiqian JIANG; Yuanfeng ZHANG

    2002-01-01

    The Yellow River is the cradle of China. It had long been the center of politics, economics and culture of China in history. Large coverage flood disaster occurred frequently in the Yellow River basin and the losses were often heavy. Thus, the Yellow River is also considered as the serious hidden danger of China. Since the founding of new China, structural and non-structural systems of flood control have been established basically. Tremendous successes have been made on flood control. Into the 21century, flood control standard of the Lower Yellow River has been increased significantly with the operation of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir. However, problems of the Yellow River are complicated and the tasks for solving these problems are arduous. Particularly, the sedimentation problem can't be solved completely in the near future. The situation of "suspended river" and threat of flood will long exist.Therefore, supported by rapid social and economical development of the nation and relied on advanced technology, the flood control system shall be perfected. Meantime, study of the Yellow River shall be enhanced in order to better understand the flood, get with it and use it thus to reduce flood disaster.

  3. Towards Interactive Flood Governance: changing approaches in Dutch flood policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. van Ast (Jacko)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In the course of history, flooding of rivers and the sea brought misery to humanity. Low lying delta’s of large rivers like Bangladesh, New Orleans, the Nile delta or the Netherlands belong to the most vulnerable for flood disasters. Since ancient times people pondered

  4. The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, Charles

    2015-04-01

    As population growth and economic growth take place, and as climate change accelerates, many regions across the globe are finding themselves increasingly vulnerable to flooding. A recent OECD study of the exposure of the world's large port cities to coastal flooding found that 40 million people were exposed to a 1 in 100 year coastal flood event in 2005, and the total value of exposed assets was about US 3,000 billion, or 5% of global GDP. By the 2070s, those numbers were estimated to increase to 150 million people and US 35,000 billion, or roughly 9% of projected global GDP. Impoverished people in developing countries are particularly at risk because they often live in flood-prone areas and lack the resources to respond. WRI and its Dutch partners - Deltares, IVM-VU University Amsterdam, Utrecht University, and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - are in the initial stages of developing a robust set of river flood and coastal storm surge risk measures that show the extent of flooding under a variety of scenarios (both current and future), together with the projected human and economic impacts of these flood scenarios. These flood risk data and information will be accessible via an online, easy-to-use Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer. We will also investigate the viability, benefits, and costs of a wide array of flood risk reduction measures that could be implemented in a variety of geographic and socio-economic settings. Together, the activities we propose have the potential for saving hundreds of thousands of lives and strengthening the resiliency and security of many millions more, especially those who are most vulnerable. Mr. Iceland will present Version 1.0 of the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer and provide a preview of additional elements of the Analyzer to be released in the coming years.

  5. Flood Risk, Flood Mitigation, and Location Choice: Evaluating the National Flood Insurance Program's Community Rating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qin; Davlasheridze, Meri

    2016-06-01

    Climate change is expected to worsen the negative effects of natural disasters like floods. The negative impacts, however, can be mitigated by individuals' adjustments through migration and relocation behaviors. Previous literature has identified flood risk as one significant driver in relocation decisions, but no prior study examines the effect of the National Flood Insurance Program's voluntary program-the Community Rating System (CRS)-on residential location choice. This article fills this gap and tests the hypothesis that flood risk and the CRS-creditable flood control activities affect residential location choices. We employ a two-stage sorting model to empirically estimate the effects. In the first stage, individuals' risk perception and preference heterogeneity for the CRS activities are considered, while mean effects of flood risk and the CRS activities are estimated in the second stage. We then estimate heterogeneous marginal willingness to pay (WTP) for the CRS activities by category. Results show that age, ethnicity and race, educational attainment, and prior exposure to risk explain risk perception. We find significant values for the CRS-creditable mitigation activities, which provides empirical evidence for the benefits associated with the program. The marginal WTP for an additional credit point earned for public information activities, including hazard disclosure, is found to be the highest. Results also suggest that water amenities dominate flood risk. Thus, high amenity values may increase exposure to flood risk, and flood mitigation projects should be strategized in coastal regions accordingly. PMID:26552993

  6. Flood Risk, Flood Mitigation, and Location Choice: Evaluating the National Flood Insurance Program's Community Rating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qin; Davlasheridze, Meri

    2016-06-01

    Climate change is expected to worsen the negative effects of natural disasters like floods. The negative impacts, however, can be mitigated by individuals' adjustments through migration and relocation behaviors. Previous literature has identified flood risk as one significant driver in relocation decisions, but no prior study examines the effect of the National Flood Insurance Program's voluntary program-the Community Rating System (CRS)-on residential location choice. This article fills this gap and tests the hypothesis that flood risk and the CRS-creditable flood control activities affect residential location choices. We employ a two-stage sorting model to empirically estimate the effects. In the first stage, individuals' risk perception and preference heterogeneity for the CRS activities are considered, while mean effects of flood risk and the CRS activities are estimated in the second stage. We then estimate heterogeneous marginal willingness to pay (WTP) for the CRS activities by category. Results show that age, ethnicity and race, educational attainment, and prior exposure to risk explain risk perception. We find significant values for the CRS-creditable mitigation activities, which provides empirical evidence for the benefits associated with the program. The marginal WTP for an additional credit point earned for public information activities, including hazard disclosure, is found to be the highest. Results also suggest that water amenities dominate flood risk. Thus, high amenity values may increase exposure to flood risk, and flood mitigation projects should be strategized in coastal regions accordingly.

  7. 77 FR 46104 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  8. 77 FR 76501 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  9. 78 FR 58334 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  10. 78 FR 43906 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  11. 78 FR 58338 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  12. 78 FR 28888 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  13. 77 FR 44650 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  14. 77 FR 44651 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  15. 78 FR 43907 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  16. 77 FR 27076 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  17. 78 FR 48888 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  18. 78 FR 28891 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  19. 78 FR 77481 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency ; Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  20. 77 FR 67016 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  1. 77 FR 40627 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  2. Elephant Butte Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  3. Estancia Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  4. Williamsburg Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  5. Flood Frequency Analysis of Main Nara Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Manohar Lal; Bakhshal Khan Lashari; Khalifa Qasim Laghari

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the flood of 2007 and its frequency analysis at MNY (Main Nara Valley), and generally describe flood of 2010 in Sindh Pakistan. Heavy monsoon rain and cyclones cause the flood conditions in Sindh. The damages happened to the infrastructure of the MNVD from RD (Reduced Distance) 0-100 and the ecological impacts of the flood on the local region of Taluka Johi, District Dadu. For flood risk assessment and its description, knowledge of extreme flood events and...

  6. Floods in the Saguenay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Footage of a natural disaster that occurred between July 20 and 25 1996, in the Saguenay region of Quebec was documented. A heavy downpour of rain raised the water level of the Kenogami Lake reservoir beyond its capacity. This created huge pressure on its dam that upset the fragile balance between nature and rock. The dam raptured, resulting in a flood of previously unseen proportions. The Riviere au Sable in Jonquiere became an overwhelming body of water. The video showed how the shores of the river were eroded and how apartment buildings were engulfed by the torrent of water. A newly constructed electricity power plant had to be decommissioned, roads were washed away and entire neighborhoods were devastated. The devastation suffered by the cities of Chicoutimi, Jonquiere, Ville de la Baie, Ferland-Boileau, and L'Anse St-Jean was recorded. Thousands of victims of the disaster were evacuated with the help of the Canadian Armed Forces. Some of the work of reconstruction, begun even before the total retreat of the flood, involved restoration of roads, bridges and communication networks, was also shown

  7. Environmental impacts of Major Flood Events: Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reible, D. D.

    2008-05-01

    The flooding of New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina provides many lessons for the environmental and engineering communities and raises serious public policy questions about risk management. Although serious environmental and waste management concerns were highlighted as a result of the flooding, many were not observed in the extensive environmental sampling that occurred. The potential environmental consequences were of concern because of the many chemical plants, petroleum facilities, and contaminated sites, including Superfund sites, in the areas covered by floodwaters. The potential sources of toxics and environmental contaminants included metal-contaminated soils typical of old urban areas. Compounding these concerns is the presence of hazardous chemicals commonly stored in households and commercial establishments and the fuel and motor oil in approximately 350,000 flooded automobiles. Uncontrolled biological wastes from both human and animal sources also contributed to the pollutant burden. There were concerns associated with the immediate impacts of the flooding, the disposal of the debris and wastes in the aftermath, as well as the long- term legacy associated with contaminants in homes and yards. This discussion focuses on successes and failures in responding to each of these concerns as well as lessons learned for future major flooding events. Special attention is paid to some of the unique hazards posed by Katrina, including water quality impacts associated with debris disposal, high indoor concentrations of contaminants due to fractionation from outdoor soils, and mold.

  8. Reframing floods: proposals and politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, A.; Warner, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this special volume is to critically examine the various ways in which floods and flood management are framed in current policies, especially the “space for rivers” policies that have been adopted in many countries of Western Europe. The articles in this volume discuss different aspects o

  9. Journal of Flood Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2011-01-01

    The Journal of Flood Risk Management is dedicated to knowledge exchange in all fields related to flood risk. It is intended to hydrologists, meteorologists, geographers, geomorphologists, conservators, civil engineers, sociologists, etc. The journal was initiated by Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management and Wiley-Blackwell. It has been published in four volumes per year since 2008.

  10. Geomorphological factors of flash floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Yulia

    2016-04-01

    Growing anthropogenic load, rise of extreme meteorological events frequency and total precipitation depth often lead to increasing danger of catastrophic fluvial processes worldwide. Flash floods are one of the most dangerous and less understood types of them. Difficulties of their study are mainly related to short duration of single events, remoteness and hard access to origin areas. Most detailed researches of flash floods focus on hydrological parameters of the flow itself and its meteorological factors. At the same time, importance of the basin geological and geomorphological structure for flash floods generation and the role they play in global sediment redistribution is yet poorly understood. However, understanding and quantitative assessment of these features is a real basis for a complete concept of factors, characteristics and dynamics of flash floods. This work is a review of published data on flash floods, and focuses on the geomorphological factors of the phenomenon. We consider both individual roles and interactions between different geomorphological features (the whole basin parameters, characteristics of the single slopes and valley bottom). Special attention is paid to critical values of certain factors. This approach also highlights the gaps or less studied factors of flash floods. Finally, all data is organized into a complex diagram that may be used for flash floods modeling. This also may help to reach a new level of flash flood predictions and risk assessment.

  11. Developing a Malaysia flood model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseldine, Lucy; Baxter, Stephen; Wheeler, Phil; Thomson, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Faced with growing exposures in Malaysia, insurers have a need for models to help them assess their exposure to flood losses. The need for an improved management of flood risks has been further highlighted by the 2011 floods in Thailand and recent events in Malaysia. The increasing demand for loss accumulation tools in Malaysia has lead to the development of the first nationwide probabilistic Malaysia flood model, which we present here. The model is multi-peril, including river flooding for thousands of kilometres of river and rainfall-driven surface water flooding in major cities, which may cause losses equivalent to river flood in some high-density urban areas. The underlying hazard maps are based on a 30m digital surface model (DSM) and 1D/2D hydraulic modelling in JFlow and RFlow. Key mitigation schemes such as the SMART tunnel and drainage capacities are also considered in the model. The probabilistic element of the model is driven by a stochastic event set based on rainfall data, hence enabling per-event and annual figures to be calculated for a specific insurance portfolio and a range of return periods. Losses are estimated via depth-damage vulnerability functions which link the insured damage to water depths for different property types in Malaysia. The model provides a unique insight into Malaysian flood risk profiles and provides insurers with return period estimates of flood damage and loss to property portfolios through loss exceedance curve outputs. It has been successfully validated against historic flood events in Malaysia and is now being successfully used by insurance companies in the Malaysian market to obtain reinsurance cover.

  12. Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

    2008-03-31

    This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability

  13. Spectroscopic classification of supernova candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkin, S. T.; Hall, A.; Fraser, M.; Campbell, H.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Pietro, N.

    2014-09-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of four supernovae at the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma, using the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph and the R300V grating (3500-8000 Ang; ~6 Ang resolution).

  14. Lateral Flooding Associated to Wave Flood Generation on River Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Núñez, C.; Parrot, J.-F.

    2016-06-01

    This research provides a wave flood simulation using a high resolution LiDAR Digital Terrain Model. The simulation is based on the generation of waves of different amplitudes that modify the river level in such a way that water invades the adjacent areas. The proposed algorithm firstly reconstitutes the original river surface of the studied river section and then defines the percentage of water loss when the wave floods move downstream. This procedure was applied to a gently slope area in the lower basin of Coatzacoalcos river, Veracruz (Mexico) defining the successive areas where lateral flooding occurs on its downstream movement.

  15. A Comparison of Near- and Mid-Infrared Spectroscopic Methods for the Analysis of Several Nutritionally Important Chemical Substances in the Chinese Yam (Dioscorea opposita): Total Sugar, Polysaccharides, and Flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Hua; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2015-04-01

    The Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita) is a basic food in Asia and especially China. Consequently, an uncomplicated, reliable method should be available for the analysis of the quality and origin of the yams. Thus, near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopic methods were developed to discriminate among Chinese yam samples collected from four geographical regions. The yam samples were analyzed also for total sugar, polysaccharides, and flavonoids. These three analytes were used to compare the performance of the analytical methods. Overlapping spectra were resolved using chemometrics methods. Such spectra were compared qualitatively using principal component analysis (PCA) and quantitatively using partial least squares (PLS) and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) models. We discriminated among the four sets of yam data using PCA, and the NIR data performed somewhat better than the mid-IR data. We constructed the PLS and LS-SVM calibration models for the prediction of the three key variables, and the LS-SVM model produced better results. Also, the NIR prediction model produced better outcomes than the mid-IR prediction model. Thus, both infrared (IR) techniques performed well for the analysis of the three key analytes, and the samples were qualitatively discriminated according to their provinces of origin. Both techniques may be recommended for the analysis of Chinese yams, although the NIR technique would be preferred. PMID:25742643

  16. Flood Frequency Analysis of Main Nara Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manohar Lal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the flood of 2007 and its frequency analysis at MNY (Main Nara Valley, and generally describe flood of 2010 in Sindh Pakistan. Heavy monsoon rain and cyclones cause the flood conditions in Sindh. The damages happened to the infrastructure of the MNVD from RD (Reduced Distance 0-100 and the ecological impacts of the flood on the local region of Taluka Johi, District Dadu. For flood risk assessment and its description, knowledge of extreme flood events and their return periods is important. This is achieved by regional flood frequency analysis, which deals with using flood information from different sites within a hydrologically homogeneous region. At the study area and its surroundings, information of previous 12 peak floods of 50 years have been collected and analyzed for flood frequency analysis. The Gumble\\'s flood frequency and analytical methods have been used for obtaining the flood frequency. Generally, flood threat to this area is mainly from Nai Gaj River and rarely from flash floods from Balouchistan. The disastrous flood of 2007 and 2010 were the examples of the heavy floods in the last 50 years history at the study area. Analysis results suggest constructing small reservoirs in order to permanently solve the flood problems and to use the stored water for agricultural and other needs.

  17. Retention of an overall system during enhanced oil recovery from reservoirs by means of chemical flooding. Final report. Retention eines Gesamtchemikaliensystems bei der Mehrentoelung von Lagerstaetten durch chemisches Fluten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinitz, W.

    1990-09-01

    The economic efficiency of tertiary petroleum production processes is determined by the retention behaviour of the chemicals used in the petroleum reservoir. Application-oriented laboratory experiments on retention in an overall system were carried out in an overall system. The experiments started with an analytical characterisation of the chemical substances used, and of the surrounding rock and water phases. The following influencing parameters of material loss were considered. Deposit conditions rock composition, crude oil properties, chemical substances (o.g. mixed tensides and xanthane). (EF).

  18. Electron energy-loss spectroscopic tomography of FexCo(3-x)O4 impregnated Co3O4 mesoporous particles: unraveling the chemical information in three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedra, L; Eljarrat, A; Arenal, R; López-Conesa, L; Pellicer, E; López-Ortega, A; Estrader, M; Sort, J; Baró, M D; Estradé, S; Peiró, F

    2016-08-01

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy-spectrum image (EELS-SI) tomography is a powerful tool to investigate the three dimensional chemical configuration in nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, the possibility to characterize the spatial distribution of Fe and Co cations in a complex FexCo(3-x)O4/Co3O4 ordered mesoporous system. This hybrid material is relevant because of the ferrimagnetic/antiferromagnetic coupling and high surface area. We unambiguously prove that the EELS-SI tomography shows a sufficiently high resolution to simultaneously unravel the pore structure and the chemical signal. PMID:27314942

  19. Radioactive contamination of flood land landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    washed out be higher layers of water to reservoirs. Thus, the processes of soil erosion and take place. When high level of water take place, lower parts of lands are flooded both on flood lands and outside their limits. The lowlands also accumulate the relative mobile forms of 90Sr, from where they are washed out to rivers. During high water season radiostrontium concentration is increased. The study of vertical distribution of radionuclides along the flood land soil profile demonstrates, that the basic concentration of 137Cs is accumulated in horizon ?1, and on different depths there are sites with higher accumulation of radionuclides, so called chemical barriers (accumulation of radionuclides in sites where ??, Fe etc. are presented). Thus, if there is an accumulation 137Cs, the concentration of 90Sr is minimum, and on the contrary. The ecological situation at present time is characterized by decrease in deposition levels of higher layers of water supply system and in out wash of radionuclides to lower terrains, reservoir flood lands and to the deeper layers of soil and resulting increase in deposition levels in lower sites and flood lands takes place. On the whole, contamination of landscapes of fluvial plains has inevitably changed due to radioactive decay, reallocation of radionuclides along a landscape and geochemical profile and out wash to rivers

  20. 1976 Big Thompson flood, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, R. D.; Vandas, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the early evening of July 31, 1976, a large stationary thunderstorm released as much as 7.5 inches of rainfall in about an hour (about 12 inches in a few hours) in the upper reaches of the Big Thompson River drainage. This large amount of rainfall in such a short period of time produced a flash flood that caught residents and tourists by surprise. The immense volume of water that churned down the narrow Big Thompson Canyon scoured the river channel and destroyed everything in its path, including 418 homes, 52 businesses, numerous bridges, paved and unpaved roads, power and telephone lines, and many other structures. The tragedy claimed the lives of 144 people. Scores of other people narrowly escaped with their lives. The Big Thompson flood ranks among the deadliest of Colorado's recorded floods. It is one of several destructive floods in the United States that has shown the necessity of conducting research to determine the causes and effects of floods. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts research and operates a Nationwide streamgage network to help understand and predict the magnitude and likelihood of large streamflow events such as the Big Thompson Flood. Such research and streamgage information are part of an ongoing USGS effort to reduce flood hazards and to increase public awareness.

  1. From flood management systems to flood resilient systems: integration of flood resilient technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salagnac, J.-L.; Diez, J.; Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flooding has always been a major risk world-wide. Humans chose to live and develop settlements close to water (rivers, seas) due to the resources water brings, i.e. food, energy, capacity to economically transport persons and goods, and recreation. However, the risk from flooding, including pluvial flooding, often offsets these huge advantages. Floods sometimes have terrible consequences from both a human and economic point of view. The permanence and growth of urban areas in flood-prone zones despite these risks is a clear indication of the choices of concerned human groups. The observed growing concentration of population along the sea shore, the increase of urban population worldwide, the exponential growth of the world population and possibly climate change are factors that confirm flood will remain a major issue for the next decades. Flood management systems are designed and implemented to cope with such situations. In spite of frequent events, lessons look to be difficult to draw out and progresses are rather slow. The list of potential triggers to improve flood management systems is nevertheless well established: information, education, awareness raising, alert, prevention, protection, feedback from events, ... Many disciplines are concerned which cover a wide range of soft and hard sciences. A huge amount of both printed and electronic literature is available. Regulations are abundant. In spite of all these potentially favourable elements, similar questions spring up after each new significant event: • Was the event forecast precise enough? • Was the alert system efficient? • Why were buildings built in identified flood prone areas? • Why did the concerned population not follow instructions? • Why did the dike break? • What should we do to avoid it happens again? • What about damages evaluation, wastes and debris evacuation, infrastructures and buildings repair, activity recovery, temporary relocation of inhabitants, health concerns, insurance

  2. LATERAL FLOODING ASSOCIATED TO WAVE FLOOD GENERATION ON RIVER SURFACE

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez-Núñez, C.; Parrot, J.-F.

    2016-01-01

    This research provides a wave flood simulation using a high resolution LiDAR Digital Terrain Model. The simulation is based on the generation of waves of different amplitudes that modify the river level in such a way that water invades the adjacent areas. The proposed algorithm firstly reconstitutes the original river surface of the studied river section and then defines the percentage of water loss when the wave floods move downstream. This procedure was applied to a gently slope area in the...

  3. Local Flood Action Groups: Governance And Resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forrest, Steven; Trell, Elen-Maarja; Woltjer, Johan; Macoun, Milan; Maier, Karel

    2015-01-01

    A diverse range of citizen groups focusing on flood risk management have been identified in several European countries. The paper discusses the role of flood action (citizen) groups in the context of flood resilience and will do this by analysing the UK and its diverse range of flood groups. These c

  4. Floods of 2005 in the State of Veracruz Book Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda, A.; Ochoa, C.

    2007-05-01

    During October of 2005, when hurricane Stan caused destruction to the center and south of the state of Veracruz, a book was elaborated. The book's called Floods of 2005 in the state of Veracruz and contains twenty chapters. The first three chapters conform a panoramic of the book and two historical and archaeological contributions. One second part takes care of the natural phenomena of floods: meteorological, hydrological aspects, and biodiversity. Economic and social aspects are the largest contents of the volume, which concludes with reflections towards the future: the possible consequences of global climatic change, the chemical component that's not considered in the evaluation and prevention of risks by hidrometeorogical phenomena, and the duty of political prevention of disasters. The frame reference for the book is through a discussion of all kind of contributions. Which means that this book presentation is for the geophysicists community of Mexico. Keywords: Floods, state of Veracruz, risks and disasters.

  5. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation. PMID:27527202

  6. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation. PMID:27527202

  7. Natural Flood Management in context: evaluating and enhancing the impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Peter; Beven, Keith; Hankin, Barry; Lamb, Rob

    2016-04-01

    The series of flood events in the UK throughout December 2015 have led to calls for a reappraisal of the country's approach to flood management. In parts of Cumbria so-called "1 in 100" year floods have occurred three times in the last ten years, leading to significant infrastructure damage. Hard-engineered defences upgraded to cope with an anticipated 20% increase in peak flows and these 1% AEP events have been overwhelmed. It has become more widely acknowledged that unsympathetic agricultural and upland management practices, mainly since the Second World War, have led to a significant loss of storage in mid and upper catchments and their consequent ability to retain and slow storm run-off. Natural Flood Management (NFM) is a nature-based solution to restoring this storage and flood peak attenuation through a network of small-scale features exploiting natural topography and materials. Combined with other "soft" interventions such as restoring flood plain roughness and tree-planting, NFM offers the attractive prospect of an intervention that can target both the ecological and chemical objectives of the Water Framework Directive and the resilience demanded by the Floods Directive. We developed a simple computerised physical routing model that can account for the presence of in-channel and offline features such as would be found in a NFM scheme. These will add storage to the channel and floodplain and throttle the downstream discharge at storm flows. The model was applied to the heavily-modified channel network of an agricultural catchment in North Yorkshire using the run-off simulated for two storm events that caused flooding downstream in the autumn of 2012. Using up to 60 online features we demonstrated some gains in channel storage and a small impact on the flood hydrograph which would, however, have been insufficient to prevent the downstream floods in either of the storms. Complementary research at JBA has applied their hydrodynamic model JFLOW+ to identify

  8. Structural master plan of flood mitigation measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, A.

    2009-01-01

    Flood protection is one of the practical methods in damage reduction. Although it not possible to be completely protected from flood disaster but major part of damages can be reduced by mitigation plans. In this paper, the optimum flood mitigation master plan is determined by economic evaluation in trading off between the construction costs and expected value of damage reduction as the benefits. Size of the certain mitigation alternative is also be obtained by risk analysis by accepting possibility of flood overtopping. Different flood mitigation alternatives are investigated from various aspects in the Dez and Karun river floodplain areas as a case study in south west of IRAN. The results show that detention dam and flood diversion are the best alternatives of flood mitigation methods as well as enforcing the flood control purpose of upstream multipurpose reservoirs. Dyke and levees are not mostly justifiable because of negative impact on down stream by enhancing routed flood peak discharge magnitude and flood damages as well.

  9. Bangladesh, a state at permanent flood risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, J.U. [Bangladesh Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Inst. of Flood Control and Drainage Research

    2000-07-01

    Bangladesh is in a setting of large floodplain-delta complex at the junctions of three large rivers the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Meghna. Flood is an annual phenomenon here. Flood proofing was the strategy of flood management in ancient times. Major flood control projects started in the country 36 years ago. These projects have prevented normal floods, but not been able to reduce the risk of larger floods, rather caused increased flood risk in many areas. In view of social and environmental consequences of these projects, flood management policy has been changed a number of times. As per recent change, instead of new flood control project, flood proofing would be encouraged in rural areas. (orig.)

  10. FEMA Flood Insurance Studies Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital data set provides an inventory of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) that have been conducted for communities and...

  11. Flood Fighting Products Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A wave research basin at the ERDC Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory has been modified specifically for testing of temporary, barrier-type, flood fighting products....

  12. Chemical constituents from Abutilon indicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ping-Chung; Yang, Mei-Lin; Wu, Pei-Lin; Shih, Hui-Nung; Thang, Tran Dinh; Dung, Nguyen Xuan; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2008-01-01

    The investigation on the chemical constituents of the whole plant of Abutilon indicum has resulted in the isolation of two new compounds, abutilin A (1) and (R)-N-(1'-methoxycarbonyl-2'-phenylethyl)-4-hydroxybenzamide (2), as well as 28 known compounds. The structures of the two new compounds were established on the basis of the spectroscopic analysis, and the known compounds were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic and physical data with those reported in the literature. PMID:18636384

  13. Elk River Watershed - Flood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding has the potential to cause significant impacts to economic activities as well as to disrupt or displace populations. Changing climate regimes such as extreme precipitation events increase flood vulnerability and put additional stresses on infrastructure. Potential flooding from just under 100 (2009 NPRI Reviewed Facility Data Release, Environment Canada) toxic tailings ponds located in Canada increase risk to human safety and the environment. One such geotechnical failure spilt billions of litres of toxic tailings into the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, when a tailings pond dam breach occurred in August 2014. Damaged and washed out roadways cut access to essential services as seen by the extensive floods that occurred in Saskatchewan and Manitoba in July 2014, and in Southern Alberta in 2013. Recovery efforts from events such as these can be lengthy, and have substantial social and economic impacts both in loss of revenue and cost of repair. The objective of this study is to investigate existing conditions in the Elk River watershed and model potential future hydrological changes that can increase flood risk hazards. By analyzing existing hydrology, meteorology, land cover, land use, economic, and settlement patterns a baseline is established for existing conditions in the Elk River watershed. Coupling the Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model with flood hazard analysis methodology, high-resolution flood vulnerability base line maps are created using historical climate conditions. Further work in 2015 will examine possible impacts for a range of climate change and land use change scenarios to define changes to future flood risk and vulnerability.

  14. Introduction to flood control science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book covers introduction, industrialization disaster such as Bhopal and Chernobyl disaster, earthquake disaster, volcano disaster, avalanche disaster including loss allocation and prevention measures, and natural fire by showing California, Yellowstone park and similarity between fire and flood. It also introduces climate change and disaster, Earth's greenhouse effect and disaster due to current sea level rise, flood damage, drought disaster, famine and drought, prediction of drought, population problems, outlook of world population, and disaster prevention administration system of Korea.

  15. FLOODING ATTACK AWARE SECURE AODV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Madhavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing security in a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a challenging task due to its inherent nature. Flooding is a type of Denial of Service (DoS attack in MANET. Intentional flooding may lead to disturbances in the networking operation. This kind of attack consumes battery power, storage space and bandwidth. Flooding the excessive number of packets may degrade the performance of the network. This study considers hello flooding attack. As the hello packets are continuously flooded by the malicious node, the neighbor node is not able to process other packets. The functioning of the legitimate node is diverted and destroys the networking operation. Absence of hello packet during the periodical hello interval may lead to wrong assumption that the neighbor node has moved away. So one of the intermediate neighbor nodes sends Route Error (RERR message and the source node reinitiates the route discovery process. In a random fashion the hello interval values are changed and convey this information to other nodes in the network in a secured manner. This study identifies and prevents the flooding attack. This methodology considers the performance parameters such as packet delivery ratio, delay and throughput. This algorithm is implemented in Secure AODV and tested in ad hoc environment. The result of the proposed algorithm decreases the control overhead by 2%.

  16. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  17. Scales of Natural Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Alex; Quinn, Paul; Owen, Gareth; Hetherington, David; Piedra Lara, Miguel; O'Donnell, Greg

    2016-04-01

    The scientific field of Natural flood Management (NFM) is receiving much attention and is now widely seen as a valid solution to sustainably manage flood risk whilst offering significant multiple benefits. However, few examples exist looking at NFM on a large scale (>10km2). Well-implemented NFM has the effect of restoring more natural catchment hydrological and sedimentological processes, which in turn can have significant flood risk and WFD benefits for catchment waterbodies. These catchment scale improvements in-turn allow more 'natural' processes to be returned to rivers and streams, creating a more resilient system. Although certain NFM interventions may appear distant and disconnected from main stem waterbodies, they will undoubtedly be contributing to WFD at the catchment waterbody scale. This paper offers examples of NFM, and explains how they can be maximised through practical design across many scales (from feature up to the whole catchment). New tools to assist in the selection of measures and their location, and to appreciate firstly, the flooding benefit at the local catchment scale and then show a Flood Impact Model that can best reflect the impacts of local changes further downstream. The tools will be discussed in the context of our most recent experiences on NFM projects including river catchments in the north east of England and in Scotland. This work has encouraged a more integrated approach to flood management planning that can use both traditional and novel NFM strategies in an effective and convincing way.

  18. Flooding Effect on Earth Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Banimahd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Earth building is a sustainable, environmentally friendly and economical method of construction that has been used worldwide for many centuries. For the past three decades, earth has seen a revival as a building material for a modern construction method due to its benefits in terms of low carbon content, low cost and energy involved during construction, as well as the fact that it is a sustainable technology of building. Climate change is influencing precipitation levels and patterns around the world, and as a consequence, flood risk is increasing rapidly. When flooding occurs, earth buildings are exposed to water by submersion, causing an increase in the degree of saturation of the earth structures and therefore a decrease of the suction between particles. This study investigated the effect of cycles of flooding (consecutive events of flooding followed by dry periods on earth walls. A series of characterization tests were carried out to obtain the physical and mechanical properties of the studied earth material. In a second stage, Flooding Simulation Tests (FST were performed to explore the earth walls’ response to repeated flooding events. The results obtained for the tested earth wall/samples with reinforced material (straw reveal hydraulic hysteresis when wall/samples are subject to cycles of wetting and drying.

  19. National Flood Interoperability Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The National Flood Interoperability Experiment is led by the academic community in collaboration with the National Weather Service through the new National Water Center recently opened on the Tuscaloosa campus of the University of Alabama. The experiment will also involve the partners in IWRSS (Integrated Water Resources Science and Services), which include the USGS, the Corps of Engineers and FEMA. The experiment will address the following questions: (1) How can near-real-time hydrologic forecasting at high spatial resolution, covering the nation, be carried out using the NHDPlus or next generation geofabric (e.g. hillslope, watershed scales)? (2) How can this lead to improved emergency response and community resilience? (3) How can improved an improved interoperability framework support the first two goals and lead to sustained innovation in the research to operations process? The experiment will run from September 2014 through August 2015, in two phases. The mobilization phase from September 2014 until May 2015 will assemble the components of the interoperability framework. A Summer Institute to integrate the components will be held from June to August 2015 at the National Water Center involving faculty and students from the University of Alabama and other institutions coordinated by CUAHSI. It is intended that the insight that arises from this experiment will help lay the foundation for a new national scale, high spatial resolution, near-real-time hydrologic simulation system for the United States.

  20. 大庆油田提高原油采收率技术综述(英文)%What is After Water Flooding in Daqing Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德民; 廖广志

    2001-01-01

    Many EOR methods have been tested after water flooding in Daqing Oilfield.CO2,natural gas, micellar, microbial, steam, polymer and ASP flooding have been tested in the lab and field (some field tests have been performed). Most of the results are good. CO2、natural gas、micellar are not suitable to be used in Daqing Oilfield. Polymer flooding of pilots and industrial scale have been successful. The results of polymer flooding are related closely to the injection parameters and injection methods. The incremental oil productions are 100 to 140 tons of oil per ton of polymer injected. The oil recovery increased 10% to 14%OOIP. ASP flooding is successful. The cost of chemicals per barrel of incremental oil is $4.0 to $6.2.The incremental recovery is 18% to 20% OOIP over water flooding.Daqing Oilfield;Polymer flooding;ASP flooding

  1. Spectroscopic characterization of nitroaromatic landmine signature explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P.; Manrique-Bastidas, Cesar A.; Blanco, Alejandro; Primera, Oliva M.; Pacheco, Leonardo C.; Castillo-Chara, Jairo; Castro, Miguel E.; Mina, Nairmen

    2004-09-01

    TNT and DNT are important explosives used as base charges of landmines and other explosive devices. They are often combined with RDX in specific explosive formulations. Their detection in vapor phase as well as in soil in contact with the explosives is important in landmine detection technology. The spectroscopic signatures of nitroaromatic compounds in neat forms: crystals, droplets, and recrystallized samples were determined by Raman Microspectroscopy (RS), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FTIR) and Fiber Optics Coupled - Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FOC-FTIR) using a grazing angle (GA) probe. TNT exhibits a series of characteristic bands: vibrational signatures, which allow its detection in soil. The spectroscopic signature of neat TNT is dominated by strong bands about 1380 and 2970 cm-1. The intensity and position of these bands were found remarkably different in soil samples spiked with TNT. The 1380 cm-1 band is split into a number of bands in that region. The 2970 cm-1 band is reduced in intensity and new bands are observed about 2880 cm-1. The results are consistent with a different chemical environment of TNT in soil as compared to neat TNT. Interactions were found to be dependent on the physical source of the explosive. In the case of DNT-sand interactions, shifts in vibrational frequencies of the explosives as well as the substrates were found.

  2. Static adsorption measurements and development of a method of analysis for an overall chemical system for enhanced recovery by means of chemical flooding. Final report. Statische Adsorptionsmessungen und Entwicklung eines Analysenverfahrens fuer ein Gesamtchemikaliensystem bei der Mehrentoelung von Lagerstaetten durch Chemisches Fluten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menz, D.

    1990-01-01

    Retention studies were verified in a model of the Eddesse Nord deposit in Niedersachsen. Enhanced recovery of petroleum is attempted using a tenside mixture consisting of an ionic tenside of the petrol sulfonate group and a non-ionic tenside of the group of alkylpropoxylated-ethoxylated polyethers. The tenside slug will be followed by the biopolymer xanthane. Quantitative analyses of the tensides and the xanthane will only be possible after isolation of the components out of the matrix 'water-salt-crude oil'. Separation methods and analytical methods were developed and optimized; they have been described in detail. The static retention measurements were carried out on 'Valentin Busch' quartz sand. No significant differences were found between anionic and ionic tensides as far as retention was concerned. Clay minerals appear to have considerable influence on the retention characteristics; although the retention efficiency was higher in this case, again there were no significant differences between the two types of tensides. Flooding experiments on quartz sand packings without oil (dynamic retention) yielded similar results as compared with static retention. Flooding experiments on enhanced recovery in Wealden sandstone cores (about 3% clay) showed varying retention patterns. The mixing ratio of the two tenside types was found to change during flooding, both in the oil phase and in the aqueous phase. (orig.).

  3. Floods and climate: emerging perspectives for flood risk assessment and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merz, B.; Aerts, J.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten;

    2014-01-01

    Flood estimation and flood management have traditionally been the domain of hydrologists, water resources engineers and statisticians, and disciplinary approaches abound. Dominant views have been shaped; one example is the catchment perspective: floods are formed and influenced by the interaction...

  4. Development of alkaline/surfactant/polymer (ASP flooding technology for recovery of Karazhanbas oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birzhan Zhappasbaev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The tertiary oil recovery methods like alkaline, surfactant and polymer (ASP flooding are very perspective in order to achieve the synergetic effect out of the different impacts which are caused by these chemicals, which affect oil and water filtration in the reservoir and increase oil recovery. In this communication, we consider the applicability of hydrophobically modified polyampholyte – poly(hexadecylaminocrotonatebetaine (PHDACB as ASP flooding agent for recovery of oil from Karazhanbas oilfield. As “polysoap”, the aqueous solution of PHDACB dissolved in aqueous KOH was used. This system combines the advantages of alkaline, surfactant and polymer and exhibits the synergistic effect. The laboratory results showed that the ASP flooding considerably increases the oil recovery in addition to water flooding. In perspective, the ASP flooding may substitute the steam injection and other thermal enhanced oil recovery (EOR technologies.

  5. Spectroscopic analysis of optoelectronic semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with standard spectroscopic techniques which can be used to analyze semiconductor samples or devices, in both, bulk, micrometer and submicrometer scale. The book aims helping experimental physicists and engineers to choose the right analytical spectroscopic technique in order to get specific information about their specific demands. For this purpose, the techniques including technical details such as apparatus and probed sample region are described. More important, also the expected outcome from experiments is provided. This involves also the link to theory, that is not subject of this book, and the link to current experimental results in the literature which are presented in a review-like style. Many special spectroscopic techniques are introduced and their relationship to the standard techniques is revealed. Thus the book works also as a type of guide or reference book for people researching in optical spectroscopy of semiconductors.

  6. BEYOND FLOOD HAZARD MAPS: DETAILED FLOOD CHARACTERIZATION WITH REMOTE SENSING, GIS AND 2D MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Santillan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is considered to be one of the most destructive among many natural disasters such that understanding floods and assessing the risks associated to it are becoming more important nowadays. In the Philippines, Remote Sensing (RS and Geographic Information System (GIS are two main technologies used in the nationwide modelling and mapping of flood hazards. Although the currently available high resolution flood hazard maps have become very valuable, their use for flood preparedness and mitigation can be maximized by enhancing the layers of information these maps portrays. In this paper, we present an approach based on RS, GIS and two-dimensional (2D flood modelling to generate new flood layers (in addition to the usual flood depths and hazard layers that are also very useful in flood disaster management such as flood arrival times, flood velocities, flood duration, flood recession times, and the percentage within a given flood event period a particular location is inundated. The availability of these new layers of flood information are crucial for better decision making before, during, and after occurrence of a flood disaster. The generation of these new flood characteristic layers is illustrated using the Cabadbaran River Basin in Mindanao, Philippines as case study area. It is envisioned that these detailed maps can be considered as additional inputs in flood disaster risk reduction and management in the Philippines.

  7. Beyond Flood Hazard Maps: Detailed Flood Characterization with Remote Sensing, GIS and 2d Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, J. R.; Marqueso, J. T.; Makinano-Santillan, M.; Serviano, J. L.

    2016-09-01

    Flooding is considered to be one of the most destructive among many natural disasters such that understanding floods and assessing the risks associated to it are becoming more important nowadays. In the Philippines, Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) are two main technologies used in the nationwide modelling and mapping of flood hazards. Although the currently available high resolution flood hazard maps have become very valuable, their use for flood preparedness and mitigation can be maximized by enhancing the layers of information these maps portrays. In this paper, we present an approach based on RS, GIS and two-dimensional (2D) flood modelling to generate new flood layers (in addition to the usual flood depths and hazard layers) that are also very useful in flood disaster management such as flood arrival times, flood velocities, flood duration, flood recession times, and the percentage within a given flood event period a particular location is inundated. The availability of these new layers of flood information are crucial for better decision making before, during, and after occurrence of a flood disaster. The generation of these new flood characteristic layers is illustrated using the Cabadbaran River Basin in Mindanao, Philippines as case study area. It is envisioned that these detailed maps can be considered as additional inputs in flood disaster risk reduction and management in the Philippines.

  8. Technical Research of Reinjection of Chemical Flooding Generated Sewage for Petroleum Energy Exploitation in Bohai Sea%化学驱产出污水回注技术在渤海石油能源开发中的研究与意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田津杰; 朱洪庆; 刘观军

    2014-01-01

    针对渤海化学驱油田产出水特点,开展产出含聚污水配制聚合物并回注地层的再利用技术研究,研究结果表明:污水中的残留聚合物、悬浮物和乳化油对储层的渗透率具有一定的影响;在污水水质的控制指标为残留聚合物≤600 mg/L、乳化油≤50 mg/L、悬浮物≤25 mg/L时,污水配成的2,000 mg/L聚合物溶液的阻力系数值为5.61,残余阻力系数为2.27,说明聚合物溶液发挥了扩大波体积的作用,对于减轻产出化学驱液处理压力,突破海上油田化学驱的产出液处理技术瓶颈,最大限度减少含油污水的危害性,实现废弃资源的再利用,具有重要意义。%In view of the characteristics of chemical flooding generated wastewater in Bohai Sea oilfields,a technical study of both polymer preparation and reinjection of polymer-bearing wastewater was carried out. The research results indicate that residual polymer,suspended solids and emulsified oil in the wastewater have a certain impact on the permeability of the reservoir;when controlling indexes of the wastewater reached:residual polymer ≤600 mg/L, emulsified oil ≤50 mg/L and suspended solids ≤25 mg/L,the resistance coefficient value of the 2,000 mg/L pre-pared polymer solution was 5.61 and residual resistance factor was 2.27,indicating that the solution enlarges the swept volume and may help in the tackling of the technical bottleneck of output liquid treatment for offshore oilfield chemical flooding;it can minimize the hazards of oily sewage,realize the recycling of waste resources,save fresh resources and help in the promotion of sustainable development.

  9. Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Biofield Treated p-Chlorobenzophenone

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    p-Chlorobenzophenone (p-CBP) is the important chemical intermediate used for the synthesis of several pharmaceutical drugs like fenofibrate, cetirizine, alprazolam, and benzodiazepine. The aim of this study was set to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of p-CBP. The study was accomplished in two groups i.e. control and treated. The treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Subseque...

  10. Uncertainty in flood risk mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Luisa M. S.; Fonte, Cidália C.; Gomes, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    A flood refers to a sharp increase of water level or volume in rivers and seas caused by sudden rainstorms or melting ice due to natural factors. In this paper, the flooding of riverside urban areas caused by sudden rainstorms will be studied. In this context, flooding occurs when the water runs above the level of the minor river bed and enters the major river bed. The level of the major bed determines the magnitude and risk of the flooding. The prediction of the flooding extent is usually deterministic, and corresponds to the expected limit of the flooded area. However, there are many sources of uncertainty in the process of obtaining these limits, which influence the obtained flood maps used for watershed management or as instruments for territorial and emergency planning. In addition, small variations in the delineation of the flooded area can be translated into erroneous risk prediction. Therefore, maps that reflect the uncertainty associated with the flood modeling process have started to be developed, associating a degree of likelihood with the boundaries of the flooded areas. In this paper an approach is presented that enables the influence of the parameters uncertainty to be evaluated, dependent on the type of Land Cover Map (LCM) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM), on the estimated values of the peak flow and the delineation of flooded areas (different peak flows correspond to different flood areas). The approach requires modeling the DEM uncertainty and its propagation to the catchment delineation. The results obtained in this step enable a catchment with fuzzy geographical extent to be generated, where a degree of possibility of belonging to the basin is assigned to each elementary spatial unit. Since the fuzzy basin may be considered as a fuzzy set, the fuzzy area of the basin may be computed, generating a fuzzy number. The catchment peak flow is then evaluated using fuzzy arithmetic. With this methodology a fuzzy number is obtained for the peak flow

  11. Extensive Floods in United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Rain continues to fall in the United Kingdom, bringing more water to an already water-logged landscape. Some rivers there are experiencing their worst flooding in more than 50 years. Of particular note, Britain's River Ouse reached its highest levels on record since 1625. Thousands of people have been evacuated from their homes since October 30, when a large low-pressure system brought torrential rains and hurricane-force winds, placing regions around more than 40 rivers across the country on flood alert. Since then, the rains have persisted, keeping water levels high and causing additional rivers to overrun their banks. In all, at least 12 people have been killed and more than 5,000 properties flooded. Some officials estimate damages could reach 500 million pounds (roughly $715 million). These Landsat 7 scenes show a comparison of the region surrounding Exeter, England, before and after the floods. The top image was acquired September 28 and the bottom image was acquired October 30, 2000. Note the extensive flooding along the River Exe in the bottom image (blue pixels). The light bluish-white pixels in the top image are clouds, and the black splotches on the landscape are the clouds' shadows. The reddish-brown shapes are agricultural fields. Image by Robert Simmon and Brian Montgomery, NASA GSFC. Data provided by Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center.

  12. King Tide floods in Tuvalu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C.-C.; Ho, C.-R.; Cheng, Y.-H.

    2013-05-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of sea level rise present regional floods in some certain areas. The low-lying island countries are obviously the spots affected severely. Tuvalu, an atoll island country located in the south-west Pacific Ocean, is suffering the devastating effects of losing life, property, and intending migration caused by floods. They blame the regional flooding to King Tide, a term used but not clearly identified by Pacific islanders. In this study, we clarify what King Tide is first. By the tide gauge and topography data, we estimated the reasonable value of 3.2 m as the threshold of King Tide. This definition also fits to the statement by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of King Tide occurring once or twice a year. In addition, We cross validate the 19 yr data of tide gauge and satellite altimeter (1993-2012), the correlation coefficient indicates King Tide phenomenon is considerable connected to warm water mass. The 28 King Tide events revealed the fact that flooding can be referenced against spring tide levels, so can it be turned up by warm water mass. The warm water mass pushes up sea level; once spring tide, storm surge, or other climate variability overlaps it, the rising sea level might overflow and so has been called "King Tide" for the floods in Tuvalu. This study provides more understanding of the signals of King Tide and an island country case study of regional sea level rise.

  13. Flood Loss Model for Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punčochář, P.; Podlaha, A.

    2012-04-01

    A new flood model for Austria quantifying fluvial flood losses based on probabilistic event set developed by Impact Forecasting (Aon Benfield's model development centre) was released in June 2011. It was successfully validated with two serious past flood events - August 2002 and August 2005. The model is based on 10 meters cell size digital terrain model with 1cm vertical step and uses daily mean flows from 548 gauge stations of series of average length ~ 60 years. The even set is based on monthly maxima flows correlation, generating 12 stochastic events per year and allows to calculate annual and occurrence exceedance probability loss estimates. The model contains flood extents for more than 24,000 km of modelled river network compatible with HORA project (HOchwasserRisikoflächen Austria) for design flows ranging from 2 to 10,000 years. Model is primarily constructed to work with postal level resolution insurance data reducing positional uncertainty by weighting over more than 2.5 millions address points from Austria Post's ACGeo database. Countrywide flood protections were provided by the Austrian Ministry of Environment. The model was successfully tested with property portfolios of 8 global and local insurance companies and was also successfully validated with August 2002 and August 2005 past events evaluating their return period on the probabilistic simulation basis.

  14. Flood trends and population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Baldassarre, G.

    2012-04-01

    Since the earliest recorded civilizations, such as those in Mesopotamia and Egypt that developed in the fertile floodplains of the Tigris and Euphrates and Nile rivers, humans tend to settle in flood prone areas as they offer favorable conditions for economic development. However, floodplains are also exposed to flood disasters that might cause severe socio-economic and environmental damages not to mention losses of human lives. A flood event turns to be a disaster when it coincides with a vulnerable environment exceeding society's capacity to manage the adverse consequences. This presentation discusses the link between hydrological risk and population change by referring to the outcomes of scientific works recently carried out in Africa and Europe. More specifically, it is shown that the severity of flood disasters, currently affecting more than 100 million people a year, might be seriously exacerbated because of population change. In fact, flood exposure and/or vulnerability might increase because of rapid population growth (and its spatial and temporal dynamics, e.g. urbanization) in the African continent and because of population ageing in many European countries. Lastly, timely and economically sustainable actions to mitigate this increasing hydrological risk are critically evaluated.

  15. Uncertainty compliant design flood estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botto, A.; Ganora, D.; Laio, F.; Claps, P.

    2014-05-01

    Hydraulic infrastructures are commonly designed with reference to target values of flood peak, estimated using probabilistic techniques, such as flood frequency analysis. The application of these techniques underlies levels of uncertainty, which are sometimes quantified but normally not accounted for explicitly in the decision regarding design discharges. The present approach aims at defining a procedure which enables the definition of Uncertainty Compliant Design (UNCODE) values of flood peaks. To pursue this goal, we first demonstrate the equivalence of the Standard design based on the return period and the cost-benefit procedure, when linear cost and damage functions are used. We then use this result to assign an expected cost to estimation errors, thus setting a framework to obtain a design flood estimator which minimizes the total expected cost. This procedure properly accounts for the uncertainty which is inherent in the frequency curve estimation. Applications of the UNCODE procedure to real cases leads to remarkable displacement of the design flood from the Standard values. UNCODE estimates are systematically larger than the Standard ones, with substantial differences (up to 55%) when large return periods or short data samples are considered.

  16. Global scale predictability of floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerts, Albrecht; Gijsbers, Peter; Sperna Weiland, Frederiek

    2016-04-01

    Flood (and storm surge) forecasting at the continental and global scale has only become possible in recent years (Emmerton et al., 2016; Verlaan et al., 2015) due to the availability of meteorological forecast, global scale precipitation products and global scale hydrologic and hydrodynamic models. Deltares has setup GLOFFIS a research-oriented multi model operational flood forecasting system based on Delft-FEWS in an open experimental ICT facility called Id-Lab. In GLOFFIS both the W3RA and PCRGLOB-WB model are run in ensemble mode using GEFS and ECMWF-EPS (latency 2 days). GLOFFIS will be used for experiments into predictability of floods (and droughts) and their dependency on initial state estimation, meteorological forcing and the hydrologic model used. Here we present initial results of verification of the ensemble flood forecasts derived with the GLOFFIS system. Emmerton, R., Stephens, L., Pappenberger, F., Pagano, T., Weerts, A., Wood, A. Salamon, P., Brown, J., Hjerdt, N., Donnelly, C., Cloke, H. Continental and Global Scale Flood Forecasting Systems, WIREs Water (accepted), 2016 Verlaan M, De Kleermaeker S, Buckman L. GLOSSIS: Global storm surge forecasting and information system 2015, Australasian Coasts & Ports Conference, 15-18 September 2015,Auckland, New Zealand.

  17. Flood frequency analyses with annual and partial flood series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezak, N.; Brilly, M.; Sraj, M.

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the study was (1) to analyse the influence of time scale of the data on the results, (2) to analyse the relations between discharge, volume and time of flood waves of the Sava river at Litija (Slovenia), (3) to perform flood frequency analyses of peak discharges with annual and partial data series and compare the results and (4) to explore the influence of threshold value by POT method. Calculations and analyses were made for the period 1953-2010. Daily scale data sets (considering also local maximum) were used. The flood frequency analyses were based on anual and partial data series. The differences between daily and hourly time scale data sets were explored. Daily and hourly time scale hydrographs were compared and differences were analysed. Differences were adequately small. Daily time series with included maximums were logical choice because of the length of the daily time series and because hourly time series were not continuous due to gauging equipment failures. Important objective of the study was to analyse the relationship between discharge, volume and duration of flood waves. Baseflow was separated from continuous daily discharge measurements on simple and complex hydrographs. Simple graphical method with three points was used. Many different coefficients like base flow index were calculated and different combinations of correlation coefficient of wave components were examined. Annual maximum series were used to study the relationship between wave components. Flood frequency analyses were made with annual maximum series and partial duration series. Log-normal distribution, Pearson distribution type 3, log-Pearson distribution type 3, Gumbel distribution, exponential distribution, GEV distribution and GL distribution were used for annual maximum series. Simple equation of linear transformation was used to determine the design discharge and procedure which is proposed in Flood Estimation Handbook was used with GEV and GL distribution

  18. EEL spectroscopic tomography: Towards a new dimension in nanomaterials analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron tomography is a widely spread technique for recovering the three dimensional (3D) shape of nanostructured materials. Using a spectroscopic signal to achieve a reconstruction adds a fourth chemical dimension to the 3D structure. Up to date, energy filtering of the images in the transmission electron microscope (EFTEM) is the usual spectroscopic method even if most of the information in the spectrum is lost. Unlike EFTEM tomography, the use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectrum images (SI) for tomographic reconstruction retains all chemical information, and the possibilities of this new approach still remain to be fully exploited. In this article we prove the feasibility of EEL spectroscopic tomography at low voltages (80 kV) and short acquisition times from data acquired using an aberration corrected instrument and data treatment by Multivariate Analysis (MVA), applied to FexCo(3−x)O4@Co3O4 mesoporous materials. This approach provides a new scope into materials; the recovery of full EELS signal in 3D. -- Highlights: ► EELS–SI tomography was performed at low voltage and low acquisition times. ► MVA has been applied for noise reduction and information extraction. ► Tomographic reconstruction has been achieved for chemical information. ► Elemental distribution extraction in 3D has been proved.

  19. EEL spectroscopic tomography: Towards a new dimension in nanomaterials analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yedra, Lluis, E-mail: llyedra@el.ub.es [Laboratory of Electron Nanoscopies (LENS)-MIND/IN2UB, Dept. d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, c/ Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); CCiT, Scientific and Technological Centers, Universitat de Barcelona, C/Lluis Sole i Sabaris 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Eljarrat, Alberto [Laboratory of Electron Nanoscopies (LENS)-MIND/IN2UB, Dept. d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, c/ Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Arenal, Raul [Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas (LMA), Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA), Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Fundacion ARAID, E-50004 Zaragoza (Spain); Pellicer, Eva; Cabo, Moises [Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Lopez-Ortega, Alberto; Estrader, Marta [CIN2(CIN-CSIC) and Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology, Campus de la UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Sort, Jordi [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Baro, Maria Dolors [Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); and others

    2012-11-15

    Electron tomography is a widely spread technique for recovering the three dimensional (3D) shape of nanostructured materials. Using a spectroscopic signal to achieve a reconstruction adds a fourth chemical dimension to the 3D structure. Up to date, energy filtering of the images in the transmission electron microscope (EFTEM) is the usual spectroscopic method even if most of the information in the spectrum is lost. Unlike EFTEM tomography, the use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectrum images (SI) for tomographic reconstruction retains all chemical information, and the possibilities of this new approach still remain to be fully exploited. In this article we prove the feasibility of EEL spectroscopic tomography at low voltages (80 kV) and short acquisition times from data acquired using an aberration corrected instrument and data treatment by Multivariate Analysis (MVA), applied to Fe{sub x}Co{sub (3-x)}O{sub 4}@Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} mesoporous materials. This approach provides a new scope into materials; the recovery of full EELS signal in 3D. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EELS-SI tomography was performed at low voltage and low acquisition times. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MVA has been applied for noise reduction and information extraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tomographic reconstruction has been achieved for chemical information. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elemental distribution extraction in 3D has been proved.

  20. Groundwater flood hazards in lowland karst terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Owen; McCormack, Ted

    2016-04-01

    The spatial and temporal complexity of flooding in karst terrains pose unique flood risk management challenges. Lowland karst landscapes can be particularly susceptible to groundwater flooding due to a combination of limited drainage capacity, shallow depth to groundwater and a high level of groundwater-surface water interactions. Historically the worst groundwater flooding to have occurred in the Rep. of Ireland has been centred on the Gort Lowlands, a karst catchment on the western coast of Ireland. Numerous notable flood events have been recorded throughout the 20th century, but flooding during the winters of 2009 and 2015 were the most severe on record, inundating an area in excess of 20km2 and causing widespread and prolonged disruption and damage to property and infrastructure. Effective flood risk management requires an understanding of the recharge, storage and transport mechanisms during flood conditions, but is often hampered by a lack of adequate data. Using information gathered from the 2009 and 2015 events, the main hydrological and geomorphological factors which influence flooding in this complex lowland karst groundwater system under are elucidated. Observed flood mechanisms included backwater flooding of sinks, overland flow caused by the overtopping of sink depressions, high water levels in turlough basins, and surface ponding in local epikarst watersheds. While targeted small-scale flood measures can locally reduce the flood risk associated with some mechanisms, they also have the potential to exacerbate flooding down-catchment and must be assessed in the context of overall catchment hydrology. This study addresses the need to improve our understanding of groundwater flooding in karst terrains, in order to ensure efficient flood prevention and mitigation in future and thus help achieve the aims of the EU Floods Directive.

  1. 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The Central United States experienced record-setting flooding during 2011, with floods that extended from headwater streams in the Rocky Mountains, to transboundary rivers in the upper Midwest and Northern Plains, to the deep and wide sand-bedded lower Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of its mission, collected extensive information during and in the aftermath of the 2011 floods to support scientific analysis of the origins and consequences of extreme floods. The information collected for the 2011 floods, combined with decades of past data, enables scientists and engineers from the USGS to provide syntheses and scientific analyses to inform emergency managers, planners, and policy makers about life-safety, economic, and environmental-health issues surrounding flood hazards for the 2011 floods and future floods like it. USGS data, information, and scientific analyses provide context and understanding of the effect of floods on complex societal issues such as ecosystem and human health, flood-plain management, climate-change adaptation, economic security, and the associated policies enacted for mitigation. Among the largest societal questions is "How do we balance agricultural, economic, life-safety, and environmental needs in and along our rivers?" To address this issue, many scientific questions have to be answered including the following: * How do the 2011 weather and flood conditions compare to the past weather and flood conditions and what can we reasonably expect in the future for flood magnitudes?

  2. Spectroscopic investigations and molecular docking study of (2E)-1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-[4-(propan-2-yl)phenyl]prop-2-en-1-one using quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Shana; Al-Alshaikh, Monirah A.; Panicker, C. Yohannan; El-Emam, Ali A.; Salian, Vinutha V.; Narayana, B.; Sarojini, B. K.; van Alsenoy, C.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy of (2E)-1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-[4-(propan-2-yl)phenyl]prop-2-en-1-one. The computations were performed at DFT level of theory to get the optimizedgeometry and vibrational wave numbers of the normal modes of the title compound using Gaussian09 software. The complete vibrational assignments of wave numbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show chemical activity of the molecule. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. The hyperpolarizability values are reported and the first hyperpolarizability of the title compound is 83.85 times that of standard NLO material urea. From the MEP plot, the negative electrostatic potential regions are mainly localized over the carbonyl group, the phenyl rings and are possible sites for electrophilic attack. The positive regions are localized over all the hydrogen atoms and are possible sites for nucleophilic attack. The molecular docking results suggest that the compound might exhibit inhibitory activity against lymphocyte-specific kinase and may results in design of novel T-cell immunosuppressants.

  3. Comprehensive quantum chemical and spectroscopic (FTIR, FT-Raman, 1H, 13C NMR) investigations of (1,2-epoxyethyl)benzene and (1,2-epoxy-2-phenyl)propane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Anitha, R.; Devi, L.; Mohan, S.; Yang, Haifeng

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic epoxides are causative factors for mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of polycyclic arenes. The 1,2- or 2,3-epoxy compounds are widely used to a considerable extent in the textile, plastics, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, detergent and photochemical industries. The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of (1,2-epoxyethyl)benzene and (1,2-epoxy-2-phenyl)propane are recorded in the regions 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-100 cm-1, respectively. The observed fundamentals are assigned to different normal modes of vibration. The structure of the compound has been optimised with B3LYP method using 6-311++G** and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The IR and Raman intensities are determined. The total electron density and molecular electrostatic potential surfaces of the molecule are constructed by using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method to display electrostatic potential (electron + nuclei) distribution. The electronic properties HOMO and LUMO energies were measured. Natural bond orbital analysis of the compounds has been performed to indicate the presence of intramolecular charge transfer. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the molecules have been analysed.

  4. 77 FR 59675 - Compliance With Information Request, Flooding Hazard Reevaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Compliance With Information Request, Flooding Hazard Reevaluation AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... was needed in the areas of seismic and flooding design, and emergency preparedness. In addition to... licensees reevaluate flooding hazards at nuclear power plant sites using updated flooding hazard...

  5. Multilevel integrated flood management aproach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilly, Mitja; Rusjan, Simon

    2013-04-01

    The optimal solution for complex flood management is integrated approach. Word »integration« used very often when we try to put something together, but should distinguish full multiple integrated approach of integration by parts when we put together and analyse only two variables. In doing so, we lost complexity of the phenomenon. Otherwise if we try to put together all variables we should take so much effort and time and we never finish the job properly. Solution is in multiple integration captures the essential factors, which are different on a case-by-case (Brilly, 2000). Physical planning is one of most important activity in which flood management should be integrated. The physical planning is crucial for vulnerability and its future development and on other hand our structural measures must be incorporate in space and will very often dominated in. The best solution is if space development derived on same time with development of structural measures. There are good examples with such approach (Vienna, Belgrade, Zagreb, and Ljubljana). Problems stared when we try incorporating flood management in already urbanised area or we would like to decrease risk to some lower level. Looking to practice we learn that middle Ages practices were much better than to day. There is also »disaster by design« when hazard increased as consequence of upstream development or in stream construction or remediation. In such situation we have risk on areas well protected in the past. Good preparation is essential for integration otherwise we just lost time what is essential for decision making and development. We should develop clear picture about physical characteristics of phenomena and possible solutions. We should develop not only the flood maps; we should know how fast phenomena could develop, in hour, day or more. Do we need to analyse ground water - surface water relations, we would like to protected area that was later flooded by ground water. Do we need to take care about

  6. Flood mapping with remote sensing and hydrochemistry: A new method to distinguish the origin of flood water during floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chormanski, J.; Okruszko, T.; Ignar, S.; Batelaan, O.; Rebel, K.T.; Wassen, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    River flooding is important for the ecological functioning of river floodplains. It is implicitly assumed that in many river floodplains during floods, river water is spreading all over the floodplain. We hypothesize that during flood events a spatial distribution of water types exists, which is cor

  7. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Characterization of New Ligand and Its Pd(II), Cu(II) Metal Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Isam Hussain Al-Karkhi; Hamsa T. Sadiq; Ayad H. Jassim

    2013-01-01

    A novel Schiff base ligand containing nitrogen and sulfur donor atoms was synthesized by condensing thioamide (TA) with imidothioic acid (IT) to form 1, 4 dithiane-2, 3-diamine (TAIT). Metal complexes of this ligand were prepared using Cu (II) chloride dihydrates and Pd (III) chloride. These complexes have been characterized using various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques. Based on physico-chemical and spectroscopic analyses, the structure of Cu (II) complex is expected to be octa...

  8. Flooding, flood risks and coping strategies in urban informal residential areas: The case of Keko Machungwa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumpale Sakijege

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents findings from a study carried out in Keko Machungwa informal settlement in Dar es Salaam under the auspices of the Disaster Management Training Centre of Ardhi University, Tanzania. The settlement has experienced frequent flooding in the past five years, and this study explores the causes, risks, extent of flooding and coping strategies of residents as well as municipality and city officials. Key methods employed in capturing empirical evidence included mapping of zones by severity of flooding, interviews with households, sub-ward leaders, and municipal and city officials. Non-participant observation, primarily taking photographs, complemented these methods. Laboratory tests of water samples taken from shallow wells in the settlement were performed to establish the level of pollution. In addition, records of prevalence of water-borne diseases were gathered from a dispensary within the settlement to corroborate flooding events, water pollution and occurrence of such diseases. Findings show that flooding is contributed to by the lack of a coordinated stormwater drainage system; haphazard housing development within the valley; and blocking of the water stream by haphazard dumping of solid waste and construction. Risks associated with flooding include water and air pollution, diseases, waterlogging and blocked accessibility. The most common coping strategies at household level are use of sandbags and tree logs; raised pit latrines and doorsteps; provision of water outlet pipes above plinth level; construction of embankments, protection walls and elevation of house foundations; seasonal displacement; and boiling and chemical treatment of water. Recommendations for future action at household, community and city level are made.

  9. Field note from Pakistan floods: Preventing future flood disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Oxley

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Unusually heavy monsoon rains in Northern Pakistan have caused disproportionate levels of extreme flooding and unprecedented flood losses across the entire Indus River basin. Extensive land use changes and environmental degradation in the uplands and lowlands of the river basin together with the construction of a “built environment” out of balance with the functioning, capacities, scale and limits of the local ecosystems have exposed millions of people to an increased risk of extreme #ooding. The catastrophic nature of the August #ooding provides a unique opportunity to fundamentally change Pakistan’s current socio-economic development path by incorporating disaster risk reduction and climate change measures into the post-disaster recovery process to rebuild a safer, more resilient nation. In January 2005 one hundred and sixty-eight nations adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA2005-2015 to bring about a “substantial reduction in disaster losses” by 2015. Despite this global initiative a series of major disasters, including the recent flooding in Pakistan, all indicate that we are not on track to achieve the substantial reduction of disaster losses. The following fieldnote considers what can be done to accelerate progress towards implementation of the Hyogo Framework, drawing on insights and lessons learnt from the August flooding to understand how Pakistan and neighbouring countries can prevent a repeat of such catastrophic disasters in future years.

  10. Sept 2013 NFHL Flood Risk Project Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  11. Flooding in Thailand: flee, fight or float

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan S Sophonpanich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The severity of recent flooding in Thailand and the probability of future flooding have triggered a re-assessment of coping mechanisms employed by both the Thai population and the government.

  12. Groundwater flooding in an urbanised floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.; Peach, D.; Dixon, A.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, risk management associated with groundwater flooding has been recognised as an area requiring improved understanding in the United Kingdom. Government figures suggest as many as 1.6 million properties may be at risk from this form of flooding. Further, the recently enforced EU Floods Directive requires hazard mapping associated with groundwater flooding to be undertaken. The city of Oxford is situated within a narrow valley in the upper reaches of the River Thames in the south of the United Kingdom. Although much of the city sits above the current floodplain of the River Thames, approximately 3600 properties are located within the 1 in 100 year return flood envelope. The floodplain is underlain by a shallow alluvial aquifer in good hydraulic connection with the River Thames and its tributaries. The city suffers from recurrent floods, most recently in July 2007, when a 1 in 20 year event impacted over 200 properties. A significant number of these properties were affected by flooding from rising groundwater which was either the sole cause of flooding or the initial cause prior to inundation from fluvial waters. A study has been undertaken by the British Geological Survey, in collaboration with the environment regulator and linked with the local flood risk management scheme, to assess the role of groundwater in flooding in Oxford. The study has shown that groundwater flooding in the city occurs in low-lying areas protected from direct fluvial flooding, at least in the early stages of an event, by high ground associated with urbanisation. Although direct rainfall recharge associated with extreme events can cause significant groundwater level rise in these low-lying areas, the primary mechanism for groundwater flooding is the movement of water through the permeable subsurface from fluvial flooded zones. Groundwater flooding is often the only form of flooding for the isolated low-lying areas for medium-to-high probability flood events. As a result

  13. Web-based data acquisition of flood affected people.

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi Kreibich; K. Poser; Sören Haubrock;  

    2008-01-01

    Detailed documentations and assessments of the consequences of floods as well as flood risk analyses are essential for improvements of the flood risk management. However, flood documentation and flood damage collections are difficult and expensive, especially for frequent, small flood events. This results in a lack of data for flood management and research. Therefore, the Internet shall be used for the collection of flood loss information. To make use of the knowledge of the people affected b...

  14. Reliable Energy Conservation in Wireless Sensor Networks using Flooding Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    L. Nalini Joseph; Dr.S.Shanmugavel

    2011-01-01

    A Comparison of Performance in terms of Energy conservation in Wireless Sensor Networks using different Flooding mechanism has been analyzed. The following flooding mechanisms analyzed are Classical Flooding, Location Aided Flooding, Adaptive Location Aided Flooding; Diagonal arc based Location Aided Flooding, Diagonal arc based Location Aided Flooding with reliability is considered for the study. The various mechanisms save energy when compared to conventional flooding schemes.

  15. Flood Insurance Study City of Duchesne, Utah, Duchesne County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1988-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Duchesne, Duchesne County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood plain m...

  16. Flood Insurance Study, City of Salina, Utah, Sevier County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1986-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Salina, Sevier County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood plain manag...

  17. Flood Insurance Study, City of Park City, Utah, Summit County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1987-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Park City, Summit County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood plain man...

  18. Flood Insurance Study, City of St. George, Utah, Washington County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1998-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of St. George, Washington County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1964 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1971. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood pla...

  19. Flood Insurance Study, City of Draper, Utah, Salt Lake County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1994-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Draper, Salt Lake County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood plain ma...

  20. Flood Insurance Study, City of Murray, Utah, Salt Lake County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1994-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Murray, Salt Lake County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood plain ma...

  1. Flood Insurance Study, City of Richfield, Utah, Sevier County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1986-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Richfield, Sevier County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood plain ma...

  2. Flooding in imagination vs flooding in vivo: A comparison with agoraphobics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.; Wessels, Hemmy

    1975-01-01

    In this investigation of agoraphobic patients, 3 different flooding procedures were compared: (1) prolonged exposure in vivo, (2) flooding in the imagination by a ‘live’ therapist and (3) a combination of flooding in the imagination and flooding in vivo. After an intermediate-test all clients were t

  3. Costs of flood protection in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Sapač, Klaudija

    2014-01-01

    Beacause of the frequent flooding we need to increase attention to the floods and measures to reduce and offset their harmful consequences. Measures for flood protection can be divided into structural and non-structural. Measures can be divided also into preventive, intervention and curative measures. Decision for the type of measure, that will be implemented in order to improve flood protection, depends on the available financial resources to implement the measure. In the first part of...

  4. The European Flood Risk Directive and Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Mostert, E.; Doorn, N.

    2012-01-01

    The European Flood risk directive (2007/60/EC) requires EU Member States to review their system of flood risk management. In doing so, they will have to face ethical issues inherent in flood risk management. This paper discusses three such issues, using examples from the Netherlands. These issues are: (1) whether and, if so, under which conditions differentiation in flood protection levels is acceptable; (2) individual and local responsibility versus solidarity; and (3) the role of environmen...

  5. Flood Progression Modelling and Impact Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mioc, Darka; Anton, François; Nickerson, B.;

    People living in the lower valley of the St. John River, New Brunswick, Canada, frequently experience flooding when the river overflows its banks during spring ice melt and rain. To better prepare the population of New Brunswick for extreme flooding, we developed a new flood prediction model that...... not be familiar with GIS analytical tools like Query Languages, can still understand technical discussions on flood analysis through the use of 3D models, which are close to reality....

  6. State-of-the-art for evaluating the potential impact of flooding on a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a review of the state-of-the-art for evaluating the potential impact of flooding on a deep radioactive-waste repository, namely, for predicting the future occurrence of catastrophic flooding and for estimating the effect of such flooding on waste containment characteristics. Several detrimental effects are identified: flooding can increase groundwater seepage velocities through a repository within the framework of the existing hydrologic system and thus increase the rate of radioactive-waste leakage to the biosphere; flooding may alter repository hydrology by reversing flow gradients, relocating sources of groundwater recharge and discharge, or shortening seepage paths, thereby producing unpredictable leakage; saturation of a vadose-zone repository during flooding can increase groundwater seepage velocities by several orders of magnitude; and flooding can damage repository-media containment properties by inducing seismic or chemical instability or increasing fracture permeability in relatively shallow repository rock as a result of redistributing in-situ stresses. Short-term flooding frequency and magnitude can be predicted statistically by analyzing historical records of flooding. However, long-term flooding events that could damage a permanent repository cannot be predicted with confidence because the geologic record is neither unique nor sufficienly complete for statistical analysis. It is more important to identify parameters characterizing containment properties (such as permeability, groundwater gradient, and shortest seepage path length to the biosphere) that could be affected by future flooding, estimate the maximum magnitude of flooding that could occur within the life of the repository by examining the geologic record, and determine the impact such flooding could have on the parameter values

  7. Improving Flood Insurance and Flood Risk Management: Insights from St. Louis, Missouri

    OpenAIRE

    Kousky, Carolyn; Kunreuther, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the history of St. Louis, Missouri in coping with flood risk over the past 15 years, with a focus on flood insurance. Six challenges to the continued management of riverine flood risk are identified and discussed. They are (1) many property owners don’t buy flood insurance, (2) people underestimate flood risk, (3) we need better flood maps, (4) we have a “love affair” with levees, (5) flood risk is increasing over time, and (6) we take deep pride in rebuilding after a disa...

  8. Interconnected ponds operation for flood hazard distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, S. S.; Ridwan, B. W.

    2016-05-01

    The climatic anomaly, which comes with extreme rainfall, will increase the flood hazard in an area within a short period of time. The river capacity in discharging the flood is not continuous along the river stretch and sensitive to the flood peak. This paper contains the alternatives on how to locate the flood retention pond that are physically feasible to reduce the flood peak. The flood ponds were designed based on flood curve number criteria (TR-55, USDA) with the aim of rapid flood peak capturing and gradual flood retuning back to the river. As a case study, the hydrologic condition of upper Ciliwung river basin with several presumed flood pond locations was conceptually designed. A fundamental tank model that reproducing the operation of interconnected ponds was elaborated to achieve the designed flood discharge that will flows to the downstream area. The flood hazard distribution status, as the model performance criteria, will be computed within Ciliwung river reach in Manggarai Sluice Gate spot. The predicted hazard reduction with the operation of the interconnected retention area result had been bench marked with the normal flow condition.

  9. The August 1975 Flood over Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Smith, James; Liu, Maofeng; Baeck, MaryLynn

    2016-04-01

    The August 1975 flood in Central China was one of the most destructive floods in history, resulting in 26 000 fatalities, leaving about 10 million people with insufficient shelter, and producing long-lasting famine and disease. Extreme rainfall responsible for this flood event was associated with typhoon Nina during 5-7 August 1975. Despite the prominence of the August 1975 flood, analyses of the storms producing the flood and the resulting flood are sparse. Even fewer attempts were made from the perspective of numerical simulations. We examine details of extreme rainfall for the August 1975 flood based on downscaling simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model driven by 20th Century Reanalysis fields. We further placed key hydrometeorological features for the flood event in a climatological context through the analyses of the 20th Century Reanalysis fields. Results indicate interrelated roles of multiple mesoscale ingredients for deep, moist convection in producing extreme rainfall for the August 1975 flood, superimposed over an anomalous synoptic environment. Attribution analyses on the source of water vapor for this flood event will be conducted based on a Lagrangian parcel tracking algorithm LAGRANTO. Analytical framework developed in this study aims to explore utilization of hydrometeorological approach in flood-control engineering designs by providing details on key elements of flood-producing storms.

  10. Floods - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Floods URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/floods.html Other topics A-Z A B C ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Floods - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  11. 13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section... to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance.... 4000 et seq.)), a loan recipient must obtain flood insurance if any building (including mobile...

  12. 7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Flood Insurance Program (see 44 CFR part 59 et seq.) provides for a standard flood insurance policy... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788.3 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) RUS FIDELITY AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRIC AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS...

  13. Flood forecasting using artificial neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varoonchotikul, P.

    2003-01-01

    Flood disasters continue to occur In many countries around the world and cause tremendous casualtles and properties damage. To mitigate the effects of floods, both structural and non-structural measures can be employed, such as dykes, channelisatlon, flood proofing of properties, land-use regulation

  14. Implementing the European flood risk management plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Hartmann; Spit, Tejo

    2015-01-01

    In response to the extreme flood events of recent decades, the European Union has released the Floods Directive (2007/60/EC), which requires the creation of flood risk management plans. These plans do not yet exist in practice, as water management agencies have until 2015 to put them into action. Th

  15. Resilience to flooding: Draft building code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarkson, J.D.; Braun, K.; Desoto-Duncan, A.; Forsyth, G.; De Gijt, J.G.; Huber, N.P.; Miller, D.; Rigo, P.; Sullivan, D.

    2013-01-01

    A significant issue associated Flood Defence Systems (FDS) is the difficulty of predicting how these structures will behave when inevitably they have been loaded beyond their designed capacity by a flood. The flood can cause these structures to fail catastrophically with loss of life and substantial

  16. Economic optimisation of flood risk management projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsimopoulou, V.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands has developed a flood risk management policy based on an economic rationale. After the flood disaster of 1953, when a large area of the south-western part of the country was flooded and more than 1800 people lost their lives, the so-called Delta Committee was installed, whose main pu

  17. Flood Risk Management in the People’s Republic of China: Learning to Live with Flood Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank; Yoshiaki Kobayashi

    2012-01-01

    This publication presents a shift in the People’s Republic of China from flood control depending on structural measures to integrated flood management using both structural and non-structural measures. The core of the new concept of integrated flood management is flood risk management. Flood risk management is based on an analysis of flood hazard, exposure to flood hazard, and vulnerability of people and property to danger. It is recommended that people learn to live with flood risks, gaining...

  18. Correlações entre atributos químicos do solo e atributos da cultura e da produtividade de arroz irrigado determinadas com técnicas de manejo localizado Correlations between soil chemical attributes and flooded rice yield through the site-specific management techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reges Durigon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O sistema de agricultura tradicional desconsidera a variabilidade espacial dos atributos dos solos utilizados na produção vegetal, enquanto que o manejo localizado visa a identificar e propor o manejo dessa variabilidade. Com o objetivo de determinar as correlações entre atributos de solo, da cultura e produtividade de arroz irrigado por meio de técnicas de manejo localizado, foi conduzido um experimento de 70ha. A malha de amostragem de solo utilizada foi de um ponto por hectare, e os resultados da análise de solo foram usados para elaborar os mapas de atributos químicos do solo. A amostragem para determinação do rendimento de grãos foi realizada em malha de um hectare, por meio da coleta manual de quatro subamostras de plantas por ponto georreferenciado. A variabilidade espacial e as correlações entre mapas de atributos de solo e produtividade de arroz irrigado foram geradas por meio do Software Campeiro 6.0. As maiores correlações positivas entre produtividade de arroz e atributos de solo foram verificadas para cálcio e magnésio, enquanto a saturação de alumínio apresentou a maior correlação negativa.The traditional agricultural system disregards spatial variability of the attributes of soil used in crop production, while the site-specific management aims to identify and to propose a management of this variability. An experiment of 70ha was conducted with the purpose of determining the correlation between soil attributes, of crop and flooded rice yield through site-specific management techniques. It was collected one sample per hectare, and the soil analysis results were used to elaborate the map of its chemical attributes. The sampling to determne the grain yield was made in a grid with one point per hectare and four plant sub-samples per point georreferenced were hand plucked. The spatial variability and the correlations between soil attribute maps and flooded rice yield were done using the Campeiro Software 6.0. The

  19. Estimation of Flood Warning Times for Flood Safety Management Downstream of Dams

    OpenAIRE

    Saqib Ehsan; Walter Marx; Silke Wieprecht

    2013-01-01

    Floods have always been a threat for people and property due to the extent of possible damages. The flooding could be catastrophic in case of possible dam failure and its impacts on downstream areas could also be very significant. Proper estimation of flood warning times plays a vital role in flood safety management of areas downstream of the dams. This research focuses on the realistic and precise estimation of flood warning times for the downstream areas in case of possible dam failure. As ...

  20. Importance of Flood Severity Estimation for Flood Plain Management in a River Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Saqib Ehsan; Walter Marx; Silke Wieprecht

    2013-01-01

    Climate changes strongly affect the occurrence of floods. Extreme flooding can occur due to dam failure but sometimes high outflows that exceed the downstream safe channel capacity can also cause significant flooding. This paper emphasizes the importance of flood severity estimation in a river valley for long-term flood plain management. For hydraulic analysis, about 329 km long, the Jhelum river valley downstream of Mangla dam in Pakistan has been considered. The project reach has been model...

  1. The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquinet-Husson, N.; Arie, E.; Ballard, J.; Barbe, A.; Bjoraker, G.; Bonnet, B.; Brown, L. R.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Champion, J. P.; Chedin, A.; Chursin, A.; Clerbaux, C.; Duxbury, G.; Flaud, J.-M.; Fourrie, N.; Fayt, A.; Graner, G.; Gamache, R.; Goldman, A.; Golovko, V.; Guelachvili, G.; Hartmann, J. M.; Hilico, J. C.; Hillman, J.; Lefevre, G.; Lellouch, E.; Mikhailenko, S. N.; Naumenko, O. V.; Nemtchinov, V.; Newnham, D. A.; Nikitin, A.; Orphal, J.; Perrin, A.; Reuter, D. C.; Rinsland, C. P.; Rosenmann, L.; Rothman, L. S.; Scott, N. A.; Selby, J.; Sinitsa, L. N.; Sirota, J. M.; Smith, A. M.; Smith, K. M.; Tyuterev, V. G.; Tipping, R. H.; Urban, S.; Varanasi, P.; Weber, M.

    1999-05-01

    The current version GEISA-97 of the computer-accessible database system GEISA (Gestion et Etude des Informations Spectroscopiques Atmospheriques: Management and Study of Atmospheric Spectroscopic Information) is described. This catalogue contains 1,346,266 entries. These are the spectroscopic parameters required to describe adequately the individual spectral lines belonging to 42 molecules (96 isotopic species) and located between 0 and 22656 cm-1. The featured molecules are of interest in studies of the terrestrial as well as the other planetary atmospheres, especially those of the giant planets. GEISA-97 contains also a catalog of absorption cross-sections of molecules such as chlorofluorocarbons which exhibit unresolvable spectra. The modifications and improvements made to the earlier edition (GEISA-92) and the data management software are described.

  2. Feedback on flood risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

    2009-09-01

    For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To manage repeated crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. In this objective, after 3 years of test and improvement since 2003, the initiative Predict-Services was developped in South of France: it aims at helping communities and companies to face repeated flood crisis. The principle is to prepare emergency plans, to organize crisis management and reduce risks; to help and assist communities and companies during crisis to activate and adapt their emergency plans with enough of anticipation; and to analyse floods effects and improve emergency plans afterwards. In order to reduce risks, and to keep the benefits of such an initiative, local communities and companies have to maintain the awareness of risk of the citizens and employees. They also have to maintain their safety plans to keep them constantly operational. This is a part of the message relayed. Companies, Local communities, local government authorities and basin stakeholders are the decision makers. Companies and local communities have to involve themselves in the elaboration of safety plans. They are also completely involved in their activation that is their own responsability. This applies to other local government authorities, like districts one's and basin stakeholders, which participle in the financing community safety plans and adminitrative district which are responsible of the transmission of meteorological alert and of rescue actions. In the crossing of the géo-information stemming from the

  3. Impact of the exceptionally high flood from the Changjiang River on the aquatic chemical distributions on the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea shelves in the summer of 1998

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Baodong; WANG Xiulin

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the field observation in the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea in the summer of 1998, a rare event of exceptionally high discharge from the Changjiang River was described and how this high discharge altered water masses as well as chemical distributions on the shelves of the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea. The maximal extending ranges of the Changjiang diluted water and the nutrients in the freshwater from the Changjiang River were recorded for the first time. It was also found that there was a closed area with high oxygen and pH values in the offshore area of the southern Huanghai Sea and the northern East China Sea, indicating that the extensive spreading of nutrients due to the high discharge led to photosynthesis of phytoplankton mostly taking place in the offshore area far from the river mouth. The presence of "excess nitrogen" in almost all the northern East China Sea and the south of the Huanghai Sea suggests that these areas are potentially phosphorus-limited rather than nitrogen-limited, manifesting more like an estuarine ecosystem rather than a common marine ecosystem.

  4. Single nanoparticle tracking spectroscopic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haw; Cang, Hu; Xu, Cangshan; Wong, Chung M.

    2011-07-19

    A system that can maintain and track the position of a single nanoparticle in three dimensions for a prolonged period has been disclosed. The system allows for continuously imaging the particle to observe any interactions it may have. The system also enables the acquisition of real-time sequential spectroscopic information from the particle. The apparatus holds great promise in performing single molecule spectroscopy and imaging on a non-stationary target.

  5. Type Ia Supernovae: Spectroscopic Surprises

    OpenAIRE

    Branch, David

    2003-01-01

    Recent observations have extended the range of diversity among spectra of Type Ia supernovae. I briefly discuss SN Ia explosion models in the spectroscopic context, the observed diversity, and some recent results from direct analysis with the Synow code for one normal and two peculiar SNe Ia. Relating the observational manifestations of diversity to their physical causes is looking like an ever more challenging problem.

  6. Flood inundation extent in storage cell mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.; Farahi; Saeed; Reza; Khodashenas; B.; Ghahraman; K.; Esmaeeli

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of floodplain processes in general and floodplains flooding in particular are vital issues for river engineers and managers. Insufficient observations of flood inundation extent and the infrequent nature of flood inundation necessitate some sort of predictive tools. In this paper flood inundation extent has been simulated by HEC-RAS software in two storage cell and normal modes and capabilities and limitations of the two models have been determined by comparing simulated and observed flood inundation extent which occurred in the study area on Feb 4th, 2004.

  7. Flood inundation extent in storage cell mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Farahi; Saeed Reza Khodashenas; B.Ghahraman; K.Esmaeeli

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of floodplaln processes In general and floodplains flooding in particular are vital issues for river engineers and managers.Insufficient observations of flood inundation extent and the infrequent nature of flood inundation necessitate some sort of predictive tools.In this paper flood in-undation extent has been simulated by HEC-RAS software in two storage cell and normal modes and capabilities and limitations of the two models have been determined by comparing simulated and ob-served flood inundation extent which occurred in the study area on Feb 4th, 2004.

  8. Flood loss assessment in the Kota Tinggi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia is free from several destructive and widespread natural disasters but frequently affected by floods, which caused massive flood damage. In 2006 and 2007, an extreme rainfall occured in many parts of Peninsular Malaysia, which caused severe flooding in several major cities. Kota Tinggi was chosen as study area as it is one the seriously affected area in Johor state. The aim of this study is to estimate potential flood damage to physical elements in Kota Tinggi. The flood damage map contains both qualitative and quantitative information which corresponds to the consequences of flooding. This study only focuses on physical elements. Three different damage functions were adopted to calculate the potential flood damage and flood depth is considered as the main parameter. The adopted functions are United States, the Netherlands and Malaysia. The estimated flood damage for housing using United States, the Netherlands and Malaysia was RM 350/m2 RM 200/m2 and RM 100/m2 respectively. These results successfully showed the average flood damage of physical element. Such important information needed by local authority and government for urban spatial planning and aiming to reduce flood risk

  9. Comparing Simple Flood Reservoir Operation Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Connaughton

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of three simple flood operating rules in reducing the peak flow is compared for four simplified hydrograph shapes. The Minimize Flood Peak rule uses available flood storage capacity to store peak flows from an accurate hydrograph forecast. The less demanding Minimize Flooding Frequency operating rule releases water at or below channel capacity until the flood storage pool is filled and outflows are forced to exceed the channel capacity. The Short Forecast Peak Minimization rule minimizes flood peak over a short foreseeable future with existing flood storage capacity. Four simplified hydrograph shapes (triangular, abrupt wave, flood pulse and broad peak were used. The Minimize Flood Peak rule reduces peak flows better than alternatives, but is often impractical. The Short Forecast Peak Minimization rule reduces peak flows for a wide range of conditions. The Minimize Flood Frequency rule may be more relevant where damages occur abruptly, as in many leveed systems. All rules reduce peak outflow more efficiently for more steeply rising hydrographs. The approach suggests some general insights for flood operations of reservoirs.

  10. Analysing uncertainties associated with flood hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhold, Clemens; Stanzel, Philipp; Nachtnebel, Hans-Peter

    2010-05-01

    Risk zonation maps are mostly derived from design floods which propagate through the study area. The respective delineation of inundated flood plains is a fundamental input for the flood risk assessment of exposed objects. It is implicitly assumed that the river morphology will not vary, even though it is obvious that the river bed elevation can quickly and drastically change during flood events. The objectives of this study were (1) to integrate river bed dynamics into flood risk assessment and (2) to quantify uncertainties associated to flood hazard modelling by means of (i) hydrology (input hydrographs) (ii) sediment transport (torrential input, river bed elevation) (iii) hydrodynamics (water surface levels) The proposed concept was applied to the River Ill in the Western Austrian Alps. In total, 138 flood and associated sediment transport scenarios were considered, simulated and illustrated for the main river stem. The calculated morphological changes of the river bed during peak flow provided a basis to estimate the variability of possible water surface levels and inundated areas, necessary for flood hazard assessment. The applied multi-scenario approach was compared to the normatively defined design flood event to account for the uncertainty of flood risk management decisions based on a few scenarios. Due to the incorporation of river morphological changes and variations in rainfall characteristics into flood hazard assessment, for 12 % of considered cross sections inundations were calculated where safety was expected.

  11. Coping with Pluvial Floods by Private Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Rözer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pluvial floods have caused severe damage to urban areas in recent years. With a projected increase in extreme precipitation as well as an ongoing urbanization, pluvial flood damage is expected to increase in the future. Therefore, further insights, especially on the adverse consequences of pluvial floods and their mitigation, are needed. To gain more knowledge, empirical damage data from three different pluvial flood events in Germany were collected through computer-aided telephone interviews. Pluvial flood awareness as well as flood experience were found to be low before the respective flood events. The level of private precaution increased considerably after all events, but is mainly focused on measures that are easy to implement. Lower inundation depths, smaller potential losses as compared with fluvial floods, as well as the fact that pluvial flooding may occur everywhere, are expected to cause a shift in damage mitigation from precaution to emergency response. However, an effective implementation of emergency measures was constrained by a low dissemination of early warnings in the study areas. Further improvements of early warning systems including dissemination as well as a rise in pluvial flood preparedness are important to reduce future pluvial flood damage.

  12. Living behind dikes: mimicking flooding experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaalberg, Ruud; Midden, Cees J H

    2013-05-01

    Delta areas like the Netherlands are threatened by global climate change. Awareness is, however, rather low. Our research objective was to investigate whether coping responses to flooding risks could be enhanced in a virtual environment (VE). A laboratory experiment was conducted in which participants were exposed to a simulated dike breach and consequent flooding of their virtual residence. We tested the hypothesis that an interactive 3D flood simulation facilitates coping responses compared to noninteractive film and slide simulations. Our results showed that information search, the motivation to evacuate, and the motivation to buy flood insurance increased after exposure to the 3D flood simulation compared to the film and slide simulations. Mediation analyses revealed that some of these presentation mode effects were mediated by a greater sense of being present in the VE. Implications to use high-end flood simulations in a VE to communicate real-world flooding risks and coping responses to threatened residents will be discussed.

  13. Betwixt Droughts and Floods: Flood Management Politics in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Maier-Knapp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to create greater understanding of the political dynamics that influence domestic disaster relief and management (DRM in Thailand, this article takes a closer look at these dynamics by outlining the main actors involved in flood-related DRM. It acknowledges the importance of international and military actors but emphasises the role of national and subnational authorities. The article then identifies the central issues of DRM governance as capacity and bureaucracy and discusses these through a chronological assessment of the flood crisis in Thailand in 2011, interweaving the colourful domestic politics with various political cleavages and dichotomies, and thereby distinguishing between three main dichotomies which it considers as the central drivers of the political dynamics and institutional development of DRM. These issues can be summarised as old versus new institutions, technocracy versus bureaucracy and centralised (but with direct people-orientation through greater channels of citizenry participation versus decentralised bureaucracy with an indirect orientation towards people.

  14. Nano-spectroscopic imaging of intermolecular structure, coupling and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pollard, Benjamin; Hinrichs, Karsten; Raschke, Markus B

    2013-01-01

    Molecular self-assembly, the function of biomembranes, and the performance of organic solar cells rely on molecular interactions on the nanoscale. The understanding and design of such intrinsic or engineered heterogeneous functional soft matter has long been impeded by a lack of spectroscopic tools with sufficient nanometer spatial resolution, attomolar sensitivity, and intermolecular spectroscopic specificity. We implement vibrational scattering-scanning near-field optical microscopy ($s$-SNOM) in a multi-spectral modality with unprecedented spectral precision to investigate the structure-function relationship in nano-phase separated block-copolymers. We use a vibrational resonance as a sensitive reporter of the local chemical environment and resolve, with few nanometer spatial resolution and 0.2 cm$^{-1}$ spectral precision, spectral Stark shifts and line broadening correlated with molecular-scale morphologies. By creating images of solvatochromic vibrational shifts we discriminate local variations in elect...

  15. Phosphorus Mobilization from Manure-Amended and Unamended Alkaline Soils to Overlying Water during Simulated Flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarawansha, E A G S; Kumaragamage, D; Flaten, D; Zvomuya, F; Tenuta, M

    2015-07-01

    Anaerobic soil conditions resulting from flooding often enhance release of phosphorus (P) to overlying water. Enhanced P release is well documented for flooded acidic soils; however, there is little information for flooded alkaline soils. We examined the effect of flooding and anaerobic conditions on P mobilization using 12 alkaline soils from Manitoba that were either unamended or amended with solid cattle manure. Pore water and floodwater were analyzed over 8 wk of simulated flooding for dissolved reactive P (DRP), Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn. As expected, manured soils had significantly greater pore and floodwater DRP concentrations than unamended. Flooding increased pore water DRP concentrations significantly in all soils and treatments except one manured clay in which concentrations increased initially and then decreased. Floodwater DRP concentrations increased significantly by two- to 15-fold in 10 soils regardless of amendment treatment but remained relatively stable in the two soils with greatest clay content. Phosphorus release at the onset of flooding was associated with the release of Ca, Mg, and Mn, suggesting that P release may be controlled by the dissolution of Mg and Ca phosphates and reductive dissolution of Mn phosphates. Thereafter, P release was associated with release of Fe, suggesting the reductive dissolution of Fe phosphates. Differences in pore water and floodwater DRP concentrations among soils and amendment treatments and the high variability in P mobilization from pore water to floodwater among soils indicate the need to further investigate chemical reactions responsible for P release and mobility under anaerobic conditions.

  16. Sobre inundaciones y anegamientos / Reflections on floods and flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrando A., Francisco J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Respecto a anegamientos e inundaciones, el autor realiza algunas precisiones conceptuales que afectan la gestión de acciones preventivas, la planificación y el ordenamiento territorial; además se ofrece una sistematización del quehacer sobre las inundaciones./ The author punctualizes the concepts regarding preventive actions and territorial planning. Also the article includes a systematized list of actions related to flood management.

  17. Flooded: an auto-ethnography of the 2011 Bangkok flood

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Cohen

    2012-01-01

    "In this personal account I report my perceptions, experiences, and conduct during the 2011 Bangkok flood, in which my home and neighbourhood have been badly inundated and damaged. Therefore, I draw on auto-ethnography as an increasingly popular, though controversial qualitative methodology in social sciences. Though personal, the account has some broader implications, deriving primarily from the examination of the relationship between my perceptions and conduct in the disaster and my life ex...

  18. Flood modeling for risk evaluation: a MIKE FLOOD sensitivity analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderkimpen, P.; Peeters, P

    2008-01-01

    The flood risk for a section of the Belgian coastal plain was evaluated by means of dynamically linked 1D (breach) and 2D (floodplain) hydraulic models. First, a one-at-a-time factor screening was performed to evaluate the relative importance of various model processes and parameters. Subsequently, a systematic sensitivity analysis was added to establish the contribution of the most influential factors (breach growth and surface roughness) to hydraulic modeling uncertainty. Finally, the uncer...

  19. Use of documentary sources on past flood events for flood risk management and land planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cœur, Denis; Lang, Michel

    2008-09-01

    The knowledge of past catastrophic events can improve flood risk mitigation policy, with a better awareness against risk. As such historical information is usually available in Europe for the past five centuries, historians are able to understand how past society dealt with flood risk, and hydrologists can include information on past floods into an adapted probabilistic framework. In France, Flood Risk Mitigation Maps are based either on the largest historical known flood event or on the 100-year flood event if it is greater. Two actions can be suggested in terms of promoting the use of historical information for flood risk management: (1) the development of a regional flood data base, with both historical and current data, in order to get a good feedback on recent events and to improve the flood risk education and awareness; (2) the commitment to keep a persistent/perennial management of a reference network of hydrometeorological observations for climate change studies.

  20. Application of optical spectroscopic techniques for disease diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anushree

    Optical spectroscopy, a truly non-invasive tool for remote diagnostics, is capable of providing valuable information on the structure and function of molecules. However, most spectroscopic techniques suffer from drawbacks, which limit their application. As a part of my dissertation work, I have developed theoretical and experimental methods to address the above mentioned issues. I have successfully applied these methods for monitoring the physical, chemical and biochemical parameters of biomolecules involved in some specific life threatening diseases like lead poisoning and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). I presented optical studies of melanosomes, which are one of the vital organelles in the human eye, also known to be responsible for a disease called age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a condition of advanced degeneration which causes progressive blindness. I used Raman spectroscopy, to first chemically identify the composition of melanosome, and then monitor the changes in its functional and chemical behavior due to long term exposure to visible light. The above study, apart from explaining the role of melanosomes in AMD, also sets the threshold power for lasers used in surgeries and other clinical applications. In the second part of my dissertation, a battery of spectroscopic techniques was successfully applied to explore the different binding sites of lead ions with the most abundant carrier protein molecule in our circulatory system, human serum albumin. I applied optical spectroscopic tools for ultrasensitive detection of heavy metal ions in solution which can also be used for lead detection at a very early stage of lead poisoning. Apart from this, I used Raman microspectroscopy to study the chemical alteration occurring inside a prostate cancer cell as a result of a treatment with a low concentrated aqueous extract of a prospective drug, Nerium Oleander. The experimental methods used in this study has tremendous potential for clinical

  1. Chemical constituents from Schisandra sphenanthera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Tao Li; Zhi Ying Weng; Jian Xin Pu; Han Dong Sun

    2008-01-01

    The chemical constituents of the stems of Schisandra sphenanthera are described for the first time. This investigation has resulted in the isolation of a new phenolic glycoside (1), along with seven known compounds. The structure of 1 was assigned by using spectroscopic techniques, including 2D NMR spectra.

  2. Quantifying the combined effects of multiple extreme floods on river channel geometry and on flood hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Mingfu; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Wright, Nigel G.; Sleigh, P. Andy; Staines, Kate E. H.

    2016-07-01

    Effects of flood-induced bed elevation and channel geometry changes on flood hazards are largely unexplored, especially in the case of multiple floods from the same site. This study quantified the evolution of river channel and floodplain geometry during a repeated series of hypothetical extreme floods using a 2D full hydro-morphodynamic model (LHMM). These experiments were designed to examine the consequences of channel geometry changes on channel conveyance capacity and subsequent flood dynamics. Our results revealed that extreme floods play an important role in adjusting a river channel to become more efficient for subsequent propagation of floods, and that in-channel scour and sediment re-distribution can greatly improve the conveyance capacity of a channel for subsequent floods. In our hypothetical sequence of floods the response of bed elevation was of net degradation, and sediment transport successively weakened even with floods of the same magnitude. Changes in river channel geometry led to significant impact on flood hydraulics and thereby flood hazards. We found that flood-induced in-channel erosion can disconnect the channel from its floodplain resulting in a reduction of floodwater storage. Thus, the frequency and extent of subsequent overbank flows and floodplain inundation decreased, which reduced downstream flood attenuation and increased downstream flood hazard. In combination and in summary, these results suggest that changes in channel capacity due to extreme floods may drive changes in flood hazard. The assumption of unchanging of river morphology during inundation modelling should therefore be open to question for flood risk management.

  3. Contaminated sediment transport during floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 48 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of parts of the White Oak Creek catchment. The contaminants presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in the White Oak Creek drainage system. The erosion of these sediments during floods can result in the transport of contaminants both within the catchment and off-site into the Clinch River. A data collection program and a modeling investigation are being used to evaluate the probability of contaminated sediment transport during floods and to develop strategies for controlling off-site transport under present and future conditions

  4. Karst flash floods: an example from the Dinaric karst (Croatia)

    OpenAIRE

    Bonacci, O.; Ljubenkov, I.; Roje-Bonacci, T.

    2006-01-01

    International audience Flash floods constitute one of the deadliest and costliest natural disasters worldwide. This paper explains the karst flash flood phenomenon, which represents a special kind of flash flood. As the majority of flash floods karst flash floods are caused by intensive short-term precipitation in an area whose surface rarely exceeds a few square kilometres. The characteristics of all flash floods are their short duration, small areal extent, high flood peaks and rapid flo...

  5. Detection of the spectroscopic signatures of explosives and their degradation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Vivian; Cabanzo, Andrea; Baez, Bibiana; Correa, Sandra; Irrazabal, Maik; Briano, Julio G.; Castro, Miguel E.; Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2005-06-01

    Detection and removal of antipersonnel and antitank landmines is a great challenge and a worldwide enviromental and humanitarian problem. Sensors tuned on the spectroscopic signature of the chemicals released from mines are a potential solution. Enviromental factors (temperature, relative humidity, rainfall precipitation, wind, sun irradiation, pressure, etc.) as well as soil characteristics (water content, compaction, porosity, chemical composition, particle size distribution, topography, vegetation, etc), have a direct impact on the fate and transport of the chemicals released from landmines. Chemicals such as TNT, DNT and their degradation products, are semi-volatile, and somewhat soluble in water. Also, they may adsorb strongly to soil particles, and are susceptible to degradation by microorganisms, light, or chemical agents. Here we show an experimental procedure to quantify the effect of the above variables on the spectroscopic signature. A number of soil tanks under controlled conditions are used to study the effect of temperature, water content, relative humidity and light radiation.

  6. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    OpenAIRE

    Shi-Wei Lo; Jyh-Horng Wu; Fang-Pang Lin; Ching-Han Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections...

  7. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk is dynamic and influenced by many processes related to hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Flood damage increased significantly over the past decades, however, resulting overall economic loss per event is an aggregated indicator and it is difficult to attribute causes to this increasing trend. Much has been learned about damaging processes during floods at the micro-scale, e.g. building level. However, little is known about the main factors determining the amount of flood damage on event level. Thus, we analyse and compare paired flood events, i.e. consecutive, similar damaging floods that occurred in the same area. In analogy to 'Paired catchment studies' - a well-established method in hydrology to understand how changes in land use affect streamflow - we will investigate how and why resulting flood damage in a region differed between the first and second consecutive flood events. One example are the 2002 and 2013 floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany. The 2002 flood caused the highest economic damage (EUR 11600 million) due to a natural hazard event in Germany. Damage was so high due to extreme flood hazard triggered by extreme precipitation and a high number of resulting dyke breaches. Additionally, exposure hotspots like the city of Dresden at the Elbe river as well as some smaller municipalities at the river Mulde (e.g. Grimma, Eilenburg, Bitterfeld, Dessau) were severely impacted. However, affected parties and authorities learned from the extreme flood in 2002, and many governmental flood risk programs and initiatives were launched. Considerable improvements since 2002 occurred on many levels that deal with flood risk reduction and disaster response, in particular in 1) increased flood prevention by improved spatial planning, 2) an increased number of property-level mitigation measures, 3) more effective early warning and improved coordination of disaster response and 4) a more targeted maintenance of flood defence systems and their

  8. Floods and human health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu

    2012-10-15

    Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004-2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs. PMID:22750033

  9. Structural master plan of flood mitigation measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Heidari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood protection is one of the practical methods in damage reduction. Although it not possible to be completely protected from flood disaster but major part of damages can be reduced by mitigation plans. In this paper, the optimum flood mitigation master plan is determined by economic evaluation in trading off between the construction costs and expected value of damage reduction as the benefits. Size of the certain mitigation alternative is also be obtained by risk analysis by accepting possibility of flood overtopping. Different flood mitigation alternatives are investigated from various aspects in the Dez and Karun river floodplain areas as a case study in south west of IRAN. The results show that detention dam and flood diversion are the best alternatives of flood mitigation methods as well as enforcing the flood control purpose of upstream multipurpose reservoirs. Dyke and levees are not mostly justifiable because of negative impact on down stream by enhancing routed flood peak discharge magnitude and flood damages as well.

  10. Visual Sensing for Urban Flood Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing climatic extremes, the frequency and severity of urban flood events have intensified worldwide. In this study, image-based automated monitoring of flood formation and analyses of water level fluctuation were proposed as value-added intelligent sensing applications to turn a passive monitoring camera into a visual sensor. Combined with the proposed visual sensing method, traditional hydrological monitoring cameras have the ability to sense and analyze the local situation of flood events. This can solve the current problem that image-based flood monitoring heavily relies on continuous manned monitoring. Conventional sensing networks can only offer one-dimensional physical parameters measured by gauge sensors, whereas visual sensors can acquire dynamic image information of monitored sites and provide disaster prevention agencies with actual field information for decision-making to relieve flood hazards. The visual sensing method established in this study provides spatiotemporal information that can be used for automated remote analysis for monitoring urban floods. This paper focuses on the determination of flood formation based on image-processing techniques. The experimental results suggest that the visual sensing approach may be a reliable way for determining the water fluctuation and measuring its elevation and flood intrusion with respect to real-world coordinates. The performance of the proposed method has been confirmed; it has the capability to monitor and analyze the flood status, and therefore, it can serve as an active flood warning system.

  11. Floods in Brno: history, causes and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázdil, R.; Dobrovolný, P.; Halíčková, M.; Macková, J.; Øezníčková, L.; Soukalová, E.; Valášek, H.

    2009-09-01

    Brno is the second largest city in the Czech Republic (cca 400,000 inhabitants), a centre of southern Moravia. It was always endangered by floods occurring on the Svratka River and the Svitava River. Observed floods were related mainly to intense snow-melting (with rains and also ice-damming) in winter/early spring or heavy precipitation in the summer half-year. Historical and recent changes in catchments of the both rivers influencing floods are described (land-use, regulations of rivers, water reservoirs). Basic analysis of floods is presented for the period of systematic hydrological measurements (water stages or discharges) with respect to their severity (expressed by N-year return period) and seasonality of floods for the four hydrological stations in Brno and its surroundings. Examples of selected flood events with analysis of meteorological causes, hydrological course and impacts are presented. The most severe floods occurred in March 1941 and August-September 1938. Information about floods from the instrumental period is extended by flood information derived from different documentary evidence. Long-term chronology of Brno floods (since 1650) combining documentary and instrumental data is presented and discussed in the context of climate variability.

  12. Spectroscopic Survey of Cool Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsky, J.

    This program will obtain far-UV spectra of cool stars that span a broad range of spectral type and luminosity class. It is our intention to obtain these spectra early in the FUSE program and to provide the spectra quickly to the user community in order to guide potential guest investigators in designing their observing programs. The specific science objectives include: (1) studying transition region dynamics (winds and downflows), (2) modeling the thermal structure of transition regions, (3) measuring electron densities, (4) search for low temperature coronae, (5) studying molecular excitation and fluorescence processes, and (6) inferring how the transition regions of spectroscopic binary systems differ from those of single stars.

  13. Chemical and spectroscopic studies of Cercidium praecox gum exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León de Pinto, G; Martínez, M; Rivas, C

    1994-07-01

    The structure of the polysaccharide from Cercidium praecox (R&P) Harms gum exudate has been studied by Smith degradation, by sugar and methylation analyses, and by 13C NMR spectroscopy. The results showed a (1-->4)-xylan core. Some xylose residues are substituted at O-2 by alpha-D-glucuronic acid and 4-O-methyl-alpha-D-glucuronic acid residues. beta-D-Glucuronic acid is present, probably as terminal residues. The arabinose is present as alpha-L-furanose and beta-L-pyranose. PMID:8062287

  14. Evaluation of Slow Release Fertilizer Applying Chemical and Spectroscopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlled-release fertilizer offers a number of advantages in relation to crop production in newly reclaimed soils. Butadiene styrene latex emulsion is one of the promising polymer for different purposes. In this work, laboratory evaluation of butadiene styrene latex emulsion 24/76 polymer loaded with a mixed fertilizer was carried out. Macro nutrients (N, P and K) and micro-nutrients(Zn, Fe, and Cu) were extracted by basic extract from the polymer fertilizer mixtures. Micro-sampling technique was investigated and applied to measure Zn, Fe, and Cu using flame atomic absorption spectrometry in order to overcome the nebulization difficulties due to high salt content samples. The cumulative releases of macro and micro-nutrients have been assessed. From the obtained results, it is clear that the release depends on both nutrients and polymer concentration in the mixture. Macro-nutrients are released more efficient than micro-nutrients of total added. Therefore it can be used for minimizing micro-nutrients hazard in soils

  15. Flood-related contamination in catchments affected by historical metal mining: an unexpected and emerging hazard of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, S A; Brewer, P A; Macklin, M G; Haresign, W; Betson, R E; Rassner, S M E

    2014-04-01

    Floods in catchments affected by historical metal mining result in the remobilisation of large quantities of contaminated sediment from floodplain soils and old mine workings. This poses a significant threat to agricultural production and is preventing many European river catchments achieving a 'good chemical and ecological status', as demanded by the Water Framework Directive. Analysis of overbank sediment following widespread flooding in west Wales in June 2012 showed that flood sediments were contaminated above guideline pollution thresholds, in some samples by a factor of 82. Most significantly, silage produced from flood affected fields was found to contain up to 1900 mg kg(-1) of sediment associated Pb, which caused cattle poisoning and mortality. As a consequence of climate related increases in flooding this problem is likely to continue and intensify. Management of contaminated catchments requires a geomorphological approach to understand the spatial and temporal cycling of metals through the fluvial system. PMID:24463253

  16. Flood-related contamination in catchments affected by historical metal mining: an unexpected and emerging hazard of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, S A; Brewer, P A; Macklin, M G; Haresign, W; Betson, R E; Rassner, S M E

    2014-04-01

    Floods in catchments affected by historical metal mining result in the remobilisation of large quantities of contaminated sediment from floodplain soils and old mine workings. This poses a significant threat to agricultural production and is preventing many European river catchments achieving a 'good chemical and ecological status', as demanded by the Water Framework Directive. Analysis of overbank sediment following widespread flooding in west Wales in June 2012 showed that flood sediments were contaminated above guideline pollution thresholds, in some samples by a factor of 82. Most significantly, silage produced from flood affected fields was found to contain up to 1900 mg kg(-1) of sediment associated Pb, which caused cattle poisoning and mortality. As a consequence of climate related increases in flooding this problem is likely to continue and intensify. Management of contaminated catchments requires a geomorphological approach to understand the spatial and temporal cycling of metals through the fluvial system.

  17. Development of flood risk mapping in Kota Tinggi, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flood risk maps provide valuable information for development of flood risk management. Geospatial technology and modeling enable us to monitor natural disasters around the world. Flooding is the most severe natural disaster that causing huge economic losses every year. Flood risk maps are an essential tool for assessing the consequences of flooding. The main aim of this study is to initiate a framework to develop a local-based flood risk map. Flood risk maps can be produced by using integration of geospatial technology and hydrodynamic modeling. Results show that a flood risk map for Kota Tinggi is produced with unsatisfactory information in term of flood damage

  18. Visualization and Damage Assessment for Flooded Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Guozhong; YAN Li; LIU Nan; LIU Renyi

    2004-01-01

    A practical method for visualizing flood area and evaluating damage is presented, which consists of two technical approaches: self-programming and adapting commercial GIS platforms. The low-cost and easy-to-use GIS-Based model developed by self-programming can meet current requirements of most local authorities, especially in developing countries. In this model, two cases, non-source flood and source flood, are distinguished and the Seed-spread algorithm suitable for source-flood is discussed; The flood damage is assessed by overlaying the flood area range with thematic maps and other related social and economic data. and all thematic maps are converted to raster format before overlay analysis. Two measures are taken to improve the operation efficiency of speed seed-spread algorithm. The accuracy of the model mainly depends on the resolution and precision of the DEM data, and the accuracy of registering all raster layers and the quality of attribute data.

  19. Advances in Remote Sensing of Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With the publication of eight original research articles, four types of advances in the remote sensing of floods are achieved. The uncertainty of modeled outputs using precipitation datasets derived from in situ observations and remote sensors is further understood. With the terrestrial laser scanner and airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR coupled with high resolution optical and radar imagery, researchers improve accuracy levels in estimating the surface water height, extent, and flow of floods. The unmanned aircraft system (UAS can be the game changer in the acquisition and application of remote sensing data. The UAS may fly everywhere and every time when a flood event occurs. With the development of urban structure maps, the flood risk and possible damage is well assessed. The flood mitigation plans and response activities become effective and efficient using geographic information system (GIS-based urban flood vulnerability and risk maps.

  20. Flood Frequency Analysis Using the Gumbel Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Never Mujere

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of a study carried in Zimbabwe aimed at analysing the frequency of Nyanyadzi River floods using the Gumbel distribution. Extreme floods over recent years had washed away fields, destroyed infrastructure and killed animals. It was hypothesised that Nyanyadzi flood flows obey the Gumbel distribution. The scale and shape parameters of the distribution were estimated using method of moments. Maximum instantaneous flow data covering 30 water years (1969-1999 for station E119 on Nyanyadzi River were collected from the Zimbabwe National Water Authority (ZINWA. A Chisquare χ2 test revealed no significant (p =1.000 differences between recorded and predicted flood flows. Due to goodness of fit of the Gumbel distribution, it was assumed to be appropriate for modelling frequency of Nyanyadzi River floods. The magnitudes of the 100 and 200-year floods were estimated to be 276 and 310 m3/s respectively.

  1. How spectroscopic ellipsometry can aid graphene technology?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losurdo, Maria, E-mail: maria.losurdo@cnr.it; Giangregorio, Maria M.; Bianco, Giuseppe V.; Capezzuto, Pio; Bruno, Giovanni

    2014-11-28

    We explore the effects of substrate, grain size, oxidation and cleaning on the optical properties of chemical vapor deposited polycrystalline monolayer graphene exploiting spectroscopic ellipsometry in the NIR-Vis–UV range. Both Drude–Lorentz oscillators' and point-by-point fit approaches are used to analyze the ellipsometric spectra. For monolayer graphene, since anisotropy cannot be resolved, an isotropic model is used. A prominent absorption peak at approximately 4.8 eV, which is a mixture of π–π* interband transitions at the M-point of the Brillouin zone and of the π-plasmonic excitation, is observed. We discuss the sensitivity of this peak to the structural and cleaning quality of graphene. The comparison with previous published dielectric function spectra of graphene is discussed giving a rationale for the observed differences. - Highlights: • Optical properties of graphene are determined by ellipsometry on copper and on glass. • Optical spectra reveal the cleaning quality of transferred graphene. • Sensitivity of absorption peak to graphene structural quality is proven. • Optical properties are proven to be sensitive to oxidation of graphene. • Electronic interaction with substrate affects graphene optical properties.

  2. How spectroscopic ellipsometry can aid graphene technology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore the effects of substrate, grain size, oxidation and cleaning on the optical properties of chemical vapor deposited polycrystalline monolayer graphene exploiting spectroscopic ellipsometry in the NIR-Vis–UV range. Both Drude–Lorentz oscillators' and point-by-point fit approaches are used to analyze the ellipsometric spectra. For monolayer graphene, since anisotropy cannot be resolved, an isotropic model is used. A prominent absorption peak at approximately 4.8 eV, which is a mixture of π–π* interband transitions at the M-point of the Brillouin zone and of the π-plasmonic excitation, is observed. We discuss the sensitivity of this peak to the structural and cleaning quality of graphene. The comparison with previous published dielectric function spectra of graphene is discussed giving a rationale for the observed differences. - Highlights: • Optical properties of graphene are determined by ellipsometry on copper and on glass. • Optical spectra reveal the cleaning quality of transferred graphene. • Sensitivity of absorption peak to graphene structural quality is proven. • Optical properties are proven to be sensitive to oxidation of graphene. • Electronic interaction with substrate affects graphene optical properties

  3. Solution of control of reservoir flood discharge in synthetic flood waves. Part 2: Results of solution

    OpenAIRE

    P. Fošumpaur; Holeček, M.; Nacházel, K.

    2007-01-01

    The second part of the study presents the results of the investigation of the flood control in the synthetic flood waves. This part is the continuation with the first part with methodology, published in 2/2007 of the JHH.

  4. Influence of flood risk characteristics on flood insurance demand: a comparison between Germany and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, I.; Botzen, W. J. W.; Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2013-07-01

    The existence of sufficient demand for insurance coverage against infrequent losses is important for the adequate function of insurance markets for natural disaster risks. This study investigates how characteristics of flood risk influence household flood insurance demand based on household surveys undertaken in Germany and the Netherlands. Our analyses confirm the hypothesis that willingness to pay (WTP) for insurance against medium-probability medium-impact flood risk in Germany is higher than WTP for insurance against low-probability high-impact flood risk in the Netherlands. These differences in WTP can be related to differences in flood experience, individual risk perceptions, and the charity hazard. In both countries there is a need to stimulate flood insurance demand if a relevant role of private insurance in flood loss compensation is regarded as desirable, for example, by making flood insurance compulsory or by designing information campaigns.

  5. Indus Basin Floods: Mechanisms, Impacts, and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2013-01-01

    More than 138 million people in the Indus River Basin in Pakistan depend on irrigated agriculture. But rising population pressures, climate change, and the continuous degradation of ecosystem services have resulted in increased flood risks, worsened by inadequate flood planning and management. The devastating 2010 flood alone caused damage of about $10 billion. This report proposes a contemporary holistic approach, applying scientific assessments that take people, land, and water into account...

  6. Role of Insurance in Reducing Flood Risk

    OpenAIRE

    David Crichton

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the problems of flood risk management in the context of public and private insurance. It demonstrates the important role of insurance in reducing flood risk with examples from the U.K. and France. It includes a brief description of the summer 2007 floods in England. The Geneva Papers (2008) 33, 117–132. doi:10.1057/palgrave.gpp.2510151

  7. Structural master plan of flood mitigation measures

    OpenAIRE

    A. Heidari

    2009-01-01

    Flood protection is one of the practical methods in damage reduction. Although it not possible to be completely protected from flood disaster but major part of damages can be reduced by mitigation plans. In this paper, the optimum flood mitigation master plan is determined by economic evaluation in trading off between the construction costs and expected value of damage reduction as the benefits. Size of the certain mitigation alternative is also be obtained by risk analysis by accepting possi...

  8. Integrated flood management for Beiyun River, China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Minghong; Fang, Hongwei; Zheng, Yi; He, Guojian

    2013-01-01

    Beiyun River Basin is holistically suffering a water shortage and relatively concentrated flood risk. The current operation (level-control) of dams and floodgates, which is in passive defense mode, cannot meet the demands of both flood control and storm water resources. An integrated flood forecasting and management system is developed by the connecting of the hydrological model and hydrodynamic model and coupling of the hydrodynamic model and hydraulic model for dams and floodgates. Based up...

  9. Flood control of the lower Vistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrzej Kosiński

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available So far it has been considered that the Włocławek reservoir is of little importance for flood protection of the downstream areas. The article shows the fallacy of this opinion. The Włocławek reservoir’s potential for flood water retention is herein determined. The impact of the Lower Vistula Cascade engineering on flood risk reduction is also analysed.

  10. Flood control of the lower Vistula

    OpenAIRE

    Jędrzej Kosiński

    2013-01-01

    So far it has been considered that the Włocławek reservoir is of little importance for flood protection of the downstream areas. The article shows the fallacy of this opinion. The Włocławek reservoir’s potential for flood water retention is herein determined. The impact of the Lower Vistula Cascade engineering on flood risk reduction is also analysed.

  11. Investigation of Flood Inundation Probability in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Ho; Lai, Yen-Wei; Chang, Tsang-Jung

    2010-05-01

    Taiwan is located at a special point, which is in the path of typhoons from northeast Pacific Ocean. Taiwan is also situated in a tropical-subtropical transition zone. As a result, rainfall is abundant all the year round, especially in summer and autumn. For flood inundation analysis in Taiwan, there exist a lot of uncertainties in hydrological, hydraulic and land-surface topography characteristics, which can change flood inundation characteristics. According to the 7th work item of article 22 in Disaster Prevention and Protection Act in Taiwan, for preventing flood disaster being deteriorating, investigation analysis of disaster potentials, hazardous degree and situation simulation must be proceeded with scientific approaches. However, the flood potential analysis uses a deterministic approach to define flood inundation without considering data uncertainties. This research combines data uncertainty concept in flood inundation maps for showing flood probabilities in each grid. It can be an emergency evacuation basis as typhoons come and extremely torrential rain begin. The research selects Hebauyu watershed of Chiayi County as the demonstration area. Owing to uncertainties of data used, sensitivity analysis is first conducted by using Latin Hypercube sampling (LHS). LHS data sets are next input into an integrated numerical model, which is herein developed to assess flood inundation hazards in coastal lowlands, base on the extension of the 1-D river routing model and the 2-D inundation routing model. Finally, the probability of flood inundation simulation is calculated, and the flood inundation probability maps are obtained. Flood Inundation probability maps can be an alternative of the old flood potential maps for being a regard of building new hydraulic infrastructure in the future.

  12. Identification and classification of Serbia's historic floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prohaska Stevan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available River flooding in Serbia is a natural phenomenon which largely exceeds the scope of water management and hydraulic engineering, and has considerable impact on the development of Serbian society. Today, the importance and value of areas threatened by floods are among the key considerations of sustainable development. As a result, flood protection techniques and procedures need to be continually refined and updated, following innovations in the fields of science and technology. Knowledge of high flows is key for sizing hydraulic structures and for gauging the cost-effectiveness and safety of the component structures of flood protection systems. However, sizing of hydraulic structures based on computed high flows does not ensure absolute safety; there is a residual flood risk and a risk of structural failure, if a flood exceeds computed levels. In hydrological practice, such floods are often referred to as historic/loads. The goal of this paper is to present a calculation procedure for the objective identification of historic floods, using long, multiple-year series of data on high flows of natural watercourses in Serbia. At its current stage of development, the calculation procedure is based on maximum annual discharges recorded at key monitoring stations of the Hydro-Meteorological Service of Serbia (HMS Serbia. When applied, the procedure results in the identification of specific historic maximum stages/floods (if any at all gauge sites included in the analysis. The probabilistic theory is then applied to assess the statistical significance of each identified historic flood and to classify the historic flood, as appropriate. At the end of the paper, the results of the applied methodology are shown in tabular and graphic form for various Serbian rivers. All identified historic floods are ranked based on their probability of occurrence (i.e., return period.

  13. Spectroscopic studies of microwave plasmas containing hexamethyldisiloxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, A. S. C.; Mitschker, F.; Awakowicz, P.; Röpcke, J.

    2016-10-01

    Low-pressure microwave discharges containing hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) with admixtures of oxygen and nitrogen, used for the deposition of silicon containing films, have been studied spectroscopically. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) in the visible spectral range has been combined with infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (IRLAS). The experiments were carried out in order to analyze the dependence of plasma chemical phenomena on power and gas mixture at relatively low pressures, up to 50 Pa, and power values, up to 2 kW. The evolution of the concentration of the methyl radical, CH3, and of seven stable molecules, HMDSO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, CO and CO2, was monitored in the plasma processes by in situ IRLAS using tunable lead salt diode lasers (TDL) and external-cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL) as radiation sources. To achieve reliable values for the gas temperature inside and outside the plasma bulk as well as for the temperature in the plasma hot and colder zones, which are of great importance for calculation of species concentrations, three different methods based on emission and absorption spectroscopy data of N2, CH3 and CO have been used. In this approach line profile analysis has been combined with spectral simulation methods. The concentrations of the various species, which were found to be in the range between 1011 to 1015 cm-3, are in the focus of interest. The influence of the discharge parameters power, pressure and gas mixture on the molecular concentrations has been studied. To achieve further insight into general plasma chemical aspects the dissociation of the HMDSO precursor gas including its fragmentation and conversion to the reaction products was analyzed in detail.

  14. Evolution of Flood Management Policies of Pakistan and Causes of Flooding In Year 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Arslan, Muhammad; Ullah, Inaam; BAQAR, Mujtaba; Shahid, Naeem

    2016-01-01

    The problem of floods in Pakistan dates back to the year of independence, 1947, when first massive flood inflicted havoc in upper Pakistan. We have divided flood management policy of the region into three time periods; British colonial rule that managed surface water through construction of canals; pre-Indus basin development that achieved a breakthrough in the form of Indus water treaty; and it was during post-Indus basin development phase, in 1973, that federal flood commission and proper f...

  15. Improvement of flood forecasting simulations with the Telemark Flood Forecasting Model

    OpenAIRE

    Maharjan, David

    2016-01-01

    Flood is the most common environmental hazard worldwide and can have an devastating consequences affecting the economy, environment, and people. The causes and nature of flood may be different, but it is important to control all of them. The typical cause of flood in Norway is a combination of heavy rainfall and snowmelt which results in an unexpected increase in runoff. This flash flood has been a serious threat to many communities in the lower reach of Skienselva river in Telemark county of...

  16. Effect of Urban Green Spaces and Flooded Area Type on Flooding Probability

    OpenAIRE

    Hyomin Kim; Dong-Kun Lee; Sunyong Sung

    2016-01-01

    Countermeasures to urban flooding should consider long-term perspectives, because climate change impacts are unpredictable and complex. Urban green spaces have emerged as a potential option to reduce urban flood risks, and their effectiveness has been highlighted in notable urban water management studies. In this study, flooded areas in Seoul, Korea, were divided into four flooded area types by cluster analysis based on topographic and physical characteristics and verified using discriminant ...

  17. Forecasting Extreme Flooding in South Asia (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    In most years there is extensive flooding across India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. On average, 40 million people are displaced by floods in India and half that many again in Bangladesh. Occasionally, even more extensive and severe flooding occurs across South Asia. In 2007 and 2008 the Brahmaputra flooded three times causing severe disruption of commerce, agriculture and life in general. Systems set up by an international collaboration predicted these Bangladesh floods with an operational system at the 10 and 15-day horizon. These forecasts determined the risk of flooding and allowed the Bangladeshis in peril to prepare, harvesting crops and storing of household and agricultural assets. Savings in increments of annual income resulted form the forecasts. In July and August 2010, severe flooding occurred in Pakistan causing horrendous damage and loss of life. But these floods were also predictable at the 10-day time scale if the same forecasting system developed for Bangladesh had been implemented. Similar systems could be implemented in India but would require local cooperation. We describe the manner in which quantified probabilistic precipitation forecasts, coupled with hydrological models can provide useful and timely extended warnings of flooding.

  18. Flooding Analysis of Urban Drainage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Linmei

    2004-01-01

    - Description of the problemsThroughout history floods have been one of the most severe natural catastrophes, which brought about loss of lives and huge economic losses in addition to the influence on community activities and adverse effects on the environment. We have witnessed enormous flood events almost all over the world, even in the early years of 21st century. The cruel lesson learnt is that we have not coped well with floods. Studying the risk of flooding is the goal of this thesis. T...

  19. Flood Routing Technique for Data Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jaihyung; Breen, James

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, a new routing algorithm based on a flooding method is introduced. Flooding techniques have been used previously, e.g. for broadcasting the routing table in the ARPAnet [1] and other special purpose networks [3][4][5]. However, sending data using flooding can often saturate the network [2] and it is usually regarded as an inefficient broadcast mechanism. Our approach is to flood a very short packet to explore an optimal route without relying on a pre-established routing table, a...

  20. Subcellular Proteomics of Soybean under Flooding Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Setsuko Komatsu

    2012-01-01

    Flooding is an environmental stress found worldwide and may increase in frequency due to changes in global climate,and causes significant reductions in the growth and yield of several crops.The application of proteomics techniques to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying crop responses to flooding stress may facilitate the development of flood tolerant crops.To understand the response mechanism of soybean under flooding stress,proteomics analysis was carried out.Especially,subcellular proteomics studies have led to a better understanding of the mechanism of flooding stress tolerance in soybean.The effects of flooding stress on root plasma membrane were analyzed using an aqueous two-phase partitioning method in combination with gel-based and gel-free proteomics techniques.The results led to the following conclusions:proteins located in the cell wall were increased in the plasma membrane of flooded plants,indicating the contribution of plasma membrane to modification of the cell wall; superoxide dismutase was increased,indicating that the antioxidative system may play a crucial role in protecting cells from oxidative damage following exposure to flooding stress; heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein likely plays a significant role in protecting other proteins from denaturation and degradation during flooding stress; and signaling proteins might work cooperatively to regulate plasma membrane H +-ATPase and maintain ion homeostasis.Cell wall proteins were isolated from root of flooding stressed plants via sucrose gradient centrifugation and analyzed using gel-based proteomics technique.Cell wall proteins identified were related to lignification,and these results indicated that a decrease of lignification-related proteins is related to flooding decreased ROS and jasmonate biosynthesis.And also,lignin staining confirmed that lignification was suppressed in the roots of flooding stressed soybeans.Mitochondrial fractions were purified from root of flooding stressed

  1. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Apel, H.;

    2016-01-01

    that occurred in the same area. In analogy to ’Paired catchment studies’ - a well-established method in hydrology to understand how changes in land use affect streamflow – we will investigate how and why resulting flood damage in a region differed between the first and second consecutive flood events. One......-level mitigation measures, 3) more effective early warning and improved coordination of disaster response and 4) a more targeted maintenance of flood defence systems and their deliberate relocation. Thus, despite higher hydrological severity damage due to the 2013 flood was significantly lower than in 2002. In our...

  2. Future flood losses in major coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallegatte, Stephane; Green, Colin; Nicholls, Robert J.; Corfee-Morlot, Jan

    2013-09-01

    Flood exposure is increasing in coastal cities owing to growing populations and assets, the changing climate, and subsidence. Here we provide a quantification of present and future flood losses in the 136 largest coastal cities. Using a new database of urban protection and different assumptions on adaptation, we account for existing and future flood defences. Average global flood losses in 2005 are estimated to be approximately US$6billion per year, increasing to US$52billion by 2050 with projected socio-economic change alone. With climate change and subsidence, present protection will need to be upgraded to avoid unacceptable losses of US$1trillion or more per year. Even if adaptation investments maintain constant flood probability, subsidence and sea-level rise will increase global flood losses to US$60-63billion per year in 2050. To maintain present flood risk, adaptation will need to reduce flood probabilities below present values. In this case, the magnitude of losses when floods do occur would increase, often by more than 50%, making it critical to also prepare for larger disasters than we experience today. The analysis identifies the cities that seem most vulnerable to these trends, that is, where the largest increase in losses can be expected.

  3. Raman Spectroscopic Studies of Methane Gas Hydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.

    2009-01-01

    A brief review of the Raman spectroscopic studies of methane gas hydrates is given, supported by some new measurements done in our laboratory.......A brief review of the Raman spectroscopic studies of methane gas hydrates is given, supported by some new measurements done in our laboratory....

  4. The TNG EROs Spectroscopic Identification Survey (TESIS)

    CERN Document Server

    Saracco, P; Ceca, R D; Severgnini, P; Braito, V; Bender, R; Drory, N; Feulner, G; Hopp, U; Mannucci, F; Maraston, C

    2003-01-01

    We are carrying on a near-IR very low resolution spectroscopic follow-up in parallel with XMM-Newton observations of a complete sample of ~30 bright (K'<18.5) Extremely Red Objects (EROs) selected over an area of 360 arcmin^2 of the MUNICS survey. We here present the preliminary results of the spectroscopic and X-ray data analysis.

  5. Development of Integrated Flood Analysis System for Improving Flood Mitigation Capabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Young-Il; Kim, Jong-suk

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the needs of people are growing for a more safety life and secure homeland from unexpected natural disasters. Flood damages have been recorded every year and those damages are greater than the annual average of 2 trillion won since 2000 in Korea. It has been increased in casualties and property damages due to flooding caused by hydrometeorlogical extremes according to climate change. Although the importance of flooding situation is emerging rapidly, studies related to development of integrated management system for reducing floods are insufficient in Korea. In addition, it is difficult to effectively reduce floods without developing integrated operation system taking into account of sewage pipe network configuration with the river level. Since the floods result in increasing damages to infrastructure, as well as life and property, structural and non-structural measures should be urgently established in order to effectively reduce the flood. Therefore, in this study, we developed an integrated flood analysis system that systematized technology to quantify flood risk and flood forecasting for supporting synthetic decision-making through real-time monitoring and prediction on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information in Korea. Keywords: Flooding, Integrated flood analysis system, Rainfall forecasting, Korea Acknowledgments This work was carried out with the support of "Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science & Technology Development (Project No. PJ011686022015)" Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea

  6. Issues and challenges in flood risk management: Editorial for the special issue on flood risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Dawson, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent flood-related disasters (Japan, Thailand, US, Australia) emphasize the need for an effective management of flood risks. As an introduction to this special issue, this editorial summarizes some of the key challenges in the field. Flood risk management needs to recognize the interconnections be

  7. Applying the Flood Vulnerability Index as a Knowledge base for flood risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balica, S-F.

    2012-01-01

    Floods are one of the most common and widely distributed natural risks to life and property worldwide. An important part of modern flood risk management is to evaluate vulnerability to floods. This evaluation can be done only by using a parametric approach. Worldwide there is a need to enhance our

  8. Flood Risk Management in Europe: Similarities and Differences between the STAR-FLOOD consortium countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Green, C.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Bakker, M.H.N.; Dieperink, C.; Crabbe, A.; Deketelaere, K.; Delvaux, B.; Suykens, C.; Beyers, J-C.; Fournier, M.; Larrue, C.; Manson, C.; van Doorn-Hoekveld, W.; van Rijswick, H.F.M.W.; Kundzewicz, Z.W.; Goytia Casermeiro, S.

    2013-01-01

    This report has been compiled as part of the STAR-FLOOD project, a European FP7 project focused on flood risk governance. The project investigates strategies for dealing with flood risks in 18 vulnerable urban regions in six European countries: Belgium, The UK (more precisely: England and Scotland),

  9. Floods and climate: emerging perspectives for flood risk assessment and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Merz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Flood estimation and flood management have traditionally been the domain of hydrologists, water resources engineers and statisticians, and disciplinary approaches have abound. Dominant views have been shaped; one example is the catchment perspective: floods are formed and influenced by the interaction of local, catchment-specific characteristics, such as meteorology, topography and geology. These traditional views have been beneficial, but they have a narrow framing. In this paper we contrast traditional views with broader perspectives that are emerging from an improved understanding of the climatic context of floods. We conclude: (1 extending the traditional system boundaries (local catchment, recent decades, hydrological/hydraulic processes opens up exciting possibilities for better understanding and improved tools for flood risk assessment and management. (2 Statistical approaches in flood estimation need to be complemented by the search for the causal mechanisms and dominant processes in the atmosphere, catchment and river system that leave their fingerprints on flood characteristic. (3 Natural climate variability leads to time-varying flood characteristics, and this variation may be partially quantifiable and predictable, with the perspective of a dynamic, climate informed flood risk management. (4 Efforts are needed to fully account for factors that contribute to changes in all three risk components (hazard, exposure, vulnerability, and to better understand the interactions between society and floods. (5 Given the global scale and societal importance, we call for the organization of an international multidisciplinary collaboration and data sharing initiative to understand further the links between climate and flooding and to advance flood research.

  10. A spectroscopic survey of thick disc stars outside the solar neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordopatis, G.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Gilmore, G.; Hill, V.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Helmi, A.; Bijaoui, A.; Zoccali, M.; Bienayme, O.

    2011-01-01

    Context. In the era of large spectroscopic surveys, Galactic archaeology aims to understand the formation and evolution of the Milky Way by means of large datasets. In particular, the kinematic and chemical study of the thick disc can give valuable information on the merging history of the Milky Way

  11. Zinc fertilization of flooded rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local scientists studied Zn fertilization of flooded rice soils in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Egypt, the Philippines, Thailand and Turkey. Diagnosis of Zn deficiency was carried out for submerged rice soils. Soil maps were prepared, designating areas as low, medium and high in Zn, based on Zn extraction with DTPA and HCl solutions and on rice leaf analysis. The effectiveness of various Zn fertilizer sources and methods of application in field and greenhouse experiments was measured, using 65Zn. The percent Zn derived from fertilizer was shown to be a much more sensitive measure of efficiency than yield or total uptake

  12. Flooding-limited thermal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper stratification in the cold leg due to high-pressure injection in a stagnated loop of a pressurized water reactor is considered. The working hypothesis is that at high injection Froude numbers, the extent of mixing approaches a limit controlled only by the flooding condition at the cold-leg exit. Experimental data available support this hypothesis. Predictions for reactor conditions indicate a stratification of ∼ 40 degrees C. As a consequence, the downcomer plume would be rather weak (with a low Froude number) and would be expected to decay quickly

  13. Hydrochemical characteristics of the natural waters associated with the flooding of the Meirama open pit (A Coruna, NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.; Vazquez, A.; Falcon, I.; Canal, J.; Hernandez, H.; Padilla, F.; Rodriguez-Vellando, P.; Delgado, J.L. [University of La Coruna, La Coruna (Spain). School of Civil Engineering

    2008-02-15

    In December, 2007, after 30 years of operations, the mine of Meirama ceased extraction of brown lignite. Since then operations have begun which will lead to the formation of a big mining lake (about 2 km{sup 2} surface and up to 180 m deep) after controlled flooding of the open pit. In the process of flooding, both surface and ground waters are involved, each with their own chemical signature. According to the information available, the diversion of surface waters towards the pit hole should lead to the formation of a water body of acceptable quality. However, all unassisted flooding process could eventually form all acidic lake.

  14. Sick, the spectroscopic inference crank

    CERN Document Server

    Casey, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives which remain severely under-utilised. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analysing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this Article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbour estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimised point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalise on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-di...

  15. Development of cost-effective surfactant flooding technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, G.A.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1996-11-01

    Task 1 of this research was the development of a high-resolution, fully implicit, finite-difference, multiphase, multicomponent, compositional simulator for chemical flooding. The major physical phenomena modeled in this simulator are dispersion, heterogeneous permeability and porosity, adsorption, interfacial tension, relative permeability and capillary desaturation, compositional phase viscosity, compositional phase density and gravity effects, capillary pressure, and aqueous-oleic-microemulsion phase behavior. Polymer and its non-Newtonian rheology properties include shear-thinning viscosity, permeability reduction, inaccessible pore volume, and adsorption. Options of constant or variable space grids and time steps, constant-pressure or constant-rate well conditions, horizontal and vertical wells, and multiple slug injections are also available in the simulator. The solution scheme used in this simulator is fully implicit. The pressure equation and the mass-conservation equations are solved simultaneously for the aqueous-phase pressure and the total concentrations of each component. A third-order-in-space, second-order-in-time finite-difference method and a new total-variation-diminishing (TVD) third-order flux limiter are used that greatly reduce numerical dispersion effects. Task 2 was the optimization of surfactant flooding. The code UTCHEM was used to simulate surfactant polymer flooding.

  16. German flooding of the Pontine Marshes in World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Erhard; Guillemin, Jeanne

    2010-03-01

    The German army's 1943 flooding of the Pontine Marshes south of Rome, which later caused a sharp rise in malaria cases among Italian civilians, has recently been described by historian Frank Snowden as a unique instance of biological warfare and bioterrorism in the European theater of war and, consequently, as a violation of the 1925 Geneva Protocol prohibiting chemical and biological warfare. We argue that archival documents fail to support this allegation, on several counts. As a matter of historical record, Hitler prohibited German biological weapons (BW) development and consistently adhered to the Geneva Protocol. Rather than biological warfare against civilians, the Wehrmacht used flooding, land mines, and the destruction of vital infrastructure to obstruct the Allied advance. To protect its own troops in the area, the German army sought to contain the increased mosquito breeding likely to be caused by the flooding. Italians returning to the Pontine Marshes after the German retreat in 1944 suffered malaria as a result of environmental destruction, which was banned by the 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions and by subsequent treaties. In contrast, a state's violation of the Geneva Protocol, whether past or present, involves the use of germ weapons and, by inference, a state-level capability. Any allegation of such a serious violation demands credible evidence that meets high scientific and legal standards of proof.

  17. Multifunction Imaging and Spectroscopic Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis

    2004-01-01

    A proposed optoelectronic instrument would perform several different spectroscopic and imaging functions that, heretofore, have been performed by separate instruments. The functions would be reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies; variable-color confocal imaging at two different resolutions; and wide-field color imaging. The instrument was conceived for use in examination of minerals on remote planets. It could also be used on Earth to characterize material specimens. The conceptual design of the instrument emphasizes compactness and economy, to be achieved largely through sharing of components among subsystems that perform different imaging and spectrometric functions. The input optics for the various functions would be mounted in a single optical head. With the exception of a targeting lens, the input optics would all be aimed at the same spot on a specimen, thereby both (1) eliminating the need to reposition the specimen to perform different imaging and/or spectroscopic observations and (2) ensuring that data from such observations can be correlated with respect to known positions on the specimen. The figure schematically depicts the principal components and subsystems of the instrument. The targeting lens would collect light into a multimode optical fiber, which would guide the light through a fiber-selection switch to a reflection/ fluorescence spectrometer. The switch would have four positions, enabling selection of spectrometer input from the targeting lens, from either of one or two multimode optical fibers coming from a reflectance/fluorescence- microspectrometer optical head, or from a dark calibration position (no fiber). The switch would be the only moving part within the instrument.

  18. Social media for disaster response during floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilander, D.; van de Vries, C.; Baart, F.; van Swol, R.; Wagemaker, J.; van Loenen, A.

    2015-12-01

    During floods it is difficult to obtain real-time accurate information about the extent and severity of the hazard. This information is very important for disaster risk reduction management and crisis relief organizations. Currently, real-time information is derived from few sources such as field reports, traffic camera's, satellite images and areal images. However, getting a real-time and accurate picture of the situation on the ground remains difficult. At the same time, people affected by natural hazards increasingly share their observations and their needs through digital media. Unlike conventional monitoring systems, Twitter data contains a relatively large number of real-time ground truth observations representing both physical hazard characteristics and hazard impacts. In the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, the intensity of unique flood related tweets during a flood event, peaked at almost 900 tweets per minute during floods in early 2015. Flood events around the world in 2014/2015 yielded large numbers of flood related tweets: from Philippines (85.000) to Pakistan (82.000) to South-Korea (50.000) to Detroit (20.000). The challenge here is to filter out useful content from this cloud of data, validate these observations and convert them to readily usable information. In Jakarta, flood related tweets often contain information about the flood depth. In a pilot we showed that this type of information can be used for real-time mapping of the flood extent by plotting these observations on a Digital Elevation Model. Uncertainties in the observations were taken into account by assigning a probability to each observation indicating its likelihood to be correct based on statistical analysis of the total population of tweets. The resulting flood maps proved to be correct for about 75% of the neighborhoods in Jakarta. Further cross-validation of flood related tweets against (hydro-) meteorological data is to likely improve the skill of the method.

  19. Implementing the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) in Austria: Flood Risk Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhold, Clemens

    2013-04-01

    he Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks (EFD) aims at the reduction of the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity associated with floods in the Community. This task is to be achieved based on three process steps (1) preliminary flood risk assessment (finalised by the end of 2011), (2) flood hazard maps and flood risk maps (due 2013) and (3) flood risk management plans (due 2015). Currently, an interdisciplinary national working group is defining the methodological framework for flood risk management plans in Austria supported by a constant exchange with international bodies and experts. Referring to the EFD the components of the flood risk management plan are (excerpt): 1. conclusions of the preliminary flood risk assessment 2. flood hazard maps and flood risk maps and the conclusions that can be drawn from those maps 3. a description of the appropriate objectives of flood risk management 4. a summary of measures and their prioritisation aiming to achieve the appropriate objectives of flood risk management The poster refers to some of the major challenges in this process, such as the legal provisions, coordination of administrative units, definition of public relations, etc. The implementation of the EFD requires the harmonisation of legal instruments of various disciplines (e.g. water management, spatial planning, civil protection) enabling a coordinated - and ideally binding - practice of flood risk management. This process is highly influenced by the administrative organisation in Austria - federal, provincial and municipality level. The Austrian approach meets this organisational framework by structuring the development of the flood risk management plan into 3 time-steps: (a) federal blueprint, (b) provincial editing and (c) federal finishing as well as reporting to the European Commission. Each time

  20. Truth or Consequences Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  1. Concept of Flood Risk Map and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yuanchang

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 The concept of flood risk map and its mapping procedure Flood risk management is the process for analysis and assessment of flood risks as well as to form nd implement the disaster mitigation plans. Flood risk analysis is the basic work of flood risk assessment and management that can provide people with the possibilities of flood occurrence and its risk in specific areas and consequently raise the public awareness of flood help to form a reasonable flood prevention plan. However, flood risk mapping is a popular measure adopted by many countries and it provides possible flood areas and water levels as well as possible losses in a friendly way. To form a flood risk map, it is neccessary to allocate the historical information,compute the flood risk and analyze the data.

  2. Effects of global warming on floods and droughts and related water quality of rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, B.

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on the effect of global warming on droughts, rainstorms and floods and related water quality of rivers. Relations of temperature, rainstorms and river discharges with water quality variables like water temperature, chemical concentrations and microbiological activity are discusse

  3. Flood Insurance Study, City of Logan, Utah, Cache County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1984-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Logan, Cache County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study will be used to convert Logan to the regular program of flood insurance by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Local and regional planners will use this study in their efforts to promote sound flood plain management.

  4. The Long Term Impact of Flooding on Residential Property Values

    OpenAIRE

    C. Eves

    2001-01-01

    Current planning schemes in Australia identify areas that are potentially flood liable. This identification of flood liable land is based on flood height levels over time. Throughout New South Wales this measure of flood affectation is determined by three classifications. These classifications also influence the development of residential property within these flood areas. Prospective purchasers are advised of this flood zoning when a full title search is carried out. However, as these proper...

  5. Flood Insurance Study Morgan County, Utah, Unincorporated Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1990-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the unincorporated areas of Morgan County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound floodplain management. Minimum floodplain...

  6. Flood Insurance Study, City of Manti, Utah, Sanpete County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1987-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Manti, Sanpete County, Utah and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound floodplain management. Minimum floodplain manageme...

  7. Flood Insurance Study, Town of Elsinore, Utah, Sevier County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1998-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the Town of Elsinore, Sevier County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood-risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and to assist the community in its efforts to promote sound floodplain management. Minimum floodplain m...

  8. Flood Insurance Study, City of Midvale, Utah, Salt Lake County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1994-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Midvale, Salt Lake County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to established [sic] actuarial flood insurance rates and to assist the community in its efforts to promote sound floodplain management. Minimum flo...

  9. Economic hotspots: Visualizing Vulnerability to Flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der A.; Logtmeijer, C.J.J.

    2005-01-01

    We simulate a large-scale flooding in the province of South-Holland in the economic centre of the Netherlands. In traditional research, damage due to flooding is computed with a unit loss method coupling land use information to depth-damage functions. Normally only direct costs are incorporated as a

  10. 77 FR 70454 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Register a ] proposed flood hazard determination notice at FR 77 44651 that contained a table which... notice published at 77 FR 44651 in the July 30, 2012, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...

  11. SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT IN FLOOD CONTROL DAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Pattanapanchai, Maneechit; Shah, Farhed A.; Annandale, George

    2002-01-01

    Reservoir sedimentation reduces economic value and longevity of flood control dams. Periodic sediment removal allows extension of reservoir life. An optimal control model is developed to evaluate alternative sediment management strategies for flood control dams. An illustrative empirical analysis shows that sustainable management is economically desirable for a wide range of parameter values.

  12. Flood planning; the politics of water security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Floods are amongst the most common and devastating natural disasters. In the wake of such an event, the pressure to initiate flood protection schemes that will provide security is enormous, and politicians promise quick solutions in the national interest. Jeroen Warner examines a number of such proj

  13. 46 CFR 28.580 - Unintentional flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the engineroom, must be assumed to be flooded. (f) Survival conditions. A vessel is presumed to... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Stability § 28.580 Unintentional flooding. (a) Applicability. Except for an open boat...

  14. Flooding Capability for River-based Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Prescott, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ryan, Emerald [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Calhoun, Donna [Boise State Univ., ID (United States); Sampath, Ramprasad [Centroid Labs., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Anderson, S. Danielle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Casteneda, Cody [Boise State Univ., ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the initial investigation into modeling and simulation tools for application of riverine flooding representation as part of the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway external hazards evaluations. The report provides examples of different flooding conditions and scenarios that could impact river and watershed systems. Both 2D and 3D modeling approaches are described.

  15. Rhine Cities - Urban Flood Integration (UFI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redeker, C.

    2013-01-01

    While agglomerations along the Rhine are confronted with the uncertainties of an increasing flood risk due to climate change, different programs are claiming urban river front sites. Simultaneously, urban development, flood management, as well as navigation and environmental protection are negotiati

  16. 12 CFR 741.216 - Flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood insurance. 741.216 Section 741.216 Banks... INSURANCE Regulations Codified Elsewhere in NCUA's Regulations as Applying to Federal Credit Unions That Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.216 Flood insurance. Any...

  17. Assessing infrastructure vulnerability to major floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenssen, Lars

    1998-12-31

    This thesis proposes a method for assessing the direct effects of serious floods on a physical infrastructure or utility. This method should be useful in contingency planning and in the design of structures likely to be damaged by flooding. A review is given of (1) methods of floodplain management and strategies for mitigating floods, (2) methods of risk analysis that will become increasingly important in flood management, (3) methods for hydraulic computations, (4) a variety of scour assessment methods and (5) applications of geographic information systems (GIS) to the analysis of flood vulnerability. Three computer codes were developed: CULVCAP computes the headwater level for circular and box culverts, SCOUR for assessing riprap stability and scour depths, and FASTFLOOD prepares input rainfall series and input files for the rainfall-runoff model used in the case study. A road system in central Norway was chosen to study how to analyse the flood vulnerability of an infrastructure. Finally, the thesis proposes a method for analysing the flood vulnerability of physical infrastructure. The method involves a general stage that will provide data on which parts of the infrastructure are potentially vulnerable to flooding and how to analyse them, and a specific stage which is concerned with analysing one particular kind of physical infrastructure in a study area. 123 refs., 59 figs., 17 tabs= .

  18. Extreme flash floods in Barcelona County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barrera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the catastrophic and extraordinary floods occurring in Barcelona County (Catalonia, NE Spain are studied, in order to characterise the temporal evolution of extreme flash floods in that area and their main features. These events usually cause economical losses and major problems for undertaking daily activity in Barcelona city. This kind of floods is a very common feature in the North-east of Spain and they are recorded every year in some point of Catalonia. This contribution also shows the frequency of those events, within the framework of all the floods that have occurred in Barcelona since the 14th century, but also describes the flooded area, urban evolution, impacts and the weather conditions for any of most severe events. The evolution of flood occurrence shows the existence of oscillations in the earlier and later modern age periods that can be attributed to climatic variability, evolution of the perception threshold and changes in vulnerability. A great increase of vulnerability can be assumed for the period 1850-1900. The analysis of the time evolution for the Barcelona rainfall series (1854-2000 shows that no trend exists, although, due to the changes in urban planning, flash-floods impact has changed over this time. The number of catastrophic flash floods has diminished, although the extraordinary ones have increased.

  19. Enhancing flood resilience through improved risk communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, J. J.; Bradford, R. A.; Bonaiuto, M.; De Dominicis, S.; Rotko, P.; Aaltonen, J.; Waylen, K.; Langan, S. J.

    2012-07-01

    A framework of guiding recommendations for effective pre-flood and flood warning communications derived from the URFlood project (2nd ERA-Net CRUE Research Funding Initiative) from extensive quantitative and qualitative research in Finland, Ireland, Italy and Scotland is presented. Eleven case studies in fluvial, pluvial, coastal, residual and "new" flood risk locations were undertaken. The recommendations were developed from questionnaire surveys by exploring statistical correlations of actions and understandings of individuals in flood risk situations to low, moderate and high resilience groupings. Groupings were based on a conceptual relationship of self-assessed levels of awareness, preparedness and worry. Focus groups and structured interviews were used to discuss barriers in flood communications, explore implementation of the recommendations and to rank the recommendations in order of perceived importance. Results indicate that the information deficit model for flood communications that relies on the provision of more and better information to mitigate risk in flood-prone areas is insufficient, and that the communications process is very much multi-dimensional. The recommendations are aimed at addressing this complexity and their careful implementation is likely to improve the penetration of flood communications. The recommendations are applicable to other risks and are transferrable to jurisdictions beyond the project countries.

  20. Floods in mountain environments: A synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Markus; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Marston, Richard A.

    2016-11-01

    Floods are a crucial agent of geomorphic change in the channels and valley floors of mountains watercourses. At the same time, they can be highly damaging to property, infrastructure, and life. Because of their high energy, mountain watercourses are highly vulnerable to environmental changes affecting their catchments and channels. Many factors have modified and frequently still tend to modify the environmental conditions in mountain areas, with impacts on geomorphic processes and the frequency, magnitude, and timing of floods in mountain watercourses. The ongoing climate changes vary between regions but may affect floods in mountain areas in many ways. In many mountain regions of Europe, widespread afforestation took place over the twentieth century, considerably increasing the amounts of large wood delivered to the channels and the likelihood of jamming bridges. At the same time, deforestation continues in other mountain areas, accelerating runoff and amplifying the magnitude and frequency of floods in foreland areas. In many countries, in-channel gravel mining has been a common practice during recent decades; the resultant deficit of bed material in the affected channels may suddenly manifest during flood events, resulting in the failure of scoured bridges or catastrophic channel widening. During the past century many rivers in mountain and foreland areas incised deeply; the resultant loss of floodplain water storage has decreased attenuation of flood waves, hence increasing flood hazard to downstream river reaches. On the other hand, a large amount of recent river restoration activities worldwide may provide examples of beneficial changes to flood risk, attained as a result of increased channel storage or reestablished floodplain water storage. Relations between geomorphic processes and floods operate in both directions, which means that changes in flood probability or the character of floods (e.g., increased wood load) may significantly modify the morphology

  1. Catchment scale afforestation for mitigating flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Mhari; Quinn, Paul; Bathurst, James; Birkinshaw, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    After the 2013-14 floods in the UK there were calls to 'forest the uplands' as a solution to reducing flood risk across the nation. At present, 1 in 6 homes in Britain are at risk of flooding and current EU legislation demands a sustainable, 'nature-based solution'. However, the role of forests as a natural flood management technique remains highly controversial, due to a distinct lack of robust evidence into its effectiveness in reducing flood risk during extreme events. SHETRAN, physically-based spatially-distributed hydrological models of the Irthing catchment and Wark forest sub-catchments (northern England) have been developed in order to test the hypothesis of the effect trees have on flood magnitude. The advanced physically-based models have been designed to model scale-related responses from 1, through 10, to 100km2, a first study of the extent to which afforestation and woody debris runoff attenuation features (RAFs) may help to mitigate floods at the full catchment scale (100-1000 km2) and on a national basis. Furthermore, there is a need to analyse the extent to which land management practices, and the installation of nature-based RAFs, such as woody debris dams, in headwater catchments can attenuate flood-wave movement, and potentially reduce downstream flood risk. The impacts of riparian planting and the benefits of adding large woody debris of several designs and on differing sizes of channels has also been simulated using advanced hydrodynamic (HiPIMS) and hydrological modelling (SHETRAN). With the aim of determining the effect forestry may have on flood frequency, 1000 years of generated rainfall data representative of current conditions has been used to determine the difference between current land-cover, different distributions of forest cover and the defining scenarios - complete forest removal and complete afforestation of the catchment. The simulations show the percentage of forestry required to have a significant impact on mitigating

  2. River restoration, discharge uncertainties and floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendiondo, E.M. [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Hydraulic Structures and Water-Resources Engineering]|[Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Hidraulicas; Clarke, R.T. [Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Hidraulicas; Toensmann, F. [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Hydraulic Structures and Water-Resources Engineering

    2000-07-01

    Although ecological river restoration is updated continuously, discharge uncertainties are not being addressed to practical purposes, i.e. flood mitigation. So, uncertainty-based strategies need to be addressed with resilient river habitats. Not only the flood-defence and river-restoration framework of Toensmann (1996), but also the uncertainties in rating curves pointed by Clarke et al (2000), are used as starting points to propose an alternative flood mitigation scheme, managing hydraulics, ecology and statistics for restoring watercourses. Our working hypothesis considers the likelihood and the resiliency of riparian habitats in order to encompass the routing effects caused by this alternative flood mitigation scheme. Herein we depict the strategy and assessment for the appraisal of flood mitigation due to discharge reduction in rating curves, with application examples. (orig.)

  3. Can we predict the next urban flood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Jensen, David Getreuer;

    2015-01-01

    Flooding produced by high-intensive local rainfall and drainage system capacity exceedance can have severe impacts in cities. In order to prepare cities for these types of flood events – especially in the future climate – it is valuable to be able to simulate these events numericallyboth historic......Flooding produced by high-intensive local rainfall and drainage system capacity exceedance can have severe impacts in cities. In order to prepare cities for these types of flood events – especially in the future climate – it is valuable to be able to simulate these events numericallyboth...... historically and in real-time. There is a rather untested potential in real-time prediction of urban floods. In this paper radar data observations with different spatial and temporal resolution, radar nowcasts of 0-2 hours leadtime, and numerical weather models with leadtimes up to 24 h are used as inputs...

  4. Floods and droughts on the lower Vistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzenna Sztobryn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses floods and droughts on the lower Vistula based on the data (water levels and flow rates recorded in stations of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB in Warsaw, Kępa Polska, Toruń and Tczew. It also includes the causes of flooding and drought in the lower Vistula with the hydrological characteristics from the years 1951–2010. The variability in maximum and minimum annual and monthly flow rates has been analysed for the aforementioned period as well. In addition, the authors have analysed changes in the shape of the flood wave after passing through the reservoir and cascade in Włocławek based on the hydrograph of May and June 2010. It has been found that the flood wave is flattened and extended. This phenomenon is favourable from the point of view of flood actions.

  5. Characterization of remarkable floods in France, a transdisciplinary approach applied on generalized floods of January 1910

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudou, Martin; Lang, Michel; Vinet, Freddy; Coeur, Denis

    2014-05-01

    The 2007 Flood Directive promotes the integration and valorization of historical and significant floods in flood risk management (Flood Directive Text, chapter II, and article 4). Taking into account extreme past floods analysis seems necessary in the mitigation process of vulnerability face to flooding risk. In France, this aspect of the Directive was carried out through the elaboration of Preliminary Flood Risk Assessment (PFRA) and the establishment of a 2000 floods list. From this first list, a sample of 176 floods, considered as remarkable has been selected. These floods were compiled in discussion with local authorities in charge of flood management (Lang et al., 2012) and have to be integrated in priority in local risk management policies. However, a consideration emerges about this classification: how a remarkable flood can be defined? According which criteria can it be considered as remarkable? To answer these questions, a methodology has been established by building an evaluation grid of remarkable floods in France. The primary objective of this grid is to analyze the remarkable flood's characteristics (hydrological and meteorological characteristics, sociological- political and economic impacts), and secondly to propose a classification of significant floods selected in the 2011 PFRA. To elaborate this evaluation grid, several issues had to be taken into account. First, the objective is to allow the comparison of events from various periods. These temporal disparities include the integration of various kinds of data and point out the importance of historical hydrology. It is possible to evaluate accurately the characteristics of recent floods by interpreting quantitative data (for example hydrological records. However, for floods that occurred before the 1960's it is necessary resorting to qualitative information such as written sources is necessary (Coeur, Lang, 2008). In a second part the evaluation grid requires equitable criteria in order not to

  6. Effect of Urban Green Spaces and Flooded Area Type on Flooding Probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyomin Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Countermeasures to urban flooding should consider long-term perspectives, because climate change impacts are unpredictable and complex. Urban green spaces have emerged as a potential option to reduce urban flood risks, and their effectiveness has been highlighted in notable urban water management studies. In this study, flooded areas in Seoul, Korea, were divided into four flooded area types by cluster analysis based on topographic and physical characteristics and verified using discriminant analysis. After division by flooded area type, logistic regression analysis was performed to determine how the flooding probability changes with variations in green space area. Type 1 included regions where flooding occurred in a drainage basin that had a flood risk management infrastructure (FRMI. In Type 2, the slope was steep; the TWI (Topographic Wetness Index was relatively low; and soil drainage was favorable. Type 3 represented the gentlest sloping areas, and these were associated with the highest TWI values. In addition, these areas had the worst soil drainage. Type 4 had moderate slopes, imperfect soil drainage and lower than average TWI values. We found that green spaces exerted a considerable influence on urban flooding probabilities in Seoul, and flooding probabilities could be reduced by over 50% depending on the green space area and the locations where green spaces were introduced. Increasing the area of green spaces was the most effective method of decreasing flooding probability in Type 3 areas. In Type 2 areas, the maximum hourly precipitation affected the flooding probability significantly, and the flooding probability in these areas was high despite the extensive green space area. These findings can contribute towards establishing guidelines for urban spatial planning to respond to urban flooding.

  7. Probabilistic, meso-scale flood loss modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Botto, Anna; Schröter, Kai; Merz, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk analyses are an important basis for decisions on flood risk management and adaptation. However, such analyses are associated with significant uncertainty, even more if changes in risk due to global change are expected. Although uncertainty analysis and probabilistic approaches have received increased attention during the last years, they are still not standard practice for flood risk assessments and even more for flood loss modelling. State of the art in flood loss modelling is still the use of simple, deterministic approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel probabilistic, multi-variate flood loss models have been developed and validated on the micro-scale using a data-mining approach, namely bagging decision trees (Merz et al. 2013). In this presentation we demonstrate and evaluate the upscaling of the approach to the meso-scale, namely on the basis of land-use units. The model is applied in 19 municipalities which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany (Botto et al. submitted). The application of bagging decision tree based loss models provide a probability distribution of estimated loss per municipality. Validation is undertaken on the one hand via a comparison with eight deterministic loss models including stage-damage functions as well as multi-variate models. On the other hand the results are compared with official loss data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB). The results show, that uncertainties of loss estimation remain high. Thus, the significant advantage of this probabilistic flood loss estimation approach is that it inherently provides quantitative information about the uncertainty of the prediction. References: Merz, B.; Kreibich, H.; Lall, U. (2013): Multi-variate flood damage assessment: a tree-based data-mining approach. NHESS, 13(1), 53-64. Botto A, Kreibich H, Merz B, Schröter K (submitted) Probabilistic, multi-variable flood loss modelling on the meso-scale with BT-FLEMO. Risk Analysis.

  8. Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC)/NMR spectroscopic properties and dynamics of compounds containing metal ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcisauskaité, Vaida

    199mHg PAC and 199Hg NMR spectroscopic properties, nuclear quadrupole coupling constants, Q, asymmetry parameters, , and chemical shifts, , respectively, are the fingerprint of the local molecular and electronic structure, at the probed Hg nuclei. For this reason, these spectroscopic techniques......, these studies did not provide the insight into the microscopic nature of the water exchange mechanism. The aim of this study was to provide this insight using a computational chemistry approach. In this respect, in our work presented in Section 6.6 we first equilibrated the Zn(II) + 64 H2O system using a Car...

  9. Dominant flood generating mechanisms across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuijs, Wouter R.; Woods, Ross A.; Hutton, Christopher J.; Sivapalan, M.

    2016-05-01

    River flooding can have severe societal, economic, and environmental consequences. However, limited understanding of the regional differences in flood-generating mechanisms results in poorly understood historical flood trends and uncertain predictions of future flood conditions. Through systematic data analyses of 420 catchments we expose the primary drivers of flooding across the contiguous United States. This is achieved by exploring which flood-generating processes control the seasonality and magnitude of maximum annual flows. The regional patterns of seasonality and interannual variabilities of maximum annual flows are, in general, poorly explained by rainfall characteristics alone. For most catchments soil moisture dependent precipitation excess, snowmelt, and rain-on-snow events are found to be much better predictors of the flooding responses. The continental-scale classification of dominant flood-generating processes we generate here emphasizes the disparity in timing and variability between extreme rainfall and flooding and can assist predictions of flooding and flood risk within the continental U.S.

  10. Controls on flood and sediment wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Maarten; Lane, Stuart N.; Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The understanding of flood wave propagation - celerity and transformation - through a fluvial system is of generic importance for flood forecasting/mitigation. In association with flood wave propagation, sediment wave propagation may induce local erosion and sedimentation, which will affect infrastructure and riparian natural habitats. Through analysing flood and sediment wave propagation, we gain insight in temporal changes in transport capacity (the flood wave) and sediment availability and transport (the sediment wave) along the river channel. Heidel (1956) was amongst the first to discuss the progressive lag of sediment concentration behind the corresponding flood wave based on field measurements. Since then this type of hysteresis has been characterized in a number of studies, but these were often based on limited amount of floods and measurement sites, giving insufficient insight into associated forcing mechanisms. Here, as part of a project concerned with the hydrological and geomorphic forcing of sediment transfer processes in alpine environments, we model the downstream propagation of short duration, high frequency releases of water and sediment (purges) from a flow intake in the Borgne d'Arolla River in south-west Switzerland. A total of >50 events were measured at 1 minute time intervals using pressure transducers and turbidity probes at a number of sites along the river. We show that flood and sediment wave propagation can be well represented through simple convection diffusion models. The models are calibrated/validated to describe the set of measured waves and used to explain the observed variation in wave celerity and diffusion. In addition we explore the effects of controlling factors including initial flow depth, flood height, flood duration, bed roughness, bed slope and initial sediment concentration, on the wave propagation processes. We show that the effects of forcing mechanisms on flood and sediment wave propagation will lead to different

  11. The SPHEREx All-Sky Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; SPHEREx Science Team, SPHEREx Project Team

    2016-06-01

    SPHEREx is a mission to conduct an optical-near-IR survey of the entire sky with a spectrum at every pixel location. It was selected by NASA for a Phase A study in its Small Explorer Program; if selected, development would begin in 2016, and the observatory would start a 2-year prime mission in 2020. An all-sky spectroscopic survey can be used to tackle a wide range of science questions. The SPHEREx science team is focusing on three: (1) Probing the physics of inflation through measuring non-Gaussianity from the study of large-scale structure; (2) Studying the origin of water and biogenic molecules in a wide range of physical and chemical environments via ice absorption spectra; (3) Charting the history of star formation in the universe through intensity mapping of the large-scale spatial power. The instrument is a small wide-field telescope operating in the range of 0.75 - 4.8 µm at a spectral resolution of 41.5 in the optical and 150 at the long-wavelength end. It observes in a sun-sync low-earth orbit, covering the sky like WISE and COBE. SPHEREx is a simple instrument that requires no new technology. The Phase A design has substantial technical and resource margins and can be built with low risk. It is a partnership between Caltech and JPL, with Ball Aerospace and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute as major partners. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. © 2016 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  12. The SPHEREx All-Sky Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; SPHEREx Science Team, SPHEREx Project Team

    2016-06-01

    SPHEREx is a mission to conduct an optical-near-IR survey of the entire sky with a spectrum at every pixel location. It was selected by NASA for a Phase A study in its Small Explorer Program; if selected, development would begin in 2016, and the observatory would start a 2-year prime mission in 2020. An all-sky spectroscopic survey can be used to tackle a wide range of science questions. The SPHEREx science team is focusing on three: (1) Probing the physics of inflation through measuring non-Gaussianity from the study of large-scale structure; (2) Studying the origin of water and biogenic molecules in a wide range of physical and chemical environments via ice absorption spectra; (3) Charting the history of star formation in the universe through intensity mapping of the large-scale spatial power. The instrument is a small wide-field telescope operating in the range of 0.75 - 4.8 µm at a spectral resolution of 41.5 in the optical and 150 at the long-wavelength end. It observes in a sun-sync low-earth orbit, covering the sky like WISE and COBE. SPHEREx is a simple instrument that requires no new technology. The Phase A design has substantial technical and resource margins and can be built with low risk. It is a partnership between Caltech and JPL, with Ball Aerospace and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute as major partners. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  13. Time resolved spectroscopic studies on some nanophosphors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harish Chander; Santa Chawla

    2008-06-01

    Time resolved spectroscopy is an important tool for studying photophysical processes in phosphors. Present work investigates the steady state and time resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic characteristics of ZnS, ZnO and (Zn, Mg)O nanophosphors both in powder as well as thin film form. Photoluminescence (PL) of ZnS nanophosphors typically exhibit a purple/blue emission peak termed as self activated (SA) luminescence and emission at different wavelengths arising due to dopant impurities e.g. green emission for ZnS : Cu, orange emission for ZnS : Mn and red emission for ZnS : Eu. The lifetimes obtained from decay curves range from ns to ms level and suggest the radiative recombination path involving donor–acceptor pair recombination or internal electronic transitions of the impurity atom. A series of ZnMgO nanophosphor thin films with varied Zn : Mg ratios were prepared by chemical bath deposition. Photoluminescence (PL) excitation and emission spectra exhibit variations with changing Mg ratio. Luminescence lifetime as short as 10-10 s was observed for ZnO and ZnMgO (100 : 10) nanophosphors. With increasing Mg ratio, PL decay shifts into microsecond range. ZnO and ZnMgO alloys up to 50% Mg were prepared as powder by solid state mixing and sintering at high temperature in reducing atmosphere. Time resolved decay of PL indicated lifetime in the microsecond time scale. The novelty of the work lies in clear experimental evidence of dopants (Cu, Mn, Eu and Mg) in the decay process and luminescence life times in II–VI semiconductor nanocrystals of ZnS and ZnO. For ZnS, blue self activated luminescence decays faster than Cu and Mn related emission. For undoped ZnO nanocrystals, PL decay is in the nanosecond range whereas with Mg doping the decay becomes much slower in the microsecond range.

  14. Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Machado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical records are an important source of information about extreme and rare floods with a great value to establish a reliable flood return frequency. The use of long historic records for flood frequency analysis brings in the question of flood stationarity, since climatic and land-use conditions can affect the relevance of past flooding as a predictor of future flooding. In this paper, a detailed 400 year flood record from the Tagus River in Aranjuez (Central Spain was analysed under stationary and non-stationary flood frequency approaches, to assess their implications on hazard studies. Historical flood records in Aranjuez were obtained from documents (Proceedings of the City Council, diaries, chronicles, memoirs, etc., epigraphic marks, and indirect historical sources and reports. The water levels associated with different floods (derived from descriptions or epigraphic marks were computed into discharge values using a one-dimensional hydraulic model. Secular variations on flood magnitude and frequency, found to respond to climate and environmental drivers, showed a good correlation between high values of historical flood discharges and a negative mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO index. Over the systematic gauge record (1913–2008, an abrupt change on flood magnitude was produced in 1957 due to constructions of three major reservoirs in the Tagus headwaters (Bolarque, Entrepeñas and Buendia controlling 80% of the watershed surface draining to Aranjuez. Two different models were used for the flood frequency analysis: (a a stationary model estimating statistical distributions incorporating imprecise and categorical data based on maximum likelihood estimators; (b a time–varying model based on "generalized additive models for location, scale and shape" (GAMLSS modelling, that incorporates external covariates related to climate variability (NAO index and catchment hydrology factors (in this paper a reservoir index; RI

  15. Vibrational spectroscopic characterization of fluoroquinolones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, U.; Szeghalmi, A.; Schmitt, M.; Kiefer, W.; Popp, J.; Holzgrabe, U.

    2005-05-01

    Quinolones are important gyrase inhibitors. Even though they are used as active agents in many antibiotics, the detailed mechanism of action on a molecular level is so far not known. It is of greatest interest to shed light on this drug-target interaction to provide useful information in the fight against growing resistances and obtain new insights for the development of new powerful drugs. To reach this goal, on a first step it is essential to understand the structural characteristics of the drugs and the effects that are caused by the environment in detail. In this work we report on Raman spectroscopical investigations of a variety of gyrase inhibitors (nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid, cinoxacin, flumequine, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, enoxacin, sarafloxacin and moxifloxacin) by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy excited with various excitation wavelengths, both in the off-resonance region (532, 633, 830 and 1064 nm) and in the resonance region (resonance Raman spectroscopy at 244, 257 and 275 nm). Furthermore DFT calculations were performed to assign the vibrational modes, as well as for an identification of intramolecular hydrogen bonding motifs. The effect of small changes in the drug environment was studied by adding successively small amounts of water until physiological low concentrations of the drugs in aqueous solution were obtained. At these low concentrations resonance Raman spectroscopy proved to be a useful and sensitive technique. Supplementary information was obtained from IR and UV/vis spectroscopy.

  16. National flood modelling for insurance purposes: using IFSAR for flood risk estimation in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sanders

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk poses a major problem for insurers and governments who ultimately pay the financial costs of losses resulting from flood events. Insurers therefore face the problem of how to assess their exposure to floods and how best to price the flood element of their insurance products. This paper looks at the insurance implications of recent flood events in Europe and the issues surrounding insurance of potential future events. In particular, the paper will focus on the flood risk information needs of insurers and how these can be met. The data requirements of national and regional flood models are addressed in the context of the accuracy of available data on property location. Terrain information is generally the weakest component of sophisticated flood models. Therefore, various sources of digital terrain models (DTM are examined and discussed with consideration of the vertical and horizontal accuracy, the speed of acquisition, the costs and the comprehensiveness of the data. The NEXTMap DTM series from Intermap Technologies Inc. is proposed as a suitable DTM for flood risk identification and mapping, following its use in the UK. Its acquisition, processing and application is described and future plans discussed. Examples are included of the application of flood information to insurance property information and the potential benefits and advantages of using suitable hazard modelling data sources are detailed.

  17. National flood modelling for insurance purposes: using IFSAR for flood risk estimation in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, R.; Shaw, F.; Mackay, H.; Galy, H.; Foote, M.

    2005-10-01

    Flood risk poses a major problem for insurers and governments who ultimately pay the financial costs of losses resulting from flood events. Insurers therefore face the problem of how to assess their exposure to floods and how best to price the flood element of their insurance products. This paper looks at the insurance implications of recent flood events in Europe and the issues surrounding insurance of potential future events. In particular, the paper will focus on the flood risk information needs of insurers and how these can be met. The data requirements of national and regional flood models are addressed in the context of the accuracy of available data on property location. Terrain information is generally the weakest component of sophisticated flood models. Therefore, various sources of digital terrain models (DTM) are examined and discussed with consideration of the vertical and horizontal accuracy, the speed of acquisition, the costs and the comprehensiveness of the data. The NEXTMap DTM series from Intermap Technologies Inc. is proposed as a suitable DTM for flood risk identification and mapping, following its use in the UK. Its acquisition, processing and application is described and future plans discussed. Examples are included of the application of flood information to insurance property information and the potential benefits and advantages of using suitable hazard modelling data sources are detailed.

  18. 3-D hydrodynamic modelling of flood impacts on a building and indoor flooding processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gems, Bernhard; Mazzorana, Bruno; Hofer, Thomas; Sturm, Michael; Gabl, Roman; Aufleger, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Given the current challenges in flood risk management and vulnerability assessment of buildings exposed to flood hazards, this study presents three-dimensional numerical modelling of torrential floods and its interaction with buildings. By means of a case study application, the FLOW-3D software is applied to the lower reach of the Rio Vallarsa torrent in the village of Laives (Italy). A single-family house on the flood plain is therefore considered in detail. It is exposed to a 300-year flood hydrograph. Different building representation scenarios, including an entire impervious building envelope and the assumption of fully permeable doors, light shafts and windows, are analysed. The modelling results give insight into the flooding process of the building's interior, the impacting hydrodynamic forces on the exterior and interior walls, and further, they quantify the impact of the flooding of a building on the flow field on the surrounding flood plain. The presented study contributes to the development of a comprehensive physics-based vulnerability assessment framework. For pure water floods, this study presents the possibilities and limits of advanced numerical modelling techniques within flood risk management and, thereby, the planning of local structural protection measures.

  19. Spectroscopic observations of ASASSN-15bp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. C.; Darnley, M. J.; Bode, M. F.; Copperwheat, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    We report spectroscopic observations of the optical transient ASASSN-15bp (ATel #6981) taken on 2015 January 25.31 UT using the FRODOSpec spectrograph (Barnsley et al. 2012) on the Liverpool Telescope (Steele et al. 2004).

  20. Real-time flood forecasting of Huai River with flood diversion and retarding areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhijia; Bao Hongjun; Xue Cangsheng; Hu Yuzhong; Fang Hong

    2008-01-01

    A combination of the rainfall-runoff module of the Xin'anjiang model, the Muskingum routing method, the water stage simulating hydrologic method, the diffusion wave nonlinear water stage method, and the real-time error correction method is applied to the real-time flood forecasting and regulation of the Huai River with flood diversion and retarding areas. The Xin'anjiang model is used to forecast the flood discharge hydrograph of the upstream and tributary. The flood routing of the main channel and flood diversion areas is based on the Muskingum method. The water stage of the downstream boundary condition is calculated with the water stage simulating hydrologic method and the water stages of each cross section are calculated from downstream to upstream with the diffusion wave nonlinear water stage method. The input flood discharge hydrograph from the main channel to the flood diversion area is estimated with the fixed split ratio of the main channel discharge. The flood flow inside the flood retarding area is calculated as a reservoir with the water balance method. The faded-memory forgetting factor least square of error series is used as the real-time error correction method for forecasting discharge and water stage. As an example, the combined models were applied to flood forecasting and regulation of the upper reaches of the Huai River above Lutaizi during the 2007 flood season. The forecast achieves a high accuracy and the results show that the combined models provide a scientific way of flood forecasting and regulation for a complex watershed with flood diversion and retarding areas.

  1. Real-time flood forecasting of Huai River with flood diversion and retarding areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhijia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A combination of the rainfall-runoff module of the Xin’anjiang model, the Muskingum routing method, the water stage simulating hydrologic method, the diffusion wave nonlinear water stage method, and the real-time error correction method is applied to the real-time flood forecasting and regulation of the Huai River with flood diversion and retarding areas. The Xin’anjiang model is used to forecast the flood discharge hydrograph of the upstream and tributary. The flood routing of the main channel and flood diversion areas is based on the Muskingum method. The water stage of the downstream boundary condition is calculated with the water stage simulating hydrologic method and the water stages of each cross section are calculated from downstream to upstream with the diffusion wave nonlinear water stage method. The input flood discharge hydrograph from the main channel to the flood diversion area is estimated with the fixed split ratio of the main channel discharge. The flood flow inside the flood retarding area is calculated as a reservoir with the water balance method. The faded-memory forgetting factor least square of error series is used as the real-time error correction method for forecasting discharge and water stage. As an example, the combined models were applied to flood forecasting and regulation of the upper reaches of the Huai River above Lutaizi during the 2007 flood season. The forecast achieves a high accuracy and the results show that the combined models provide a scientific way of flood forecasting and regulation for a complex watershed with flood diversion and retarding areas.

  2. Flood inundation map library, Fort Kent, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred in northern Maine from April 28 to May 1, 2008, and damage was extensive in the town of Fort Kent (Lombard, 2010). Aroostook County was declared a Federal disaster area on May 9, 2008. The extent of flooding on both the Fish and St. John Rivers during this event showed that the current Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Study (FIS) and Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1979) were out of date. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to develop a flood inundation map library showing the areas and depths for a range of flood stages from bankfull to the flood of record for Fort Kent to complement an updated FIS (Federal Emergency Management Agency, in press). Hydrologic analyses that support the maps include computer models with and without the levee and with various depths of backwater on the Fish River. This fact sheet describes the methods used to develop the maps and describes how the maps can be accessed.

  3. Determination of design floods using storm data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Eugene A.

    1987-12-01

    A brief historical perspective of hydrologic analyses used in the determination of spillway sizing is presented. The paper describes the procedures for determining a reasonable upper limit of flood potential for a given drainage basin. A previous paper by the National Weather Service detailed the development of probable maximum precipitation estimates. These estimates form the basis for the determination of spillway design floods which are used to size spillways of major reservoirs for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Nationwide, the Corps has constructed hundreds of reservoirs which are operated for flood control, navigation, hydroelectric power and other purposes. These reservoirs are sized based on storm data and must withstand the most severe flood likely to occur. The paper also describes the design data including antecedent storms, infiltration, unit hydrographs and other hydrologic data used to convert probable maximum precipitation estimates into spillway design floods. Emphasis is given on designing safe reservoirs versus design flood selection based on economical considerations. Finally, a brief discussion of the similarities of design floods used by the other Federal construction agencies is presented.

  4. Popular myths about flooding in Western Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Floods are the most destructive natural hazard in the Nation, causing more deaths and financial loss in the 20th century than any other natural disaster. The most significant 20 riverine floods of the 20th century for which data are available have killed more than 1,843 people and caused more than $50 billion (uninflated) in damages (Perry, 2000). One of the most common means of describing the severity of a flood is a comparison to the "100-year flood." In the last decade, increasing attention has been paid to the fact that some regions, notably the Pacific Northwest, have experienced numerous so-called "100-year" floods in the span of a few years. Part of the confusion stems from the statistical nature of the "100-year flood" (Greene, 1996); however, another part of the confusion is the fact that the statistics are calculated for specific sites (streamgages) on specific rivers, rather than for a region as a whole. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey have begun to investigate how the likelihood of flooding may be determined on a regional basis (Troutman and Karlinger, 2003).

  5. Flash floods in Catalonia: a recurrent situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, M. C.; Llasat-Botija, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Lindbergh, S.

    2010-09-01

    This work focuses on the analysis and characterization of the flash flood events occurring during summer in Catalonia. To this aim, a database with information about the social impact produced by all flood events recorded in Catalonia between 1982 and 2007 has been built. The social impact was obtained systematically on the basis of news press data and, occasionally, on the basis of insurance data. Flood events have been classified into ordinary, extraordinary and catastrophic floods, following the proposal of Llasat et al.~(2005). However, bearing in mind flash flood effects, some new categories concerning casualties and car damage have also been introduced. The spatial and temporal distribution of these flood events has been analyzed and, in an effort to better estimate the social impact and vulnerability, some indicators have been defined and analyzed for a specific region. These indicators allow an analysis of spacial and temporal trends as well as characterization of the events. Results show a flash-flood increase in summer and early autumn, mainly due to inter-annual and intra-annual changes in population density.

  6. Microwave remote sensing of flood inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Guy J.-P.; Moller, Delwyn K.

    Flooding is one of the most costly natural disasters and thus mapping, modeling and forecasting flood events at various temporal and spatial scales is important for any flood risk mitigation plan, disaster relief services and the global (re-)insurance markets. Both computer models and observations (ground-based, airborne and Earth-orbiting) of flood processes and variables are of great value but the amount and quality of information available varies greatly with location, spatial scales and time. It is very well known that remote sensing of flooding, especially in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum, can complement ground-based observations and be integrated with flood models to augment the amount of information available to end-users, decision-makers and scientists. This paper aims to provide a concise review of both the science and applications of microwave remote sensing of flood inundation, focusing mainly on synthetic aperture radar (SAR), in a variety of natural and man-made environments. Strengths and limitations are discussed and the paper will conclude with a brief account on perspectives and emerging technologies.

  7. Application of Spectroscopic Methods for Structural Analysis of Chitin and Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Kumirska

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Chitin, the second most important natural polymer in the world, and its N-deacetylated derivative chitosan, have been identified as versatile biopolymers for a broad range of applications in medicine, agriculture and the food industry. Two of the main reasons for this are firstly the unique chemical, physicochemical and biological properties of chitin and chitosan, and secondly the unlimited supply of raw materials for their production. These polymers exhibit widely differing physicochemical properties depending on the chitin source and the conditions of chitosan production. The presence of reactive functional groups as well as the polysaccharide nature of these biopolymers enables them to undergo diverse chemical modifications. A complete chemical and physicochemical characterization of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives is not possible without using spectroscopic techniques. This review focuses on the application of spectroscopic methods for the structural analysis of these compounds.

  8. Spectroscopic and structural elucidation of alanyl-containing dipeptides and their hydrogensquarates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Bojidarka B.; Kolev, Tsonko M.; Spiteller, Michael

    2008-04-01

    The hydrogensquarates of alanyl-containing dipeptides glycylalanine ( H-Gly-Ala-OH) and alanylalanine ( H-Ala-Ala-OH) are characterized structurally by means of quantum chemical ab initio calculations, solid-state linear-dichroic infrared (IR-LD) spectroscopy, 1H and 13C NMR data, ESI-MS, HPLC-MS/MS, TGV and DSC methods. The structures consist in positive charged peptide moiety and negative hydrogensquarate anion (HSq -), stabilizing by strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The theoretical and IR-LD spectroscopic data are compared with corresponding ones of zwitterion dipeptides with a view to understanding the structural and conformational changes as well as the IR-spectroscopic ones as a result of hydrogensquarates formation. The strong overlapped and complicated IR-spectroscopic bands typical for hydrogensquarates in solid-state are assigned supporting with the presented vibrational analysis of the dipeptides and of the hydrogensqauarate anion.

  9. A global flash flood forecasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Calum; Pappenberger, Florian; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Hewson, Tim; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-04-01

    The sudden and devastating nature of flash flood events means it is imperative to provide early warnings such as those derived from Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) forecasts. Currently such systems exist on basin, national and continental scales in Europe, North America and Australia but rely on high resolution NWP forecasts or rainfall-radar nowcasting, neither of which have global coverage. To produce global flash flood forecasts this work investigates the possibility of using forecasts from a global NWP system. In particular we: (i) discuss how global NWP can be used for flash flood forecasting and discuss strengths and weaknesses; (ii) demonstrate how a robust evaluation can be performed given the rarity of the event; (iii) highlight the challenges and opportunities in communicating flash flood uncertainty to decision makers; and (iv) explore future developments which would significantly improve global flash flood forecasting. The proposed forecast system uses ensemble surface runoff forecasts from the ECMWF H-TESSEL land surface scheme. A flash flood index is generated using the ERIC (Enhanced Runoff Index based on Climatology) methodology [Raynaud et al., 2014]. This global methodology is applied to a series of flash floods across southern Europe. Results from the system are compared against warnings produced using the higher resolution COSMO-LEPS limited area model. The global system is evaluated by comparing forecasted warning locations against a flash flood database of media reports created in partnership with floodlist.com. To deal with the lack of objectivity in media reports we carefully assess the suitability of different skill scores and apply spatial uncertainty thresholds to the observations. To communicate the uncertainties of the flash flood system output we experiment with a dynamic region-growing algorithm. This automatically clusters regions of similar return period exceedence probabilities, thus presenting the at-risk areas at a spatial

  10. Flood protection of southwestern part of Ljubljana

    OpenAIRE

    Blažič, Blaž

    2010-01-01

    Today floods represent a threat to many urban areas. People have always preferred to construct homes in lowland areas, along watercourses or near the sea, which are threatened by floods. Among these areas we can found also south west part of Ljubljana, where have settled a lot of people since the middle of last century. This area has always been at risk of flooding, but the people who settled there probably did not know that or they just ignored that fact. Now is the plan to resolve this prob...

  11. Re-thinking urban flood management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sörensen, Johanna; Persson, Andreas; Sternudd, Catharina;

    2016-01-01

    emphasizes resiliency and achieved synergy between increased capacity to handle stormwater runoff and improved experiential and functional quality of the urban environments. We identify research needs as well as experiments for improved sustainable and resilient stormwater management namely, flexibility......-term flood risk and harm the riverine ecosystems in urban as well as rural areas. In the present paper, we depart from resilience theory and suggest a concept to improve urban flood resilience. We identify areas where contemporary challenges call for improved collaborative urban flood management. The concept...

  12. Tracking sedimentation from the historic A.D. 2011 Mississippi River flood in the deltaic wetlands of Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nicole S.; Horton, Benjamin P.; McKee, Karen L.; Jerolmack, Douglas; Falcini, Federico; Enache, Mihaela D.; Vane, Christopher H.

    2013-01-01

    Management and restoration of the Mississippi River deltaic plain (southern United States) and associated wetlands require a quantitative understanding of sediment delivery during large flood events, past and present. Here, we investigate the sedimentary fingerprint of the 2011 Mississippi River flood across the Louisiana coast (Atchafalaya Delta, Terrebonne, Barataria, and Mississippi River Delta basins) to assess spatial patterns of sedimentation and to identify key indicators of sediment provenance. The sediment deposited in wetlands during the 2011 flood was distinguished from earlier deposits based on biological characteristics, primarily absence of plant roots and increased presence of centric (planktonic) diatoms indicative of riverine origin. By comparison, the lithological (bulk density, organic matter content, and grain size) and chemical (stable carbon isotopes of bulk organic matter) properties of flood sediments were nearly identical to the underlying deposit. Flood sediment deposition was greatest in wetlands near the Atchafalaya and Mississippi Rivers and accounted for a substantial portion (37% to 85%) of the annual accretion measured at nearby monitoring stations. The amount of sediment delivered to those basins (1.1–1.6 g cm−2) was comparable to that reported previously for hurricane sedimentation along the Louisiana coast (0.8–2.1 g cm−2). Our findings not only provide insight into how large-scale river floods influence wetland sedimentation, they lay the groundwork for identifying previous flood events in the stratigraphic record.

  13. The chemical diversity of comets

    CERN Document Server

    Crovisier, J; Bockelée-Morvan, D; Boissier, J; Colom, P; Lis, D C

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental question in cometary science is whether the different dynamical classes of comets have different chemical compositions, which would reflect different initial conditions. From the ground or Earth orbit, radio and infrared spectroscopic observations of a now significant sample of comets indeed reveal deep differences in the relative abundances of cometary ices. However, no obvious correlation with dynamical classes is found. Further results come, or are expected, from space exploration. Such investigations, by nature limited to a small number of objects, are unfortunately focussed on short-period comets (mainly Jupiter-family). But these in situ studies provide "ground truth" for remote sensing. We discuss the chemical differences in comets from our database of spectroscopic radio observations, which has been recently enriched by several Jupiter-family and Halley-type comets.

  14. Effectiveness and reliability of emergency measures for flood prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.; Jonkman, S.N.; Kok, M.

    2014-01-01

    Floods in the summer of 2013 in Central Europe demonstrated once again that floods account for a large part of damage and loss of life caused by natural disasters. During flood threats emergency measures, such as sand bags and big bags, are often applied to strengthen the flood defences and attempt

  15. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  16. 46 CFR 62.35-10 - Flooding safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flooding safety. 62.35-10 Section 62.35-10 Shipping... Requirements for Specific Types of Automated Vital Systems § 62.35-10 Flooding safety. (a) Automatic bilge.... (b) Remote controls for flooding safety equipment must remain functional under flooding conditions...

  17. Advances in Operational Flood Risk Management in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojciechowska, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Operational flood risk management refers to activities that aim to reduce the probability and/or negative consequences of flooding just prior to the expected flood event. An inherent feature of operational flood risk management is that outcomes of decisions taken are uncertain. The main goal of this

  18. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Characterization of New Ligand and Its Pd(II, Cu(II Metal Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam Hussain Al-Karkhi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel Schiff base ligand containing nitrogen and sulfur donor atoms was synthesized by condensing thioamide (TA with imidothioic acid (IT to form 1, 4 dithiane-2, 3-diamine (TAIT. Metal complexes of this ligand were prepared using Cu (II chloride dihydrates and Pd (III chloride. These complexes have been characterized using various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques. Based on physico-chemical and spectroscopic analyses, the structure of Cu (II complex is expected to be octahedral, while Pd (II complex is proposed to be square planner geometry. Schiff base and its metal complexes were expected to show strong bioactivity against microbes and cancer cells.

  19. Infrared laser spectroscopic trace gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Chemical sensing and analyses of gas samples by laser spectroscopic methods are attractive owing to several advantages such as high sensitivity and specificity, large dynamic range, multi-component capability, and lack of pretreatment or preconcentration procedures. The preferred wavelength range comprises the fundamental molecular absorption range in the mid-infared between 3 and 15 μm, whereas the near-infrared range covers the (10-100 times weaker) higher harmonics and combination bands. The availability of near-infrared and, particularly, of broadly tunable mid-infrared sources like external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs), interband cascade lasers (ICLs), difference frequency generation (DFG), optical parametric oscillators (OPOs), recent developments of diode-pumped lead salt semiconductor lasers, of supercontinuum sources or of frequency combs have eased the implementation of laser-based sensing devices. Sensitive techniques for molecular absorption measurements include multipass absorption, various configurations of cavity-enhanced techniques such as cavity ringdown (CRD), or of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) including quartz-enhanced (QEPAS) or cantilever-enhanced (CEPAS) techniques. The application requirements finally determine the optimum selection of laser source and detection scheme. In this tutorial talk I shall discuss the basic principles, present various experimental setups and illustrate the performance of selected systems for chemical sensing of selected key atmospheric species. Applications include an early example of continuous vehicle emission measurements with a mobile CO2-laser PAS system [1]. The fast analysis of C1-C4 alkanes at sub-ppm concentrations in gas mixtures is of great interest for the petrochemical industry and was recently achieved with a new type of mid-infrared diode-pumped piezoelectrically tuned lead salt vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) [2]. Another example concerns measurements on short

  20. Flood mitigation and response comparing the Great Midwest Floods of 1993 and 2008

    OpenAIRE

    West, Tracy L.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Floods are the nation's greatest natural disaster. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, floods cause an average of $6 billion of property damage, claim 140 lives, and prompt more Presidential disaster declarations per year than any other hazard. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is the lead for federal response to natural disasters. FEMA was the lead agency in 1993 when floods caused an estimated $1 8 billion in dama...

  1. Assessment of flood Response Characteristics to Urbanization and extreme flood events-Typhoons at Cheongju, Chungbuk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, HyungJoon; Lee, Hyosang; Hwang, Myunggyu; Jang, Sukhwan

    2016-04-01

    The changes of land use influence on the flood characteristics, which depend on rainfall runoff procedures in the catchment. This study assesses the changes of flood characteristics due to land use changes between 1997 and 2012. The catchment model (HEC-HMS) is calibrated with flood events of 1990's and 2000's respectively, then the design rainfall of 100, 200, 500year return period are applied to this model, which represent the catchment in 1990's and 2000's, to assess the flood peaks. Then the extreme flood events (i.e., 6 typhoon events) are applied to assess the flood responses. The results of comparison between 1990's and 2000's show that the flood peak and level of 2000's are increasing and time to peak of 2000's is decreasing comparing to those of 1990's :3% to 78% increase in flood peak, 3% in flood level and 10.2% to 16% decrease in time to peak in 100year return period flood. It is due to decreasing of the farmland area (2.18%), mountainous area (8.88%), and increasing of the urbanization of the area (5.86%). This study also estimates the responses to extreme flood events. The results of 2000's show that the increasing of the flood peak and time to peak comparing to 1990's. It indicates that the extreme rainfall is more responsible at unurbanized catchment ( 2000's), which resulting with a 11% increasing of the peak volume. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (11-TI-C06) from Advanced Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  2. Assessment of static flood modeling techniques: application to contrasting marshes flooded during Xynthia (western France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Breilh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the performance of raster-based flood modeling methods on a wide diversity of coastal marshes. These methods are applied to the flooding associated with the storm Xynthia, which severely hit the western coast of France in February 2010. Static and semi-dynamic methods are assessed using a combination of LiDAR data, post-storm delineation of flooded areas and sea levels originating from both tide gauge measurements and storm surge modeling. Static methods are applied to 27 marshes showing a wide geomorphological diversity. It appears that these methods are suitable for marshes with a small distance between the coastline and the landward boundary of the marsh, which causes these marshes to flood rapidly. On the contrary, these methods overpredict flooded areas for large marshes where the distance between the coastline and the landward boundary of the marsh is large, because the flooding cannot be considered as instantaneous. In this case, semi-dynamic methods based on surge overflowing volume calculations can improve the flooding prediction significantly. This study suggests that static and semi-dynamic flood modeling methods can be attractive and quickly deployed to rapidly produce predictive flood maps of vulnerable areas under certain conditions, particularly for small distances between the coastline and the landward boundary of the low-lying coastal area.

  3. Hydrological simulation of flood transformations in the upper Danube River: Case study of large flood events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitková Veronika Bačová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of understand natural processes as factors that restrict, limit or even jeopardize the interests of human society is currently of great concern. The natural transformation of flood waves is increasingly affected and disturbed by artificial interventions in river basins. The Danube River basin is an area of high economic and water management importance. Channel training can result in changes in the transformation of flood waves and different hydrographic shapes of flood waves compared with the past. The estimation and evolution of the transformation of historical flood waves under recent river conditions is only possible by model simulations. For this purpose a nonlinear reservoir cascade model was constructed. The NLN-Danube nonlinear reservoir river model was used to simulate the transformation of flood waves in four sections of the Danube River from Kienstock (Austria to Štúrovo (Slovakia under relatively recent river reach conditions. The model was individually calibrated for two extreme events in August 2002 and June 2013. Some floods that occurred on the Danube during the period of 1991–2002 were used for the validation of the model. The model was used to identify changes in the transformational properties of the Danube channel in the selected river reach for some historical summer floods (1899, 1954 1965 and 1975. Finally, a simulation of flood wave propagation of the most destructive Danube flood of the last millennium (August 1501 is discussed.

  4. Influence of spreading urbanization in flood areas on flood damage in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damage caused by natural disasters in Slovenia is frequently linked to the ignoring of natural factors in spatial planning. Historically, the construction of buildings and settlements avoided dangerous flood areas, but later we see increasing construction in dangerous areas. During the floods in 1990, the most affected buildings were located on ill-considered locations, and the majority was built in more recent times. A similar situation occurred during the floods of September 2007. Comparing the effects of these floods, we determined that damage was always greater due to the urbanization of flood areas. This process furthermore increasingly limits the 'manoeuvring space' for water management authorities, who due to the torrential nature of Slovenia's rivers can not ensure the required level of safety from flooding for unsuitably located settlements and infrastructure. Every year, the Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia issues more than one thousand permits for interventions in areas that affect the water regime, and through decrees the government allows construction in riparian zones, which is supposedly forbidden by the Law on Water. If we do not take measures with more suitable policies for spatial planning, we will no long have the possibility in future to reduce the negative consequences of floods. Given that torrential floods strike certain Slovene regions every three years on average and that larger floods occur at least once a decade, it is senseless to lay the blame on climate change.

  5. 75 FR 5930 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Proposed rule; correction. SUMMARY: FEMA is correcting a... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) proposes determinations of Base...

  6. 75 FR 5929 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Proposed rule; correction. SUMMARY: FEMA is correcting a... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) proposes determinations of Base...

  7. Environment Agency England flood warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Chris; Walters, Mark; Haynes, Elizabeth; Dobson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Context In England around 5 million homes are at risk of flooding. We invest significantly in flood prevention and management schemes but we can never prevent all flooding. Early alerting systems are fundamental to helping us reduce the impacts of flooding. The Environment Agency has had the responsibility for flood warning since 1996. In 2006 we invested in a new dissemination system that would send direct messages to pre-identified recipients via a range of channels. Since then we have continuously improved the system and service we offer. In 2010 we introduced an 'opt-out' service where we pre-registered landline numbers in flood risk areas, significantly increasing the customer base. The service has performed exceptionally well under intense flood conditions. Over a period of 3 days in December 2013, when England was experiencing an east coast storm surge, the system sent nearly 350,000 telephone messages, 85,000 emails and 70,000 text messages, with a peak call rate of around 37,000 per hour and 100% availability. The Floodline Warnings Direct (FWD) System FWD provides warnings in advance of flooding so that people at risk and responders can take action to minimise the impact of the flood. Warnings are sent via telephone, fax, text message, pager or e-mail to over 1.1 million properties located within flood risk areas in England. Triggers for issuing alerts and warnings include attained and forecast river levels and rainfall in some rapidly responding locations. There are three levels of warning: Flood Alert, Flood Warning and Severe Flood Warning, and a stand down message. The warnings can be updated to include relevant information to help inform those at risk. Working with our current provider Fujitsu, the system is under a programme of continuous improvement including expanding the 'opt-out' service to mobile phone numbers registered to at risk addresses, allowing mobile registration to the system for people 'on the move' and providing access to

  8. 78 FR 33991 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ....022, ``Flood Insurance.'') Roy E. Wright, Deputy Associate Administrator for Mitigation, Department of... BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to... CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and...

  9. 75 FR 78926 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ..., ``Flood Insurance.'') Dated: December 10, 2010. Sandra K. Knight, Deputy Federal Insurance and Mitigation... BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to... CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and...

  10. Flood adaptive traits and processes : An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Bailey-Serres, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Unanticipated flooding challenges plant growth and fitness in natural and agricultural ecosystems. Here we describe mechanisms of developmental plasticity and metabolic modulation that underpin adaptive traits and acclimation responses to waterlogging of root systems and submergence of aerial tissue

  11. A Methodology to Define Flood Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flood resilience has become an internationally used term with an ever-increasing number of entries on the Internet. The SMARTeST Project is looking at approaches to flood resilience through case studies at cities in various countries, including Washington D.C. in the United States. In light of U.S. experiences a methodology is being proposed by the author that is intended to meet ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. It concludes that: "Flood resilience combines (1) spatial, (2) structural, (3) social, and (4) risk management levels of flood preparedness." Flood resilience should incorporate all four levels, but not necessarily with equal emphasis. Stakeholders can assign priorities within different flood resilience levels and the considerations they contain, dividing 100% emphasis into four levels. This evaluation would be applied to planned and completed projects, considering existing conditions, goals and concepts. We have long known that the "road to market" for the implementation of flood resilience is linked to capacity building of stakeholders. It is a multidisciplinary enterprise, involving the integration of all the above aspects into the decision-making process. Traditional flood management has largely been influenced by what in the UK has been called "Silo Thinking", involving constituent organizations that are responsible for different elements, and are interested only in their defined part of the system. This barrier to innovation also has been called the "entrapment effect". Flood resilience is being defined as (1) SPATIAL FLOOD RESILIENCE implying the management of land by floodplain zoning, urban greening and management to reduce storm runoff through depression storage and by practicing Sustainable Urban Drainage (SUD's), Best Management Practices (BMP's, or Low Impact Development (LID). Ecologic processes and cultural elements are included. (2) STRUCTURAL FLOOD RESILIENCE referring to permanent flood defense

  12. Floods of February 1989 in Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones, Ferdinand; Gamble, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    Rainfall amounts of over 5 inches the night of February 13 and the morning of February 14, 1989, caused flooding in areas of Middle and West Tennessee. The towns of Lebanon in Middle Tennessee and Obion in West Tennessee were most severely affected. Most of the business district in Lebanon and many residential areas in Obion were flooded. Recurrence intervals for 24-hour rainfall totals were as high as 25 years at some sites but most peak discharges had recurrence intervals of less than 10 years. Rainfall amounts for the period February 13-20, 1989, peak stages and discharges for this flood, the peak of record, and a list of discharge measurements made during the flood are documented. (USGS)

  13. 44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.5 Section 60.5 Emergency Management and Assistance... National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for Flood...

  14. Geochemistry and flooding as determining factors of plant species composition in Dutch winter-flooded riverine grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, V.; Wirdum, G. van; Beltman, B.; Griffioen, J.; Grootjans, A.P.; Verhoeven, J.T.A.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch water policy aims for more frequent, controlled flooding of river valley floodplains to avoid unwanted flooding elsewhere; in anticipation of increased flooding risks resulting from climate changes. Controlled flooding usually takes place in winter in parts of the valleys which had not been su

  15. Application of spectroscopic methods to the study of ionizing radiation effects in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In general the interaction of ionizing radiation with polymers generates physic-chemical changes. Aiming to quantity these changes, three spectroscopic analytical techniques were used (UV, IR and EPR) and the chemical corrosion technique was used for three DSTN (CR39, Lexan and Makrofol) which were exposed to two radiation types: electrons and gammas. The effects of radiation are compared. Also a correlation between the UV and Vg results in function of dose is presented. The possible causes of the increase in chemical corrosion are discussed. (Author)

  16. Effectiveness and reliability of emergency measures for flood prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Lendering, K.T.; Jonkman, S.N.; M. Kok

    2014-01-01

    Floods in the summer of 2013 in Central Europe demonstrated once again that floods account for a large part of damage and loss of life caused by natural disasters. During flood threats emergency measures, such as sand bags and big bags, are often applied to strengthen the flood defences and attempt to prevent breaches. Although these measures are often used there is limited insight in the actual reliability of the measures and their effectiveness in increasing the safety of the flood defences...

  17. Floods – the consequence of human intrusion into nature

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Ambu

    2015-01-01

    Flooding in Malaysia has become a common occurrence. There are frequent flash floods due to sudden heavy downpour that brings about health consequences due to contaminated water supply, poor sanitation and also flood related accidents. The Northeast monsoon season brings floods to many parts of peninsular Malaysia especially the eastern states of Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang during the months of November to March.1 This annual occurrence of floods affects mainly the...

  18. Effects of rating-curve uncertainty on probabilistic flood mapping

    OpenAIRE

    A. Domeneghetti; S. Vorogushyn; Castellarin, A; Merz, B.; Brath, A.

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive flood risk assessment studies should quantify the global uncertainty in flood hazard estimation, for instance by mapping inundation extents together with their confidence intervals. This appears of particular importance in case of flood hazard assessments along dike-protected reaches where the possibility of occurrence of dike failures may considerably enhance the uncertainty. We present a methodology to derive probabilistic flood maps in dike-protected flood prone areas, where ...

  19. Probabilistic flood hazard mapping: effects of uncertain boundary conditions

    OpenAIRE

    A. Domeneghetti; S. Vorogushyn; Castellarin, A; Merz, B.; Brath, A.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive flood risk assessment studies should quantify the global uncertainty in flood hazard estimation, for instance by mapping inundation extents together with their confidence intervals. This appears of particular importance in the case of flood hazard assessments along dike-protected reaches, where the possibility of occurrence of dike failures may considerably enhance the uncertainty. We present a methodology to derive probabilistic flood maps in dike-protected flood prone areas, w...

  20. Simplified change detection method for flood extent mapping using SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S. A.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Policelli, F.

    2011-12-01

    Radar-derived flood maps have the benefit of providing flood hazard information regardless of cloud cover or time of day. Disaster relief agencies are seeking increasingly accurate flood extent maps to better provide support to inundated regions. Several flood extent mapping methods have been developed (Kussul et al, 2008, Matgen et al., 2011), some which require fore-knowledge of the original water extent. None of the methods researched provide flood mapping in areas where the double-bounce effect may brighten a pixel, such as vegetated or urban areas. Utilizing the current available radar satellite resources, European Space Agency's ENVISAT/ASAR and the Canadian Space Agency's Radarsat-2, a simple change detection method was developed for rapid flood extent mapping in open and vegetated and/or urban areas. For each flood event, a "dry" image is chosen for the same area and the pixel values are subtracted: "dry" minus "flooded". A decision tree classification is then used to mask steeply sloped pixels and to apply threshold criteria for flooding. Pixels less than the mean minus the standard deviation are classified as flooded, pixels greater than the mean plus the standard deviation times a threshold coefficient (usually 1.75 or 2.00) are classified as flooded in vegetated and/or urban areas. Segmentation is then performed on the "flooded" and "flooded in vegetation" classes separately to remove any scattered pixels, and finally the flooded regions are extracted as separate vectors. Flood maps were created for the 2009 floods in southern Africa and compared with MODIS Flood Maps. The 2008 and 2010 hurricane-related flooding in Haiti was also evaluated. The simplified change detection method provides a standardized means to flood extent mapping, which can capture flooding in open and vegetated regions using imagery from active radar.

  1. Sensitivity analysis of hydraulic modeling for flood area hydraulic resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Moderc, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure flood safety of waterside areas, European Union has ratified the European flood directive in 2007. In it, production of flood risk maps is forseen as an important part of a flood risk reducing system, since this represents a very valuable document in the process of sustainable spatial planning. In the process of flood risk map production, irreplaceable role is played by one- and twodimensional hydraulic models. Collection and procession of reliable input data fo...

  2. Flood risk assessment and associated uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Apel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood disaster mitigation strategies should be based on a comprehensive assessment of the flood risk combined with a thorough investigation of the uncertainties associated with the risk assessment procedure. Within the 'German Research Network of Natural Disasters' (DFNK the working group 'Flood Risk Analysis' investigated the flood process chain from precipitation, runoff generation and concentration in the catchment, flood routing in the river network, possible failure of flood protection measures, inundation to economic damage. The working group represented each of these processes by deterministic, spatially distributed models at different scales. While these models provide the necessary understanding of the flood process chain, they are not suitable for risk and uncertainty analyses due to their complex nature and high CPU-time demand. We have therefore developed a stochastic flood risk model consisting of simplified model components associated with the components of the process chain. We parameterised these model components based on the results of the complex deterministic models and used them for the risk and uncertainty analysis in a Monte Carlo framework. The Monte Carlo framework is hierarchically structured in two layers representing two different sources of uncertainty, aleatory uncertainty (due to natural and anthropogenic variability and epistemic uncertainty (due to incomplete knowledge of the system. The model allows us to calculate probabilities of occurrence for events of different magnitudes along with the expected economic damage in a target area in the first layer of the Monte Carlo framework, i.e. to assess the economic risks, and to derive uncertainty bounds associated with these risks in the second layer. It is also possible to identify the contributions of individual sources of uncertainty to the overall uncertainty. It could be shown that the uncertainty caused by epistemic sources significantly alters the results

  3. Loss of life in flood events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špitalar, Maruša

    2013-04-01

    Natural disasters per se give a negative connotation. They are destructive to material elements in a space, nature itself and represent a threat to peoples' lives and health. Floods, especially flash floods due to its power and happening suddenly cause extensive damage. Hence, they are hard to predict and are characterized with violent movement, lots of lives are lost. Floods are among natural hazards the one causing the highest number of fatalities. Having said that very important aspects are humans' vulnerability, risk perception, their behavior when confronted with hazardous situations and on the other hand issues related to adequate warning signs and canals of communication. It is very important to take into consideration this segments also and not mainly just structural measures. However the aim of this paper is to emphasis mainly the social aspects of floods. It consists of two main parts. First one refers to mans' vulnerability, risk perception when it comes to danger caused by rising waters and how does culture influences peoples' response and reaction to flood causalities. The second part consists of data about detailed information on circumstances of death that have been collected from several different sources from several EU countries. There has been also available information on the age and gender of people who lost lives in flood events. With gender males dominated among death people since tend to risk more in risky situations. There has been also defined a vulnerable age group among flood fatalities. Analysis of circumstance of death enabled us to define risky groups that are very important for flood managers. Further on this is very beneficial also for risk prevention, early warning systems and creating the best canals in order to information about upcoming danger would successfully reach people at hazardous areas and also for the others to avoid them.

  4. Concepts of Urban Drainage and Flood Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul

    1990-01-01

    to calculate surcharging and flooding, rather than just relating to pipe capacity performance criteria; the capability of calculating long series of rain record in order to derive proper statistics on the pollutional load on the environment; and finally the capability of dynamically controlling the system...... in real time in order to decrease the pollutional load by optimization of the usage of storage at rains smaller than the design rain, without increasing the risk of floods....

  5. Raising risk preparedness by flood risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidl, E.; Buchecker, M.

    2015-07-01

    During the last decade, most European countries have produced hazard maps of natural hazards, but little is known about how to communicate these maps most efficiently to the public. In October 2011, Zurich's local authorities informed owners of buildings located in the urban flood hazard zone about potential flood damage, the probability of flood events and protection measures. The campaign was based on the assumptions that informing citizens increases their risk awareness and that citizens who are aware of risks are more likely to undertake actions to protect themselves and their property. This study is intended as a contribution to better understand the factors that influence flood risk preparedness, with a special focus on the effects of such a one-way risk communication strategy. We conducted a standardized mail survey of 1500 property owners in the hazard zones in Zurich (response rate main survey: 34 %). The questionnaire included items to measure respondents' risk awareness, risk preparedness, flood experience, information-seeking behaviour, knowledge about flood risk, evaluation of the information material, risk acceptance, attachment to the property and trust in local authorities. Data about the type of property and socio-demographic variables were also collected. Multivariate data analysis revealed that the average level of risk awareness and preparedness was low, but the results confirmed that the campaign had a statistically significant effect on the level of preparedness. The main influencing factors on the intention to prepare for a flood were the extent to which respondents evaluated the information material positively as well as their risk awareness. Respondents who had never taken any previous interest in floods were less likely to read the material. For future campaigns, we therefore recommend repeated communication that is tailored to the information needs of the target population.

  6. Thermosyphon Flooding in Reduced Gravity Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marc Andrew

    2013-01-01

    An innovative experiment to study the thermosyphon flooding limits was designed and flown on aparabolic flight campaign to achieve the Reduced Gravity Environments (RGE) needed to obtainempirical data for analysis. Current correlation models of Faghri and Tien and Chung do not agreewith the data. A new model is presented that predicts the flooding limits for thermosyphons inearths gravity and lunar gravity with a 95 confidence level of +- 5W.

  7. Flood Insurance Coverage in the Coastal Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Landry, Craig E.; Jahan-Parvar, Mohammad R.

    2008-01-01

    We explore behavior and test theory regarding the determinants of flood insurance coverage in the coastal zone using household-level data for nine southeastern counties. We use Tobit regression models to assess the importance and magnitude of insurance cost, risk factors, community characteristics, and household attributes on flood insurance purchase for residential building structures. Overall estimates indicate price inelastic demand, though subsidized policyholders are more sensitive to ...

  8. Flood-Ring Formation and Root Development in Response to Experimental Flooding of Young Quercus robur Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copini, Paul; den Ouden, Jan; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Tardif, Jacques C.; Loesberg, Walter A.; Goudzwaard, Leo; Sass-Klaassen, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Spring flooding in riparian forests can cause significant reductions in earlywood-vessel size in submerged stem parts of ring-porous tree species, leading to the presence of ‘flood rings’ that can be used as a proxy to reconstruct past flooding events, potentially over millennia. The mechanism of flood-ring formation and the relation with timing and duration of flooding are still to be elucidated. In this study, we experimentally flooded 4-year-old Quercus robur trees at three spring phenophases (late bud dormancy, budswell, and internode expansion) and over different flooding durations (2, 4, and 6 weeks) to a stem height of 50 cm. The effect of flooding on root and vessel development was assessed immediately after the flooding treatment and at the end of the growing season. Ring width and earlywood-vessel size and density were measured at 25- and 75-cm stem height and collapsed vessels were recorded. Stem flooding inhibited earlywood-vessel development in flooded stem parts. In addition, flooding upon budswell and internode expansion led to collapsed earlywood vessels below the water level. At the end of the growing season, mean earlywood-vessel size in the flooded stem parts (upon budswell and internode expansion) was always reduced by approximately 50% compared to non-flooded stem parts and 55% compared to control trees. This reduction was already present 2 weeks after flooding and occurred independent of flooding duration. Stem and root flooding were associated with significant root dieback after 4 and 6 weeks and mean radial growth was always reduced with increasing flooding duration. By comparing stem and root flooding, we conclude that flood rings only occur after stem flooding. As earlywood-vessel development was hampered during flooding, a considerable number of narrow earlywood vessels present later in the season, must have been formed after the actual flooding events. Our study indicates that root dieback, together with strongly reduced hydraulic

  9. Flood-Ring Formation and Root Development in Response to Experimental Flooding of Young Quercus robur Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copini, Paul; den Ouden, Jan; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Tardif, Jacques C; Loesberg, Walter A; Goudzwaard, Leo; Sass-Klaassen, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Spring flooding in riparian forests can cause significant reductions in earlywood-vessel size in submerged stem parts of ring-porous tree species, leading to the presence of 'flood rings' that can be used as a proxy to reconstruct past flooding events, potentially over millennia. The mechanism of flood-ring formation and the relation with timing and duration of flooding are still to be elucidated. In this study, we experimentally flooded 4-year-old Quercus robur trees at three spring phenophases (late bud dormancy, budswell, and internode expansion) and over different flooding durations (2, 4, and 6 weeks) to a stem height of 50 cm. The effect of flooding on root and vessel development was assessed immediately after the flooding treatment and at the end of the growing season. Ring width and earlywood-vessel size and density were measured at 25- and 75-cm stem height and collapsed vessels were recorded. Stem flooding inhibited earlywood-vessel development in flooded stem parts. In addition, flooding upon budswell and internode expansion led to collapsed earlywood vessels below the water level. At the end of the growing season, mean earlywood-vessel size in the flooded stem parts (upon budswell and internode expansion) was always reduced by approximately 50% compared to non-flooded stem parts and 55% compared to control trees. This reduction was already present 2 weeks after flooding and occurred independent of flooding duration. Stem and root flooding were associated with significant root dieback after 4 and 6 weeks and mean radial growth was always reduced with increasing flooding duration. By comparing stem and root flooding, we conclude that flood rings only occur after stem flooding. As earlywood-vessel development was hampered during flooding, a considerable number of narrow earlywood vessels present later in the season, must have been formed after the actual flooding events. Our study indicates that root dieback, together with strongly reduced hydraulic

  10. Spectroscopic Monitoring of Biodiesel Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Svilans, Miķelis; Blūms, Aivars; Kampare, Rūta

    2014-01-01

    The suitability of absorption and fluorescencespectroscopy for monitoring biodiesel aging is assessed. Changesrecorded in the UV/VIS and IR spectra during accelerated agingexperiments are analysed with respect to corresponding changesin a selection of chemical and physical properties of biodiesel,namely, induction period, viscosity and acid number. A novelapproach for evaluating fluorescence spectral data is presented.It is determined that fluorescence spectroscopy provides excellentsensitivi...

  11. ENSO-triggered floods in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla, Federico Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    ENSO-triggered floods altered completely the annual discharge of most watersheds of South America. Anomalous years as 1941, 1982-83 and 1997-98 signified enormous discharges of rivers draining toward the Pacific but also to the Atlantic Ocean. These floods affected large cities as Porto Alegre, Blumenau, Curitiba, Asunción, Santa Fe and Buenos Aires. Maximum discharge months are particular and easily distinguished at those watersheds located at the South American Arid Diagonal. At watersheds conditioned by precipitations delivered from the Atlantic or Pacific anticyclonic centers the ENSO-triggered floods are difficult to discern. The floods of 1941 affected 70,000 inhabitants in Porto Alegre. In 1983, Blumenau city was flooded during several days; and the Paraná River multiplied 15 times the width of its middle floodplain. The Colorado River in Northern Patagonia connected for the last time to the Desaguadero-Chadileuvú-Curacó system and therefore received saline water. ENSO years modify also the water balance of certain piedmont lakes of Southern Patagonia: the increases in snow accumulations cause high water levels with a lag of 13 months. The correlation between the maximum monthly discharges of 1982-83 and 1997-98 at different regions and watersheds indicates they can be forecasted for future floods triggered by same phenomena. South American rivers can be classified therefore into ENSO-affected, and ENSO-dominated, for those within the Arid Diagonal that are exclusively subject to high discharges during these years.

  12. Flood Warning and Forecasting System in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskova, Danica

    2016-04-01

    In 2015, it finished project Flood Warning and Forecasting System (POVAPSYS) as part of the flood protection in Slovakia till 2010. The aim was to build POVAPSYS integrated computerized flood forecasting and warning system. It took a qualitatively higher level of output meteorological and hydrological services in case of floods affecting large territorial units, as well as local flood events. It is further unfolding demands on performance and coordination of meteorological and hydrological services, troubleshooting observation, evaluation of data, fast communication, modeling and forecasting of meteorological and hydrological processes. Integration of all information entering and exiting to and from the project POVAPSYS provides Hydrological Flood Forecasting System (HYPOS). The system provides information on the current hydrometeorological situation and its evolution with the generation of alerts and notifications in case of exceeding predefined thresholds. HYPOS's functioning of the system requires flawless operability in critical situations while minimizing the loss of its key parts. HYPOS is a core part of the project POVAPSYS, it is a comprehensive software solutions based on a modular principle, providing data and processed information including alarms, in real time. In order to achieve full functionality of the system, in proposal, we have put emphasis on reliability, robustness, availability and security.

  13. An automated approach to flood mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weihua; Mckeown, Donald M.; Messinger, David W.

    2012-10-01

    Heavy rain from Tropical Storm Lee resulted in a major flood event for the southern tier of New York State in early September 2011 causing evacuation of approximately 20,000 people in and around the city of Binghamton. In support of the New York State Office of Emergency Management, a high resolution multispectral airborne sensor (WASP) developed by RIT was deployed over the flooded area to collect aerial images. One of the key benefits of these images is their provision for flood inundation area mapping. However, these images require a significant amount of storage space and the inundation mapping process is conventionally carried out using manual digitization. In this paper, we design an automated approach for flood inundation mapping from the WASP airborne images. This method employs Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) for color RGB or multispectral aerial images to extract the flood binary map; then it uses a set of morphological processing and a boundary vectorization technique to convert the binary map into a shapefile. This technique is relatively fast and only requires the operator to select one pixel on the image. The generated shapefile is much smaller than the original image and can be imported to most GIS software packages. This enables critical flood information to be shared with and by disaster response managers very rapidly, even over cellular phone networks.

  14. Global Aspects of Flood Risk Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wolfgang Kron

    2015-01-01

    Various flood disasters in the last decade have confirmed that the risk from flooding has been increasing significantly worldwide. The driving factors for the risk are the unabated increase in global population, the concentration of people in high-risk areas such as coasts and flood plains, the rise in vulnerability of assets, infrastructure and social systems, and the consequences of climate change. Risk reduction is based on comprehensive risk management from identification of the hazard and assessing the risk to building defenses. To achieve this, general awareness at all levels in a society is key. It is not sufficient merely to be aware of the situation-findings must be acted upon with no significant delay. Flood-related computations have progressed considerably in recent years, but model results can only be as good as their input data. Modeling floods and flood losses is very complex, as model parameters are subject to change during an event and conditions sometimes greatly depend on small-scale factors.

  15. Floods from tailings dam failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, M; Benito, G; Díez-Herrero, A

    2008-06-15

    This paper compiles the available information on historic tailings dam failures with the purpose to establish simple correlations between tailings ponds geometric parameters (e.g., dam height, tailings volume) and the hydraulic characteristics of floods resulting from released tailings. Following the collapse of a mining waste dam, only a part of tailings and polluted water stored at the dam is released, and this outflow volume is difficult to estimate prior the incident. In this study, tailings' volume stored at the time of failure was shown to have a good correlation (r2=0.86) with the tailings outflow volume, and the volume of spilled tailings was correlated with its run-out distance (r2=0.57). An envelope curve was drawn encompassing the majority of data points indicating the potential maximum downstream distance affected by a tailings' spill. The application of the described regression equations for prediction purposes needs to be treated with caution and with support of on-site measurement and observations. However, they may provide a universal baseline approximation on tailing outflow characteristics (even if detailed dam information is unavailable), which is of a great importance for risk analysis purposes. PMID:18096316

  16. Optical and laser spectroscopic diagnostics for energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Markandey Mani

    The continuing need for greater energy security and energy independence has motivated researchers to develop new energy technologies for better energy resource management and efficient energy usage. The focus of this dissertation is the development of optical (spectroscopic) sensing methodologies for various fuels, and energy applications. A fiber-optic NIR sensing methodology was developed for predicting water content in bio-oil. The feasibility of using the designed near infrared (NIR) system for estimating water content in bio-oil was tested by applying multivariate analysis to NIR spectral data. The calibration results demonstrated that the spectral information can successfully predict the bio-oil water content (from 16% to 36%). The effect of ultraviolet (UV) light on the chemical stability of bio-oil was studied by employing laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. To simulate the UV light exposure, a laser in the UV region (325 nm) was employed for bio-oil excitation. The LIF, as a signature of chemical change, was recorded from bio-oil. From this study, it was concluded that phenols present in the bio-oil show chemical instability, when exposed to UV light. A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)-based optical sensor was designed, developed, and tested for detection of four important trace impurities in rocket fuel (hydrogen). The sensor can simultaneously measure the concentrations of nitrogen, argon, oxygen, and helium in hydrogen from storage tanks and supply lines. The sensor had estimated lower detection limits of 80 ppm for nitrogen, 97 ppm for argon, 10 ppm for oxygen, and 25 ppm for helium. A chemiluminescence-based spectroscopic diagnostics were performed to measure equivalence ratios in methane-air premixed flames. A partial least-squares regression (PLS-R)-based multivariate sensing methodology was investigated. It was found that the equivalence ratios predicted with the PLS-R-based multivariate calibration model matched with the

  17. sick: The Spectroscopic Inference Crank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Andrew R.

    2016-03-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  18. SICK: THE SPECTROSCOPIC INFERENCE CRANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Andrew R., E-mail: arc@ast.cam.ac.uk [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambdridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  19. The Impact of Corps Flood Control Reservoirs in the June 2008 Upper Mississippi Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charley, W. J.; Stiman, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for a multitude of flood control project on the Mississippi River and its tributaries, including levees that protect land from flooding, and dams to help regulate river flows. The first six months of 2008 were the wettest on record in the upper Mississippi Basin. During the first 2 weeks of June, rainfall over the Midwest ranged from 6 to as much as 16 inches, overwhelming the flood protection system, causing massive flooding and damage. Most severely impacted were the States of Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, and Wisconsin. In Iowa, flooding occurred on almost every river in the state. On the Iowa River, record flooding occurred from Marshalltown, Iowa, downstream to its confluence with the Mississippi River. At several locations, flooding exceeded the 500-year event. The flooding affected agriculture, transportation, and infrastructure, including homes, businesses, levees, and other water-control structures. It has been estimated that there was at least 7 billion dollars in damages. While the flooding in Iowa was extraordinary, Corps of Engineers flood control reservoirs helped limit damage and prevent loss of life, even though some reservoirs were filled beyond their design capacity. Coralville Reservoir on the Iowa River, for example, filled to 135% of its design flood storage capacity, with stage a record five feet over the crest of the spillway. In spite of this, the maximum reservoir release was limited to 39,500 cfs, while a peak inflow of 57,000 cfs was observed. CWMS, the Corps Water Management System, is used to help regulate Corps reservoirs, as well as track and evaluate flooding and flooding potential. CWMS is a comprehensive data acquisition and hydrologic modeling system for short-term decision support of water control operations in real time. It encompasses data collection, validation and transformation, data storage, visualization, real time model simulation for decision-making support, and data

  20. The effect of riparian forest management on flood risk and flood hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, S.; Sear, D.

    2012-04-01

    Riparian forests are a source of in-stream Large Wood. In-stream Large Wood has been shown to produce complex in-stream hydraulic patterns which can act to dissipate flood energy and attenuate flood peaks. Furthermore riparian forest are also commonly characterised by a complex flood plain surface which acts to slow overbank flow. Increased channel and floodplain flow resistance in forested catchments has the effect of increasing the duration and height of overbank inundation locally, but also, and significantly, can potentially increase flood wave travel time and reduce flood peak magnitude at downstream locations. River restoration programmes can include riparian afforestation of headwater stream and increases to in-stream hydraulic roughness; there is a need for research to quantify the effect of such changes on flood hydrology. This study uses a loosely coupled modelling approach to investigate the response of flood behaviour to catchment wide forest management strategies. A USDA Riparian Forest growth model (NE-CWD) calibrated for UK forests using Forestry Commission Biometrics data is used to deliver predictions of in-stream wood loads under different forest management scenarios over time. Scenarios include continuation of plantation management with harvesting/thinning, hands-off management with no harvesting and reforestation of cleared areas of the catchment. Wood load predictions from NE-CWD are translated into predictions of logjam frequency and values for channel hydraulic roughness based on field data collected over two field seasons. Flood modelling is conducted using OVERFLOW, a model developed for the simulation of flood events where the magnitude and travel time of a flood peak to a downstream location are of interest. Predictions linking land use to flood behaviour can be delivered by varying the forest management scenarios within NE-CWD and the associated channel and floodplain roughness. The output of OVERFLOW includes individual contributions