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Sample records for chemical films final

  1. Influence of the physical–chemical properties of polyaniline thin films on the final sensitivity of varied field effect sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, Hugo José Nogueira Pedroza Dias; Heimfarth, Tobias; Mulato, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the use of electrodeposited polyaniline (PANI) thin sensing films in pH sensors. Two configurations of the Extended Gate Field Effect Transistor (EGFET) sensor were studied: the Single EGFET (S-EGFET) and the Instrumental Amplifier EGFET (IA-EGFET) setups. The films were analyzed in both systems and the sensitivity and linearity of each sensor were compared. Initial sensitivities (70–80 mV/pH) measured in the IA-EGFET were reduced due to polymer bulk protonation after a prior measurement in the S-EGFET system. Films with high amount of deposited polymer had their sensitivities least reduced. Bulk protonation occurred due to the step potential applied to the reference electrode in the S-EGFET system. These changes were also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), visible reflectance spectroscopy and evaluation of CIE L*a*b* color scale. PANI pH EGFET sensors exhibited good linearity and stability that along with their high sensitivity, easy processing and low cost film production have large potential applications. - Highlights: • Electrodeposited polyaniline thin films were analyzed in two EGFET setups. • Polymer protonation provided changeable sensitivities. • Color and morphological variation confirm polymer aggregation and electrical changes

  2. Influence of the physical–chemical properties of polyaniline thin films on the final sensitivity of varied field effect sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Hugo José Nogueira Pedroza Dias, E-mail: hugodiasmello@usp.br; Heimfarth, Tobias; Mulato, Marcelo

    2015-06-15

    We investigated the use of electrodeposited polyaniline (PANI) thin sensing films in pH sensors. Two configurations of the Extended Gate Field Effect Transistor (EGFET) sensor were studied: the Single EGFET (S-EGFET) and the Instrumental Amplifier EGFET (IA-EGFET) setups. The films were analyzed in both systems and the sensitivity and linearity of each sensor were compared. Initial sensitivities (70–80 mV/pH) measured in the IA-EGFET were reduced due to polymer bulk protonation after a prior measurement in the S-EGFET system. Films with high amount of deposited polymer had their sensitivities least reduced. Bulk protonation occurred due to the step potential applied to the reference electrode in the S-EGFET system. These changes were also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), visible reflectance spectroscopy and evaluation of CIE L*a*b* color scale. PANI pH EGFET sensors exhibited good linearity and stability that along with their high sensitivity, easy processing and low cost film production have large potential applications. - Highlights: • Electrodeposited polyaniline thin films were analyzed in two EGFET setups. • Polymer protonation provided changeable sensitivities. • Color and morphological variation confirm polymer aggregation and electrical changes.

  3. Thin polymer films on chemically patterned, corrugated substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geoghegan, Mark; Wang Chun; Rehse, Nicolaus; Magerle, Robert; Krausch, Georg

    2005-01-01

    We study the effect of a chemical pattern on the wetting and dewetting behaviour of thin polystyrene (PS) films on regularly corrugated silicon substrates. Our results reveal that the film preparation, annealing method, and confinement play a critical role in the final film structure. On evaporating gold on both sides of the facets (such that it covered the crests of the facets, and not the troughs), we observed dewetting, which proceeded to the gold, demonstrating an enthalpic effect contrary to the outcome previously observed when gold was only evaporated on one side of the facet. We also coated the substrate with octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS); this led to a gold and OTS striped structure. PS films several nanometres thick dewet such substrates, with a preferential direction for dewetting in the direction of the stripes forming droplets of a considerably larger size than the stripes

  4. Novel chemical analysis for thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usui, Toshio; Kamei, Masayuki; Aoki, Yuji; Morishita, Tadataka; Tanaka, Shoji

    1991-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy and total-reflection-angle X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-TRAXS) was applied for fluorescence X-ray analysis of 50A- and 125A-thick Au thin films on Si(100). The intensity of the AuM line (2.15 keV) emitted from the Au thin films varied as a function of the take-off angle (θ t ) with respect to the film surface; the intensity of AuM line from the 125A-thick Au thin film was 1.5 times as large as that of SiK α line (1.74 keV) emitted from the Si substrate when θ t = 0deg-3deg, in the vicinity of a critical angle for total external reflection of the AuM line at Si (0.81deg). In addition, the intensity of the AuM line emitted from the 50A-thick Au thin film was also sufficiently strong for chemical analysis. (author)

  5. Microstructures and photocatalytic properties of porous ZnO films synthesized by chemical bath deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huihu; Dong, Shijie; Chang Ying; Zhou Xiaoping; Hu Xinbin

    2012-01-01

    Different porous ZnO film structures on the surface of alumina substrates were prepared through a simple chemical bath deposition method in the methanolic zinc acetate solution. The surface morphology and phase structure of porous ZnO film were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Both initial zinc acetate concentration and sintering temperature have great impact on the final film structures. With the increase of initial zinc acetate concentration, the porous structures can be finely tuned from circular nest like assemblies composed film into successive nest like film, and finally to globular aggregates composed film. By increasing the sintering temperature, the porous structure of successive nest like film can be further controlled. Furthermore, the crystallinity of photocatalysts also can be greatly improved. The photodegradation results of Methyl Orange revealed that porous ZnO film with successive nest like structure sintered at 500 °C exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity under UV illumination.

  6. Chemical characterization of a marine conditioning film

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Garg, A.; Jain, A.; Bhosle, N

    Biology 2, 228-235. Hung, C.C., Guo, L., Santschi, P.H., Quiroz, N.A., Haye, J.M., 2003. Distribution of carbohydrate species in the Gulf of Mexico. Marine Chemistry 18, 119-135. Little, B.J., Zsolnay, Z.A., 1985. Chemical fingerprinting of adsorbed...-110. Bhosle, N.B., Garg, A., Fernandes, L., Citon, P., 2005. Dynamics of amino acids in the conditioning film developed on glass panels immersed in surface seawaters of the Dona Paula Bay. Biofouling 21 (2), 99-107. Borch, N.H., Kirchmen, D.L., 1997...

  7. Synthesis of chiral polyaniline films via chemical vapor phase polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, J.; Winther-Jensen, B.; Pornputtkul, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Electrically and optically active polyaniline films doped with (1)-(-)-10- camphorsulfonic acid were successfully deposited on nonconductive substrates via chemical vapor phase polymerization. The above polyaniline/ R- camphorsulfonate films were characterized by electrochemical and physical...

  8. Electrical Conductivity of CUXS Thin Film Deposited by Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thin films of CuxS have successfully been deposited on glass substrates using the Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. The films were then investigated for their electrical properties. The results showed that the electrical conductivities of the CuxS films with different molarities (n) of thiourea (Tu), determined using ...

  9. Chemical vapour deposition of thin-film dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, Vladislav Yu; Repinsky, Sergei M

    2005-01-01

    Data on the chemical vapour deposition of thin-film dielectrics based on silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride and silicon dioxide and on phosphorus- and boron-containing silicate glasses are generalised. The equipment and layer deposition procedures are described. Attention is focussed on the analysis and discussion of the deposition kinetics and on the kinetic models for film growth. The film growth processes are characterised and data on the key physicochemical properties of thin-film covalent dielectric materials are given.

  10. Chemical Reactions at Surfaces. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freud, Hans-Joachim [Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin (Germany). Fritz-Haber-Inst.

    2003-02-21

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Chemical Reactions at Surfaces was held at Holiday Inn, Ventura, California, 2/16-21/03. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  11. Quality Assessment of Film Processing Chemicals in Dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Mi Ra; Kang, Byung Chul

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the qualities of the four different processing chemicals (solutions). With EP 21 films (Ektaspeed plus film, Kodak Co., USA), nine unexposed and nine exposed films of a step wedge were processed utilizing automatic film processor (XR 24, Durr Co., Germany) for 5 days. During 5 days, the total number of processed films including out-patient's intraoral films were about 400-500 for each brand. Base plus fog density, film density, contrast of processed films were measured with densitometer (model 07-443 digital densitometer, Victoreen Co., USA). These measurements were analyzed for comparison. The results were as follows,1. For the base plus fog density, there was significant difference among the four chemicals (p<0.05). The sequence of the base plus fog densities was in ascending order by Kodak, X-dol 90, Agfa and Konica. 2. For the film density, all chemicals showed useful range of photographic densities (0.25-2.5). The sequence of the film densities was in ascending order by Kodak, X-dol 90, Konica and Agfa. But there was no statistically significant difference of film density between X-dol and Kodak (p<0.05). 3. The sequence of the contrasts was in ascending order by Konica, X-dol 90, Kodak and Agfa. But there was no statistically significant difference of contrast between X-dol and Konica (p<0.05). These results indicated that the four processing chemicals had the clinically useful film density and contrast, but only Kodak processing chemical had useful base plus fog density.

  12. The relationship between chemical structure and dielectric properties of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited polymer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Hao [Materials Sci and Tech Applications, LLC, 409 Maple Springs Drive, Dayton OH 45458 (United States)]. E-mail: hao.jiang@wpafb.af.mil; Hong Lianggou [Materials Sci and Tech Applications, LLC, 409 Maple Springs Drive, Dayton OH 45458 (United States); Venkatasubramanian, N. [Research Institute, University of Dayton, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469-0168 (United States); Grant, John T. [Research Institute, University of Dayton, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469-0168 (United States); Eyink, Kurt [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials Directorate, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7707 (United States); Wiacek, Kevin [Air Force Research Laboratory, Propulsion Directorate, 1950 Fifth Street, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7251 (United States); Fries-Carr, Sandra [Air Force Research Laboratory, Propulsion Directorate, 1950 Fifth Street, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7251 (United States); Enlow, Jesse [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials Directorate, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7707 (United States); Bunning, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials Directorate, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7707 (United States)

    2007-02-26

    Polymer dielectric films fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) have unique properties due to their dense crosslinked bulk structure. These spatially uniform films exhibit good adhesion to a variety of substrates, excellent chemical inertness, high thermal resistance, and are formed from an inexpensive, solvent-free, room temperature process. In this work, we studied the dielectric properties of plasma polymerized (PP) carbon-based polymer thin films prepared from two precursors, benzene and octafluorocyclobutane. Two different monomer feed locations, directly in the plasma zone or in the downstream region (DS) and two different pressures, 80 Pa (high pressure) or 6.7 Pa (low pressure), were used. The chemical structure of the PECVD films was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The dielectric constant ({epsilon} {sub r}) and dielectric loss (tan {delta}) of the films were investigated over a range of frequencies up to 1 MHz and the dielectric strength (breakdown voltage) (F {sub b}) was characterized by the current-voltage method. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was performed to determine the film thickness and refractive index. Good dielectric properties were exhibited, as PP-benzene films formed in the high pressure, DS region showed a F{sub b} of 610 V/{mu}m, an {epsilon} {sub r} of 3.07, and a tan {delta} of 7.0 x 10{sup -3} at 1 kHz. The PECVD processing pressure has a significant effect on final film structure and the film's physical density has a strong impact on dielectric breakdown strength. Also noted was that the residual oxygen content in the PP-benzene films significantly affected the frequency dependences of the dielectric constant and loss.

  13. The relationship between chemical structure and dielectric properties of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited polymer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Hao; Hong Lianggou; Venkatasubramanian, N.; Grant, John T.; Eyink, Kurt; Wiacek, Kevin; Fries-Carr, Sandra; Enlow, Jesse; Bunning, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Polymer dielectric films fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) have unique properties due to their dense crosslinked bulk structure. These spatially uniform films exhibit good adhesion to a variety of substrates, excellent chemical inertness, high thermal resistance, and are formed from an inexpensive, solvent-free, room temperature process. In this work, we studied the dielectric properties of plasma polymerized (PP) carbon-based polymer thin films prepared from two precursors, benzene and octafluorocyclobutane. Two different monomer feed locations, directly in the plasma zone or in the downstream region (DS) and two different pressures, 80 Pa (high pressure) or 6.7 Pa (low pressure), were used. The chemical structure of the PECVD films was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The dielectric constant (ε r ) and dielectric loss (tan δ) of the films were investigated over a range of frequencies up to 1 MHz and the dielectric strength (breakdown voltage) (F b ) was characterized by the current-voltage method. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was performed to determine the film thickness and refractive index. Good dielectric properties were exhibited, as PP-benzene films formed in the high pressure, DS region showed a F b of 610 V/μm, an ε r of 3.07, and a tan δ of 7.0 x 10 -3 at 1 kHz. The PECVD processing pressure has a significant effect on final film structure and the film's physical density has a strong impact on dielectric breakdown strength. Also noted was that the residual oxygen content in the PP-benzene films significantly affected the frequency dependences of the dielectric constant and loss

  14. Amineborane Based Chemical Hydrogen Storage - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneddon, Larry G.

    2011-01-01

    The development of efficient and safe methods for hydrogen storage is a major hurdle that must be overcome to enable the use of hydrogen as an alternative energy carrier. The objectives of this project in the DOE Center of Excellence in Chemical Hydride Storage were both to develop new methods for on-demand, low temperature hydrogen release from chemical hydrides and to design high-conversion off-board methods for chemical hydride regeneration. Because of their reactive protic (N-H) and hydridic (B-H) hydrogens and high hydrogen contents, amineboranes such as ammonia borane, NH 3 BH 3 (AB), 19.6-wt% H 2 , and ammonia triborane NH 3 B 3 H 7 (AT), 17.7-wt% H 2 , were initially identified by the Center as promising, high-capacity chemical hydrogen storage materials with the potential to store and deliver molecular hydrogen through dehydrogenation and hydrolysis reactions. In collaboration with other Center partners, the Penn project focused both on new methods to induce amineborane H 2 -release and on new strategies for the regeneration the amineborane spent-fuel materials. The Penn approach to improving amineborane H 2 -release focused on the use of ionic liquids, base additives and metal catalysts to activate AB dehydrogenation and these studies successfully demonstrated that in ionic liquids the AB induction period that had been observed in the solid-state was eliminated and both the rate and extent of AB H2-release were significantly increased. These results have clearly shown that, while improvements are still necessary, many of these systems have the potential to achieve DOE hydrogen-storage goals. The high extent of their H 2 -release, the tunability of both their H 2 materials weight-percents and release rates, and their product control that is attained by either trapping or suppressing unwanted volatile side products, such as borazine, continue to make AB/ionic-liquid based systems attractive candidates for chemical hydrogen storage applications. These

  15. Amineborane Based Chemical Hydrogen Storage - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneddon, Larry G.

    2011-04-21

    The development of efficient and safe methods for hydrogen storage is a major hurdle that must be overcome to enable the use of hydrogen as an alternative energy carrier. The objectives of this project in the DOE Center of Excellence in Chemical Hydride Storage were both to develop new methods for on-demand, low temperature hydrogen release from chemical hydrides and to design high-conversion off-board methods for chemical hydride regeneration. Because of their reactive protic (N-H) and hydridic (B-H) hydrogens and high hydrogen contents, amineboranes such as ammonia borane, NH3BH3 (AB), 19.6-wt% H2, and ammonia triborane NH3B3H7 (AT), 17.7-wt% H2, were initially identified by the Center as promising, high-capacity chemical hydrogen storage materials with the potential to store and deliver molecular hydrogen through dehydrogenation and hydrolysis reactions. In collaboration with other Center partners, the Penn project focused both on new methods to induce amineborane H2-release and on new strategies for the regeneration the amineborane spent-fuel materials. The Penn approach to improving amineborane H2-release focused on the use of ionic liquids, base additives and metal catalysts to activate AB dehydrogenation and these studies successfully demonstrated that in ionic liquids the AB induction period that had been observed in the solid-state was eliminated and both the rate and extent of AB H2-release were significantly increased. These results have clearly shown that, while improvements are still necessary, many of these systems have the potential to achieve DOE hydrogen-storage goals. The high extent of their H2­-release, the tunability of both their H2 materials weight-percents and release rates, and their product control that is attained by either trapping or suppressing unwanted volatile side products, such as borazine, continue to make AB/ionic­-liquid based systems attractive candidates for chemical hydrogen storage applications. These studies also

  16. Chemical Annealing of Zinc Tetraphenylporphyrin Films: Effects on Film Morphology and Organic Photovoltaic Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Trinh, Cong

    2012-07-10

    We present a chemical annealing process for organic thin films. In this process, a thin film of a molecular material, such as zinc tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP), is exposed to a vapor of nitrogen-based ligand (e.g., pyrazine, pz, and triazine, tz), forming a film composed of the metal-ligand complex. Fast and quantitative formation of the complex leads to marked changes in the morphology and optical properties of the film. X-ray diffraction studies show that the chemical annealing process converts amorphous ZnTPP films to crystalline ZnTPP•ligand films, whose porphryin planes lie nearly parallel to the substrate (average deviation is 8° for the ZnTPP•pz film). Organic solar cells were prepared with ZnTPP donor and C 60 acceptor layers. Devices were prepared with and without chemical annealing of the ZnTPP layer with a pyrazine ligand. The devices with chemically annealed ZnTPP donor layer show an increase in short-circuit current (J SC) and fill factor (FF) relative to analogous unannealed devices, presumably because of enhanced exciton diffusion length and improved charge conductivity. The open circuit voltages (V OC) of the chemically annealed devices are lower than their unannealed counterpart because of enhanced polaron pair recombination at the donor/acceptor heterojunction. A net improvement of 5-20% in efficiency has been achieved, after chemical annealing of ZnTPP films with pyrazine. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  17. Chemical diffusion on solid surfaces. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J.B.

    1980-12-01

    The techniques of surface science have been applied to the problem of the measurement of the surface diffusion rate of an adsorbed species over the surface of a chemically dissimilar material. Studies were carried out for hydrogen and nitrogen adatoms on a Ni(100) surface and for silver adatoms on a sapphire surface. Positive results were obtained only for the case of nitrogen on Ni(100). In this system the diffusivity is characterized by the expression D = D 0 exp (/sup -ΔH//RT), with D 0 = 0.25 cm 2 /sec and ΔH = 28kcal/mol

  18. Chemical solution deposition of functional oxide thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Schneller, Theodor; Kosec, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) is a highly-flexible and inexpensive technique for the fabrication of functional oxide thin films. Featuring nearly 400 illustrations, this text covers all aspects of the technique.

  19. Chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyrovets, I.I.; Gritsyna, V.I.; Dudnik, S.F.; Opalev, O.A.; Reshetnyak, O.M.; Strel'nitskij, V.E.

    2008-01-01

    The brief review of the literature is devoted to synthesis of nanocrystalline diamond films. It is shown that the CVD method is an effective way for deposition of such nanostructures. The basic technological methods that allow limit the size of growing diamond crystallites in the film are studied.

  20. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.; Adamson, L.F.

    1984-08-01

    The scientific literature on radiation-protective drugs is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms involved in determining the sensitivity of biological material to ionizing radiation and mechanisms of chemical radioprotection. In Section I, the types of radiation are described and the effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems are reviewed. The effects of ionizing radiation are briefly contrasted with the effects of non-ionizing radiation. Section II reviews the contributions of various natural factors which influence the inherent radiosensitivity of biological systems. Inlcuded in the list of these factors are water, oxygen, thiols, vitamins and antioxidants. Brief attention is given to the model describing competition between oxygen and natural radioprotective substances (principally, thiols) in determining the net cellular radiosensitivity. Several theories of the mechanism(s) of action of radioprotective drugs are described in Section III. These mechanisms include the production of hypoxia, detoxication of radiochemical reactive species, stabilization of the radiobiological target and the enhancement of damage repair processes. Section IV describes the current strategies for the treatment of radiation injury. Likely areas in which fruitful research might be performed are described in Section V. 495 references

  1. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.; Adamson, L.F.

    1984-08-01

    The scientific literature on radiation-protective drugs is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms involved in determining the sensitivity of biological material to ionizing radiation and mechanisms of chemical radioprotection. In Section I, the types of radiation are described and the effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems are reviewed. The effects of ionizing radiation are briefly contrasted with the effects of non-ionizing radiation. Section II reviews the contributions of various natural factors which influence the inherent radiosensitivity of biological systems. Inlcuded in the list of these factors are water, oxygen, thiols, vitamins and antioxidants. Brief attention is given to the model describing competition between oxygen and natural radioprotective substances (principally, thiols) in determining the net cellular radiosensitivity. Several theories of the mechanism(s) of action of radioprotective drugs are described in Section III. These mechanisms include the production of hypoxia, detoxication of radiochemical reactive species, stabilization of the radiobiological target and the enhancement of damage repair processes. Section IV describes the current strategies for the treatment of radiation injury. Likely areas in which fruitful research might be performed are described in Section V. 495 references.

  2. Structural characterization of chemically deposited PbS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Lima, F.A.; Gonzalez-Alfaro, Y.; Larramendi, E.M.; Fonseca Filho, H.D.; Maia da Costa, M.E.H.; Freire, F.L.; Prioli, R.; Avillez, R.R. de; Silveira, E.F. da; Calzadilla, O.; Melo, O. de; Pedrero, E.; Hernandez, E.

    2007-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of lead sulfide (PbS) grown using substrate colloidal coating chemical bath depositions were characterized by RBS, XPS, AFM and GIXRD techniques. The films were grown on glass substrates previously coated with PbS colloidal particles in a polyvinyl alcohol solution. The PbS films obtained with the inclusion of the polymer showed non-oxygen-containing organic contamination. All samples maintained the Pb:S 1:1 stoichiometry throughout the film. The amount of effective nucleation centers and the mean grain size have being controlled by the substrate colloidal coating. The analysis of the polycrystalline PbS films showed that a preferable (1 0 0) lattice plane orientation parallel to the substrate surface can be obtained using a substrate colloidal coating chemical bath deposition, and the orientation increases when a layer of colloid is initially dried on the substrate

  3. Stress evaluation of chemical vapor deposited silicon dioxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Masahiko; Itsumi, Manabu

    2002-01-01

    Film stress of chemical vapor deposited silicon dioxide films was evaluated. All of the deposited films show tensile intrinsic stresses. Oxygen partial pressure dependence of the intrinsic stress is very close to that of deposition rate. The intrinsic stress increases with increasing the deposition rate under the same deposition temperature, and decreases with increasing substrate temperature. Electron spin resonance (ESR) active defects in the films were observed when the films were deposited at 380 deg. C and 450 deg. C. The ESR signal intensity decreases drastically with increasing deposition temperature. The intrinsic stress correlates very closely to the intensity of the ESR-active defects, that is, the films with larger intrinsic stress have larger ESR-active defects. It is considered that the intrinsic stress was generated because the voids caused by local bond disorder were formed during random network formation among the SiO 4 tetrahedra. This local bond disorder also causes the ESR-active defects

  4. Chemical Annealing of Zinc Tetraphenylporphyrin Films: Effects on Film Morphology and Organic Photovoltaic Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew T.; Steiner, Andrew; Tassone, Christopher J.; Toney, Michael F.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a chemical annealing process for organic thin films. In this process, a thin film of a molecular material, such as zinc tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP), is exposed to a vapor of nitrogen-based ligand (e.g., pyrazine, pz, and triazine, tz

  5. Chemical vapor deposition of Si/SiC nano-multilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.; Remfort, R.; Woehrl, N.; Assenmacher, W.; Schulz, S.

    2015-01-01

    Stoichiometric SiC films were deposited with the commercially available single source precursor Et_3SiH by classical thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as well as plasma-enhanced CVD at low temperatures in the absence of any other reactive gases. Temperature-variable deposition studies revealed that polycrystalline films containing different SiC polytypes with a Si to carbon ratio of close to 1:1 are formed at 1000 °C in thermal CVD process and below 100 °C in the plasma-enhanced CVD process. The plasma enhanced CVD process enables the reduction of residual stress in the deposited films and offers the deposition on temperature sensitive substrates in the future. In both deposition processes the film thickness can be controlled by variation of the process parameters such as the substrate temperature and the deposition time. The resulting material films were characterized with respect to their chemical composition and their crystallinity using scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (XRD), atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy. Finally, Si/SiC multilayers of up to 10 individual layers of equal thickness (about 450 nm) were deposited at 1000 °C using Et_3SiH and SiH_4. The resulting multilayers features amorphous SiC films alternating with Si films, which feature larger crystals up to 300 nm size as measured by transmission electron microscopy as well as by XRD. XRD features three distinct peaks for Si(111), Si(220) and Si(311). - Highlights: • Stoichiometric silicon carbide films were deposited from a single source precursor. • Thermal as well as plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition was used. • Films morphology, crystallinity and chemical composition were characterized. • Silicon/silicon carbide multilayers of up to 10 individual nano-layers were deposited.

  6. Metal nano-film resistivity chemical sensor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podešva, Pavel; Foret, František

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2016), s. 392-397 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : adsorption * chemiresistor * nano-film * thiol binding * thiol sensing Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2016

  7. Chemically abrupt interface between Ce oxide and Fe films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.G.; Lee, D.; Kim, S.; Kim, S.G.; Hwang, Chanyong

    2005-01-01

    A chemically abrupt Fe/Ce oxide interface can be formed by initial oxidation of an Fe film followed by deposition of Ce metal. Once a Ce oxide layer is formed on top of Fe, it acts a passivation barrier for oxygen diffusion. Further deposition of Ce metal followed by its oxidation preserve the abrupt interface between Ce oxide and Fe films. The Fe and Ce oxidation states have been monitored at each stage using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  8. Chemical bath ZnSe thin films: deposition and characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhande, C. D.; Patil, P. S.; Ennaoui, A.; Tributsch, H.

    1998-01-01

    The zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films have been deposited by a simple and inexpensive chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The selenourea was used as a selenide ion source. The ZnSe films have been characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), Rutherford back scattering (RBS), and optical absorption. The as-deposited ZnSe films on various substrates are found to be amorphous and contain O2 and N2 in addition to Zn and Se. The optical band gap of the film is estimated to be 2.9 eV. The films are photoactive as evidenced by time resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC).

  9. 78 FR 35245 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC... Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty..., 2011. \\1\\ See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China...

  10. Cadmium sulfide thin films growth by chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariech, S.; Aida, M. S.; Bougdira, J.; Belmahi, M.; Medjahdi, G.; Genève, D.; Attaf, N.; Rinnert, H.

    2018-03-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films have been prepared by a simple technique such as chemical bath deposition (CBD). A set of samples CdS were deposited on glass substrates by varying the bath temperature from 55 to 75 °C at fixed deposition time (25 min) in order to investigate the effect of deposition temperature on CdS films physical properties. The determination of growth activation energy suggests that at low temperature CdS film growth is governed by the release of Cd2+ ions in the solution. The structural characterization indicated that the CdS films structure is cubic or hexagonal with preferential orientation along the direction (111) or (002), respectively. The optical characterization indicated that the films have a fairly high transparency, which varies between 55% and 80% in the visible range of the optical spectrum, the refractive index varies from 1.85 to 2.5 and the optical gap value of which can reach 2.2 eV. It can be suggested that these properties make these films perfectly suitable for their use as window film in thin films based solar cells.

  11. Cobalt Xanthate Thin Film with Chemical Bath Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İ. A. Kariper

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt xanthate thin films (CXTFs were successfully deposited by chemical bath deposition, onto amorphous glass substrates, as well as on p- and n-silicon, indium tin oxide, and poly(methyl methacrylate. The structure of the films was analyzed by far-infrared spectrum (FIR, mid-infrared (MIR spectrum, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. These films were investigated from their structural, optical, and electrical properties point of view. Electrical properties were measured using four-point method, whereas optical properties were investigated via UV-VIS spectroscopic technique. Uniform distribution of grains was clearly observed from the photographs taken by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The transmittance was about 70–80% (4 hours, 50°C. The optical band gap of the CXTF was graphically estimated to be 3.99–4.02 eV. The resistivity of the films was calculated as 22.47–75.91 Ω·cm on commercial glass depending on film thickness and 44.90–73.10 Ω ·cm on the other substrates. It has been observed that the relative resistivity changed with film thickness. The MIR and FIR spectra of the films were in agreement with the literature analogues. The expected peaks of cobalt xanthate were observed in NMR analysis on glass. The films were dipped in chloroform as organic solvent and were analyzed by NMR.

  12. Functional Materials for Microsystems: Smart Self-Assembled Photochromic Films: Final Report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BURNS, ALAN R.; SASAKI, DARRYL Y.; CARPICK, R.W.; SHELNUTT, JOHN A.; BRINKER, C. JEFFREY

    2001-01-01

    This project set out to scientifically-tailor ''smart'' interfacial films and 3-D composite nanostructures to exhibit photochromic responses to specific, highly-localized chemical and/or mechanical stimuli, and to integrate them into optical microsystems. The project involved the design of functionalized chromophoric self-assembled materials that possessed intense and environmentally-sensitive optical properties (absorbance, fluorescence) enabling their use as detectors of specific stimuli and transducers when interfaced with optical probes. The conjugated polymer polydiacetylene (PDA) proved to be the most promising material in many respects, although it had some drawbacks concerning reversibility. Throughout his work we used multi-task scanning probes (AFM, NSOM), offering simultaneous optical and interfacial force capabilities, to actuate and characterize the PDA with localized and specific interactions for detailed characterization of physical mechanisms and parameters. In addition to forming high quality mono-, bi-, and tri-layers of PDA via Langmuir-Blodgett deposition, we were successful in using the diacetylene monomer precursor as a surfactant that directed the self-assembly of an ordered, mesostructured inorganic host matrix. Remarkably, the diacetylene was polymerized in the matrix, thus providing a PDA-silica composite. The inorganic matrix serves as a perm-selective barrier to chemical and biological agents and provides structural support for improved material durability in microsystems. Our original goal was to use the composite films as a direct interface with microscale devices as optical elements (e.g., intracavity mirrors, diffraction gratings), taking advantage of the very high sensitivity of device performance to real-time dielectric changes in the films. However, our optical physics colleagues (M. Crawford and S. Kemme) were unsuccessful in these efforts, mainly due to the poor optical quality of the composite films

  13. Physical properties of chemical vapour deposited nanostructured carbon thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadik, D.B.; Shinde, S.S.; Bhosale, C.H.; Rajpure, K.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: In the present paper, nanostructured carbon films are grown using a natural precursor 'turpentine oil (C 10 H 16 )' as a carbon source in the simple thermal chemical vapour deposition method. The influence of substrate surface topography (viz. stainless steel, fluorine doped tin oxide coated quartz) and temperature on the evolution of carbon allotropes surfaces topography/microstructural and structural properties are investigated and discussed. - Abstract: A simple thermal chemical vapour deposition technique is employed for the deposition of carbon films by pyrolysing the natural precursor 'turpentine oil' on to the stainless steel (SS) and FTO coated quartz substrates at higher temperatures (700-1100 deg. C). In this work, we have studied the influence of substrate and deposition temperature on the evolution of structural and morphological properties of nanostructured carbon films. The films were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy techniques. XRD study reveals that the films are polycrystalline exhibiting hexagonal and face-centered cubic structures on SS and FTO coated glass substrates respectively. SEM images show the porous and agglomerated surface of the films. Deposited carbon films show the hydrophobic nature. FTIR study displays C-H and O-H stretching vibration modes in the films. Raman analysis shows that, high ID/IG for FTO substrate confirms the dominance of sp 3 bonds with diamond phase and less for SS shows graphitization effect with dominant sp 2 bonds. It reveals the difference in local microstructure of carbon deposits leading to variation in contact angle and hardness, which is ascribed to difference in the packing density of carbon films, as observed also by Raman.

  14. Chemical solution deposition of YBCO thin film by different polymer additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.T.; Li, G.; Pu, M.H.; Sun, R.P.; Zhou, H.M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Yang, Y.; Cheng, C.H.; Zhao, Y.

    2008-01-01

    A polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition approach has been proposed for the preparation of YBCO thin film. Different additives like PVB (polyvinyl butyral), PEG (polyethylene glycol) and PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) have been used to adjust the final viscosity of the precursor solution and thus the film formation. In this fluorine-free approach, YBCO has been deposited on single crystal substrates with metal acetates being starting materials. Biaxially textured YBCO thin films have been obtained. However, different additives lead to different microstructure. Dense, smooth and crack-free YBCO film prepared with PVB as additive yields sharp superconducting transition around T c = 90 K as well as high J c (0 T, 77 K) over 3 MA/cm 2

  15. Chemical solution deposition of YBCO thin film by different polymer additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.T.; Li, G.; Pu, M.H.; Sun, R.P.; Zhou, H.M.; Zhang, Y. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Zhang, H. [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yang, Y. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Cheng, C.H. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Zhao, Y. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia)], E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.cn

    2008-09-15

    A polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition approach has been proposed for the preparation of YBCO thin film. Different additives like PVB (polyvinyl butyral), PEG (polyethylene glycol) and PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) have been used to adjust the final viscosity of the precursor solution and thus the film formation. In this fluorine-free approach, YBCO has been deposited on single crystal substrates with metal acetates being starting materials. Biaxially textured YBCO thin films have been obtained. However, different additives lead to different microstructure. Dense, smooth and crack-free YBCO film prepared with PVB as additive yields sharp superconducting transition around T{sub c} = 90 K as well as high J{sub c} (0 T, 77 K) over 3 MA/cm{sup 2}.

  16. Indium tin oxide films prepared via wet chemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legnani, C.; Lima, S.A.M.; Oliveira, H.H.S.; Quirino, W.G.; Machado, R.; Santos, R.M.B.; Davolos, M.R.; Achete, C.A.; Cremona, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, indium tin oxide (ITO) films were prepared using a wet chemical route, the Pechini method. This consists of a polyesterification reaction between an α-hydroxicarboxylate complex (indium citrate and tin citrate) with a polyalcohol (ethylene glycol) followed by a post annealing at 500 deg. C. A 10 at.% of doping of Sn 4+ ions into an In 2 O 3 matrix was successfully achieved through this method. In order to characterize the structure, the morphology as well as the optical and electrical properties of the produced ITO films, they were analyzed using different experimental techniques. The obtained films are highly transparent, exhibiting transmittance of about 85% at 550 nm. They are crystalline with a preferred orientation of [222]. Microscopy discloses that the films are composed of grains of 30 nm average size and 0.63 nm RMS roughness. The films' measured resistivity, mobility and charge carrier concentration were 5.8 x 10 -3 Ω cm, 2.9 cm 2 /V s and - 3.5 x 10 20 /cm 3 , respectively. While the low mobility value can be related to the small grain size, the charge carrier concentration value can be explained in terms of the high oxygen concentration level resulting from the thermal treatment process performed in air. The experimental conditions are being refined to improve the electrical characteristics of the films while good optical, chemical, structural and morphological qualities already achieved are maintained

  17. Polarized Raman spectroscopy of chemically vapour deposited diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Weiser, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    Polarized micro-Raman spectra of chemically vapour deposited diamond films are presented. It is shown that important parameters often extracted from the Raman spectra such as the ratio of the diamond to non-diamond component of the films and the estimation of the level of residual stress depend on the orientation of the diamond crystallites with respect to the polarization of the incident laser beam. The dependence originates from the fact that the Raman scattering from the non-diamond components in the films is almost completely depolarized whilst the scattering from the diamond components is strongly polarized. The results demonstrate the importance of taking polarization into account when attempting to use Raman spectroscopy in even a semi-quantitative fashion for the assessment of the purity, perfection and stress in CVD diamond films. 8 refs., 1 tab. 2 figs

  18. ZnSe thin films by chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Patil, P.S.; Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institute, Bereich Physikalische Chemie, Abt. CS, Glienicker Strasse-100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Ennaoui, A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institute, Bereich Physikalische Chemie, Abt. CG, Glienicker Strasse-100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    1998-09-04

    The ZnSe thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates by the simple chemical bath deposition method using selenourea as a selenide ion source from an aqueous alkaline medium. The effect of Zn ion concentration, bath temperature and deposition time period on the quality and thickness of ZnSe films has been studied. The ZnSe films have been characterized by XRD, TEM, EDAX, TRMC (time-resolved microwave conductivity), optical absorbance and RBS techniques for their structural, compositional, electronic and optical properties. The as-deposited ZnSe films are found to be amorphous, Zn rich with optical band gap, Eg, equal to 2.9 eV

  19. CdS films deposited by chemical bath under rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva-Aviles, A.I.; Patino, R.; Oliva, A.I.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films were deposited on rotating substrates by the chemical bath technique. The effects of the rotation speed on the morphological, optical, and structural properties of the films were discussed. A rotating substrate-holder was fabricated such that substrates can be taken out from the bath during the deposition. CdS films were deposited at different deposition times (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min) onto Corning glass substrates at different rotation velocities (150, 300, 450, and 600 rpm) during chemical deposition. The chemical bath was composed by CdCl 2 , KOH, NH 4 NO 3 and CS(NH 2 ) 2 as chemical reagents and heated at 75 deg. C. The results show no critical effects on the band gap energy and the surface roughness of the CdS films when the rotation speed changes. However, a linear increase on the deposition rate with the rotation energy was observed, meanwhile the stoichiometry was strongly affected by the rotation speed, resulting a better 1:1 Cd/S ratio as speed increases. Rotation effects may be of interest in industrial production of CdTe/CdS solar cells.

  20. CdS films deposited by chemical bath under rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva-Aviles, A.I., E-mail: aoliva@mda.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada. A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Patino, R.; Oliva, A.I. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada. A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2010-08-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films were deposited on rotating substrates by the chemical bath technique. The effects of the rotation speed on the morphological, optical, and structural properties of the films were discussed. A rotating substrate-holder was fabricated such that substrates can be taken out from the bath during the deposition. CdS films were deposited at different deposition times (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min) onto Corning glass substrates at different rotation velocities (150, 300, 450, and 600 rpm) during chemical deposition. The chemical bath was composed by CdCl{sub 2}, KOH, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} and CS(NH{sub 2}){sub 2} as chemical reagents and heated at 75 deg. C. The results show no critical effects on the band gap energy and the surface roughness of the CdS films when the rotation speed changes. However, a linear increase on the deposition rate with the rotation energy was observed, meanwhile the stoichiometry was strongly affected by the rotation speed, resulting a better 1:1 Cd/S ratio as speed increases. Rotation effects may be of interest in industrial production of CdTe/CdS solar cells.

  1. Flux pinning in MOD YBCO films by chemical doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y X; Ghalsasi, S; Rusakova, I; Salama, K

    2007-01-01

    A novel nanomaterial synthesis technique has been developed to introduce 0D (particles), 1D (columnar defects) and 3D (domains) nanoscale pinning centres in MOD Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) coated conductors. We have succeeded in introducing nanoscale Y enriched particles, nanoscale 90 0 rotated Y 1/3 Sm 2/3 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7 domains and nanoscale Zr enriched columnar defects into YBCO layers by different chemical doping. The pinning force density in Y 2 O 3 -doped YBCO film is found to be larger than that of pure YBCO film at all fields. Also it was found that YBCO films with Sm substituting for Y have yielded improved critical current density characteristics over a wide range of magnetic fields. Maximum pinning force densities exceeding 7 and 8 GN m -3 are obtained in 5% BZO-doped and Sm substituted YBCO films, respectively. Additionally, TEM studies revealed nanoscale Zr enriched columnar defects distributing in the matrix of the c-oriented YBCO film throughout the whole cross section. This indicates that chemical doping is a promising fabrication technique to create specific pinning landscapes in YBCO coated conductors

  2. Characterization of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, T. S.; Liu, C. H.; Bhattacharyya, T. K.; Patel, P.; Barik, T. K.

    2010-01-01

    Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) thin films, comprising the networks of a-C:H and a-Si:O were deposited on pyrex glass or silicon substrate using gas precursors (e.g., hexamethyldisilane, hexamethyldisiloxane, hexamethyldisilazane, or their different combinations) mixed with argon gas, by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Surface morphology of DLN films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic result shows that the films contain nanoparticles within the amorphous structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the structural change within the DLN films. The hardness and friction coefficient of the films were measured by nanoindentation and scratch test techniques, respectively. FTIR and XPS studies show the presence of C-C, C-H, Si-C, and Si-H bonds in the a-C:H and a-Si:O networks. Using Raman spectroscopy, we also found that the hardness of the DLN films varies with the intensity ratio I D /I G . Finally, we observed that the DLN films has a better performance compared to DLC, when it comes to properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity, low surface roughness and low friction coefficient. These characteristics are the critical components in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and emerging nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).

  3. Characterization of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santra, T S; Liu, C H [Institute of Nanoengineering and Microsystems (NEMS), National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30043 (China); Bhattacharyya, T K [Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Patel, P [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Barik, T K [School of Applied Sciences, Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia 721657, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal (India)

    2010-06-15

    Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) thin films, comprising the networks of a-C:H and a-Si:O were deposited on pyrex glass or silicon substrate using gas precursors (e.g., hexamethyldisilane, hexamethyldisiloxane, hexamethyldisilazane, or their different combinations) mixed with argon gas, by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Surface morphology of DLN films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic result shows that the films contain nanoparticles within the amorphous structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the structural change within the DLN films. The hardness and friction coefficient of the films were measured by nanoindentation and scratch test techniques, respectively. FTIR and XPS studies show the presence of C-C, C-H, Si-C, and Si-H bonds in the a-C:H and a-Si:O networks. Using Raman spectroscopy, we also found that the hardness of the DLN films varies with the intensity ratio I{sub D}/I{sub G}. Finally, we observed that the DLN films has a better performance compared to DLC, when it comes to properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity, low surface roughness and low friction coefficient. These characteristics are the critical components in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and emerging nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).

  4. Surface qualities after chemical-mechanical polishing on thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Wei-En; Lin, Tzeng-Yow; Chen, Meng-Ke; Chen, Chao-Chang A.

    2009-01-01

    Demands for substrate and film surface planarizations significantly increase as the feature sizes of Integrated Circuit (IC) components continue to shrink. Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP), incorporating chemical and mechanical interactions to planarize chemically modified surface layers, has been one of the major manufacturing processes to provide global and local surface planarizations in IC fabrications. Not only is the material removal rate a concern, the qualities of the CMP produced surface are critical as well, such as surface finish, defects and surface stresses. This paper is to examine the CMP produced surface roughness on tungsten or W thin films based on the CMP process conditions. The W thin films with thickness below 1000 nm on silicon wafer were chemical-mechanical polished at different down pressures and platen speeds to produce different surface roughness. The surface roughness measurements were performed by an atomic force microscope (DI D3100). Results show that the quality of surface finish (R a value) is determined by the combined effects of down pressures and platen speeds. An optimal polishing condition is, then, possible for selecting the down pressures and platen speeds.

  5. Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous ruthenium-phosphorus alloy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin Jinhong; Waheed, Abdul; Winkenwerder, Wyatt A.; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Agapiou, Kyriacos; Jones, Richard A.; Hwang, Gyeong S.; Ekerdt, John G.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition growth of amorphous ruthenium-phosphorus films on SiO 2 containing ∼ 15% phosphorus is reported. cis-Ruthenium(II)dihydridotetrakis-(trimethylphosphine), cis-RuH 2 (PMe 3 ) 4 (Me = CH 3 ) was used at growth temperatures ranging from 525 to 575 K. Both Ru and P are zero-valent. The films are metastable, becoming increasingly more polycrystalline upon annealing to 775 and 975 K. Surface studies illustrate that demethylation is quite efficient near 560 K. Precursor adsorption at 135 K or 210 K and heating reveal the precursor undergoes a complex decomposition process in which the hydride and trimethylphosphine ligands are lost at temperatures as low at 280 K. Phosphorus and its manner of incorporation appear responsible for the amorphous-like character. Molecular dynamics simulations are presented to suggest the local structure in the films and the causes for phosphorus stabilizing the amorphous phase

  6. Bath parameter dependence of chemically deposited Copper Selenide thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mamun; Islam, A.B.M.O.

    2004-09-01

    In this article, a low cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been used for the preparation Of Cu 2-x Se thin films on to glass substrate. Different thin fms (0.2-0.6/μm) were prepared by adjusting the bath parameter like concentration of ammonia, deposition time, temperature of the solution, and the ratios of the mixing composition between copper and selenium in the reaction bath. From these studies, it reveals that at low concentration of ammonia or TEA, the terminal thicknesses of the films are less, which gradually increases with the increase of concentrations and then drop down at still higher concentrations. It has been found that completing the Cu 2+ ions with EA first, and then addition of ammonia yields better results than the reverse process. The film thickness increases with the decrease of value x of Cu 2-x Se. (author)

  7. Thermoluminescence of Zn O thin films deposited by chemical bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho A, M. C.; Cruz V, C.; Bernal H, R.; Berman M, D.; Castano M, V. M.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Zn O films on Si were synthesized using a deposition method by chemical bath and thermally treated at 900 degrees C for 12 h in air. The morphological characterization by scanning electron microscopy reveals that uniform films were obtained. To investigate the thermoluminescent properties of the films were exposed to irradiation with beta particles with doses in the range from 0.5 to 128 Gy. The brightness curves obtained using a heating rate of 5 degrees C have two peaks, one at 124 and another at 270 degrees C, and a linear dependence of the integrated thermoluminescence as a function of dose. The second maximum reveals the existence of localized trapping states of potential utility in thermoluminescent dosimetry. (Author)

  8. 78 FR 47276 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... (PET) Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Review of the... terephthalate (PET) film, sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from India. The Department finds that revocation of... INFORMATION CONTACT: Sean Carey or Dana Mermelstein, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration...

  9. Oriented Y-typehexagonal ferrite thin films prepared by chemical

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buršík, Josef; Kužel, R.; Knížek, Karel; Drbohlav, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 203, JULY (2013), s. 100-105 ISSN 0022-4596 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-03708S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Y-type hexagonal ferrites * chemical solution deposition * thin films * epitaxial growth Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.200, year: 2013

  10. Electrochemical and chemical methods of metallizing plastic films

    OpenAIRE

    Chapples, J.

    1991-01-01

    This thesis describes two novel techniques for the metallization of non-electroactive polymer films and thicker sectioned polyethylene and nylon substrates. In the first approach, non-electroactive polymer substrates were impregnated with surface layers of polypyrrole and polyaniline, using electrochemical and chemical methods of polymerization. The relative merits of both these approaches are discussed and compared with other methods in the literature. The resultant composi...

  11. Thin-film chemical sensors based on electron tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, S. K.; Lambe, J.; Leduc, H. G.; Thakoor, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    The physical mechanisms underlying a novel chemical sensor based on electron tunneling in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) tunnel junctions were studied. Chemical sensors based on electron tunneling were shown to be sensitive to a variety of substances that include iodine, mercury, bismuth, ethylenedibromide, and ethylenedichloride. A sensitivity of 13 parts per billion of iodine dissolved in hexane was demonstrated. The physical mechanisms involved in the chemical sensitivity of these devices were determined to be the chemical alteration of the surface electronic structure of the top metal electrode in the MIM structure. In addition, electroreflectance spectroscopy (ERS) was studied as a complementary surface-sensitive technique. ERS was shown to be sensitive to both iodine and mercury. Electrolyte electroreflectance and solid-state MIM electroreflectance revealed qualitatively the same chemical response. A modified thin-film structure was also studied in which a chemically active layer was introduced at the top Metal-Insulator interface of the MIM devices. Cobalt phthalocyanine was used for the chemically active layer in this study. Devices modified in this way were shown to be sensitive to iodine and nitrogen dioxide. The chemical sensitivity of the modified structure was due to conductance changes in the active layer.

  12. Thin film adhesion by nanoindentation-induced superlayers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerberich, William W.; Volinsky, A.A.

    2001-06-01

    This work has analyzed the key variables of indentation tip radius, contact radius, delamination radius, residual stress and superlayer/film/interlayer properties on nanoindentation measurements of adhesion. The goal to connect practical works of adhesion for very thin films to true works of adhesion has been achieved. A review of this work titled ''Interfacial toughness measurements of thin metal films,'' which has been submitted to Acta Materialia, is included.

  13. Characterization of chemical vapour deposited diamond films: correlation between hydrogen incorporation and film morphology and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, C J; Neves, A J; Carmo, M C

    2005-01-01

    In order to tailor diamond synthesized through chemical vapour deposition (CVD) for different applications, many diamond films of different colours and variable quality were deposited by a 5 kW microwave plasma CVD reactor under different growth conditions. The morphology, quality and hydrogen incorporation of these films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively. From this study, a general trend between hydrogen incorporation and film colour, morphology and quality was found. That is, as the films sorted by colour gradually become darker, ranging from white through grey to black, high magnification SEM images illustrate that the smoothness of the well defined crystalline facet gradually decreases and second nucleation starts to appear on it, indicating gradual degradation of the crystalline quality. Correspondingly, Raman spectra evidence that the diamond Raman peak at 1332 cm -1 becomes broader and the non-diamond carbon band around 1500 cm -1 starts to appear and becomes stronger, confirming increase of the non-diamond component and decrease of the phase purity of the film, while FTIR spectra show that the CH stretching band and the two CVD diamond specific peaks around 2830 cm -1 rise rapidly, and this indicates that the total amount of hydrogen incorporated into the film increases significantly

  14. Chemical and Electronic Structure Studies of Refractory and Dielectric Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneille, Jason Stephen

    This study presents the synthesis and characterization of oxide and refractory thin films under varying conditions. The deposition of the thin films is performed under vacuum conditions. The characterization of the growth, as well as the chemical and electronic properties of the thin films was accomplished using a broad array of surface analytical techniques. These model studies describe the relationship between the preparative processes and the stoichiometry, structure and electronic properties of the film products. From these efforts, the optimal deposition conditions for the production of high quality films have been established. The thin film oxides synthesized and studied here include magnesium oxide, silicon oxide and iron oxide. These oxides were synthesized on a refractory substrate using both post oxidation of thin films as well as reactive vapor deposition of the metals in the presence of an oxygen background. Comparisons and contrasts are presented for the various systems. Metallic magnesium films were grown and characterized as a preliminary study to the synthesis of magnesium oxide. Magnesium oxide (MgO(100)) was synthesized on Mo(100) by evaporating magnesium at a rate of one monolayer per minute in an oxygen background pressure of 1 times 10 ^{-6} Torr at room temperature. The resulting film was found to exhibit spectroscopic characteristics quite similar to those observed for bulk MgO. The acid/base characteristics of the films were studied using carbon monoxide, water and methanol as probe molecules. The film was found to exhibit essentially the same chemical properties as found in analogous powdered catalysts. Silicon dioxide was synthesized by evaporating silicon onto Mo(100) in an oxygen ambient. It is shown that the silicon oxide prepared at room temperature with a silicon deposition rate of {~ }{1.2}A/min and an oxygen pressure of 2 times 10^{ -8} Torr, consisted of predominantly silicon dioxide with a small fraction of suboxides. Annealing to

  15. Adhesive and morphological characteristics of surface chemically modified polytetrafluoroethylene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopp, B.; Kresz, N.; Kokavecz, J.; Smausz, T.; Schieferdecker, H.; Doering, A.; Marti, O.; Bor, Z.

    2004-01-01

    In the present paper, we report an experimental determination of adhesive and topographic characteristics of chemically modified surface of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) films. The surface chemistry was modified by ArF excimer laser irradiation in presence of triethylene-tetramine photoreagent. The applied laser fluence was varied in the range of 0.4-9 mJ/cm 2 , and the number of laser pulses incident on the same area was 1500. To detect the changes in the adhesive features of the treated Teflon samples, we measured receding contact angle for distilled water and adhesion strength, respectively. It was found that the receding contact angle decreased from 96 deg. to 30-37 deg. and the adhesion strength of two-component epoxy glue to the treated sample surface increased from 0.03 to 9 MPa in the applied laser fluence range. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the adhesion of human cells to the modified Teflon samples is far better than to the untreated ones. The contact mode and pulsed force mode atomic force microscopic investigations of the treated samples demonstrated that the measured effective contact area of the irradiated films does not differ significantly from that of the original films, but the derived adhesion force is stronger on the modified samples than on the untreated ones. Hence, the increased adhesion of the treated Teflon films is caused by the higher surface energy

  16. Short review on chemical bath deposition of thin film and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugle, Dhananjay, E-mail: dhananjayforu@gmail.com; Jadhav, Ghanshyam, E-mail: ghjadhav@rediffmail.com [Depertment of Physics, Shri Chhatrapati Shivaji College, Omerga-413606 (India)

    2016-05-06

    This reviews the theory of early growth of the thin film using chemical deposition methods. In particular, it critically reviews the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method for preparation of thin films. The different techniques used for characterizations of the chemically films such as X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Electrical conductivity and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) are discussed. Survey shows the physical and chemical properties solely depend upon the time of deposition, temperature of deposition.

  17. Microstructure and chemical bonding of DLC films deposited on ACM rubber by PACVD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Martinez, D.; Schenkel, M.; Pei, Y.T.; Sánchez-López, J.C.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2011-01-01

    The microstructure and chemical bonding of DLC films prepared by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition on acrylic rubber (ACM) are studied in this paper. The temperature variation produced by the ion impingement during plasma cleaning and subsequent film deposition was used to modify the film

  18. Epitaxial ternary nitride thin films prepared by a chemical solution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hongmei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Feldmann, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Haiyan [TEXAS A& M; Bi, Zhenxing [TEXAS A& M

    2008-01-01

    It is indispensable to use thin films for many technological applications. This is the first report of epitaxial growth of ternary nitride AMN2 films. Epitaxial tetragonal SrTiN2 films have been successfully prepared by a chemical solution approach, polymer-assisted deposition. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of the films are also investigated.

  19. Characterization of tin dioxide film for chemical vapors sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafaiedh, I.; Helali, S.; Cherif, K.; Abdelghani, A.; Tournier, G.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, oxide semiconductor material used as transducer has been the central topic of many studies for gas sensor. In this paper we investigated the characteristic of a thick film of tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) film for chemical vapor sensor. It has been prepared by screen-printing technology and deposited on alumina substrate provided with two gold electrodes. The morphology, the molecular composition and the electrical properties of this material have been characterized respectively by Atomic Force Spectroscopy (AFM), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Impedance Spectroscopy (IS). The electrical properties showed a resistive behaviour of this material less than 300 deg. C which is the operating temperature of the sensor. The developed sensor can identify the nature of the detected gas, oxidizing or reducing

  20. Chemically stabilized epitaxial wurtzite-BN thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishal, Badri; Singh, Rajendra; Chaturvedi, Abhishek; Sharma, Ankit; Sreedhara, M. B.; Sahu, Rajib; Bhat, Usha; Ramamurty, Upadrasta; Datta, Ranjan

    2018-03-01

    We report on the chemically stabilized epitaxial w-BN thin film grown on c-plane sapphire by pulsed laser deposition under slow kinetic condition. Traces of no other allotropes such as cubic (c) or hexagonal (h) BN phases are present. Sapphire substrate plays a significant role in stabilizing the metastable w-BN from h-BN target under unusual PLD growth condition involving low temperature and pressure and is explained based on density functional theory calculation. The hardness and the elastic modulus of the w-BN film are 37 & 339 GPa, respectively measured by indentation along direction. The results are extremely promising in advancing the microelectronic and mechanical tooling industry.

  1. Structural and chemical transformations in SnS thin films used in chemically deposited photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avellaneda, David; Delgado, Guadalupe; Nair, M.T.S.; Nair, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    Chemically deposited SnS thin films possess p-type electrical conductivity. We report a photovoltaic structure: SnO 2 :F-CdS-SnS-(CuS)-silver print, with V oc > 300 mV and J sc up to 5 mA/cm 2 under 850 W/m 2 tungsten halogen illumination. Here, SnO 2 :F is a commercial spray-CVD (Pilkington TEC-8) coating, and the rest deposited from different chemical baths: CdS (80 nm) at 333 K, SnS (450 nm) and CuS (80 nm) at 293-303 K. The structure may be heated in nitrogen at 573 K, before applying the silver print. The photovoltaic behavior of the structure varies with heating: V oc ∼ 400 mV and J sc 2 , when heated at 423 K in air, but V oc decreases and J sc increases when heated at higher temperatures. These photovoltaic structures have been found to be stable over a period extending over one year by now. The overall cost of materials, simplicity of the deposition process, and possibility of easily varying the parameters to improve the cell characteristics inspire further work. Here we report two different baths for the deposition of SnS thin films of about 500 nm by chemical deposition. There is a considerable difference in the nature of growth, crystalline structure and chemical stability of these films under air-heating at 623-823 K or while heating SnS-CuS layers, evidenced in XRF and grazing incidence angle XRD studies. Heating of SnS-CuS films results in the formation of SnS-Cu x SnS y . 'All-chemically deposited photovoltaic structures' involving these materials are presented

  2. Continuous, Highly Flexible, and Transparent Graphene Films by Chemical Vapor Deposition for Organic Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Gomez De Arco, Lewis; Zhang, Yi; Schlenker, Cody W.; Ryu, Koungmin; Thompson, Mark E.; Zhou, Chongwu

    2010-01-01

    We report the implementation of continuous, highly flexible, and transparent graphene films obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) in organic photovoltaic cells. Graphene films were synthesized by CVD

  3. Remote plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volintiru, I.; Creatore, M.; Hemmen, van J.L.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Aluminum oxide films were deposited using remote plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from oxygen/trimethylaluminum mixtures. Initial studies by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry demonstrated that the aluminum oxide films deposited at temperatures

  4. Chemical vapour deposition of vanadium oxide thermochromic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccirillo, Clara

    Thermochromic materials change optical properties, such as transmittance or reflectance, with a variation in temperature. An ideal intelligent (smart) material will allow solar radiation in through a window in cold conditions, but reflect that radiation in warmer conditions. The variation in the properties is often associated with a phase change, which takes place at a definite temperature, and is normally reversible. Such materials are usually applied to window glass as thin films. This thesis presents the work on the development of thermochromic vanadium (IV) oxide (VO2) thin films - both undoped and doped with tungsten, niobium and gold nanoparticles - which could be employed as solar control coatings. The films were deposited using Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD), using improved Atmospheric Pressure (APCVD), novel Aerosol Assisted (AACVD) and novel hybrid AP/AACVD techniques. The effects of dopants on the metalto- semiconductor transition temperature and transmittance/reflectance characteristics were also investigated. This work significantly increased the understanding of the mechanisms behind thermochromic behaviour, and resulted in thermochromic materials based on VO2 with greatly improved properties.

  5. Final Technical Report for SISGR: Ultrafast Molecular Scale Chemical Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersam, Mark C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Guest, Jeffrey R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials; Guisinger, Nathan P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials; Hla, Saw Wai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials; Schatz, George C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Seideman, Tamar [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Van Duyne, Richard P. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-04-10

    The Northwestern-Argonne SISGR program utilized newly developed instrumentation and techniques including integrated ultra-high vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy/scanning tunneling microscopy (UHV-TERS/STM) and surface-enhanced femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering (SE-FSRS) to advance the spatial and temporal resolution of chemical imaging for the study of photoinduced dynamics of molecules on plasmonically active surfaces. An accompanying theory program addressed modeling of charge transfer processes using constrained density functional theory (DFT) in addition to modeling of SE-FSRS, thereby providing a detailed description of the excited state dynamics. This interdisciplinary and highly collaborative research resulted in 62 publications with ~ 48% of them being co-authored by multiple SISGR team members. A summary of the scientific accomplishments from this SISGR program is provided in this final technical report.

  6. Enhanced chemical sensing organic thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanese, M. C.; Torsi, L.; Farinola, G. M.; Valli, L.; Hassan Omar, O.; Giancane, G.; Ieva, E.; Babudri, F.; Palmisano, F.; Naso, F.; Zambonin, P. G.

    2007-09-01

    Organic thin film transistor (OTFT) sensors are capable of fast, sensitive and reliable detection of a variety of analytes. They have been successfully tested towards many chemical and biological "odor" molecules showing high selectivity, and displaying the additional advantage of being compatible with plastic technologies. Their versatility is based on the possibility to control the device properties, from molecular design up to device architecture. Here phenylene-thiophene based organic semiconductors functionalized with ad hoc chosen side groups are used as active layers in sensing OTFTs. These materials, indeed, combine the detection capability of organic molecules (particularly in the case of bio-substituted systems) with the electronic properties of the conjugated backbone. A new OTFT structure including Langmuir-Schäfer layer by layer organic thin films is here proposed to perform chemical detection of organic vapors, including vapor phase chiral molecules such as citronellol vapors, with a detection limit in the ppm range. Thermally evaporated α6T based OTFT sensors are used as well to be employed as standard system in order to compare sensors performances.

  7. Chemical Vapor-Deposited (CVD) Diamond Films for Electronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Diamond films have a variety of useful applications as electron emitters in devices such as magnetrons, electron multipliers, displays, and sensors. Secondary electron emission is the effect in which electrons are emitted from the near surface of a material because of energetic incident electrons. The total secondary yield coefficient, which is the ratio of the number of secondary electrons to the number of incident electrons, generally ranges from 2 to 4 for most materials used in such applications. It was discovered recently at the NASA Lewis Research Center that chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond films have very high secondary electron yields, particularly when they are coated with thin layers of CsI. For CsI-coated diamond films, the total secondary yield coefficient can exceed 60. In addition, diamond films exhibit field emission at fields orders of magnitude lower than for existing state-of-the-art emitters. Present state-of-the-art microfabricated field emitters generally require applied fields above 5x10^7 V/cm. Research on field emission from CVD diamond and high-pressure, high-temperature diamond has shown that field emission can be obtained at fields as low as 2x10^4 V/cm. It has also been shown that thin layers of metals, such as gold, and of alkali halides, such as CsI, can significantly increase field emission and stability. Emitters with nanometer-scale lithography will be able to obtain high-current densities with voltages on the order of only 10 to 15 V.

  8. Thin liquid films with time-dependent chemical reactions sheared by an ambient gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Achim; Stephan, Peter; Gambaryan-Roisman, Tatiana

    2017-08-01

    Chemical reactions in thin liquid films are found in many industrial applications, e.g., in combustion chambers of internal combustion engines where a fuel film can develop on pistons or cylinder walls. The reactions within the film and the turbulent outer gas flow influence film stability and lead to film breakup, which in turn can lead to deposit formation. In this work we examine the evolution and stability of a thin liquid film in the presence of a first-order chemical reaction and under the influence of a turbulent gas flow. Long-wave theory with a double perturbation analysis is used to reduce the complexity of the problem and obtain an evolution equation for the film thickness. The chemical reaction is assumed to be slow compared to film evolution and the amount of reactant in the film is limited, which means that the reaction rate decreases with time as the reactant is consumed. A linear stability analysis is performed to identify the influence of reaction parameters, material properties, and environmental conditions on the film stability limits. Results indicate that exothermic reactions have a stabilizing effect whereas endothermic reactions destabilize the film and can lead to rupture. It is shown that an initially unstable film can become stable with time as the reaction rate decreases. The shearing of the film by the external gas flow leads to the appearance of traveling waves. The shear stress magnitude has a nonmonotonic influence on film stability.

  9. Chemical bath deposition of CdS thin films doped with Zn and Cu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Zn- and Cu-doped CdS thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by the chemical bath technique. ... Cadmium sulfide; chemical bath deposition; doping; optical window. 1. ..... at low temperature (10 K), finding similar trends than.

  10. Thin-film device for process measurement. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, D.S.

    1996-02-01

    The development of a compact, portable planar waveguide spectrometer has been developed and successfully applied to a variety of chemical and petrochemical analytical problems. The technology is well suited to liquid samples that are difficult to analyze by conventional means.

  11. Thermoluminescence characterisation of chemical vapour deposited diamond films

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzocchi, S; Bucciolini, M; Cuttone, G; Pini, S; Sabini, M G; Sciortino, S

    2002-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of a set of six chemical vapour deposited diamond films have been studied with regard to their use as off-line dosimeters in radiotherapy. The structural characterisation has been performed by means of Raman spectroscopy. Their TL responses have been tested with radiotherapy beams ( sup 6 sup 0 Co photons, photons and electrons from a linear accelerator (Linac), 26 MeV protons from a TANDEM accelerator) in the dose range 0.1-7 Gy. The dosimetric characterisation has yielded a very good reproducibility, a very low dependence of the TL response on the type of particle and independence of the radiation energy. The TL signal is not influenced by the dose rate and exhibits a very low thermal fading. Moreover, the sensitivity of the diamond samples compares favourably with that of standard TLD100 dosimeters.

  12. Growing barium hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) thin films using chemical solution deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budiawanti, Sri, E-mail: awanty77@yahoo.com [Graduate Program of Materials Science, Department of Physics, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia); Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Sebelas Maret University (Indonesia); Soegijono, Bambang [Multiferroic Laboratory, Department of Physics, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Barium hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}, or simply known as BaM) thin films has been recognized as a potential candidate for microwave-based devices, magnetic recording media and data storage. To grow BaM thin films, chemical solution deposition is conducted using the aqueous solution of metal nitrates, which involves spin coatings on Si substrates. Furthermore, Thermal Gravimeter Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) are applied to evaluate the decomposition behavior, structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of BaM thin films. Additionally, the effects of number of layers variation are also investigated. Finally, magnetic properties analysis indicates the isotropic nature of the films.

  13. Growing barium hexaferrite (BaFe_1_2O_1_9) thin films using chemical solution deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiawanti, Sri; Soegijono, Bambang

    2016-01-01

    Barium hexaferrite (BaFe_1_2O_1_9, or simply known as BaM) thin films has been recognized as a potential candidate for microwave-based devices, magnetic recording media and data storage. To grow BaM thin films, chemical solution deposition is conducted using the aqueous solution of metal nitrates, which involves spin coatings on Si substrates. Furthermore, Thermal Gravimeter Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) are applied to evaluate the decomposition behavior, structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of BaM thin films. Additionally, the effects of number of layers variation are also investigated. Finally, magnetic properties analysis indicates the isotropic nature of the films.

  14. Aluminized film, seam sealing tests and observations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-16

    The purpose of this work was to investigate various seam sealing techniques, reinforcing methods, fitting installations, seam tolerances and geometric configurations pertinent to an aluminized plastic laminate. The program seeks a successful fabricating method for producing low-diffusion, cylindrical, spar liners to contain pressurized GH{sub 2} and GO{sub 2}. The test plan included: (1) seaming techniques on metallized Mylar film; (2) ``double patches`` for end fittings; (3) stainless steel bulkhead fitting assembly with seals; (4) minimum run tolerance on linear shear seam; (5) peel seam vs. inverted seal seam fabrication.

  15. Study on stability of a-SiCOF films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Shijin; Zhang Qingquan; Wang Pengfei; Zhang Wei; Wang Jitao

    2001-01-01

    Low-dielectric-constant a-SiCOF films have been prepared from TEOS, C 4 F 8 and Ar by using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. With the aid of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the chemical bonding configuration, thermal stability and resistance to water of the films are explored

  16. Properties of amorphous silicon thin films synthesized by reactive particle beam assisted chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Gyu; Wang, Seok-Joo; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Jang, Jin-Nyoung; Hong, MunPyo; Kwon, Kwang-Ho; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous silicon thin films were formed by chemical vapor deposition of reactive particle beam assisted inductively coupled plasma type with various reflector bias voltages. During the deposition, the substrate was heated at 150 o C. The effects of reflector bias voltage on the physical and chemical properties of the films were systematically studied. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy results showed that the deposited films were amorphous and the films under higher reflector voltage had higher internal energy to be easily crystallized. The chemical state of amorphous silicon films was revealed as metallic bonding of Si atoms by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An increase in reflector voltage induced an increase of surface morphology of films and optical bandgap and a decrease of photoconductivity.

  17. An in-situ chemical reaction deposition of nanosized wurtzite CdS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Juan; Jin Zhengguo; Cai Shu; Yang Jingxia; Hong Zhanglian

    2012-01-01

    Nanocrystalline CdS thin films were deposited on glass substrates by an ammonia-free in-situ chemical reaction synthesis technique using cadmium cationic precursor solid films as reaction source and sodium sulfide based solutions as anionic reaction medium. Effects of ethanolamine addition to the cadmium cationic precursor solid films, deposition cycle numbers and annealing treatments in Ar atmosphere on structure, morphology, chemical composition and optical properties of the resultant films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and UV–Vis spectra measurements. The results show that CdS thin films deposited by the in-situ chemical reaction synthesis have wurtzite structure with (002) plane preferential orientation and crystallite size is in the range of 16 nm–19 nm. The growth of film thickness is almost constant with deposition cycle numbers and about 96 nm per cycle.

  18. A comparative chemical network study of HWCVD deposited amorphous silicon and carbon based alloys thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, Bibhu P., E-mail: bibhuprasad.swain@gmail.com [Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Majitar, Rangpo Sikkim (India); Swain, Bhabani S.; Hwang, Nong M. [Thin Films and Microstructure Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • a-SiC:H, a-SiN:H, a-C:H and a-SiCN:H films were deposited by hot wire chemical vapor deposition. • Evolution of microstructure of a-SiCN:H films deposited at different NH{sub 3} flow rate were analyzed. • The chemical network of Si and C based alloys were studied by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. -- Abstract: Silicon and carbon based alloys were deposited by hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD). The microstructure and chemical bonding of these films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The electron microscopy revealed various microstructures were observed for a-C:H, a-SiC:H, a-SiN:H, a-CN:H and a-SiCN:H films. The microstructure of SiN:H films showed agglomerate spherical grains while a-C:H films showed more fractal surface with branched microstructure. However, a-SiC:H, a-CN:H and a-SiCN:H indicated uniform but intermediate surface fractal microstructure. A series of a-SiCN:H films were deposited with variation of NH{sub 3} flow rate. The nitrogen incorporation in a-SiCN:H films alter the carbon network from sp{sup 2} to sp{sup 3} bonding The detail chemical bonding of amorphous films was analyzed by curve fitting method.

  19. Chemical Processing effects on the radiation doses measured by Film Dosimeter System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihai, F.

    2009-01-01

    Halide film dosimetry is a quantitative method of measurement of the radiation doses. The fog density and chemical processing of the dosimeter film affect the radiation dose measurement accuracy. This work presents the effect of the developer solution concentration on the response of the dosimetric film which different fog densities. Thus, three batches of film, dosimeters with following fog density 0.312 ± 1.31 %, 0.71 ± 0.59% and 0.77 ± 0.81 %, were irradiated to 137 Cs standard source to dose value of 1mSv. The halide films have been chemical processed at different concentrations of the developer solution: 20 %; 14.29 %; 11.11%; all other physics-chemical conditions in baths of development have been kept constants. Concentration of 20% is considered to be chemical processed standard conditions of the films. In case of the films exposed to 1 mSv dose, optical density recorded on the low fog films processed at 20% developer solution is rather closed of high fog film optical densities processed at 11.11% developer solution concentration. Also, the chemical processing effect on the image contrast was taken into consideration

  20. Stability of the helium film to a chemical potential perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, D.G.; Matheson, C.C.

    1975-01-01

    A negative result for a highly sensitive measurement to detect changes in the helium film thickness profile induced by torsional oscillation of the film substrate is reported. The results are in agreement with Keller's failure to detect film thinning, but are in disagreement with recent results of Williams and Packard, Graham and Vittoratos, and Hallock. (2 figures) (auth)

  1. Synthesis of electro-active manganese oxide thin films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, Anna R. [Energetics Research Division, Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division, China Lake, CA 93555 (United States); Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan [Department of Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, Dubois, PA 15801 (United States); Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Carter, Joshua D. [Energetics Research Division, Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division, China Lake, CA 93555 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The good stability, cyclability and high specific capacitance of manganese oxide (MnO{sub x}) has recently promoted a growing interest in utilizing MnO{sub x} in asymmetric supercapacitor electrodes. Several literature reports have indicated that thin film geometries of MnO{sub x} provide specific capacitances that are much higher than bulk MnO{sub x} powders. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is a versatile technique for the production of metal oxide thin films with high purity and controllable thickness. In this work, MnO{sub x} thin films deposited by PECVD from a methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl precursor are presented and the effect of processing conditions on the quality of MnO{sub x} films is described. The film purity and oxidation state of the MnO{sub x} films were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Preliminary electrochemical testing of MnO{sub x} films deposited on carbon fiber electrodes in aqueous electrolytes indicates that the PECVD synthesized films are electrochemically active. - Highlights: • Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of manganese oxide thin films. • Higher plasma power and chamber pressure increase deposition rate. • Manganese oxide thin films are electrochemically active. • Best electrochemical performance observed for pure film with low stress • Lower capacitance observed at higher scan rates despite thin film geometry.

  2. Chemically modified cellulose paper as a thin film microextraction phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraji, Mohammad; Farajmand, Bahman

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, chemically modified cellulose paper was introduced as a novel extracting phase for thin film microextraction (TFME). Different reagents (Octadecyltrichlorosilane, diphenyldichlorosilane, cyclohexyl isocyanate and phenyl isocyanate) were used to modify the cellulose papers. The modified papers were evaluated as a sorbent for the extraction of some synthetic and natural estrogenic hormones (17α-ethynylestradiol, estriol and estradiol) from aqueous samples. Liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection was used for the quantification of the extracted compounds. The cellulose paper modified with phenyl isocyanate showed the best affinity to the target compounds. TEME parameters such as desorption condition, shaking rate, sample ionic strength and extraction time were investigated and optimized. Limit of detections were between 0.05 and 0.23μgL(-1) and relative standard deviations were less than 11.1% under the optimized condition. The calibration curves were obtained in the range of 0.2-100μgL(-1) with a good linearity (r(2)>0.9935). Wastewater, human urine, pool and river water samples were studied as real samples for the evaluation of the method. Relative recoveries were found to be between 75% and 101%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Annual Report 2000. Chemical Structure and Dynamics; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colson, Steve D; McDowell, Rod S

    2001-01-01

    This annual report describes the research and accomplishments of the Chemical Structure and Dynamics Program in the year 2000, one of six research programs at the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) - a multidisciplinary, national scientific user facility and research organization. The Chemical Structure and Dynamics (CS and D) program is meeting the need for a fundamental, molecular-level understanding by (1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces; (2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interfacial chemical processes relevant to environmental chemistry; and (3) developing state-of-the-art research and analytical methods for characterizing complex materials of the types found in natural and contaminated systems

  4. Handbook of Basic Tables for Chemical Analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, T.J.; Svoronos, P.D.N.

    1988-04-01

    This work began as a slim booklet prepared by one of the authors (TJB) to accompany a course on chemical instrumentation presented at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder Laboratories. The booklet contained tables on chromatography, spectroscopy, and chemical (wet) methods, and was intended to provide the students with enough basic data to design their own analytical methods and procedures. Shortly thereafter, with the co-authorship of Prof. Paris D. N. Svoronos, it was expanded into a more-extensive compilation entitled Basic Tables for Chemical Analysis, published as National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 1096. That work has now been expanded and updated into the present body of tables. Although there have been considerable changes since the first version of these tables, the aim has remained essentially the same. The authors have tried to provide a single source of information for those practicing scientists and research students who must use various aspects of chemical analysis in their work. In this respect, it is geared less toward the researcher in analytical chemistry than to those practitioners in other chemical disciplines who must have routine use of chemical analysis

  5. Improvement in fatigue property for a PZT ferroelectric film device with SRO electrode film prepared by chemical solution deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, H.; Miwa, Y.; Suzuki, H.

    2007-01-01

    PZT films with (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) orientation were prepared by spin coating using the chemical solution deposition (CSD) method on an SRO/Si or a Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrate. The remnant polarization and the saturation polarization of the PZT/SRO/Si film were 21 and 35 μC/cm 2 , and those of the PZT/Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si film were 20 and 31 μC/cm 2 . The remnant polarization of the PZT/SRO/Si film maintained more than 10 8 switching cycles, and the fatigue property was observed for the PZT film fabricated on the Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si electrode

  6. Comparison of selected physico-chemical properties of calcium alginate films prepared by two different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossingham, Yazmin J; Kerr, Philip G; Kennedy, Ross A

    2014-10-01

    Sodium alginate (SA) is a naturally occurring, non-toxic, polysaccharide that is able to form gels after exposure to calcium. These gels have been used in food and biomedical industries. This is the first direct comparison of two different methods of calcium alginate film production, namely interfacial gelation (IFG) and dry cast gelation (DCG). IFG films were significantly thicker than DCG films, and were more extensively rehydrated in water and 0.1M HCl than the DCG films. During rehydration in 0.1M HCl almost all calcium ions were lost. Under scanning electron microscopy, IFG films appeared less dense than DCG films. IFG films were mechanically weaker than DCG films, and both types of film were weaker after rehydration in 0.1M HCl compared with deionized water. Permeation of theophylline (TPL) was evaluated in-vitro; the diffusion coefficient (D) of the TPL was almost 90 times lower in DCG films than IFG films when both were rehydrated in water. Although the 0.1M HCl rendered both gels more permeable to TPL, D of TPL was still about five times lower in DCG compared to IFG films. The evaluation of selected physico-chemical properties of films is important, since this information may inform the choice of gelation technique used to produce calcium alginate coatings on pharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of chemical solution deposition systems for the fabrication of lead zirconate titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, F.; Daglish, M.; Kemmitt, T.

    2001-01-01

    Ferroelectric thin films of lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr x Ti 1-x )O 3 (PZT) were prepared from five chemical solution deposition (CSD) systems, namely methoxyethanol, citrate, diol, acetic acid and triethanolamine. Physical characteristics of the solutions, processing parameters and physical and electrical properties of the films were used to assess the relative advantages and disadvantages of the different chemical systems. All the CSD systems decomposed to produce single phase perovskite PZT at temperatures above 650 deg C. Thin film deposition was influenced by the specific characteristics of each system such as wetting on the substrate and viscosity. Distinct precursor effects on the thin film crystallinity and electrical performance were revealed. The diol route yielded films with the highest crystallite size, highest permittivity and lowest loss tangent. The relative permittivity exhibited by films made by the other routes were 25% to 35% lower at equivalent thicknesses. Copyright (2001) The Australian Ceramic Society

  8. A chemical route to room-temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathan, Habib M.; Kim, Woo Young; Jung, Kwang-Deog; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2005-01-01

    A lot of methods are developed for the deposition of TiO 2 thin films; however, in each of these methods as-deposited films are amorphous and need further heat treatment at high temperature. In the present article, a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method was used for the preparation of TiO 2 thin films. We investigated nanocrystalline TiO 2 thin films using CBD at room temperature onto glass and ITO coated glass substrate. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. The chemically synthesized films were nanocrystalline and composed of crystal grains of 2-3 nm

  9. Ammonia-free chemical bath method for deposition of microcrystalline cadmium selenide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Lee, Eun-Ho; Jung, Kwang-Deog; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2005-01-01

    Chemical deposition of cadmium selenide (CdSe) films has been carried out from alkaline aqueous solution containing Cd 2+ and Se 2- ions. In general, the alkaline pH of the CdSe deposition bath has been adjusted by addition of liquid ammonia. However, the use of ammonia in large-scale chemical deposition method represents an environmental problem due to its volatility and toxicity. The volatility of ammonia changes the pH of deposition bath and results into irreproducible film properties. In the present paper, ammonia-free and weak alkaline (pH < 9.0) chemical method for cadmium selenide film has been developed. The cadmium selenide films are microcrystalline (grain size 0.5-0.7 μm) with hexagonal crystal structure. These films are photoactive and therefore, useful in photo conversion of light into electrical power

  10. 78 FR 29700 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... (PET Film) from the United Arab Emirates.\\1\\ This review covers two producers/exporters of subject... Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

  11. Chemical-cleaning process evaluation: Westinghouse steam generators. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleary, W.F.; Gockley, G.B.

    1983-04-01

    The Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG)/Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Steam Generator Secondary Side Chemical Cleaning Program, under develpment since 1978, has resulted in a generic process for the removal of accumulated corrosion products and tube deposits in the tube support plate crevices. The SGOG/EPRI Project S150-3 was established to obtain an evaluation of the generic process in regard to its applicability to Westinghouse steam generators. The results of the evaluation form the basis for recommendations for transferring the generic process to a plant specific application and identify chemical cleaning corrosion guidelines for the materials in Westinghouse Steam Generators. The results of the evaluation, recommendations for plant-specific applications and corrosion guidelines for chemical cleaning are presented in this report

  12. Chemical Mechanical Polishing of Ruthenium, Cobalt, and Black Diamond Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peethala, Brown Cornelius

    Ta/TaN bilayer serves as the diffusion barrier as well as the adhesion promoter between Cu and the dielectric in 32 nm technology devices. A key concern of future technology devices (layer (vs. a bilayer of Ta/TaN) to act as a barrier. During patterning, they need to be planarized using conventional chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) to achieve a planar surface. However, CMP of these new barrier materials requires novel slurry compositions that provide adequate selectivity towards Cu and dielectric films, and minimize galvanic corrosion. Apart from the application as a barrier, Ru also has been proposed as a lower electrode material in metal-insulator-metal capacitors where high (> 50 nm/min) Ru removal rates (RRs) are required and as a stop layer in magnetic recording head fabrication where low (hydroxide (KOH). It was also determined that increased the ionic strength is not responsible for the observed increase in Ru removal rate. Benzotirazole (BTA) and ascorbic acid were added to the slurry to reduce the open circuit potential (Eoc) difference between Cu and Ru to ˜20 mV from about 550 mV in the absence of additives. A removal mechanism with KIO4 as the oxidizing agent is proposed based on the formation of several ruthenium oxides, some of which formed residues on the polishing pad below a pH of ˜7. Next, a colloidal silica-based slurry with hydrogen peroxide (H 2O2) as the oxidizer (1 wt%), and arginine (0.5 wt%) as the complexing agent was developed to polish Co at pH 10. The Eoc between Cu and Co at the above conditions was reduced to ˜20 mV compared to ˜250 mV in the absence of additives, suggestive of reduced galvanic corrosion during the Co polishing. The slurry also has the advantages of good post-polish surface quality at pH 10, and no dissolution rate. BTA at a concentration of 5mM in this slurry inhibited Cu dissolution rates and yielded a Cu/Co RR ratio of ˜0.8:1 while the open potential difference between Cu and Co was further reduced to ˜10

  13. PWR steam generator chemical cleaning. Phase II. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Two techniques believed capable of chemically dissolving the corrosion products in the annuli between tubes and support plates were developed in laboratory work in Phase I of this project and were pilot tested in Indian Point Unit No. 1 steam generators. In Phase II, one of the techniques was shown to be inadequate on an actual sample taken from an Indian Point Unit No. 2 steam generator. The other technique was modified slightly, and it was demonstrated that the tube/support plate annulus could be chemically cleaned effectively

  14. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for YBCO film fabrication of superconducting fault-current limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Byung Hyuk; Kim, Chan Joong

    2006-05-15

    Since the high-temperature superconductor of oxide type was founded, many researches and efforts have been performed for finding its application field. The YBCO superconducting film fabricated on economic metal substrate with uniform critical current density is considered as superconducting fault-current limiter (SFCL). There are physical and chemical processes to fabricate superconductor film, and it is understood that the chemical methods are more economic to deposit large area. Among them, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a promising deposition method in obtaining film uniformity. To solve the problems due to the high deposition temperature of thermal CVD, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is suggested. This report describes the principle and fabrication trend of SFCL, example of YBCO film deposition by PECVD method, and principle of plasma deposition.

  15. Chemical solution deposition of CaCu3Ti4O12 thin film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    CaCu3Ti4O12; thin film; chemical solution deposition; dielectric properties. 1. Introduction. The CaCu3Ti4O12. (CCTO) compound has recently attracted considerable ... and Kelvin probe force microscopy (Chung et al 2004). Intrinsic .... SEM images of CCTO thin films as a function of sintering temperature. silicon based ...

  16. Low-pressure chemical vapor deposition as a tool for deposition of thin film battery materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhoven, J.F.M.; Dongen, van T.; Niessen, R.A.H.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition was utilized for the deposition of LiCoO2 cathode materials for all-solid-state thin-film micro-batteries. To obtain insight in the deposition process, the most important process parameters were optimized for the deposition of crystalline electrode films on

  17. Chemical solution deposition of CaCu 3 Ti 4 O 12 thin film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) thin film was successfully deposited on boron doped silica substrate by chemical solution deposition and rapid thermal processing. The phase and microstructure of the deposited films were studied as a function of sintering temperature, employing X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron ...

  18. Vaporization of a mixed precursors in chemical vapor deposition for YBCO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Meng, Guangyao; Schneider, Roger L.; Sarma, Bimal K.; Levy, Moises

    1995-01-01

    Single phase YBa2Cu3O7-delta thin films with T(c) values around 90 K are readily obtained by using a single source chemical vapor deposition technique with a normal precursor mass transport. The quality of the films is controlled by adjusting the carrier gas flow rate and the precursor feed rate.

  19. Zirconia thin film preparation by wet chemical methods at low temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popovici, M.; Graaf, de J.; Verschuuren, M.A.; Graat, P.C.J.; Verheijen, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study the preparation of zirconia thin films with a high refractive index at low temperature is aimed for. Two non-hydrolytic type approaches of wet chemical synthesis are presented. Both by sol–gel and colloid chemistry, highly transmissive, smooth thin films of zirconia cubic and/or

  20. Stress hysteresis and mechanical properties of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited dielectric films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurn, Jeremy; Cook, Robert F.; Kamarajugadda, Mallika; Bozeman, Steven P.; Stearns, Laura C.

    2004-02-01

    A comprehensive survey is described of the responses of three plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited dielectric film systems to thermal cycling and indentation contact. All three films—silicon oxide, silicon nitride, and silicon oxy-nitride—exhibited significant nonequilibrium permanent changes in film stress on thermal cycling or annealing. The linear relationship between stress and temperature changed after the films were annealed at 300 °C, representing a structural alteration in the film reflecting a change in coefficient of thermal expansion or biaxial modulus. A double-substrate method was used to deduce both thermoelastic properties before and after the anneal of selected films and the results were compared with the modulus deconvoluted from small-scale depth-sensing indentation experiments (nanoindentation). Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and hydrogen forward scattering were used to deduce the composition of the films and it was found that all the films contained significant amounts of hydrogen.

  1. Chemical bath deposition of indium sulphide thin films: preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Ennaoui, A.; Patil, P.S.; Giersig, M.; Diesner, K.; Muller, M.; Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany). Bereich Physikalische Chemie

    1999-02-26

    Indium sulphide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films have been successfully deposited on different substrates under varying deposition conditions using chemical bath deposition technique. The deposition mechanism of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films from thioacetamide deposition bath has been proposed. Films have been characterized with respect to their crystalline structure, composition, optical and electrical properties by means of X-ray diffraction, TEM, EDAX, optical absorption, TRMC (time resolved microwave conductivity) and RBS. Films on glass substrates were amorphous and on FTO (flourine doped tin oxide coated) glass substrates were polycrystalline (element of phase). The optical band gap of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film was estimated to be 2.75 eV. The as-deposited films were photoactive as evidenced by TRMC studies. The presence of oxygen in the film was detected by RBS analysis. (orig.) 27 refs.

  2. MgB2 thin films by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, X.X.; Pogrebnyakov, A.V.; Xu, S.Y.; Chen, K.; Cui, Y.; Maertz, E.C.; Zhuang, C.G.; Li, Qi; Lamborn, D.R.; Redwing, J.M.; Liu, Z.K.; Soukiassian, A.; Schlom, D.G.; Weng, X.J.; Dickey, E.C.; Chen, Y.B.; Tian, W.; Pan, X.Q.; Cybart, S.A.; Dynes, R.C.

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) has been the most effective technique for depositing MgB 2 thin films. It generates high magnesium vapor pressures and provides a clean environment for the growth of high purity MgB 2 films. The epitaxial pure MgB 2 films grown by HPCVD show higher-than-bulk T c due to tensile strain in the films. The HPCVD films are the cleanest MgB 2 materials reported, allowing basic research, such as on magnetoresistance, that reveals the two-band nature of MgB 2 . The carbon-alloyed HPCVD films demonstrate record-high H c2 values promising for high magnetic field applications. The HPCVD films and multilayers have enabled the fabrication of high quality MgB 2 Josephson junctions

  3. Chemical Profiles of Microalgae with Emphasis on Lipids: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J. R.; Tillett, D. M.; Suen, Y.; Hubbard, J.; Tornabene, T. G.

    1986-02-01

    This final report details progress during the third year of this subcontract. The overall objective of this subcontract was two fold: to provide the analytical capability required for selecting microalgae strains with high energy contents and to develop fundamental knowledge required for optimizing the energy yield from microalgae cultures. The progress made towards these objectives during this year is detailed in this report.

  4. Polycrystalline thin films of antimony selenide via chemical bath deposition and post deposition treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Lazcano, Y.; Pena, Yolanda; Nair, M.T.S.; Nair, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    We report a method for obtaining thin films of polycrystalline antimony selenide via chemical bath deposition followed by heating the thin films at 573 K in selenium vapor. The thin films deposited from chemical baths containing one or more soluble complexes of antimony, and selenosulfate initially did not show X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns corresponding to crystalline antimony selenide. Composition of the films, studied by energy dispersive X-ray analyses indicated selenium deficiency. Heating these films in presence of selenium vapor at 573 K under nitrogen (2000 mTorr) resulted in an enrichment of Se in the films. XRD peaks of such films matched Sb 2 Se 3 . Evaluation of band gap from optical spectra of such films shows absorption due to indirect transition occurring in the range of 1-1.2 eV. The films are photosensitive, with dark conductivity of about 2 x 10 -8 (Ω cm) -1 and photoconductivity, about 10 -6 (Ω cm) -1 under tungsten halogen lamp illumination with intensity of 700 W m -2 . An estimate for the mobility life time product for the film is 4 x 10 -9 cm 2 V -1

  5. Seismic and source characteristics of large chemical explosions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adushkin, V.V.; Kostuchenko, V.N.; Pernik, L.M.; Sultanov, D.D.; Zcikanovsky, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    From the very beginning of its arrangement in 1947, the Institute for Dynamics of the Geospheres RAS (former Special Sector of the Institute for physics of the Earth, RAS) was providing scientific observations of effects of nuclear explosions, as well as large-scale detonations of HE, on environment. This report presents principal results of instrumental observations obtained from various large-scale chemical explosions conducted in the Former-Soviet Union in the period of time from 1957 to 1989. Considering principal aim of the work, tamped and equivalent chemical explosions have been selected with total weights from several hundreds to several thousands ton. In particular, the selected explosions were aimed to study scaling law from excavation explosions, seismic effect of tamped explosions, and for dam construction for hydropower stations and soil melioration. Instrumental data on surface explosions of total weight in the same range aimed to test military technics and special objects are not included.

  6. PWR steam generator chemical cleaning, Phase I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothstein, S.

    1978-07-01

    United Nuclear Industries (UNI) entered into a subcontract with Consolidated Edison Company of New York (Con Ed) on August 8, 1977, for the purpose of developing methods to chemically clean the secondary side tube to tube support crevices of the steam generators of Indian Point Nos. 1 and 2 PWR plants. This document represents the first reporting on activities performed for Phase I of this effort. Specifically, this report contains the results of a literature search performed by UNI for the purpose of determining state-of-the-art chemical solvents and methods for decontaminating nuclear reactor steam generators. The results of the search sought to accomplish two objectives: (1) identify solvents beyond those proposed at present by UNI and Con Ed for the test program, and (2) confirm the appropriateness of solvents and methods of decontamination currently in use by UNI

  7. High-quality AlN films grown on chemical vapor-deposited graphene films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Bin-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the growth of high-quality AlN films on graphene. The graphene films were synthesized by CVD and then transferred onto silicon substrates. Epitaxial aluminum nitride films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on both graphene as an intermediate layer and silicon as a substrate. The structural characteristics of the AlN films and graphene were investigated. Highly c-axis-oriented AlN crystal structures are investigated based on the XRDpatterns observations.

  8. L1{sub 0}-FePt films fabricated by wet-chemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Xiaoliang; Xiao, Wen; Bao, Nina; Li, Weimin; Chichvarina, Olga, E-mail: A0077107@nus.edu.sg; Ding, Jun, E-mail: msedingj@nus.edu.sg

    2015-08-31

    In this work, we have developed a method to fabricate FePt films by a combination of chemical deposition and post-annealing. Pt-doped Fe films were deposited on Pt(100 nm)/Ti(50 nm)/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate using thermal deposition and the as-deposited films were subsequently annealed from 300 °C to 800 °C under 5% H{sub 2}/95% N{sub 2}. FePt films were achieved through diffusion and rearrangement of Fe and Pt atoms in post-annealing process. From X-ray diffraction results, the face-centered cubic (fcc) FePt phase appeared at 300 °C and the transformation from fcc to L1{sub 0} phase started at 400 °C. The L1{sub 0}-FePt film possessed an out-of-plane anisotropy and a coercivity of 729 kA/m after annealing at 600 °C. A further increase in annealing temperature led to lower value of coercivity, probably because of grain growth. In addition, the thickness of Pt-doped Fe films could be controlled from 150 nm to 700 nm by adjusting the amount of surfactant used. Our superconducting quantum interference device analysis showed that Pt dopant could significantly improve the chemical stability of Fe films in air. - Highlights: • We fabricated FePt film by a combination of chemical deposition and post-annealing. • L1{sub 0} FePt film was formed by Fe/Pt diffusion in annealing of Pt-doped Fe film. • L1{sub 0}-phase FePt with high coercivity and small out-of-plane anisotropy • Relatively small amount of Pt dopant can enhance chemical stability greatly. • We studied structure and magnetic property of as-deposited and annealed FePt film.

  9. Chemical synthesis of porous web-structured CdS thin films for photosensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosavi, S.R., E-mail: srgosavi.taloda@gmail.com [C. H. C. Arts, S. G. P. Commerce, and B. B. J. P. Science College, Taloda, Dist., Nandurbar 425413, M. S. (India); Nikam, C.P. [B.S.S.P.M.S. Arts, Commerce and Science College, Songir, Dist., Dhule 424309, M. S. (India); Shelke, A.R.; Patil, A.M. [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, M.S. (India); Ryu, S.-W. [Department of Physics, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Bhat, J.S. [Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580003 (India); Deshpande, N.G., E-mail: nicedeshpande@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, M.S. (India)

    2015-06-15

    The photo-activity of chemically deposited cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin film has been studied. The simple chemical route nucleates the CdS films with size up to the mean free path of the electron. Growth Kinematics of crystalline hexagonal CdS phase in the thin film form was monitored using X-ray diffraction. The time limitation set for the formation of the amorphous/nano-crystalline material is 40 and 60 min. Thereafter enhancement of the crystalline orientation along the desired plane was identified. Web-like porous structured surface morphology of CdS thin film over the entire area is observed. With decrease in synthesis time, increase of band gap energy i.e., a blue spectral shift was seen. The activation energy of CdS thin film at low and high temperature region was examined. It is considered that this activation energy corresponds to the donor levels associated with shallow traps or surface states of CdS thin film. The photo-electrochemical performance of CdS thin films in polysulphide electrolyte showed diode-like characteristics. Exposure of light on the CdS electrode increases the photocurrent. This suggests the possibility of production of free carriers via excited ions and also the light harvesting mechanism due to porous web-structured morphology. These studies hint that the obtained CdS films can work as a photosensor. - Highlights: • Photoactivity of chemically synthesized cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films was studied. • Web-like porous structured surface morphology of CdS thin film over the entire area was observed. • Blue spectral shift with lowering of the synthesis time suggests films can act as a window layer over the absorber layer. • Porous web-structured CdS thin films can be useful in light harvesting.

  10. Chemical synthesis of porous web-structured CdS thin films for photosensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosavi, S.R.; Nikam, C.P.; Shelke, A.R.; Patil, A.M.; Ryu, S.-W.; Bhat, J.S.; Deshpande, N.G.

    2015-01-01

    The photo-activity of chemically deposited cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin film has been studied. The simple chemical route nucleates the CdS films with size up to the mean free path of the electron. Growth Kinematics of crystalline hexagonal CdS phase in the thin film form was monitored using X-ray diffraction. The time limitation set for the formation of the amorphous/nano-crystalline material is 40 and 60 min. Thereafter enhancement of the crystalline orientation along the desired plane was identified. Web-like porous structured surface morphology of CdS thin film over the entire area is observed. With decrease in synthesis time, increase of band gap energy i.e., a blue spectral shift was seen. The activation energy of CdS thin film at low and high temperature region was examined. It is considered that this activation energy corresponds to the donor levels associated with shallow traps or surface states of CdS thin film. The photo-electrochemical performance of CdS thin films in polysulphide electrolyte showed diode-like characteristics. Exposure of light on the CdS electrode increases the photocurrent. This suggests the possibility of production of free carriers via excited ions and also the light harvesting mechanism due to porous web-structured morphology. These studies hint that the obtained CdS films can work as a photosensor. - Highlights: • Photoactivity of chemically synthesized cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films was studied. • Web-like porous structured surface morphology of CdS thin film over the entire area was observed. • Blue spectral shift with lowering of the synthesis time suggests films can act as a window layer over the absorber layer. • Porous web-structured CdS thin films can be useful in light harvesting

  11. Chemical cleaning of Dresden Unit 1: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    The introduction of NS-1 solvent into the full primary system of Dresden Unit-1 nuclear power reactor on September 12, 1984, represented the culmination of several years of development, testing, planning, and construction. The requirement was to dissolve the highly radioactive deposits of primarily nickel ferrite without any corrosion which might compromise the reactor systems. During the actual cleaning with the NS-1 solvent, the chemical condition of the circulating solvent was measured. Iron, nickel, and radioactive cobalt all dissolved smoothly. The amount of copper in solution decreased in concentration, verifying expectations that metallic copper would plate on to clean metal surfaces. A special rinse formulation was employed after the primary cleaning steps and the ''lost'' copper was thus redissolved and removed from the system. After the cleaning was complete and the reactor had been refilled with pure water, radiation levels were measured. The most accurate of these measurements gave decontamination factors ranging well above 100, which indicated a significant removal of the radioactive deposits, and demonstrated the success of this project. Treatment of the radioactive liquid wastes from this operation required volume reduction and water purification. The primary method of processing the spent cleaning solvent and rinse water was evaporation. The resulting concentrate has been stored as a liquid, awaiting solidification to allow burial at a designated site. Water which was separated during evaporation, along with the dilute rinses, was processed by various chemical means, reevaporated, treated with activated carbon, and/or demineralized before its radionuclide and chemical content was low enough to allow it to be returned to Dresden Station for treatment or disposal. 60 figs., 31 tabs

  12. Chemically Crosslinked Hydrogel Film Leads to Integrated Flexible Supercapacitors with Superior Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Xiong; Li, Chen; Sun, Xianzhong; Meng, Qinghai; Ma, Yanwei; Wei, Zhixiang

    2015-12-02

    A high-strength poly(vinyl alcohol) chemical hydrogel (PCH) film is prepared by coupling covalent crosslinking with a film-casting process. Conducting polyaniline (PANI) is then embedded in the PCH film by in situ growth to form a composite film with a PANI-hydrogel-PANI configuration, which leads to a new conceptual flexible supercapacitor with all-in-one configuration that exhibits superior electrochemical performance and mechanical flexibility. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Room-temperature plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiOCH films using tetraethoxysilane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, K.; Yoshizako, Y.; Kato, H.; Tsukiyama, D.; Terai, Y.; Fujiwara, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon-doped silicon oxide (SiOCH) thin films were deposited by room-temperature plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). The deposition rate and composition of the films strongly depended on radio frequency (RF) power. The films deposited at low RF power contained more CH n groups. The SiOCH films showed high etch rate and low refractive index in proportion to the carbon composition. The deposition with low plasma density and low substrate temperature is effective for SiOCH growth by PECVD using TEOS

  14. SnS thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition, dip coating and SILAR techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M. P.

    2016-05-01

    The SnS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD), dip coating and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) techniques. In them, the CBD thin films were deposited at two temperatures: ambient and 70 °C. The energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the thin films. The electrical transport properties studies on the as-deposited thin films were done by measuring the I-V characteristics, DC electrical resistivity variation with temperature and the room temperature Hall effect. The obtained results are deliberated in this paper.

  15. Pulsed injection metal organic chemical vapour deposition and characterisation of thin CaO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, R.P.; Ferreira, P.; Saraiva, A.; Goncalves, R.; Rosa, M.A.; Goncalves, A.P.; Silva, R.C. da; Magalhaes, S.; Lourenco, M.J.V.; Santos, F.J.V.; Godinho, M.

    2009-01-01

    Thin films of CaO were grown on silicon (Si) and lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO 3 ) substrates by pulsed injection metal-organic chemical vapour deposition in a vertical injection MOCVD system. Growth parameters were systematically varied to study their effect on film growth and quality and to determine the optimal growth conditions for this material. Film quality and growth rate were evaluated by atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy measurements. Optimised conditions allowed growing transparent, single phase films textured along the (0 0 l) direction.

  16. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  17. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaji, S.; Garcia, L.V.; Loredo, S.L.; Krishnan, B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Antimony sulfide thin films were prepared by normal CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • These films were photoconductive. - Abstract: Antimony sulfide (Sb_2S_3) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb_2S_3 thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb_2S_3 thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  18. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); CIIDIT—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Garcia, L.V. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); Loredo, S.L. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Unidad Monterrey, PIIT, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); CIIDIT—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); and others

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Antimony sulfide thin films were prepared by normal CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • These films were photoconductive. - Abstract: Antimony sulfide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  19. CdS thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Garcia Guillen, G.; Aguilar Martinez, J.A.; Krishnan, B.; Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Das Roy, T.K.; Shaji, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CdS thin films by conventional CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • Improved dark conductivity and good photocurrent response for the LACBD CdS. - Abstract: In this work, we report the preparation and characterization of CdS thin films by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD). CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing cadmium chloride, triethanolamine, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea under various deposition conditions. The thin films were deposited by in situ irradiation of the bath using a continuous laser of wavelength 532 nm, varying the power density. The thin films obtained during deposition of 10, 20 and 30 min were analyzed. The changes in morphology, structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the CdS thin films due to in situ irradiation of the bath were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The thin films obtained by LACBD were nanocrystalline, photoconductive and presented interesting morphologies. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain nanocrystalline CdS thin films having good optoelectronic properties

  20. Chemical bath deposition of Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, S.G., E-mail: deshmukhpradyumn@gmail.com; Vipul, Kheraj, E-mail: vipulkheraj@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Ichchhanath, Surat (India); Panchal, A.K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Ichchhanath, Surat (India)

    2016-05-06

    First time, copper bismuth sulfide (Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3}) thin films were synthesized on the glass substrate using simple, low-cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The synthesized parameters such as temperature of bath, pH and concentration of precursors were optimized for the deposition of uniform, well adherent Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3} thin films. The optical, surface morphology and structural properties of the Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3} thin films were studied using UV-VIS-NIR spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The as- synthesized Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3} film exhibits a direct band gap 1.56 to 1.58 eV having absorption coefficient of the order of 10{sup 5} cm{sup −1}. The XRD declares the amorphous nature of the films. SEM images shows films were composed of close-packed fine spherical nanoparticles of 70-80 nm in diameter. The chemical composition of the film was almost stoichiometric. The optical study indicates that the Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3} films can be applied as an absorber layer for thin film solar cells.

  1. CdS thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Garcia Guillen, G.; Aguilar Martinez, J.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • CdS thin films by conventional CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • Improved dark conductivity and good photocurrent response for the LACBD CdS. - Abstract: In this work, we report the preparation and characterization of CdS thin films by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD). CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing cadmium chloride, triethanolamine, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea under various deposition conditions. The thin films were deposited by in situ irradiation of the bath using a continuous laser of wavelength 532 nm, varying the power density. The thin films obtained during deposition of 10, 20 and 30 min were analyzed. The changes in morphology, structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the CdS thin films due to in situ irradiation of the bath were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The thin films obtained by LACBD were nanocrystalline, photoconductive and presented interesting morphologies. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain nanocrystalline CdS thin films having good optoelectronic properties.

  2. Photoluminescence properties of poly (p-phenylene vinylene) films deposited by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedelian, Cynthia A.; Rajanna, K.C.; Premerlani, Brian; Lu, Toh-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Photoluminescence spectra of PPV at varying thicknesses and temperatures have been studied. A study of the quenching of the polymer film using a modified version of fluorescence spectroscopy reveals interface effects dominating at thicknesses below about 600 Å, while bulk effects dominate at higher thicknesses. The application of the Stern–Volmer equation to solid film is discussed. Stern–Volmer plots were nonlinear with downward deviations at higher thickness of the film which was explained due to self-quenching in films and larger conformational change and increased restriction from change in electron density due to electron transition during excitation in bulk polymer films over 60 nm thick. PPV deposited into porous (∼4 nm in diameter) nanostructured substrate shows a larger 0–0 than 0–1 transition peak intensity and decreased disorder in the films due to structure imposed by substrate matrix. Temperature dependent effects are measured for a film at 500 Å, right on the border between the two areas. PPV films deposited on porous methyl silsesquioxane (MSQ) were also examined in order to compare the flat film to a substrate that allows for the domination of interface effects. The enthalpies of the first two peaks are very similar, but the third peak demonstrates a lower enthalpy and a larger wavelength shift with temperature. Films deposited inside pores show a smaller amount of disorder than flat films. Calculation of the Huang–Rhys factor at varying temperatures for the flat film and film in porous MSQ shows large temperature dependence for the flat film but a smaller amount of disorder in the nanostructured film. -- Highlights: • Poly (p-phenylene vinylene) films deposited by chemical vapor deposition exhibited photoluminescence properties. • Fluorescence spectra of the polymer films revealed interface effects dominating at thicknesses below about 600 Å, while bulk effects dominate at higher thicknesses. • Stern–Volmer plots were

  3. PbS Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications Obtained by Non-Traditional Chemical Bath Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-García Claudia Elena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize cost-efficiency relation for thin film solar cells, we explore the recently developed versions of chemical deposition of semiconductor films, together with classic CBD (Chemical Bath Deposition: SILAR (Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction and PCBD (Photo Chemical Bath Deposition, all of them ammonia-free and ecologically friendly. The films of CdS and PbS were made, and experimental solar cells with CdS window layer and PbS absorber elaborated. We found that band gap of PbS films can be monitored by deposition process due to porosity-induced quantum confinement which depends on the parameters of the process. We expect that the techniques employed can be successfully used for production of optoelectronic devices.

  4. Isotope separation by chemical exchange process: Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, A.

    1987-02-01

    The feasibility of a chemical exchange method for the separation of the isotopes of europium was demonstrated in the system EuCl 2 -EuCl 3 . The single stage separation factor, α, in this system is 1.001 or 1.0005 per mass unit. This value of α is comparable to the separation factors reported for the U 4+ - U 6 and U 3+ - Y 4+ systems. The separation of the ionic species was done by precipitation of the Eu 2+ ions or by extraction of the Eu 3+ ions with HDEHP. Conceptual schemes were developed for a countercurrent reflux cascades consisting of solvent extraction contractors. A regenerative electrocel, combining simultaneous europium reduction, europium oxidation with energy generation, and europium stripping from the organic phase is described. 32 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs

  5. Indium sulfide thin films as window layer in chemically deposited solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo-Loredo, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolás de Los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Peña-Méndez, Y., E-mail: yolapm@gmail.com [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolás de Los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Calixto-Rodriguez, M. [Universidad Tecnológica Emiliano Zapata del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad Tecnológica No. 1, C.P. 62760 Emiliano Zapata, Morelos (Mexico); Messina-Fernández, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Ciudad de la Cultura “Amado Nervo” S/N, C.P. 63190 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Alvarez-Gallegos, A. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Universidad 1001, C.P. 62209, Cuernavaca Morelos (Mexico); Vázquez-Dimas, A.; Hernández-García, T. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolás de Los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 (Mexico)

    2014-01-01

    Indium sulfide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films have been synthesized by chemical bath deposition technique onto glass substrates using In(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} as indium precursor and thioacetamide as sulfur source. X-ray diffraction studies have shown that the crystalline state of the as-prepared and the annealed films is β-In{sub 2}S{sub 3}. Optical band gap values between 2.27 and 2.41 eV were obtained for these films. The In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films are photosensitive with an electrical conductivity value in the range of 10{sup −3}–10{sup −7} (Ω cm){sup −1}, depending on the film preparation conditions. We have demonstrated that the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films obtained in this work are suitable candidates to be used as window layer in thin film solar cells. These films were integrated in SnO{sub 2}:F/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/PbS/C–Ag solar cell structures, which showed an open circuit voltage of 630 mV and a short circuit current density of 0.6 mA/cm{sup 2}. - Highlights: • In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were deposited using the Chemical Bath Deposition technique. • A direct energy band gap between 2.41 to 2.27 eV was evaluated for the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} films. • We made chemically deposited solar cells using the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films.

  6. Study of post annealing influence on structural, chemical and electrical properties of ZTO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Vipin Kumar; Kumar, Praveen; Kumar, Mahesh; Jain, Praveen; Bhandari, Deepika; Vijay, Y.K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Structural, chemical and electrical properties of cost effective ZTO thin films with varying concentrations. → Effect of annealing of ZTO films. - Abstract: Zinc-Tin-Oxide (ZTO) thin films were deposited on glass substrate with varying concentrations (ZnO:SnO 2 ; 100:0, 90:10, 70:30 and 50:50 wt.%) at room temperature by flash evaporation technique. These deposited ZTO films were annealed at 450 deg. C in vacuum. These films were characterized to study the effect of annealing and addition of SnO 2 concentration on the structural, chemical and electrical properties. The XRD analysis indicates that crystallization of the ZTO films strongly depends on the concentration of SnO 2 and post annealing where annealed films showed polycrystalline nature. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images manifest the surface morphology of these ZTO thin films. The XPS core level spectra of Zn(2p), O(1s) and Sn(3d) have been deconvoluted into their Gaussian component to evaluate the chemical changes, while valence band spectra reveal the electronic structures of these films. A small shift in Zn(2p) and Sn(3d) core level towards higher binding energy and O(1s) core level towards lower binding energy have been observed. The minimum electrical resistivity (ρ ∼ 3.69 x 10 -2 Ω-cm), maximum carrier concentration (n ∼ 3.26 x 10 19 cm -3 ) and Hall mobility (μ ∼ 5.2 cm 2 v -1 s -1 ) were obtained for as-prepared ZTO (50:50) film thereafter move towards lowest resistivity (ρ ∼ 1.12 x 10 -3 Ω-cm), highest carrier concentration (n ∼ 2.96 x 10 20 cm -3 ) and mobility (μ ∼ 18.8 cm 2 v -1 s -1 ) for annealed ZTO (50:50) thin film.

  7. Chemically deposited Sb2S3 thin films for optical recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaji, S; Arato, A; Castillo, G Alan; Palma, M I Mendivil; Roy, T K Das; Krishnan, B; O'Brien, J J; Liu, J

    2010-01-01

    Laser induced changes in the properties of Sb 2 S 3 thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition are described in this paper. Sb 2 S 3 thin films of thickness 550 nm were deposited from a solution containing SbCl 3 and Na 2 S 2 O 3 at 27 0 C for 5 h. These thin films were irradiated by a 532 nm continuous wave laser beam under different conditions at ambient atmosphere. X-ray diffraction analysis showed amorphous to polycrystalline transformation due to laser exposure of these thin films. Morphology and composition of these films were described. Optical properties of these films before and after laser irradiation were analysed. The optical band gap of the material was decreased due to laser induced crystallization. The results obtained confirm that there is further scope for developing this material as an optical recording media.

  8. Chemically deposited Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films for optical recording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaji, S; Arato, A; Castillo, G Alan; Palma, M I Mendivil; Roy, T K Das; Krishnan, B [Facultad de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P- 66450 (Mexico); O' Brien, J J; Liu, J, E-mail: bkrishnan@fime.uanl.m [Center for Nanoscience and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, One Univ. Blvd., St. Louis, MO - 63121 (United States)

    2010-02-24

    Laser induced changes in the properties of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition are described in this paper. Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films of thickness 550 nm were deposited from a solution containing SbCl{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} at 27 {sup 0}C for 5 h. These thin films were irradiated by a 532 nm continuous wave laser beam under different conditions at ambient atmosphere. X-ray diffraction analysis showed amorphous to polycrystalline transformation due to laser exposure of these thin films. Morphology and composition of these films were described. Optical properties of these films before and after laser irradiation were analysed. The optical band gap of the material was decreased due to laser induced crystallization. The results obtained confirm that there is further scope for developing this material as an optical recording media.

  9. Influence of deposition time on the properties of chemical bath deposited manganese sulfide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Kassim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Manganese sulfide thin films were chemically deposited from an aqueous solution containing manganese sulfate, sodium thiosulfate and sodium tartrate. The influence of deposition time (2, 3, 6 and 8 days on the properties of thin films was investigated. The structure and surface morphology of the thin films were studied by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy, respectively. In addition, in order to investigate the optical properties of the thin films, the UV-visible spectrophotometry was used. The XRD results indicated that the deposited MnS2 thin films exhibited a polycrystalline cubic structure. The number of MnS2 peaks on the XRD patterns initially increased from three to six peaks and then decreased to five peaks, as the deposition time was increased from 2 to 8 days. From the AFM measurements, the film thickness and surface roughness were found to be dependent on the deposition time.

  10. Morphology and structure of Ti-doped diamond films prepared by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejie; Lu, Pengfei; Wang, Hongchao; Ren, Yuan; Tan, Xin; Sun, Shiyang; Jia, Huiling

    2018-06-01

    Ti-doped diamond films were deposited through a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) system for the first time. The effects of the addition of Ti on the morphology, microstructure and quality of diamond films were systematically investigated. Secondary ion mass spectrometry results show that Ti can be added to diamond films through the MPCVD system using tetra n-butyl titanate as precursor. The spectra from X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the images from scanning electron microscopy of the deposited films indicate that the diamond phase clearly exists and dominates in Ti-doped diamond films. The amount of Ti added obviously influences film morphology and the preferred orientation of the crystals. Ti doping is beneficial to the second nucleation and the growth of the (1 1 0) faceted grains.

  11. Field electron emission characteristics of chemical vapour deposition diamond films with controlled sp2 phase concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X.; Yang, Q.; Xiao, C.; Hirose, A.

    2008-01-01

    Diamond films were synthesized in a microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition reactor. The microstructure and surface morphology of deposited films were characterized by Raman spectroscope and scanning electron microscope. The sp 2 phase concentration in diamond films was varied and its effect on the field electron emission (FEE) properties was investigated. Diamond films deposited under higher methane concentration exhibit better FEE property including lower turn-on electric field and larger emission current. The predominating factor modifying the FEE property is presumed to be the increase of sp 2 phase concentration. The influence of bias voltage on the FEE property of diamond films is not monotonic. Postgrowth acid treatment reduces the sp 2 phase content in diamond films without changing diamond grain sizes. The corresponding FEE property was degraded

  12. Analysis of gas absorption to a thin liquid film in the presence of a zero-order chemical reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, S.; Rahman, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a detailed theoretical analysis of the process of gas absorption to a thin liquid film adjacent to a horizontal rotating disk. The film is formed by the impingement of a controlled liquid jet at the center of the disk and subsequent radial spreading of liquid along the disk. The chemical reaction between the gas and the liquid film can be expressed as a zero-order homogeneous reaction. The process was modeled by establishing equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and species concentration and solving them analytically. A scaling analysis was used to determine dominant transport processes. Appropriate boundary conditions were used to solve these equations to develop expressions for the local concentration of gas across the thickness of the film and distributions of film height, bulk concentration, and Sherwood number along the radius of the disk. The partial differential equation for species concentration was solved using the separation of variables technique along with the Duhamel's theorem and the final analytical solution was expressed using confluent hypergeometric functions. Tables for eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are presented for a number of reaction rate constants. A parametric study was performed using Reynolds number, Ekman number, and dimensionless reaction rate as parameters. At all radial locations, Sherwood number increased with Reynolds number (flow rate) as well as Ekman number (rate of rotation). The enhancement of mass transfer due to chemical reaction was found to be small when compared to the case of no reaction (pure absorption), but the enhancement factor was very significant when compared to pure absorption in a stagnant liquid film. The zero-order reaction processes considered in the present investigation included the absorption of oxygen in aqueous alkaline solutions of sodiumdithionite and rhodium complex catalyzed carbonylation of methanol. Present analytical results were compared to previous theoretical

  13. Effect of protic solvents on CdS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Pin-Chuan, E-mail: pcyao@mail.dyu.edu.tw; Chen, Chun-Yu

    2015-03-31

    In this study, cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films are grown on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) in an aqueous bath containing 10–20 vol.% alcohol. The roles of ethanol as a protic solvent that substantially improves the quality of films are explored extensively. The deposited films in an alcohol bath are found to be more compact and smoother with smaller CdS grains. The X-ray diffractograms of the samples confirm that all films were polycrystalline with mixed wurtzite (hexagonal) and zinkblende (cubic) phases. Raman spectra indicate that, for a film deposited in an alcohol bath, the position of 1LO is closer to the value for single crystal CdS, indicating that these films have a high degree of crystallinity. The as-deposited CdS thin films in a 10 vol.% alcohol bath were found to have the highest visible transmittance of 81.9%. XPS analysis reveals a stronger signal of C1s for samples deposited in the alcohol baths, indicating that there are more carbonaceous residues on the films with protic solvent than on the films with water. A higher XPS S/Cd atomic ratio for films deposited in an alcohol bath indicates that undesirable surface reactions (leading to sulfur containing compounds other than CdS) occur less frequently over the substrates. - Highlights: • Study of CBD-CdS films grown in an alcohol-containing aqueous bath is reported. • The deposited films in an alcohol bath are more compact with smaller CdS grains. • Raman spectra show that in an alcohol bath, the CdS film has a better crystallinity. • XPS reveals more carbon residues remain on the films deposited using alcohol bath. • In an alcohol bath, the undesirable surface reactions with Cd ions were hindered.

  14. Electrochromic and electrochemical capacitive properties of tungsten oxide and its polyaniline nanocomposite films obtained by chemical bath deposition method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nwanya, AC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyanine and its nanocomposite WO3/PANI films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glassslides by simple chemical bath deposition method. The morphology structure of the composite film wasstudied using atomic force microscopy (AFM...

  15. Thin film battery/fuel cell power generating system. Final report, Task E-4, April 1976-April 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feduska, W.

    1978-03-31

    A two-year researth program to design and demonstrate the technical feasibility of a high-temperature solid-electrolyte fuel cell is described in detail. A rare-earth chromite, in particular, La /sub 95/Mg /sub 05/Cr /sub 75/Al /sub 25/0/sub 3/ was identified, synthesized by RF-sputtering tested for resistivity, thermal expansion and inertness in contact with yttria-stabilized zirconia, and was found promising as a candidate interconnection material. Films of these interconnection materials have been successfully deposited onto stabilized zirconia tubes by electrochemical vapor deposition (EVD) and the technique has been used to fabricate such films in building fuel cell stacks. Tin-doped indium oxide and antimony-doped tin oxide air electrode current collector materials have been successfully (CVD) chemically vapor deposited, as thin films, onto zirconia tubes. Fabrication procedures for the preparation of thin films of the nickel-cermet fuel electrode and yttria-stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte have been re-verified and improved for use in preparing unit cells and cell stacks on the program. An in-house extrusion technology for porous calcia-stabilized zirconia tubes has been developed and has been used to provide suitable support tubes for component combination samples, unit cell and cell stack sample preparation. Test concepts for component combinations and for unit cells and cell stacks have been evolved, particularly, the crossed electrode technique, and test equipment has been designed, built and used to evaluate fuel cell components and their interfaces. A five-cell fuel cell stack has been fabricated and operated for 700 hours at 200 mA/cm/sup 2/ at 950 to 980/sup 0/C and was subjected to three temperature cycles during the testing. Three series connected cells of this five cell stack met the 80% voltage efficiency final target objective of the program (less than 10% voltage degradation in 700 hours - with only 300 hours required.)

  16. Structural, optical and electrical characteristics of nickel oxide thin films synthesised through chemical processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinkuade, Shadrach; Mwankemwa, Benanrd; Nel, Jacqueline; Meyer, Walter

    2018-04-01

    A simple and cheap chemical deposition method was used to produce a nickel oxide (NiO) thin film on glass substrates from a solution that contained Ni2+ and monoethanolamine. Thermal treatment of the film at temperatures above 350 °C for 1 h caused decomposition of the nickel hydroxide into nickel oxide. Structural, optical and electrical properties of the film were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), spectrophotometry, current-voltage measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The film was found to be polycrystalline with interplanar spacing of 0.241 nm, 0.208 nm and 0.148 nm for (111), (200) and (220) planes respectively, the lattice constant a was found to be 0.417 nm. The film had a porous surface morphology, formed from a network of nanowalls of average thickness of 66.67 nm and 52.00 nm for as-deposited and annealed films respectively. Transmittance of visible light by the as-deposited film was higher and the absorption edge of the film blue-shifted after annealing. The optical band gap of the annealed film was 3.8 eV. Electrical resistivity of the film was 378 Ωm.

  17. High quality antireflective ZnS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tec-Yam, S.; Rojas, J.; Rejón, V.; Oliva, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films for antireflective applications were deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Chemical analysis of the soluble species permits to predict the optimal pH conditions to obtain high quality ZnS films. For the CBD, the ZnCl 2 , NH 4 NO 3 , and CS(NH 2 ) 2 were fixed components, whereas the KOH concentration was varied from 0.8 to 1.4 M. Groups of samples with deposition times from 60 to 120 min were prepared in a bath with magnetic agitation and heated at 90 °C. ZnS films obtained from optimal KOH concentrations of 0.9 M and 1.0 M exhibited high transparency, homogeneity, adherence, and crystalline. The ZnS films presented a band gap energy of 3.84 eV, an atomic Zn:S stoichiometry ratio of 49:51, a transmittance above 85% in the 300–800 nm wavelength range, and a reflectance below 25% in the UV–Vis range. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a cubic structure in the (111) orientation for the films. The thickness of the films was tuned between 60 nm and 135 nm by controlling the deposition time and KOH concentration. The incorporation of the CBD-ZnS films into ITO/ZnS/CdS/CdTe and glass/Mo/ZnS heterostructures as antireflective layer confirms their high optical quality. -- Highlights: ► High quality ZnS thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD). ► Better CBD-ZnS films were achieved by using 0.9 M-KOH concentration. ► Reduction in the reflectance was obtained for ZnS films used as buffer layers.

  18. Optical and Electrical Performance of ZnO Films Textured by Chemical Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiuh-Chuan HER

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO films were prepared by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering on the glass substrate as transparent conductive oxide films. For silicon solar cells, a proper surface texture is essential to introduce light scattering and subsequent light trapping to enhance the current generation. In this study, the magnetron-sputtered ZnO films were textured by wet-chemical etching in diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl for better light scattering. The diffuse transmittance of the surface textured ZnO films was measured to evaluate the light scattering. The influence of hydrochloric acid concentration on the morphology, optical and electrical properties of the surface-textured ZnO film was investigated. The ZnO film etched in 0.05M HCl solution for 30 s exhibited average diffuse transmittance in the visible wavelength range of 9.52 % and good resistivity of 1.10 x 10-3 W×cm while the as-deposited ZnO film had average diffuse transmittance of 0.51 % and relatively high resistivity of 5.84 x 10-2 W×cm. Experimental results illustrated that the optical and electrical performance of ZnO films can be significantly improved by introducing the surface texture through the wet-chemical etching process.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9624

  19. Chemical state analysis of oxide thin films using a high resolution double crystal X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Hirohisa; Morinaga, Kenji; Ohta, Yoshio.

    1995-01-01

    The chemical state analysis of r.f.-sputtered amorphous oxide thin films was determined by a high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with double crystals. The polymerization degree of silicate anions in the silicate film was as same as a target (α-Quartz). The oxygen coordination number of Al 3+ ions in the aluminate film was different from a target (α-Al 2 O 3 ), and it was a mixture of 4 and 6 in a spinel-like structure. In CaO-SiO 2 and CaO-Al 2 O 3 films, when the film thickness is thin at the beginning of sputtering, the composition of films are in the shortage of CaO. But when the film thickness become thicker, the composition of films become as same as the target. From the results above, the chemical state of films and their variations with film thickness can be clarified by using the apparatus. (author)

  20. Chemical structural analysis of diamondlike carbon films: I. Surface growth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabayashi, Susumu; Ješko, Radek; Shinohara, Masanori; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Rintaro; Ogawa, Shuichi; Takakuwa, Yuji

    2018-02-01

    The surface growth mechanisms of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films has been clarified. DLC films were synthesized in atmospheres with a fixed methane-to-argon ratio at different temperatures up to 700 °C by the photoemission-assisted glow discharge of photoemission-assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The electrical resistivity of the films decreased logarithmically as the synthesis temperature was increased. Conversely, the dielectric constant of the films increased and became divergent at high temperature. However, the very high electrical resistivity of the film synthesized at 150 °C was retained even after post-annealing treatments at temperatures up to 500 °C, and divergence of the dielectric constant was not observed. Such films exhibited excellent thermal stability and retained large amounts of hydrogen, even after post-annealing treatments. These results suggest that numerous hydrogen atoms were incorporated into the DLC films during synthesis at low temperatures. Hydrogen atoms terminate carbon dangling bonds in the films to restrict π-conjugated growth. During synthesis at high temperature, hydrogen was desorbed from the interior of the growing films and π-conjugated conductive films were formed. Moreover, hydrogen radicals were chemisorbed by carbon atoms at the growing DLC surface, leading to removal of carbon atoms from the surface as methane gas. The methane molecules decomposed into hydrocarbons and hydrogen radicals through the attack of electrons above the surface. Hydrogen radicals contributed to the etching reaction cycle of the film; the hydrocarbon radicals were polymerized by reacting with other radicals and the methane source. The polymer radicals remained above the film, preventing the supply of the methane source and disrupting the action of argon ions. At high temperatures, the resultant DLC films were rough and thin.

  1. Preparation of Nb3Ge films by chemical transport reaction and their critical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, G.; Saur, E.J.

    1979-01-01

    Niobium-germanium films have been deposited on sapphire substrates at 900 0 C by a chemical transport reaction method. The highest superconducting transition onset temperature T/sub C,on/ of 22.4K is observed for a nearly stoichiometric Nb 3 Ge film with the A15-type structure (thickness approx.93.5 μm). Lattice constants for the Nb 3 Ge phase formed in the Nb-Ge films with both T/sub C,on/ above 22 K and T/sub C,midpoint/ above 21 K are found to extend from 5.143 to 5.153 A. Deposition rates for the obtained films are in the range of 2-10 μm/min. Critical current densities for the Nb 3 Ge film with the highest T/sub C,on/ value are observed to be relatively low (approx.10 3 A/cm 2 at 19 K at self-field). This is due to the coarse grain structure of the film or the low density of effectual pinning centers in the film. Field variations of the pinning forces operating in this film in magnetic fields both parallel to the film surface and perpendicular to the film surface are found to follow closely b/sup 1/2/ (1-b) 2 , to which the pinning force for flux pinning at the surface of normal regions, such as grain boundaries, film surfaces, etc., is proportional, and where b is the reduced magnetic induction (B/B/sub C2/). A small increase in J/sub C/ at low fields is caused by the presence of a small amount of the Nb 5 Ge 3 phase in a Nb 3 Ge film, and seems attributable to additional flux pinning on Nb 5 Ge 3 -phase particles in the film

  2. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Blakley; W. D. Schofield

    2007-09-10

    This final hazard categorization (FHC) document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the commitments for the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks Remediation Project. The remediation activities analyzed in this FHC are based on recommended treatment and disposal alternatives described in the Engineering Evaluation for the Remediation to the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks (BHI 2005e).

  3. Chemical Synthesis and Electrochemical Characterization of Nanoporous Gold films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mikkel U-B; Seselj, Nedjeljko; Engelbrekt, Christian

    . Chloroauric acid is reduced to nanoparticles (NPs) by 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonate, acting also as a protecting agent for the NPs and as a pH buffer, while potassium chloride is used to control ionic strength. The film formation is controlled by parameters such as temperature, ionic strength...

  4. Luminescent thin films by the chemical aerosol deposition technology (CADT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, F.J.; Martin, F.J.; Albers, H.; Lambeck, Paul; Popma, T.J.A.; van de Velde, G.M.H.

    1992-01-01

    Zinc sulphide thin films have been deposited with CART using zinc chlorideand zinc acetylacetonate as Zn compounds and thiourea and 1,1,3,3-tetramethylthiourea as S compounds soluted in methanol, ethanol, isopropanol and cellosolve. After optimalization of the deposition process homogeneous layers

  5. Thin metal films in resistivity-based chemical sensing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podešva, Pavel; Foret, František

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2013), s. 642-652 ISSN 1573-4110 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : voltohmmetric sensing * chemiresistor * thin metal film * gas sensing Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.194, year: 2013

  6. Doping graphene films via chemically mediated charge transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa Ryousuke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transparent conductive films (TCFs are critical components of a myriad of technologies including flat panel displays, light-emitting diodes, and solar cells. Graphene-based TCFs have attracted a lot of attention because of their high electrical conductivity, transparency, and low cost. Carrier doping of graphene would potentially improve the properties of graphene-based TCFs for practical industrial applications. However, controlling the carrier type and concentration of dopants in graphene films is challenging, especially for the synthesis of p-type films. In this article, a new method for doping graphene using the conjugated organic molecule, tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ, is described. Notably, TCNQ is well known as a powerful electron accepter and is expected to favor electron transfer from graphene into TCNQ molecules, thereby leading to p-type doping of graphene films. Small amounts of TCNQ drastically improved the resistivity without degradation of optical transparency. Our carrier doping method based on charge transfer has a huge potential for graphene-based TCFs.

  7. Chemical solution synthesis and ferromagnetic resonance of epitaxial thin films of yttrium iron garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Irene; Jiménez-Cavero, Pilar; Vila-Fungueiriño, J. M.; Magén, Cesar; Sangiao, Soraya; de Teresa, José Maria; Morellón, Luis; Rivadulla, Francisco

    2017-12-01

    We report the fabrication of epitaxial Y3F e5O12 (YIG) thin films on G d3G a5O12 (111) using a chemical solution method. Cubic YIG is a ferrimagnetic material at room temperature, with excellent magneto-optical properties, high electrical resistivity, and a very narrow ferromagnetic resonance, which makes it particularly suitable for applications in filters and resonators at microwave frequencies. But these properties depend on the precise stoichiometry and distribution of F e3 + ions among the octahedral/tetrahedral sites of a complex structure, which hampered the production of high-quality YIG thin films by affordable chemical methods. Here we report the chemical solution synthesis of YIG thin films, with excellent chemical, crystalline, and magnetic homogeneity. The films show a very narrow ferromagnetic resonance (long spin relaxation time), comparable to that obtained from high-vacuum physical deposition methods. These results demonstrate that chemical methods can compete to develop nanometer-thick YIG films with the quality required for spintronic devices and other high-frequency applications.

  8. TANK 40 FINAL SB4 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, J.

    2008-01-01

    A sample of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for elemental and chemical composition including noble metals. These analyses along with the WAPS analyses will help define the composition of the sludge currently in Tank 40 which is currently being fed to DWPF and will become part of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). At SRNL the 3-L Tank 40 SB4 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 280 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO 3 /HCl in sealed Teflon(reg s ign) vessels and four in Na 2 O 2 using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Three glass standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, and cold vapor atomic absorption (CV-AA) analysis. Equivalent dilutions of the peroxide fusion digestions and blank were submitted to AD for ICP-AES analysis. Tank 40 SB4 supernate was collected from a mixed slurry sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells and submitted to AD for ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Weighted dilutions of slurry were submitted for ion chromatography (IC), total inorganic carbon/total organic carbon (TIC/TOC), and total base analyses. A sample of Tank 40 SB4 decant was collected by carefully removing the supernate phase

  9. Influence of indium concentration and substrate temperature on the physical characteristics of chemically sprayed ZnO:In thin films deposited from zinc pentanedionate and indium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, L; Morales-Saavedra, O G; Cheang-Wong, J C; Acosta, D R; Banuelos, J G; Maldonado, A; Olvera, M de la L

    2006-01-01

    Chemically sprayed indium-doped zinc oxide thin films (ZnO:In) were deposited on glass substrates starting from zinc pentanedionate and indium sulfate. The influence of both the dopant concentration in the starting solution and the substrate temperature on the transport, morphology, composition, linear and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of the ZnO:In thin films were studied. The structure of all the ZnO:In thin films was polycrystalline, and variation in the preferential growth with the indium content in the solution was observed: from an initial (002) growth in films with low In content, switching to a predominance of (101) planes for intermediate dopant regime, and finally turning to a (100) growth for heavily doped films. The crystallite size was found to decrease with doping concentration and range from 36 to 23 nm. The film composition and the dopant concentration were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry; these results showed that the films are almost stoichiometric ZnO. The optimum deposition conditions leading to conductive and transparent ZnO:In thin films were also found. In this way a resistivity of 4 x 10 -3 Ω cm and an average transmittance in the visible spectra of 85%, with a (101) preferential growth, were obtained in optimized ZnO:In thin films

  10. Micro-patterned ZnO semiconductors for high performance thin film transistors via chemical imprinting with a PDMS stamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Kieun; Kim, Kyongjun; Park, Si Yun; Kim, Youn Sang

    2013-04-07

    Chemical imprinting was conducted on ZnO semiconductor films via a chemical reaction at the contact regions between a micro-patterned PDMS stamp and ZnO films. In addition, we applied the chemical imprinting on Li doped ZnO thin films for high performance TFTs fabrication. The representative micro-patterned Li doped ZnO TFTs showed a field effect mobility of 4.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) after sintering at 300 °C.

  11. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF IRON SULPHIDE THIN FILMS BY CHEMICAL BATH DEPOSITION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Kassim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available FeS2 thin films have been deposited by using low cost chemical bath deposition technique. The films obtained under deposition parameters such as bath temperature (90 °C, deposition period (90 min, electrolyte concentration (0.15 M and pH of the reactive mixture (pH 2.5. The thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy in order to study the structural and morphological properties. The band gap energy, transition type and absorption properties were determined using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. X-ray diffraction displayed a pattern consistent with the formation of an orthorhombic structure, with a strong (110 preferred orientation. Atomic force microscopy image showed the substrate surface is well covered with irregular grains. A direct band gap of 1.85 eV was obtained according to optical absorption studies.   Keywords: Iron sulfide, X-ray diffraction, chemical bath deposition, thin films

  12. Photoluminescence of nc-Si:Er thin films obtained by physical and chemical vapour deposition techniques: The effects of microstructure and chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, M.F., E-mail: fcerqueira@fisica.uminho.p [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Losurdo, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, Via Orabona n.4-70126 Bari (Italy); Stepikhova, M. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures RAS, 603600 Nizhnij Novgorod GSP-105 (Russian Federation); Alpuim, P.; Andres, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Kozanecki, A. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, PL-02668, Warsaw (Poland); Soares, M.J.; Peres, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3700 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2009-08-31

    Erbium doped nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:Er) thin films were produced by reactive magnetron rf sputtering and by Er ion implantation into chemical vapor deposited Si films. The structure and chemical composition of films obtained by the two approaches were studied by micro-Raman scattering, spectroscopic ellipsometry and Rutherford backscattering techniques. Variation of deposition parameters was used to deposit films with different crystalline fraction and crystallite size. Photoluminescence measurements revealed a correlation between film microstructure and the Er{sup 3+} photoluminescence efficiency.

  13. Morphology of CdSe films prepared by chemical bath deposition: The role of substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simurda, M.; Nemec, P.; Formanek, P.; Nemec, I.; Nemcova, Y.; Maly, P.

    2006-01-01

    We combine optical spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy to study the growth and the structural morphology of CdSe films prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) on two considerably different substrates. The films grown on glass are compact and strongly adherent to the substrate. On the contrary, the films deposited on carbon-coated glass (with approx. 20 nm thick amorphous carbon layer) are only loosely adherent to the substrate. Using transmission electron microscopy we revealed that even though the films grown on both substrates are assembled from closely spaced nanocrystals with diameter of about 5 nm, the films morphology on the sub-micrometer scale is considerably different in the two cases. While the films deposited on glass are rather compact, the films prepared on carbon layer have high porosity and are formed by interconnected spheres which size is dependent on the duration of deposition (e.g. 155 nm for 6 h and 350 nm for 24 h). This shows that the choice of the substrate for CBD has a stronger influence on the sub-micrometer film morphology than on the properties of individual nanocrystals forming the film

  14. Characterization of chemically deposited Ag/sub 2/S thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, M.G.M.; Rahman, M.M; Shahjahan, M.; Hossain, M.S.; Muhibbullah, M.; Uddin, M.A.; Banu, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Silver Sulphide (Ag/sub 2/S) thin films were prepared by the chemical deposition method on glass substrates. Films of different thickness were deposited at room temperature. The films obtained were found to the uniform, pin-hole free and strongly adherent to the substrates. Films were characterized by X-$D, Hall effect, dc conductivity, thermoelectric power and optical measurements. X-RD revealed that as deposited films are amorphous with some microcrystalline structure. Hall effect measurement shows that the material deposited is n-type semiconductor with carrier concentration of the order of 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -3/. The dc dark conductivity shows two distinct conduction regions. The conductivity increases quite sharply above a transition temperature. Tt and below Tt the conductivity is weakly activated process with hopping via localized states. Above Tt the activation energy is quite high and the conduction may be due to impurity states to extended states. From the nature of variation of thermoelectric power with temperature it was found that in this material the position of Fermi level lie above the conduction band for thicker films and below the conduction band for relatively thinner films. The optical band gap of the films has been calculated from the transmittance spectra. The evaluated optical band gap E/sup opt/ was found to be about 1.1 eV and the value do not change much with film thickness. The refractive index, extinction coefficient and dielectric constants have also been evaluated from the transmission measurements. (author)

  15. Structural and chemical analysis of annealed plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition aluminum nitride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broas, Mikael, E-mail: mikael.broas@aalto.fi; Vuorinen, Vesa [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, FIN-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland); Sippola, Perttu; Pyymaki Perros, Alexander; Lipsanen, Harri [Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, FIN-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland); Sajavaara, Timo [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Paulasto-Kröckel, Mervi [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University. P.O. Box 13500, FIN-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland)

    2016-07-15

    Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition was utilized to grow aluminum nitride (AlN) films on Si from trimethylaluminum and N{sub 2}:H{sub 2} plasma at 200 °C. Thermal treatments were then applied on the films which caused changes in their chemical composition and nanostructure. These changes were observed to manifest in the refractive indices and densities of the films. The AlN films were identified to contain light element impurities, namely, H, C, and excess N due to nonideal precursor reactions. Oxygen contamination was also identified in the films. Many of the embedded impurities became volatile in the elevated annealing temperatures. Most notably, high amounts of H were observed to desorb from the AlN films. Furthermore, dinitrogen triple bonds were identified with infrared spectroscopy in the films. The triple bonds broke after annealing at 1000 °C for 1 h which likely caused enhanced hydrolysis of the films. The nanostructure of the films was identified to be amorphous in the as-deposited state and to become nanocrystalline after 1 h of annealing at 1000 °C.

  16. Characterization of Cr2O3 thin films obtained by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillis, M.F.; Galego, E.; Serna, M.M.; Correa, O.V.; Ramanathan, L.V.; Franco, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this work was the synthesis and characterization of Cr 2 O 3 thin films, obtained by chemical vapor deposition, using chromium acetylacetonate as chromium precursor. The growth of the films was carried out in a conventional horizontal MOCVD equipment, under pressures varying from 2 to 10 mbar, and temperature of 600 deg C. It was observed that the growth of the films only occurs when oxygen is present in the atmosphere. Under growth pressures of 2 and 5 mbar the growth takes place but under 10 mbar of pressure the precursor is dragged and the growth does not occur. The characterization of the films was performed by using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The films presented a columnar structure, and thickness varying from 40 to 250 nm. The influence of some process parameters is discussed. (author)

  17. Textured indium tin oxide thin films by chemical solution deposition and rapid thermal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottern, Matthew L.; Tyholdt, Frode; Ulyashin, Alexander; Helvoort, Antonius T.J. van; Verweij, Henk; Bredesen, Rune

    2007-01-01

    The microstructure of state-of-the-art chemical solution deposited indium tin oxide thin films typically consists of small randomly oriented grains, high porosity and poor homogeneity. The present study demonstrates how the thin film microstructure can be improved significantly by tailoring the precursor solutions and deposition conditions to be kinetically and thermodynamically favorable for generation of homogeneous textured thin films. This is explained by the occurrence of a single heterogeneous nucleation mechanism. The as-deposited thin films, crystallized at 800 deg. C, have a high apparent density, based on a refractive index of ∼ 1.98 determined by single wavelength ellipsometry at 633 nm. The microstructure of the films consists of columnar grains with preferred orientation as determined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The resistivity, measured by the four point probe method, is ∼ 2 x 10 -3 Ω cm prior to post-deposition treatments

  18. Temperature dependent thermoelectric properties of chemically derived gallium zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Barasheed, Abeer Z.; Sarath Kumar, S. R.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the temperature dependent thermoelectric properties of sol-gel prepared ZnO and 3% Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films have been explored. The power factor of GZO films, as compared to ZnO, is improved by nearly 17% at high temperature. A stabilization anneal, prior to thermoelectric measurements, in a strongly reducing Ar/H2 (95/5) atmosphere at 500°C was found to effectively stabilize the chemically derived films, practically eliminating hysteresis during thermoelectric measurements. Subtle changes in the thermoelectric properties of stabilized films have been correlated to oxygen vacancies and excitonic levels that are known to exist in ZnO-based thin films. The role of Ga dopants and defects, formed upon annealing, in driving the observed complex temperature dependence of the thermoelectric properties is discussed. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  19. Color changing block copolymer films for chemical sensing of simple sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyub, Omar B; Sekowski, Jennifer W; Yang, Ta-I; Zhang, Xin; Briber, Robert M; Kofinas, Peter

    2011-10-15

    We investigated the use of functionalized photonic block copolymer films for the detection of glucose. Polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) block copolymers were chemically functionalized with 2-(bromomethyl)phenylboronic acid and cast into films that reflect a visible color when exposed to aqueous media. The 2-(bromomethyl)phenylboronic acid functionality can reversibly bind to glucose. When exposed to high concentrations of glucose the polymer responded with a red shift in color. Low concentration exposure of glucose caused the polymer films to blue shift in color. The BCP films also exhibited a selective response to fructose, mannose or galactose, giving a different response depending on which sugar is present. The color of the polymer was tuned to blue, green, yellow or orange by varying the film's crosslink density. The color change can be visually observed without the use of equipment such as a spectrometer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Translation Effects in Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide Thin Film Properties by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Afzaal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the impact of translation rates in fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO thin films using atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD were studied. We demonstrated that by adjusting the translation speeds of the susceptor, the growth rates of the FTO films varied and hence many of the film properties were modified. X-ray powder diffraction showed an increased preferred orientation along the (200 plane at higher translation rates, although with no actual change in the particle sizes. A reduction in dopant level resulted in decreased particle sizes and a much greater degree of (200 preferred orientation. For low dopant concentration levels, atomic force microscope (AFM studies showed a reduction in roughness (and lower optical haze with increased translation rate and decreased growth rates. Electrical measurements concluded that the resistivity, carrier concentration, and mobility of films were dependent on the level of fluorine dopant, the translation rate and hence the growth rates of the deposited films.

  1. Study of film graphene/graphene oxide obtained by partial reduction chemical of oxide graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascho, J.L.S.; Costa, S.F.; Hoepfner, J.C.; Pezzin, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the morphology of graphene/graphene oxide film obtained by partial chemical reduction of graphite oxide (OG) as well as its resistance to solvents. Films of graphene/graphene oxide are great candidates for replacement of indium oxide doped with tin (ITO) in photoelectric devices. The OG was obtained from natural graphite, by Hummer's method modified, and its reduction is made by using sodium borohydride. Infrared spectroscopy analysis of Fourier transform (FTIR), Xray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution (SEM/FEG) for the characterization of graphene/graphene oxide film obtained were performed. This film proved to be resilient, not dispersing in any of the various tested solvents (such as ethanol, acetone and THF), even under tip sonication, this resistance being an important property for the applications. Furthermore, the film had a morphology similar to that obtained by other preparation methods.(author)

  2. Tribological properties of nitrogen-containing amorphous carbon film produced by dc plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Wazumi, Koichiro; Tanaka, Akihiro; Koga, Yoshinori

    2003-01-01

    The nitrogen-contained amorphous carbon (a-C:N) films were deposited in a dc plasma chemical vapor deposition system with different substrate bias voltages. The structural, mechanical, and tribological properties of the a-C:N films were investigated. The influence of the bias voltage on the tribological behaviors of the a-C:N films was evaluated under various environments (dry air, O 2 , N 2 , and vacuum) using a ball-on-disk friction tester. It showed that the sp 3 C and hydrogen concentration of the a-C:N films decreases with increasing the bias voltage. However, the nitrogen concentration increases with increasing the bias voltage. As a result, the hardness and internal stress decrease and the critical load for fracturing increases as the substrate bias increases. For the tribological properties of the a-C:N films, the friction coefficient of the films slightly decreases in the environments of N 2 , O 2 , or dry air, but increases slightly in the vacuum environment by increasing the bias voltage. It indicates that the incorporated nitrogen in the a-C:N films would decrease the friction coefficient of the films in N 2 or O 2 environments, but slightly increases the friction coefficient of the films in a vacuum. The excellent wear resistance of the a-C:N films, in the level of 10 -9 -10 -8 mm 3 /Nm, can be observed in N 2 , vacuum, and dry air environments. In addition, the effect of the bias voltage on the wear rate of the a-C:N films becomes less obvious by nitrogen incorporation. So, we suggest the incorporated nitrogen, which bonded to carbon and restrained the increase of the fraction of sp 2 C-C, would restrain the wear of the a-C:N films in different environments, especially in dry air

  3. Perovskite type nanopowders and thin films obtained by chemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Fruth

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the contribution of the authors, to the preparation of two types of perovskites, namely BiFeO3 and LaCoO3, by innovative methods. The studied perovskites were obtained as powders, films and sintered bodies. Their complex structural and morphological characterization is also presented. The obtained results have underlined the important influence of the method of preparation on the properties of the synthesized perovskites.

  4. Deposition of thermal and hot-wire chemical vapor deposition copper thin films on patterned substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitropoulos, G; Davazoglou, D

    2011-09-01

    In this work we study the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) of copper films on blanket and patterned substrates at high filament temperatures. A vertical chemical vapor deposition reactor was used in which the chemical reactions were assisted by a tungsten filament heated at 650 degrees C. Hexafluoroacetylacetonate Cu(I) trimethylvinylsilane (CupraSelect) vapors were used, directly injected into the reactor with the aid of a liquid injection system using N2 as carrier gas. Copper thin films grown also by thermal and hot-wire CVD. The substrates used were oxidized silicon wafers on which trenches with dimensions of the order of 500 nm were formed and subsequently covered with LPCVD W. HWCVD copper thin films grown at filament temperature of 650 degrees C showed higher growth rates compared to the thermally ones. They also exhibited higher resistivities than thermal and HWCVD films grown at lower filament temperatures. Thermally grown Cu films have very uniform deposition leading to full coverage of the patterned substrates while the HWCVD films exhibited a tendency to vertical growth, thereby creating gaps and incomplete step coverage.

  5. Orientation control of chemical solution deposited LaNiO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Toshiaki; Sakamoto, Wataru; Yogo, Toshinobu; Kikuta, Koichi; Hirano, Shin-ichi

    2005-01-01

    High quality LaNiO 3 (LNO) thin films with preferred orientation could be synthesized on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates at 700 deg. C using the chemical solution deposition method. The homogeneous and stable LNO precursor solutions were prepared using lanthanum isopropoxide and nickel (II) acetylacetonate in a mixed solvent of absolute ethanol and 2-methoxyethanol. The oriented LNO thin films exhibit metallic electro-conduction, and their resistivity at room temperature is sufficiently low for making them an alternative electrode material for functional ceramic thin films

  6. MgB2 ultrathin films fabricated by hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition and ion milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Acharya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we report on the structural and transport measurements of ultrathin MgB2 films grown by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition followed by low incident angle Ar ion milling. The ultrathin films as thin as 1.8 nm, or 6 unit cells, exhibit excellent superconducting properties such as high critical temperature (Tc and high critical current density (Jc. The results show the great potential of these ultrathin films for superconducting devices and present a possibility to explore superconductivity in MgB2 at the 2D limit.

  7. Rapid synthesis of tantalum oxide dielectric films by microwave microwave-assisted atmospheric chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndiege, Nicholas; Subramanian, Vaidyanathan; Shannon, Mark A.; Masel, Richard I.

    2008-01-01

    Microwave-assisted chemical vapor deposition has been used to generate high quality, high-k dielectric films on silicon at high deposition rates with film thicknesses varying from 50 nm to 110 μm using inexpensive equipment. Characterization of the post deposition products was performed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Film growth was determined to occur via rapid formation and accumulation of tantalum oxide clusters from tantalum (v) ethoxide (Ta(OC 2 H 5 ) 5 ) vapor on the deposition surface

  8. Epitaxial Oxide Thin Films Grown by Solid Source Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zihong

    1995-01-01

    The conventional liquid source metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique is capable of producing large area, high quality, single crystal semiconductor films. However, the growth of complex oxide films by this method has been hampered by a lack of suitable source materials. While chemists have been actively searching for new source materials, the research work reported here has demonstrated the successful application of solid metal-organic sources (based on tetramethylheptanedionate) to the growth of high quality thin films of binary compound cerium dioxide (CeO_2), and two more complex materials, the ternary compound lithium niobate (LiNbO_3), with two cations, and the quaternary compound strontium barium niobate (SBN), with three cations. The growth of CeO_2 thin films on (1012)Al_2O_3 substrates has been used as a model to study the general growth behavior of oxides. Factors affecting deposition rate, surface morphology, out-of-plane mosaic structure, and film orientation have been carefully investigated. A kinetic model based on gas phase prereaction is proposed to account for the substrate temperature dependence of film orientation found in this system. Atomically smooth, single crystal quality cerium dioxide thin films have been obtained. Superconducting YBCO films sputtered on top of solid source MOCVD grown thin cerium dioxide buffer layers on sapphire have been shown to have physical properties as good as those of YBCO films grown on single crystal MgO substrates. The thin film growth of LiNbO_3 and Sr_{1-x}Ba _{x}Nb_2 O_6 (SBN) was more complex and challenging. Phase purity, transparency, in-plane orientation, and the ferroelectric polarity of LiNbO _3 films grown on sapphire substrates was investigated. The first optical quality, MOCVD grown LiNbO _3 films, having waveguiding losses of less than 2 dB/cm, were prepared. An important aspect of the SBN film growth studies involved finding a suitable single crystal substrate material. Mg

  9. Morphology and growth behavior of O_2-free chemical bath deposited ZnS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jet Meitzner, K.; Tillotson, Brock M.; Siedschlag, Amanda T.; Moore, Frederick G.; Kevan, Stephen D.; Richmond, Geraldine L.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the role of reagent concentrations and ambient O_2 on the morphology and growth behavior of ZnS thin films grown with the chemical bath deposition method. We investigate the role of substrate on film morphology, and find significant differences between films deposited on SiO_2 versus Si. The films are also sensitive to dissolved O_2 in the bath, as it causes a layer of SiO_2 to form at the ZnS/Si interface during deposition. Degassing of solutions and an N_2 atmosphere are effective to minimize this oxidation, allowing deposition of ZnS films directly onto Si. Under these conditions, we examine film properties as they relate to reagent bath concentrations. As the reagent concentrations are decreased, both the film roughness and growth rate decrease linearly. We also observe deformation and shifting of X-ray diffraction peaks that increases with decreasing reagent concentrations. The shifts are characteristic of lattice compression (caused by the substitution of oxygen for sulfur), and the deformation is characteristic of distortion of the lattice near crystal grain interfaces (caused by tensile stress from interatomic forces between neighboring crystal grains). At the weakest concentrations, the low roughness suggests a mixed growth mode in which both clusters and individual ZnS nanocrystallites contribute to film growth. With increasing reagent concentrations, the growth mode shifts and becomes dominated by deposition of clusters. - Highlights: • We deposit ZnS thin films by chemical bath deposition in an O_2-free environment. • The O_2-free environment is effective to minimize oxidation of the Si substrate. • The dominant growth mechanism changes with reagent concentrations. • Film morphology and composition change with reagent concentrations. • X-ray diffraction reveals tensile stress between ZnS crystal grains.

  10. 76 FR 22867 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...) from the United Arab Emirates. This review covers two producers/ exporters of subject merchandise: JBF... Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary Results of...

  11. Chemical mechanical polishing characteristics of ITO thin film prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang-Yeon; Choi, Gwon-Woo; Kim, Yong-Jae; Choi, Youn-Ok; Kim, Nam-Oh

    2012-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films have attracted intensive interest because of their unique properties of good conductivity, high optical transmittance over the visible region and easy patterning ability. ITO thin films have found many applications in anti-static coatings, thermal heaters, solar cells, flat panel displays (FPDs), liquid crystal displays (LCDs), electroluminescent devices, sensors and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). ITO thin films are generally fabricated by using various methods, such as spraying, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), evaporation, electron gun deposition, direct current electroplating, high frequency sputtering, and reactive sputtering. In this research, ITO films were grown on glass substrates by using a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. In order to achieve a high transmittance and a low resistivity, we examined the various film deposition conditions, such as substrate temperature, working pressure, annealing temperature, and deposition time. Next, in order to improve the surface quality of the ITO thin films, we performed a chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) with different process parameters and compared the electrical and the optical properties of the polished ITO thin films. The best CMP conditions with a high removal rate, low nonuniformity, low resistivity and high transmittance were as follows: platen speed, head speed, polishing time, and slurry flow rate of 30 rpm, 30 rpm, 60 sec, and 60 ml/min, respectively.

  12. High Efficiency Thin Film CdTe and a-Si Based Solar Cells: Final Technical Report, 4 March 1998--15 October 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compaan, A. D.; Deng, X.; Bohn, R. G.

    2003-10-01

    This is the final report covering about 42 months of this subcontract for research on high-efficiency CdTe-based thin-film solar cells and on high-efficiency a-Si-based thin-film solar cells. Phases I and II have been extensively covered in two Annual Reports. For this Final Report, highlights of the first two Phases will be provided and then detail will be given on the last year and a half of Phase III. The effort on CdTe-based materials is led by Prof. Compaan and emphasizes the use of sputter deposition of the semiconductor layers in the fabrication of CdS/CdTe cells. The effort on high-efficiency a-Si materials is led by Prof. Deng and emphasizes plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for cell fabrication with major efforts on triple-junction devices.

  13. Chemical-mechanical polishing of metal and dielectric films for microelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Sharath

    The demand for smaller, faster devices has led the integrated circuit (IC) industry to continually increase the device density on a chip while simultaneously reducing feature dimensions. Copper interconnects and multilevel metallization (MLM) schemes were introduced to meet some of these challenges. With the employment of MLM in the ultra-large-scale-integrated (ULSI) circuit fabrication technology, repeated planarization of different surface layers with tolerance of a few nanometers is required. Presently, chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) is the only technique that can meet this requirement. Damascene and shallow trench isolation processes are currently used in conjunction with CMP in the fabrication of multilevel copper interconnects and isolation of devices, respectively, for advanced logic and memory devices. These processes, at some stage, require simultaneous polishing of two different materials using a single slurry that offers high polish rates, high polish selectivity to one material over the other and good post-polish surface finish. Slurries containing one kind of abrasive particles do not meet most of these demands due mainly to the unique physical and chemical properties of each abrasive. However, if a composite particle is formed that takes the advantages of different abrasives while mitigating their disadvantages, the CMP performance of resulting abrasives would be compelling. It is demonstrated that electrostatic interactions between ceria and silica particles at pH 4 can be used to produce composite particles with enhanced functionality. Zeta potential measurement and TEM images used for particle characterization show the presence of such composite particles with smaller shell particles attached onto larger core particles. Slurries containing ceria (core)/silica (shell) and silica (core)/ceria (shell) composite particles when used to polish metal and dielectric films, respectively, yield both enhanced metal and dielectric film removal rates

  14. Diamond-like carbon films deposited on polycarbonates by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, C.T. [Department of Computer and Communication, Diwan College of Management, 72141 Taiwan (China)], E-mail: ctguo@dwu.edu.tw

    2008-04-30

    Diamond-like carbon films were coated on optical polycarbonate using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. A mixture of SiH{sub 4} and CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} gases was utilized to reduce the internal compressive stress of the deposited films. The structure of the DLC films was characterized as a function of film thickness using Raman spectroscopy. The dependence of G peak positions and the intensity ratio of I{sub D}/I{sub G} on the DLC film thicknesses was analyzed in detail. Other studies involving atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet visible spectrometry, and three adhesion tests were conducted. Good transparency in the visible region, and good adhesion between diamond-like carbon films and polycarbonate were demonstrated. One-time recordings before and after a DLC film was coated on compact rewritable disc substrates were analyzed as a case study. The results reveal that the diamond-like carbon film overcoating the optical polycarbonates effectively protects the storage media.

  15. Optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited cobalt sulphide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindasamy, Geetha [R& D Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore (India); Murugasen, Priya, E-mail: priyamurugasen15@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Saveetha Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Sagadevan, Suresh [Department of Physics, AMET University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2017-01-15

    Cobalt sulphide (CoS) thin films were synthesized using the Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used to study the structure and the crystallite size of CoS thin film. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) studies reveal the surface morphology of these films. The optical properties of the CoS thin films were determined using UV-Visible absorption spectrum. The optical band gap of the thin films was found to be 1.6 eV. Optical constants such as the refractive index, the extinction coefficient and the electric susceptibility were determined. The dielectric studies were carried out at different frequencies and at different temperatures for the prepared CoS thin films. In addition, the plasma energy of the valence electron, Penn gap or average energy gap, the Fermi energy and electronic polarizability of the thin films were determined. The AC electrical conductivity measurement was also carried out for the thin films. The activation energy was determined by using DC electrical conductivity measurement. (author)

  16. Influence of thin film nickel pretreatment on catalytic thermal chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiggelaar, R.M. [Mesoscale Chemical Systems, MESA" + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Thakur, D.B.; Nair, H.; Lefferts, L.; Seshan, K. [Catalytic Processes and Materials, MESA" + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Gardeniers, J.G.E., E-mail: j.g.e.gardeniers@utwente.nl [Mesoscale Chemical Systems, MESA" + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2013-05-01

    Nickel and other metal nanoparticles are known to be active as catalysts in the synthesis of carbon nanofibers. In this paper we investigate how dewetting and break-up of nickel thin films depends on film thickness, film–substrate interaction and pretreatment conditions. This is evaluated for films evaporated on oxidized silicon and fused silica substrates with or without tantalum coating, which were subsequently exposed to different pretreatment atmospheres (vacuum, nitrogen, air and hydrogen; 1 h, 650 °C). Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were used to characterize the films. Pretreated Ni films were subjected to a thermal catalytic chemical vapor deposition procedure with brief ethylene exposures (0.5–3 min, 635 °C). It was found that only on the spherical nanoparticles originating from a hydrogen pretreatment of a Ni film with Ta adhesion layer, homogeneously distributed, randomly-oriented, well-attached, and semi-crystalline carbon nanofibers be synthesized. - Highlights: • On the formation of nanoparticles required for carbon nanofiber (CNF) synthesis • Various evaporated thin films on oxidized silicon and fused silica: Ni and Ni/Ta • Pretreatment of nickel-based thin films in vacuum, nitrogen, air and hydrogen • Only on reduced Ni/Ta fast – within 3 min – initiation of CNF nucleation and growth.

  17. Chemical solution deposition of LaMnO3-based films for coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, D Q; Zhu, X B; Kim, J H; Wang, L; Zeng, R; Dou, S X; Lei, H C; Sun, Y P

    2008-01-01

    LaMnO 3 -based films were prepared using the chemical solution deposition method. It was found that the films on perovskite oxide single crystal substrates are highly (h00)-oriented when the annealing atmosphere is oxygen or air; however, when the substrate is yttrium-stabilized ZrO 2 , only the La 1-x Na x MnO 3 films are highly (h00)-oriented, and other LaMnO 3 -based films are (110)-oriented. Under a reducing annealing atmosphere, the atmosphere must be wet in order to create a suitable oxygen partial pressure to crystallize the LaMnO 3 -based films. After annealing under a wet reducing atmosphere the LaMnO 3 -based films are (110)-oriented when the films are directly deposited on Ni tapes; however, when SrTiO 3 -buffered Ni tapes are used, the LaMnO 3 films are (h00)-oriented, which is suitable for subsequent growth of YBCO. The results suggest that it is possible to tune the orientation of buffer layers using suitable templates, which can widen the selection of buffer layers for coated conductors in the all metallorganic deposition approach

  18. Synthesis and characterization of lead sulphide thin films from ethanolamine (ETA) complexing agent chemical bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashaw Hone, Fekadu; Dejene, F. B.

    2018-02-01

    Polycrystalline lead sulphide (PbS) thin films were grown on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition route using ethanolamine (ETA) as a complexing agent. The effects of ETA molar concentration on the structural, morphological, electrical and optical properties of lead sulphide thin films were thoroughly studied. The XRD analyses revealed that all the deposited thin films were face center cubic crystal structure and their preferred orientations were varied along the (111) and (200) planes. The XRD results further confirmed that ETA concentration had a significant effects on the strain, average crystalline size and dislocation density of the deposited thin films. The SEM studies illustrated the evolution and transformation of surface morphology as ETA molar concentration increased from 0.41 M to 1.64 M. The energy dispersive x-ray analysis was used to verify the compositional elements of the deposited thin films. Optical spectroscopy investigation established that the band gap of the PbS thin films were reduced from 0.98 eV to 0.68 eV as ETA concentration increased. The photoluminescence spectra showed a well defined peak at 428 nm and shoulder around 468 nm for all PbS thin films. The electrical resistivity of the thin films found in the order of 103 Ω cm at room temperature and decreased as the ETA molar concentration was increased.

  19. Chemical synthesis of highly stable PVA/PANI films for supercapacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, D.S.; Shaikh, J.S.; Dalavi, D.S.; Kalagi, S.S. [Thin Films Materials laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, M.S. (India); Patil, P.S., E-mail: psp_phy@unishivaji.ac.in [Thin Films Materials laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, M.S. (India)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Chemical synthesis of PVA/PANI films by spin and dip coating at room temperature. {yields} Thickness dependent supercapacitor behavior of PVA/PANI film. {yields} The synthesized film are highly stable up to 20,000 cycles. - Abstract: Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/polyaniline (PANI) thin films were chemically synthesized by adopting two step process: initially a thin layer (200 nm) of PVA was spin coated by using an aqueous PVA solution onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate, afterwards PANI was chemically polymerized from aniline monomer and dip coated onto the precoated substrate. The thickness of PANI layer was varied from 293 nm to 2367 nm by varying deposition cycles onto the precoated PVA thin film. The resultant PVA/PANI films were characterized for their optical, morphological and electrochemical properties. The FT-IR and Raman spectra revealed characteristic features of the PANI phase. The SEM study showed porous spongy structure. Electrochemical properties were studied by electrochemical impedance measurement and cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical performance of PVA/PANI thin films was investigated in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous electrolyte. The highest specific capacitance of 571 Fg{sup -1} was observed for the optimized thickness of 880 nm. The film was found to be stable for more than 20,000 cycles. The samples degraded slightly (25% decrement in specific capacitance) for the first 10,000 cycles. The degradation becomes much slower (10.8% decrement in specific capacitance) beyond 10,000 cycles. This dramatic improvement in the electrochemical stability of the PANI samples, without sacrificing specific capacitance was attributed to the optimized PVA layer.

  20. Characterization of ZnS thin films synthesized through a non-toxic precursors chemical bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, C.A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción 4070409 (Chile); Sandoval-Paz, M.G. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Cabello, G. [Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Bío-Bío, Campus Fernando May, Chillán (Chile); Flores, M.; Fernández, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Chile, Beauchef 850, Santiago (Chile); Carrasco, C., E-mail: ccarrascoc@udec.cl [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción 4070409 (Chile)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • High quality ZnS thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition technique from a non-toxic precursor’s solution. • Nanocrystalline ZnS thin films with large band gap energy were synthesized without using ammonia. • Evidence that the growing of the thin films is carried out by means of hydroxide mechanism was found. • The properties of these ZnS thin films are similar and in some cases better than the corresponding ones produced using toxic precursors such as ammonia. - Abstract: In solar cells, ZnS window layer deposited by chemical bath technique can reach the highest conversion efficiency; however, precursors used in the process normally are materials highly volatile, toxic and harmful to the environment and health (typically ammonia and hydrazine). In this work the characterization of ZnS thin films deposited by chemical bath in a non-toxic alkaline solution is reported. The effect of deposition technique (growth in several times) on the properties of the ZnS thin film was studied. The films exhibited a high percentage of optical transmission (greater than 80%); as the deposition time increased a decreasing in the band gap values from 3.83 eV to 3.71 eV was observed. From chemical analysis, the presence of ZnS and Zn(OH){sub 2} was identified and X-ray diffraction patterns exhibited a clear peak corresponding to ZnS hexagonal phase (1 0 3) plane, which was confirmed by electron diffraction patterns. From morphological studies, compact samples with well-defined particles, low roughness, homogeneous and pinhole-free in the surface were observed. From obtained results, it is evident that deposits of ZnS–CBD using a non-toxic solution are suitable as window layer for TFSC.

  1. Fabrication of cuprous chloride films on copper substrate by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu-Ting; Ci, Ji-Wei; Tu, Wei-Chen [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Uen, Wu-Yih, E-mail: uenwuyih@ms37.hinet.net [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Lan, Shan-Ming [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Yang, Tsun-Neng; Shen, Chin-Chang; Wu, Chih-Hung [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, P.O. Box 3-11, Lungtan 32500, Taiwan (China)

    2015-09-30

    Polycrystalline CuCl films were fabricated by chemical bath deposition (CBD) on a Cu substrate at a low solution temperature of 90 °C. Continuous CuCl films were prepared using the copper (II) chloride (CuCl{sub 2}) compound as the precursor for both the Cu{sup 2+} and Cl{sup −} sources, together with repeated HCl dip treatments. An HCl dip pretreatment of the substrate favored the nucleation of CuCl crystallites. Further, interrupting the film deposition and including an HCl dip treatment of the film growth surface facilitated the deposition of a full-coverage CuCl film. A dual beam (FIB/SEM) system with energy dispersive spectrometry facilities attached revealed a homogeneous CuCl layer with a flat-top surface and an average thickness of about 1 μm. Both the excitonic and biexcitonic emission lines were well-resolved in the 6.4 K photoluminescence spectra. In particular, the free exciton emission line was observable at room temperature, indicating the good quality of the CuCl films prepared by CBD. - Highlights: • Cuprous chloride (CuCl) was prepared on Cu substrate by chemical bath deposition. • HCl dip treatments facilitated the deposition of a full-coverage CuCl film. • A homogeneous elemental distribution was recognized for the deposited CuCl layer. • Excitonic and biexcitonic photoluminescence lines of CuCl films were well-resolved. • The free exciton emission line of CuCl films was observable at room temperature.

  2. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Chemical Species in Silicon and Silicon-Rich Nitride Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill O. Bugaev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrational properties of hydrogenated silicon-rich nitride (SiN:H of various stoichiometry (0.6≤≤1.3 and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H films were studied using Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furnace annealing during 5 hours in Ar ambient at 1130∘C and pulse laser annealing were applied to modify the structure of films. Surprisingly, after annealing with such high-thermal budget, according to the FTIR data, the nearly stoichiometric silicon nitride film contains hydrogen in the form of Si–H bonds. From analysis of the FTIR data of the Si–N bond vibrations, one can conclude that silicon nitride is partly crystallized. According to the Raman data a-Si:H films with hydrogen concentration 15% and lower contain mainly Si–H chemical species, and films with hydrogen concentration 30–35% contain mainly Si–H2 chemical species. Nanosecond pulse laser treatments lead to crystallization of the films and its dehydrogenization.

  3. Chemically-induced solid-state dewetting of thin Au films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazit, Nimrod; Klinger, Leonid; Rabkin, Eugen

    2017-01-01

    We employed the solid state dewetting technique to produce nanoparticles of silver-gold alloy on a sapphire substrate. We deposited a thin gold layer on the substrate with alloy nanoparticles, and studied its thermal stability at low homological temperatures. We demonstrated that a large number of densely spaced holes form at the initial stages of dewetting of the gold layer with nanoparticles. A similar homogeneous gold film deposited on a bare sapphire substrate remained stable under identical annealing conditions, exhibiting the onset of dewetting at higher temperatures, and with a lower number of holes. We attributed the decreased thermal stability of the gold film deposited on the substrate with the silver-gold nanoparticles to accelerated grooving at the grain boundaries and triple junctions in the film. The grooving process is accelerated by the diffusion fluxes of Au atoms driven from the film towards the nanoparticles by the gradient of chemical potential. We developed a quantitative model of this chemically-induced dewetting process, and discussed its applicability for the design of better catalytic systems. Our work demonstrates that the chemical driving forces have to be reckoned with in the analysis of thermal stability of multicomponent thin films.

  4. Thermodiffusion as a means to manipulate liquid film dynamics on chemically patterned surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpathy, Sreeram K; Shreyes, Amrita Ravi

    2017-06-07

    The model problem examined here is the stability of a thin liquid film consisting of two miscible components, resting on a chemically patterned solid substrate and heated from below. In addition to surface tension gradients, the temperature variations also induce gradients in the concentration of the film by virtue of thermodiffusion/Soret effects. We study the stability and dewetting behaviour due to the coupled interplay between thermal gradients, Soret effects, long-range van der Waals forces, and wettability gradient-driven flows. Linear stability analysis is first employed to predict growth rates and the critical Marangoni number for chemically homogeneous surfaces. Then, nonlinear simulations are performed to unravel the interfacial dynamics and possible locations of the film rupture on chemically patterned substrates. Results suggest that appropriate tuning of the Soret parameter and its direction, in conjunction with either heating or cooling, can help manipulate the location and time scales of the film rupture. The Soret effect can either potentially aid or oppose film instability depending on whether the thermal and solutal contributions to flow are cooperative or opposed to each other.

  5. Thin film silicon solar cells: advanced processing and characterization - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballif, Ch.

    2008-04-15

    This final report elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a project carried out at the photovoltaics laboratory at the University of Neuchatel in Switzerland. The project aimed to demonstrate the production of high-efficiency thin-film silicon devices on flexible substrates using low cost processes. New ways of improving processing and characterisation are examined. The process and manufacturing know-how necessary to provide support for industrial partners within the framework of further projects is discussed. The authors state that the efficiency of most devices was significantly improved, both on glass substrates and on flexible plastic foils. The process reproducibility was also improved and the interactions between the different layers in the device are now said to be better understood. The report presents the results obtained and discusses substrate materials, transparent conductors, defect analyses and new characterisation tools. Finally, the laboratory infrastructure is described.

  6. Dealloyed Ruthenium Film Catalysts for Hydrogen Generation from Chemical Hydrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramis B. Serin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Thin-film ruthenium (Ru and copper (Cu binary alloys have been prepared on a Teflon™ backing layer by cosputtering of the precious and nonprecious metals, respectively. Alloys were then selectively dealloyed by sulfuric acid as an etchant, and their hydrogen generation catalysts performances were evaluated. Sputtering time and power of Cu atoms have been varied in order to tailor the hydrogen generation performances. Similarly, dealloying time and the sulfuric acid concentration have also been altered to tune the morphologies of the resulted films. A maximum hydrogen generation rate of 35 mL min−1 was achieved when Cu sputtering power and time were 200 W and 60 min and while acid concentration and dealloying time were 18 M and 90 min, respectively. It has also been demonstrated that the Ru content in the alloy after dealloying gradually increased with the increasing the sputtering power of Cu. After 90 min dealloying, the Ru to Cu ratio increased to about 190 times that of bare alloy. This is the key issue for observing higher catalytic activity. Interestingly, we have also presented template-free nanoforest-like structure formation within the context of one-step alloying and dealloying used in this study. Last but not least, the long-time hydrogen generation performances of the catalysts system have also been evaluated along 3600 min. During the first 600 min, the catalytic activity was quite stable, while about 24% of the catalytic activity decayed after 3000 min, which still makes these systems available for the development of robust catalyst systems in the area of hydrogen generation.

  7. Controlled growth of epitaxial CeO2 thin films with self-organized nanostructure by chemical solution method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Zhao; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Chemical solution deposition is a versatile technique to grow oxide thin films with self-organized nanostructures. Morphology and crystallographic orientation control of CeO2 thin films grown on technical NiW substrates by a chemical solution deposition method are achieved in this work. Based...

  8. Characterization of photoluminescent europium doped yttrium oxide thin-films prepared by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKittrick, J.; Bacalski, C.F.; Hirata, G.A.; Hubbard, K.M.; Pattillo, S.G.; Salazar, K.V.; Trkula, M.

    1998-01-01

    Europium doped yttrium oxide, (Y 1-x Eu x ) 2 O 3 , thin-films were deposited on silicon and sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The films were grown in a MOCVD chamber reacting yttrium and europium tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5,-heptanedionates) precursors in an oxygen atmosphere at low pressures (5 Torr) and low substrate temperatures (500--700 C). The films deposited at 500 C were flat and composed of nanocrystalline regions of cubic Y 2 O 3 , grown in a textured [100] or [110] orientation to the substrate surface. Films deposited at 600 C developed from the flat, nanocrystalline morphology into a plate-like growth morphology oriented in the [111] with increasing deposition time. Monoclinic Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ was observed in x-ray diffraction for deposition temperatures ≥600 C on both (111) Si and (001) sapphire substrates. This was also confirmed by the photoluminescent emission spectra

  9. High performance In2O3 thin film transistors using chemically derived aluminum oxide dielectric

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.

    2013-07-18

    We report high performance solution-deposited indium oxide thin film transistors with field-effect mobility of 127 cm2/Vs and an Ion/Ioff ratio of 106. This excellent performance is achieved by controlling the hydroxyl group content in chemically derived aluminum oxide (AlOx) thin-film dielectrics. The AlOx films annealed in the temperature range of 250–350 °C showed higher amount of Al-OH groups compared to the films annealed at 500 °C, and correspondingly higher mobility. It is proposed that the presence of Al-OH groups at the AlOx surface facilitates unintentional Al-doping and efficient oxidation of the indium oxide channel layer, leading to improved device performance.

  10. High performance In2O3 thin film transistors using chemically derived aluminum oxide dielectric

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-01-01

    We report high performance solution-deposited indium oxide thin film transistors with field-effect mobility of 127 cm2/Vs and an Ion/Ioff ratio of 106. This excellent performance is achieved by controlling the hydroxyl group content in chemically derived aluminum oxide (AlOx) thin-film dielectrics. The AlOx films annealed in the temperature range of 250–350 °C showed higher amount of Al-OH groups compared to the films annealed at 500 °C, and correspondingly higher mobility. It is proposed that the presence of Al-OH groups at the AlOx surface facilitates unintentional Al-doping and efficient oxidation of the indium oxide channel layer, leading to improved device performance.

  11. Chemically robust carbon nanotube–PTFE superhydrophobic thin films with enhanced ability of wear resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kewei Wang; Pan Xiong; Xiuping Xu; Kan Wang; YanLong Li; Yufeng Zheng

    2017-01-01

    A chemically robust superhydrophobic nanocomposite thin film with enhanced wear resistance is prepared from a composite comprising polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and carbon nanotubes. The superhydrophobic thin films with hierarchical structure are fabricated by spraying an environmentally friendly aqueous dispersion containing carbon nanotubes and PTFE resin on silicon wafer. Thin films with a contact angle of 154.1° ± 2° and a sliding angle less than 2° remain superhydrophobic after abrading over 500 times under a pressure of 50 g/cm2. The thin film is also extremely stable even under much stress conditions. To further the understanding of the enhancement of wear resistance, we investigated the formation of microsized structure and their effects. The growth of microbumps is caused by attracting solution droplet to the hydrophilic islands on hydrophobic surface.

  12. Layer-dependent supercapacitance of graphene films grown by chemical vapor deposition on nickel foam

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2013-03-01

    High-quality, large-area graphene films with few layers are synthesized on commercial nickel foams under optimal chemical vapor deposition conditions. The number of graphene layers is adjusted by varying the rate of the cooling process. It is found that the capacitive properties of graphene films are related to the number of graphene layers. Owing to the close attachment of graphene films on the nickel substrate and the low charge-transfer resistance, the specific capacitance of thinner graphene films is almost twice that of the thicker ones and remains stable up to 1000 cycles. These results illustrate the potential for developing high-performance graphene-based electrical energy storage devices. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fabrication of CdS films with superhydrophobicity by the microwave assisted chemical bath deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Tan, T; Wang, B; Zhai, R; Song, X; Li, E; Wang, H; Yan, H

    2008-04-15

    A simple method of microwave assisted chemical bath deposition (MA-CBD) was adopted to fabricate cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films. The superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle (CA) of 151 degrees was obtained. Via a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, the film was proved having a porous micro/nano-binary structure which can change the property of the surface and highly enhance the hydrophobicity of the film. A possible mechanism was suggested to describe the growth of the porous structure, in which the microwave heating takes an important role in the formation of two distinct characteristic dimensions of CdS precipitates, the growth of CdS sheets in micro-scale and sphere particles in nano-scale. The superhydrophobic films may provide novel platforms for photovoltaic, sensor, microfluidic and other device applications.

  14. Polycrystalline AlN films with preferential orientation by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, G.; Wu, A.; Tristant, P.; Tixier, C.; Soulestin, B.; Desmaison, J.; Bologna Alles, A.

    2008-01-01

    AlN thin films for acoustic wave devices were prepared by Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition under different process conditions, employing Si (100) and Pt (111)/SiO 2 /Si (100) substrates. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared transmission spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The values of the distance between the plasma and the tri-methyl-aluminum precursor injector, the radiofrequency bias potential, and the substrate temperature were central in the development of polycrystalline films. The choice of the chamber total pressure during deposition allowed for the development of two different crystallographic orientations, i.e., or . The film microstructures exhibited in general a column-like growth with rounded tops, an average grain size of about 40 nm, and a surface roughness lower than 20 nm under the best conditions

  15. Layer-dependent supercapacitance of graphene films grown by chemical vapor deposition on nickel foam

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Fan, Zhongli; Zeng, Gaofeng; Lai, Zhiping

    2013-01-01

    High-quality, large-area graphene films with few layers are synthesized on commercial nickel foams under optimal chemical vapor deposition conditions. The number of graphene layers is adjusted by varying the rate of the cooling process. It is found

  16. Photoinitiated chemical vapor deposition of cytocompatible poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Brian J; Pfluger, Courtney A; Sun, Bing; Ziemer, Katherine S; Burkey, Daniel D; Carrier, Rebecca L

    2014-07-01

    Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) is a widely utilized biomaterial due to lack of toxicity and suitable mechanical properties; conformal thin pHEMA films produced via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) would thus have broad biomedical applications. Thin films of pHEMA were deposited using photoinitiated CVD (piCVD). Incorporation of ethylene glycol diacrylate (EGDA) into the pHEMA polymer film as a crosslinker, confirmed via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, resulted in varied swelling and degradation behavior. 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate-only films showed significant thickness loss (up to 40%), possibly due to extraction of low-molecular-weight species or erosion, after 24 h in aqueous solution, whereas films crosslinked with EGDA (9.25-12.4%) were stable for up to 21 days. These results differ significantly from those obtained with plasma-polymerized pHEMA, which degraded steadily over a 21-day period, even with crosslinking. This suggests that the piCVD films differ structurally from those fabricated via plasma polymerization (plasma-enhanced CVD). piCVD pHEMA coatings proved to be good cell culture materials, with Caco-2 cell attachment and viability comparable to results obtained on tissue-culture polystyrene. Thus, thin film CVD pHEMA offers the advantage of enabling conformal coating of a cell culture substrate with tunable properties depending on method of preparation and incorporation of crosslinking agents. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Chemical solution deposited BaPbO3 buffer layers for lead zirconate titanate ferroelectric films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, T.-K.; Wu, J.-M.

    2005-01-01

    Conductive perovskite BaPbO 3 (BPO) films have been prepared successfully by chemical solution deposition method through spin-coating on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates. The choice of baking temperature is a key factor on the development of conducting BPO perovskite phase. When the baking temperature is higher than 350 deg. C, the BPO films contain a high content of BaCO 3 phase after annealing at temperatures higher than 500 deg. C. If the baking temperature is chosen lower than 300 deg. C, such as 200 deg. C, the annealed BPO films consist mostly of perovskite with only traces of BaCO 3 . Choosing 200 deg. C as the baking temperature, the BPO films developed single perovskite phase at temperatures as low as 550 deg. C. The perovskite BPO phase is stable in the range of 550-650 deg. C and the measured sheet resistance of the BPO films is about 2-3 Ω/square. The perovskite BPO film as a buffer layer provides improvement in electric properties of lead zirconate titanate films

  18. Chemical resistance of thin film materials based on metal oxides grown by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammelselg, Väino; Netšipailo, Ivan; Aidla, Aleks; Tarre, Aivar; Aarik, Lauri; Asari, Jelena; Ritslaid, Peeter; Aarik, Jaan

    2013-01-01

    Etching rate of technologically important metal oxide thin films in hot sulphuric acid was investigated. The films of Al-, Ti-, Cr-, and Ta-oxides studied were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method on silicon substrates from different precursors in large ranges of growth temperatures (80–900 °C) in order to reveal process parameters that allow deposition of coatings with higher chemical resistance. The results obtained demonstrate that application of processes that yield films with lower concentration of residual impurities as well as crystallization of films in thermal ALD processes leads to significant decrease of etching rate. Crystalline films of materials studied showed etching rates down to values of < 5 pm/s. - Highlights: • Etching of atomic layer deposited thin metal oxide films in hot H 2 SO 4 was studied. • Smallest etching rates of < 5 pm/s for TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , and Cr 2 O 3 were reached. • Highest etching rate of 2.8 nm/s for Al 2 O 3 was occurred. • Remarkable differences in etching of non- and crystalline films were observed

  19. Effect of starch type on the physico-chemical properties of edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiak, Ewelina; Lenart, Andrzej; Debeaufort, Frédéric

    2017-05-01

    Food preservation is mostly related to packaging in oil-based plastics, inducing environmental problems, but this drawback could be limited by using edible/biodegradable films and coatings. Physical and chemical properties were assessed and reflect the role of the starch type (wheat, corn or potato) and thus that of the amylose/amylopectin ratio, which influences thickness, colour, moisture, wettability, thermal, surface and mechanical properties. Higher amylose content in films induces higher moisture sensitivity, and thus affects the mechanical and barrier properties. Films made from potato starch constitute a greater barrier for oxygen and water vapour though they have weaker mechanical properties than wheat and corn starch films. Starch species with higher amylose content have lower wettability properties, and better mechanical resistance, which strongly depends on the water content due to the hydrophilic nature of starch films, so they could be used for products with higher water activity, such as cheese, fruits and vegetables. It especially concerns wheat starch systems, and the contact angle indicates less hydrophilic surfaces (above 90°) than those of corn and potato starch films (below 90°). The starch origin influences optical properties and thickness: with more amylose, films are opalescent and thicker; with less, they are transparent and thinner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tuning the morphology of metastable MnS films by simple chemical bath deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhandayuthapani, T. [Directorate of Distance Education, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630004 (India); Girish, M. [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630004 (India); Sivakumar, R., E-mail: krsivakumar1979@yahoo.com [Directorate of Distance Education, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630004 (India); Sanjeeviraja, C. [Department of Physics, Alagappa Chettiar College of Engineering and Technology, Karaikudi 630004 (India); Gopalakrishnan, R. [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MnS films with diverse morphological features were prepared without any complexing agent. • The change in morphology of MnS films may be due to the “oriented aggregation”. • The dual role (as sulfur source and structure directing agent) of thiourea was observed. • Sulfur source concentration induced enhancement in the crystallization of films. - Abstract: In the present investigation, we have prepared the spherical particles, almond-like, and cauliflower-like morphological structures of metastable MnS films on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition technique at low temperature without using any complexing or chelating agent. The morphological change of MnS films with molar ratio may be due to the oriented aggregation of adjacent particles. The compositional purity of deposited film was confirmed by the EDAX study. X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman studies confirm the sulfur source concentration induced enhancement in the crystallization of films with metastable MnS phase (zinc-blende β-MnS, and wurtzite γ-MnS). The shift in PL emission peak with molar ratio may be due to the change in optical energy band gap of the MnS, which was further confirmed by the optical absorbance study. The paramagnetic behavior of the sample was confirmed by the M–H plot.

  1. Structural, chemical and electrical characterisation of conductive graphene-polymer composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, Barry; Spencer, Steve J.; Belsey, Natalie A. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Faris, Tsegie [DZP Technologies Ltd., Future Business Centre, Cambridge, CB4 2HY (United Kingdom); Cronin, Harry [DZP Technologies Ltd., Future Business Centre, Cambridge, CB4 2HY (United Kingdom); Advanced Technology Institute (ATI), University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Silva, S. Ravi P. [Advanced Technology Institute (ATI), University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Sainsbury, Toby; Gilmore, Ian S. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Stoeva, Zlatka [DZP Technologies Ltd., Future Business Centre, Cambridge, CB4 2HY (United Kingdom); Pollard, Andrew J., E-mail: andrew.pollard@npl.co.uk [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-01

    Graphical abstract: Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) imaging of the dispersion of graphene within graphene-polymer composites using the Na{sup +} signal. - Highlights: • Relation of properties of graphene flakes with electrical properties of composite. • Standardised characterisation method for structural properties of graphene flakes. • Structural and chemical characterisation of commercial graphene flakes. • ToF-SIMS used to determine dispersion of graphene in polymer. - Abstract: Graphene poly-acrylic and PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite films were produced using two alternative commercial graphene powders to explore how the graphene flake dimensions and chemical composition affected the electrical performance of the film. A range of analytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), were employed to systematically analyse the initial graphene materials as well as the nanocomposite films. Electrical measurements indicated that the sheet resistance of the films was affected by the properties of the graphene flakes used. To further explore the composition of the films, ToF-SIMS mapping was employed and provided a direct means to elucidate the nature of the graphene dispersion in the films and to correlate this with the electrical analysis. These results reveal important implications for how the dispersion of the graphene material in films produced from printable inks can be affected by the type of graphene powder used and the corresponding effect on electrical performance of the nanocomposites. This work provides direct evidence for how accurate and comparable characterisation of the graphene material is required for real-world graphene materials to develop graphene enabled films and proposes a measurement protocol for comparing graphene materials that can be used for international

  2. Novel morphology of chemical vapor deposited diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, C.J. [I3N and Department of Physics, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials and Department of Physics, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); TEMA and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Fernandes, A.J.S.; Abe, I.; Pinto, J.L. [I3N and Department of Physics, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Gracio, J. [TEMA and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Buijnsters, J.G. [Institute for Molecules and Materials (IMM), Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    We have obtained simultaneously nanocrystalline and {l_brace}100{r_brace} faceted large-grained polycrystalline diamond films not only on different substrates but also on the same substrate in only one deposition run using a novel approach for substrate arrangement. Furthermore, interesting unusual morphologies and microstructures composed by non-faceted nanostructures and terminated with large smooth {l_brace}100{r_brace} facet-like belt are found near the edges of the top square sample. The morphology variation is likely caused by the so called edge effect, where a strong variation in temperature is also present. We have modelled the temperature distribution on the substrates by computer simulations using the finite element method. The novel feature, namely the coexistence of oval non-faceted nanocrystalline diamond grains and large smooth {l_brace}100{r_brace} facet-like belt in one diamond grain, is in the transition from {l_brace}100{r_brace} faceted polycrystalline diamond to cauliflower-like nanocrystalline diamond. The formation mechanism is discussed based on the temperature analysis and other simulation results described in the literature. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERIC FILMS USED IN OPHTHALMOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Emanuel STAVARACHE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to characterize the surface properties of (polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA foils used in ophathalmological applications. Thus, the morphology, chemical composition and surface energy of these PMMA foils are analyzed, by specific measurements, at the interface with different test liquids of interest in ophthalmology, i.e. distilled H2 O, physiological serum and ophthalmic solution of ReNu Multiplus, used for contact lens cleaning, hydration and disinfection. Also, a solution of Nostamine, known as a drug used in eye irritation and conjunctival inflammation, was tested.

  4. Properties of NiO thin films deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis using different precursor solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattin, L. [Universite de Nantes, Nantes Atlantique Universites, LAMP, EA 3825, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, Nantes F-44000 (France); Reguig, B.A.; Khelil, A. [Universite d' Oran Es-Senia, LPCM2E (Algeria); Morsli, M. [Universite de Nantes, Nantes Atlantique Universites, LAMP, EA 3825, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, Nantes F-44000 (France); Benchouk, K. [Universite d' Oran Es-Senia, LPCM2E (Algeria); Bernede, J.C. [Universite de Nantes, Nantes Atlantique Universites, LAMP, EA 3825, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, Nantes F-44000 (France)], E-mail: Jean-Christian.Bernede@univ-nantes.fr

    2008-07-15

    NiO thin films have been deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis using a perfume atomizer to grow the aerosol. The influence of the precursor, nickel chloride hexahydrate (NiCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O), nickel nitrate hexahydrate (Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O), nickel hydroxide hexahydrate (Ni(OH){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O), nickel sulfate tetrahydrate (NiSO{sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O), on the thin films properties has been studied. In the experimental conditions used (substrate temperature 350 deg. C, precursor concentration 0.2-0.3 M, etc.), pure NiO thin films crystallized in the cubic phase can be achieved only with NiCl{sub 2} and Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} precursors. These films have been post-annealed at 425 deg. C for 3 h either in room atmosphere or under vacuum. If all the films are p-type, it is shown that the NiO films conductivity and optical transmittance depend on annealing process. The properties of the NiO thin films annealed under room atmosphere are not significantly modified, which is attributed to the fact that the temperature and the environment of this annealing is not very different from the experimental conditions during spray deposition. The annealing under vacuum is more efficient. This annealing being proceeded in a vacuum no better than 10{sup -2} Pa, it is supposed that the modifications of the NiO thin film properties, mainly the conductivity and optical transmission, are related to some interaction between residual oxygen and the films.

  5. Thermoelectric prospects of chemically deposited PbSe and SnSe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P. K.; Martínez, Ana Karen; Rosa García Angelmo, Ana; Barrios Salgado, Enue; Nair, M. T. S.

    2018-03-01

    Thin films of PbSe of 400-600 nm in thickness, were obtained via chemical deposition from a solution containing lead nitrate, thiourea and selenosufate. SnSe thin films of 90-180 nm in thickness, were also obtained by chemical deposition from a solution containing selenosulfate. Optical and electrical properties of these thin films were significantly altered by heating them in selenium vapor at 300 °C. Thin film PbSe has a bandgap (Eg) of 1.17 eV (direct gap, forbidden transitions), which decreases to 0.77 eV when it has been heated. Its electrical conductivity (σ) is p-type: 0.18 Ω-1 cm-1 (as-prepared), and 6.4 Ω-1 cm-1 when heated. Thin film SnSe is of orthorhombic crystalline structure which remains stable when heated at 300 °C, but its Eg increases from 1.12 eV (indirect) in as-prepared film to 1.5 eV (direct, forbidden transitions) upon heating. Its electrical conductivity is p-type, which increases from 0.3 Ω-1 cm-1 (as-prepared) to 1 Ω-1 cm-1 when heated (without Se-vapor). When SnSe film is heated at 300 °C in the presence of Se-vapor, they transform to SnSe2, with Eg of 1.5 eV (direct, forbidden) with n-type electrical conductivity, 11 Ω-1 cm-1. The Seebeck coefficient for the PbSe films is: +0.55 mV K-1 (as prepared) and +0.275 mV K-1 (heated); for SnSe films it is: +0.3 mV K-1 (as prepared) and +0.20 mV K-1 (heated); and for SnSe2 film, - 0.35 mV K-1. A five-element PbSe-SnSe2-PbSe-SnSe2-PbSe thermoelectric device demonstrated 50 mV for a temperature difference ΔT = 20 °C (2.5 mV K-1). For SnSe-SnSe2-SnSe-SnSe2-SnSe device, the value is 15 mV for ΔT = 20 °C (0.75 mV K-1). Prospect of these thin films in thermoelectric devices of hybrid materials, in which the coatings may be applied on distinct substrate and geometries is attractive.

  6. Percolation via Combined Electrostatic and Chemical Doping in Complex Oxide Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Peter P.; Fernandes, Rafael M.; Walter, Jeff; Leighton, C.; Shklovskii, B. I.

    2017-03-01

    Stimulated by experimental advances in electrolyte gating methods, we investigate theoretically percolation in thin films of inhomogeneous complex oxides, such as La1 -xSrxCoO3 (LSCO), induced by a combination of bulk chemical and surface electrostatic doping. Using numerical and analytical methods, we identify two mechanisms that describe how bulk dopants reduce the amount of electrostatic surface charge required to reach percolation: (i) bulk-assisted surface percolation and (ii) surface-assisted bulk percolation. We show that the critical surface charge strongly depends on the film thickness when the film is close to the chemical percolation threshold. In particular, thin films can be driven across the percolation transition by modest surface charge densities. If percolation is associated with the onset of ferromagnetism, as in LSCO, we further demonstrate that the presence of critical magnetic clusters extending from the film surface into the bulk results in considerable enhancement of the saturation magnetization, with pronounced experimental consequences. These results should significantly guide experimental work seeking to verify gate-induced percolation transitions in such materials.

  7. Characterization of Si:O:C:H films fabricated using electron emission enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrant, Steven F. [Laboratorio de Plasmas Tecnologicos, Campus Experimental de Sorocaba, Universidade Estadual Paulista-UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, 511, Alto da Boa Vista, 18087-180, Soracaba, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: steve@sorocaba.unesp.br; Rouxinol, Francisco P.M.; Gelamo, Rogerio V. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Trasferetti, B. Claudio [Present address: Superintendencia Regional da Policia Federal em Sao Paulo, Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Rua Hugo d' Antola 95/10o Andar, Lapa de Baixo, 05038-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Davanzo, C.U. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Bica de Moraes, Mario A. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    Silicon-based polymers and oxides may be formed when vapours of oxygen-containing organosilicone compounds are exposed to energetic electrons drawn from a hot filament by a bias potential applied to a second electrode in a controlled atmosphere in a vacuum chamber. As little deposition occurs in the absence of the bias potential, electron impact fragmentation is the key mechanism in film fabrication using electron-emission enhanced chemical vapour deposition (EEECVD). The feasibility of depositing amorphous hydrogenated carbon films also containing silicon from plasmas of tetramethylsilane or hexamethyldisiloxane has already been shown. In this work, we report the deposition of diverse films from plasmas of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS)-argon mixtures and the characterization of the materials obtained. The effects of changes in the substrate holder bias (V{sub S}) and of the proportion of TEOS in the mixture (X{sub T}) on the chemical structure of the films are examined by infrared-reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) at near-normal and oblique incidence using unpolarised and p-polarised, light, respectively. The latter is particularly useful in detecting vibrational modes not observed when using conventional near-normal incidence. Elemental analyses of the film were carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which was also useful in complementary structural investigations. In addition, the dependencies of the deposition rate on V{sub S} and X{sub T} are presented.

  8. Comparison of chemical changes during photooxidation of polypropylene film and filament containing phthalocyanine pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Z.; Haghighat Kish, M.; Kotak, R.; Katbab, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Photooxidation as an important process, which significantly affects the service life of the polypropylene products, has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental study. Pigments used often change the light stabilities of polypropylene. Out-door applications of pigmented polypropylene are now increasingly developed in products such as artificial grass. The aim of this work is to examine the effect of photo-oxidation on the structure of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) in film and filament forms, where phthalocyanine pigment is used. For production of films and filaments, iPP granules with MFI 25 g/10 min were used, with and without phthalocyanine pigment. Samples were exposed to xenon lamp for various time lengths. The extent of the changes in chemical and structural parameters was examined by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and wide angle x-ray diffraction. The results show that carbonyl and hydroperoxide indices increase during the exposure to the radiation. The changes in melting points of the samples were not significant after irradiation process. The effects of phthalocyanine pigment in the photooxidation of film and filament were different. Crystalline fractions of the non-pigmented filament samples decreased during the irradiation time while increased in film samples. Build up of hydroperoxide and carbonyl group in filament was higher than in film samples; that could be due to the differences in structural parameters. Crystallinity variations during photooxidation are related to the nucleation effect of the pigment, chemical crystallization and phase transformation

  9. Chemical synthesis of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films for supercapacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulal, P.M.; Dubal, D.P.; Lokhande, C.D. [Holography and Material Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, M.S. (India); Fulari, V.J., E-mail: vijayfulari@gmail.com [Holography and Material Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, M.S. (India)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > Simple chemical synthesis of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. > Formation of amorphous and hydrous Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. > Potential candidate for supercapacitors. - Abstract: Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films have been prepared by novel chemical successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. Further these films were characterized for their structural, morphological and optical properties by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), wettability test and optical absorption studies. The XRD pattern showed that the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} films exhibit amorphous in nature. Formation of iron oxide compound was confirmed from FTIR studies. The optical absorption showed existence of direct optical band gap of energy 2.2 eV. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} film surface showed superhydrophilic nature with water contact angle less than 10{sup o}. The supercapacitive properties of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film investigated in 1 M NaOH electrolyte showed supercapacitance of 178 F g{sup -1} at scan rate 5 mV/s.

  10. Carbonized tantalum catalysts for catalytic chemical vapor deposition of silicon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Shimin [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao Huiping; Ren Tong; Ying Pinliang [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian 116023 (China); Li Can, E-mail: canli@dicp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2012-06-01

    Catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) has been demonstrated as a promising way to prepare device-quality silicon films. However, catalyst ageing due to Si contamination is an urgency to be solved for the practical application of the technique. In this study, the effect of carbonization of tantalum catalyst on its structure and performance was investigated. The carbonized Ta catalyst has a TaC surface layer which is preserved over the temperature range between 1450 and 1750 Degree-Sign C and no Si contamination occurs on the catalyst after long-term use. Si film prepared using the carbonized Ta catalyst has a similar crystal structure to that prepared by uncarbonized Ta catalyst. Formation of the TaC surface layer can alleviate the ageing problem of the catalyst, which shows great potential as a stable catalyst for Cat-CVD of Si films. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si films prepared by catalytic chemical vapor deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonized Ta with a TaC surface layer used as catalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TaC surface structure preserved after long-term use in a wide temperature range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Help to solve the ageing problem of metal catalysts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si film obtained has a similar crystal structure to that prepared by Ta catalyst.

  11. Wet chemical deposition of single crystalline epitaxial manganite thin films with atomically flat surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Amita; Dutta, Anirban; Samaddar, Sayanti; Gupta, Anjan K.

    2013-01-01

    We report the wet chemical deposition of single crystalline epitaxial thin films of the colossal magneto-resistive manganite La 0.67 Sr 0.33 MnO 3 on the lattice-matched (001)-face of a La 0.3 Sr 0.7 Al 0.65 Ta 0.35 O 3 substrate. Topographic images of these films taken with a scanning tunneling microscope show atomically flat terraces separated by steps of monatomic height. The resistivity of these films shows an insulator-metal transition at 310 K, nearly coincident with the Curie temperature of 340 K, found from magnetization measurements. The films show a magnetoresistance of 7% at 300 K and 1.2 T. Their saturation magnetization value at low temperatures is consistent with that of the bulk. - Highlights: ► Wet chemical deposition of La 0.67 Sr 0.33 MnO 3 (LSMO) on a lattice-matched substrate. ► Single crystalline epitaxial LSMO films obtained. ► Flat terraces separated by monatomic steps observed by scanning tunneling microscope

  12. Characterization of Si:O:C:H films fabricated using electron emission enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrant, Steven F.; Rouxinol, Francisco P.M.; Gelamo, Rogerio V.; Trasferetti, B. Claudio; Davanzo, C.U.; Bica de Moraes, Mario A.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon-based polymers and oxides may be formed when vapours of oxygen-containing organosilicone compounds are exposed to energetic electrons drawn from a hot filament by a bias potential applied to a second electrode in a controlled atmosphere in a vacuum chamber. As little deposition occurs in the absence of the bias potential, electron impact fragmentation is the key mechanism in film fabrication using electron-emission enhanced chemical vapour deposition (EEECVD). The feasibility of depositing amorphous hydrogenated carbon films also containing silicon from plasmas of tetramethylsilane or hexamethyldisiloxane has already been shown. In this work, we report the deposition of diverse films from plasmas of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS)-argon mixtures and the characterization of the materials obtained. The effects of changes in the substrate holder bias (V S ) and of the proportion of TEOS in the mixture (X T ) on the chemical structure of the films are examined by infrared-reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) at near-normal and oblique incidence using unpolarised and p-polarised, light, respectively. The latter is particularly useful in detecting vibrational modes not observed when using conventional near-normal incidence. Elemental analyses of the film were carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which was also useful in complementary structural investigations. In addition, the dependencies of the deposition rate on V S and X T are presented

  13. EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF NEW POWER CYCLES AND ADVANCED FALLING FILM HEAT EXCHANGERS; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsalan Razani; Kwang J. Kim

    2001-01-01

    The final report for the DOE/UNM grant number DE-FG26-98FT40148 discusses the accomplishments of both the theoretical analysis of advanced power cycles and experimental investigation of advanced falling film heat exchangers. This final report also includes the progress report for the third year (period of October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2001). Four new cycles were studied and two cycles were analyzed in detail based on the second law of thermodynamics. The first cycle uses a triple combined cycle, which consists of a topping cycle (Brayton/gas), an intermediate cycle (Rankine/steam), and a bottoming cycle (Rankine/ammonia). This cycle can produce high efficiency and reduces the irreversibility of the Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSC) of conventional combined power cycles. The effect of important system parameters on the irreversibility distribution of all components in the cycle under reasonable practical constraints was evaluated. The second cycle is a combined cycle, which consists of a topping cycle (Brayton/gas) and a bottoming cycle (Rankine/ammonia) with integrated compressor inlet air cooling. This innovative cycle can produce high power and efficiency. This cycle is also analyzed and optimized based on the second the second law to obtain the irreversibility distribution of all components in the cycle. The results of the studies have been published in peer reviewed journals and ASME conference proceeding. Experimental investigation of advanced falling film heat exchangers was conducted to find effective additives for steam condensation. Four additives have been selected and tested in a horizontal tube steam condensation facility. It has been observed that heat transfer additives have been shown to be an effective way to increase the efficiency of conventional tube bundle condenser heat exchangers. This increased condensation rate is due to the creation of a disturbance in the liquid condensate surround the film. The heat transfer through such a film has

  14. Chemical and structural properties of polymorphous silicon thin films grown from dichlorosilane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez-Macías, C.; Monroy, B.M.; Huerta, L.; Canseco-Martínez, M.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-360, Coyoacán, C.P. 04510 México, D.F. (Mexico); Picquart, M. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, A.P. 55-534, 09340 México, D.F. (Mexico); Santoyo-Salazar, J. [Departamento de Física, CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 14-740, C.P. 07000 México, D.F. (Mexico); Sánchez, M.F. García [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria en Ingeniería y Tecnologías Avanzadas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. I.P.N. 2580, Gustavo A. Madero, 07340 México .D.F. (Mexico); Santana, G., E-mail: gsantana@iim.unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-360, Coyoacán, C.P. 04510 México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-11-15

    We have examined the effects of hydrogen dilution (R{sub H}) and deposition pressure on the morphological, structural and chemical properties of polymorphous silicon thin films (pm-Si:H), using dichlorosilane as silicon precursor in the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. The use of silicon chlorinated precursors enhances the crystallization process in as grown pm-Si:H samples, obtaining crystalline fractions from Raman spectra in the range of 65–95%. Atomic Force Microscopy results show the morphological differences obtained when the chlorine chemistry dominates the growth process and when the plasma–surface interactions become more prominent. Augmenting R{sub H} causes a considerable reduction in both roughness and topography, demonstrating an enhancement of ion bombardment and attack of the growing surface. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy results show that, after ambient exposure, there is low concentration of oxygen inside the films grown at low R{sub H}, present in the form of Si-O, which can be considered as structural defects. Instead, oxidation increases with deposition pressure and dilution, along with film porosity, generating a secondary SiO{sub x} phase. For higher pressure and dilution, the amount of chlorine incorporated to the film decreases congruently with HCl chlorine extraction processes involving atomic hydrogen interactions with the surface. In all cases, weak silicon hydride (Si-H) bonds were not detected by infrared spectroscopy, while bonding configurations associated to the silicon nanocrystal surface were clearly observed. Since these films are generally used in photovoltaic devices, analyzing their chemical and structural properties such as oxygen incorporation to the films, along with chlorine and hydrogen, is fundamental in order to understand and optimize their electrical and optical properties.

  15. Alcohol vapor sensing by cadmium-doped zinc oxide thick films based chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, R. A.; Arora, M.; Chackrabarti, S.; Ahmad, S.; Kumar, J.; Hafiz, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles were derived by simple chemical co-precipitation route using zinc acetate dihydrate and cadmium acetate dihydrate as precursor materials. The thick films were casted from chemical co-precipitation route prepared nanoparticles by economic facile screen printing method. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the film were characterized relevant to alcohol vapor sensing application by powder XRD, SEM, UV-VIS and DC conductivity techniques. The response and sensitivity of alcohol (ethanol) vapor sensor are obtained from the recovery curves at optimum working temperature range from 20∘C to 50∘C. The result shows that maximum sensitivity of the sensor is observed at 25∘C operating temperature. On varying alcohol vapor concentration, minor variation in resistance has been observed. The sensing mechanism of sensor has been described in terms of physical adsorption and chemical absorption of alcohol vapors on cadmium-doped zinc oxide film surface and inside film lattice network through weak hydrogen bonding, respectively.

  16. Modified chemical synthesis of porous α-Sm{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumbhar, V.S.; Jagadale, A.D. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, (M.S.) 416004 (India); Gaikwad, N.S. [Rayat Shikshan Sanstha, Satara, (M.S.) 415 001 (India); Lokhande, C.D., E-mail: l_chandrakant@yahoo.com [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, (M.S.) 416004 (India)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • A novel chemical route to prepare α-Sm{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films. • A porous honeycomb like morphology of the α-Sm{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film. • An application of α-Sm{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film toward its supercapacitive behaviour. - Abstract: The paper reports synthesis of porous α-Sm{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films using modified chemical synthesis, also known as successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), wettability and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis) techniques are used for the study of structural, elemental, morphological and optical properties of α-Sm{sub 2}S{sub 3} films. An orthorhombic crystal structure of α-Sm{sub 2}S{sub 3} is resulted from XRD study. The SEM and AFM observations showed highly porous α-Sm{sub 2}S{sub 3} film surface. An optical band gap of 2.50 eV is estimated from optical absorption spectrum. The porous α-Sm{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film tuned for supercapacitive behaviour using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge discharge showed a specific capacitance and energy density of 294 Fg{sup –1} and 48.9 kW kg{sup –1}, respectively in 1 M LiClO{sub 4}–propylene carbonate electrolyte.

  17. Characterization of CuS nanocrystalline thin films synthesized by chemical bath deposition and dip coating techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Deshpande, M.P.; Tailor, Jiten P.

    2014-01-01

    CuS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition and dip coating techniques at ambient temperature. The energy dispersive analysis of X-rays of the thin films confirmed that both the as synthesized thin films are stoichiometric. The X-ray diffraction of the chemical bath deposited and dip coating deposited thin films showed that the films possess hexagonal structure having lattice parameters, a = b = 3.79 A and c = 16.34 A. The crystallite sizes determined from the X-ray diffraction data using Scherrer's formula for the chemical bath deposition and dip coating deposition thin films came out to be nearly 11 nm and 13 nm, respectively. The optical microscopy of the as deposited thin films surfaces showed that the substrates are well covered in both the deposited films. The scanning electron microscopy of the thin films clearly showed that in chemical bath deposited thin films the grain size varies from few μm to nm, while in dip coating deposited films the grain size ranges in nm. The optical bandgap determined from the optical absorbance spectrum analysis showed, chemical bath deposited thin films possess direct bandgap of 2.2 eV and indirect bandgap of 1.8 eV. In the case of dip coating deposited thin films, the direct bandgap is 2.5 eV and indirect bandgap is 1.9 eV. The d.c. electrical resistivity variation with temperature for both the deposited films showed that the resistivity decreases with temperature thus confirming the semiconducting nature. The thermoelectric power variations with temperature and the room temperature Hall Effect study of both the synthesized CuS thin films showed them to be of p-type conductivity. The obtained results are discussed in details. - Highlights: • CuS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition and dip coating techniques. • The films possessed hexagonal structure. • The optical absorption showed that the films had direct and indirect bandgap. • Study of electrical transport properties

  18. Effect of the sulfur and fluorine concentration on physical properties of CdS films grown by chemical bath deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.E. Nieto-Zepeda

    Full Text Available Undoped and F-doped CdS thin films were grown on glass slides by chemical bath deposition using thiourea, cadmium acetate and ammonium fluoride as sulfur, cadmium, and fluorine sources, respectively. Undoped CdS films were deposited varying the concentration of thiourea. Once the optimal thiourea concentration was determined, based on the crystalline quality of the samples, this concentration was maintained and ammonium fluoride was added at different concentrations in order to explore the effect of the F nominal concentration on properties of CdS films. Undoped and F-doped CdS films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–Vis, room temperature photoluminescence, and four probe resistivity measurements. Results showed highly transparent F-doped CdS films with strong PL and low resistivity were obtained. Keywords: CdS films, F-doped CdS films, Chemical bath deposition, Optical properties, Room temperature photoluminescence

  19. XPS and SEM studies of chromium oxide films chemically formed on stainless steel 316 L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanov, P.; Marinova, T.

    2000-01-01

    The structure and composition of chromium oxide films formed on stainless steel by immersion in a chromium electrolyte have been studied by SEM and XPS. Cr 2 O 3 crystallites in the range 30-150 nm are fully developed and cover the whole surface. The chemical composition in the depth and the thickness of the oxide layer have been determined by XPS sputter profiles. The oxide film can be described within the framework of a double layer consisting of a thin outer hydrated layer and an inner layer of Cr 2 O 3 . (orig.)

  20. Annealing effect on structural and optical properties of chemical bath deposited MnS thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulutas, Cemal, E-mail: cemalulutas@hakkari.edu.tr [Faculty of Education, Hakkari Universty, 30000, Hakkari (Turkey); Gumus, Cebrail [Faculty of Science and Letters, Cukurova University, 01330, Adana (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    MnS thin film was prepared by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method on commercial microscope glass substrate deposited at 30 °C. The as-deposited film was given thermal annealing treatment in air atmosphere at various temperatures (150, 300 and 450 °C) for 1 h. The MnS thin film was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectrophotometer and Hall effect measurement system. The effect of annealing temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties such as optical constants of refractive index (n) and energy band gap (E{sub g}) of the film was determined. XRD measurements reveal that the film is crystallized in the wurtzite phase and changed to tetragonal Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase after being annealed at 300 °C. The energy band gap of film decreased from 3.69 eV to 3.21 eV based on the annealing temperature.

  1. Thermally induced delay and reversal of liquid film dewetting on chemically patterned surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpathy, Sreeram K; Francis, Lorraine F; Kumar, Satish

    2013-10-15

    A thin liquid film resting on a solid substrate that is heated or cooled from below experiences surface tension gradients, which lead to Marangoni flows. We explore the behavior of such a film on a chemically patterned substrate which drives film dewetting in order to determine how surface patterning and applied temperature gradients can be designed to influence the behavior of thin-film coatings. A nonlinear partial differential equation for the film height based on lubrication theory is solved numerically for a broad range of problem parameters. Uniform cooling of the substrate is found to significantly delay dewetting that is driven by wettability gradients. Uniform heating speeds up dewetting but can destroy the near-perfect templating imposed by the surface patterning. However, localized heating and cooling together can accelerate dewetting while maintaining templating quality. Localized heating and cooling can also be used to drive liquid onto areas that it would dewet from in the absence of heating. Overall, these results indicate that applied temperature gradients can significantly influence dewetting driven by surface patterning, and suggest strategies for the creation of spatially patterned thin-film coatings and flow control in microfluidic devices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nanotextured thin films for detection of chemicals by surface enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korivi, Naga; Jiang, Li; Ahmed, Syed; Nujhat, Nabila; Idrees, Mohanad; Rangari, Vijaya

    2017-11-01

    We report on the development of large area, nanostructured films that function as substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of chemicals. The films are made of polyethylene terephthalate layers partially embedded with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and coated with a thin layer of gold. The films are fabricated by a facile method involving spin-coating, acid dip, and magnetron sputtering. The films perform effectively as SERS substrates when used in the detection of dye pollutants such as Congo red dye, with an enhancement factor of 1.1  ×  106 and a detection limit of 10-7 M which is the lowest reported for CR detection by freestanding SERS film substrates. The films have a long shelf life, and cost US0.20 per cm2 of active area, far less than commercially available SERS substrates. This is the first such work on the use of a polymer layer modified with carbon nanotubes to create a nano-scale texture and arbitrary ‘hot-spots’, contributing to the SERS effect.

  3. Effects of deposition time in chemically deposited ZnS films in acidic solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, H.; Chelouche, A., E-mail: azeddinechelouche@gmail.com; Talantikite, D.; Merzouk, H.; Boudjouan, F.; Djouadi, D.

    2015-08-31

    We report an experimental study on the synthesis and characterization of zinc sulfide (ZnS) single layer thin films deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition technique in acidic solution. The effect of deposition time on the microstructure, surface morphology, optical absorption, transmittance, and photoluminescence (PL) was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis–NIR spectrophotometry and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results showed that the samples exhibit wurtzite structure and their crystal quality is improved by increasing deposition time. The latter, was found to affect the morphology of the thin films as showed by SEM micrographs. The optical measurements revealed a high transparency in the visible range and a dependence of absorption edge and band gap on deposition time. The room temperature PL spectra indicated that all ZnS grown thin films emit a UV and blue light, while the band intensities are found to be dependent on deposition times. - Highlights: • Single layer ZnS thin films were deposited by CBD in acidic solution at 95 °C. • The effect of deposition time was investigated. • Coexistence of ZnS and ZnO hexagonal structures for time deposition below 2 h • Thicker ZnS films were achieved after monolayer deposition for 5 h. • The highest UV-blue emission observed in thin film deposited at 5 h.

  4. Chemical bath deposition of Hg doped CdSe thin films and their characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuse, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    The deliberate addition of Hg in CdSe thin film have been carried out using a simple, modified, chemical bath deposition technique with the objective to study the effect of Hg doping on properties of CdSe thin films. Synthesis was initiated at 278 K temperature using complexed cadmium sulphate, mercuric nitrate and sodium selenosulphate in an aqueous ammonical medium at pH 10. Films were characterized by XRD, SEM, optical absorption, electrical and thermoelectric techniques. The 'as deposited' films were uniform, well adherent, nearly stoichiometric and polycrystalline in a single cubic phase (zinc blende). Crystallite size determined from XRD and SEM was found to increase slightly with addition of Hg. The optical band gap of CdSe remains constant upto 0.05 mol% Hg doping, while it decreases monotonically with further increase in mercury content. Dark dc electrical resistivity and conduction activation energy of CdSe were found to decrease initially upto 0.05 mol% of Hg, thereafter increased for higher values of Hg but remains less than those of CdSe. All the films showed n-type of conductivity. A CdSe film containing 0.05 mol% of Hg showed higher absorption coefficient, and conductivity

  5. The Tribological Behaviors of Three Films Coated on Biomedical Titanium Alloy by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song; Liao, Zhenhua; Liu, Yuhong; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-11-01

    Three thin films (DLC, a-C, and TiN) were performed on Ti6Al4V by chemical vapor deposition. Carbon ion implantation was pretreated for DLC and a-C films while Ti transition layer was pretreated for TiN film to strengthen the bonding strength. X-ray diffraction, Raman measurement, nano-hardness and nano-scratch tester, and cross-section etching by FIB method were used to analyze film characteristics. Tribological behaviors of these coatings were studied by articulation with both ZrO2 and UHMWPE balls using ball-on-disk sliding. The thickness values reached ~0.46, ~0.33, and ~1.67 μm for DLC, a-C, and TiN film, respectively. Nano-hardness of the coatings compared with that of untreated and bonding strength (critical load in nano-scratch test) values of composite coatings compared with that of monolayer film all increased significantly, respectively. Under destructive test (ZrO2 ball conterface) in bovine serum lubrication, TiN coating revealed the best wear resistance while DLC showed the worst. Film failure was mainly attributed to the plowing by hard ZrO2 ball characterized by abrasive and adhesive wear. Under normal test (UHMWPE ball conterface), all coatings showed significant improvement in wear resistance both in dry sliding and bovine serum lubrication. Both DLC and a-C films showed less surface damage than TiN film due to the self-lubricating phenomenon in dry sliding. TiN film showed the largest friction coefficient both in destructive and normal tests, devoting to the big TiN grains thus leading to much rougher surface and then a higher value. The self-lubricating film formed on DLC and a-C coating could also decrease their friction coefficients. The results indicated that three coatings revealed different wear mechanisms, and thick DLC or a-C film was more promising in application in lower stress conditions such as artificial cervical disk.

  6. Evaluating the residual stress in PbTiO3 thin films prepared by a polymeric chemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valim, D; Filho, A G Souza; Freire, P T C; Filho, J Mendes; Guarany, C A; Reis, R N; Araujo, E B

    2004-01-01

    We report a study of residual stress in PbTiO 3 (PT) thin films prepared on Si substrates by a polymeric chemical method. The E(1TO) frequency was used to evaluate the residual stress through an empirical equation available for bulk PT. We find that the residual stress in PT films increases as the film thickness decreases and conclude that it originates essentially from the contributions of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Polarized Raman experiments showed that the PT films prepared by a polymeric chemical method are somewhat a-domain (polar axis c parallel to the substrate) oriented

  7. Use of chemically synthesized ZnO thin film as a liquefied petroleum gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, V.R.; Gujar, T.P.; Lokhande, C.D.; Mane, R.S.; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensing properties of ZnO thin films consisting of sub-micron rods synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method are presented in depth. The scanning electron microscopy observation reveals that ZnO sub-micron rods are of hexagonal in phase grown perpendicular to the substrate surface. Due to large surface area, the ZnO thin films of sub-micron rods were sensitive to the explosive LPG, which was studied for different time depositions and for different operating temperatures. The maximum response of 28% at 673 K was recorded under the exposure of 10% of lower explosive level (LEL) of LPG. The ZnO thin films of sub-micron rods exhibited good sensitivity and rapid response-recovery characteristics towards LPG

  8. Fabrication of micropillar substrates using replicas of alpha-particle irradiated and chemically etched PADC films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.K.M.; Chong, E.Y.W.; Roy, V.A.L.; Cheung, K.M.C.; Yeung, K.W.K.; Yu, K.N.

    2012-01-01

    We proposed a simple method to fabricate micropillar substrates. Polyallyldiglycol carbonate (PADC) films were irradiated by alpha particles and then chemically etched to form a cast with micron-scale spherical pores. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replica of this PADC film gave a micropillar substrate with micron-scale spherical pillars. HeLa cells cultured on such a micropillar substrate had significantly larger percentage of cells entering S-phase, attached cell numbers and cell spreading areas. - Highlights: ► We proposed a simple method to fabricate micropillar substrates. ► Polyallyldiglycol carbonate films were irradiated and etched to form casts. ► Polydimethylsiloxane replica then formed the micropillar substrates. ► Attachment and proliferation of HeLa cells were enhanced on these substrates.

  9. Chemical vapor deposition polymerization the growth and properties of parylene thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Fortin, Jeffrey B

    2004-01-01

    Chemical Vapor Deposition Polymerization - The Growth and Properties of Parylene Thin Films is intended to be valuable to both users and researchers of parylene thin films. It should be particularly useful for those setting up and characterizing their first research deposition system. It provides a good picture of the deposition process and equipment, as well as information on system-to-system variations that is important to consider when designing a deposition system or making modifications to an existing one. Also included are methods to characterizae a deposition system's pumping properties as well as monitor the deposition process via mass spectrometry. There are many references that will lead the reader to further information on the topic being discussed. This text should serve as a useful reference source and handbook for scientists and engineers interested in depositing high quality parylene thin films.

  10. Reactive Chemical Vapor Deposition Method as New Approach for Obtaining Electroluminescent Thin Film Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina V. Utochnikova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The new reactive chemical vapor deposition (RCVD method has been proposed for thin film deposition of luminescent nonvolatile lanthanide aromatic carboxylates. This method is based on metathesis reaction between the vapors of volatile lanthanide dipivaloylmethanate (Ln(dpm3 and carboxylic acid (HCarb orH2Carb′ and was successfully used in case of HCarb. Advantages of the method were demonstrated on example of terbium benzoate (Tb(bz3 and o-phenoxybenzoate thin films, and Tb(bz3 thin films were successfully examined in the OLED with the following structure glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/TPD/Tb(bz3/Ca/Al. Electroluminescence spectra of Tb(bz3 showed only typical luminescent bands, originated from transitions of the terbium ion. Method peculiarities for deposition of compounds of dibasic acids H2Carb′ are established on example of terbium and europium terephtalates and europium 2,6-naphtalenedicarboxylate.

  11. Stress hysteresis during thermal cycling of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurn, Jeremy; Cook, Robert F.

    2002-02-01

    The mechanical response of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited SiO2 to thermal cycling is examined by substrate curvature measurement and depth-sensing indentation. Film properties of deposition stress and stress hysteresis that accompanied thermal cycling are elucidated, as well as modulus, hardness, and coefficient of thermal expansion. Thermal cycling is shown to result in major plastic deformation of the film and a switch from a compressive to a tensile state of stress; both athermal and thermal components of the net stress alter in different ways during cycling. A mechanism of hydrogen incorporation and release from as-deposited silanol groups is proposed that accounts for the change in film properties and state of stress.

  12. Hydrogen reduction in GaAsN thin films by flow rate modulated chemical beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, K.; Nishimura, K.; Suzuki, H.; Ohshita, Y.; Yamaguchi, M.

    2008-01-01

    The amount of residual H in the GaAsN film grown by chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) can be decreased by flow rate modulation growth. Many H atoms in the films grown by CBE exist as N-H or N-H 2 structures. Although a higher growth temperature was required for decreasing the H concentration ([H]), it caused a decrease in the N concentration ([N]). A reduction in [H] while keeping [N] constant was necessary. By providing an intermittent supply of Ga source while continuously supplying As and N sources, [H] effectively decreased in comparison with the [H] value in the film grown at the same temperature by conventional CBE without reducing [N

  13. Fabrication of micropillar substrates using replicas of alpha-particle irradiated and chemically etched PADC films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.K.M. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Chong, E.Y.W. [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Roy, V.A.L. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Cheung, K.M.C.; Yeung, K.W.K. [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Yu, K.N., E-mail: appetery@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2012-07-15

    We proposed a simple method to fabricate micropillar substrates. Polyallyldiglycol carbonate (PADC) films were irradiated by alpha particles and then chemically etched to form a cast with micron-scale spherical pores. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replica of this PADC film gave a micropillar substrate with micron-scale spherical pillars. HeLa cells cultured on such a micropillar substrate had significantly larger percentage of cells entering S-phase, attached cell numbers and cell spreading areas. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We proposed a simple method to fabricate micropillar substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyallyldiglycol carbonate films were irradiated and etched to form casts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polydimethylsiloxane replica then formed the micropillar substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Attachment and proliferation of HeLa cells were enhanced on these substrates.

  14. Elaboration of strontium ruthenium oxide thin films on metal substrates by chemical solution deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seveno, R. [Universite de Nantes, Institut de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nantes Atlantique (IREENA), 2, rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)]. E-mail: raynald.seveno@univ-nantes.fr; Braud, A. [Universite de Nantes, Institut de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nantes Atlantique (IREENA), 2, rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Gundel, H.W. [Universite de Nantes, Institut de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nantes Atlantique (IREENA), 2, rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2005-12-22

    In order to improve the structural interface between a metal substrate and a lead zirconate titanate (Pb(ZrTi)O{sub 3}, PZT) ferroelectric thin film, the elaboration of strontium ruthenium oxide (SrRuO{sub 3}) by chemical solution deposition is studied. The SrRuO{sub 3} thin films were realized by multiple spin-coating technique and the temperature of the rapid thermal annealing process was optimized. The crystallization behavior was examined by X-ray diffraction; surface analyses using scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope techniques showed the influence of the SrRuO{sub 3} layer at the interface PZT/metal on the morphology of the ferroelectric thin film. From the electrical measurements, a coercive electric field around 25 kV/cm and a remanent polarization of approximately 30 {mu}C/cm were found.

  15. Room temperature chemical synthesis of lead selenide thin films with preferred orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, R. B.; Sartale, S. D.; Ganesan, V.; Lokhande, C. D.; Lin, Yi-Feng; Lu, Shih-Yuan

    2006-11-01

    Room temperature chemical synthesis of PbSe thin films was carried out from aqueous ammoniacal solution using Pb(CH3COO)2 as Pb2+ and Na2SeSO3 as Se2- ion sources. The films were characterized by a various techniques including, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Fast Fourier transform (FFT) and UV-vis-NIR techniques. The study revealed that the PbSe thin film consists of preferentially oriented nanocubes with energy band gap of 0.5 eV.

  16. Room temperature chemical synthesis of lead selenide thin films with preferred orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, R.B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan 30043 (China)]. E-mail: rb_kale@yahoo.co.in; Sartale, S.D. [Hahn Meitner Institute, Glienicker Strasse-100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Ganesan, V. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India); Lokhande, C.D. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India); Lin, Y.-F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan 30043 (China); Lu, S.-Y. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan 30043 (China)]. E-mail: sylu@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2006-11-15

    Room temperature chemical synthesis of PbSe thin films was carried out from aqueous ammoniacal solution using Pb(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} as Pb{sup 2+} and Na{sub 2}SeSO{sub 3} as Se{sup 2-} ion sources. The films were characterized by a various techniques including, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Fast Fourier transform (FFT) and UV-vis-NIR techniques. The study revealed that the PbSe thin film consists of preferentially oriented nanocubes with energy band gap of 0.5 eV.

  17. Elaboration of strontium ruthenium oxide thin films on metal substrates by chemical solution deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seveno, R.; Braud, A.; Gundel, H.W.

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the structural interface between a metal substrate and a lead zirconate titanate (Pb(ZrTi)O 3 , PZT) ferroelectric thin film, the elaboration of strontium ruthenium oxide (SrRuO 3 ) by chemical solution deposition is studied. The SrRuO 3 thin films were realized by multiple spin-coating technique and the temperature of the rapid thermal annealing process was optimized. The crystallization behavior was examined by X-ray diffraction; surface analyses using scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope techniques showed the influence of the SrRuO 3 layer at the interface PZT/metal on the morphology of the ferroelectric thin film. From the electrical measurements, a coercive electric field around 25 kV/cm and a remanent polarization of approximately 30 μC/cm were found

  18. Room temperature chemical synthesis of lead selenide thin films with preferred orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, R.B.; Sartale, S.D.; Ganesan, V.; Lokhande, C.D.; Lin, Y.-F.; Lu, S.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    Room temperature chemical synthesis of PbSe thin films was carried out from aqueous ammoniacal solution using Pb(CH 3 COO) 2 as Pb 2+ and Na 2 SeSO 3 as Se 2- ion sources. The films were characterized by a various techniques including, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Fast Fourier transform (FFT) and UV-vis-NIR techniques. The study revealed that the PbSe thin film consists of preferentially oriented nanocubes with energy band gap of 0.5 eV

  19. Near-room temperature deposition of W and WO3 thin films by hydrogen atom assisted chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.; Reeves, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    A novel near-room temperatures CVD process has been developed using H-atoms reaction with WF 6 to produced tungsten and tungsten oxide films. The chemical, physical and electrical properties of these films were studied. Good adhesion and low resistivity of W films were measured. Conformal WO 3 films were obtained on columnar tungsten using a small amount of molecular oxygen in the gas stream. A reaction mechanism was evaluated on the basis of experimental results. The advantages of the method include deposition of adherent films in a plasma-free environment, near-room temperature, with a low level of impurity

  20. YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films prepared by chemical solution deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apetrii, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials by Bednorz and Mueller in early 1987, immediately followed by Wu et al., who showed that YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) becomes superconducting (92 K) well above the boiling point of nitrogen (77 K) created a great excitement in superconductivity research. Potential applications of high T c -superconductors require large critical currents and high-applied magnetic fields. Effective ways to increase the critical current density at high magnetic fields in YBCO are the introduction of nanoparticles and chemical substitution of yttrium by other rare earth elements. Since low costs and environmental compatibility are essential conditions for the preparation of long length YBCO films, the cost effective chemical solution deposition (CSD) procedure was selected, given that no vacuum technology is required. To reveal the flexibility and the good optimization possibilities of the CSD approach two main processes were chosen for comparison: a fluorine-free method, namely the polymer-metal precursor technique, and a fluorine-based method, the metalorganic deposition (MOD) using the trifluoroacetates (TFA) technique. Sharp transition temperature widths ΔT c of 1.1 K for the polymer metal method, 0.8 K for TFA method and critical current densities J c of ∼3.5 MA/cm 2 shows that high quality YBCO thin films can be produced using both techniques. Especially interesting is the magnetic field dependence of the critical current density J c (B) of the Y(Dy)BCO (80 %) films showing that for the lower magnetic fields the critical current density J c (B) is higher for a standard YBCO film, but at fields higher than 4.5 T the critical current density J c (B) of Y(Dy)BCO is larger than that for the YBCO. Above 8 T, J c (B) of the Y(Dy)BCO film is more than one order of magnitude higher than in pure YBCO film. (orig.)

  1. Metal-assisted chemical etching of CIGS thin films for grain size analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Chaowei [Research and Development Centre, Hanergy Thin Film Power Group Limited, Chengdu (China); Loi, Huu-Ha; Duong, Anh; Parker, Magdalena [Failure Analysis Department, MiaSole Hi-Tech Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Grain size of the CIGS absorber is an important monitoring factor in the CIGS solar cell manufacturing. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis is commonly used to perform CIGS grain size analysis in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Although direct quantification on SEM image using the average grain intercept (AGI) method is faster and simpler than EBSD, it is hardly applicable on CIGS thin films. The challenge is that, not like polycrystalline silicon, to define grain boundaries by selective chemical etching is not easily realizable for the multi-component CIGS alloy. In this Letter, we present direct quantification of CIGS thin film grain size using the AGI method by developing metal-assisted wet chemical etching process to define CIGS grain boundaries. The calculated value is similar to EBSD result. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Transparent conducting oxide films of group V doped titania prepared by aqueous chemical solution deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elen, Ken; Capon, Boris; De Dobbelaere, Christopher; Dewulf, Daan; Peys, Nick; Detavernier, Christophe; Hardy, An; Van Bael, Marlies K.

    2014-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films of titania doped with vanadium (V), niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta) are obtained by aqueous Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD). The effect of the dopant on the crystallization and microstructure of the resulting films is examined by means of X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. During annealing of the thin films, in-situ characterization of the crystal structure and sheet resistance is carried out. Niobium doped anatase films, obtained after annealing in forming gas, show a resistivity of 0,28 Ohm cm, which is the lowest resistivity reported for a solution deposited anatase-based TCO so far. Here, we demonstrate that aqueous CSD may provide a strategy for scalable TCO production in the future. - Highlights: • Aqueous chemical solution deposition of doped titanium dioxide • Doping delays the phase transition from anatase to rutile • Lowest resistivity after doping with niobium and annealing in Forming Gas • Transparency higher than 80% in the visible range of optical spectrum

  3. Transparent conducting oxide films of group V doped titania prepared by aqueous chemical solution deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elen, Ken [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMEC vzw division IMOMEC, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Strategisch Initiatief Materialen (SIM), SoPPoM Program (Belgium); Capon, Boris [Strategisch Initiatief Materialen (SIM), SoPPoM Programm (Belgium); Coating and Contacting of Nanostructures, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S1, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Dobbelaere, Christopher [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Dewulf, Daan [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMEC vzw division IMOMEC, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Peys, Nick [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMEC vzw, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Detavernier, Christophe [Coating and Contacting of Nanostructures, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S1, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Hardy, An [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMEC vzw division IMOMEC, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Van Bael, Marlies K., E-mail: marlies.vanbael@uhasselt.be [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMEC vzw division IMOMEC, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2014-03-31

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films of titania doped with vanadium (V), niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta) are obtained by aqueous Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD). The effect of the dopant on the crystallization and microstructure of the resulting films is examined by means of X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. During annealing of the thin films, in-situ characterization of the crystal structure and sheet resistance is carried out. Niobium doped anatase films, obtained after annealing in forming gas, show a resistivity of 0,28 Ohm cm, which is the lowest resistivity reported for a solution deposited anatase-based TCO so far. Here, we demonstrate that aqueous CSD may provide a strategy for scalable TCO production in the future. - Highlights: • Aqueous chemical solution deposition of doped titanium dioxide • Doping delays the phase transition from anatase to rutile • Lowest resistivity after doping with niobium and annealing in Forming Gas • Transparency higher than 80% in the visible range of optical spectrum.

  4. Continuous, Highly Flexible, and Transparent Graphene Films by Chemical Vapor Deposition for Organic Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Gomez De Arco, Lewis

    2010-05-25

    We report the implementation of continuous, highly flexible, and transparent graphene films obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) in organic photovoltaic cells. Graphene films were synthesized by CVD, transferred to transparent substrates, and evaluated in organic solar cell heterojunctions (TCE/poly-3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene:poly styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/copper phthalocyanine/fullerene/bathocuproine/aluminum). Key to our success is the continuous nature of the CVD graphene films, which led to minimal surface roughness (∼ 0.9 nm) and offered sheet resistance down to 230 Ω/sq (at 72% transparency), much lower than stacked graphene flakes at similar transparency. In addition, solar cells with CVD graphene and indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes were fabricated side-by-side on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates and were confirmed to offer comparable performance, with power conversion efficiencies (η) of 1.18 and 1.27%, respectively. Furthermore, CVD graphene solar cells demonstrated outstanding capability to operate under bending conditions up to 138°, whereas the ITO-based devices displayed cracks and irreversible failure under bending of 60°. Our work indicates the great potential of CVD graphene films for flexible photovoltaic applications. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. Comparison of Chemical Changes During Photooxidation of Polypropylene Film and Filament Containing Phthalocyanine Pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ahmadi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Photooxidation as an important process, which significantly affects the service life of the polypropylene products, has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental study. Pigments used often change the light stabilities of polypropylene. Out-door applications of pigmented polypr-opylene are now increasingly developed in products such as artificial grass. The aim of this work is to examine the effect of photo-oxidation on the structure of isotactic polypropylene (iPP in film and filament forms, where phthalocyanine pigment is used. For production of films and filaments, iPP granules with MFI 25 g/10min were used, with and without phthalocyanine pigment. Samples were exposed to xenon lamp for various time lengths. The extent of the changes in chemical and structural parameters was examined by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and wide angle x-ray diffraction. The results show that carbonyl and hydroperoxide indices increase during the exposure to the radiation. The changes in melting points of the samples were not significant after irradiation process. The effects of phthalocyanine pigment in the photooxidation of filmand filament were different. Crystalline fractions of the non-pigmented filament samples decreased during the irradiation time while increased in film samples. Build up of hydroperoxide and carbonyl group in filament was higher than in film samples; that could be due to the differences in structural parameters. Crystallinity variations during photooxidation are related to the nucleation effect of the pigment, chemical crystallization and phase transformation.

  6. Room temperature chemical synthesis of Cu(OH){sub 2} thin films for supercapacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurav, K.V. [Thin Film Photonic and Electronics Lab, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-dong, Puk-Gu, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Patil, U.M. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 007 (M.S.) (India); Shin, S.W.; Agawane, G.L.; Suryawanshi, M.P.; Pawar, S.M.; Patil, P.S. [Thin Film Photonic and Electronics Lab, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-dong, Puk-Gu, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Lokhande, C.D. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 007 (M.S.) (India); Kim, J.H., E-mail: jinhyeok@chonnam.ac.kr [Thin Film Photonic and Electronics Lab, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-dong, Puk-Gu, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-05

    Highlights: •Cu(OH){sub 2} is presented as the new supercapacitive material. •The novel room temperature method used for the synthesis of Cu(OH){sub 2}. •The hydrous, nanograined Cu(OH){sub 2} shows higher specific capacitance of 120 F/g. -- Abstract: Room temperature soft chemical synthesis route is used to grow nanograined copper hydroxide [Cu(OH){sub 2}] thin films on glass and stainless steel substrates. The structural, morphological, optical and wettability properties of Cu(OH){sub 2} thin films are studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), UV–vis spectrophotometer and water contact angle measurement techniques. The results showed that, room temperature chemical synthesis route allows to form the nanograined and hydrophilic Cu(OH){sub 2} thin films with optical band gap energy of 3.0 eV. The electrochemical properties of Cu(OH){sub 2} thin films are studied in an aqueous 1 M NaOH electrolyte using cyclic voltammetry. The sample exhibited supercapacitive behavior with 120 F/g specific capacitance.

  7. Room temperature chemical synthesis of Cu(OH)2 thin films for supercapacitor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurav, K.V.; Patil, U.M.; Shin, S.W.; Agawane, G.L.; Suryawanshi, M.P.; Pawar, S.M.; Patil, P.S.; Lokhande, C.D.; Kim, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Cu(OH) 2 is presented as the new supercapacitive material. •The novel room temperature method used for the synthesis of Cu(OH) 2 . •The hydrous, nanograined Cu(OH) 2 shows higher specific capacitance of 120 F/g. -- Abstract: Room temperature soft chemical synthesis route is used to grow nanograined copper hydroxide [Cu(OH) 2 ] thin films on glass and stainless steel substrates. The structural, morphological, optical and wettability properties of Cu(OH) 2 thin films are studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), UV–vis spectrophotometer and water contact angle measurement techniques. The results showed that, room temperature chemical synthesis route allows to form the nanograined and hydrophilic Cu(OH) 2 thin films with optical band gap energy of 3.0 eV. The electrochemical properties of Cu(OH) 2 thin films are studied in an aqueous 1 M NaOH electrolyte using cyclic voltammetry. The sample exhibited supercapacitive behavior with 120 F/g specific capacitance

  8. CuInS{sub 2} thin films obtained through the annealing of chemically deposited In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-CuS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, Y., E-mail: yolapm@gmail.com [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Pedro de Alba S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, 66451, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Lugo, S. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Pedro de Alba S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, 66451, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Calixto-Rodriguez, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Col Centro, 62580, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Vazquez, A.; Gomez, I.; Elizondo, P. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Pedro de Alba S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, 66451, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report the formation of CuInS{sub 2} thin films on glass substrates by heating chemically deposited multilayers of copper sulfide (CuS) and indium sulfide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) at 300 and 350 deg. C in nitrogen atmosphere at 10 Torr. CIS thin films were prepared by varying the CuS layer thickness in the multilayers with indium sulfide. The XRD analysis showed that the crystallographic structure of the CuInS{sub 2} (JCPDS 27-0159) is present on the deposited films. From the optical analysis it was estimated the band gap value for the CIS film (1.49 eV). The electrical conductivity varies from 3 x 10{sup -8} to 3 {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1} depending on the thickness of the CuS film. CIS films showed p-type conductivity.

  9. CuInS2 thin films obtained through the annealing of chemically deposited In2S3-CuS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, Y.; Lugo, S.; Calixto-Rodriguez, M.; Vazquez, A.; Gomez, I.; Elizondo, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report the formation of CuInS 2 thin films on glass substrates by heating chemically deposited multilayers of copper sulfide (CuS) and indium sulfide (In 2 S 3 ) at 300 and 350 deg. C in nitrogen atmosphere at 10 Torr. CIS thin films were prepared by varying the CuS layer thickness in the multilayers with indium sulfide. The XRD analysis showed that the crystallographic structure of the CuInS 2 (JCPDS 27-0159) is present on the deposited films. From the optical analysis it was estimated the band gap value for the CIS film (1.49 eV). The electrical conductivity varies from 3 x 10 -8 to 3 Ω -1 cm -1 depending on the thickness of the CuS film. CIS films showed p-type conductivity.

  10. Laser-induced chemical liquid deposition of discontinuous and continuous copper films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ouchi, A.; Bastl, Zdeněk; Boháček, Jaroslav; Šubrt, Jan; Pola, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 201, č. 8 (2007), s. 4728-4733 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400400413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : copper films * laser photolysis * Cu(II) acetylacetonate * chemical liquid deposition Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.678, year: 2007

  11. Phase and Texture Evolution in Chemically Derived PZT Thin Films on Pt Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    function of heating rate. The FWHM of the Ill PZT texture components is sim 2978 Journal of the American Ceramic Society Mhin et al. Vol. 97, No. 9...Z39.18 ABSTRACT Phase and Texture Evolution in Chemically Derived PZT Thin Films on Pt Substrates Report Title The crystallization of lead zirconate...phase influencing texture evolution. The results suggest that PZT nucleates directly on Pt, which explains the observation of a more highly oriented

  12. High index of refraction films for dielectric mirrors prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusasco, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    A wide variety of metal oxides with high index of refraction can be prepared by Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition. We present some recent optical and laser damage results on oxide films prepared by MOCVD which could be used in a multilayer structure for highly reflecting (HR) dielectric mirror applications. The method of preparation affects both optical properties and laser damage threshold. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Preparation of potassium tantalate niobate thin films by chemical solution deposition and their characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buršík, Josef; Železný, Vladimír; Vaněk, Přemysl

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 12 (2005), s. 2151-2154 ISSN 0955-2219 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0238; GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A028; GA MŠk OC 528.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : films * tantalates * chemical solution deposition Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.567, year: 2005

  14. Radiation-chemical formation of acids in polyvinyl butyral films with chlorinated additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriminiskaya, Z.K.

    1993-01-01

    Radiochromic indicators are commonly produced by reacting an indicator dye with an acid formed inside a polymer by irradiation. Halogenated and unhalogenated polymers were used, the latter containing halogenated organics. It was therefore of interest to study the formation of acid in polyvinyl butyral (PVD) with addition of a halogenated compound. Yields were measured of radiation-chemical acid formation in PVB films containing chloral hydrate and hexachloroethane. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  15. Increased Surface Roughness in Polydimethylsiloxane Films by Physical and Chemical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nicolás Cabrera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Two methods, the first physical and the other chemical, were investigated to modify the surface roughness of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS films. The physical method consisted of dispersing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and magnetic cobalt ferrites (CoFe2O4 prior to thermal cross-linking, and curing the composite system in the presence of a uniform magnetic field H. The chemical method was based on exposing the films to bromine vapours and then UV-irradiating. The characterizing techniques included scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM and magnetic force microscopy (MFM. The surface roughness was quantitatively analyzed by AFM. In the physical method, the random dispersion of MWCNTs (1% w/w and magnetic nanoparticles (2% w/w generated a roughness increase of about 200% (with respect to PDMS films without any treatment, but that change was 400% for films cured in the presence of H perpendicular to the surface. SEM, AFM and MFM showed that the magnetic particles always remained attached to the carbon nanotubes, and the effect on the roughness was interpreted as being due to a rupture of dispersion randomness and a possible induction of structuring in the direction of H. In the chemical method, the increase in roughness was even greater (1000%. Wells were generated with surface areas that were close to 100 μm2 and depths of up to 500 nm. The observations of AFM images and FTIR spectra were in agreement with the hypothesis of etching by Br radicals generated by UV on the polymer chains. Both methods induced important changes in the surface roughness (the chemical method generated the greatest changes due to the formation of surface wells, which are of great importance in superficial technological processes.

  16. Chemical Bonding States of TiC Films before and after Hydrogen Ion Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    TiC films deposited by rf magnetron sputtering followed by Ar+ ion bombardment were irradiated with a hydrogen ion beam. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used for characterization of the chemical bonding states of C and Ti elements of the TiC films before and after hydrogen ion irradiation, in order to understand the effect of hydrogen ion irradiation on the films and to study the mechanism of hydrogen resistance of TiC films. Conclusions can be drawn that ion bombardment at moderate energy can cause preferential physical sputtering of carbon atoms from the surface of low atomic number (Z) material. This means that ion beam bombardment leads to the formation of a non-stoichiometric composition of TiC on the surface.TiC films prepared by ion beam mixing have the more excellent characteristic of hydrogen resistance. One important cause, in addition to TiC itself, is that there are many vacant sites in TiC created by ion beam mixing.These defects can easily trap hydrogen and effectively enhance the effect of hydrogen resistance.

  17. Optical and structural characterization of nickel oxide-based thin films obtained by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidales-Hurtado, M.A.; Mendoza-Galvan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nickel oxide-based thin films were obtained using the chemical bath deposition method on glass and silicon substrates. The precursor solution used was a mixture of nickel nitrate, urea, and deionized water. Molar concentration of nickel (0.3-1.0 M), deposition time, and immersing cycles were considered as deposition variables. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction data reveal that all as-deposited films correspond to the transparent turbostratic phase α(II)-Ni(OH) 2 . However, the rate of deposition depends on nickel content in the solution. After annealing in air at temperatures above of 300 deg. C, the films are transformed to the NiO phase and show a grey/black color. In these films, scanning electron microscopy images show aggregates of thin stacked sheets on their surface, such aggregates can be easily removed leaving only a thin NiO layer of about 30 nm adhered firmly to the substrate, regardless of nickel concentration in the solution and deposition time. In order to obtain thicker NiO films with good optical properties a procedure is developed performing several immersing-annealing cycles

  18. Semiconducting Properties of Nanostructured Amorphous Carbon Thin Films Incorporated with Iodine by Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruzaman, Dayana; Ahmad, Nurfadzilah; Annuar, Ishak; Rusop, Mohamad

    2013-11-01

    Nanostructured iodine-post doped amorphous carbon (a-C:I) thin films were prepared from camphor oil using a thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD) technique at different doping temperatures. The structural properties of the films were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Raman, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies. FESEM and EDS studies showed successful iodine doping. FTIR and Raman studies showed that the a-C:I thin films consisted of a mixture of sp2- and sp3-bonded carbon atoms. The optical and electrical properties of a-C:I thin films were determined by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy and current-voltage (I-V) measurement respectively. The optical band gap of a-C thin films decreased upon iodine doping. The highest electrical conductivity was found at 400 °C doping. Heterojunctions are confirmed by rectifying the I-V characteristics of an a-C:I/n-Si junction.

  19. Synthesis and properties of chemical bath deposited ZnS multilayer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamoun Allouche, N.; Ben Nasr, T.; Turki Kamoun, N.; Guasch, C.

    2010-01-01

    Zinc sulphide multilayer films are prepared by chemical bath deposition from different host solutions. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy are used to characterize the structural properties of the films. The surface composition of the films is studied by Auger electrons spectroscopy, and optical properties are studied by spectrophotometric measurements. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal distinct single crystalline phase with preferential orientation along the (1 1 1) plane of the zinc blende structure for the ZnS multilayer. The spacing between (1 1 1) planes of ZnS is well matched to the spacing between (1 1 2) planes of the chalcopyrite CuInS 2 . After heat treatment all films show a near stoichiometric surface composition as indicated in their AES data. UV-vis measurements show that ZnS multilayer films prepared from the zinc sulphate solution have more than 70% transmission in the wavelengths above 350 nm and an optical band gap of about 3.76 eV.

  20. Functionalized polypyrrole film: synthesis, characterization, and potential applications in chemical and biological sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hua; Cao, Xiaodong; Li, Chang Ming

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of a carboxyl-functionalized polypyrrole derivative, a poly(pyrrole-N-propanoic acid) (PPPA) film, by electrochemical polymerization, and the investigation of its basic properties via traditional characterization techniques such as confocal-Raman, FTIR, SEM, AFM, UV-vis, fluorescence microscopy, and contact-angle measurements. The experimental data show that the as-prepared PPPA film exhibits a hydrophilic nanoporous structure, abundant -COOH functional groups in the polymer backbone, and high fluorescent emission under laser excitation. On the basis of these unique properties, further experiments were conducted to demonstrate three potential applications of the PPPA film in chemical and biological sensors: a permeable and permselective membrane, a membrane with specific recognition sites for biomolecule immobilization, and a fluorescent conjugated polymer for amplification of fluorescence quenching. Specifically, the permeability and permselectivity of ion species through the PPPA film are detected by means of rotating-disk-electrode voltammetry; the specific recognition sites on the film surface are confirmed with protein immobilization, and the amplification of fluorescence quenching is measured by the addition of a quenching agent with fluorescence microscopy. The results are in good agreement with our expectations.

  1. Characterization of Chemical Vapor Deposited Tetraethyl Orthosilicate based SiO2 Films for Photonic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhansirani KOTCHARLAKOTA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Silicon has been the choice for photonics technology because of its cost, compatibility with mass production and availability. Silicon based photonic devices are very significant from commercial point of view and are much compatible with established technology. This paper deals with deposition and characterization of SiO2 films prepared by indigenously developed chemical vapor deposition system. Ellipsometry study of prepared films showed an increase in refractive index and film thickness with the increment in deposition temperature. The deposition temperature has a significant role for stoichiometric SiO2 films, FTIR measurement has shown the three characteristics peaks of Si-O-Si through three samples prepared at temperatures 700, 750 and 800 °C while Si-O-Si stretching peak positions were observed to be shifted to lower wavenumber in accordance to the temperature. FESEM analysis has confirmed the smooth surface without any crack or disorder while EDX analysis showed the corresponding peaks of compositional SiO2 films.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.1.7245

  2. TL and OSL studies on undoped diamond films grown by hot filament chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soni, Anuj, E-mail: anujsoni.phy@gmail.com [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Choudhary, R.K. [Materials Processing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Polymeris, G.S. [Ankara University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences (Turkey); Mishra, D.R. [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Mishra, P. [Materials Processing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kulkarni, M.S. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2016-09-15

    In this work, approximately 0.5 µm thick diamond films were grown on a silicon substrate by hot filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) method in a gas mixture of hydrogen and methane. The batch to batch reproducibility of the sample using this technique was found to be very good. The obtained film was characterized by micro laser Raman spectroscopy (MLRS), grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GIXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force miscroscopy (AFM) techniques. MLRS and GIXRD results confirmed the formation of diamond whereas SEM and AFM analyses indicated uniform morphology of the film with an average grain size of 200 nm. The deposited film was studied for ionizing radiation dosimetry applications using the thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) techniques after irradiating the film by a calibrated 5 mCi, {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y beta source. In the TL measurement, for a heating rate of 4 K/s, broad glow curve was obtained which was deconvoluted into seven TL peaks. The integrated TL counts were found to vary linearly with increasing the radiation dose up to 10 kGy. The characteristic TL output seen in the temperature range 200–300 °C, may be considered good for thermal stability of the film and it could also avoid TL fading during storage and non-interference of any black body radiation during the measurement. However, in comparison to TL output, the OSL response for 470 nm LED stimulation was found to be lesser. The CW–OSL decay curve has shown two components contributing to the OSL signal, having photoionization cross-section 1.5×10{sup −18} and 5.2×10{sup −19} cm{sup 2} respectively. The studies have revealed the possibility of using diamond film for high dose radiation dosimetry with TL/OSL method.

  3. Microwave plasma chemical synthesis of nanocrystalline carbon film structures and study their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushuev, N.; Yafarov, R.; Timoshenkov, V.; Orlov, S.; Starykh, D.

    2015-08-01

    The self-organization effect of diamond nanocrystals in polymer-graphite and carbon films is detected. The carbon materials deposition was carried from ethanol vapors out at low pressure using a highly non-equilibrium microwave plasma. Deposition processes of carbon film structures (diamond, graphite, graphene) is defined. Deposition processes of nanocrystalline structures containing diamond and graphite phases in different volume ratios is identified. The solid film was obtained under different conditions of microwave plasma chemical synthesis. We investigated the electrical properties of the nanocrystalline carbon films and identified it's from various factors. Influence of diamond-graphite film deposition mode in non-equilibrium microwave plasma at low pressure on emission characteristics was established. This effect is justified using the cluster model of the structure of amorphous carbon. It was shown that the reduction of bound hydrogen in carbon structures leads to a decrease in the threshold electric field of emission from 20-30 V/m to 5 V/m. Reducing the operating voltage field emission can improve mechanical stability of the synthesized film diamond-graphite emitters. Current density emission at least 20 A/cm2 was obtained. Nanocrystalline carbon film materials can be used to create a variety of functional elements in micro- and nanoelectronics and photonics such as cold electron source for emission in vacuum devices, photonic devices, cathodoluminescent flat display, highly efficient white light sources. The obtained graphene carbon net structure (with a net size about 6 μm) may be used for the manufacture of large-area transparent electrode for solar cells and cathodoluminescent light sources

  4. Effect of self-bias voltage on the wettability, chemical functionality and nanomechanical properties of hexamethyldisiloxane films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, M.D.F. [Program of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), P.O. Box 68505, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, E. [Program of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), P.O. Box 68505, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Faculty of Civil Engineering, University Center of Volta Redonda (UniFOA), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Perdone, R.R.T. [Program of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), P.O. Box 68505, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Simao, R.A., E-mail: renata@metalmat.ufrj.br [Program of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), P.O. Box 68505, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-08-01

    Copper and silicon substrates were coated by chemical vapor deposition using hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as the precursor gas. Substrates were placed both at the anode and cathode of a glow discharge reactor, and films were deposited using different self-bias voltages. This study focuses on comparing the differences between the hydrophilicity, polymeric character, chemical structure and nanomechanical properties of HMDSO films produced at the cathode and anode of the reactor at different self-bias voltages. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman confocal spectroscopy indicated a significant increase in the content of organic groups when films were deposited at the anode. Analyzing the nanomechanical properties of the cathode and anode films indicated that the penetration depth was higher for samples prepared at the cathode (lower hardness) compared with the samples produced at the anode. The measured contact angles indicated that all samples became hydrophobic with water contact angles close to 100°; however, a different lyophobic character was observed when diiodomethane was used. Films produced at the anode with diiodomethane exhibited higher contact angles than did films produced at the cathode. - Highlights: • Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) films deposited by CVD on Si and Cu substrates • HMDSO films produced at the anode have greater content of organic SiO{sub 4} groups. • Films produced at the anode are harder than those deposited at the cathode. • HMDSO films produced at the cathode exhibited higher elastic recovery. • All films are hydrophobic (θ close to 100°)

  5. Effect of self-bias voltage on the wettability, chemical functionality and nanomechanical properties of hexamethyldisiloxane films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, M.D.F.; Santos, E.; Perdone, R.R.T.; Simao, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Copper and silicon substrates were coated by chemical vapor deposition using hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as the precursor gas. Substrates were placed both at the anode and cathode of a glow discharge reactor, and films were deposited using different self-bias voltages. This study focuses on comparing the differences between the hydrophilicity, polymeric character, chemical structure and nanomechanical properties of HMDSO films produced at the cathode and anode of the reactor at different self-bias voltages. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman confocal spectroscopy indicated a significant increase in the content of organic groups when films were deposited at the anode. Analyzing the nanomechanical properties of the cathode and anode films indicated that the penetration depth was higher for samples prepared at the cathode (lower hardness) compared with the samples produced at the anode. The measured contact angles indicated that all samples became hydrophobic with water contact angles close to 100°; however, a different lyophobic character was observed when diiodomethane was used. Films produced at the anode with diiodomethane exhibited higher contact angles than did films produced at the cathode. - Highlights: • Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) films deposited by CVD on Si and Cu substrates • HMDSO films produced at the anode have greater content of organic SiO 4 groups. • Films produced at the anode are harder than those deposited at the cathode. • HMDSO films produced at the cathode exhibited higher elastic recovery. • All films are hydrophobic (θ close to 100°)

  6. Surface modification of porous poly(tetrafluoraethylene) film by a simple chemical oxidation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shifang; Li Juan; Suo Jinping; Luo Tianzhi

    2010-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive and environmental chemical treatment process, i.e., treating porous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films by a mixture of potassium permanganate solution and nitric acid, was proposed to improve the hydrophilicity of PTFE. To evaluate the effectiveness of this strong oxidation treatment, contact angle measurement was performed. The effects of treatment time and temperature on the contact angle of PTFE were studied as well. The results showed that the chemical modification decreased contact angle of as-received PTFE film from 133 ± 3 deg. to 30 ± 4 deg. treated at 100 deg. C for 3 h, effectively converting the hydrophobic PTFE to a hydrophilic PTFE matrix. The changes in chemical structure, surface compositions and crystal structure of PTFE were examined by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. It was found that the F/C atomic ratio decreased from untreated 1.65-0.10 treated by the mixture at 100 deg. C for 3 h. Hydrophilic groups such as carbonyl (C=O) and hydroxyl (-OH) were introduced on the surface of PTFE after treatment. Furthermore, hydrophilic compounds K 0.27 MnO 2 .0.54H 2 O was absorbed on the surface of porous PTFE film. Both the introduction of hydrophilic groups and absorption of hydrophilic compounds contribute to the significantly decreased contact angle of PTFE.

  7. Surface modification of porous poly(tetrafluoraethylene) film by a simple chemical oxidation treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shifang; Li Juan [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Luo-Yu Road 1037, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Suo Jinping, E-mail: jpsuo@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Luo-Yu Road 1037, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Luo Tianzhi [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Luo-Yu Road 1037, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2010-01-15

    A simple, inexpensive and environmental chemical treatment process, i.e., treating porous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films by a mixture of potassium permanganate solution and nitric acid, was proposed to improve the hydrophilicity of PTFE. To evaluate the effectiveness of this strong oxidation treatment, contact angle measurement was performed. The effects of treatment time and temperature on the contact angle of PTFE were studied as well. The results showed that the chemical modification decreased contact angle of as-received PTFE film from 133 {+-} 3 deg. to 30 {+-} 4 deg. treated at 100 deg. C for 3 h, effectively converting the hydrophobic PTFE to a hydrophilic PTFE matrix. The changes in chemical structure, surface compositions and crystal structure of PTFE were examined by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. It was found that the F/C atomic ratio decreased from untreated 1.65-0.10 treated by the mixture at 100 deg. C for 3 h. Hydrophilic groups such as carbonyl (C=O) and hydroxyl (-OH) were introduced on the surface of PTFE after treatment. Furthermore, hydrophilic compounds K{sub 0.27}MnO{sub 2}.0.54H{sub 2}O was absorbed on the surface of porous PTFE film. Both the introduction of hydrophilic groups and absorption of hydrophilic compounds contribute to the significantly decreased contact angle of PTFE.

  8. Composition and properties of nanocrystalline Zn S thin films prepared by a new chemical bath deposition route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahraei, R.; Goudarzi, A.; Ahmadpoor, H.; Motedayen Aval, Gh.

    2006-01-01

    Zinc sulfide nanocrystalline thin films were prepared by a new chemical bath deposition route on soda lime glass and quartz substrates using a weak acidic bath, in which disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) acts as a complexing agent and thioacetamide acts as a source of sulfide ions. The thickness of the films varied from a few nm to 500 nm. The chemical composition of films was studied by energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The films are very close to Zinc sulfide stoichiometry and we did not observed any organic compounds in the impurity form in them. X-ray diffraction indicates that the film and powder formed in the same reaction bath have cubic zinc blende structure. The films have high transmittance of about 75% in the visible region. The optical band-gap energy (E g ) was determined to be 3.75 eV from the absorption spectrophotometry measurements.

  9. Zirconium doped TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juma, A. [Laboratory of Thin Film Chemical Technologies, Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Botswana International University of Science and Technology, Private bag 16, Palapye (Botswana); Oja Acik, I., E-mail: ilona.oja@ttu.ee [Laboratory of Thin Film Chemical Technologies, Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Oluwabi, A.T.; Mere, A. [Laboratory of Thin Film Chemical Technologies, Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Mikli, V.; Danilson, M. [Chair of Semiconductor Materials Technology, Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Krunks, M. [Laboratory of Thin Film Chemical Technologies, Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Mean crystallite size of TiO{sub 2}:Zr film decreases with increasing [Zr] in the solution. • Zr doping supresses the anatase to rutile transformation process in TiO{sub 2} films. • Band gap of TiO{sub 2}:Zr film is 3.4 eV irrespective of the annealing temperature. - Abstract: Chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) is a flexible deposition technique that allows for mixing of the precursor solutions in different proportions suitable for doping thin films. The CSP method was used to dope TiO{sub 2} thin films with Zr by adding zirconium(IV) acetylacetonate into a solution of titanium(IV) isopropoxide in ethanol stabilized by acetylacetone at [Zr]/[Ti] of 0, 5, 10 and 20 at%. The Zr-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films were uniform and homogeneous showing much smaller grains than the undoped TiO{sub 2} films. Zr stabilized the anatase phase to temperatures above 800 °C depending on Zr concentration in the spray solution. The concentration of Zr determined by XPS was 6.4 at% for the thin film deposited from the 20 at% solution. According to AFM studies, Zr doping decreased the root mean square roughness of TiO{sub 2} film from 5.9 to 1.1 nm. An XRD study of samples with the highest Zr amount showed the ZrTiO{sub 4} phase started forming after annealing at 800 °C. The optical band gap for TiO{sub 2} decreased from 3.3 eV to 3.0 eV after annealing at 800 °C but for the TiO{sub 2}:Zr(20) film it remained at 3.4 eV. The dielectric constant increased by more than four times with Zr-doping and this was associated with the change in the bond formations caused by substitution of Ti by Zr in the lattice.

  10. Preparation and characterization of SnO2 thin film by chemical bath deposition method for solar cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Mohd Zin Wan Yunus; Saeideh Ebrahimiasl; Anuar Kassim

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Tin oxide thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition method on glass substrate .The as-deposited thin films were characterized for compositional, structural, surface morphological, optical and electrical properties. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the sample indicate that all samples are polycrystalline structure. AFM images show that the films consist of small uniform grains and are free of pinholes. (author)

  11. Room temperature synthesis of porous SiO2 thin films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Barranco Quero, Ángel; Cotrino Bautista, José; Yubero Valencia, Francisco; Espinós, J. P.; Rodríguez González-Elipe, Agustín

    2004-01-01

    Synthesis of porous SiO2 thin films in room temperature was carried out using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in an electron cyclotron resonance microwave reactor with a downstream configuration.The gas adsorption properties and the type of porosity of the SiO2 thin films were assessed by adsorption isotherms of toluene at room temperature.The method could also permit the tailoring synthesis of thin films when both composition and porosity can be simultaneously and independent...

  12. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon oxynitride films for optical waveguide bridges for use in mechanical sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard-Larsen, Torben; Leistiko, Otto

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the influence of RF power, ammonia flow, annealing temperature, and annealing time on the optical and mechanical properties of plasma-enhanced chemically vapor deposited silicon oxynitride films, is presented. A low refractive index (1.47 to 1.48) film having tensile stress has been...

  13. MOFs for the Sensitive Detection of Ammonia: Deployment of fcu-MOF Thin-Films as Effective Chemical Capacitive Sensors.

    KAUST Repository

    Assen, Ayalew Hussen Assen; Yassine, Omar; Shekhah, Osama; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Salama, Khaled N.

    2017-01-01

    This work reports on the fabrication and deployment of a select metal-organic framework (MOF) thin film as an advanced chemical capacitive sensor for the sensing/detection of ammonia (NH3) at room temperature. Namely, the MOF thin film sensing layer

  14. Industrialization of Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition for thin film applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schropp, R.E.I., E-mail: r.e.i.schropp@tue.nl

    2015-11-30

    The consequences of implementing a Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) chamber into an existing in-line or roll-to-roll reactor are described. The hardware and operation of the HWCVD production reactor is compared to that of existing roll-to-roll reactors based on Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition. The most important consequences are the technical consequences and the economic consequences, which are both discussed. The technical consequences are adaptations needed to the hardware and to the processing sequences due to the different interaction of the HWCVD process with the substrate and already deposited layers. The economic consequences are the reduced investments in radio frequency (RF) supplies and RF components. This is partially offset by investments that have to be made in higher capacity pumping systems. The most mature applications of HWCVD are moisture barrier coatings for thin film flexible devices such as Organic Light Emitting Diodes and Organic Photovoltaics, and passivation layers for multicrystalline Si solar cells, high mobility field effect transistors, and silicon heterojunction cells (also known as heterojunction cells with intrinsic thin film layers). Another example is the use of Si in thin film photovoltaics. The cost perspective per unit of thin film photovoltaic product using HWCVD is estimated at 0.07 €/Wp for the Si thin film component. - Highlights: • Review of consequences of implementing Hot Wire CVD into a manufacturing plant • Aspects of scaling up to large area and continuous manufacturing are discussed • Economic advantage of introducing a HWCVD process in a production system is estimated • Using HWCVD, the cost for the Si layers in photovoltaic products is 0.08 €/Wp.

  15. Industrialization of Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition for thin film applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schropp, R.E.I.

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of implementing a Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) chamber into an existing in-line or roll-to-roll reactor are described. The hardware and operation of the HWCVD production reactor is compared to that of existing roll-to-roll reactors based on Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition. The most important consequences are the technical consequences and the economic consequences, which are both discussed. The technical consequences are adaptations needed to the hardware and to the processing sequences due to the different interaction of the HWCVD process with the substrate and already deposited layers. The economic consequences are the reduced investments in radio frequency (RF) supplies and RF components. This is partially offset by investments that have to be made in higher capacity pumping systems. The most mature applications of HWCVD are moisture barrier coatings for thin film flexible devices such as Organic Light Emitting Diodes and Organic Photovoltaics, and passivation layers for multicrystalline Si solar cells, high mobility field effect transistors, and silicon heterojunction cells (also known as heterojunction cells with intrinsic thin film layers). Another example is the use of Si in thin film photovoltaics. The cost perspective per unit of thin film photovoltaic product using HWCVD is estimated at 0.07 €/Wp for the Si thin film component. - Highlights: • Review of consequences of implementing Hot Wire CVD into a manufacturing plant • Aspects of scaling up to large area and continuous manufacturing are discussed • Economic advantage of introducing a HWCVD process in a production system is estimated • Using HWCVD, the cost for the Si layers in photovoltaic products is 0.08 €/Wp.

  16. Chemical films and monolayers on the water surface and their interactions with ultraviolet radiation: a pilot investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schouten, Peter; Lemckert, Charles; Underhill, Ian; Turner, Geoff; Turnbull, David; Parisi, Alfio; Downs, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years numerous types of chemical films and monolayers have been deployed on top of a wide variety of water reserves in an endeavour to reduce evaporation. To date very little knowledge has been assimilated on how these chemical films and monolayers, once applied to a water surface, influence the underwater UV light field and, in turn, the delicate ecosystems that exist in aquatic environments. This manuscript presents underwater UV exposure profiles weighted to the DNA damage action spectrum measured under an octadecanol/hexadecanol/lime chemical film mixture, a silicone-based chemical film and an octadecanol monolayer applied to the water surface. UV transmission and absorption properties were also evaluated for each of these chemical films and monolayers. From this it was found that when chemical films/monolayers are applied to surface water they can reduce the penetration of biologically effective UV into the water column by up to 85% at a depth as small as 1 cm. This could have a positive influence on the aquatic ecosystem, as harmful UV radiation may be prevented from reaching and consequently damaging a variety of life forms or it could have a negative effect by potentially stopping aquatic organisms from adapting to solar ultraviolet radiation over extended application intervals. Additionally, there is currently no readily applicable system or technique available to readily detect or visualize chemical films and monolayers on the water surface. To overcome this problem a new method of monolayer and chemical film visualization, using a UV camera system, is detailed and tested and its applicability for usage in both laboratory-based trials and real-world operations is evaluated

  17. Chemical films and monolayers on the water surface and their interactions with ultraviolet radiation: a pilot investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Peter; Lemckert, Charles; Turnbull, David; Parisi, Alfio; Downs, Nathan; Underhill, Ian; Turner, Geoff

    2011-06-01

    Over the past 50 years numerous types of chemical films and monolayers have been deployed on top of a wide variety of water reserves in an endeavour to reduce evaporation. To date very little knowledge has been assimilated on how these chemical films and monolayers, once applied to a water surface, influence the underwater UV light field and, in turn, the delicate ecosystems that exist in aquatic environments. This manuscript presents underwater UV exposure profiles weighted to the DNA damage action spectrum measured under an octadecanol/hexadecanol/lime chemical film mixture, a silicone-based chemical film and an octadecanol monolayer applied to the water surface. UV transmission and absorption properties were also evaluated for each of these chemical films and monolayers. From this it was found that when chemical films/monolayers are applied to surface water they can reduce the penetration of biologically effective UV into the water column by up to 85% at a depth as small as 1 cm. This could have a positive influence on the aquatic ecosystem, as harmful UV radiation may be prevented from reaching and consequently damaging a variety of life forms or it could have a negative effect by potentially stopping aquatic organisms from adapting to solar ultraviolet radiation over extended application intervals. Additionally, there is currently no readily applicable system or technique available to readily detect or visualize chemical films and monolayers on the water surface. To overcome this problem a new method of monolayer and chemical film visualization, using a UV camera system, is detailed and tested and its applicability for usage in both laboratory-based trials and real-world operations is evaluated.

  18. 78 FR 9670 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film (PET Film) from India.\\1.... (Polyplex), and SRF Limited (SRF), producers and exporters of PET Film from India. Based on the results of... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elfi Blum or Toni Page, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration...

  19. 76 FR 9745 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film (PET Film) from Taiwan. See... Jun Jack Zhao, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade Administration... products produced by Nan Ya, are not covered by the scope of the antidumping order on PET Film from Taiwan...

  20. 76 FR 71512 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Korea: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from Korea, covering the June 1, 2009, to May 31, 2010, period... the preliminary results. In addition, the Department is revoking the antidumping order on PET film... CONTACT: Tyler Weinhold or Robert James, AD/CVD Operations, Office 7, Import Administration, International...

  1. 76 FR 76941 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET Film) from Taiwan. The period of review (POR... Halle, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S... Results in the Administrative Review on Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from Taiwan (PET...

  2. 76 FR 76948 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... review of polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET Film) from India for Ester Industries Ltd... export of PET Film from India. Also, based on our analysis of Ester's comments, we made certain revisions..., Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th...

  3. The National Film Board of Canada and Its Task of Communication. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, C. Rodney

    The National Film Board of Canada has, through its films, achieved a world-wide influence, and its uniqueness lies in its administrative structure and its place in the Canadian Government which has enabled it to survive while similar organizations in other countries have succumbed to political and film industry pressures. This study offers a…

  4. A comparative study of physico-chemical properties of CBD and SILAR grown ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambure, S.B.; Patil, S.J.; Deshpande, A.R.; Lokhande, C.D., E-mail: l_chandrakant@yahoo.com

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic model indicating ZnO nanorods by CBD (Z{sub 1}) and nanograins by SILAR (Z{sub 2}). - Highlights: • Simple methods for the synthesis of ZnO thin films. • Comparative study of physico-chemical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by CBD and SILAR methods. • CBD outperforms SILAR method. - Abstract: In the present work, nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been successfully deposited onto glass substrates by simple and economical chemical bath deposition (CBD) and successive ionic layer adsorption reaction (SILAR) methods. These films were further characterized for their structural, optical, surface morphological and wettability properties. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for both CBD and SILAR deposited ZnO thin films reveal the highly crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure. From optical studies, band gaps obtained are 2.9 and 3.0 eV for CBD and SILAR deposited thin films, respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) patterns show growth of well defined randomly oriented nanorods and nanograins on the CBD and SILAR deposited samples, respectively. The resistivity of CBD deposited films (10{sup 2} Ω cm) is lower than that of SILAR deposited films (10{sup 5} Ω cm). Surface wettability studies show hydrophobic nature for both films. From the above results it can be concluded that CBD grown ZnO thin films show better properties as compared to SILAR method.

  5. A comparative study of physico-chemical properties of CBD and SILAR grown ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambure, S.B.; Patil, S.J.; Deshpande, A.R.; Lokhande, C.D.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic model indicating ZnO nanorods by CBD (Z 1 ) and nanograins by SILAR (Z 2 ). - Highlights: • Simple methods for the synthesis of ZnO thin films. • Comparative study of physico-chemical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by CBD and SILAR methods. • CBD outperforms SILAR method. - Abstract: In the present work, nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been successfully deposited onto glass substrates by simple and economical chemical bath deposition (CBD) and successive ionic layer adsorption reaction (SILAR) methods. These films were further characterized for their structural, optical, surface morphological and wettability properties. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for both CBD and SILAR deposited ZnO thin films reveal the highly crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure. From optical studies, band gaps obtained are 2.9 and 3.0 eV for CBD and SILAR deposited thin films, respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) patterns show growth of well defined randomly oriented nanorods and nanograins on the CBD and SILAR deposited samples, respectively. The resistivity of CBD deposited films (10 2 Ω cm) is lower than that of SILAR deposited films (10 5 Ω cm). Surface wettability studies show hydrophobic nature for both films. From the above results it can be concluded that CBD grown ZnO thin films show better properties as compared to SILAR method

  6. Stretchable Electronic Sensors of Nanocomposite Network Films for Ultrasensitive Chemical Vapor Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong; Zhong, Mengjuan; Lv, Ze; Wan, Pengbo

    2017-11-01

    A stretchable, transparent, and body-attachable chemical sensor is assembled from the stretchable nanocomposite network film for ultrasensitive chemical vapor sensing. The stretchable nanocomposite network film is fabricated by in situ preparation of polyaniline/MoS 2 (PANI/MoS 2 ) nanocomposite in MoS 2 suspension and simultaneously nanocomposite deposition onto prestrain elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane substrate. The assembled stretchable electronic sensor demonstrates ultrasensitive sensing performance as low as 50 ppb, robust sensing stability, and reliable stretchability for high-performance chemical vapor sensing. The ultrasensitive sensing performance of the stretchable electronic sensors could be ascribed to the synergistic sensing advantages of MoS 2 and PANI, higher specific surface area, the reliable sensing channels of interconnected network, and the effectively exposed sensing materials. It is expected to hold great promise for assembling various flexible stretchable chemical vapor sensors with ultrasensitive sensing performance, superior sensing stability, reliable stretchability, and robust portability to be potentially integrated into wearable electronics for real-time monitoring of environment safety and human healthcare. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Deposition of controllable preferred orientation silicon films on glass by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junshuai; Wang Jinxiao; Yin Min; Gao Pingqi; He Deyan; Chen Qiang; Li Yali; Shirai, Hajime

    2008-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system with the adjustable distance between the inductance coil and substrates was designed to effectively utilize the spatial confinement of ICP discharge, and then control the gas-phase transport process. The effects of the gas phase processes on the crystallinity and preferred orientation of silicon films deposited on glass were systematically investigated. The investigation was conducted in the ICP-chemical vapor deposition process with the precursor gas of a SiH 4 /H 2 mixture at a substrate temperature of 350 deg. Highly crystallized silicon films with different preferred orientations, (111) or (220), could be selectively deposited by adjusting the SiH 4 dilution ratio [R=[SiH 4 ]/([SiH 4 ]+[H 2 ])] or total working pressure. When the total working pressure is 20 Pa, the crystallinity of the silicon films increases with the increase of the SiH 4 dilution ratio, while the preferred orientation was changed from (111) to (220). In the case of the fixed SiH 4 dilution (10%), the silicon film with I (220) /I (111) of about 3.5 and Raman crystalline fraction of about 89.6% has been deposited at 29.7 nm/min when the total working pressure was increased to 40 Pa. At the fixed SiH 4 partial pressure of 2 Pa, the film crystallinity decreases and the preferred orientation is always (111) with increasing the H 2 partial pressure from 18 to 58 Pa. Atomic force microscope reveals that the film deposited at a relatively high H 2 partial pressure has a very rough surface caused by the devastating etching of H atoms to the silicon network

  8. Effects of rf power on chemical composition and surface roughness of glow discharge polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ling; He, Xiaoshan; Chen, Guo; Wang, Tao; Tang, Yongjian; He, Zhibing, E-mail: hezhibing802@163.com

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The growth mechanism of defects in GDP films was studied upon plasma diagnosis. • Increasing rf power enhanced the etching effects of smaller-mass species. • The “void” defect was caused by high energy hydrocarbons bombardment on the surface. • The surface roughness was only 12.76 nm, and no “void” defect was observed at 30 W. - Abstract: The glow discharge polymer (GDP) films for laser fusion targets were successfully fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) at different radio frequency (rf) powers. The films were deposited using trans-2-butene (T{sub 2}B) mixed with hydrogen as gas sources. The composition and state of plasma were diagnosed by quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and Langmuir probe during the deposition process. The composition, surface morphology and roughness were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and white-light interferometer (WLI), respectively. Based on these observation and analyses, the growth mechanism of defects in GDP films were studied. The results show that, at low rf power, there is a larger probability for secondary polymerization and formation of multi-carbon C-H species in the plasma. In this case, the surface of GDP film turns to be cauliflower-like. With the increase of rf power, the degree of ionization is high, the relative concentration of smaller-mass hydrocarbon species increases, while the relative concentration of larger-mass hydrocarbon species decreases. At higher rf power, the energy of smaller-mass species are high and the etching effects are strong correspondingly. The GDP film's surface roughness shows a trend of decrease firstly and then increase with the increasing rf power. At rf power of 30 W, the surface root-mean-square roughness (Rq) drops to the lowest value of 12.8 nm, and no “void” defect was observed.

  9. Cobalt sulfide thin films: Chemical growth, reaction kinetics and microstructural analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamble, S.S. [Thin Film and Solar Studies Research Laboratory, Solapur University, Solapur 413 255, M.S. (India); Sikora, Andrzej [Electrotechnical Institute, Division of Electrotechnology and Materials Science, ul. M Skłodowskiej-Curie 55/61, 50-369 Wroclaw (Poland); Pawar, S.T. [Thin Film and Solar Studies Research Laboratory, Solapur University, Solapur 413 255, M.S. (India); Maldar, N.N. [Polymer Chemistry Department, Solapur University, Solapur 413 255, M.S. (India); Deshmukh, L.P., E-mail: laldeshmukh@gmail.com [Thin Film and Solar Studies Research Laboratory, Solapur University, Solapur 413 255, M.S. (India)

    2015-02-25

    Highlights: • CoS thin films were deposited from an aqueous alkaline bath. • The CoS thin films are polycrystalline with hexagonal crystal structure. • Microstructure consists of multifaceted webbed network of elongated CoS crystallites. • MFM images revealed presence of magnetic regions mimicking surface topography. • Influence of the complexing agents is also stressed by the bandgap measurements. - Abstract: CoS thin films were successfully deposited from an aqueous alkaline bath containing ammonia and TEA as the complexing agents. Under the pre-optimized conditions (temperature = 80 ± 0.5 °C, speed of the substrate rotation = 65 ± 2 rpm and deposition period = 90 min), ammonia and TEA quantities in the reaction bath were found to play a decisive role in the final product yield. Highly uniform, dark sea-green colored and tightly adherent deposits were obtained at our experimental conditions. As-obtained CoS thin films were polycrystalline in nature with hexagonal class of crystal system as derived from the X-ray diffraction analysis. Complex multifaceted webbed network of as-grown CoS crystals elongated and threaded into each other were observed through a scanning electron microscope. Atomic force micrographs revealed collapsing of the hillocks and filling of the valleys triggering decrease in the RMS roughness for increased TEA and NH{sub 3} quantities. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) was employed to study surface topography in terms of magnetic mapping. MFM images highlighted the existence of the magnetic clusters imitating topography. Broad absorption edge with high absorption coefficient (α ≈ 10{sup 4} cm{sup −1}) was observed for as-grown CoS thin films. Determined values of the optical bandgaps revealed influence of complexing environment on the final product.

  10. Evaluation of niobium dimethylamino-ethoxide for chemical vapour deposition of niobium oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabirian, Ali; Kuzminykh, Yury; Wagner, Estelle; Benvenuti, Giacomo; Rushworth, Simon; Hoffmann, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) processes depend on the availability of suitable precursors. Precursors that deliver a stable vapour pressure are favourable in classical CVD processes, as they ensure process reproducibility. In high vacuum CVD (HV-CVD) process vapour pressure stability of the precursor is of particular importance, since no carrier gas assisted transport can be used. The dimeric Nb 2 (OEt) 10 does not fulfil this requirement since it partially dissociates upon heating. Dimethylamino functionalization of an ethoxy ligand of Nb(OEt) 5 acts as an octahedral field completing entity and leads to Nb(OEt) 4 (dmae). We show that Nb(OEt) 4 (dmae) evaporates as monomeric molecule and ensures a stable vapour pressure and, consequently, stable flow. A set of HV-CVD experiments were conducted using this precursor by projecting a graded molecular beam of the precursor onto the substrate at deposition temperatures from 320 °C to 650 °C. Film growth rates ranging from 8 nm·h −1 to values larger than 400 nm·h −1 can be obtained in this system illustrating the high level of control available over the film growth process. Classical CVD limiting conditions along with the recently reported adsorption–reaction limited conditions are observed and the chemical composition, and microstructural and optical properties of the films are related to the corresponding growth regime. Nb(OEt) 4 (dmae) provides a large process window of deposition temperatures and precursor fluxes over which carbon-free and polycrystalline niobium oxide films with growth rates proportional to precursor flux are obtained. This feature makes Nb(OEt) 4 (dmae) an attractive precursor for combinatorial CVD of niobium containing complex oxide films that are finding an increasing interest in photonics and photoelectrochemical water splitting applications. The adsorption–reaction limited conditions provide extremely small growth rates comparable to an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process

  11. Dosimetric characterization of chemical-vapor-deposited diamond film irradiated with UV and beta radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Pedroza-Montero, M.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2003-03-01

    Diamond is an excellent prospect for clinical radiation dosimetry due to its tissue-equivalence properties and being chemically inert. The use of diamond in radiation dosimetry has been halted by the high market price; although recently the capability of growing high quality polycrystalline has renewed the interest in using diamond films as detectors and dosimeters. In the present work we have characterized the dosimetric properties of diamond films synthesized by using chemical vapor deposition. The thermoluminescence (TL) of UV and beta exposed samples shows a glow curve composed of at least four peaks; one located around 587 K presents excellent TL properties suitable for dosimetric applications with ionizing and non ionizing radiation. The TL excitation spectrum exhibits maximum TL efficiency at 220 nm. The samples show regions of linear as well as supralinear behavior as a function or irradiation dose. The linear dose dependence was found for up to sixteen minutes of UV irradiation and 300 Gy for beta irradiated samples. The activation energy and the frequency factor were determined and found in the range of 0.32 - 0.89 eV and 1.1x10^2 - 2x10^8s_-1, respectively. The observed TL performance is reasonable appropriate to justify further investigation of diamond films as radiation dosimeters.

  12. Continuous, highly flexible, and transparent graphene films by chemical vapor deposition for organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez De Arco, Lewis; Zhang, Yi; Schlenker, Cody W; Ryu, Koungmin; Thompson, Mark E; Zhou, Chongwu

    2010-05-25

    We report the implementation of continuous, highly flexible, and transparent graphene films obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) in organic photovoltaic cells. Graphene films were synthesized by CVD, transferred to transparent substrates, and evaluated in organic solar cell heterojunctions (TCE/poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/copper phthalocyanine/fullerene/bathocuproine/aluminum). Key to our success is the continuous nature of the CVD graphene films, which led to minimal surface roughness ( approximately 0.9 nm) and offered sheet resistance down to 230 Omega/sq (at 72% transparency), much lower than stacked graphene flakes at similar transparency. In addition, solar cells with CVD graphene and indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes were fabricated side-by-side on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates and were confirmed to offer comparable performance, with power conversion efficiencies (eta) of 1.18 and 1.27%, respectively. Furthermore, CVD graphene solar cells demonstrated outstanding capability to operate under bending conditions up to 138 degrees , whereas the ITO-based devices displayed cracks and irreversible failure under bending of 60 degrees . Our work indicates the great potential of CVD graphene films for flexible photovoltaic applications.

  13. Deposition of highly (111)-oriented PZT thin films by using metal organic chemical deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Bu, K H; Choi, D K; Seong, W K; Kim, J D

    1999-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films have been grown on Pt/Ta/SiNx/Si substrates by using metal organic chemical vapor deposition with Pb(C sub 2 H sub 5) sub 4 , Zr(O-t-C sub 4 H sub 9) sub 4 , and Ti(O-i-C sub 3 H sub 7) sub 4 as source materials and O sub 2 as an oxidizing gas. The Zr fraction in the thin films was controlled by varying the flow rate of the Zr source material. The crystal structure and the electrical properties were investigated as functions of the composition. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that at a certain range of Zr fraction, highly (111)-oriented PZT thin films with no pyrochlore phases were deposited. On the other hand, at low Zr fractions, there were peaks from Pb-oxide phases. At high Zr fractions, peaks from pyrochlore phase were seen. The films also showed good electrical properties, such as a high dielectric constant of more than 1200 and a low coercive voltage of 1.35 V.

  14. Electrical and optical properties of Cu–Cr–O thin films fabricated by chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunca Popa, P., E-mail: petru.luncapopa@list.lu; Crêpellière, J.; Leturcq, R.; Lenoble, D.

    2016-08-01

    We present electrical and optical properties of CuCrO{sub 2} thin films deposited by chemical vapour deposition, as well as the influence of depositions' parameters on these properties. Oxygen partial pressure and precursor's concentrations have the greatest influence on optical and electrical properties of the films. Values of conductivities ranging from 10{sup −4} to 10 S/cm were obtained using different deposition conditions. The conductivity is thermally activated with an activation energy ranging from 57 to 283 meV. Thermoelectric measurements confirm the p-type conduction, and demonstrate high carrier concentration typical for a degenerate semiconductor. The as-deposited films show a medium degree of crystallinity, a maximum optical transmission up to 80% in the visible range with a corresponding band gap around 3.2 eV. - Highlights: • CuCrO{sub 2} thin films deposited via a new innovative method - DLICVD. • Band gap and electrical conductivity can be tuned by controlling deposition parameters • Key process parameter is the metallic/oxygen atomic ratio involved in the process • Electrical conductivities values spanning 5 orders of magnitudes were obtained using different deposition parameters.

  15. Synthesis of thick diamond films by direct current hot-cathode plasma chemical vapour deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Jin Zeng Sun; Bai Yi Zhen; Lu Xian Yi

    2002-01-01

    The method of direct current hot-cathode plasma chemical vapour deposition has been established. A long-time stable glow discharge at large discharge current and high gas pressure has been achieved by using a hot cathode in the temperature range from 1100 degree C to 1500 degree C and non-symmetrical configuration of the poles, in which the diameter of the cathode is larger than that of anode. High-quality thick diamond films, with a diameter of 40-50 mm and thickness of 0.5-4.2 mm, have been synthesized by this method. Transparent thick diamond films were grown over a range of growth rates between 5-10 mu m/h. Most of the thick diamond films have thermal conductivities of 10-12 W/K centre dot cm. The thick diamond films with high thermal conductivity can be used as a heat sink of semiconducting laser diode array and as a heat spreading and isolation substrate of multichip modules. The performance can be obviously improved

  16. Faraday effect of polycrystalline bismuth iron garnet thin film prepared by mist chemical vapor deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Situ; Kamakura, Ryosuke; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa

    2017-01-01

    We have synthesized polycrystalline thin film composed of a single phase of metastable bismuth iron garnet, Bi_3Fe_5O_1_2, on a fused silica substrate, one of the most widely utilized substrates in the solid-state electronics, by using mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD) method. The phase purity and stoichiometry are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The resultant thin film shows a small surface roughness of 3.251 nm. The saturation magnetization at room temperature is 1200 G, and the Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm reaches −5.2 deg/μm. Both the magnetization and the Faraday rotation angles are somewhat higher than those of polycrystalline BIG thin films prepared by other methods. - Highlights: • Thin film of polycrystalline Bi_3Fe_5O_1_2 was prepared by the mist CVD method. • Optimized conditions were found for the synthesis of single phase of Bi_3Fe_5O_1_2. • The Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm is –5.2 deg/μm at room temperature. • The Faraday rotation is interpreted by the electronic transitions of Fe"3"+ ions.

  17. Faraday effect of polycrystalline bismuth iron garnet thin film prepared by mist chemical vapor deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Situ; Kamakura, Ryosuke; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa, E-mail: tanaka@dipole7.kuic.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2017-01-15

    We have synthesized polycrystalline thin film composed of a single phase of metastable bismuth iron garnet, Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}, on a fused silica substrate, one of the most widely utilized substrates in the solid-state electronics, by using mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD) method. The phase purity and stoichiometry are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The resultant thin film shows a small surface roughness of 3.251 nm. The saturation magnetization at room temperature is 1200 G, and the Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm reaches −5.2 deg/μm. Both the magnetization and the Faraday rotation angles are somewhat higher than those of polycrystalline BIG thin films prepared by other methods. - Highlights: • Thin film of polycrystalline Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} was prepared by the mist CVD method. • Optimized conditions were found for the synthesis of single phase of Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}. • The Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm is –5.2 deg/μm at room temperature. • The Faraday rotation is interpreted by the electronic transitions of Fe{sup 3+} ions.

  18. Hybrid chemical vapour and nanoceramic aerosol assisted deposition for multifunctional nanocomposite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, Michael E.A.; Dunnill, Charles W.; Goodall, Josie; Darr, Jawwad A.; Binions, Russell, E-mail: uccarbi@ucl.ac.uk

    2011-07-01

    Hybrid atmospheric pressure chemical vapour and aerosol assisted deposition via the reaction of vanadium acetylacetonate and a suspension of preformed titanium dioxide or cerium dioxide nanoparticles, led to the production of vanadium dioxide nanocomposite thin films on glass substrates. The preformed nanoparticle oxides used for the aerosol were synthesised using a continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis route involving the rapid reaction of a metal salt solution with a flow of supercritical water in a flow reactor. Multifunctional nanocomposite thin films from the hybrid deposition process were characterised using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The functional properties of the films were evaluated using variable temperature optical measurements to assess thermochromic behaviour and methylene blue photodecolourisation experiments to assess photocatalytic activity. The tests show that the films are multifunctional in that they are thermochromic (having a large change in infra-red reflectivity upon exceeding the thermochromic transition temperature) and have significant photocatalytic activity under irradiation with 254 nm light.

  19. Formation of CdS thin films in a chemical bath environment under the action of an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaskes-Luna, Kh.G.; Zekhe, A.; Nhukhil'o-Garsiya, M.P.; Starostenko, O.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of external magnetic field on obtaining thin CdS films on glass sub layers through the method of chemical deposition from the cadmium chloride aqueous solution is studied. The intensity and direction of the magnetic field during deposition obviously affect the number of physical properties of polycrystalline films: thickness, grain size and optical quality. The films characteristics are studied through an atomic-power microscope, light absorption spectroscopy and conductometry in darkness. The results obtained are interpreted on the basis of notions on the cadmium and sulfur specific interaction in the chemical bath with a magnetic field [ru

  20. X-ray spectral determination of chemical state of phosphorus and sulfur in anodic oxide films on niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokij, L.P.; Kostikov, Yu.P.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical forms of phosphorus and sulfur in niobium oxide anodic film, obtained by electrochemical technique using niobium in H 2 SO 4 and H 3 PO 4 aqueous solutions, are determined using data on chemical shifts of X-ray emission lines. Films represent Nb 2 O 5(1-γ) (SO 4 ) 5γ and Nb 2 O 5(1-γ) (PO 4 ) 10γ/3 (γ -share of oxygen substituted by acid anion) composition oxosalts. Electrolyte role in formation of niobium anodic oxide structure and effect of phosphorus and sulfur compounds on anodic film conductivity are determined

  1. Anatase thin film with diverse epitaxial relationship grown on yttrium stabilized zirconia substrate by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagi, Takahira; Ogawa, Tomoyuki; Kamei, Masayuki; Wada, Yoshiki; Mitsuhashi, Takefumi; Yamazaki, Atsushi

    2003-01-01

    An anatase epitaxial thin film with diverse epitaxial relationship, YSZ (001) // anatase (001), YSZ (010) // anatase (110), was grown on a single crystalline yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ) (001) substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the (004) reflection of this anatase epitaxial film was 0.4deg, and the photoluminescence of this anatase epitaxial film showed visible emission with broad spectral width and large Stokes shift at room temperature. These results indicate that this anatase epitaxial film possessed almost equal crystalline quality compared with that grown under identical growth conditions on single crystalline SrTiO 3 substrate. (author)

  2. Nanoparticulate cerium dioxide and cerium dioxide-titanium dioxide composite thin films on glass by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Uzma; Dunnill, Charles W.; Parkin, Ivan P.

    2009-01-01

    Two series of composite thin films were deposited on glass by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD)-nanoparticulate cerium dioxide and nanoparticulate cerium dioxide embedded in a titanium dioxide matrix. The films were analysed by a range of techniques including UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis by X-rays. The AACVD prepared films showed the functional properties of photocatalysis and super-hydrophilicity. The CeO 2 nanoparticle thin films displaying photocatalysis and photo-induced hydrophilicity almost comparable to that of anatase titania.

  3. Chemical bath deposited and dip coating deposited CuS thin films - Structure, Raman spectroscopy and surface study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Jiten P.; Khimani, Ankurkumar J.; Chaki, Sunil H.

    2018-05-01

    The crystal structure, Raman spectroscopy and surface microtopography study on as-deposited CuS thin films were carried out. Thin films deposited by two techniques of solution growth were studied. The thin films used in the present study were deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD) and dip coating deposition techniques. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of both the as-deposited thin films showed that both the films possess covellite phase of CuS and hexagonal unit cell structure. The determined lattice parameters of both the films are in agreement with the standard JCPDS as well as reported data. The crystallite size determined by Scherrer's equation and Hall-Williamsons relation using XRD data for both the as-deposited thin films showed that the respective values were in agreement with each other. The ambient Raman spectroscopy of both the as-deposited thin films showed major emission peaks at 474 cm-1 and a minor emmision peaks at 265 cm-1. The observed Raman peaks matched with the covellite phase of CuS. The atomic force microscopy of both the as-deposited thin films surfaces showed dip coating thin film to be less rough compared to CBD deposited thin film. All the obtained results are presented and deliberated in details.

  4. Chemically grown, porous, nickel oxide thin-film for electrochemical supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamdar, A.I.; Kim, YoungSam; Im, Hyunsik [Department of Semiconductor Science, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Pawar, S.M.; Kim, J.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyungsang [Department of Physics, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    A porous nickel oxide film is successfully synthesized by means of a chemical bath deposition technique from an aqueous nickel nitrate solution. The formation of a rock salt NiO structure is confirmed with XRD measurements. The electrochemical supercapacitor properties of the nickel oxide film are examined using cyclic voltammetery (CV), galvanostatic and impedance measurements in two different electrolytes, namely, NaOH and KOH. A specific capacitance of {proportional_to}129.5 F g{sup -1} in the NaOH electrolyte and {proportional_to}69.8 F g{sup -1} in the KOH electrolyte is obtained from a cyclic voltammetery study. The electrochemical stability of the NiO electrode is observed for 1500 charge-discharge cycles. The capacitative behaviour of the NiO electrode is confirmed from electrochemical impedance measurements. (author)

  5. Complete chemical transformation of a molecular film by subexcitation electrons (<3 eV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balog, Richard; Illenberger, Eugen

    2003-11-21

    The potential of slow electrons to act as a soft tool to control a chemical reaction in the condensed phase is demonstrated. By setting the energy of a well defined electron beam to values below 3 eV, the surface of a thin film of 1,2-C(2)F(4)C(l2) molecules can completely be transformed into molecular chlorine (and by-products, possibly perfluorinated polymers). At higher energies (>6 eV) some equilibrium state between product and educt composition can be achieved, however, accompanied by a gradual overall degradation of the film. The effect of complete transformation is based on both the selectivity and particular energy dependence of the initial step of the reaction which is dissociative electron attachment to C(2)F(4)C(l2), but also the fact that the initial molecule is efficiently decomposed by subexcitation electrons while the product C(l2) is virtually unaffected.

  6. Structural analysis of CdS thin films obtained by multiple dips of oscillating chemical bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Lazos, C.D. [Seccion de Electronica del Estado Solido, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Rosendo, E., E-mail: erosendo@siu.buap.m [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 14 Sur y San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla (Mexico); Ortega, M. [Seccion de Electronica del Estado Solido, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Oliva, A.I. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Merida, A.P. 73 Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Tapia, O.; Diaz, T.; Juarez, H.; Garcia, G. [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 14 Sur y San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla (Mexico); Rubin, M. [Facultad de Ciencias de la Computacion, 14 Sur y San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla (Mexico)

    2009-11-25

    Highly oriented CdS thin films with thicknesses greater than 1 mum were deposited by multiple dips, using oscillating chemical bath deposition (OCBD) at the bath temperature of 75 deg. C, and deposition time ranging from 15 to 75 min for a single dip. Samples with different thickness were prepared by repeating the deposition process for two and three times. The films deposited by a single dip have the alpha-greenockite structure showing the (0 0 2) as preferred orientation, as indicated by the X-ray diffraction measurements. This notable characteristic is preserved in the samples obtained from two or three dips. The crystallite size for the samples deposited by a single dip depends on the deposition time, because it varied from 23 to 37 nm as the deposition time increased. Nevertheless for samples deposited by two and three dips, the grain size shows no noticeable change, being about 22 nm.

  7. On the structure, morphology, and optical properties of chemical bath deposited Sb2S3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, B.; Arato, A.; Cardenas, E.; Roy, T.K. Das; Castillo, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper, we have reported the room temperature growth of antimony sulphide (Sb 2 S 3 ) thin films by chemical bath deposition and detailed characterization of these films. The films were deposited from a chemical bath containing SbCl 3 and Na 2 S 2 O 3 at 27 deg. C. We have analysed the structure, morphology, composition and optical properties of as deposited Sb 2 S 3 films as well as those subjected to annealing in nitrogen atmosphere or in air. As-deposited films are amorphous to X-ray diffraction (XRD). However, the diffused rings in the electron diffraction pattern revealed the existence of nanocrystalline grains in these films. XRD analysis showed that upon annealing in nitrogen atmosphere these films transformed into polycrystalline with orthorhombic structure. Also, we have observed that during heating in air, Sb 2 S 3 first converts into orthorhombic form and then further heating results in the formation of Sb 2 O 3 crystallites. Optical bandgap energy of as deposited and annealed films was evaluated from UV-vis absorption spectra. The values obtained were 2.57 and 1.73 eV for the as-deposited and the annealed films respectively

  8. Spray Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Source Precursors for Chalcopyrite I-III-VI2 Thin-Film Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Banger, Kulbinder K.; Jin, Michael H.-C.; Harris, Jerry D.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.; Dickman, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Thin-film solar cells on flexible, lightweight, space-qualified substrates provide an attractive approach to fabricating solar arrays with high mass-specific power. A polycrystalline chalcopyrite absorber layer is among the new generation of photovoltaic device technologies for thin film solar cells. At NASA Glenn Research Center we have focused on the development of new single-source precursors (SSPs) for deposition of semiconducting chalcopyrite materials onto lightweight, flexible substrates. We describe the syntheses and thermal modulation of SSPs via molecular engineering. Copper indium disulfide and related thin-film materials were deposited via aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition using SSPs. Processing and post-processing parameters were varied in order to modify morphology, stoichiometry, crystallography, electrical properties, and optical properties to optimize device quality. Growth at atmospheric pressure in a horizontal hotwall reactor at 395 C yielded the best device films. Placing the susceptor closer to the evaporation zone and flowing a more precursor-rich carrier gas through the reactor yielded shinier-, smoother-, and denser-looking films. Growth of (112)-oriented films yielded more Cu-rich films with fewer secondary phases than growth of (204)/(220)-oriented films. Post-deposition sulfur-vapor annealing enhanced stoichiometry and crystallinity of the films. Photoluminescence studies revealed four major emission bands and a broad band associated with deep defects. The highest device efficiency for an aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposited cell was one percent.

  9. [Studies of chemical reactions in solid matrices]. Final report, December 1,, 1979-November 30, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, J.E.

    1984-12-01

    This program, which has been supported for 35 years by the Atomic Energy Commission and its successor agencies, has produced significant advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of: (1) chemical activation by nuclear processes; (2) radiation chemistry; and (3) photochemistry. It has advanced knowledge of the reactions of electrons, hydrogen atoms and small free radicals, particularly in solids at cryogenic temperatures. It has applied radioisotopes as a tool in the solution of a number of chemical problems, has developed useful new techniques, and has contributed to the training of approximately 150 scientists at various levels. This final report includes a review of the evolution of areas of research emphasized, tabulations of the publications (chronologically and by research area) and Ph.D. theses resulting from the program, and tabulations of the research personnel (by academic category, by dates in the program and by subsequent employment)

  10. Effect of the hydrogen flow rate on the structural and optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Amor, Sana; Dimassi, Wissem; Ali Tebai, Mohamed; Ezzaouia, Hatem [Photovoltaic Laboratory Research and Technology Centre of Energy, Borj-Cedria Science and Technology Park, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2012-10-15

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films were deposited from pure silane (SiH{sub 4}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas mixture by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method at low temperature (400 C) using high rf power (60 W). The structural and optical properties of these films are systematically investigated as a function of the flow rate of hydrogen (F{sub H2}).The surface morphology is analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The characterization of these films with low angle X-ray diffraction revealed that the crystallite size in the films tends to decrease with increase in (F{sub H2}). The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis showed that at low values of (F{sub H2}),the hydrogen bonding in Si:H films shifts from di-hydrogen (Si-H{sub 2}) and (Si-H{sub 2})n complexes to the mono-hydrogen (Si-H) bonding configuration. Finally, for these optimized conditions, the deposition rate decreases with increasing (F{sub H2}). (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Limitations of patterning thin films by shadow mask high vacuum chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinke, Michael; Kuzminykh, Yury; Hoffmann, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    A key factor in engineering integrated devices such as electro-optic switches or waveguides is the patterning of high quality crystalline thin films into specific geometries. In this contribution high vacuum chemical vapor deposition (HV-CVD) was employed to grow titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) patterns onto silicon. The directed nature of precursor transport – which originates from the high vacuum environment during the process – allows shading certain regions on the substrate by shadow masks and thus depositing patterned thin films. While the use of such masks is an emerging field in stencil or shadow mask lithography, their use for structuring thin films within HV-CVD has not been reported so far. The advantage of the employed technique is the precise control of lateral spacing and of the distance between shading mask and substrate surface which is achieved by manufacturing them directly on the substrate. As precursor transport takes place in the molecular flow regime, the precursor impinging rates (and therefore the film growth rates) on the surface can be simulated as function of the reactor and shading mask geometry using a comparatively simple mathematical model. In the current contribution such a mathematical model, which predicts impinging rates on plain or shadow mask structured substrates, is presented. Its validity is confirmed by TiO 2 -deposition on plain silicon substrates (450 °C) using titanium tetra isopropoxide as precursor. Limitations of the patterning process are investigated by the deposition of TiO 2 on structured substrates and subsequent shadow mask lift-off. The geometry of the deposits is according to the mathematical model. Shading effects due to the growing film enables to fabricate deposits with predetermined variations in topography and non-flat top deposits which are complicated to obtain by classical clean room processes. As a result of the enhanced residual pressure of decomposition products and titanium precursors and the

  12. Ternary Ag-In-S polycrystalline films deposited using chemical bath deposition for photoelectrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Wen-Sheng; Wu, Ching-Chen; Jeng, Ming-Shan; Cheng, Kong-Wei; Huang, Chao-Ming; Lee, Tai-Chou

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation and characterization of ternary Ag-In-S thin films deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates using chemical bath deposition (CBD). The composition of the thin films was varied by changing the concentration ratio of [Ag]/[In] in the precursor solutions. The crystal structure, optical properties, and surface morphology of the thin films were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). GIXRD results indicate that the samples consisted of AgInS 2 and/or AgIn 5 S 8 crystal phases, depending on the composition of the precursor solutions. The film thicknesses, electrical resistivity, flat band potentials, and band gaps of the samples were between 1.12 and 1.37 μm, 3.73 x 10 -3 and 4.98 x 10 4 Ω cm, -0.67 and -0.90 V vs. NHE, and 1.83 and 1.92 eV, respectively. The highest photocurrent density was observed in the sample with [Ag]/[In] = 4. A photocurrent density of 9.7 mA cm -2 was obtained with an applied potential of 0.25 V vs. SCE in the three-electrode system. The photoresponse experiments were conducted in 0.25 M K 2 SO 3 and 0.35 M Na 2 S aqueous electrolyte solutions under irradiation by a 300 W Xe light (100 mW cm -2 ). The results show that ternary Ag-In-S thin film electrodes have potential in water splitting applications.

  13. Ternary Ag-In-S polycrystalline films deposited using chemical bath deposition for photoelectrochemical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Wen-Sheng [Energy and Environmental Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195 Sec. 4, Chung-Hsing Road, Hsin-Chu 310, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ching-Chen [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, 168 University Road, Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China); Jeng, Ming-Shan [Energy and Environmental Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195 Sec. 4, Chung-Hsing Road, Hsin-Chu 310, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Kong-Wei [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chao-Ming [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University, 949 Da Wan Road, Yung-Kang City, Tainan Hsien 710, Taiwan (China); Lee, Tai-Chou, E-mail: chmtcl@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, 168 University Road, Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-15

    This paper describes the preparation and characterization of ternary Ag-In-S thin films deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates using chemical bath deposition (CBD). The composition of the thin films was varied by changing the concentration ratio of [Ag]/[In] in the precursor solutions. The crystal structure, optical properties, and surface morphology of the thin films were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). GIXRD results indicate that the samples consisted of AgInS{sub 2} and/or AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} crystal phases, depending on the composition of the precursor solutions. The film thicknesses, electrical resistivity, flat band potentials, and band gaps of the samples were between 1.12 and 1.37 {mu}m, 3.73 x 10{sup -3} and 4.98 x 10{sup 4} {Omega} cm, -0.67 and -0.90 V vs. NHE, and 1.83 and 1.92 eV, respectively. The highest photocurrent density was observed in the sample with [Ag]/[In] = 4. A photocurrent density of 9.7 mA cm{sup -2} was obtained with an applied potential of 0.25 V vs. SCE in the three-electrode system. The photoresponse experiments were conducted in 0.25 M K{sub 2}SO{sub 3} and 0.35 M Na{sub 2}S aqueous electrolyte solutions under irradiation by a 300 W Xe light (100 mW cm{sup -2}). The results show that ternary Ag-In-S thin film electrodes have potential in water splitting applications.

  14. Structural and electrochemical analysis of chemically synthesized microcubic architectured lead selenide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, T. S.; Shinde, A. V.; Devan, R. S.; Teli, A. M.; Ma, Y. R.; Kim, J. H.; Patil, P. S.

    2018-01-01

    The present work deals with the synthesis of lead selenide (PbSe) thin films by simple and cost-effective chemical bath deposition method with variation in deposition time. The structural, morphological, and electrochemical properties of as-deposited thin films were examined using characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. XRD reveals formation of rock salt phase cubic structured PbSe. FE-SEM images show the formation of microcubic structured morphology. The existence of the PbSe is confirmed from the XPS analysis. On the other hand, CV curves show four reaction peaks corresponding to oxidation [PbSe and Pb(OH)2] and reduction (PbO2 and Pb(OH)2) at the surface of PbSe thin films. The PbSe:2 sample deposited for 80 min. shows maximum specific capacitance of 454 ± 5 F g- 1 obtained at 0.25 mA cm- 2 current density. The maximum energy density of 69 Wh kg- 1 was showed by PbSe:2 electrode with a power density of 1077 W kg- 1. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance studies of PbSe:2 thin film show 80 ± 3% cycling stability even after 500 CV cycles. Such results show the importance of microcubic structured PbSe thin film as an anode in supercapacitor devices.

  15. Chemical state and phase structure of (TaNbTiW)N films prepared by combined magnetron sputtering and PBII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xingguo [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Tang, Guangze [National Key Laboratory of Materials Behavior and Evaluation in Space Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Sun, Mingren [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Precision Hot Processing of Metals Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Ma, Xinxin, E-mail: maxin@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Liqin [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)

    2013-09-01

    (TaNbTiW)N films with thickness of ∼1000 nm are prepared on titanium alloy substrate by combined magnetron sputtering deposition and nitrogen plasma based ion implantation (N-PBII). Chemical state of the elements and phase structure of the films are investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The bonds of Ta-N, Nb-N, Ti-N-O and Ta-O are detected in the (TaNbTiW)N films, however both W-N and W-O are not found. The initial alloy film has a BCC structure, while the films with N-PBII treatment are composed of BCC and FCC structures. The hardness and elastic modulus of the films can be improved by increasing nitrogen implantation dose and reach maximum values of 9.0 GPa and 154.1 GPa, respectively.

  16. Chemical Bath Deposition and Characterization of CdS layer for CZTS Thin Film Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal, Tasnim; Parvez, Sheikh; Matin, Rummana; Bashar, Mohammad Shahriar; Hossain, Tasnia; Sarwar, Hasan; Rashid, Mohammad Junaebur

    2016-01-01

    CZTS is a new type of an absorber and abundant materials for thin film solar cells (TFSC). Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is the n-type buffer layer of it with band gap of 2.42 eV. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) buffer layer of CZTS solar cell was deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by the Chemical Bath Deposition(CBD) method, using anhydrous Cadmium chloride(CdCl_2) and Thiourea (CS(NH_2)_2). Deposition of CdS using CBD is based on the slow release of Cd^ ions and S^ ions in an alkaline bath which is achi...

  17. Impact of the De-Alloying Kinetics and Alloy Microstructure on the Final Morphology of De-Alloyed Meso-Porous Metal Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Lin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nano-textured porous metal materials present unique surface properties due to their enhanced surface energy with potential applications in sensing, molecular separation and catalysis. In this paper, commercial alloy foils, including brass (Cu85Zn15 and Cu70Zn30 and white gold (Au50Ag50 foils have been chemically de-alloyed to form nano-porous thin films. The impact of the initial alloy micro-structure and number of phases, as well as chemical de-alloying (DA parameters, including etchant concentration, time and solution temperature on the final nano-porous thin film morphology and properties were investigated by electron microscopy (EM. Furthermore, the penetration depth of the pores across the alloys were evaluated through the preparation of cross sections by focus ion beam (FIB milling. It is demonstrated that ordered pores ranging between 100 nm and 600 nm in diameter and 2–5 μm in depth can be successfully formed for the range of materials tested. The microstructure of the foils were obtained by electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD and linked to development of pits across the material thickness and surface during DA. The role of selective etching of both noble and sacrificial metal phases of the alloy were discussed in light of the competitive surface etching across the range of microstructures and materials tested.

  18. Effects of deposition period on the chemical bath deposited Cu4SnS4 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassim, Anuar; Wee Tee, Tan; Soon Min, Ho.; Nagalingam, Saravanan

    2010-01-01

    Cu 4 SnS 4 thin films were prepared by simple chemical bath deposition technique. The influence of deposition period on the structural, morphological and optical properties of films was studied. The films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the films were polycrystalline with prominent peak attributed to (221) plane of orthorhombic crystal structure. The films prepared at 80 min showed significant increased in the intensity of all diffractions. According to AFM images, these films indicated that the surface of substrate was covered completely. The obtained films also produced higher absorption characteristics when compared to the films prepared at other deposition periods based on optical absorption studies. The band gap values of films deposited at different deposition periods were in the range of 1.6-2.1 eV. Deposition for 80 min was found to be the optimum condition to produce good quality thin films under the current conditions. (author).

  19. Layer-by-layer buildup of polysaccharide-containing films: Physico-chemical properties and mesenchymal stem cells adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikouskaya, Viktoryia I; Pinchuk, Sergei V; Hileuskaya, Kseniya S; Kraskouski, Aliaksandr N; Vasilevich, Irina B; Matievski, Kirill A; Agabekov, Vladimir E; Volotovski, Igor D

    2018-03-22

    Layer-by-Layer assembled polyelectrolyte films offer the opportunity to control cell attachment and behavior on solid surfaces. In the present study, multilayer films based on negatively charged biopolymers (pectin, dextran sulfate, carboxymethylcellulose) and positively charged polysaccharide chitosan or synthetic polyelectrolyte polyethyleneimine has been prepared and evaluated. Physico-chemical properties of the formed multilayer films, including their growth, morphology, wettability, stability, and mechanical properties, have been studied. We demonstrated that chitosan-containing films are characterized by the linear growth, the defect-free surface, and predominantly viscoelastic properties. When chitosan is substituted for the polyethyleneimine in the multilayer system, the properties of the formed films are significantly altered: the rigidity and surface roughness increases, the film growth acquires the exponential character. The multilayer films were subsequently used for culturing mesenchymal stem cells. It has been determined that stem cells effectively adhered to chitosan-containing films and formed on them the monolayer culture of fibroblast-like cells with high viability. Our results show that cell attachment is a complex process which is not only governed by the surface functionality because one of the key parameter effects on cell adhesion is the stiffness of polyelectrolyte multilayer films. We therefore propose our Layer-by-Layer films for applications in tissue engineering. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Cinema audiences reproducibly vary the chemical composition of air during films, by broadcasting scene specific emissions on breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan; Stönner, Christof; Wicker, Jörg; Krauter, Nicolas; Derstroff, Bettina; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Klüpfel, Thomas; Kramer, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Human beings continuously emit chemicals into the air by breath and through the skin. In order to determine whether these emissions vary predictably in response to audiovisual stimuli, we have continuously monitored carbon dioxide and over one hundred volatile organic compounds in a cinema. It was found that many airborne chemicals in cinema air varied distinctively and reproducibly with time for a particular film, even in different screenings to different audiences. Application of scene labels and advanced data mining methods revealed that specific film events, namely “suspense” or “comedy” caused audiences to change their emission of specific chemicals. These event-type synchronous, broadcasted human chemosignals open the possibility for objective and non-invasive assessment of a human group response to stimuli by continuous measurement of chemicals in air. Such methods can be applied to research fields such as psychology and biology, and be valuable to industries such as film making and advertising.

  1. Cinema audiences reproducibly vary the chemical composition of air during films, by broadcasting scene specific emissions on breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan; Stönner, Christof; Wicker, Jörg; Krauter, Nicolas; Derstroff, Bettina; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Klüpfel, Thomas; Kramer, Stefan

    2016-05-10

    Human beings continuously emit chemicals into the air by breath and through the skin. In order to determine whether these emissions vary predictably in response to audiovisual stimuli, we have continuously monitored carbon dioxide and over one hundred volatile organic compounds in a cinema. It was found that many airborne chemicals in cinema air varied distinctively and reproducibly with time for a particular film, even in different screenings to different audiences. Application of scene labels and advanced data mining methods revealed that specific film events, namely "suspense" or "comedy" caused audiences to change their emission of specific chemicals. These event-type synchronous, broadcasted human chemosignals open the possibility for objective and non-invasive assessment of a human group response to stimuli by continuous measurement of chemicals in air. Such methods can be applied to research fields such as psychology and biology, and be valuable to industries such as film making and advertising.

  2. 76 FR 30910 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... shipper review of polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET Film) from India for SRF Limited... Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce..., International Trade Compliance Analyst, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6: New Shipper Reviews of the Antidumping Duty...

  3. 76 FR 30908 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET Film) from India for SRF Limited (SRF), covering the... Page or Elfi Blum, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade... Interested Parties From Elfi Blum, International Trade Compliance Analyst, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6: New...

  4. 75 FR 6634 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from India: Final Results of Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... of the countervailing duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from....'' EFFECTIVE DATE: February 10, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elfi Blum, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6... Assistant Secretary for Import Administration, from Barbara E. Tillman, Director, AD/CVD Operations, Office...

  5. 76 FR 9753 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Records Unit (``CRU''), Main Commerce Building, Room 7046, and is accessible on the Department's Web site... SBR latex. Tracing and drafting film is also excluded. PET film is classifiable under subheading 3920... recertify their separate rates using the separate rate certification provided at the Department's Web site...

  6. Chemical Welding on Semimetallic TiS2 Nanosheets for High-Performance Flexible n-Type Thermoelectric Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Wan, Juanyong; Li, Qi; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Jiyang; Wang, Heao; He, Dunren; Li, Xiaorui; Yang, Yaocheng; Huang, Huihui

    2017-12-13

    Solution-based processing of two-dimensional (2D) materials provides the possibility of allowing these materials to be incorporated into large-area thin films, which can translate the interesting fundamental properties of 2D materials into available devices. Here, we report for the first time a novel chemical-welding method to achieve high-performance flexible n-type thermoelectric films using 2D semimetallic TiS 2 nanosheets. We employ chemically exfoliated TiS 2 nanosheets bridged with multivalent cationic metal Al 3+ to cross-link the nearby sheets during the film deposition process. We find that such a treatment can greatly enhance the stability of the film and can improve the power factor by simultaneously increasing the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity. The resulting TiS 2 nanosheet-based flexible film shows a room temperature power factor of ∼216.7 μW m -1 K -2 , which is among the highest chemically exfoliated 2D transition-metal dichalcogenide nanosheet-based films and comparable to the best flexible n-type thermoelectric films, to our knowledge, indicating its potential applications in wearable electronics.

  7. Structural and Optical Properties of Chemical Bath Deposited Silver Oxide Thin Films: Role of Deposition Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Nwanya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver oxide thin films were deposited on glass substrates at a temperature of 50°C by chemical bath deposition technique under different deposition times using pure AgNO3 precursor and triethanolamine as the complexing agent. The chemical analysis based on EDX technique shows the presence of Ag and O at the appropriate energy levels. The morphological features obtained from SEM showed that the AgxO structures varied as the deposition time changes. The X-ray diffraction showed the peaks of Ag2O and AgO in the structure. The direct band gap and the refractive index increased as the deposition time increased and was in the range of 1.64–1.95 eV and 1.02–2.07, respectively. The values of the band gap and refractive index obtained indicate possible applications in photovoltaic and photothermal systems.

  8. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW-Enhanced Chemical Functionalization of Gold Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Greco

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface chemical and biochemical functionalization is a fundamental process that is widely applied in many fields to add new functions, features, or capabilities to a material’s surface. Here, we demonstrate that surface acoustic waves (SAWs can enhance the chemical functionalization of gold films. This is shown by using an integrated biochip composed by a microfluidic channel coupled to a surface plasmon resonance (SPR readout system and by monitoring the adhesion of biotin-thiol on the gold SPR areas in different conditions. In the case of SAW-induced streaming, the functionalization efficiency is improved ≈ 5 times with respect to the case without SAWs. The technology here proposed can be easily applied to a wide variety of biological systems (e.g., proteins, nucleic acids and devices (e.g., sensors, devices for cell cultures.

  9. Comparison of interaction mechanisms of copper phthalocyanine and nickel phthalocyanine thin films with chemical vapours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridhi, R.; Singh, Sukhdeep; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2018-04-01

    The present study deals with comparing interaction mechanisms of copper phthalocyanine and nickel phthalocyanine with versatile chemical vapours: reducing, stable aromatic and oxidizing vapours namely; diethylamine, benzene and bromine. The variation in electrical current of phthalocyanines with exposure of chemical vapours is used as the detection parameter for studying interaction behaviour. Nickel phthalocyanine is found to exhibit anomalous behaviour after exposure of reducing vapour diethylamine due to alteration in its spectroscopic transitions and magnetic states. The observed sensitivities of copper phthalocyanine and nickel phthalcyanine films are different in spite of their similar bond numbers, indicating significant role of central metal atom in interaction mechanism. The variations in electronic transition levels after vapours exposure, studied using UV-Visible spectroscopy confirmed our electrical sensing results. Bromine exposure leads to significant changes in vibrational bands of metal phthalocyanines as compared to other vapours.

  10. Nanostructured ZnO thin films by chemical bath deposition in basic aqueous ammonia solutions for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, J.B.; Huang, S.M.; Zhang, D.W.; Bian, Z.Q.; Li, X.D.; Sun, Z. [East China Normal University, Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Yin, X.J. [Singapore Polytechnic, Advanced Materials Technology Center, Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-06-15

    This paper presents further insights and observations of the chemical bath deposition (CBD) of ZnS thin films using an aqueous medium involving Zn-salt, ammonium sulfate, aqueous ammonia, and thiourea. Results on physical and chemical properties of the grown layers as a function of ammonia concentration are reported. Physical and chemical properties were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Rapid growth of nanostructured ZnO films on fluorine-doped SnO{sub 2} (FTO) glass substrates was developed. ZnO films crystallized in a wurtzite hexagonal structure and with a very small quantity of Zn(OH){sub 2} and ZnS phases were obtained for the ammonia concentration ranging from 0.75 to 2.0 M. Flower-like and columnar nanostructured ZnO films were deposited in two ammonia concentration ranges, respectively: one between 0.75 and 1.0 M and the other between 1.4 and 2.0 M. ZnS films were formed with a high ammonia concentration of 3.0 M. The formation mechanisms of ZnO, Zn(OH){sub 2}, and ZnS phases were discussed in the CBD process. The developed technique can be used to directly and rapidly grow nanostructured ZnO film photoanodes. Annealed ZnO nanoflower and columnar nanoparticle films on FTO substrates were used as electrodes to fabricate the dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The DSSC based on ZnO-nanoflower film showed an energy conversion efficiency of 0.84%, which is higher compared to that (0.45%) of the cell being constructed using a photoanode of columnar nanoparticle ZnO film. The results have demonstrated the potential applications of CBD nanostructured ZnO films for photovoltaic cells. (orig.)

  11. Effect of different complexing agents on the properties of chemical-bath-deposited ZnS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun; Wei, Aixiang, E-mail: weiax@gdut.edu.cn; Zhao, Yu

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • To fabricate high quality ZnS films need to promote the ion-by-ion process and restrain cluster-by-cluster process. • The complexation ability of tri-sodium citrate is stronger than that of hydrazine hydrate. • The nucleation density of nuclei determine the performance of ZnS thin films. -- Abstract: Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films were deposited on glass substrates using the chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The effects of different complexing agents (tri-sodium citrate, hydrazine hydrate) and their concentrations on the structure, composition, morphology, optical properties and growth mechanism of ZnS thin films were investigated. The results indicated that the chemical-bath-deposited ZnS thin films exhibit poor crystallinity and a high Zn/S atomic ratio with an average transmittance of 75% in the range of visible light. The ZnS thin films prepared using hydrazine hydrate as the complexing agent present a more compact surface, a smaller average particle size, and a sharper absorption edge at 300–340 nm compared with those prepared using tri-sodium citrate. Based on our experimental observations and analysis, we conclude that the predominant growth mechanism of ZnS thin films is an ion-by-ion process. The nucleation density of Zn(OH){sub 2} nuclei on the substrate in the initial stage produces the different morphologies and properties of the ZnS thin films prepared using the two complexing agents.

  12. Growth and characterization of yttrium iron garnet films on Si substrates by Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xin; Chen, Ying; Wang, Genshui [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Function Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Rd., Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang, Yuanyuan [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200241 (China); Ge, Jun [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Function Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Rd., Shanghai 200050 (China); Tang, Xiaodong [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200241 (China); Ponchel, Freddy; Rémiens, Denis [Institute of Electronics, Microelectronics and Nanotechnology (IEMN)–DOAE, UMR CNRS 8520, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Dong, Xianlin, E-mail: xldong@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Function Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Rd., Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2016-06-25

    Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) films were prepared on Si substrates by Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) technique using acetic acid and deionized water as solvents. Well-crystallized and crack-free YIG films were obtained when annealed at 750 °C and 850 °C respectively, showing a low surface roughness of several nanometers. When annealed at 750 °C for 30 min, the saturated magnetization (Ms) and coercive field (Hc) of YIG films were 0.121 emu/mm{sup 3} (4πMs = 1.52 kGs) and 7 Oe respectively, which were similar to that prepared by PLD technique. The peak-to-peak linewidth of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) was 220 Oe at 9.10 GHz. The results demonstrated that CSD was an excellent technique to prepare high quality yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films on silicon, which could provide a lower-cost way for large-scale production on Si-based integrated devices. - Highlights: • The preparation of YIG films by Chemical Solution Deposition are demonstrated. • Well-crystallized and crack-free YIG films can be obtained on Si substrate by CSD. • YIG films can be crystallized in 750 °C with good magnetic performances. • It's beneficial to large-scale production of YIG films on Si integrated devices.

  13. Spectroscopic investigation of the chemical and electronic properties of chalcogenide materials for thin-film optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Kimberly Anne

    a wide surface band gap, as seen in Cu-poor films. A novel absorber was prepared Cu-rich with a final In-Se treatment to produce a Cu-poor surface, and compared directly to Cu-poor and Cu-rich produced samples. Despite reduced Cu at the surface, the novel absorber was found to have a surface band gap similar to that of traditional, Cu-poor grown absorbers. Furthermore, estimation of the near-surface bulk band gap suggests a narrowing of the band gap away from the surface, similar to highly efficient, Cu-poor grown absorbers. Long-term degradation is another concern facing solar cells, as heat and moistures stress can result in reduced efficiencies over time. The interface of the back contact material and absorber layer in (Au/Cu)/CdTe/CdS thin-film structures from the University of Toledo were investigated after a variety of accelerated stress treatments with the aim of further understanding the chemical and/or electronic degradation of this interface. Sulfur migration to the back contact was observed, along with the formation of Au-S and Cu-S bonds. A correlation between heat stress under illumination and the formation of Cu-Cl bonds was also found. Nanocomposite materials hold promise as a next-generation photovoltaic material and for use in LED devices, due in part to the unique ability to tune the absorption edge of the film by adjusting the semiconductor particle size, and the prospective for long-range charge-carrier (exciton) transport through the wide band gap matrix material. Thin films of CdTe were sputter deposited onto ZnO substrates at the University of Arizona and studied before and after a short, high temperature annealing to further understand the effects of annealing on the CdTe/ZnO interface. A clumping of the CdTe layer and the formation of Cd- and Te-oxides was observed using surface microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. These findings help to evaluate post-deposition annealing as a treatment to adjust the final crystallinity and

  14. A reliable control system for measurement on film thickness in copper chemical mechanical planarization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongkai; Qu, Zilian; Zhao, Qian; Tian, Fangxin; Zhao, Dewen; Meng, Yonggang; Lu, Xinchun [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-12-15

    In recent years, a variety of film thickness measurement techniques for copper chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) are subsequently proposed. In this paper, the eddy-current technique is used. In the control system of the CMP tool developed in the State Key Laboratory of Tribology, there are in situ module and off-line module for measurement subsystem. The in situ module can get the thickness of copper film on wafer surface in real time, and accurately judge when the CMP process should stop. This is called end-point detection. The off-line module is used for multi-points measurement after CMP process, in order to know the thickness of remained copper film. The whole control system is structured with two levels, and the physical connection between the upper and the lower is achieved by the industrial Ethernet. The process flow includes calibration and measurement, and there are different algorithms for two modules. In the process of software development, C++ is chosen as the programming language, in combination with Qt OpenSource to design two modules’ GUI and OPC technology to implement the communication between the two levels. In addition, the drawing function is developed relying on Matlab, enriching the software functions of the off-line module. The result shows that the control system is running stably after repeated tests and practical operations for a long time.

  15. Atmospheric Pressure Spray Chemical Vapor Deposited CuInS2 Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. D.; Raffaelle, R. P.; Banger, K. K.; Smith, M. A.; Scheiman, D. A.; Hepp, A. F.

    2002-01-01

    Solar cells have been prepared using atmospheric pressure spray chemical vapor deposited CuInS2 absorbers. The CuInS2 films were deposited at 390 C using the single source precursor (PPh3)2CuIn(SEt)4 in an argon atmosphere. The absorber ranges in thickness from 0.75 - 1.0 micrometers, and exhibits a crystallographic gradient, with the leading edge having a (220) preferred orientation and the trailing edge having a (112) orientation. Schottky diodes prepared by thermal evaporation of aluminum contacts on to the CuInS2 yielded diodes for films that were annealed at 600 C. Solar cells were prepared using annealed films and had the (top down) composition of Al/ZnO/CdS/CuInS2/Mo/Glass. The Jsc, Voc, FF and (eta) were 6.46 mA per square centimeter, 307 mV, 24% and 0.35%, respectively for the best small area cells under simulated AM0 illumination.

  16. In-situ boron doping of chemical-bath deposited CdS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khallaf, Hani; Park, S.; Schulte, Alfons; Chai, Guangyu; Lupan, Oleg; Chow, Lee; Heinrich, Helge

    2009-01-01

    In-situ boron doping of CdS using chemical-bath deposition (CBD) is reported. The effect of B doping on optical properties, as well as electrical properties, crystal structure, chemistry, and morphology of CdS films is studied. We present a successful approach towards B doping of CdS using CBD, where a resistivity as low as 1.7 x 10 -2 Ωcm and a carrier density as high as 1.91 x 10 19 cm -3 were achieved. The bandgap of B-doped films was found to slightly decrease as the[B]/[Cd] ratio in the solution increases. X-ray diffraction studies showed B 3+ ions likely enter the lattice substitutionally. A phase transition, due to annealing, as well as induced lattice defects, due to B doping, were detected by micro-Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The chemistry and morphology of films were unaffected by B doping. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Effect of thermal history on the structure of chemically and vapor deposited silver films on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelby, J.E.; Nichols, M.C.; Smith, D.K. Jr.; Vitko, J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The observation of silver agglomeration in second surface mirrors used for solar applications has emphasized consideration of the effect of thermal history on the optical properties of mirrors. Thermal history effects may arise from the processing of mirrors, the application of protective coatings, or from outdoor exposure. Mirrors may be subject to elevated temperatures (T less than or equal to 400 0 C) for short periods of time, or to low temperatures (T less than or equal to 60 0 C) for long (less than or equal to 30 years) periods of time. Although a significant amount of work has been done on thermally driven agglomeration of silver films, most of these studies have been restricted to vapor deposited films on vitreous silica. Large area reflectors, such as those used in heliostats, will almost certainly be deposited by commercial chemical methods on substrates of soda-lime-silicate or other glasses which differ considerably from vitreous silica in composition and properties. The present study addresses the effect of this change in deposition technique and substrate on silver agglomeration. These problems were studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy, reflectometry, and x-ray diffraction. The results indicate that both the method used to deposit the silver and the type of glass affect the agglomeration process and the character of the reflective film

  18. Composite silicon nanostructure arrays fabricated on optical fibre by chemical etching of multicrystal silicon film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Zewen; Zhu, Kai; Ning, Lixin; Cui, Guanglei; Qu, Jun; Huang, Wanxia; Shi, Yi; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Integrating nanostructures onto optical fibers presents a promising strategy for developing new-fashioned devices and extending the scope of nanodevices’ applications. Here we report the first fabrication of a composite silicon nanostructure on an optical fiber. Through direct chemical etching using an H 2 O 2 /HF solution, multicrystal silicon films with columnar microstructures are etched into a vertically aligned, inverted-cone-like nanorod array embedded in a nanocone array. A faster dissolution rate of the silicon at the void-rich boundary regions between the columns is found to be responsible for the separation of the columns, and thus the formation of the nanostructure array. The morphology of the nanorods primarily depends on the microstructure of the columns in the film. Through controlling the microstructure of the as-grown film and the etching parameters, the structural control of the nanostructure is promising. This fabrication method can be extended to a larger length scale, and it even allows roll-to-roll processing. (paper)

  19. Composite silicon nanostructure arrays fabricated on optical fibre by chemical etching of multicrystal silicon film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zewen; Zhu, Kai; Ning, Lixin; Cui, Guanglei; Qu, Jun; Huang, Wanxia; Shi, Yi; Liu, Hong

    2015-04-17

    Integrating nanostructures onto optical fibers presents a promising strategy for developing new-fashioned devices and extending the scope of nanodevices' applications. Here we report the first fabrication of a composite silicon nanostructure on an optical fiber. Through direct chemical etching using an H2O2/HF solution, multicrystal silicon films with columnar microstructures are etched into a vertically aligned, inverted-cone-like nanorod array embedded in a nanocone array. A faster dissolution rate of the silicon at the void-rich boundary regions between the columns is found to be responsible for the separation of the columns, and thus the formation of the nanostructure array. The morphology of the nanorods primarily depends on the microstructure of the columns in the film. Through controlling the microstructure of the as-grown film and the etching parameters, the structural control of the nanostructure is promising. This fabrication method can be extended to a larger length scale, and it even allows roll-to-roll processing.

  20. Chemical vapor deposition based tungsten disulfide (WS2) thin film transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2013-04-01

    Tungsten disulfide (WS2) is a layered transition metal dichalcogenide with a reported band gap of 1.8 eV in bulk and 1.32-1.4 eV in its thin film form. 2D atomic layers of metal dichalcogenides have shown changes in conductivity with applied electric field. This makes them an interesting option for channel material in field effect transistors (FETs). Therefore, we show a highly manufacturable chemical vapor deposition (CVD) based simple process to grow WS2 directly on silicon oxide in a furnace and then its transistor action with back gated device with room temperature field effect mobility of 0.1003 cm2/V-s using the Schottky barrier contact model. We also show the semiconducting behavior of this WS2 thin film which is more promising than thermally unstable organic materials for thin film transistor application. Our direct growth method on silicon oxide also holds interesting opportunities for macro-electronics applications. © 2013 IEEE.

  1. Chemical Frustration. A Design Principle for the Discovery of New Complex Alloy and Intermetallic Phases, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, Daniel C [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-06-23

    Final technical report for "Chemical Frustration: A Design Principle for the Discovery of New Complex Alloy and Intermetallic Phases" funded by the Office of Science through the Materials Chemistry Program of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  2. Enhanced magnetic properties of chemical solution deposited BiFeO3 thin film with ZnO buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajalakshmi, R.; Kambhala, Nagaiah; Angappane, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Enhanced magnetization of BiFeO 3 is important for strong magnetoelectric coupling. ► BiFeO 3 film with ZnO buffer layer was successfully synthesized by chemical method. ► Magnetization of BiFeO 3 has increased by more than 10 times with ZnO buffer layer. ► A mechanism for enhancement in ferromagnetism of BiFeO 3 film is proposed. - Abstract: Magnetic properties of BiFeO 3 films deposited on Si substrates with and without ZnO buffer layer have been studied in this work. We adopted the chemical solution deposition method for the deposition of BiFeO 3 as well as ZnO films. The x-ray diffraction measurements on the deposited films confirm the formation of crystalline phase of BiFeO 3 and ZnO films, while our electron microscopy measurements help to understand the morphology of few micrometers thick films. It is found that the deposited ZnO film exhibit a hexagonal particulate surface morphology, whereas BiFeO 3 film fully covers the ZnO surface. Our magnetic measurements reveal that the magnetization of BiFeO 3 has increased by more than ten times in BiFeO 3 /ZnO/Si film compared to BiFeO 3 /Si film, indicating the major role played by ZnO buffer layer in enhancing the magnetic properties of BiFeO 3 , a technologically important multiferroic material.

  3. Final report for EMP instrumentation project DNA IACRO 75-815: magnetic thin film sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, E.J.; Miller, D.E.; Vindelov, K.E.; Brown, T.G.

    1975-01-01

    The magnetic thin film current sensor/recorder is a passive device which responds to the peak current and pulse shape of a transient event. The transient current information becomes a permanent record on the film. The thin film device is small, low mass and reusable. It has been proven to be fast (less than 1/2 nanosecond response), radiation hard and applicable to peak current measurement of both CW and pulsed signals. The sensors were initially developed at LLL for pulse-energy measurement on exploding wires. Later the Defense Nuclear Agency sponsored the present project to develop the magnetic thin film devices as EMP diagnostic tools. The Air Force Weapons Lab supported the work to test the field capabilities of the thin film devices at ARES test facility, Kirtland AFB. Sandia Lab is now using a new version of the thin film sensors to monitor the transient current induced by intense radiation in their hybrid microcircuits. Also, a field test has been planned with Naval Electronics Laboratory Center where the thin film sensors are to be used to measure peak CW current caused by rf radiation. Research results are summarized

  4. Relationship between deprotection and film thickness loss during plasma etching of positive tone chemically amplified resists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahorowala, A.P.; Medeiros, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Positive tone chemically amplified (CA) resists have demonstrated the sensitivity, contrast, and resolution necessary to print state-of-the-art subwavelength features using 248 nm and more recently 193 nm lithography. These materials are also being considered for printing sub-100 nm features with 157 nm and next-generation lithography technologies such as extreme ultraviolet and electron beam projection lithography. The basis for solubility differential and image formation in these resists is the acid catalyzed deprotection of labile protecting groups of an inherently base soluble polymer. The deprotection is effected by the photochemical generation of strong acid during the exposure process. Such acid-catalyzed deprotection reactions can also occur in unexposed resist areas when etched in a plasma. This can be due to UV exposure, high-energy ion bombardment, elevated substrate temperatures, or interaction of the resist surface with plasma species to form acidic moieties. Deprotection has been associated with resist mass loss and film shrinkage during plasma etching, leaving inadequate masking material for the entire etch step. In this article, we report the film thickness loss of several unexposed CA resists as a function of etch time in a variety of plasmas and correlate these data with film composition, monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These results are compared with theoretical predictions based on generally accepted deprotection mechanisms. Our findings indicate that the 'acidic' nature of certain plasmas such as Cl 2 /O 2 can result in deprotection in the resist film, even in the absence of a photoacid generator. Additionally, the data suggest that the nature of the resist polymer and, in turn, the identity of the deprotection products directly influence resist mass loss and etch rate linearity, both of which can be controlled by careful selection of resist materials

  5. The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes & cellulosics. Final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Okos, M.; Burgos, N. [and others

    1997-06-15

    High strength food wastes of about 15-20 billion pounds solids are produced annually by US food producers. Low strength food wastes of 5-10 billion pounds/yr. are produced. Estimates of the various components of these waste streams are shown in Table 1. Waste paper/lignocellulosic crops could produce 2 to 5 billion gallons of ethanol per year or other valuable chemicals. Current oil imports cost the US about $60 billion dollars/yr. in out-going balance of trade costs. Many organic chemicals that are currently derived from petroleum can be produced through fermentation processes. Petroleum based processes have been preferred over biotechnology processes because they were typically cheaper, easier, and more efficient. The technologies developed during the course of this project are designed to allow fermentation based chemicals and fuels to compete favorably with petroleum based chemicals. Our goals in this project have been to: (1) develop continuous fermentation processes as compared to batch operations; (2) combine separation of the product with the fermentation, thus accomplishing the twin goals of achieving a purified product from a fermentation broth and speeding the conversion of substrate to product in the fermentation broth; (3) utilize food or cellulosic waste streams which pose a current cost or disposal problem as compared to high cost grains or sugar substrates; (4) develop low energy recovery methods for fermentation products; and finally (5) demonstrate successful lab scale technologies on a pilot/production scale and try to commercialize the processes. The scale of the wastes force consideration of {open_quotes}bulk commodity{close_quotes} type products if a high fraction of the wastes are to be utilized.

  6. Designation of Alpha-Phenylacetoacetonitrile (APAAN), a Precursor Chemical Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Phenylacetone, Methamphetamine, and Amphetamine, as a List I Chemical. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-14

    The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is finalizing the designation of the chemical alpha-phenylacetoacetonitrile (APAAN) and its salts, optical isomers, and salts of optical isomers, as a list I chemical under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). The DEA proposed control of APAAN, due to its use in clandestine laboratories to illicitly manufacture the schedule II controlled substances phenylacetone (also known as phenyl-2-propanone or P2P), methamphetamine, and amphetamine. This rulemaking finalizes, without change, the control of APAAN as a list I chemical. This action does not establish a threshold for domestic and international transactions of APAAN. As such, all transactions involving APAAN, regardless of size, shall be regulated. In addition, chemical mixtures containing APAAN are not exempt from regulatory requirements at any concentration. Therefore, all transactions of chemical mixtures containing any quantity of APAAN shall be regulated pursuant to the CSA. However, manufacturers may submit an application for exemption for those mixtures that do not qualify for automatic exemption.

  7. Chemical Interactions and Their Role in the Microphase Separation of Block Copolymer Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Farrell

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamics of self-assembling systems are discussed in terms of the chemical interactions and the intermolecular forces between species. It is clear that there are both theoretical and practical limitations on the dimensions and the structural regularity of these systems. These considerations are made with reference to the microphase separation that occurs in block copolymer (BCP systems. BCP systems self-assemble via a thermodynamic driven process where chemical dis-affinity between the blocks driving them part is balanced by a restorative force deriving from the chemical bond between the blocks. These systems are attracting much interest because of their possible role in nanoelectronic fabrication. This form of self-assembly can obtain highly regular nanopatterns in certain circumstances where the orientation and alignment of chemically distinct blocks can be guided through molecular interactions between the polymer and the surrounding interfaces. However, for this to be possible, great care must be taken to properly engineer the interactions between the surfaces and the polymer blocks. The optimum methods of structure directing are chemical pre-patterning (defining regions on the substrate of different chemistry and graphoepitaxy (topographical alignment but both centre on generating alignment through favourable chemical interactions. As in all self-assembling systems, the problems of defect formation must be considered and the origin of defects in these systems is explored. It is argued that in these nanostructures equilibrium defects are relatively few and largely originate from kinetic effects arising during film growth. Many defects also arise from the confinement of the systems when they are ‘directed’ by topography. The potential applications of these materials in electronics are discussed.

  8. Tuning of electrical and structural properties of indium oxide films grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ch.Y.; Cimalla, V.; Romanus, H.; Kups, Th.; Niebelschuetz, M.; Ambacher, O.

    2007-01-01

    Tuning of structural and electrical properties of indium oxide (In 2 O 3 ) films by means of metal organic chemical vapor deposition is demonstrated. Phase selective growth of rhombohedral In 2 O 3 (0001) and body-centered cubic In 2 O 3 (001) polytypes on (0001) sapphire substrates was obtained by adjusting the substrate temperature and trimethylindium flow rate. The specific resistance of the as-grown films can be tuned by about two orders of magnitude by varying the growth conditions

  9. Chemical composition, water vapor permeability, and mechanical properties of yuba film influenced by soymilk depth and concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Siran; Lee, Jaesang; Kim, Yookyung

    2018-03-01

    Yuba is a soy protein-lipid film formed during heating of soymilk. This study described yuba as an edible film by analyzing its chemical composition, water vapor permeability (WVP), and mechanical properties. Three yuba films were prepared by using different concentrations and depths of soymilk: HS (86 g kg -1 and 2.3 cm), LS (70 g kg -1 and 2.3 cm), and LD (70 g kg -1 and 3.0 cm). As yuba was successively skimmed, the protein, lipid, and SH content decreased, but carbohydrate and SS content increased. Though both the initial concentration and the depth of soymilk affect the properties of the films, the depth of soymilk influences WVP and tensile strength (TS) more. The WVP of the HS and LS changed the least (13-17 g mm kPa -1 m -2 day 1 ), while that of the LD changed the most (13-35 g mm kPa -1 m -2 day -1 ). There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the TS between the HS and LS. LD had the greatest decrease of TS and the lowest TS among the groups. The earlier the yuba films were collected, the greater the elongation of the films was: 129% (HS), 113% (LS), and 155% (LD). The initial concentration and the depth of soymilk changed the chemical composition and structure of the yuba films. The LS yuba produced more uniform edible films with good mechanical properties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Atomic force microscopy indentation of fluorocarbon thin films fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical deposition at low radio frequency power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirghi, L.; Ruiz, A.; Colpo, P.; Rossi, F.

    2009-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation technique is used for characterization of mechanical properties of fluorocarbon (CF x ) thin films obtained from C 4 F 8 gas by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition at low r.f. power (5-30 W) and d.c. bias potential (10-80 V). This particular deposition method renders films with good hydrophobic property and high plastic compliance. Commercially available AFM probes with stiff cantilevers (10-20 N/m) and silicon sharpened tips (tip radius < 10 nm) are used for indentations and imaging of the resulted indentation imprints. Force depth curves and imprint characteristics are used for determination of film hardness, elasticity modulus and plasticity index. The measurements show that the decrease of the discharge power results in deposition of films with decreased hardness and stiffness and increased plasticity index. Nanolithography based on AFM indentation is demonstrated on thin films (thickness of 40 nm) with good plastic compliance.

  11. Structural and optical properties of nano-structured CdS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Rekha, E-mail: rekha.mittal07@gmail.com; Kumar, Dinesh; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K. [Thin Film Laboratory, Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films have been deposited on conducting glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The effect of precursor concentration on the structural, morphological, compositional, and optical properties of the CdS films has been studied. Crystal structure of these CdS films is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and it reveals polycrystalline structure with mixture of cubic and wurtzite phases with grain size decreasing as precursor concentration is increased. Optical studies reveal that the CdS thin films have high transmittance in visible spectral region reaching 90% and the films possess direct optical band gap that decreases from 2.46 to 2.39 eV with decreasing bath concentration. Our study suggests that growth is nucleation controlled.

  12. Anisotropic electrical conduction and reduction in dangling-bond density for polycrystalline Si films prepared by catalytic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niikura, Chisato; Masuda, Atsushi; Matsumura, Hideki

    1999-07-01

    Polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) films with high crystalline fraction and low dangling-bond density were prepared by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD), often called hot-wire CVD. Directional anisotropy in electrical conduction, probably due to structural anisotropy, was observed for Cat-CVD poly-Si films. A novel method to separately characterize both crystalline and amorphous phases in poly-Si films using anisotropic electrical conduction was proposed. On the basis of results obtained by the proposed method and electron spin resonance measurements, reduction in dangling-bond density for Cat-CVD poly-Si films was achieved using the condition to make the quality of the included amorphous phase high. The properties of Cat-CVD poly-Si films are found to be promising in solar-cell applications.

  13. Structural and optical properties of nano-structured CdS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Rekha; Kumar, Dinesh; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films have been deposited on conducting glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The effect of precursor concentration on the structural, morphological, compositional, and optical properties of the CdS films has been studied. Crystal structure of these CdS films is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and it reveals polycrystalline structure with mixture of cubic and wurtzite phases with grain size decreasing as precursor concentration is increased. Optical studies reveal that the CdS thin films have high transmittance in visible spectral region reaching 90% and the films possess direct optical band gap that decreases from 2.46 to 2.39 eV with decreasing bath concentration. Our study suggests that growth is nucleation controlled.

  14. Construction of conductive multilayer films of biogenic triangular gold nanoparticles and their application in chemical vapour sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit; Chaudhari, Minakshi; Sastry, Murali

    2006-05-01

    Metal nanoparticles are interesting building blocks for realizing films for a number of applications that include bio- and chemical sensing. To date, spherical metal nanoparticles have been used to generate functional electrical coatings. In this paper we demonstrate the synthesis of electrically conductive coatings using biologically prepared gold nanotriangles as the building blocks. The gold nanotriangles are prepared by the reduction of aqueous chloroaurate ions using an extract of the lemongrass plant (Cymbopogon flexuosus) which are thereafter assembled onto a variety of substrates by simple solution casting. The conductivity of the film shows a drastic fall upon mild heat treatment, leading to the formation of electrically conductive thin films of nanoparticles. We have also investigated the possibility of using the gold nanotriangle films in vapour sensing. A large fall in film resistance is observed upon exposure to polar molecules such as methanol, while little change occurs upon exposure to weakly polar molecules such as chloroform.

  15. Characterization of thin TiO2 films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for optical and photocatalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobczyk-Guzenda, A.; Gazicki-Lipman, M.; Szymanowski, H.; Kowalski, J.; Wojciechowski, P.; Halamus, T.; Tracz, A.

    2009-01-01

    Thin titanium oxide films were deposited using a radio frequency (RF) plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition method. Their optical properties and thickness were determined by means of ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrophotometry. Films of the optical parameters very close to those of titanium dioxide have been obtained at the high RF power input. Their optical quality is high enough to allow for their use in a construction of stack interference optical filters. At the same time, these materials exhibit strong photocatalytic effects. The results of structural analysis, carried out by Raman Shift Spectroscopy, show that the coatings posses amorphous structure. However, Raman spectra of the same films subjected to thermal annealing at 450 o C disclose an appearance of a crystalline form, namely that of anatase. Surface morphology of the films has also been characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy revealing granular, broccoli-like topography of the films.

  16. Wet chemical synthesis of quantum confined nanostructured tin oxide thin films by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murali, K.V., E-mail: kvmuralikv@gmail.com [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Department of Physics, Kannur University, Kerala 670327 (India); Department of Physics, Nehru Arts and Science College, Kanhangad, Kerala 671314 (India); Ragina, A.J. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Department of Physics, Kannur University, Kerala 670327 (India); Department of Physics, Nehru Arts and Science College, Kanhangad, Kerala 671314 (India); Preetha, K.C. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Department of Physics, Kannur University, Kerala 670327 (India); Department of Physics, Sree Narayana College, Kannur, Kerala 670007 (India); Deepa, K.; Remadevi, T.L. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Department of Physics, Kannur University, Kerala 670327 (India); Department of Physics, Pazhassi Raja N.S.S. College, Mattannur, Kerala 670702 (India)

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quantum confined SnO{sub 2} thin films were synthesized at 80 °C by SILAR technique. • Film formation mechanism is discussed. • Films with snow like crystallite morphology offer high specific surface area. • The blue-shifted value of band gap confirmed the quantum confinement effect. • Present synthesis has advantages – low cost, low temperature and green friendly. - Abstract: Quantum confined nanostructured SnO{sub 2} thin films were synthesized at 353 K using ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) and other chemicals by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique. Film formation mechanism is discussed. Structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties were investigated and compared with the as-grown and annealed films fabricated without NH{sub 4}Cl solution. SnO{sub 2} films were polycrystalline with crystallites of tetragonal structure with grain sizes lie in the 5–8 nm range. Films with snow like crystallite morphology offer high specific surface area. The blue-shifted value of band gap of as-grown films confirmed the quantum confinement effect of grains. Refractive index of the films lies in the 2.1–2.3 range. Films prepared with NH{sub 4}Cl exhibit relatively lower resistivity of the order of 10{sup 0}–10{sup −1} Ω cm. The present synthesis has advantages such as low cost, low temperature and green friendly, which yields small particle size, large surface–volume ratio, and high crystallinity SnO{sub 2} films.

  17. Role of the buffer solution in the chemical deposition of CdS films for CIGS solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sooho; Kim, Donguk; Baek, Dohyun; Hong, Byoungyou; Yi, Junsin; Lee, Jaehyeong [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yongseob [Chosun College of Science and and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Wonseok [Hanbat National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this work, the effects of NH{sub 4}Ac on the structural and the electro-optical properties of CdS films were investigated. CdS thin films were deposited on soda-lime glass and indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass from a chemical bath containing 0.025 M cadmium acetate, 0 M ∼ 0.2 M ammonium acetate, 0.5 M thiourea, and ammonia. Cadmium acetate was the cadmium source, ammonium acetate served as a buffer, ammonia was the complexing agent, and thiourea was the source of sulfur. A commonly- available chemical bath deposition system was successfully modified to obtain precise control over the pH of the solution at 75 .deg. C during the deposition. Chemically deposited CdS films were studied by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical transmittance, and electrical resistivity measurements.

  18. Final Report: "Collaborative Project. Understanding the Chemical Processes That Affect Growth Rates of Freshly Nucleated Particles"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, James N. [NCAR, Boulder, CO (United States); McMurry, Peter H. [NCAR, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-11-12

    This final technical report describes our research activities that have, as the ultimate goal, the development of a model that explains growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The research activities, which combine field observations with laboratory experiments, explore the relationship between concentrations of gas-phase species that contribute to growth and the rates at which those species are taken up. We also describe measurements of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles in a variety of locales, as well as properties (especially hygroscopicity) that influence their effects on climate. Our measurements include a self-organized, DOE-ARM funded project at the Southern Great Plains site, the New Particle Formation Study (NPFS), which took place during spring 2013. NPFS data are available to the research community on the ARM data archive, providing a unique suite observations of trace gas and aerosols that are associated with the formation and growth of atmospheric aerosol particles.

  19. Development of Falling Film Heat Transfer Coefficient for Industrial Chemical Processes Evaporator Design

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Burhan, Muhammad; Ng, Kim Choon

    2018-01-01

    In falling film evaporators, the overall heat transfer coefficient is controlled by film thickness, velocity, liquid properties and the temperature differential across the film layer. This chapter presents the heat transfer behaviour for evaporative

  20. Chemical and mechanical performance properties for various final waste forms -- PSPI scoping study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Larsen, E.D.; Sears, J.W.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1996-09-01

    The US DOE is obtaining data on the performance properties of the various final waste forms that may be chosen as primary treatment products for the alpha-contaminated low-level and transuranic waste at the INEL's Transuranic Storage Area. This report collects and compares selected properties that are key indicators of mechanical and chemical durability for Portland cement concrete, concrete formed under elevated temperature and pressure, sulfur polymer cement, borosilicate glass, and various forms of alumino-silicate glass, including in situ vitrification glass and various compositions of iron-enriched basalt (IEB) and iron-enriched basalt IV (IEB4). Compressive strength and impact resistance properties were used as performance indicators in comparative evaluation of the mechanical durability of each waste form, while various leachability data were used in comparative evaluation of each waste form's chemical durability. The vitrified waste forms were generally more durable than the non-vitrified waste forms, with the iron-enriched alumino-silicate glasses and glass/ceramics exhibiting the most favorable chemical and mechanical durabilities. It appears that the addition of zirconia and titania to IEB (forming IEB4) increases the leach resistance of the lanthanides. The large compositional ranges for IEB and IEB4 more easily accommodate the compositions of the waste stored at the INEL than does the composition of borosilicate glass. It appears, however, that the large potential variation in IEB and IEB4 compositions resulting from differing waste feed compositions can impact waste form durability. Further work is needed to determine the range of waste stream feed compositions and rates of waste form cooling that will result in acceptable and optimized IEB or IEB4 waste form performance. 43 refs

  1. Tuning anomalous Hall conductivity in L1[sub 0] FePt films by long range chemical ordering

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, M.; Shi, Z.; Xu, W. J.; Zhang, Xixiang; Du, J.; Zhou, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    For L10 FePt films, the anomalous Hall conductivity σ xy=-a σxx-b, where a=a0f(T), b=b 0f(T), and f (T) is the temperature dependence factor of the spontaneous magnetization. With increasing chemical long range ordering S, a0 changes its sign accompanied by a reduction of its magnitude and b0 increases monotonically. The spin-orbit coupling strength is suggested to increase with increasing S. As an approach, the long range chemical ordering can be used to control the anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic alloy films. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Tuning anomalous Hall conductivity in L1[sub 0] FePt films by long range chemical ordering

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, M.

    2011-02-24

    For L10 FePt films, the anomalous Hall conductivity σ xy=-a σxx-b, where a=a0f(T), b=b 0f(T), and f (T) is the temperature dependence factor of the spontaneous magnetization. With increasing chemical long range ordering S, a0 changes its sign accompanied by a reduction of its magnitude and b0 increases monotonically. The spin-orbit coupling strength is suggested to increase with increasing S. As an approach, the long range chemical ordering can be used to control the anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic alloy films. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Aldehyde-functionalized chitosan-montmorillonite films as dynamically-assembled, switchable-chemical release bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabbi, Jamal; Jennah, Oumayma; Katir, Nadia; Lahcini, Mohamed; Bousmina, Mosto; El Kadib, Abdelkrim

    2018-03-01

    Temporal release of synergistic and/or complementary chemicals (e.g.: drugs) is recognized as extremely challenging because of their frequently intertwined kinetic delivery and presently, straightforward concepts enabling to circumvent this bottleneck are missing in the open literature. In this framework, we report herein on aldehyde-functionalized, transparent and flexible chitosan-montmorillonite hybrid films that act as a new generation of eco-friendly, controlled-chemical release bioplastics. These dynamically-assembled nanomaterials are designed by a ternary assembly from biowaste derived chitin biopolymer, aromatic aldehydes and layered clay nanoparticles. On the basis of their geometrical and conformational properties, the oxygenated groups on the grafted aromatics interact preferentially with either the base Schiff belonging to the carbohydrate (via intramolecular CNHO-Ar known as "imine clip") or with the hydroxyl groups belonging to the clay surface (via intermolecular Si-OHO-Ar). The exfoliated clay nanoparticles within the carbohydrate polymer enables either accelerating or slowing down of the imine (CN) hydrolysis depending on the interaction of the conjugated aromatics. This provides the driving force for fine tuning host-guest interactions at the molecular level and constitutes an entry toward subtle discrimination of different chemicals (e.g. complementary fertilizers, synergistic drugs) during their sequential release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. X-ray film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, U.W.; Gilmore, D.J.; Wonacott, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of film as an X-ray detector is discussed and its behaviour is compared with that of a perfect Poissonian detector. The efficiency of microdensitometry as a method of extracting the information recorded on the film is discussed. More emphasis is placed in the precision of microdensitometric measurements than on the more obvious characteristic of film speed. The effects of chemical fog and background on the precision of the measurements is considered and it is concluded that the final limit to precision is set by the chemical fog. (B.D.)

  5. On the structure and surface chemical composition of indium-tin oxide films prepared by long-throw magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, M.J.; Huang, H.F.; Wen, C.H.; Chu, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Structures and surface chemical composition of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films prepared by long-throw radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique have been investigated. The ITO films were deposited on glass substrates using a 20 cm target-to-substrate distance in a pure argon sputtering environment. X-ray diffraction results showed that an increase in substrate temperature resulted in ITO structure evolution from amorphous to polycrystalline. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy micrographs suggested that the ITO films were free of bombardment of energetic particles since the microstructures of the films exhibited a smaller grain size and no sub-grain boundary could be observed. The surface composition of the ITO films was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Oxygen atoms in both amorphous and crystalline ITO structures were observed from O 1 s XPS spectra. However, the peak of the oxygen atoms in amorphous ITO phase could only be found in samples prepared at low substrate temperatures. Its relative peak area decreased drastically when substrate temperatures were larger than 200 o C. In addition, a composition analysis from the XPS results revealed that the films deposited at low substrate temperatures contained high concentration of oxygen at the film surfaces. The oxygen-rich surfaces can be attributed to hydrolysis reactions of indium oxides, especially when large amount of the amorphous ITO were developed near the film surfaces.

  6. Influence of humidity on the growth characteristics and properties of chemical bath-deposited ZnS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yi-Cheng; Chao, Yen-Tai [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 50007, Taiwan (China); Yao, Pin-Chuan, E-mail: pcyao@mail.dyu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Dacun, Changhua 51591, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the effect of humidity on the growth characteristics and properties of chemical bath-deposited ZnS thin films was systematically investigated. All deposition was conducted by an open CBD system under various relative humidity levels (RH) or by a hermetic CBD system as a comparison. It shows, for films deposited by an open system, the ambient humidity plays an important role in the quality of the resultant films. Damp environments lead to powdery films. Generally, all films prepared in this study using NH{sub 3} and hydrazine hydrate as the complexing agents were amorphous or poorly crystalline. For an open system, the [H{sup +}] from the dissolved carbon dioxide in the air competes with the ammonium ions in the bath solution. According to Le Châtelier's principle, more ammonia was consumed, which favors the free [Zn{sup +2}] in the solution, facilitating the homogeneous precipitation of Zn(OH){sub 2} and giving rise to a powdery film. The x-ray photoelectron spectrum shows, for an open system, the content of Zn–O compounds in the form of Zn(OH){sub 2} and ZnO, etc., is increased by the relative humidity of the environment. The visible transmittance is reduced by RH. The higher optical band gap of the as-deposited films could be attributed to the quantum confinement effects due to the small grain size of the polycrystalline ZnS films over the substrates.

  7. Structural and optical studied of nano structured lead sulfide thin films prepared by the chemical bath deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Din, Nasser Saad, E-mail: nsaadaldin@yahoo.com; Hussain, Nabiha, E-mail: nabihahssin@yahoo.com [Damascus University Faculty of Science, Department of physics, Homs (Syrian Arab Republic); Jandow, Nidhal, E-mail: nidhaljandow@yahoo.com [Al –Mustansiriyah University, College of Education, Department of physics, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2016-07-25

    Lead (II) Sulfide PbS thin films were deposited on glass substrates at 25°C by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The structural properties of the films were studied as a function of the concentration of Thiourea (CS (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}) as Source of Sulfide and deposition time. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM. The obtained results showed that the as-deposited films Polycrystalline had cubic crystalline phase that belong to S.G: Fm3m. We found that they have preferred orientation [200]. Also the thickness of thin films decrease with deposition time after certain value and, it observed free sulfide had orthorhombic phase. Optical properties showed that the thin films have high transmission at visible range and low transmission at UV, IR range. The films of PbS have direct band gap (I.68 - 2.32 ev) at 300 K the values of band energy decreases with increases thickness of the Lead (II) Sulfide films.

  8. Elucidating doping driven microstructure evolution and optical properties of lead sulfide thin films grown from a chemical bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Bhaskar Chandra; Bector, Keerti; Laha, Ranjit

    2018-03-01

    Doping driven remarkable microstructural evolution of PbS thin films grown by a single-step chemical bath deposition process at 60 °C is reported. The undoped films were discontinuous with octahedral-shaped crystallites after 30 min of deposition, whereas Cu doping led to a distinctly different surface microstructure characterized by densely packed elongated crystallites. A mechanism, based on the time sequence study of microstructural evolution of the films, and detailed XRD and Raman measurements, has been proposed to explain the contrasting microstructure of the doped films. The incorporation of Cu forms an interface layer, which is devoid of Pb. The excess Cu ions in this interface layer at the initial stages of film growth strongly interact and selectively stabilize the charged {111} faces containing either Pb or S compared to the uncharged {100} faces that contain both Pb and S. This interaction interferes with the natural growth habit resulting in the observed surface features of the doped films. Concurrently, the Cu-doping potentially changed the optical properties of the films: A significant widening of the bandgap from 1.52 eV to 1.74 eV for increase in Cu concentration from 0 to 20% was observed, making it a highly potential absorber layer in thin film solar cells.

  9. Effect of Molecular Structure on Modulation of Passivation Films on Copper Chemical Mechanical Planarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarski, Amy

    In order to optimize the chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process, there is a need to further understand the synergistic relationship between chemical and mechanical parameters to enhance the polishing process. CMP chemistry is very complex, as it contains complexing agents, oxidizing agents, passivating agents, and abrasive particles. This variety of components ensues chaos within the system, which complicates the understanding of the direct impact each component has on the CMP process. In order for there to be efficiency in the polishing process, specifically for copper (Cu) polishing, the chemistry must create a softened passivation layer on the Cu surface that is able to be readily removed by applied mechanical abrasion. Focusing on Cu CMP, the oxidation of Cu to Cu2+ needs to be thoroughly understood in order to probe the formation of creating this ideal passivated layer, which protects recessed Cu regions. The type of film that is formed, the strength of the film, and even the efficiency of film removal will be altered depending on the chemistry of interaction at the Cu surface. This thesis focuses on understanding the working mechanism of the film formation on Cu, depending on the passivating agent added to the system. The different passivating agents used, more specifically benzotriazole (BTA), triazole (TAZ), salicylhydroxamic acid (SHA), and benzimidazole (BIA), have all been known to create a light coat of protection on the recessed metal, providing corrosion resistance. In order to study the differences in these films, many different techniques can be utilized to characterize the films, such as electrochemical scans, referred to as Tafel plots, which will be performed to compare the differences of the films. By altering the temperature within the system, the activation energy for each system can also be determined as another way to characterize the density of the passive film formed. Furthermore, the generation of *OH will be monitored since the

  10. 78 FR 62443 - Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates and Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylate Chemical Substances; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ...) for perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFAS) chemical substances to add PFAS chemical substances that have... designating (for all listed PFAS chemical substances) processing as a significant new use. EPA is also... 40 CFR 721.9582 for PFAS chemical substances to add PFAS chemical substances that have completed the...

  11. Influence of multi-depositions on the final properties of thermally evaporated TlBr films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destefano, N.; Mulato, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thallium bromide is a promising candidate material for photodetectors in medical imaging systems. This work investigates the structural, optical and electrical properties of thermally evaporated TlBr films. The main fabrication parameter is the number of depositions. The use of sequential runs is aimed to increase the thickness of the films, as necessary, for technological applications. We deposited films using one-four runs, that led to maximum thickness of about 50 μm. Crystallographic and morphological changes were observed with varying deposition runs. Nevertheless, the optical gap and electrical resistivity in the dark remained constant at about 2.85 eV and 10 9 Ω cm, respectively. Thicker samples have a larger ratio of photo-to-dark signal under medical X-ray exposure, with a larger linear region as a function of applied voltage. The results are discussed aiming at future technological applications in medical imaging.

  12. Photocatalytic activity of tin-doped TiO{sub 2} film deposited via aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chua, Chin Sheng, E-mail: cschua@simtech.a-star.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, 638075 (Singapore); Tan, Ooi Kiang; Tse, Man Siu [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Ding, Xingzhao [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, 638075 (Singapore)

    2013-10-01

    Tin-doped TiO{sub 2} films are deposited via aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition using a precursor mixture composing of titanium tetraisopropoxide and tetrabutyl tin. The amount of tin doping in the deposited films is controlled by the volume % concentration ratio of tetrabutyl tin over titanium tetraisopropoxide in the mixed precursor solution. X-ray diffraction analysis results reveal that the as-deposited films are composed of pure anatase TiO{sub 2} phase. Red-shift in the absorbance spectra is observed attributed to the introduction of Sn{sup 4+} band states below the conduction band of TiO{sub 2}. The effect of tin doping on the photocatalytic property of TiO{sub 2} films is studied through the degradation of stearic acid under UV light illumination. It is found that there is a 10% enhancement on the degradation rate of stearic acid for the film with 3.8% tin doping in comparison with pure TiO{sub 2} film. This improvement of photocatalytic performance with tin incorporation could be ascribed to the reduction of electron-hole recombination rate through charge separation and an increased amount of OH radicals which are crucial for the degradation of stearic acid. Further increase in tin doping results in the formation of recombination site and large anatase grains, which leads to a decrease in the degradation rate. - Highlights: ► Deposition of tin-doped TiO{sub 2} film via aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition ► Deposited anatase films show red-shifted in UV–vis spectrum with tin-dopants. ► Photoactivity improves at low tin concentration but reduces at higher concentration. ► Improvement in photoactivity due to bandgap narrowing from Sn{sup 4+} band states ► Maximum photoactivity achieved occurs for films with 3.8% tin doping.

  13. Fabrication of single-phase ε-GaSe films on Si(100) substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chia-Chen; Zeng, Jia-Xian; Lan, Shan-Ming [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Uen, Wu-Yih, E-mail: uenwuyih@ms37.hinet.net [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Liao, Sen-Mao [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Yang, Tsun-Neng; Ma, Wei-Yang [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, P.O. Box 3-11, Lungtan 32500, Taiwan (China); Chang, Kuo-Jen [Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, No.15, Shi Qi Zi, Gaoping Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County, Taiwan (China)

    2013-09-02

    Single-phase ε-gallium selenide (GaSe) films were fabricated on Si(100) substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition using dual-source precursors: triethylgallium (TEG) and hydrogen selenide (H{sub 2}Se) with the flow ratio of [H{sub 2}Se]/[TEG] being maintained at 1.2. In particular, an arsine (AsH{sub 3}) flow was introduced to the Si substrate before the film deposition to induce an arsenic (As)-passivation effect on the substrate. The crystalline structure of GaSe films prepared was analyzed using X-ray diffraction and the surface morphology of them was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the film quality could be improved by the As-passivation effect. The optical properties of the films were studied by temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements. PL spectra obtained with different distributions and intensities favored for resolving the superior material quality of the films produced on the substrate with As-passivation compared to those produced on the substrate without As-passivation. The former was dominated by the excitonic emissions for the whole temperature range of 20–300 K examined, while the latter was initially dominated by the defect-related emission at 1.907 eV for a low-temperature range ≦ 80 K and then became dominated by the weak excitonic emission band instead. The ε modification of GaSe films prepared was further recognized by the Raman scattering measurements conducted at room temperature. - Highlights: • Gallium selenide (GaSe) layered structures are fabricated on Si(100) substrate. • Metal–organic chemical vapor deposition is used for film fabrication. • Arsenic-passivation effects of Si substrate on the GaSe film quality are analyzed. • Photoluminescence measurements of GaSe polycrystals are reported.

  14. Chemical Bath Deposition of PbS:Hg2+ Nanocrystalline Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palomino-Merino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline PbS thin films were prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD at 40 ± 2°C onto glass substrates and their structural and optical properties modified by in-situ doping with Hg. The morphological changes of the layers were analyzed using SEM and the X-rays spectra showing growth on the zinc blende (ZB face. The grain size determined by using X-rays spectra for undoped samples was found to be ~36 nm, whereas with the doped sample was 32–20 nm. Optical absorption spectra were used to calculate the Eg, showing a shift in the range 1.4–2.4 eV. Raman spectroscopy exhibited an absorption band ~135 cm−1 displaying only a PbS ZB structure.

  15. Application of X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF): thickness and chemical composition determination of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Valdirene de Oliveira.

    2004-01-01

    In this work a procedure is described for thickness and quantitative chemical composition of thin films by wavelength dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) using Fundamental Parameters method. This method was validated according to quality assurance standard and applied sample Al, Cr, TiO2, Ni, ZrO2 (single thickness) and Ni/Cr (double thickness) on glass; Ni on steel and metallic zinc and TiO2 on metallic iron (single thickness), all the sample were prepared for physical deposition of vapor (PVD). The thickness had been compared with Absorption (FRX-A) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) methods; the result showed good efficiency of the fundamental parameters method. Sample structural characteristics analyzed by X ray diffraction (XRD) showed any influence in the thickness determinations. (author)

  16. Thermal conductivity of ultra-thin chemical vapor deposited hexagonal boron nitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M. T.; Haque, M. A.; Bresnehan, M. S.; Robinson, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal conductivity of freestanding 10 nm and 20 nm thick chemical vapor deposited hexagonal boron nitride films was measured using both steady state and transient techniques. The measured value for both thicknesses, about 100 ± 10 W m −1 K −1 , is lower than the bulk basal plane value (390 W m −1 K −1 ) due to the imperfections in the specimen microstructure. Impressively, this value is still 100 times higher than conventional dielectrics. Considering scalability and ease of integration, hexagonal boron nitride grown over large area is an excellent candidate for thermal management in two dimensional materials-based nanoelectronics

  17. Chain radiation-chemical oxidation of aromatic amines in polyvinylchloride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolninov, O.V.; Lisovskaya, I.A.; Milinchuk, V.K.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation-chemical oxidation of tetramethyldiaminediphenylmethane in polyvinylchloride (PVC) and polystyrene (PS) films was investigated in the presence of CBr 4 at 300 K. Radiation yields (G) of 70 and 1 were obtained for an oxidized amine form (Am + ) in PVC and PS, resp. High yields of Am + in PVC matrix indicate the chain character of an oxidation reaction. Triplet states, which form exciplexes with CBr 4 were established to participate in oxidation reactions. The kinetic scheme suggested for the chain radiation oxidation of Am takes into account energy transfer, formation and degradation of the excited states of molecules resulting in the initiation and propagation of the chain on the account of active particles. (author)

  18. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of thermoresponsive poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) thin films for cell sheet engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bora; Jiao, Alex; Yu, Seungjung; You, Jae Bem; Kim, Deok-Ho; Im, Sung Gap

    2013-08-01

    Poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL) is a thermoresponsive polymer known to be nontoxic, water soluble and biocompatible. Here, PNVCL homopolymer was successfully synthesized for the first time by use of a one-step vapor-phase process, termed initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed that radical polymerization took place from N-vinylcaprolactam monomers without damaging the functional caprolactam ring. A sharp lower critical solution temperature transition was observed at 31°C from the iCVD poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL) film. The thermoresponsive PNVCL surface exhibited a hydrophilic/hydrophobic alteration with external temperature change, which enabled the thermally modulated attachment and detachment of cells. The conformal coverage of PNVCL film on various substrates with complex topography, including fabrics and nanopatterns, was successfully demonstrated, which can further be utilized to fabricate cell sheets with aligned cell morphology. The advantage of this system is that cells cultured on such thermoresponsive surfaces could be recovered as an intact cell sheet by simply lowering the temperature, eliminating the need for conventional enzymatic treatments. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Planar structured perovskite solar cells by hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition with optimized perovskite film thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangyang; Peng, Yanke; Jing, Gaoshan; Cui, Tianhong

    2018-05-01

    The thickness of perovskite absorber layer is a critical parameter to determine a planar structured perovskite solar cell’s performance. By modifying the spin coating speed and PbI2/N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solution concentration, the thickness of perovskite absorber layer was optimized to obtain high-performance solar cells. Using a PbI2/DMF solution of 1.3 mol/L, maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of a perovskite solar cell is 15.5% with a perovskite film of 413 nm at 5000 rpm, and PCE of 14.3% was also obtained for a solar cell with a perovskite film of 182 nm thick. It is derived that higher concentration of PbI2/DMF will result in better perovskite solar cells. Additionally, these perovskite solar cells are highly uniform. In 14 sets of solar cells, standard deviations of 11 sets of solar cells were less than 0.50% and the smallest standard deviation was 0.25%, which demonstrates the reliability and effectiveness of hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) method.

  20. Electrical properties of GaAsN film grown by chemical beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, K.; Suzuki, H.; Saito, K.; Ohshita, Y.; Kojima, N.; Yamaguchi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The local vibrational modes (LVMs) observed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in GaAsN films grown by chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) was studied, and the influence of the nitrogen-hydrogen bond (N-H) concentration on the hole concentration was investigated. The absorption peak around 936 cm -1 is suggested to be the second harmonic mode of the substitutional N, N As , LVM around 469 cm -1 . The absorption peak around 960 cm -1 is suggested to be the wagging mode of the N-H, where the stretch mode is observed around 3098 cm -1 . The hole concentration linearly increases with increasing N-H concentration, and the slope increases with increasing growth temperature. It indicates that the hole concentration in GaAsN film is determined by both the number of the N-H and unknown defect, such as impurities, vacancies, and interstitials. This defect concentration increases with increasing growth temperature, suggesting that it is determined by Arrhenius type reaction

  1. Investigation of the nucleation process of chemical vapour deposited diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katai, S.

    2001-01-01

    The primary aim of this work was to contribute to the understanding of the bias enhanced nucleation (BEN) process during the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of diamond on silicon. The investigation of both the gas phase environment above the substrate surface, by in situ mass selective energy analysis of ions, and of the surface composition and structure by in vacuo surface analytic methods (XPS, EELS) have been carried out. In both cases, the implementation of these measurements required the development and construction of special experimental apparatus as well. The secondary aim of this work was to give orientation to our long term goal of growing diamond films with improved quality. For this reason, (1) contaminant levels at the diamond-silicon interface after growth were studied by SIMS, (2) the internal stress distribution of highly oriented free-standing diamond films were studied by Raman spectroscopy, and (3) an attempt was made to produce spatially regular oriented nuclei formation by nucleating on a pattern created by laser treatment on silicon substrates. (orig.)

  2. Optical and electrical characteristics of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition boron carbonitride thin films derived from N-trimethylborazine precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulyaeva, Veronica S., E-mail: veronica@niic.nsc.ru [Department of Functional Materials Chemistry, Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kosinova, Marina L.; Rumyantsev, Yurii M.; Kuznetsov, Fedor A. [Department of Functional Materials Chemistry, Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kesler, Valerii G. [Laboratory of Physical Principles for Integrated Microelectronics, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kirienko, Viktor V. [Laboratory of Nonequilibrium Semiconductors Systems, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-02

    Thin BC{sub x}N{sub y} films have been obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using N-trimethylborazine as a precursor. The films were deposited on Si(100) and fused silica substrates. The grown films were characterized by ellipsometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, capacitance–voltage and current–voltage measurements. The deposition parameters, such as substrate temperature (373–973 K) and gas phase composition were varied. Low temperature BC{sub x}N{sub y} films were found to be high optical transparent layers in the range of 300–2000 nm, the transmittance as high as 93% has been achieved. BC{sub x}N{sub y} layers are dielectrics with dielectric constant k = 2.2–8.9 depending on the synthesis conditions. - Highlights: • Thin BC{sub x}N{sub y} films have been obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. • N-trimethylborazine was used as a precursor. • Low temperature BC{sub x}N{sub y} films were found to be high optical transparent layers (93%). • BC{sub x}N{sub y} layers are dielectrics with dielectric constant k = 2.2–8.9.

  3. Optical and electrical characteristics of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition boron carbonitride thin films derived from N-trimethylborazine precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulyaeva, Veronica S.; Kosinova, Marina L.; Rumyantsev, Yurii M.; Kuznetsov, Fedor A.; Kesler, Valerii G.; Kirienko, Viktor V.

    2014-01-01

    Thin BC x N y films have been obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using N-trimethylborazine as a precursor. The films were deposited on Si(100) and fused silica substrates. The grown films were characterized by ellipsometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, capacitance–voltage and current–voltage measurements. The deposition parameters, such as substrate temperature (373–973 K) and gas phase composition were varied. Low temperature BC x N y films were found to be high optical transparent layers in the range of 300–2000 nm, the transmittance as high as 93% has been achieved. BC x N y layers are dielectrics with dielectric constant k = 2.2–8.9 depending on the synthesis conditions. - Highlights: • Thin BC x N y films have been obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. • N-trimethylborazine was used as a precursor. • Low temperature BC x N y films were found to be high optical transparent layers (93%). • BC x N y layers are dielectrics with dielectric constant k = 2.2–8.9

  4. Deposition and characteristics of PbS thin films by an in-situ solution chemical reaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Junna; Ji, Huiming; Wang, Jian; Zheng, Xuerong; Lai, Junyun; Liu, Weiyan; Li, Tongfei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Ma, Yuanliang; Li, Haiqin; Zhao, Suqin [College of Physics and Electronic Information Engineering, Qinghai University for Nationalities, Xining 810007 (China); Jin, Zhengguo, E-mail: zhgjin@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-09-01

    Preferential oriented and uniform PbS thin films were deposited by a room temperature in-situ solution chemical reaction process, in which the lead nitrate as precursor in a form of thin solid films from lead precursor solution was used to react with ammonium sulfide ethanol solution. Influence of 1-butanol addition in the lead precursor solution, Pb:S molar ratios in the separate cationic and anionic solutions, deposition cycle numbers and annealing treatment in Ar atmosphere on structure, morphology, chemical composition and optical absorption properties of the deposited PbS films were investigated based on X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, atomic force microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, UV–vis, near infrared ray and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. The results showed that the deposited PbS thin films had a cubic structure and highly preferred orientation along with the plane (100). The deposition rate of single-layer was stable, about 30 nm in thickness per deposition cycle. - Highlights: • Time-efficiency synthetic method for the preparation of lead sulfide (PbS) films • Effect of 1-butanol addition into cationic precursor solution is discussed. • Growth rate of the PbS films is stable at about 30 nm per cycle.

  5. Microstructural and conductivity changes induced by annealing of ZnO:B thin films deposited by chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, C; Girardeau, T; Paumier, F; Eyidi, D; Guerin, P; Marteau, M; Lacroix, B; Papathanasiou, N; Tinkham, B P

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have attracted much attention in recent years due to progress in crystal growth for a large variety of technological applications including optoelectronics and transparent electrodes in solar cells. Boron (B)-doped ZnO thin films are deposited by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) on Si(100). These films exhibit a strong (002) texture with a pyramidal grain structure. The ZnO films were annealed after growth; the annealing temperature and the atmosphere appear to strongly impact the layer conductivity. This work will first present the modification of the physical properties (carrier concentration, mobility) extracted from the simulation of layer reflection in the infrared range. At low annealing temperatures the mobility increases slightly before decreasing drastically above a temperature close to 250 deg. C. The chemical and structural evolution (XPS, x-ray diffraction) of the films was also studied to identify the relationship between microstructural modifications and the variations observed in the film conductivity. An in situ XRD study during annealing has been performed under air and low pressure conditions. As observed for electrical properties, the microstructural modifications shift to higher temperatures for vacuum annealing.

  6. Autoradiographic enhancement of polaroid film. Final report, 18 April--17 October 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, R.G.; Pettijohn, R.R.

    1978-11-01

    SRI International has investigated the application of radiotracer photographic image enhancement (PIE) techniques to increase the photographic speed of three Polaroid Films. SRI has a state-of-the art capability in the field of nondestructive photographic image enhancement of original negatives. These procedures have successfully increased optical density, contrast, and resolution of photographic imagery, and thereby increased the information derivable from original negatives

  7. Final report: High current capacity high temperature superconducting film based tape for high field magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Xin

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of the program was to establish the process parameters for the continuous deposition of high quality, superconducting YBCO films on one meter lengths of buffered RABiTS tape using MOCVD and to characterize the potential utility of the resulting tapes in high field magnet applications

  8. Oklahoma Consortium on Research Development Pilot Grant: Introduction to Film. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, David L.

    Although educators have been turning to motion pictures and television as devices for supplementing instruction, there has been a sparsity of instruction about the elements of film or how to understand the medium. An innovative program designed to meet this need was introduced at St. Gregory's College. The course dealt with the history and the…

  9. Fabrication of zinc indium oxide thin films and effect of post annealing on structural, chemical and electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Vipin Kumar, E-mail: vipinjain7678@gmail.com [Institute of Engineering and Technology, JK Lakshmipat University, Jaipur 302026 (India); Kumar, Praveen [Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore 560064 (India); Srivastava, Subodh; Vijay, Y.K. [Thin film and Membrane Science Laboratory, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004 (India)

    2012-07-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZIO films have been prepared by flash evaporation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal stability of ZIO films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural, optical, electrical and other properties have been studied. - Abstract: In the present study, zinc indium oxide (ZIO) thin films were deposited on glass substrate with varying concentration (ZnO:In{sub 2}O{sub 3} - 100:0, 90:10, 70:30 and 50:50 wt.%) at room temperature by flash evaporation technique. These deposited ZIO films were annealed in vacuum to study the thermal stability and to see the effects on the structural, chemical and electrical properties. The XRD analysis indicates that crystallization of the ZIO films strongly depends on concentration of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and post annealing where annealed films showed polycrystalline nature. The surface morphological study of the films using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the formation of nanostructured ZIO thin films. The surface composition and oxidation state were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. XPS spectra shows that as the concentration of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} increases from 10 to 50 wt%, the surface composition ratio In/Zn and O/Zn increases for as-prepared and annealed ZIO films while the XPS valance band spectra manifest the electronic transitions. The electrical resistivity was found to be decreased while carrier concentration and Hall mobility increased for both types of films with increasing concentration of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  10. The Chemistry of Inorganic Precursors during the Chemical Deposition of Films on Solid Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Seán T; Teplyakov, Andrew V; Zaera, Francisco

    2018-03-20

    The deposition of thin solid films is central to many industrial applications, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods are particularly useful for this task. For one, the isotropic nature of the adsorption of chemical species affords even coverages on surfaces with rough topographies, an increasingly common requirement in microelectronics. Furthermore, by splitting the overall film-depositing reactions into two or more complementary and self-limiting steps, as it is done in atomic layer depositions (ALD), film thicknesses can be controlled down to the sub-monolayer level. Thanks to the availability of a vast array of inorganic and metalorganic precursors, CVD and ALD are quite versatile and can be engineered to deposit virtually any type of solid material. On the negative side, the surface chemistry that takes place in these processes is often complex, and can include undesirable side reactions leading to the incorporation of impurities in the growing films. Appropriate precursors and deposition conditions need to be chosen to minimize these problems, and that requires a proper understanding of the underlying surface chemistry. The precursors for CVD and ALD are often designed and chosen based on their known thermal chemistry from inorganic chemistry studies, taking advantage of the vast knowledge developed in that field over the years. Although a good first approximation, however, this approach can lead to wrong choices, because the reactions of these precursors at gas-solid interfaces can be quite different from what is seen in solution. For one, solvents often aid in the displacement of ligands in metalorganic compounds, providing the right dielectric environment, temporarily coordinating to the metal, or facilitating multiple ligand-complex interactions to increase reaction probabilities; these options are not available in the gas-solid reactions associated with CVD and ALD. Moreover, solid surfaces act as unique "ligands", if these reactions are to be

  11. Immobilization of carbon nanotubes on functionalized graphene film grown by chemical vapor deposition and characterization of the hybrid material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanta Dhoj Adhikari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the surface functionalization of graphene films grown by chemical vapor deposition and fabrication of a hybrid material combining multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene (CNT–G. Amine-terminated self-assembled monolayers were prepared on graphene by the UV-modification of oxidized groups introduced onto the film surface. Amine-termination led to effective interaction with functionalized CNTs to assemble a CNT–G hybrid through covalent bonding. Characterization clearly showed no defects of the graphene film after the immobilization reaction with CNT. In addition, the hybrid graphene material revealed a distinctive CNT–G structure and p–n type electrical properties. The introduction of functional groups on the graphene film surface and fabrication of CNT–G hybrids with the present technique could provide an efficient, novel route to device fabrication.

  12. Characteristics of Ge-Sb-Te films prepared by cyclic pulsed plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Kyung-Suk; Jung, Ha-Na; Woo, Hee-Gweon; Park, Don-Hee; Kim, Do-Heyoung

    2010-05-01

    Ge-Sb-Te (GST) thin films were deposited on TiN, SiO2, and Si substrates by cyclic-pulsed plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using Ge{N(CH3)(C2H5)}, Sb(C3H7)3, Te(C3H7)3 as precursors in a vertical flow reactor. Plasma activated H2 was used as the reducing agent. The growth behavior was strongly dependent on the type of substrate. GST grew as a continuous film on TiN regardless of the substrate temperature. However, GST formed only small crystalline aggregates on Si and SiO2 substrates, not a continuous film, at substrate temperatures > or = 200 degrees C. The effects of the deposition temperature on the surface morphology, roughness, resistivity, crystallinity, and composition of the GST films were examined.

  13. Nanoscale leakage current measurements in metal organic chemical vapor deposition crystalline SrTiO3 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozier, Y.; Gautier, B.; Hyvert, G.; Descamps, A.; Plossu, C.; Dubourdieu, C.; Ducroquet, F.

    2009-01-01

    The properties of SrTiO 3 thin films, grown by liquid injection metal organic chemical vapor deposition on Si/SiO 2 , using a mixture of precursors, have been investigated at the nanoscale using an Atomic Force Microscope in the so-called Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy mode. Maps of the leakage currents with a nanometric resolution have been obtained on films elaborated at different temperatures and stoichiometries in order to discriminate the role of each parameter on the onset of leakage currents in the resulting layers. It appears that the higher the deposition temperature, the higher the leakage currents of the films. The mapping with a nanometric precision allows to show a heterogeneous behaviour of the surface with leaky grains and insulating boundaries. The study of films elaborated at the same temperature with different compositions supports the assumption that the leakage currents on Ti-rich layers are far higher than on Sr-rich layers

  14. Spray Chemical Vapor Deposition of CulnS2 Thin Films for Application in Solar Cell Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Buhro, William E.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Jenkins. Philip P.; Stan, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    Chalcopyrite CuInS2 is a direct band gap semiconductor (1.5 eV) that has potential applications in photovoltaic thin film and photoelectrochemical devices. We have successfully employed spray chemical vapor deposition using the previously known, single-source, metalorganic precursor, (Ph3P)2CuIn(SEt)4, to deposit CuInS2 thin films. Stoichiometric, polycrystalline films were deposited onto fused silica over a range of temperatures (300-400 C). Morphology was observed to vary with temperature: spheroidal features were obtained at lower temperatures and angular features at 400 C. At even higher temperatures (500 C), a Cu-deficient phase, CuIn5S8, was obtained as a single phase. The CuInS2 films were determined to have a direct band gap of ca. 1.4 eV.

  15. Formation of apatite on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xuanyong; Chu, Paul K.; Ding Chuanxian

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon films were fabricated on p-type, 100 mm diameter silicon wafers by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using silane and hydrogen. The structure and composition of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon films were investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). The hydrogenated amorphous silicon films were subsequently soaked in simulated body fluids to evaluate apatite formation. Carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite (bone-like apatite) was formed on the surface suggesting good bone conductivity. The amorphous structure and presence of surface Si-H bonds are believed to induce apatite formation on the surface of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon film. A good understanding of the surface bioactivity of silicon-based materials and means to produce a bioactive surface is important to the development of silicon-based biosensors and micro-devices that are implanted inside humans

  16. Formation of apatite on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xuanyong [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China) and Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: xyliu@mail.sic.ac.cn; Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk; Ding Chuanxian [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2007-01-15

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon films were fabricated on p-type, 100 mm diameter <1 0 0> silicon wafers by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using silane and hydrogen. The structure and composition of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon films were investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). The hydrogenated amorphous silicon films were subsequently soaked in simulated body fluids to evaluate apatite formation. Carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite (bone-like apatite) was formed on the surface suggesting good bone conductivity. The amorphous structure and presence of surface Si-H bonds are believed to induce apatite formation on the surface of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon film. A good understanding of the surface bioactivity of silicon-based materials and means to produce a bioactive surface is important to the development of silicon-based biosensors and micro-devices that are implanted inside humans.

  17. The electrical properties of low pressure chemical vapor deposition Ga doped ZnO thin films depending on chemical bonding configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hanearl [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Doyoung [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ulsan College, 57 Daehak-ro, Nam-gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyungjun, E-mail: hyungjun@yonsei.ac.kr [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Undoped and Ga doped ZnO thin films were deposited using DEZ and TMGa. • Effects of Ga doping using TMGa in Ga doped ZnO were investigated. • Degraded properties from excessive doping were analyzed using chemical bondings. - Abstract: The electrical and chemical properties of low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LP-CVD) Ga doped ZnO (ZnO:Ga) films were systematically investigated using Hall measurement and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Diethylzinc (DEZ) and O{sub 2} gas were used as precursor and reactant gas, respectively, and trimethyl gallium (TMGa) was used as a Ga doping source. Initially, the electrical properties of undoped LP-CVD ZnO films depending on the partial pressure of DEZ and O{sub 2} ratio were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) by changing partial pressure of DEZ from 40 to 140 mTorr and that of O{sub 2} from 40 to 80 mTorr. The resistivity was reduced by Ga doping from 7.24 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm for undoped ZnO to 2.05 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm for Ga doped ZnO at the TMG pressure of 8 mTorr. The change of electric properties of Ga doped ZnO with varying the amount of Ga dopants was systematically discussed based on the structural crystallinity and chemical bonding configuration, analyzed by XRD and XPS, respectively.

  18. Thick Fe2O3, Fe3O4 films prepared by the chemical solution deposition method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buršík, Josef; Košovan, P.; Šubrt, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2006), s. 85-94 ISSN 0928-0707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/01/0408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : chemical solution deposition * thick films * alpha-Fe2O3 Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.009, year: 2006

  19. Reactive Imprint Lithography: Combined Topographical Patterning and Chemical Surface Functionalization of Polystyrene-block-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duvigneau, Joost; Cornelissen, Stijn; Bardajı´Valls, Nuria; Schönherr, Holger; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2009-01-01

    Here, reactive imprint lithography (RIL) is introduced as a new, one-step lithographic tool for the fabrication of large-area topographically patterned, chemically activated polymer platforms. Films of polystyrene-block-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PS-b-PtBA) are imprinted with PDMS master stamps at

  20. Fabrication and characterization of chemical sensors made from nanostructured films of poly(o-ethoxyaniline) prepared with different doping acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugnollo, E.D. [EMBRAPA Instrumentacao Agropecuaria, CP 741, CEP 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, USP, CP 369, CEP 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Paterno, L.G. [Departamento de Engenharia de Sistemas Eletronicos, EPUSP, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: paterno@lme.usp.br; Leite, F.L. [EMBRAPA Instrumentacao Agropecuaria, CP 741, CEP 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, USP, CP 369, CEP 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, F.J. [Departamento de Engenharia de Sistemas Eletronicos, EPUSP, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Constantino, C.J.L.; Antunes, P.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Quimica e Biologia, FCT-UNESP, CEP 19060-900, Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Mattoso, L.H.C. [EMBRAPA Instrumentacao Agropecuaria, CP 741, CEP 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2008-03-31

    Chemical sensors made from nanostructured films of poly(o-ethoxyaniline) POEA and poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) PSS are produced and used to detect and distinguish 4 chemicals in solution at 20 mM, including sucrose, NaCl, HCl, and caffeine. These substances are used in order to mimic the 4 basic tastes recognized by humans, namely sweet, salty, sour, and bitter, respectively. The sensors are produced by the deposition of POEA/PSS films at the top of interdigitated microelectrodes via the layer-by-layer technique, using POEA solutions containing different dopant acids. Besides the different characteristics of the POEA/PSS films investigated by UV-Vis and Raman spectroscopies, and by atomic force microscopy, it is observed that their electrical response to the different chemicals in liquid media is very fast, in the order of seconds, systematical, reproducible, and extremely dependent on the type of acid used for film fabrication. The responses of the as-prepared sensors are reproducible and repetitive after many cycles of operation. Furthermore, the use of an 'electronic tongue' composed by an array of these sensors and principal component analysis as pattern recognition tool allows one to reasonably distinguish test solutions according to their chemical composition.

  1. Dewetting of thin liquid films on chemically patterned substrates : front propatation along narrow lyophobic stripes and stripe arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasjen, B.J.; Gu, H.; Darhuber, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Using experiments and numerical simulations, we investigate the dewetting of thin liquid films on chemically patterned substrates. The patterns consist of long and narrow hydrophobic stripes, separated by larger hydrophilic domains. We characterize the morphology and dynamics of the dewetting front

  2. Smart chemical sensors using ZnO semiconducting thin films for freshness detection of foods and beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanto, Hidehito; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Dougami, Naganori; Habara, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Hajime; Kusano, Eiji; Kinbara, Akira; Douguchi, Yoshiteru

    1998-07-01

    The sensitivity of the chemical sensor, based on the resistance change of Al2O3-doped and SnO2-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al and ZnO:SnO2) thin film, is studied for exposure to various gases. It is found that the ZnO:Al and ZnO:Sn thin film chemical sensor has a high sensitivity and excellent selectivity for amine (TMA and DMA) gas and ethanol gas, respectively. The ZnO:Al (5.0 wt%) thin film chemical sensor which exhibit a high sensitivity for exposure to odors from rotten sea foods, such as salmon, sea bream, oyster, squid and sardine, responds to the freshness change of these sea foods. The ZnO:SnO2 (78 wt%) thin film chemical sensor which exhibit a high sensitivity for exposure to aroma from alcohols, such as wine, Japanese sake, and whisky, responds to the freshness change of these alcohols.

  3. Conformal coverage of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) films with tunable nanoporosity via oxidative chemical vapor deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Im, S.G.; Kusters, D.J.N.; Choi, W.; Baxamusa, S.H.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Gleason, K.K.

    2008-01-01

    Novel nanoporous poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films with basalt-like surface morphology are successfully obtained via a one-step, vapor phase process of oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) by introducing a new oxidant, CuCl2, The substrate temperature of the oCVD process is a

  4. Structural characterization of epitaxial LiFe_5O_8 thin films grown by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loukya, B.; Negi, D.S.; Sahu, R.; Pachauri, N.; Gupta, A.; Datta, R.

    2016-01-01

    We report on detailed microstructural and atomic ordering characterization by transmission electron microscopy in epitaxial LiFe_5O_8 (LFO) thin films grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on MgO (001) substrates. The experimental results of LFO thin films are compared with those for bulk LFO single crystal. Electron diffraction studies indicate weak long-range ordering in LFO (α-phase) thin films in comparison to bulk crystal where strong ordering is observed in optimally annealed samples. The degree of long-range ordering depends on the growth conditions and the thickness of the film. Annealing experiment along with diffraction study confirms the formation of α-Fe_2O_3 phase in some regions of the films. This suggests that under certain growth conditions γ-Fe_2O_3-like phase forms in some pockets in the as-grown LFO thin films that then convert to α-Fe_2O_3 on annealing. - Highlights: • Atomic ordering in LiFe_5O_8 bulk single crystal and epitaxial thin films. • Electron diffraction studies reveal different level of ordering in the system. • Formation of γ-Fe_2O_3 like phase has been observed.

  5. Evaluation of the structural, optical and electrical properties of AZO thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition for optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. Deva Arun; Valanarasu, S.; Rosario, S. Rex; Ganesh, V.; Shkir, Mohd.; Sreelatha, C. J.; AlFaify, S.

    2018-04-01

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films for electrode applications were deposited on glass substrates using chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The influence of deposition time on the structural, morphological, and opto-electrical properties of AZO films were investigated. Structural studies confirmed that all the deposited films were hexagonal wurtzite structure with polycrystalline nature and exhibited (002) preferential orientation. There is no other impurity phases were detected for different deposition time. Surface morphological images shows the spherically shaped grains are uniformly arranged on to the entire film surface. The EDS spectrum confirms the presence of Zn, O and Al elements in deposited AZO film. The observed optical transmittance is high (87%) in the visible region, and the calculated band gap value is 3.27 eV. In this study, the transmittance value is decreased with increasing deposition time. The room temperature PL spectrum exposed that AZO thin film deposited at (60 min) has good optical quality with less defect density. The minimum electrical resistivity and maximum carrier concentration values were observed as 8.53 × 10-3(Ω cm) and 3.53 × 1018 cm-3 for 60 min deposited film, respectively. The obtained figure of merit (ϕ) value 3.05 × 10-3(Ω/sq)- 1 is suggested for an optoelectronic device.

  6. Effect of Annealing Temperature on Flowerlike Cu3BiS3 Thin Films Grown by Chemical Bath Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, S. G.; Patel, S. J.; Patel, K. K.; Panchal, A. K.; Kheraj, Vipul

    2017-10-01

    For widespread application of thin-film photovoltaic solar cells, synthesis of inexpensive absorber material is essential. In this work, deposition of ternary Cu3BiS3 absorber material, which contains abundant and environmentally benign elements, was carried out on glass substrate. Flowerlike Cu3BiS3 thin films with nanoflakes as building block were formed on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition. These films were annealed at 573 K and 673 K in sulfur ambient for structural improvement. Their structure was characterized using Raman spectroscopy, as well as their surface morphological and optical properties. The x-ray diffraction profile of as-deposited Cu3BiS3 thin film revealed amorphous structure, which transformed to orthorhombic phase after annealing. The Raman spectrum exhibited a characteristic peak at 290 cm-1. Scanning electron microscopy of as-deposited Cu3BiS3 film confirmed formation of nanoflowers with diameter of around 1052 nm. Wettability testing of as-deposited Cu3BiS3 thin film demonstrated hydrophobic nature, which became hydrophilic after annealing. The measured ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra of the Cu3BiS3 thin films gave an absorption coefficient of 105 cm-1 and direct optical bandgap of about 1.42 eV after annealing treatment. Based on all these results, such Cu3BiS3 material may have potential applications in the photovoltaic field as an absorber layer.

  7. Chemical states and optical properties of thermally evaporated Ge-Te and Ge-Sb-Te amorphous thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, D.; Shandhu, S. [Semiconductor Laboratory, Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University Amritsar (India); Thangaraj, R., E-mail: rthangaraj@rediffmail.com [Semiconductor Laboratory, Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University Amritsar (India)

    2012-07-15

    Thin amorphous films of Ge{sub 22}Sb{sub 22}Te{sub 56} and Ge{sub 50}Te{sub 50} have been prepared from their respective polycrystalline bulk on glass substrates by thermal evaporation technique. The amorphous nature of the films was checked with X-ray diffraction studies. Amorphous-to-crystalline transition of the films has been induced by thermal annealing and the structural phases have been identified by X-ray diffraction. The phase transformation temperature of the films was evaluated by temperature dependent sheet resistance measurement. The chemical structure of the amorphous films has been investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the role of Sb in phase change Ge{sub 22}Sb{sub 22}Te{sub 56} film is discussed. Survey and core level (Ge 3d, Te 3d, Te 4d, Sb 3p, Sb 3d, O 1s, C 1s) band spectra has been recorded and analyzed. For optical studies, the transmittance and the reflectance spectra were measured over the wavelength ranges 400-2500 nm using UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. The optical band gap, refractive index and extinction coefficient are also presented for thermally evaporated amorphous thin films.

  8. Structural, morphological, wettability and thermal resistance properties of hydro-oleophobic thin films prepared by a wet chemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phani, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    The structural properties of fluorine containing polymer compounds make them highly attractive materials for hydro-oleophobic applications. However, most of these exhibit low surface energy and poor adhesion on the substrates. In the present investigation, crack free, smooth and uniform thin films of poly[4,5-difluoro-2,2-bis(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-dioxole] -co-tetrafluoroethylene (TFD-co-TFE) with good adhesion have been deposited by wet chemical spin-coating technique on polished AISI 440C steel substrates. The as-deposited films (xerogel films) have been subjected to annealing for 1 h at different temperatures ranging from 100 to 500 deg. C in an argon atmosphere. The size growth of the nano-hemispheres increased from 8 nm for xerogel film to 28 nm for film annealed at 400 deg. C. It was found that as the annealing temperature increased from 100 to 400 deg. C, nano-hemisphere-like structures were formed, which in turn have shown increase in the water contact angle from 122 deg. to 147 deg. and oil (peanut) contact angle from 85 deg. to 96 deg. No change in the water contact angle (122 deg.) has been observed when the films deposited at room temperature were heated in air from 30 to 80 deg. C as well as exposed to steam for 8 days for 8 h/day indicating thermal stability of the film

  9. High-throughput combinatorial chemical bath deposition: The case of doping Cu (In, Ga) Se film with antimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zongkai; Zhang, Xiaokun; Li, Guang; Cui, Yuxing; Jiang, Zhaolian; Liu, Wen; Peng, Zhi; Xiang, Yong

    2018-01-01

    The conventional methods for designing and preparing thin film based on wet process remain a challenge due to disadvantages such as time-consuming and ineffective, which hinders the development of novel materials. Herein, we present a high-throughput combinatorial technique for continuous thin film preparation relied on chemical bath deposition (CBD). The method is ideally used to prepare high-throughput combinatorial material library with low decomposition temperatures and high water- or oxygen-sensitivity at relatively high-temperature. To check this system, a Cu(In, Ga)Se (CIGS) thin films library doped with 0-19.04 at.% of antimony (Sb) was taken as an example to evaluate the regulation of varying Sb doping concentration on the grain growth, structure, morphology and electrical properties of CIGS thin film systemically. Combined with the Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), automated X-ray Diffraction (XRD) for rapid screening and Localized Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (LEIS), it was confirmed that this combinatorial high-throughput system could be used to identify the composition with the optimal grain orientation growth, microstructure and electrical properties systematically, through accurately monitoring the doping content and material composition. According to the characterization results, a Sb2Se3 quasi-liquid phase promoted CIGS film-growth model has been put forward. In addition to CIGS thin film reported here, the combinatorial CBD also could be applied to the high-throughput screening of other sulfide thin film material systems.

  10. Surface passivation by Al2O3 and a-SiNx: H films deposited on wet-chemically conditioned Si surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bordihn, S.; Mertens, V.; Engelhart, P.; Kersten, K.; Mandoc, M.M.; Müller, J.W.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The surface passivation of p- and n-type silicon by different chemically grown SiO2 films (prepared by HNO3, H2SO4/H2O2 and HCl/H2O2 treatments) was investigated after PECVD of a-SiNx:H and ALD of Al2O3 capping films. The wet chemically grown SiO2 films were compared to thermally grown SiO2 and the

  11. Reversible chemical patterning on stimuli-responsive polymer film: Environment-responsive lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionov, Leonid; Minko, Sergiy; Stamm, Manfred; Gohy, Jean-Francois; Jerome, Robert; Scholl, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    We report on a novel type of chemical patterning based on thin stimuli-responsive polymer films. The basic concept is the permanent storage (writing) of a pattern, which is reversibly developed and erased upon exposure to appropriate environment, e.g., solvent, pH, and temperature. The smart surface is fabricated from the mixed brush of poly(2-vinylpyridine) and polyisoprene. The mixed brush demonstrates switching behavior upon exposure to different solvents. Cross-linking of polyisoprene via illumination through a photomask results in formation of patterns with suppressed switching. Due to the contrast in switching between illuminated and dark areas, exposure of the smart surface to different solvents causes either reversible formation or erasing of chemical contrast between the illuminated and dark areas. Thus, the pattern surface can very locally attract colloidal particles or can be wetted by water only upon exposure to the special solvent which introduces the contrast between the illuminated and dark areas. Appearance of the patterns indicates particular environment and can be used for local switching of adsorption

  12. Low Cost Production of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Cells Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCamy, James [PPG Industries, Inc. Glass R& D, Cheswick, PA (United States); Hung, Cheng-Hung [PPG Industries, Inc. Glass R& D, Cheswick, PA (United States); Ma, Zhixun [PPG Industries, Inc. Glass R& D, Cheswick, PA (United States)

    2015-06-04

    The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of online deposition of the active layer for thin-film PV modules. The envisioned PV online manufacturing process has a number of discrete unit operations integrated into a single process. Demonstration of feasibility would be deemed successful with the individual demonstration of each of these unit operations and development of the integrated process was not within the scope of this phase.

  13. Unveiling the wet chemical etching characteristics of polydimethylsiloxane film for soft micromachining applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakati, A; Maji, D; Das, S

    2017-01-01

    Micromachining of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microstructure by wet chemical etching is explored for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and microfluidic applications. A 100 µ m thick PDMS film was patterned with different microstructure designs by wet chemical etching using a N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (C 16 H 36 FN) and tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride (C 5 H 9 NO) mixture solution with 3:1 volume ratio after lithography for studying etching characteristics. The patterning parameters, such as etch rate, surface roughness, pH of etchant solution with time, were thoroughly investigated. A detailed study of surface morphology with etching time revealed nonlinear behaviour of the PDMS surface roughness and etch rate. A maximum rate of 1.45 µ m min −1 for 10 min etching with surface roughness of 360 nm was achieved. A new approach of wet chemical etching with pH controlled doped etchant was introduced for lower surface roughness of etched microstructures, and a constant etch rate during etching. Variation of the etching rate and surface roughness by pH controlled etching was performed by doping 5–15 gm l −1 of silicic acid (SiO 2xH2 O) into the traditional etchant solution. PDMS etching by silicic acid doped etchant solution showed a reduction in surface roughness from 400 nm to 220 nm for the same 15 µ m etching. This study is beneficial for micromachining of various MEMS and microfluidic structures such as micropillars, microchannels, and other PDMS microstructures. (paper)

  14. Optimization of synthesis conditions of PbS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yücel, Ersin, E-mail: dr.ersinyucel@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey); Yücel, Yasin; Beleli, Buse [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • For the first time, RSM and CCD used for optimization of PbS thin film. • Tri-sodium citrate, deposition time and temperature were independent variables. • PbS thin film band gap value was 2.20 eV under the optimum conditions. • Quality of the film was improved after chemometrics optimization. - Abstract: In this study, PbS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD) under different deposition parameters. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize synthesis parameters including amount of tri-sodium citrate (0.2–0.8 mL), deposition time (14–34 h) and deposition temperature (26.6–43.4 °C) for deposition of the films. 5-level-3-factor central composite design (CCD) was employed to evaluate effects of the deposition parameters on the response (optical band gap of the films). The significant level of both the main effects and the interaction are investigated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The film structures were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Morphological properties of the films were studied with a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optical properties of the films were investigated using a UV–visible spectrophotometer. The optimum amount of tri-sodium citrate, deposition time and deposition temperature were found to be 0.7 mL, 18.07 h and 30 °C respectively. Under these conditions, the experimental band gap of PbS was 2.20 eV, which is quite good correlation with value (1.98 eV) predicted by the model.

  15. Optimization of synthesis conditions of PbS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yücel, Ersin; Yücel, Yasin; Beleli, Buse

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • For the first time, RSM and CCD used for optimization of PbS thin film. • Tri-sodium citrate, deposition time and temperature were independent variables. • PbS thin film band gap value was 2.20 eV under the optimum conditions. • Quality of the film was improved after chemometrics optimization. - Abstract: In this study, PbS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD) under different deposition parameters. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize synthesis parameters including amount of tri-sodium citrate (0.2–0.8 mL), deposition time (14–34 h) and deposition temperature (26.6–43.4 °C) for deposition of the films. 5-level-3-factor central composite design (CCD) was employed to evaluate effects of the deposition parameters on the response (optical band gap of the films). The significant level of both the main effects and the interaction are investigated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The film structures were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Morphological properties of the films were studied with a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optical properties of the films were investigated using a UV–visible spectrophotometer. The optimum amount of tri-sodium citrate, deposition time and deposition temperature were found to be 0.7 mL, 18.07 h and 30 °C respectively. Under these conditions, the experimental band gap of PbS was 2.20 eV, which is quite good correlation with value (1.98 eV) predicted by the model

  16. Transparent conductive zinc-oxide-based films grown at low temperature by mist chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirahata, Takahiro [New Energy and Environmental Business Division, Toshiba Mitsubishi-Electric Industrial Systems Corporation, Kobe International Business Center (KIBC) 509, 5-5-2 Minatojima-Minami, Chuo-Ku, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Kawaharamura, Toshiyuki [Research Institute, Kochi University of Technology, Kami, Kochi 780-8502 (Japan); School of Systems Engineering, Kochi University of Technology, Kami, Kochi 780-8502 (Japan); Fujita, Shizuo, E-mail: fujitasz@kuee.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan); Orita, Hiroyuki [New Energy and Environmental Business Division, Toshiba Mitsubishi-Electric Industrial Systems Corporation, Kobe International Business Center (KIBC) 509, 5-5-2 Minatojima-Minami, Chuo-Ku, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    Atmospheric pressure mist chemical vapor deposition (Mist–CVD) systems have been developed to grow zinc-oxide-based (ZnO-based) transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films. Low-resistive aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) TCOs, showing resistivity of the order on 10{sup −4} Ωcm, previously were grown using a safe source material zinc acetate [Zn(ac){sub 2}], at a growth temperature as high as 500 °C. To grow superior TCOs at lower temperatures, we proposed the addition of NH{sub 3} to accelerate the reaction of acetylacetonate compounds. As the result, we could grow gallium-doped ZnO (GZO) TCOs with a resistivity of 2.7 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm and transmittance higher than 90% at 300 °C by using zinc acetylacetonate [Zn(acac){sub 2}] as the Zn source. To grow boron-doped ZnO (BZO) TCOs at a lower growth temperature of 200 °C, we used boron doping along with a toluene solution of diethylzinc (DEZ), that maintained high reactivity without being flammable. These BZO TCOs showed a resistivity of 1.5 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm and transmittance higher than 90%, despite the use of a non-vacuum-based open-air technology. - Highlights: • Introduction of Mist–CVD as a non-vacuum-based, safe, and cost-effective growth technology • Process evolution of the growth technology to lower the growth temperature. • Achievement of low resistive ZnO films at 200oC.

  17. Transparent conductive zinc-oxide-based films grown at low temperature by mist chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirahata, Takahiro; Kawaharamura, Toshiyuki; Fujita, Shizuo; Orita, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure mist chemical vapor deposition (Mist–CVD) systems have been developed to grow zinc-oxide-based (ZnO-based) transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films. Low-resistive aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) TCOs, showing resistivity of the order on 10"−"4 Ωcm, previously were grown using a safe source material zinc acetate [Zn(ac)_2], at a growth temperature as high as 500 °C. To grow superior TCOs at lower temperatures, we proposed the addition of NH_3 to accelerate the reaction of acetylacetonate compounds. As the result, we could grow gallium-doped ZnO (GZO) TCOs with a resistivity of 2.7 × 10"−"3 Ω cm and transmittance higher than 90% at 300 °C by using zinc acetylacetonate [Zn(acac)_2] as the Zn source. To grow boron-doped ZnO (BZO) TCOs at a lower growth temperature of 200 °C, we used boron doping along with a toluene solution of diethylzinc (DEZ), that maintained high reactivity without being flammable. These BZO TCOs showed a resistivity of 1.5 × 10"−"3 Ω cm and transmittance higher than 90%, despite the use of a non-vacuum-based open-air technology. - Highlights: • Introduction of Mist–CVD as a non-vacuum-based, safe, and cost-effective growth technology • Process evolution of the growth technology to lower the growth temperature. • Achievement of low resistive ZnO films at 200oC.

  18. Final Report: Vapor Transport Deposition for Thin Film III-V Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettcher, Shannon [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Greenaway, Ann [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Boucher, Jason [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Aloni, Shaul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Silicon, the dominant photovoltaic (PV) technology, is reaching its fundamental performance limits as a single absorber/junction technology. Higher efficiency devices are needed to reduce cost further because the balance of systems account for about two-thirds of the overall cost of the solar electricity. III-V semiconductors such as GaAs are used to make the highest-efficiency photovoltaic devices, but the costs of manufacture are much too high for non-concentrated terrestrial applications. The cost of III-V’s is driven by two factors: (1) metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), the dominant growth technology, employs expensive, toxic and pyrophoric gas-phase precursors, and (2) the growth substrates conventionally required for high-performance devices are monocrystalline III-V wafers. The primary goal of this project was to show that close-spaced vapor transport (CSVT), using water vapor as a transport agent, is a scalable deposition technology for growing low-cost epitaxial III-V photovoltaic devices. The secondary goal was to integrate those devices on Si substrates for high-efficiency tandem applications using interface nanopatterning to address the lattice mismatch. In the first task, we developed a CSVT process that used only safe solid-source powder precursors to grow epitaxial GaAs with controlled n and p doping and mobilities/lifetimes similar to that obtainable via MOCVD. Using photoelectrochemical characterization, we showed that the best material had near unity internal quantum efficiency for carrier collection and minority carrier diffusions lengths in of ~ 8 μm, suitable for PV devices with >25% efficiency. In the second task we developed the first pn junction photovoltaics using CSVT and showed unpassivated structures with open circuit photovoltages > 915 mV and internal quantum efficiencies >0.9. We also characterized morphological and electrical defects and identified routes to reduce those defects. In task three we grew epitaxial

  19. Surface modification of cadmium sulfide thin film honey comb nanostructures: Effect of in situ tin doping using chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, K.C., E-mail: wilsonphy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govt. Polytechnic College Kothamangalam, Chelad P O, Ernakulam, Kerala 686681 (India); Department of Physics, B. S. Abdur Rahman University, Vandaloor, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600048 (India); Basheer Ahamed, M. [Department of Physics, B. S. Abdur Rahman University, Vandaloor, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600048 (India)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel honey comb like cadmium sulfide thin film nanostructures prepared using chemical bath deposition on glass substrates. • Honey comb nanostructure found in two layers: an ultra thin film at bottom and well inter connected with walls of < 25 nm thick on top; hence maximum surface area possible for CdS nanostructure. • Shell size of the nanostructures and energy band gaps were controlled also an enhanced persistent conductivity observed on Sn doping. - Abstract: Even though nanostructures possess large surface to volume ratio compared to their thin film counterpart, the complicated procedure that demands for the deposition on a substrate kept them back foot in device fabrication techniques. In this work, a honey comb like cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films nanostructure are deposited on glass substrates using simple chemical bath deposition technique at 65 °C. Energy band gaps, film thickness and shell size of the honey comb nanostructures are successfully controlled using tin (Sn) doping and number of shells per unit area is found to be maximum for 5% Sn doped (in the reaction mixture) sample. X-ray diffraction and optical absorption analysis showed that cadmium sulfide and cadmium hydroxide coexist in the samples. TEM measurements showed that CdS nanostructures are embedded in cadmium hydroxide just like “plum pudding”. Persistent photoconductivity measurements of the samples are also carried out. The decay constants found to be increased with increases in Sn doping.

  20. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of pH responsive poly(2-diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaman, Mustafa, E-mail: karamanm@selcuk.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Selcuk University (Turkey); Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Selcuk University (Turkey); Cabuk, Nihat [Department of Chemical Engineering, Selcuk University (Turkey)

    2012-08-31

    Poly(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDPAEMA) thin films were deposited on low temperature substrates by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) method using tertbutyl peroxide as an initiator. Very high deposition rates up to 38 nm/min were observed at low filament temperatures due to the use of the initiator. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy show the formation of PDPAEMA films with high retention of tertiary amine functionality which is responsible for pH induced changes in the wetting behavior of the surfaces. As-deposited PDPAEMA thin films on flat Si surface showed a reversible switching of water contact angle values between 87 Degree-Sign and 28 Degree-Sign ; after successive treatments of high and low pH water solutions, respectively. Conformal and non-damaging nature of iCVD allowed to functionalize fragile and rough electrospun poly(methyl methacrylate) fiber mat surfaces by PDPAEMA, which creates a surface with a switching behavior between superhydrophobic and approaching superhydrophilic with contact angle values of 155 {+-} 3 Degree-Sign and 22 {+-} 5 Degree-Sign , respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Poly(2-diisopropylaminoethyl methacrylate) thin films were deposited by a dry process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initiated chemical vapor deposition can produce thin films on fragile substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a reversible pH-induced transition from hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic.

  1. Nanostructured Thin Film Synthesis by Aerosol Chemical Vapor Deposition for Energy Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Tandeep S.

    Renewable energy sources offer a viable solution to the growing energy demand while mitigating concerns for greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. This has led to a tremendous momentum towards solar and wind-based energy harvesting technologies driving efficiencies higher and costs lower. However, the intermittent nature of these energy sources necessitates energy storage technologies, which remain the Achilles heel in meeting the renewable energy goals. This dissertation focusses on two approaches for addressing the needs of energy storage: first, targeting direct solar to fuel conversion via photoelectrochemical water-splitting and second, improving the performance of current rechargeable batteries by developing new electrode architectures and synthesis processes. The aerosol chemical vapor deposition (ACVD) process has emerged as a promising single-step approach for nanostructured thin film synthesis directly on substrates. The relationship between the morphology and the operating parameters in the process is complex. In this work, a simulation based approach has been developed to understand the relationship and acquire the ability of predicting the morphology. These controlled nanostructured morphologies of TiO2 , compounded with gold nanoparticles of various shapes, are used for solar water-splitting applications. Tuning of light absorption in the visible-light range along with reduced electron-hole recombination in the composite structures has been demonstrated. The ACVD process is further extended to a novel single-step synthesis of nanostructured TiO2 electrodes directly on the current collector for applications as anodes in lithium-ion batteries, mainly for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The effect of morphology of the nanostructures has been investigated via experimental studies and electrochemical transport modelling. Results demonstrate the exceptional performance of the single crystal one-dimensional nanostructures over granular

  2. 75 FR 8266 - Final Clarification for Chemical Identification Describing Activated Phosphors for TSCA Inventory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... mixture of metal oxides, carbonates, phosphates or acid phosphates, chlorides, and/or fluorides, most... normally included with a new chemical notice submission, such as toxicity data on the chemical substance...

  3. Simulation of space radiation effects on polyimide film materials for high temperature applications. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogdall, L.B.; Cannaday, S.S.

    1977-11-01

    Space environment effects on candidate materials for the solar sail film are determined. Polymers, including metallized polyimides that might be suitable solar radiation receivers, were exposed to combined proton and solar electromagnetic radiation. Each test sample was weighted, to simulate the tension on the polymer when it is stretched into near-planar shape while receiving solar radiation. Exposure rates up to 16 times that expected in Earth orbit were employed, to simulate near-sun solar sailing conditions. Sample appearance, elongation, and shrinkage were monitored, noted, and documented in situ. Thermosetting polyimides showed less degradation or visual change in appearance than thermoplastics

  4. Effect of chemical treatment on surface characteristics of sputter deposited Ti-rich NiTi shape memory alloy thin-films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.K.; Mohan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: FTIR spectra recorded for sputter deposited (a) untreated and (b) chemically treated NiTi SMA thin-films. - Highlights: • The effect of chemical treatment on surface properties of NiTi films demonstrated. • Chemically treated films offer strong ability to form protective TiO 2 layer. • TiO 2 layer formation offer great application prospects in biomedical fields. - Abstract: NiTi thin-films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering from single alloy target (Ni/Ti:45/55 at.%). The rate of deposition and thickness of sputter deposited films were maintained to ∼35 nm min −1 and 4 μm respectively. A set of sputter deposited NiTi films were selected for specific chemical treatment with the solution comprising of de-ionized water, HF and HNO 3 respectively. The influence of chemical treatment on surface characteristics of NiTi films before and after chemical treatment was investigated for their structure, micro-structure and composition using different analytical techniques. Prior to chemical treatment, the composition of NiTi films using energy dispersive X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), were found to be 51.8 atomic percent of Ti and 48.2 atomic percent of Ni. The structure and morphology of these films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD investigations, demonstrated the presence of dominant Austenite (1 1 0) phase along with Martensite phase, for untreated NiTi films whereas some additional diffraction peaks viz. (1 0 0), (1 0 1), and (2 0 0) corresponding to Rutile and Anatase phase of Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) along with parent Austenite (1 1 0) phase were observed for chemically treated NiTi films. FTIR studies, it can be concluded that chemically treated films have higher tendency to form metal oxide/hydroxide than the untreated NiTi films. XPS investigations, demonstrated the presence of Ni-free surface and formation of a protective metal oxide (TiO 2 ) layer on the surface of

  5. Surface modification of reverse osmosis desalination membranes by thin-film coatings deposited by initiated chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaydin-Ince, Gozde, E-mail: gozdeince@sabanciuniv.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Matin, Asif, E-mail: amatin@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Zafarullah, E-mail: zukhan@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Zaidi, S.M. Javaid, E-mail: zaidismj@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Gleason, Karen K., E-mail: kkgleasn@mit.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-07-31

    Thin-film polymeric reverse osmosis membranes, due to their high permeation rates and good salt rejection capabilities, are widely used for seawater desalination. However, these membranes are prone to biofouling, which affects their performance and efficiency. In this work, we report a method to modify the membrane surface without damaging the active layer or significantly affecting the performance of the membrane. Amphiphilic copolymer films of hydrophilic hydroxyethylmethacrylate and hydrophobic perfluorodecylacrylate (PFA) were synthesized and deposited on commercial RO membranes using an initiated chemical vapor deposition technique which is a polymer deposition technique that involves free-radical polymerization initiated by gas-phase radicals. Relevant surface characteristics such as hydrophilicity and roughness could be systematically controlled by varying the polymer chemistry. Increasing the hydrophobic PFA content in the films leads to an increase in the surface roughness and hydrophobicity. Furthermore, the surface morphology studies performed using the atomic force microscopy show that as the thickness of the coating increases average surface roughness increases. Using this knowledge, the coating thickness and chemistry were optimized to achieve high permeate flux and to reduce cell attachment. Results of the static bacterial adhesion tests show that the attachment of bacterial cells is significantly reduced on the coated membranes. - Highlights: • Thin films are deposited on reverse osmosis membranes. • Amphiphilic thin films are resistant to protein attachment. • The permeation performance of the membranes is not affected by the coating. • The thin film coatings delayed the biofouling.

  6. Growth of CdS thin films on indium coated glass substrates via chemical bath deposition and subsequent air annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Biswajit; Kumar, Kamlesh; Singh, Balwant Kr; Banerjee, Pushan; Das, Subrata, E-mail: neillohit@yahoo.co.in

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CdS film grown on indium coated glass substrates via CBD and subsequent annealing. • Disappearance of the indium (1 1 2) peak confirms interdiffusion at 300 °C. • SIMS indicates the subsequent interdiffusion at progressively higher temperature. • Composite In–CdS layer showed lower photosensitivity compared to pure CdS. - Abstract: In the present work attempts were made to synthesize indium doped CdS films by fabricating In/CdS bilayers using CBD-CdS on vacuum evaporated In thin films and subsequent air annealing. 135 nm CdS films were grown onto 20 nm and 35 nm indium coated glass substrate employing chemical bath deposition technique. The In/CdS bilayers thus formed were subjected to heat treatment at the temperatures between 200 and 400 °C for 4 min in the muffle furnace to facilitate indium to diffuse into the CdS films. XRD pattern ascertained no noticeable shift in lattice constant implying grain boundary metal segregation, while secondary ion mass spectrometry indicated the diffusion profile of indium into CdS matrices. Mass spectrometry results showed that substantial diffusion of indium had been taken place within CdS at 400 °C. Dark and photocurrent with different illumination time were measured to ascertain the photosensitivity of pure and composite CdS films.

  7. Wetting, Solubility and Chemical Characteristics of Plasma-Polymerized 1-Isopropyl-4-Methyl-1,4-Cyclohexadiene Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakaria Ahmad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the wetting, solubility and chemical composition of plasma polymer thin films provide an insight into the feasibility of implementing these polymeric materials in organic electronics, particularly where wet solution processing is involved. In this study, thin films were prepared from 1-isopropyl-4-methyl-1,4-cyclohexadiene (γ-Terpinene using radio frequency (RF plasma polymerization. FTIR showed the polymers to be structurally dissimilar to the original monomer and highly cross-linked, where the loss of original functional groups and the degree of cross-linking increased with deposition power. The polymer surfaces were hydrocarbon-rich, with oxygen present in the form of O–H and C=O functional groups. The oxygen content decreased with deposition power, with films becoming more hydrophobic and, thus, less wettable. The advancing and receding contact angles were investigated, and the water advancing contact angle was found to increase from 63.14° to 73.53° for thin films prepared with an RF power of 10 W to 75 W. The wetting envelopes for the surfaces were constructed to enable the prediction of the surfaces’ wettability for other solvents. The effect of roughness on the wetting behaviour of the films was insignificant. The polymers were determined to resist solubilization in solvents commonly used in the deposition of organic semiconducting layers, including chloroform and chlorobenzene, with higher stability observed in films fabricated at higher RF power.

  8. Influence of complexing agent (Na2EDTA on chemical bath deposited Cu4SnS4 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Kassim

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The quality of thin film is influenced by the presence of complexing agents such as Na2EDTA. The Cu4SnS4 thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide glass substrate by chemical bath deposition method. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the deposited films have been studied using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. The XRD data showed that the films have a polycrystalline and orthorhombic structure. It also indicated that the most intense peak at 2 θ = 30.2° which belongs to (221 plane of Cu4 SnS4. The film deposited with 0.05 M Na2 EDTA showed good uniformity, good surface coverage with bigger grains and produced higher absorbance value. The band gap energy varies with the variation of Na2EDTA concentration which ranging from 1.56-1.60 eV. Deposition at concentration of 0.05 M Na2EDTA proved to offer a reasonably good Cu4SnS4 thin film.

  9. Structural, optical and electrical properties of CuInS{sub 2} thin films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terasako, Tomoaki; Uno, Yuji; Inoue, Seiki; Shirakata, Sho [Faculty of Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 780-8577 (Japan); Kariya, Tetsuya [Faculty of Science, Kochi University, Akebono-cho, Kochi, 780-8072 (Japan)

    2006-09-15

    Polycrystalline CuInS{sub 2} thin films were prepared by chemical spray pyrolisis (CSP) on glass substrate from the ethanol aqueous solution containing CuCl{sub 2}, InCl{sub 3} and thiourea. Structural, electrical and optical properties were systematically studied in terms of substrate temperature, pH and the ion ratio (Cu/In) of the spray solution. Although the In-rich films were composed of CuInS{sub 2} and In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} content in the film decreased with Cu/In ratio. Appearance of Raman peaks at 288 and 298 cm{sup -1} indicated that the films contained CuInS{sub 2} with chalcopyrite and CuAu phases. Typical grain size in the Cu-rich films was 200 nm. Optical gap energies were approximately 0.1-0.2eV smaller than the bandgap energy of the CuInS{sub 2} bulk crystal. Resistivity of the Cu-rich films without In{sub 2}S{sub 3} secondary phase was 0.2-5 {omega}cm. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Comparative Study of Furnace and Flash Lamp Annealed Silicon Thin Films Grown by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwar Shrestha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-temperature growth of microcrystalline silicon (mc-Si is attractive for many optoelectronic device applications. This paper reports a detailed comparison of optical properties, microstructure, and morphology of amorphous silicon (a-Si thin films crystallized by furnace annealing and flash lamp annealing (FLA at temperatures below the softening point of glass substrate. The initial a-Si films were grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. Reflectance measurement indicated characteristic peak in the UV region ~280 nm for the furnace annealed (>550 °C and flash lamp annealed films, which provided evidence of crystallization. The film surface roughness increased with increasing the annealing temperature as well as after the flash lamp annealing. X-ray diffraction (XRD measurement indicated that the as-deposited samples were purely amorphous and after furnace crystallization, the crystallites tended to align in one single direction (202 with uniform size that increased with the annealing temperature. On the other hand, the flash lamp crystalized films had randomly oriented crystallites with different sizes. Raman spectroscopy showed the crystalline volume fraction of 23.5%, 47.3%, and 61.3% for the samples annealed at 550 °C, 650 °C, and with flash lamp, respectively. The flash lamp annealed film was better crystallized with rougher surface compared to furnace annealed ones.

  11. Comparative study of ZnSe thin films deposited from modified chemical bath solutions with ammonia-containing and ammonia-free precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liangyan; Zhang Daoli; Zhai Guangmei; Zhang Jianbing

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia is one of the complexing agents which are the most commonly used in the precursors of ZnSe thin films by chemical bath deposition, but its high volatility may be harmful to human beings and environments. In our experiments, ZnSe films were obtained from modified chemical solutions with ammonia-containing and ammonia-free precursors. X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope (FSEM), and absorption spectrum were applied to investigate the microstructure, morphology and optical properties of the samples obtained from both growth conditions, which were investigated in this work. The ammonia-free chemical bath deposited ZnSe films showed comparable properties with the ammonia-containing ones, indicating that ZnSe films from ammonia-free chemical solution may be preferred buffer layer in thin film solar cells with less environmental contamination.

  12. Thin film CIGS solar cells with a novel low cost process - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, A. N.; Romanyuk, Y.

    2010-01-15

    Novel manufacturing routes for efficient and low-cost Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (called CIGS) thin film solar cells are explored and patented. CIGS has proven its suitability for highly efficient and extremely stable solar cells. The low-cost methods allow impurity free material synthesis, fast large-area deposition, high material utilization and a very short energy payback time with drastically lower manufacturing costs. Two non-vacuum, solution-based approaches are investigated to deposit thin layers of CIGS. The first approach considers incorporation of copper into indium gallium selenide precursor layers by ion-exchange from aqueous or organic solutions. Organic solutions provide faster copper incorporation and do not corrode the metal back contact. Solar cells processed from selenized precursor films exhibit efficiencies of up to 4.1%. The second approach with paste coating of inorganic salt solution results in a solar cell efficiency of 4% (record 6.7%), where further improvements are hindered by the presence of the residual carbon layer. Using alternative organic binders, pre-deposited selenium layers, non-binder recipes helps to avoid the carbon layer although the obtained layers are inhomogeneous and contain impurity phases. A patent for the ion-exchange approach is pending, and the obtained research results on the paste coating approach will be scrutinized during new European FP7 project 'NOVA-CIGS'. (authors)

  13. Mechanical, physico-chemical, and antimicrobial properties of gelatin-based film incorporated with catechin-lysozyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawdkuen Saroat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial activity is a primary cause of deterioration in many foods and is often responsible for reduced quality and safety. Food-borne illnesses associated with E. coli O157:H7, S. aureus, S. enteritidis and L. monocytogenes are a major public health concern throughout the world. A number of methods have been employed to control or prevent the growth of these microorganisms in food. Antimicrobial packaging is one of the most promising active packaging systems for effectively retarding the growth of food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanical, physico-chemical properties and inhibitory effects of the fish gelatin films against selected food spoilage microorganisms when incorporated with catechin-lysozyme. Results The effect of the catechin-lysozyme combination addition (CLC: 0, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, w/v on fish gelatin film properties was monitored. At the level of 0.5% addition, the CLC showed the greatest elongation at break (EAB at 143.17% with 0.039 mm thickness, and the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP at 6.5 x 10−8 g·mm·h-1·cm-2·Pa-1, whereas the control showed high tensile strength (TS and the highest WVP. Regarding color attributes, the gelatin film without CLC addition gave the highest lightness (L* 91.95 but lowest in redness (a*-1.29 and yellowness (b* 2.25 values. The light transmission of the film did not significantly decrease and nor did film transparency (p>0.05 with increased CLC. Incorporating CLC could not affect the film microstructure. The solubility of the gelatin based film incorporated with CLC was not affected, especially at a high level of addition (p>0.05. Inhibitory activity of the fish gelatin film against E.coli, S.aureus, L. innocua and S. cerevisiae was concentration dependent. Conclusions These findings suggested that CLC incorporation can improve mechanical, physico-chemical, and antimicrobial properties of the resulting films

  14. Chemical modifications of polymer films induced by high energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhiyong; Sun Youmei; Liu Changlong; Liu Jie; Jin Yunfan

    2002-01-01

    Polymer films including polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS) and polycarbonate (PC) were irradiated at room temperature with ions of 35 MeV/u 40 Ar, 25 MeV/u 84 Kr, 15.1 MeV/u 136 Xe and 11.4 MeV/u 238 U to fluences ranging from 9x10 9 to 5.5x10 12 ions/cm 2 . The radiation-induced chemical changes of the materials were investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopies. It is found that the absorbance in the ultraviolet and visible range induced by all irradiations follows a linear relationship with fluence. The radiation-induced absorbance normalized to one particle increases slowly with increasing of electronic energy loss below about 8 keV/nm followed by a sharp increase up to about 15 keV/nm above which saturation is reached. FTIR measurements reveal that the materials suffer serious degradation through bond breaking. The absorbance of the typical infrared bands decays exponentially with increase of ion fluence and the bond-disruption cross-section shows a sigmoid variation with electronic energy loss. In PET loss of crystallinity is attributed to the configuration transformation of the ethylene glycol residue from trans into the gauche. Alkyne end groups are induced in all the materials above certain electronic energy loss threshold, which is found to be about 0.8 keV/nm for PS and 0.4 keV/nm for PC. The production cross-section of alkyne end group increases with increasing of electronic energy loss and shows saturation at high electronic energy loss values. It is concluded that not only the physical processes but also the chemical processes of the energy deposition determine the modification of polymer

  15. Fabrication of ruthenium thin film and characterization of its chemical mechanical polishing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Yi-Sin; Yen, Shi-Chern; Jeng, King-Tsai

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of Ru thin film is conducted on titanium (Ti)-based rotating disk electrodes (RDE) by electrodeposition and characteristics of its chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) are investigated to be employed for copper diffusion layer applications in various semiconductor-device interconnects. The electrodeposits obtained under different electrodeposition conditions are characterized using atomic force microscope (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Experimental results indicate that the Ru electrodeposition exhibits a Tafel behavior with a 2e metal ion reduction process. Both exchange current density and cathodic transfer coefficient are determined. A quasi Koutecky–Levich analysis is proposed to analyze the electrodeposition processes under different applied current density conditions and the activation overpotentials together with electrodeposition rate constants are obtained. For Ru CMP operations, slurries containing metal-free 2wt% ammonium persulfate and 2wt% silica abrasive at various pH values are employed. Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that the corrosion current density varies in the presence of ammonia while the static etch rate remains low. Both chemical and mechanical effects are investigated and analyzed, and the CMP efficacy factors are obtained. - Highlights: • Ru electrodeposition is a 2e metal ion reduction process with Tafel behavior. • Ru electrodeposition on Ti RDE fits a quasi Koutecky–Levich equation. • Metal-free slurry is employed for CMP operation to avoid contamination. • The Ru CMP process is affected by the surface condition and the pH of slurry. • The CMP efficacy factor should be high in order to obtain a smooth surface

  16. Fabrication of ruthenium thin film and characterization of its chemical mechanical polishing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Yi-Sin [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Yen, Shi-Chern, E-mail: scyen@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Jeng, King-Tsai [Research Division I, TIER, 7F, No. 16-8, Dehuei St., Taipei 10461, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-15

    The fabrication of Ru thin film is conducted on titanium (Ti)-based rotating disk electrodes (RDE) by electrodeposition and characteristics of its chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) are investigated to be employed for copper diffusion layer applications in various semiconductor-device interconnects. The electrodeposits obtained under different electrodeposition conditions are characterized using atomic force microscope (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Experimental results indicate that the Ru electrodeposition exhibits a Tafel behavior with a 2e metal ion reduction process. Both exchange current density and cathodic transfer coefficient are determined. A quasi Koutecky–Levich analysis is proposed to analyze the electrodeposition processes under different applied current density conditions and the activation overpotentials together with electrodeposition rate constants are obtained. For Ru CMP operations, slurries containing metal-free 2wt% ammonium persulfate and 2wt% silica abrasive at various pH values are employed. Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that the corrosion current density varies in the presence of ammonia while the static etch rate remains low. Both chemical and mechanical effects are investigated and analyzed, and the CMP efficacy factors are obtained. - Highlights: • Ru electrodeposition is a 2e metal ion reduction process with Tafel behavior. • Ru electrodeposition on Ti RDE fits a quasi Koutecky–Levich equation. • Metal-free slurry is employed for CMP operation to avoid contamination. • The Ru CMP process is affected by the surface condition and the pH of slurry. • The CMP efficacy factor should be high in order to obtain a smooth surface.

  17. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films: Correlation between growth process and film properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giangregorio, Maria M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM sez. Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy)], E-mail: michelaria.giangregorio@ba.imip.cnr.it; Losurdo, Maria; Sacchetti, Alberto; Capezzuto, Pio; Bruno, Giovanni [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM sez. Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy)

    2009-02-27

    Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films have been grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) at 600 deg. C on different substrates, including glass, Si (100) and sapphire (0001) using tris(isopropylcyclopentadienyl)erbium and O{sub 2}. The effects of growth parameters such as the substrate, the O{sub 2} plasma activation and the temperature of organometallic precursor injection, on the nucleation/growth kinetics and, consequently, on film properties have been investigated. Specifically, very smooth (111)-oriented Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films (the root mean square roughness is 0.3 nm) are achieved on Si (100), {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) and amorphous glass by MOCVD. Growth under O{sub 2} remote plasma activation results in an increase in growth rate and in (100)-oriented Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} films with high refractive index and transparency in the visible photon energy range.

  18. Biodegradable films and spray coatings as eco-friendly alternative to petro-chemical derived mulching films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vox

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of plastic mulching films in horticulture causes the serious drawback of huge amount of wastes to be disposed of at the end of their lifetime. Several pre-competitive research products based on raw materials coming from renewable sources were recently developed to be used as biodegradable materials for soil mulching. Biodegradable materials are designed in order both to retain their mechanical and physical properties during their using time and to degrade at the end of their lifetime. These materials can be integrated directly in the soil in order to biodegrade because the bacterial flora transforms them in carbon dioxide or methane, water and biomass. The innovative materials can be obtained using natural polymers, such as starch, cellulose, chitosan, alginate and glucomannan. Biodegradable extruded mulching films were performed by means of thermo-plasticizing process. Spray mulch coatings were realized directly in field, by spraying water solutions based on natural polysaccharides, thus covering the cultivated soil with a protective thin geo-membrane. In this paper an overview on the formulation development, processing understanding, field performance, mechanical and radiometric properties of these innovative materials for soil mulching is presented. In field the biodegradable mulching films showed suitable mechanical properties if compared to the low density polyethylene films. The radiometric properties and their effect on the temperature condition and on weed control in the mulched soil were evaluated too. At the end of their lifetime the biodegradable materials were shattered and buried into the soil together with plants.

  19. In-Situ Synchrotron X-ray Study of the Phase and Texture Evolution of Ceria and Superconductor Films Deposited by Chemical Solution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Zhao; Grivel, Jean-Claude; He, Dong

    2012-01-01

    In situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction is used to study the phase and texture formation of ceria based films and superconductor films deposited by the chemical solution method on technical substrates. Combined analysis using in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry/differential ther......In situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction is used to study the phase and texture formation of ceria based films and superconductor films deposited by the chemical solution method on technical substrates. Combined analysis using in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry...

  20. Low-temperature transport properties of chemical solution deposited polycrystalline La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 ferromagnetic films under a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Junyu; Chen, Ying; Xu, Wenfei; Yang, Jing; Bai, Wei; Wang, Genshui; Duan, Chungang; Tang, Zheng; Tang, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    Polycrystalline La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 (LSMO) films were prepared on SiO 2 /Si (001) substrates by chemical solution deposition technique. Electrical and magnetic properties of LSMO were investigated. A minimum phenomenon in resistivity is found at the low temperature ( 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 films were grown by a modified chemical solution deposition route. → High quality LSMO thin films were prepared directly onto SiO 2 /Si substrates. → Abnormality in resistivity of LSMO films at low temperatures was studied in detail. → The abnormality was mainly attributed to Kondo-like spin dependent scattering.

  1. Characterization of thin film deposits on tungsten filaments in catalytic chemical vapor deposition using 1,1-dimethylsilacyclobutane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yujun, E-mail: shiy@ucalgary.ca; Tong, Ling; Mulmi, Suresh [Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    Metal filament plays a key role in the technique of catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) as it serves as a catalyst in dissociating the source gas to form reactive species. These reactive species initiate the gas-phase reaction chemistry and final thin film and nanostructure formation. At the same time, they also react with the metal itself, leading to the formation of metal alloys and other deposits. The deposits on the tungsten filaments when exposed to 1,1-dimethylsilacyclobutane (DMSCB), a single-source precursor for silicon carbide thin films, in the process of Cat-CVD were studied in this work. It has been demonstrated that a rich variety of deposits, including tungsten carbides (W{sub 2}C and WC), tungsten silicide (W{sub 5}Si{sub 3}), silicon carbide, amorphous carbon, and graphite, form on the W filament surfaces. The structural and morphological changes in the tungsten filaments depend strongly on the DMSCB pressure and filament temperature. At 1000 and 2000 °C, the formation of WC and W{sub 2}C dominates. In addition, a thin amorphous carbon layer has been found at 1500 °C with the 0.12 and 0.24 Torr of DMSCB and a lower temperature of 1200 °C with the 0.48 Torr of DMSCB. An increase in the DMSCB sample pressure gives rise to higher Si and C contents. As a result, the formation of SiC and W{sub 5}Si{sub 3} has been observed with the two high-pressure DMSCB samples (i.e., 0.24 and 0.48 Torr). The rich decomposition chemistry of DMSCB on the W surfaces is responsible for the extensive changes in the structure of the W filament, providing support for the close relationship between the gas-phase decomposition chemistry and the nature of alloy formation on the metal surface. The understanding of the structural changes obtained from this work will help guide the development of efficient methods to solve the filament aging problem in Cat-CVD and also to achieve a controllable deposition process.

  2. Enhanced Performance of Thin Film Composite Forward Osmosis Membrane by Chemical Post-Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Chen, Jiangrong; Cao, Zhen; Wang, Jian; Guo, Chungang

    2018-01-01

    Forward osmosis is an attractive technique in water purification and desalination fields. Enhancement of the forward osmosis membrane performance is essential to the application of this technique. In this study, an optimized chemical post-treatment approach which was used to improve RO membrane performance was employed for enhancing water flux of thin film composite forward osmosis membrane. Home-made polysulfide-based forward osmosis membrane was prepared and nitric acid, sulfuric acid, ethanol, 2-propanol were employed as post-treatment solutions. After a short-term treatment, all the membrane samples manifested water flux enhancement compared with their untreated counterparts. Over 50% increase of water flux had been obtained by ethanol solution treatment. The swelling, changes of hydrophobicity and solvency in both active layer and substrate were verified as the major causes for the enhancement of the water flux. It is noted that the treatment time and solution concentration should be controlled to get both appropriate water flux and reverse salt flux. The results obtained in this study will be useful for further FO membrane development and application.

  3. Microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition of porous carbon film as supercapacitive electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ai-Min; Feng, Chen-Chen; Huang, Hao; Paredes Camacho, Ramon Alberto; Gao, Song; Lei, Ming-Kai; Cao, Guo-Zhong

    2017-07-01

    Highly porous carbon film (PCF) coated on nickel foam was prepared successfully by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) with C2H2 as carbon source and Ar as discharge gas. The PCF is uniform and dense with 3D-crosslinked nanoscale network structure possessing high degree of graphitization. When used as the electrode material in an electrochemical supercapacitor, the PCF samples verify their advantageous electrical conductivity, ion contact and electrochemical stability. The test results show that the sample prepared under 1000 W microwave power has good electrochemical performance. It displays the specific capacitance of 62.75 F/g at the current density of 2.0 A/g and retains 95% of its capacitance after 10,000 cycles at the current density of 2.0 A/g. Besides, its near-rectangular shape of the cyclic voltammograms (CV) curves exhibits typical character of an electric double-layer capacitor, which owns an enhanced ionic diffusion that can fit the requirements for energy storage applications.

  4. Characterisation of silicon carbide films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliescu, Ciprian; Chen Bangtao; Wei Jiashen; Pang, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a characterisation of amorphous silicon carbide films deposited in plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) reactors for MEMS applications. The main parameter was optimised in order to achieve a low stress and high deposition rate. We noticed that the high frequency mode (13.56 MHz) gives a low stress value which can be tuned from tensile to compressive by selecting the correct power. The low frequency mode (380 kHz) generates high compressive stress (around 500 MPa) due to ion bombardment and, as a result, densification of the layer achieved. Temperature can decrease the compressive value of the stress (due to annealing effect). A low etching rate of the amorphous silicon carbide layer was noticed for wet etching in KOH 30% at 80 o C (around 13 A/min) while in HF 49% the layer is practically inert. A very slow etching rate of amorphous silicon carbide layer in XeF 2 -7 A/min- was observed. The paper presents an example of this application: PECVD-amorphous silicon carbide cantilevers fabricated using surface micromachining by dry-released technique in XeF 2

  5. Microstructure and chemical bond evolution of diamond-like carbon films machined by femtosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Chunhui [Science and Technology on Thermostructure Composite Materials Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Liu, Yongsheng, E-mail: yongshengliu@nwpu.edu.cn [Science and Technology on Thermostructure Composite Materials Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Cheng, Laifei [Science and Technology on Thermostructure Composite Materials Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Li, Weinan [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 10068 (China); Zhang, Qing [Science and Technology on Thermostructure Composite Materials Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Yang, Xiaojun [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 10068 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The machining depth was essentially proportional to the laser power. • The well patterned microgrooves and ripple structures with nanoparticles were formed distinctly in the channels. And the number of nanoparticles increased with the processing power as well. • It revealed a conversion from amorphous carbon to nanocrystalline graphite after laser treated with increasing laser power. • It showed that a great decrease of sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} after laser treatment. - Abstract: Femtosecond laser is of great interest for machining high melting point and hardness materials such as diamond-like carbon, SiC ceramic, et al. In present work, the microstructural and chemical bond evolution of diamond-like carbon films were investigated using electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques after machined by diverse femtosecond laser power in air. The results showed the machining depth was essentially proportional to the laser power. The well patterned microgrooves and ripple structures with nanoparticles were formed distinctly in the channels. Considering the D and G Raman band parameters on the laser irradiation, it revealed a conversion from amorphous carbon to nanocrystalline graphite after laser treated with increasing laser power. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed a great decrease of sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} after laser treatment.

  6. Chemical modification of chitosan film via surface grafting of citric acid molecular to promote the biomineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang, E-mail: liuyang@cczu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geo Materials of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Shen, Xin; Zhou, Huan [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Wang, Yingjun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Deng, Linhong, E-mail: dlh@cczu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2016-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Chitosan film was modified by surface grafting of citric acid. • The modified film has good hydrophilicity and moisture-retaining capacity. • The citric acid grafting treatment significantly promote the biomineralization. • MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts research confirms the biocompatibility of the film. - Abstract: We develop a novel chitosan–citric acid film (abbreviated as CS–CA) suitable for biomedical applications in this study. In this CS–CA film, the citric acid, which is a harmless organic acid has been extensively investigated as a modifying agent on carbohydrate polymers, was cross-linked by 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) onto the surface of chitosan (CS) film. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the graft copolymerization of the modified chitosan film (CS–CA). Surface wettability, moisturizing performance, the capacity of mineralization in vitro and biocompatibility of the films were characterized. After modification, this CS–CA film has good hydrophilicity. It is very evident that the citric acid grafting treatment significantly promotes the biomineralization of the chitosan based substrates. Cell experiments show that the MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts can adhere and proliferate well on the surface of CS–CA film. This CS–CA film, which can be prepared in large quantities and at low cost, should have potential application in bone tissue engineering.

  7. Effect of pH on the properties of ZnS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Nasr, T.; Kamoun, N.; Kanzari, M.; Bennaceur, R.

    2006-01-01

    Zinc sulphide thin films have been deposited on glass substrates using the chemical bath deposition technique. The depositions were carried out in the pH range of 10 to 11.5. Structure of these films was characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Optical properties were studied by spectrophotometric measurements. Influence of the increased pH value on structural and optical properties is described and discussed in terms of transmission improvement in the visible range. Transmission spectra indicate a high transmission coefficient (∼70%). The direct band gap energy is found to be about 3.67 eV for the films prepared at pH equal to 11.5

  8. In situ growth rate measurements during plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition of vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotube films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, M; Nerushev, O A; Campbell, E E B

    2007-01-01

    In situ laser reflectivity measurements are used to monitor the growth of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) films grown by DC plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) from an iron catalyst film deposited on a silicon wafer. In contrast to thermal CVD growth, there is no initial increase in the growth rate; instead, the initial growth rate is high (as much as 10 μm min -1 ) and then drops off rapidly to reach a steady level (2 μm min -1 ) for times beyond 1 min. We show that a limiting factor for growing thick films of multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs) using PECVD can be the formation of an amorphous carbon layer at the top of the growing nanotubes. In situ reflectivity measurements provide a convenient technique for detecting the onset of the growth of this layer

  9. Ion Exchange Equilibrium and Kinetic Properties of Polyacrylate Films and Applications to Chemical Analysis and Environmental Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Stephen P.

    1997-01-01

    One of the goals of the original proposal was to study how cross-linking affects the properties of an ion exchange material(IEM) developed at Lewis Research Center. However, prior to the start of this work, other workers at LERC investigated the effect of cross-linking on the properties of this material. Other than variation in the ion exchange capacity, the chemical characteristics were shown to be independent of the cross-linking agent, and the degree of cross-linking. New physical forms of the film were developed (film, supported film, various sizes of beads, and powder). All showed similar properties with respect to ion exchange equilibria but the kinetics of ion exchange depended on the surface area per unit mass; the powder form of the IEM exchanging much more rapidly than the other forms. The research performed under this grant was directed towards the application of the IEM to the analysis of metal ions at environmental concentrations.

  10. Human serum albumin (HSA) adsorption onto a-SiC:H thin films deposited by hot wire chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, Bibhu P.

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper, we report the study of the adsorption behavior of human serum albumin (HSA) onto surfaces of a-SiC:H thin films deposited by using the hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) technique. The surface composition and surface energy of the various substrates as well as the evaluation of the adsorbed amount of protein has been carried out by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, AFM and contact angle measurements. At the immediate effect of HSA interaction with a-SiC:H films N is adsorbed on the surface and stabilized after 3 days. Preliminary observation found that Si and O atom are desorbed from the surface while C and N set adsorbed to the surface of the a-SiC:H film

  11. Human serum albumin (HSA) adsorption onto a-SiC:H thin films deposited by hot wire chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, Bibhu P. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India) and Samtel Centre for Display Technologies, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India, Kanpur 208016 (India)]. E-mail: bibhup@iitb.ac.in

    2006-12-15

    In the present paper, we report the study of the adsorption behavior of human serum albumin (HSA) onto surfaces of a-SiC:H thin films deposited by using the hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) technique. The surface composition and surface energy of the various substrates as well as the evaluation of the adsorbed amount of protein has been carried out by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, AFM and contact angle measurements. At the immediate effect of HSA interaction with a-SiC:H films N is adsorbed on the surface and stabilized after 3 days. Preliminary observation found that Si and O atom are desorbed from the surface while C and N set adsorbed to the surface of the a-SiC:H film.

  12. 77 FR 14493 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... Issues for the Final Results Surrogate Country Selection and Surrogate Financial Ratios Issue 1: Whether... Department should have selected the financial statement of JBF Industries Ltd. to calculate financial ratios... this review. We invited interested parties to comment on our Preliminary Results. Based on our analysis...

  13. Characterizations of arsenic-doped zinc oxide films produced by atmospheric metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Li-Wei, E-mail: onlyway54@hotmail.com [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Uen, Wu-Yih, E-mail: uenwuyih@ms37.hinet.net [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Lan, Shan-Ming; Liao, Sen-Mao [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Yang, Tsun-Neng; Wu, Chih-Hung; Hong, Hwe-Fen; Ma, Wei-Yang [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, P.O. Box 3-11, Lungtan 32500, Taiwan (China); Shen, Chin-Chang [Chemical Engineering Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan Township, Taoyuan 32546, Taiwan (China)

    2013-07-15

    p-type ZnO films were prepared by atmospheric metal-organic chemical vapor deposition technique using arsine (AsH{sub 3}) as the doping source. The electrical and optical properties of arsenic-doped ZnO (ZnO:As) films fabricated at 450–600 °C with various AsH{sub 3} flow rates ranging from 8 to 21.34 μmol/min were analyzed and compared. Hall measurements indicate that stable p-type ZnO films with hole concentrations varying from 7.2 × 10{sup 15} to 5.8 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} could be obtained. Besides, low temperature (17 K) photoluminescence spectra of all ZnO:As films also demonstrate the dominance of the line related to the neutral acceptor-bound exciton. Moreover, the elemental identity and chemical bonding information for ZnO:As films were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Based on the results obtained, the effects of doping conditions on the mechanism responsible for the p-type conduction were studied. Conclusively, a simple technique to fabricate good-quality p-type ZnO films has been recognized in this work. Depositing the film at 550 °C with an AsH{sub 3} flow rate of 13.72 μmol/min is appropriate for producing hole concentrations on the order of 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} for it. Ultimately, by increasing the AsH{sub 3} flow rate to 21.34 μmol/min for doping and depositing the film at 600 °C, ZnO:As films with a hole concentration over 5 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} together with a mobility of 1.93 cm{sup 2}V{sup −1} s{sup −1} and a resistivity of 0.494 ohm-cm can be achieved.

  14. Optimisation of chemical solution deposition of indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunde, Tor Olav Løveng; Einarsrud, Mari-Ann; Grande, Tor, E-mail: grande@ntnu.no

    2014-12-31

    An environmentally friendly aqueous sol–gel process has been optimised to deposit indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films, aiming to improve the film properties and reduce the deposition costs. It was demonstrated how parameters such as cation concentration and viscosity could be applied to modify the physical properties of the sol and thereby reduce the need for multiple coatings to yield films with sufficient conductivity. The conductivity of the thin films was enhanced by adjusting the heat treatment temperature and atmosphere. Both increasing the heat treatment temperature of the films from 530 to 800 °C and annealing in reducing atmosphere significantly improved the electrical conductivity, and conductivities close to the state of the art sputtered ITO films were obtained. A pronounced decreased conductivity was observed after exposing the thin films to air and the thermal reduction and ageing of the film was studied by in situ conductivity measurements. - Highlights: • Spin coating of indium tin oxide using an aqueous solution was optimised. • The conductivity was enhanced by thermal annealing in reducing atmosphere. • The conductivity of is comparable to the conductivity of sputtered films. • A relaxation process in the reduced thin film was observed after exposure in air.

  15. Controlled optical properties via chemical composition tuning in molybdenum-incorporated β-Ga2O3 nanocrystalline films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battu, Anil K.; Manandhar, S.; Shutthanandan, V.; Ramana, C. V.

    2017-09-01

    An approach is presented to design refractory-metal incorporated Ga2O3-based materials with controlled structural and optical properties. The molybdenum (Mo)-content in Ga2O3 was varied from 0 to 11 at% in the sputter-deposited Ga-Mo-O films. Molybdenum was found to significantly affect the structure and optical properties. While low Mo-content (≤4 at%) results in the formation of single-phase (β-Ga2O3), higher Mo-content results in amorphization. Chemically-induced band gap variability (Eg ∼ 1 eV) coupled with structure-modification indicates the electronic-structure changes in Ga-Mo-O. The linear relationship between chemical-composition and optical properties suggests that tailoring the optical-quality and performance of Ga-Mo-O films is possible by tuning the Mo-content.

  16. Plasmonic metamaterial-based chemical converted graphene/TiO2/Ag thin films by a simple spray pyrolysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Promod; Swart, H. C.

    2018-04-01

    Graphene based hybrid nanostructures have received special attention in both the scientific and technological development due to their unique physicochemical behavior, which make them attractive in various applications such as, batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells, solar cells, photovoltaic devices and bio-sensors. In the present study, the role of plasmonic metamaterials in light trapping photovoltaics for inorganic semiconducting materials by a simple and low cost spray pyrolysis technique has been studied. The plasmonic metamaterials thin film has been fabricated by depositing chemically converted graphene (CCG) onto TiO2-Ag nanoparticles which has a low resistivity and a low electron-hole recombination probability. The localized surface plasmon resonance at the metal-dielectric interface for the Ag nanoparticles has been observed at 403 nm after depositing chemical converted graphene (CCG) on the TiO2-Ag thin film. The results suggest that the stacking order of the CCG/TiO2/Ag plasmonic metamaterials samples did not change the band gap of TiO2 while it changed the conductivity of the film. Thus the diffusion of the noble metals in the glass and TiO2 matrices based thin films can trap the light of a particular wavelength by mean of plasmonic resonance and may be useful for superior photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications.

  17. Reduced thermal budget processing of Y--Ba--Cu--O high temperature superconducting thin films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.; Sinha, S.; Hsu, N.J.; Ng, J.T.C.; Chou, P.; Thakur, R.P.S.; Narayan, J.

    1991-01-01

    Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has the potential of emerging as a viable technique to fabricate ribbons, tapes, coated wires, and the deposition of films of high temperature superconductors, and related materials. As a reduced thermal budget processing technique, rapid isothermal processing (RIP) based on incoherent radiation as the source of energy can be usefully coupled to conventional MOCVD. In this paper we report on the deposition and characterization of high quality superconducting thin films of Y--Ba--Cu--O (YBCO) on MgO and SrTiO 3 substrates by RIP assisted MOCVD. By using a mixture of N 2 O and O 2 as the oxygen source films deposited initially at 600 degree C for 1 min and then at 740 degree C for 30 min are primarily c-axis oriented and with zero resistance being observed at 84 and 89 K for MgO and SrTiO 3 substrates, respectively. The zero magnetic field current densities at 77 K for MgO and SrTiO 3 substrates are 1.2x10 6 and 1.5x10 6 A/cm 2 , respectively. It is envisaged that high energy photons from the incoherent light source and the use of a mixture of N 2 O and O 2 as the oxygen source, assist chemical reactions and lower overall thermal budget for processing of these films

  18. The effect of different thickness alumina capping layers on the final morphology of dewet thin Ni films

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Benjamin C.; Behbahanian, Amir; Stoker, T. McKay; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Hartnett, Chris; Rack, Phillip D.; Roberts, Nicholas A.

    2018-03-01

    Nanoparticles on a substrate have numerous applications in nanotechnology, from enhancements to solar cell efficiency to improvements in carbon nanotube growth. Producing nanoparticles in a cost effective fashion with control over size and spacing is desired, but difficult to do. This work presents a scalable method for altering the radius and pitch distributions of nickel nanoparticles. The introduction of alumina capping layers to thin nickel films during a pulsed laser-induced dewetting process has yielded reductions in the mean and standard deviation of radii and pitch for dewet nanoparticles with no noticeable difference in final morphology with increased capping layer thickness. The differences in carbon nanotube mats grown, on the uncapped sample and one of the capped samples, is also presented here, with a more dense mat being present for the capped case.

  19. Boron-doped zinc oxide thin films for large-area solar cells grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.L.; Xu, B.H.; Xue, J.M.; Zhao, Y.; Wei, C.C.; Sun, J.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, X.D.; Geng, X.H.

    2007-01-01

    Boron-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) films were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition using diethylzinc (DEZn), and H 2 O as reactant gases and diborane (B 2 H 6 ) as an n-type dopant gas. The structural, electrical and optical properties of ZnO films doped at different B 2 H 6 flow rates were investigated. X-ray diffraction spectra and scanning electron microscopy images indicate that boron-doping plays an important role on the microstructure of ZnO films, which induced textured morphology. With optimized conditions, low sheet resistance (∼ 30 Ω/□), high transparency (> 85% in the visible light and infrared range) and high mobility (17.8 cm 2 V -1 s -1 ) were obtained for 700-nm ZnO:B films deposited on 20 cm x 20 cm glass substrates at the temperature of 443 K. After long-term exposure in air, the ZnO:B films also showed a better electrical stability than the un-doped samples. With the application of ZnO:B/Al back contacts, the short circuit current density was effectively enhanced by about 3 mA/cm 2 for a small area a-Si:H cell and a high efficiency of 9.1% was obtained for a large-area (20 cm x 20 cm) a-Si solar module

  20. Mechanical control of the plasmon coupling with Au nanoparticle arrays fixed on the elastomeric film via chemical bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, Elena; Kaneko, Satoshi; Fujii, Shintaro; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2017-03-01

    We have fabricated Au nanoparticle arrays on the flexible poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) film. The nanoparticles were bound to the film via a covalent bond by a ligand exchange reaction. Thanks to the strong chemical bonding, highly stable and uniformly dispersed Au nanoparticle arrays were fixed on the PDMS film. The Au nanoparticle arrays were characterized by the UV-vis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The UV-vis and SEM measurements showed the uniformity of the surface-dispersed Au nanoparticles, and SERS measurement confirmed the chemistry of the PDMS film. Reflecting the high stability and the uniformity of the Au nanoparticle arrays, the plasmon wavelength of the Au nanoparticles reversely changed with modulation of the interparticle distance, which was induced by the stretching of the PDMS film. The plasmon wavelength linearly decreased from 664 to 591 nm by stretching of 60%. The plasmon wavelength shift can be explained by the change in the strength of the plasmon coupling which is mechanically controlled by the mechanical strain.

  1. Iron selenide films by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition from single source organometallic precursor in the presence of surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Raja Azadar [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Badshah, Amin, E-mail: aminbadshah@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Younis, Adnan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia); Khan, Malik Dilshad [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Akhtar, Javeed [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-09-30

    This article presents the synthesis and characterization (multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, carbon–hydrogen–nitrogen–sulfur analyzer, atomic absorption spectrometry and thermogravimetric analysis) of a single source organometallic precursor namely 1-acetyl-3-(4-ferrocenylphenyl)selenourea for the fabrication of iron selenide (FeSe) films on glass substrates using aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD). The changes in the morphologies of the films have been monitored by the use of two different surfactants i.e. triton X-100 and tetraoctylphosphonium bromide during AACVD. The role of surfactant has been evaluated by examining the interaction of the surfactants with the precursor by using UV–vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The fabricated FeSe films have been characterized with powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Ferrocene incorporated selenourea (FIS) has been synthesized and characterized. • FeSe thin films have been fabricated from FIS. • Mechanism of film growth was studied with cyclic voltammetry and UV–vis spectroscopy.

  2. A novel chemical synthesis and characterization of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films for supercapacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubal, D.P.; Dhawale, D.S.; Salunkhe, R.R. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (M.S) (India); Pawar, S.M. [Photonic and Electronic Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-Dong, Puk-Gu, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Lokhande, C.D., E-mail: l_chandrakant@yahoo.com [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (M.S) (India)

    2010-05-01

    Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films have been prepared by novel chemical successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. Further these films were characterized for their structural, morphological and optical properties by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), wettability test and optical absorption studies. The XRD pattern showed that the Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} films exhibit tetragonal hausmannite structure. Formation of manganese oxide compound was confirmed from FTIR studies. The optical absorption showed existence of direct optical band gap of energy 2.30 eV. Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} film surface showed hydrophilic nature with water contact angle of 55{sup o}. The supercapacitive properties of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin film investigated in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte showed maximum supercapacitance of 314 F g{sup -1} at scan rate 5 mV s{sup -1}.

  3. Electrical dependence on the chemical composition of the gate dielectric in indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tari, Alireza, E-mail: atari@uwaterloo.ca; Lee, Czang-Ho; Wong, William S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-07-13

    Bottom-gate thin-film transistors were fabricated by depositing a 50 nm InGaZnO (IGZO) channel layer at 150 °C on three separate gate dielectric films: (1) thermal SiO{sub 2}, (2) plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition (PECVD) SiN{sub x}, and (3) a PECVD SiO{sub x}/SiN{sub x} dual-dielectric. X-ray photoelectron and photoluminescence spectroscopy showed the V{sub o} concentration was dependent on the hydrogen concentration of the underlying dielectric film. IGZO films on SiN{sub x} (high V{sub o}) and SiO{sub 2} (low V{sub o}) had the highest and lowest conductivity, respectively. A PECVD SiO{sub x}/SiN{sub x} dual-dielectric layer was effective in suppressing hydrogen diffusion from the nitride layer into the IGZO and resulted in higher resistivity films.

  4. Atomic-layer chemical-vapor-deposition of TiN thin films on Si(100) and Si(111)

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y S; Kim, Y D; Kim, W M

    2000-01-01

    An atomic-layer chemical vapor deposition (AL-CVD) system was used to deposit TiN thin films on Si(100) and Si(111) substrates by cyclic exposures of TiCl sub 4 and NH sub 3. The growth rate was measured by using the number of deposition cycles, and the physical properties were compared with those of TiN films grown by using conventional deposition methods. To investigate the growth mechanism, we suggest a growth model for TiN n order to calculate the growth rate per cycle with a Cerius program. The results of the calculation with the model were compared with the experimental values for the TiN film deposited using the AL-CVD method. The stoichiometry of the TiN film was examined by using Auger electron spectroscopy, and the chlorine and the oxygen impurities were examined. The x-ray diffraction and the transmission electron microscopy results for the TiN film exhibited a strong (200) peak and a randomly oriented columnar microstructure. The electrical resistivity was found to decrease with increasing deposit...

  5. Magnetic core/shell nanoparticle thin films deposited by MAPLE: Investigation by chemical, morphological and in vitro biological assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, R.; Popescu, C.; Socol, G.; Iordache, I.; Mihailescu, I.N.; Mihaiescu, D.E.; Grumezescu, A.M.; Balan, A.; Stamatin, I.; Chifiriuc, C.; Bleotu, C.; Saviuc, C.; Popa, M.; Chrisey, D.B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We deposit magnetic Fe 3 O 4 /oleic acid/cephalosporin nanoparticle thin films by MAPLE. ► Thin films have a chemical structure similar to the starting material. ► Cephalosporins have an additive effect on the grain size and induce changes in grain shape. ► MAPLE can be used to develop novel strategies for fighting medical biofilms associated with chronic infections. - Abstract: We report on thin film deposition of nanostructured Fe 3 O 4 /oleic acid/ceftriaxone and Fe 3 O 4 /oleic acid/cefepime nanoparticles (core/shell/adsorption-shell) were fabricated by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) onto inert substrates. The thin films were characterized by profilometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and investigated by in vitro biological assays. The biological properties tested included the investigation of the microbial viability and the microbial adherence to the glass coverslip nanoparticle film, using Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains with known antibiotic susceptibility behavior, the microbial adherence to the HeLa cells monolayer grown on the nanoparticle pellicle, and the cytotoxicity on eukaryotic cells. The proposed system, based on MAPLE, could be used for the development of novel anti-microbial materials or strategies for fighting pathogenic biofilms frequently implicated in the etiology of biofilm associated chronic infections.

  6. Magnetic core/shell nanoparticle thin films deposited by MAPLE: Investigation by chemical, morphological and in vitro biological assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, R., E-mail: rodica.cristescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Popescu, C.; Socol, G.; Iordache, I.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Mihaiescu, D.E.; Grumezescu, A.M. [Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, ' Politehnica' University of Bucharest, 1-7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Balan, A.; Stamatin, I. [University of Bucharest, 3Nano-SAE Research Center, PO Box MG-38, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Chifiriuc, C. [Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, Microbiology Immunology Department, Aleea Portocalilor 1-3, Sector 5, 77206 Bucharest (Romania); Bleotu, C. [Stefan S. Nicolau Institute of Virology, 285 Mihai Bravu, 030304 Bucharest (Romania); Saviuc, C.; Popa, M. [Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, Microbiology Immunology Department, Aleea Portocalilor 1-3, Sector 5, 77206 Bucharest (Romania); Chrisey, D.B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, School of Engineering, Departments of Materials Science and Biomedical Engineering, Troy, 12180-3590, NY (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We deposit magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/oleic acid/cephalosporin nanoparticle thin films by MAPLE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin films have a chemical structure similar to the starting material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cephalosporins have an additive effect on the grain size and induce changes in grain shape. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPLE can be used to develop novel strategies for fighting medical biofilms associated with chronic infections. - Abstract: We report on thin film deposition of nanostructured Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/oleic acid/ceftriaxone and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/oleic acid/cefepime nanoparticles (core/shell/adsorption-shell) were fabricated by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) onto inert substrates. The thin films were characterized by profilometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and investigated by in vitro biological assays. The biological properties tested included the investigation of the microbial viability and the microbial adherence to the glass coverslip nanoparticle film, using Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains with known antibiotic susceptibility behavior, the microbial adherence to the HeLa cells monolayer grown on the nanoparticle pellicle, and the cytotoxicity on eukaryotic cells. The proposed system, based on MAPLE, could be used for the development of novel anti-microbial materials or strategies for fighting pathogenic biofilms frequently implicated in the etiology of biofilm associated chronic infections.

  7. Enhanced field emission characteristics of boron doped diamond films grown by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koinkar, Pankaj M. [Center for International Cooperation in Engineering Education (CICEE), University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-josanjima-cho, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Patil, Sandip S. [Center for Advanced Studies in Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Kim, Tae-Gyu [Department of Nano System and Process Engineering, Pusan National University, 50 Cheonghak-ri, Samrangjin-eup, Miryang, Gyeongnam, Pusan 627-706 (Korea, Republic of); Yonekura, Daisuke [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-josanjima-cho, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); More, Mahendra A., E-mail: mam@physics.unipune.ac.in [Center for Advanced Studies in Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Joag, Dilip S. [Center for Advanced Studies in Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Murakami, Ri-ichi, E-mail: murakami@me.tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-josanjima-cho, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan)

    2011-01-01

    Boron doped diamond films were synthesized on silicon substrates by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) technique. The effect of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration varied from 1000 to 5000 ppm on the field emission characteristics was examined. The surface morphology and quality of films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The surface morphology obtained by SEM showed variation from facetted microcrystal covered with nanometric grains to cauliflower of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) particles with increasing B{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration. The Raman spectra confirm the formation of NCD films. The field emission properties of NCD films were observed to improve upon increasing boron concentration. The values of the onset field and threshold field are observed to be as low as 0.36 and 0.08 V/{mu}m, respectively. The field emission current stability investigated at the preset value of {approx}1 {mu}A is observed to be good, in each case. The enhanced field emission properties are attributed to the better electrical conductivity coupled with the nanometric features of the diamond films.

  8. Effect of tri-sodium citrate concentration on structural, optical and electrical properties of chemically deposited tin sulfide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gode, F., E-mail: ftmgode@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, 15030 Burdur (Turkey); Guneri, E. [Department of Primary Education, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Baglayan, O. [Department of Physics, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2014-11-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • SnS thin films grown by CBD in different concentration of tri-sodium citrate. • Grain size increases, while surface roughness decreases, with concentration. • Optical band gap decreases from 1.40 eV to 1.17 eV with increasing concentration. • Electrical conductivity improves with increasing concentration. - Abstract: Tin sulfide thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition. The effects of molar concentration of the complexing agent, tri-sodium citrate, on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the films were investigated. The films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy and Hall effect measurements. Polycrystalline film structure in orthorhombic phase was determined. Flower-like spherical grains are observed on the surface. While their average size increased from 345 nm to 750 nm when the tri-sodium citrate concentration was increased from 6.4 × 10{sup −3} M to 8.0 × 10{sup −3} M, the surface roughness varied in an opposite manner from approximately 120.18 nm to 29.36 nm. For these concentrations, optical band gap of the films decreased from 1.40 eV to 1.17 eV, whereas the Hall conductivity, mobility and carrier concentration of the films increased slightly from 5.91 × 10{sup −5} to 8.78 × 10{sup −5} (Ω cm){sup −1}, from 148 to 228 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} and from 1.73 × 10{sup 12} to 3.59 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −1}, respectively.

  9. Chemically synthesis and characterization of MnS thin films by SILAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, M. Ali; Yıldırım, Sümeyra Tuna; Cavanmirza, İlke; Ateş, Aytunç

    2016-03-01

    MnS thin films were synthesized on glass substrates using SILAR method. The film thickness effect on structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the films was investigated. The X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies showed that all the films exhibited polycrystalline nature with β-MnS structure and were covered well on glass substrates. The bandgap and resistivity values of the films decreased from 3.39 eV to 2.92 eV and from 11.84 × 106 to 2.21 × 105 Ω-cm as the film thickness increased from 180 to 350 nm, respectively. The refractive index (n) and dielectric constants (ɛo, ɛ∞) values were calculated.

  10. Characterization of TiO{sub 2} thin films obtained by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition; Caracterizacao de filmes finos de TiO{sub 2} obtidos por deposicao quimica em fase vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carriel, Rodrigo Crociati

    2015-07-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films were grown on silicon substrate (100) by MOCVD process (chemical deposition of organometallic vapor phase). The films were grown at 400, 500, 600 and 700 ° C in a conventional horizontal equipment. Titanium tetraisopropoxide was used as source of both oxygen and titanium. Nitrogen was used as carrier and purge gas. X-ray diffraction technique was used for the characterization of the crystalline structure. Scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun was used to evaluate the morphology and thickness of the films. The films grown at 400 and 500°C presented anatase phase. The film grown at 600ºC presented rutile besides anatase phase, while the film grown at 700°C showed, in addition to anatase and rutile, brookite phase. In order to evaluate the electrochemical behavior of the films cyclic voltammetry technique was used. The tests revealed that the TiO2 films formed exclusively by the anatase phase exhibit strong capacitive character. The anodic current peak is directly proportional to the square root of the scanning rate for films grown at 500ºC, suggesting that linear diffusion is the predominant mechanism of cations transport. It was observed that in the film grown during 60 minutes the Na+ ions intercalation and deintercalation easily. The films grown in the other conditions did not present the anodic current peak, although charge was accumulated in the film. (author)

  11. Enhanced flux-pinning in fluorine-free MOD YBCO films by chemical doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.T.; Pu, M.H.; Yang, Y. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhang, H. [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cheng, C.H. [Superconductivity Research Group, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Zhao, Y., E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Superconductivity Research Group, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia)

    2010-11-01

    YBCO films without and with dilute cobalt and zinc doping were prepared on (0 0 l) LaAlO{sub 3} substrate by non-fluorine metal organic deposition method. Effects of dilute cobalt and zinc doping on biaxial texture, microstructure and flux-pinning properties of YBCO films were investigated. The surface density and smoothness of the doped YBCO films have been distinctly improved compared with that of the pure film. Dilute cobalt- and zinc-doped YBCO films exhibit significantly enhanced J{sub c} values in the magnetic field. The best result is achieved in the cobalt-doped YBCO film. At 77 K, J{sub c} values of cobalt-doped film are 1.7 and 5.4 times higher than that of pure film in 0.5 T and 1.5 T, respectively. These results strongly suggest that dilute cobalt and zinc doping is a promising way to increase the current carrying capability of YBCO films.

  12. A Self-Powered Thin-Film Radiation Detector Using Intrinsic High-Energy Current (HEC) (Author’s Final Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-08

    of electromagnetic 85 pulse effects on cables and electrical devices4 and as a self - powered detector for in-core neutron flux measurement in nuclear...AFCEC-CX-TY-TP-2016-0003 A SELF - POWERED THIN-FILM RADIATION DETECTOR USING INTRINSIC HIGH-ENERGY CURRENT (HEC) (AUTHOR’S FINAL VERSION...14 -- 5 Oct 15 A self - powered thin-film radiation detector using intrinsic high-energy current (HEC) (Author’s Final Version) FA8051-15-P-0010

  13. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Non Line of Sight Chemical Detection Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    aircraft system that is used to perform point detection of chemical warfare agents and collection of vapor, liquid, and solid samples. A modular payload...their goals to better protect the Warfighter. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization members have divided detection distances into the following three...materials for onboard analysis or transporting chemical samples for analysis to a mobile laboratory. An innovative proposed solution to non-line-of

  14. Radon: Chemical and physical states of radon progeny. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The evolving chemical and physical form of radon progeny influence their transport to the bioreceptor and the extent to which that receptor can take up these species into various tissues. When first born following radioactive decay processes, the potentially deleterious radon progeny undergo various physical and chemical transformations as they transcend from a highly charged to a neutral state, and interact with various constituents of the environment. These transformations impact on the extent to which the radon progeny become associated with aerosol particles on the one hand, and their ultimate chemical form that is available for uptake in the biosystem, on the other. The program, which originally commenced in 1987, dealt with the basic chemistry and physics of radon progeny and hence impacted on several themes of importance to the DOE/OHER radon program. One of these is dose response, which is governed by the physical forms of the radon progeny, their transport to the bioreceptor and the chemical forms that govern their uptake. The second theme had to do with cellular responses, one of the major issues motivating the work. It is well known that various sizes of ions and molecules are selectively transported across cell membrane to differing degrees. This ultimately has to do with their chemical and physical forms, charge and size. The overall objective of the work was threefold: (1) quantifying the mechanisms and rates of the chemical and physical transformation; (2) ascertaining the ultimate chemical forms, and (3) determining the potential interactions of these chemical species with biological functional groups to ascertain their ultimate transport and incorporation within cells

  15. Temperature effects on chemical structure and motion in coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, G.E.

    1996-09-30

    The objective of this project was to apply recently developed, state-of-the-art nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to examine in situ changes in the chemical structure and molecular/macromolecular motion in coal as the temperature is increased above room temperature. Although alterations in the chemical structure of coal have been studied previously by {sup 13}C NMR, using quenched samples, the goal of this project was to examine these chemical structural changes, and changes in molecular/macromolecular mobility that may precede or accompany the chemical changes, at elevated temperatures, using modern {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H NMR techniques, especially {sup 1}H dipolar-dephasing techniques and related experiments pioneered in the laboratory for examining pyridine-saturated coals. This project consisted of the following four primary segments and related efforts on matters relevant to the first four tasks. (1) {sup 1}H NMR characterization of coal structure and mobility as a function of temperature variation over a temperature range (30--240 C) for which substantial chemical transformations were not anticipated. (2) {sup 1}H NMR characterization of coal structure, mobility and conversion as a function of temperature variation over a temperature range (240--500 C) for which chemical transformations of coal are known to occur. (3) {sup 13}C NMR investigation of coal structure/mobility as a function of temperature over a temperature range (30--240 C) for which substantial chemical transformations were not anticipated. (4) {sup 13}C NMR investigation of coal structure, dynamics and conversion as a function of temperature variation over a range (240--500 C) for which chemical transformations of coal are known to occur. (5) Related matters relevant to the first four tasks: (a) {sup 1}H CRAMPS NMR characterization of oil shales and their kerogen concentrates; and (b) improved quantitation in {sup 13}C MAS characterization of coals.

  16. Synthesis Characterization and Decomposition Studies of tris[N-N-dibenzyidithocarbaso)Indium (III) Chemical Spray Deposition of Polycrystalline CuInS2 on Copper Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, David G.; Lau, J. Eva; Harris, Jerry D.; Hoops, Michael D.; Duffy, Norman V.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the synthesis characterization and decomposition studies of tris[N-N-dibenzyidithocarbaso)Indium (III) with chemical spray deposition of polycrystalline CuInS2 on Copper Films.

  17. Surface engineering of biaxial Gd2Zr2O7 thin films deposited on Ni–5at%W substrates by a chemical solution method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Zhao; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Liu, Min

    2012-01-01

    crystal structure along the film thickness observed by a transmission electron microscope. On the basis of the enhanced understanding of the crystallization processes, we demonstrate a possibility of engineering the surface morphology and texture in the film deposited on technical substrates using...... a chemical solution deposition route....

  18. Anisotropy, magnetostriction and local chemical order in amorphous TbxFe1-x (0.1films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernando, A.; Prados, C.; Prieto, C.

    1996-01-01

    Local chemical order in amorphous TbFe thin films has been investigated in a variety of compositions, using EXAFS, magnetostriction and anisotropy measurements. Data reported here are consistent with a density of Fe-Tb pairs in the film plane larger than in the perpendicular direction. (orig.)

  19. Properties and electric characterizations of tetraethyl orthosilicate-based plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition oxide film deposited at 400 °C for through silicon via application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Meiying; Yu, Daquan; Liu, Yijun; Wan, Lixi; Song, Chongshen; Dai, Fengwei; Xue, Kai; Jing, Xiangmeng; Guidotti, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The dielectric via liner of through silicon vias was deposited at 400 °C using a tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-based plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process in a via-middle integration scheme. The morphology, conformality and chemical compositions of the liner film were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The thermal properties and electrical performance of blanket TEOS films were investigated by high temperature film stress and mercury probe Capacitance–Voltage measurements. The TEOS SiO 2 films show good conformality, excellent densification, low thermal stress, high breakdown voltage and low current leakage. - Highlights: • Tetraethyl orthosilicate-based oxide films were deposited for packaging application. • The oxide films deposited plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) at 400 °C. • The PECVD oxide films exhibit good step coverage. • The 400 °C PECVD oxide films exhibit low thermal stress and current leakage. • The 400 °C PECVD oxide films show high breakdown voltage and acceptable permittivity

  20. Properties and electric characterizations of tetraethyl orthosilicate-based plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition oxide film deposited at 400 °C for through silicon via application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Meiying, E-mail: sumeiying@ime.ac.cn [Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); National Center for Advanced Packaging, Wuxi 214135 (China); Yu, Daquan, E-mail: yudaquan@ime.ac.cn [Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); National Center for Advanced Packaging, Wuxi 214135 (China); Jiangsu R and D Center for Internet of Things, Wuxi 214135 (China); Liu, Yijun [Piotech Co. Ltd, Shenyang 110179 (China); Wan, Lixi [Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Song, Chongshen; Dai, Fengwei [Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); National Center for Advanced Packaging, Wuxi 214135 (China); Xue, Kai [National Center for Advanced Packaging, Wuxi 214135 (China); Jing, Xiangmeng [Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); National Center for Advanced Packaging, Wuxi 214135 (China); Guidotti, Daniel [Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2014-01-01

    The dielectric via liner of through silicon vias was deposited at 400 °C using a tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-based plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process in a via-middle integration scheme. The morphology, conformality and chemical compositions of the liner film were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The thermal properties and electrical performance of blanket TEOS films were investigated by high temperature film stress and mercury probe Capacitance–Voltage measurements. The TEOS SiO{sub 2} films show good conformality, excellent densification, low thermal stress, high breakdown voltage and low current leakage. - Highlights: • Tetraethyl orthosilicate-based oxide films were deposited for packaging application. • The oxide films deposited plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) at 400 °C. • The PECVD oxide films exhibit good step coverage. • The 400 °C PECVD oxide films exhibit low thermal stress and current leakage. • The 400 °C PECVD oxide films show high breakdown voltage and acceptable permittivity.

  1. Development of Falling Film Heat Transfer Coefficient for Industrial Chemical Processes Evaporator Design

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2018-03-07

    In falling film evaporators, the overall heat transfer coefficient is controlled by film thickness, velocity, liquid properties and the temperature differential across the film layer. This chapter presents the heat transfer behaviour for evaporative film boiling on horizontal tubes, but working at low pressures of 0.93–3.60 kPa as well as seawater salinity of 15,000–90,000 mg/l or ppm. Owing to a dearth of literature on film-boiling at these conditions, the chapter is motivated by the importance of evaporative film-boiling in the process industries. It is observed that in addition to the above-mentioned parameters, evaporative heat transfer of seawater is affected by the emergence of micro-bubbles within the thin film layer, particularly when the liquid saturation temperatures drop below 25°C (3.1 kPa). Such micro-bubbles are generated near to the tube wall surfaces, and they enhanced the heat transfer by two or more folds when compared with the predictions of conventional evaporative film-boiling. The appearance of micro-bubbles is attributed to the rapid increase in the specific volume of vapour, i.e. dv/dT, at low saturation temperature conditions. A new correlation is thus proposed in this chapter and it shows good agreement to the measured data with an experimental uncertainty less than ±8%.

  2. The film tells the story: Physical-chemical characteristics of IgG at the liquid-air interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepf, Ellen; Schroeder, Rudolf; Brezesinski, Gerald; Friess, Wolfgang

    2017-10-01

    The presence of liquid-air interfaces in protein pharmaceuticals is known to negatively impact product stability. Nevertheless, the mechanisms behind interface-related protein aggregation are not yet fully understood. Little is known about the physical-chemical behavior of proteins adsorbed to the interface. Therefore, the combinatorial use of appropriate surface-sensitive analytical methods such as Langmuir trough experiments, Infrared Reflection-Absorption Spectroscopy (IRRAS), Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is highly expedient to uncover structures and events at the liquid-air interface directly. Concentration-dependent adsorption of a human immunoglobulin G (IgG) and characteristic surface-pressure/area isotherms substantiated the amphiphilic nature of the protein molecules as well as the formation of a compressible protein film at the liquid-air interface. Upon compression, the IgG molecules do not readily desorb but form a highly compressible interfacial film. IRRA spectra proved not only the presence of the protein at the interface, but also showed that the secondary structure does not change considerably during adsorption or compression. IRRAS experiments at different angles of incidence indicated that the film thickness and/or packing density increases upon compression. Furthermore, BAM images exposed the presence of a coherent but heterogeneous distribution of the protein at the interface. Topographical differences within the protein film after adsorption, compression and decompression were revealed using underwater AFM. The combinatorial use of physical-chemical, spectroscopic and microscopic methods provided useful insights into the liquid-air interfacial protein behavior and revealed the formation of a continuous but inhomogeneous film of native-like protein molecules whose topographical appearance is affected by compressive forces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical bath deposition of thin semiconductor films for use as buffer layers in CuInS2 thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    A CulnS 2 thin film solar cell is a multilayered semiconductor device. The solar cells discussed have a layer sequence Mo/CulnS 2 /buffer/i-ZnO/ZnO:Ga, where a heterojunction establishes between the p-type absorber and the n-type front contact. Conventionally the buffer consists of CdS, deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Apart from providing process oriented benefits the buffer layer functions as a tool for engineering the energy band line-up at the heterojunction interface. Motivated through environmental concern and EU legislation it is felt necessary to substitute this potentially toxic layer by an alternative, Cd-free component. This thesis investigates the suitability of various Zn- and In-compounds, in particular In(OH,O) x S y , as alternative buffer layer materials using CBD. Initial experiments were carried out depositing Zn-based compounds from aqueous solutions. Characterization of the layers, the solution and the processed solar cells was performed. This thesis focuses on the investigation of the CBD process chemistry for the deposition of In-compound thin films. A careful study of the morphology and composition of the deposited thin films was conducted using electron microscopy (SEM, HREM), elastic recoil detection analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and optical transmission spectroscopy. This allowed conclusions concerning the nucleation and film growth mechanism from the chemical bath. Connections between bath chemistry, different growth phases, layer morphology and solar cell performance were sought and an improved deposition process was developed. As a result, Cd-free CulnS 2 thin film solar cells with efficiencies of up to 10.6%) (total area) could be produced. Overall the substitution of CdS is shown to be possible by different alternative compounds, such as Zn(OH,O) x S y or In(OH,O) x S y . In the case of In(OH,O) x S y , an understanding of the CBD process and the effect of different growth phases on the resulting solar cell

  4. Facile and template-free method toward chemical synthesis of polyaniline film/nanotube structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pei [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 15261; Zhu, Yisi [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Lab, Lemont Illinois 60439; Torres, Jorge [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 15261; Lee, Seung Hee [Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-786 Korea; Yun, Minhee [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 15261

    2017-09-05

    A facile and template-free method is reported to synthesize a new thin film structure: polyaniline (PANI) film/nanotubes (F/N) structure. The PANI F/N is a 100-nm thick PANI film embedded with PANI nanotubes. This well-controlled method requires no surfactant or organic acid as well as relatively low concentration of reagents. Synthesis condition studies reveal that aniline oligomers with certain structures are responsible for guiding the growth of the nanotubes. Electrical characterization also indicates that the PANI F/N possesses similar field-effect transistor characteristics to bare PANI film. With its 20% increased surface-area-to-volume (S/V) ratio contributed by surface embedded nanotubes and the excellent p-type semiconducting characteristic, PANI F/N shows clear superiority compared with bare PANI film. Such advantages guarantee the PANI F/N a promising future toward the development of ultra-high sensitivity and low-cost biosensors.

  5. Laser assisted modification and chemical metallization of electron-beam deposited ceria thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumov, E.; Starbov, N.; Starbova, K.; Perea, A.; Solis, J.

    2009-01-01

    Excimer laser processing is applied for tailoring the surface morphology and phase composition of CeO 2 ceramic thin films. E-beam evaporation technique is used to deposit samples on stainless steel and silicate glass substrates. The films are then irradiated with ArF* excimer laser pulses under different exposure conditions. Scanning electron microscopy, optical spectrophotometry, X-ray diffractometry and EDS microanalysis are used to characterize the non-irradiated and laser-processed films. Upon UV laser exposure there is large increase of the surface roughness that is accompanied by photo-darkening and ceria reduction. It is shown that the laser induced changes in the CeO 2 films facilitate the deposition of metal nano-aggregates in a commercial copper electroless plating bath. The significance of laser modification as a novel approach for the production of CeO 2 based thin film catalysts is discussed.

  6. Laser assisted modification and chemical metallization of electron-beam deposited ceria thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumov, E., E-mail: emodk@clf.bas.bg [Central Laboratory of Photoprocesses ' Acad. Jordan Malinowski' , Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgy Bonchev Str., bl. 109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Starbov, N.; Starbova, K. [Central Laboratory of Photoprocesses ' Acad. Jordan Malinowski' , Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgy Bonchev Str., bl. 109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Perea, A.; Solis, J. [Instituto de Optica ' Daza de Valdes' , CSIC, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    Excimer laser processing is applied for tailoring the surface morphology and phase composition of CeO{sub 2} ceramic thin films. E-beam evaporation technique is used to deposit samples on stainless steel and silicate glass substrates. The films are then irradiated with ArF* excimer laser pulses under different exposure conditions. Scanning electron microscopy, optical spectrophotometry, X-ray diffractometry and EDS microanalysis are used to characterize the non-irradiated and laser-processed films. Upon UV laser exposure there is large increase of the surface roughness that is accompanied by photo-darkening and ceria reduction. It is shown that the laser induced changes in the CeO{sub 2} films facilitate the deposition of metal nano-aggregates in a commercial copper electroless plating bath. The significance of laser modification as a novel approach for the production of CeO{sub 2} based thin film catalysts is discussed.

  7. Final status report in preparation for the chemical cleaning of Dresden-1, DNS-D1-034

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    This report discusses the status of all of the activities conducted in preparation for the chemical cleaning of the Dresden-1 Nuclear Power Plant of Commonwealth Edison of Illinois. The metallurgical testing of a solvent and its ability to remove radioactivity are reviewed. Included are all engineering details relating to the modifications to the primary system to be able to perform the chemical cleaning and to rinse the cleaning solvent out of the equipment. A facility to store and process spent cleaning solutions is described in detail. Construction activities and preoperational activities are recounted. Licensing activities, quality assurance, safety, and radiation protection are discussed. The report includes recommendations for future actions for restarting the project when approval is received. All of the efforts discussed in this Final Status Report led to the conclusion that the chemical cleaning, as planned, was feasible. All of the necessary modifications and new equipment are in place and are operational

  8. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition of vanadium arsenide thin films via the reaction of VCl4 or VOCl3 with tBuAsH2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Tegan; Blackman, Christopher S.; Parkin, Ivan P.; Carmalt, Claire J.

    2013-01-01

    Thin films of vanadium arsenide were deposited via the dual-source atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition reactions of VCl 4 or VOCl 3 with t BuAsH 2 . Using the vanadium precursor VCl 4 , films were deposited at substrate temperatures of 550–600 °C, which were black-gold in appearance and were found to be metal-rich with high levels of chlorine incorporation. The use of VOCl 3 as the vanadium source resulted in films being deposited between 450 and 600 °C and, unlike when using VCl 4 , were silver in appearance. The films deposited using VOCl 3 demonstrated vanadium to arsenic ratios close to 1:1, and negligible chlorine incorporation. Films deposited using either vanadium precursor were identified as VAs using powder X-ray diffraction and possessed borderline metallic/semiconductor resistivities. - Highlights: • Formation of VAs films via atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition. • Films formed using VCl 4 or VOCl 3 and t BuAsH 2 . • Powder X-ray diffraction showed that crystalline VAs films were deposited. • Films from VOCl 3 had a V:As ratio close to 1 with negligible Cl incorporation. • Films were silver and possessed borderline metallic/semiconductor resistivities

  9. Effect of Single and Double Stage Chemically Treated Kenaf Fibers on Mechanical Properties of Polyvinyl Alcohol Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Ershad Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The physico-mec