WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical feedstocks

  1. Chemical or feedstock recycling of WEEE products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews initiatives with regard to chemical or feedstock recycling of plastics waste from electrical and electronic products. eurostat estimates the amount of waste from electrical and electronic products that is collected is 2.2 million tonnes. Roughly 20% of this waste consists of pla

  2. Alternative, Renewable and Novel Feedstocks for Producing Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2007-07-01

    Vision2020 and ITP directed the Alternative, Renewable and Novel Feedstocks project to identify industrial options and to determine the work required to make alternative, renewable and novel feedstock options attractive to the U.S. chemicals industry. This report presents the Alternative, Renewable and Novel Feedstocks project findings which were based on a technology review and industry workshop.

  3. Survey of Alternative Feedstocks for Commodity Chemical Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Robinson, Sharon M [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    The current high prices for petroleum and natural gas have spurred the chemical industry to examine alternative feedstocks for the production of commodity chemicals. High feedstock prices have driven methanol and ammonia production offshore. The U.S. Chemical Industry is the largest user of natural gas in the country. Over the last 30 years, alternatives to conventional petroleum and natural gas feedstocks have been developed, but have limited, if any, commercial implementation in the United States. Alternative feedstocks under consideration include coal from unconventional processing technologies, such as gasification and liquefaction, novel resources such as biomass, stranded natural gas from unconventional reserves, and heavy oil from tar sands or oil shale. These feedstock sources have been evaluated with respect to the feasibility and readiness for production of the highest volume commodity chemicals in the United States. Sources of organic compounds, such as ethanol from sugar fermentation and bitumen-derived heavy crude are now being primarily exploited for fuels, rather than for chemical feedstocks. Overall, government-sponsored research into the use of alternatives to petroleum feedstocks focuses on use for power and transportation fuels rather than for chemical feedstocks. Research is needed to reduce cost and technical risk. Use of alternative feedstocks is more common outside the United States R&D efforts are needed to make these processes more efficient and less risky before becoming more common domestically. The status of alternative feedstock technology is summarized.

  4. Development of Oilfield Chemicals Based on Advantages in Petrochemical Feedstocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xieqing; Peng Pu

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on the routes for development of oilfield chemicals by making use of the feedstock advantages of the petrochemical industry. The diversification of oilfield chemicals has re sulted in thousand product grades. Because there are hundred domestic producers of oilfield chemicals,mostly medium and small producers, the fluctuations of feedstock prices and product quality cannot be conducive to the application and development of oilfield chemicals. This article illustrates the feasibility of oilfield chemical production by state-run medium and large petrochemical enterprises by allowing full play to their own advantages in petrochemical feedstocks.

  5. Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, Serdar E-mail: yamans@itu.edu.tr

    2004-03-01

    This review presents the summary of new studies on pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks. A number of biomass species, varying from woody and herbaceous biomass to municipal solid waste, food processing residues and industrial wastes, were subjected to different pyrolysis conditions to obtain liquid, gas and solid products. The results of various biomass pyrolysis investigations connected with the chemical composition and some properties of the pyrolysis products as a result of the applied pyrolysis conditions were combined. The characteristics of the liquid products from pyrolysis were examined, and some methods, such as catalytic upgrading or steam reforming, were considered to improve the physical and chemical properties of the liquids to convert them to economic and environmentally acceptable liquid fuels or chemical feedstocks. Outcomes from the kinetic studies performed by applying thermogravimetric analysis were also presented.

  6. Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdar Yaman [Istanbul Technical University (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    2004-03-01

    This review presents the summary of new studies on pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks. A number of biomass species, varying from woody and herbaceous biomass to municipal solid waste, food processing residues and industrial wastes, were subjected to different pyrolysis conditions to obtain liquid, gas and solid products. The results of various biomass pyrolysis investigations connected with the chemical composition and some properties of the pyrolysis products as a result of the applied pyrolysis conditions were combined. The characteristics of the liquid products from pyrolysis were examined, and some methods, such as catalytic upgrading or steam reforming, were considered to improve the physical and chemical properties of the liquids to convert them to economic and environmentally acceptable liquid fuels or chemical feedstocks. Outcomes from the kinetic studies performed by applying thermogravimetric analysis were also presented. (author)

  7. Influence of feedstock chemical composition on product formation and characteristics derived from the hydrothermal carbonization of mixed feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaowei; Berge, Nicole D

    2014-08-01

    As the exploration of the carbonization of mixed feedstocks continues, there is a distinct need to understand how feedstock chemical composition and structural complexity influence the composition of generated products. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the carbonization of pure compounds, mixtures of the pure compounds, and complex feedstocks comprised of the pure compounds (e.g., paper, wood). Results indicate that feedstock properties do influence carbonization product properties. Carbonization product characteristics were predicted using results from the carbonization of the pure compounds and indicate that recovered solids energy contents are more accurately predicted than solid yields and the carbon mass in each phase, while predictions associated with solids surface functional groups are more difficult to predict using this linear approach. To more accurately predict carbonization products, it may be necessary to account for feedstock structure and/or additional feedstock properties. PMID:24907571

  8. Arid lands plants as feedstocks for fuels and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the recent research on arid-adapted plants that have potential as producers of fuels or chemicals. The major focus will be on plant species that appear to have commercial value. Research on guayule (Parthenium argentatum) and jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) will be mentioned only briefly, since these plants have been discussed extensively in the literature, and excellent reviews are already in existence. In this review the literature on arid-adapted plants that have potential uses for solid fuels, liquid fuels, and chemical feedstocks is summarized, followed by an overview of the research directions and types of development that are needed in order for bio-energy production systems to reach the commercial stage. 127 references.

  9. Alternative Feedstocks Program Technical and Economic Assessment: Thermal/Chemical and Bioprocessing Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozell, J. J.; Landucci, R.

    1993-07-01

    This resource document on biomass to chemicals opportunities describes the development of a technical and market rationale for incorporating renewable feedstocks into the chemical industry in both a qualitative and quantitative sense. The term "renewable feedstock?s" can be defined to include a huge number of materials such as agricultural crops rich in starch, lignocellulosic materials (biomass), or biomass material recovered from a variety of processing wastes.

  10. Closing the loop: Captured CO2 as a feedstock in the chemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Alexander; Grube, Thomas; Schiebahn, Sebastian; Stolten, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of ‘captured’ CO2 as a feedstock in the chemical industry for the synthesis of certain chemical products offers an option for preventing several million tons of CO2 emissions each year while increasing independence from fossil fuels. For this reason, interest is increasing in the feasibility of deploying captured CO2 in this manner. Numerous scientific publications describe laboratory experiments in which CO2 has been successfully used as a feedstock for the synthesis of vario...

  11. Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J., Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents an exploration of the relationships between biomass feedstocks and the conversion processes that utilize them. Specifically, it discusses the effect of the physical and chemical structure of biomass on conversion yields, rates, and efficiencies in a wide variety of available or experimental conversion processes. A greater understanding of the complex relationships between these conversion systems and the production of biomass for energy uses is required to help optimize the complex network of biomass production, collection, transportation, and conversion to useful energy products. The review of the literature confirmed the scarcity of research aimed specifically at identifying the effect of feedstock properties on conversion. In most cases, any mention of feedstock-related effects was limited to a few brief remarks (usually in qualitative terms) in the conclusions, or as a topic for further research. Attempts to determine the importance of feedstock parameters from published data were further hampered by the lack of consistent feedstock characterization and the difficulty of comparing results between different experimental systems. Further research will be required to establish quantitative relationships between feedstocks and performance criteria in conversion. 127 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Chemicals from biomass: an assessment of the potential for production of chemical feedstocks from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Culberson, O.L.

    1983-06-01

    This assessment of the potential for production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass resources is based on (1) a Delphi study with 50 recognized authorities to identify key technical issues relevant to production of chemicals from biomass, and (2) a systems model based on linear programming for a commodity chemicals industry using renewable resources and coal as well as gas and petroleum-derived resources. Results from both parts of the assessment indicate that, in the absence of gas and petroleum, coal undoubtedly would be a major source of chemicals first, followed by biomass. The most attractive biomass resources are wood, agricultural residues, and sugar and starch crops. A reasonable approximation to the current product slate for the petrochemical industry could be manufactured using only renewable resources for feedstocks. Approximately 2.5 quads (10/sup 15/ Btu (1.055 x 10/sup 18/ joules)) per year of oil and gas would be released. Further use of biomass fuels in the industry could release up to an additional 1.5 quads. however, such an industry would be unprofitable under current economic conditions with existing or near-commercial technology. As fossil resources become more expensive and biotechnology becomes more efficient, the economics will be more favorable. Use of the chemicals industry model to evaluate process technologies is demonstrated. Processes are identified which have potential for significant added value to the system if process improvements can be made to improve the economics. Guidelines and recommendations for research and development programs to improve the attractiveness of chemicals from biomass are discussed.

  13. Renewable raw materials new feedstocks for the chemical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Ulber, Roland; Hirth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges facing the chemical industry is the transition to sustainable operations. Industries are taking initiatives to reduce resource intensities or footprints, and by adopting safer materials and processes. Such efforts need to be supported by techniques that can quantify the broad economic and environmental implications of industrial operations, retrofi t options and provide new design alternatives. This contemporary overview focuses on cradle-to-grave life cycle assessments of existing or conceptual processes for producing valueadded fuels, chemicals, and/or material

  14. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2016-07-05

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  15. LIGNOCELLULOSIC FEEDSTOCK BIOREFINERY—THE FUTURE OF CHEMICAL AND ENERGY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengdong Zhu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development of the chemical and energy industry is an indispensable component of our sustainable society. However, the traditional chemical and energy industry depends heavily on such non-renewable fossil resources as oil, coal, and natural gas. Its feedstock shortage and the resultant environmental and climatic problems pose a great threat for any type of sustainable development. Lignocellulosic materials are the most abundant renewable resources in the world and their efficient utilization provides a practical route to address these challenges. The lignocellulosic feedstock bio-refinery is an effective model for the comprehensive utilization of lignocellulosic materials, and it will play vital role in the future development of chemical and energy industry.

  16. Sorghum as a renewable feedstock for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhuan P. Nghiem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable efforts have been made in the USA and other countries to develop renewable feedstocks for production of fuels and chemicals. Among these, sorghum has attracted strong interest because of its many good characteristics such as rapid growth and high sugar accumulation, high biomass production potential, excellent nitrogen usage efficiency, wide adaptability, drought resistance, and water lodging tolerance and salinity resistance. The ability to withstand severe drought conditions and its high water usage efficiency make sorghum a good renewable feedstock suitable for cultivation in arid regions, such as the southern US and many areas in Africa and Asia. Sorghum varieties include grain sorghum, sweet sorghum, and biomass sorghum. Grain sorghum, having starch content equivalent to corn, has been considered as a feedstock for ethanol production. Its tannin content, however, may cause problems during enzyme hydrolysis. Sweet sorghum juice contains sucrose, glucose and fructose, which are readily fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and hence is a good substrate for ethanol fermentation. The enzyme invertase, however, needs to be added to convert sucrose to glucose and fructose if the juice is used for production of industrial chemicals in fermentation processes that employ microorganisms incapable of metabolizing sucrose. Biomass sorghum requires pretreatment prior to enzymatic hydrolysis to generate fermentable sugars to be used in the subsequent fermentation process. This report reviews the current knowledge on bioconversion of sorghum to fuels and chemicals and identifies areas that deserve further studies.

  17. Biocatalysis for the application of CO2 as a chemical feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Alissandratos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biocatalysts, capable of efficiently transforming CO2 into other more reduced forms of carbon, offer sustainable alternatives to current oxidative technologies that rely on diminishing natural fossil-fuel deposits. Enzymes that catalyse CO2 fixation steps in carbon assimilation pathways are promising catalysts for the sustainable transformation of this safe and renewable feedstock into central metabolites. These may be further converted into a wide range of fuels and commodity chemicals, through the multitude of known enzymatic reactions. The required reducing equivalents for the net carbon reductions may be drawn from solar energy, electricity or chemical oxidation, and delivered in vitro or through cellular mechanisms, while enzyme catalysis lowers the activation barriers of the CO2 transformations to make them more energy efficient. The development of technologies that treat CO2-transforming enzymes and other cellular components as modules that may be assembled into synthetic reaction circuits will facilitate the use of CO2 as a renewable chemical feedstock, greatly enabling a sustainable carbon bio-economy.

  18. Structural and chemical characterization of hardwood from tree species with applications as bioenergy feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkol, Özgül Persil; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M; Cheng, Gang; Lao, Jeemeng; George, Anthe; Hong, Kunlun; Henry, Robert; Simmons, Blake A; Heazlewood, Joshua L; Holmes, Bradley M

    2012-01-01

    Eucalypt species are a group of flowering trees widely used in pulp production for paper manufacture. For several decades, the wood pulp industry has focused research and development efforts on improving yields, growth rates and pulp quality through breeding and the genetic improvement of key tree species. Recently, this focus has shifted from the production of high quality pulps to the investigation of the use of eucalypts as feedstocks for biofuel production. Here the structure and chemical composition of the heartwood and sapwood of Eucalyptus dunnii, E. globulus, E. pillularis, E. urophylla, an E. urophylla-E. grandis cross, Corymbia citriodora ssp. variegata, and Acacia mangium were compared using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and biochemical composition analysis. Some trends relating to these compositions were also identified by Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. These results will serve as a foundation for a more comprehensive database of wood properties that will help develop criteria for the selection of tree species for use as biorefinery feedstocks. PMID:23300786

  19. Structural and Chemical Characterization of Hardwood from Tree Species with Applications as Bioenergy Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çetinkol, Özgül Persil; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M.; Cheng, Gang; Lao, Jeemeng; George, Anthe; Hong, Kunlun; Henry, Robert; Simmons, Blake A.; Heazlewood, Joshua L.; Holmes, Bradley M.; Zabotina, Olga A.

    2012-12-28

    Eucalypt species are a group of flowering trees widely used in pulp production for paper manufacture. For several decades, the wood pulp industry has focused research and development efforts on improving yields, growth rates and pulp quality through breeding and the genetic improvement of key tree species. Recently, this focus has shifted from the production of high quality pulps to the investigation of the use of eucalypts as feedstocks for biofuel production. Here the structure and chemical composition of the heartwood and sapwood of Eucalyptus dunnii, E. globulus, E. pillularis, E. urophylla, an E. urophylla-E. grandis cross, Corymbia citriodora ssp. variegata, and Acacia mangium were compared using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and biochemical composition analysis. Some trends relating to these compositions were also identified by Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. These results will serve as a foundation for a more comprehensive database of wood properties that will help develop criteria for the selection of tree species for use as biorefinery feedstocks.

  20. Thermo-chemical and biological conversion potential of various biomass feedstocks to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the potential and the economy of producing ethanol from gasification-fermentation of various biomass feedstocks. The biomass feedstocks include winter cover crops (wheat, rye, clover, hairy betch), summer cover crop (sunhemp), chicken litter, and woody biomass. ...

  1. Comparison of the chemical, physical and microbial properties of composts produced by conventional composting or vermicomposting using the same feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, R J; Zhou, Y-F

    2016-06-01

    The chemical, physical and microbial properties of thermophilic composts and vermicomposts were compared using the same municipal green waste-based feedstocks: (i) municipal green waste alone, (ii) 75 % municipal green waste/25 % green garden waste and (iii) 75 % municipal green waste/25 % cattle manure. Temperatures reached 37 °C during composting of municipal green waste alone but when garden waste or cattle manure were added, temperatures reached 47 and 52 °C, respectively. At the end of vermicomposting (using Eisenia fetida), the number of earthworms present was greater than that added for the cattle manure-amended feedstock but much less for both the garden waste and municipal green waste alone treatments. The products formed in all treatments generally fell within suggested maturity indices for composts. Greater organic matter decomposition occurred during composting than vermicomposting resulting in composts having a significantly lower organic C content and a greater content of total N, extractable Mg, K, Na, P, and mineral N, a higher EC and a lower C/N ratio than the vermicomposts. For all three feedstocks, vermicomposts had a lower bulk density and greater total porosity and macroporosity than composts. For the garden waste- and cattle manure-amended feedstocks, vermicomposts had a higher microbial biomass C than the composts and for all three feedstocks, basal respiration and metabolic quotient were greatest for vermicomposts. It was concluded that composting is a robust process suitable for treatment of a range of organic wastes but, because of the nutritional requirements of the earthworms, vermicomposting is a much less robust and was only suitable for the cattle manure-amended feedstock. PMID:26888641

  2. Removal of Chlorinated Chemicals in H2 Feedstock Using Modified Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapaporn Luekittisup

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon (GAC was impregnated by sodium and used as adsorbent to remove chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC gases contaminated in H2 feedstock. The adsorption was carried out in a continuous packed-bed column under the weight hourly space velocity range of 0.8–1.0 hr−1. The adsorption capacity was evaluated via the breakthrough curves. This modified GAC potentially adsorbed HCl and VCM of 0.0681 gHCl/gadsorbent and 0.0026 gVCM/gadsorbent, respectively. It showed higher adsorption capacity than SiO2 and Al2O3 balls for both organic and inorganic CHCs removal. In addition, the kinetic adsorption of chlorinated hydrocarbons on modified GAC fit well with Yoon-Nelson model.

  3. Advanced Biocatalytic Processing of Heterogeneous Lignocellulosic Feedstocks to a Platform Chemical Intermediate (Lactic acid Ester)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sharon Shoemaker

    2004-09-03

    The development of commercial boi-based processes and products derived from agricultural waste biomass has the potential for significant impact on the economy and security of our nation. Adding value, rather than disposing of the waste of agriculture, can solve an environmental problem and reduce our dependence on foreign sources of fossil fuel for production of chemicals, materials and fuels.

  4. Synthesis of boron-doped graphene monolayers using the sole solid feedstock by chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Zhou, Yu; Wu, Di; Liao, Lei; Zhao, Shuli; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Zhongfan

    2013-04-22

    Substitutionally boron-doped monolayer graphene film is grown on a large scale by using a sole phenylboronic acid as the source in a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition system. The B-doped graphene film is a homogeneous monolayer with high crystalline quality, which exhibits a stable p-type doping behavior with a considerably high room-temperature carrier mobility of about 800 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) . PMID:23463717

  5. Perennial grass (Arundo donax L.) as a feedstock for thermo-chemical conversion to energy and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Ruprekha; Chutia, Rahul Singh; Kataki, Rupam; Pant, Kamal K

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, perennial grass species Arundo donax L. was pyrolysed in a fixed-bed reactor and characterization was performed for the liquid and the solid products. The effect of process parameters such as temperature (350-650 °C), heating rate (10 °C and 40 °C min(-1)) and sweeping gas flow rate (50-250 ml min(-1)) was also investigated. Maximum bio-oil yield of ∼ 26% was observed at 500 °C for the heating rate of 40 °C min(-1). Chemical composition of the bio-oil was analysed through NMR, FTIR and GC-MS. The biochar was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy along with elemental analysis (CHN). The biochar produced as a co-product of A. donax pyrolysis can be a potential soil amendment with multiple benefits including increased soil fertility and C-sequestration. Current investigation suggests suitability of A. donax as a potential feedstock for exploitation of energy and biomaterials through pyrolytic route. PMID:25677534

  6. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, December 1, 1978-February 28, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.I.C.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1979-02-01

    The ongoing progress of a coordinated research program aimed at optimizing the biodegradation of cellulosic biomass to ethanol and chemical feedstocks is summarized. Growth requirements and genetic manipulations of clostridium thermocellum for selection of high cellulose producers are reported. The enzymatic activity of the cellulase produced by these organisms was studied. The soluble sugars produced from hydrolysis were analyzed. Increasing the tolerance of C. thermocellum to ethanol during liquid fuel production, increasing the rate of product formation, and directing the catabolism to selectively achieve high ethanol concentrations with respect to other products were studied. Alternative substrates for C. thermocellum were evaluated. Studies on the utilization of xylose were performed. Single stage fermentation of cellulose using mixed cultures of C. thermocellum and C. thermosaccharolyticum were studied. The study of the production of chemical feedstocks focused on acrylic acid, acetone/butanol, acetic acid, and lactic acid.

  7. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, March 1-August 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D. I.C.

    1980-09-01

    Progress is reported in this coordinated research program to effect the microbiological degradation of cellulosic biomass by anaerobic microorganisms possessing cellulolytic enzymes. Three main areas of research are discussed: increasing enzyme levels through genetics, mutations, and genetic manipulation; the direct conversion of cellulosic biomass to liquid fuel (ethanol); and the production of chemical feedstocks from biomass (acrylic acid, acetone/butanol, and acetic acid). (DMC)

  8. Chemical, procedural and economical evaluation of carbon dioxide as feedstock in the chemical industry; Chemische, verfahrenstechnische und oekonomische Bewertung von Kohlendioxid als Rohstoff in der chemischen Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    The utilisation of CO{sub 2} as feedstock in the chemical industry represents an alternative to the geological storage, which is legally limited and socially debated. Generally, scientific publications about the utilisation of CO{sub 2} in chemical reactions typically address the feasibility of the syntheses without paying attention to the CO{sub 2} reduction potential or the economy in contrast to the conventional process of production. The aim of this doctoral thesis is to identify chemical reactions with CO{sub 2} as feedstock, which have the potential to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. These reactions are evaluated concerning the industrial realization, CO{sub 2} balance and economy compared to the conventional processes. To achieve this, 123 reactions from the literature were collected and evaluated with the help of selection criteria developed specifically for this application. The criteria consider both, the quantitative potential to reduce CO{sub 2} and possible economical interests in these reactions. Additional to the process of the evaluation of the reactions, a CO{sub 2} reduction potential of 1.33 % of the greenhouse gas emissions within the European Union could be calculated. For the chemicals formic acid, oxalic acid, formaldehyde, methanol, urea and dimethyl ether, which most fully satisfy the selection criteria, a direct comparison of the CO{sub 2} based process with the conventional process is performed. By literature data, process designs, and simulations, it has been shown that the highest reductions of CO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved for methanol with 1.43 kg{sub CO2}/kg{sub MeOH} and dimethyl ether with 2.17 kg{sub CO2}/kg{sub DME}, but only with the assumption that the necessary hydrogen for the CO{sub 2} based reaction is produced by electrolysis operated with renewable energy. Overall, the CO{sub 2} based production processes of methanol and dimethyl ether could reduce 0.059 % of the greenhouse gas emissions of the European Union (EU) if

  9. Evaluation of the potential for using old-field vegetation as an energy feedstock: Biomass yield, chemical composition, environmental concerns, and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, J.W. Jr.

    1990-07-01

    The major focus of current research on production of biomass for use as energy feedstock involves selection of species and genotypes best suited for specific regions of the United States and development of crop management techniques that maximize biomass productivity while minimizing environmental impacts and economic costs. The two experimental sites, and abandoned soybean field (AS) and an abandoned pasture (AP) were studied. At the AS site, the effects of two harvest frequencies (1 or 2 harvests annually), two nitrogen fertilizer treatments (1 or 2 harvests annually), two nitrogen fertilizer treatments (0 or 87 kg{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}), and two phosphorous fertilizer treatments (0 or 111 kg{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}) were determined. At the AP site, the effects of two harvest treatments (1 or 2 harvests annually), two fertilizer treatments (56:56:135 kg of N:P:K{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}), and two lime treatments (0 or 4600 kg{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}) were determined. At both sites, treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block 2 {times} 2 {times} 2 factorial experiment. The results of this research indicated that old-field vegetation is: (1) sufficiently productive to provide significant quantities of energy feedstock; (2) chemically suitable as an energy feedstock; (3) environmentally benign with respect to impacts related to soil erosion and nutrient depletion; (4) relatively unresponsive to fertilizer and lime inputs; and (5) economically competitive with other biomass energy feedstock candidates. 38 refs., 8 figs., 68 tabs.

  10. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, June 1-August 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.I.C.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1978-08-01

    Studies concerning the cellobiose properties of Clostridium thermocellum were started to determine if the cellulose degradation end products can be enhanced for glucose (with a subsequent decrease in cellobiose). Implications of preliminary studies indicate that the cells or the enzyme(s) responsible for converting cellobiose to glucose can be manipulated environmentally and genetically to increase the final yield of glucose. The second area of effort is to the production of chemical feedstocks. Three fermentations have been identified for exploration. Preliminary reports on acrylic acid acetone/butanol, and acetic acid production by C. propionicum, C. acetobutylicum, and C. thermoaceticum, respectively, are included. (DMC)

  11. Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Removal Process, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Howard, S.; Lu, Yingzhong

    2012-08-10

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new low-cost and energy efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) recovery process - through a combination of theoretical, bench-scale and pilot-scale testing - so that it could be offered to the natural gas industry for commercialization. The new process, known as the IROA process, is based on U.S. patent No. 6,553,784, which if commercialized, has the potential of achieving substantial energy savings compared to currently used cryogenic technology. When successfully developed, this technology will benefit the petrochemical industry, which uses NGL as feedstocks, and will also benefit other chemical industries that utilize gas-liquid separation and distillation under similar operating conditions. Specific goals and objectives of the overall program include: (i) collecting relevant physical property and Vapor Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) data for the design and evaluation of the new technology, (ii) solving critical R&D issues including the identification of suitable dehydration and NGL absorbing solvents, inhibiting corrosion, and specifying proper packing structure and materials, (iii) designing, construction and operation of bench and pilot-scale units to verify design performance, (iv) computer simulation of the process using commercial software simulation platforms such as Aspen-Plus and HYSYS, and (v) preparation of a commercialization plan and identification of industrial partners that are interested in utilizing the new technology. NGL is a collective term for C2+ hydrocarbons present in the natural gas. Historically, the commercial value of the separated NGL components has been greater than the thermal value of these liquids in the gas. The revenue derived from extracting NGLs is crucial to ensuring the overall profitability of the domestic natural gas production industry and therefore of ensuring a secure and reliable supply in the 48 contiguous states. However, rising natural gas prices have dramatically reduced

  12. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Final report, February 1, 1978-January 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    This is a coordinated program to effect the microbiological degradation of cellulosic biomasses and will focus on the use of anaerobic microorganisms which possess cellulolytic enzyme. The studies will attempt to increase the enzyme levels through genetics, mutation and strain selection. In addition, the direct conversion from cellulosic biomasses to liquid fuel (ethanol) and/or soluble sugars by the cellulolytic, anaerobic organism is also within the scope of this program. Process and engineering scale-up, along with economic analyses, will be performed throughout the course of the program. The second area of our major effort is devoted to the production of chemical feedstocks. In particular, three fermentations have been identified for exploration. These are: acrylic acid, acetone/butanol and acetic acid. The main efforts in these fermentations will address means for the reduction of the cost of manufacturing for these large volume chemicals.

  13. Heterogeneous catalysis and the challenges of powering the planet, securing chemicals for civilised life, and clean efficient utilization of renewable feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John Meurig

    2014-07-01

    This article reviews, first, the prospects, practices and principles of generating solar fuels. It does so with an analysis of recent progress in the light-driven emission of H2 (and other fuels) as well as O2 from water. To place this challenge in perspective, some current practices entailing the use of well-proven solid catalysts developed for fossil-based feedstocks, are described. The massive differences between proven methods of generating fuel and chemicals from non-renewable and from solar radiation are emphasized with the aid of numerous quantitative examples. Whilst it is acknowledged that a key action in reducing the liberation of greenhouse gases (GHG) is to tackle the challenge of decreasing their evolution in power generation and in the production of steel, aluminium and other bulk commodities (metals, alloys, concrete and ceramics), nevertheless much can be done to diminish the emission of CO2 (and to use it as feedstock) through the agency of new, designed solid catalysts and microalgae. Solar-thermal converters are also attractive alternatives, even though they are more likely to be used centrally rather than in small modular units like 'artificial leaves,' some of which are promising for the purposes of generating energy (and perhaps fuel) in a delocalized, modular manner. PMID:24988917

  14. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, September 1-November 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.I.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1978-11-01

    Studies on the accumulation of glucose during the fermentation of cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum are discussed. Production of ethanol and its relationship to growth rate in C. thermocellum is reported. Different biomasses were tested for ethanol yields. These included exploded poplar, sugar cane, bagasse, corn cobs, sweet gum, rice straw, and wheat straw. Thermophilic bacteria were tested to determine relationship of temperature to yield of ethanol. A preliminary report on isolating plaque forming emits derived from C. thermocellum is presented as well as the utilization of carbohydrates in nutrition. A cellulose enzyme is being purified from C. thermocellum. The production of chemical feedstocks by fermentation is reported. Acrylic acid, acetone/butanol, and acetic acid, produced by C. propionicum, C. acetobutylicum, and C. thermoaceticum, are discussed. (DC)

  15. Chemical Processing in High-Pressure Aqueous Environments. 9. Process Development for Catalytic Gasification of Algae Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2012-07-26

    Through the use of a metal catalyst, gasification of wet algae slurries can be accomplished with high levels of carbon conversion to gas at relatively low temperature (350 C). In a pressurized-water environment (20 MPa), near-total conversion of the organic structure of the algae to gases has been achieved in the presence of a supported ruthenium metal catalyst. The process is essentially steam reforming, as there is no added oxidizer or reagent other than water. In addition, the gas produced is a medium-heating value gas due to the synthesis of high levels of methane, as dictated by thermodynamic equilibrium. As opposed to earlier work, biomass trace components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties in the fixed catalyst bed tubular reactor system. As a result, the algae feedstocks, even those with high ash contents, were much more reliably processed. High conversions were obtained even with high slurry concentrations. Consistent catalyst operation in these short-term tests suggested good stability and minimal poisoning effects. High methane content in the product gas was noted with significant carbon dioxide captured in the aqueous byproduct in combination with alkali constituents and the ammonia byproduct derived from proteins in the algae. High conversion of algae to gas products was found with low levels of byproduct water contamination and low to moderate loss of carbon in the mineral separation step.

  16. Feedstock characterization and recommended procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using biomass for non-conventional applications such as feedstocks for fuels, chemicals, new materials, and electric power production requires knowledge of biomass characteristics important to these processes, and characterization techniques that are more appropriate than those employed today for conventional applications of food, feed, and fiber. This paper reviews feedstock characterization and standardization methodologies, and identifies research and development needs. It reviews the international cooperation involved in determining biomass characteristics and standards that has culminated in preparing four biomass samples currently available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

  17. Lignocellulosic feedstock resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooney, T.

    1998-09-01

    This report provides overall state and national information on the quantity, availability, and costs of current and potential feedstocks for ethanol production in the United States. It characterizes end uses and physical characteristics of feedstocks, and presents relevant information that affects the economic and technical feasibility of ethanol production from these feedstocks. The data can help researchers focus ethanol conversion research efforts on feedstocks that are compatible with the resource base.

  18. Chemical and Radiochemical Composition of Thermally Stabilized Plutonium Oxide from the Plutonium Finishing Plant Considered as Alternate Feedstock for the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingey, Joel M.; Jones, Susan A.

    2005-07-01

    Eighteen plutonium oxide samples originating from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) on the Hanford Site were analyzed to provide additional data on the suitability of PFP thermally stabilized plutonium oxides and Rocky Flats oxides as alternate feedstock to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Radiochemical and chemical analyses were performed on fusions, acid leaches, and water leaches of these 18 samples. The results from these destructive analyses were compared with nondestructive analyses (NDA) performed at PFP and the acceptance criteria for the alternate feedstock. The plutonium oxide materials considered as alternate feedstock at Hanford originated from several different sources including Rocky Flats oxide, scrap from the Remote Mechanical C-Line (RMC) and the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF), and materials from other plutonium conversion processes at Hanford. These materials were received at PFP as metals, oxides, and solutions. All of the material considered as alternate feedstock was converted to PuO2 and thermally stabilized by heating the PuO2 powder at 950 C in an oxidizing environment. The two samples from solutions were converted to PuO2 by precipitation with Mg(OH)2. The 18 plutonium oxide samples were grouped into four categories based on their origin. The Rocky Flats oxide was divided into two categories, low- and high-chloride Rocky Flats oxides. The other two categories were PRF/RMC scrap oxides, which included scrap from both process lines and oxides produced from solutions. The two solution samples came from samples that were being tested at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory because all of the plutonium oxide from solutions at PFP had already been processed and placed in 3013 containers. These samples originated at the PFP and are from plutonium nitrate product and double-pass filtrate solutions after they had been thermally stabilized. The other 16 samples originated from thermal stabilization batches before canning at

  19. Gas Fermentation – A Flexible Platform for Commercial Scale Production of Low Carbon Fuels and Chemicals from Waste and Renewable Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FungMin eLiew

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There is an immediate need to drastically reduce the emissions associated with global fossil fuel consumption in order to limit climate change. However, carbon-based materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels are predominantly made from fossil sources and currently there is no alternative source available to adequately displace them. Gas-fermenting microorganisms that fix carbon dioxide (CO2 and carbon monoxide (CO can break this dependence as they are capable of converting gaseous carbon to fuels and chemicals. As such, the technology can utilize a wide range of feedstocks including gasified organic matter of any sort (e.g., municipal solid waste, industrial waste, biomass, and agricultural waste residues or industrial off gasses (e.g., from steel mills or processing plants. Gas fermentation has matured to the point that large-scale production of ethanol from gas has been demonstrated by two companies. This review gives an overview of the gas fermentation process, focusing specifically on anaerobic acetogens. Applications of synthetic biology and coupling gas fermentation to additional processes are discussed in detail. Both of these strategies, demonstrated at bench-scale, have abundant potential to rapidly expand the commercial product spectrum of gas fermentation and further improve efficiencies and yields.

  20. Gas Fermentation-A Flexible Platform for Commercial Scale Production of Low-Carbon-Fuels and Chemicals from Waste and Renewable Feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, FungMin; Martin, Michael E; Tappel, Ryan C; Heijstra, Björn D; Mihalcea, Christophe; Köpke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    There is an immediate need to drastically reduce the emissions associated with global fossil fuel consumption in order to limit climate change. However, carbon-based materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels are predominantly made from fossil sources and currently there is no alternative source available to adequately displace them. Gas-fermenting microorganisms that fix carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) can break this dependence as they are capable of converting gaseous carbon to fuels and chemicals. As such, the technology can utilize a wide range of feedstocks including gasified organic matter of any sort (e.g., municipal solid waste, industrial waste, biomass, and agricultural waste residues) or industrial off-gases (e.g., from steel mills or processing plants). Gas fermentation has matured to the point that large-scale production of ethanol from gas has been demonstrated by two companies. This review gives an overview of the gas fermentation process, focusing specifically on anaerobic acetogens. Applications of synthetic biology and coupling gas fermentation to additional processes are discussed in detail. Both of these strategies, demonstrated at bench-scale, have abundant potential to rapidly expand the commercial product spectrum of gas fermentation and further improve efficiencies and yields. PMID:27242719

  1. Gas Fermentation-A Flexible Platform for Commercial Scale Production of Low-Carbon-Fuels and Chemicals from Waste and Renewable Feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, FungMin; Martin, Michael E; Tappel, Ryan C; Heijstra, Björn D; Mihalcea, Christophe; Köpke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    There is an immediate need to drastically reduce the emissions associated with global fossil fuel consumption in order to limit climate change. However, carbon-based materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels are predominantly made from fossil sources and currently there is no alternative source available to adequately displace them. Gas-fermenting microorganisms that fix carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) can break this dependence as they are capable of converting gaseous carbon to fuels and chemicals. As such, the technology can utilize a wide range of feedstocks including gasified organic matter of any sort (e.g., municipal solid waste, industrial waste, biomass, and agricultural waste residues) or industrial off-gases (e.g., from steel mills or processing plants). Gas fermentation has matured to the point that large-scale production of ethanol from gas has been demonstrated by two companies. This review gives an overview of the gas fermentation process, focusing specifically on anaerobic acetogens. Applications of synthetic biology and coupling gas fermentation to additional processes are discussed in detail. Both of these strategies, demonstrated at bench-scale, have abundant potential to rapidly expand the commercial product spectrum of gas fermentation and further improve efficiencies and yields.

  2. Evaluating the potential of effluents and wood feedstocks from pulp and paper mills in Brazil, Canada, and New Zealand to affect fish reproduction: chemical profiling and in vitro assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milestone, Craig B; Orrego, Rodrigo; Scott, Philip D; Waye, Andrew; Kohli, Jagmohan; O'Connor, Brian I; Smith, Brendan; Engelhardt, Heidi; Servos, Mark R; Maclatchy, Deborah L; Smith, D Scott; Trudeau, Vance L; Arnason, John T; Kovacs, Tibor; Heid Furley, Tatiana; Slade, Alison H; Holdway, Douglas A; Hewitt, L Mark

    2012-02-01

    This study investigates factors affecting reproduction in fish exposed to pulp and paper mill effluents by comparing effluents from countries with varying levels of documented effects. To explore the hypothesis of wood as a common source of endocrine disrupting compounds, feedstocks from each country were analyzed. Analyses included in vitro assays for androgenic activity (binding to goldfish testis androgen receptors), estrogenic activity (yeast estrogen screen), and neurotransmitter enzyme inhibition (monoamine oxidase and glutamic acid decarboxylase). Chemical analyses included conventional extractives, known androgens, and gas chromatograph index (GCI) profiles. All effluents and wood contained androgenic activity, particularly in nonpolar fractions, although known androgens were undetected. Effluents with low suspended solids, having undergone conventional biotreatment had lower androgenic activities. Estrogenic activity was only associated with Brazilian effluents and undetected in wood. All effluents and wood inhibited neurotransmitter enzymes, predominantly in polar fractions. Kraft elemental chlorine free mills were associated with the greatest neurotransmitter inhibition. Effluent and wood GCI profiles were correlated with androgenic activity and neurotransmitter enzyme inhibition. Differences in feedstock bioactivities were not reflected in effluents, implying mill factors mitigate bioactive wood components. No differences in bioactivities could be discerned on the basis of country of origin, thus we predict effluents in regions lacking monitoring would affect fish reproduction and therefore recommend implementing such programs. PMID:22196476

  3. Biodiesel from conventional feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Liu, De-Hua

    2012-01-01

    At present, traditional fossil fuels are used predominantly in China, presenting the country with challenges that include sustainable energy supply, energy efficiency improvement, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In 2007, China issued The Strategic Plan of the Mid-and-Long Term Development of Renewable Energy, which aims to increase the share of clean energy in the country's energy consumption to 15% by 2020 from only 7.5% in 2005. Biodiesel, an important renewable fuel with significant advantages over fossil diesel, has attracted great attention in the USA and European countries. However, biodiesel is still in its infancy in China, although its future is promising. This chapter reviews biodiesel production from conventional feedstocks in the country, including feedstock supply and state of the art technologies for the transesterification reaction through which biodiesel is made, particularly the enzymatic catalytic process developed by Chinese scientists. Finally, the constraints and perspectives for China's biodiesel development are highlighted. PMID:22085921

  4. Green chemical feedstocks. Potential in the EU and sustainability aspects. Support for the Biofeedstocks Sub-commission of the Corbey Commission; Groene chemische grondstoffen, potentieel in de EU en duurzaamheidsaspecten. Ondersteuning van de Subcommissie Biochemie van de Commissie Corbey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croezen, H.; Bergsma, G.

    2012-09-15

    Besides applications for power generation and as a transport fuel, biomass can also be used as a chemical feedstock. If the chemical industry in Europe were to switch to 25% biofeedstocks, the sector's demand for biomass would approximate or even slightly exceed that of the transport sector. There are a number of options for biomass use in the chemical industry, with varying requirements for specific types of biomass. To a large extent, the raw biomass used by the chemical industry would be roughly equivalent to that currently used for transport biofuels, although certain routes would involve different bio resources. Compared with applications for transport fuels, use of biomass as a chemical feedstock often has greater environmental benefits, at lower cost. It would be very useful to establish sustainability criteria for the use of biomass by the chemical industry, too. Based partly on this study by CE Delft, the Commission for Sustainability Aspects of Biomass (the Corbey Commission) has drawn up an advisory document recommending introduction of sustainability criteria for use of biomass by the chemical industry [Dutch] Biomassa kan gebruikt wordt als bron voor elektriciteit en transportbrandstof maar ook als grondstof voor de chemie. Als de chemie in Europa voor 25% over zou schakelen op biomassa als grondstof dan zou de vraag vanuit deze sector naar vergelijkbaar of nog iets groter worden dan de vraag naar biomassa van de transportsector. Er zijn verschillende manieren om biomassa in te zetten in de chemie. Deze keuzes leiden tot een verschillende vraag naar soorten biomassa. Een groot deel van de grondstoffen voor biochemie komt overeen met grondstoffen voor de biotransportsector. Sommige routes vragen om andere grondstoffen. Vergeleken met biomassa in transport geeft inzet van biomassa in chemie vaak een hoger milieuvoordeel tegen lagere kosten. Het zou heel nuttig zijn om ook voor biomassa die gebruikt wordt door de chemie duurzaamheidscriteria op te

  5. Biofuels feedstock development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) leads the nation in the research, development, and demonstration of environmentally acceptable and commercially viable dedicated feedstock supply systems (DFSS). The purpose of this report is to highlight the status and accomplishments of the research that is currently being funded by the BFDP. Highlights summarized here and additional accomplishments are described in more detail in the sections associated with each major program task. A few key accomplishments include (1) development of a methodology for doing a cost-supply analysis for energy crops and the application of that methodology to looking at possible land use changes around a specific energy facility in East Tennessee; (2) preliminary documentation of the relationship between woody crop plantation locations and bird diversity at sites in the Midwest, Canada, and the pacific Northwest supplied indications that woody crop plantations could be beneficial to biodiversity; (3) the initiation of integrated switchgrass variety trials, breeding research, and biotechnology research for the south/southeast region; (4) development of a data base management system for documenting the results of herbaceous energy crop field trials; (5) publication of three issues of Energy Crops Forum and development of a readership of over 2,300 individuals or organizations as determined by positive responses on questionnaires

  6. Biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Lo, Yung-Chung; Lee, Kuo-Shing; Lee, Duu-Jong; Lin, Chiu-Yue; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-09-01

    Due to the recent energy crisis and rising concern over climate change, the development of clean alternative energy sources is of significant interest. Biohydrogen produced from cellulosic feedstock, such as second generation feedstock (lignocellulosic biomass) and third generation feedstock (carbohydrate-rich microalgae), is a promising candidate as a clean, CO2-neutral, non-polluting and high efficiency energy carrier to meet the future needs. This article reviews state-of-the-art technology on lignocellulosic biohydrogen production in terms of feedstock pretreatment, saccharification strategy, and fermentation technology. Future developments of integrated biohydrogen processes leading to efficient waste reduction, low CO2 emission and high overall hydrogen yield is discussed.

  7. Maximum fossil fuel feedstock replacement potential of petrochemicals via biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Boom, R.M.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The search for feedstock replacement options within the petrochemical industry should logically be based upon non-fossil resources. Retaining the functionality of the biochemicals in biomass for use as chemical products and precursors can lead to a sizeable reduction of fossil fuel consumption. This

  8. Fatty acid profile of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports the fatty acid profiles of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks for the production of bio-based fuels and chemicals. Lipids were extracted using hexane from oil-bearing seeds using a standard Soxhlet apparatus. Fatty acid profiles were measured using gas chromatography-flame ionization...

  9. Roadmap for Agriculture Biomass Feedstock Supply in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Richard Hess; Thomas D. Foust; Reed Hoskinson; David Thompson

    2003-11-01

    The Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee established a goal that biomass will supply 5% of the nation’s power, 20% of its transportation fuels, and 25% of its chemicals by 2030. These combined goals are approximately equivalent to 30% of the country’s current petroleum consumption. The benefits of a robust biorefinery industry supplying this amount of domestically produced power, fuels, and products are considerable, including decreased demand for imported oil, revenue to the depressed agricultural industry, and revitalized rural economies. A consistent supply of highquality, low-cost feedstock is vital to achieving this goal. This biomass roadmap defines the research and development (R&D) path to supplying the feedstock needs of the biorefinery and to achieving the important national goals set for biomass. To meet these goals, the biorefinery industry must be more sustainable than the systems it will replace. Sustainability hinges on the economic profitability of all participants, on environmental impact of every step in the process, and on social impact of the product and its production. In early 2003, a series of colloquies were held to define and prioritize the R&D needs for supplying feedstock to the biorefinery in a sustainable manner. These colloquies involved participants and stakeholders in the feedstock supply chain, including growers, transporters, equipment manufacturers, and processors as well as environmental groups and others with a vested interest in ensuring the sustainability of the biorefinery. From this series of colloquies, four high-level strategic goals were set for the feedstock area: • Biomass Availability – By 2030, 1 billion dry tons of lignocellulosic feedstock is needed annually to achieve the power, fuel, and chemical production goals set by the Biomass Research and Development Technology Advisory Production Committee • Sustainability – Production and use of the 1 billion dry tons annually must be

  10. 2009 Feedstocks Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program‘s Feedstock platform review meeting, held on April 8–10, 2009, at the Grand Hyatt Washington, Washington, D.C.

  11. Washery tailings from coal preparation used as aluminium feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, L.; Schieder, T.; Belsky, M.; Lotze, J.; Winkhaus, G.

    1982-06-01

    Kaolinite clays and washery tailings of coal mines are the major feedstocks of the West German aluminium industry. Statistics are given in order to assess the amount of washery tailings available and their suitability as feedstocks for aluminium production. The chemical and mineralogical composition are similar for washery tailings from different mines; accordingly, also their behaviour regarding decomposition by acids will be almost identical. Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ extraction yields are satisfactory with strongly precalcinated material using concentrated sulphuric acid or azeotropic hydrochloric acid - in the latter case, however, only if fluoride is added to the acid.

  12. C4 Plants as Biofuel Feedstocks: Optimising Biomass Production and Feedstock Quality from a Lignocellulosic Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caitlin S.Byrt; Christopher P.L.Grof; Robert T.Furbank

    2011-01-01

    The main feedstocks for bioethanol are sugarcane (Saccharum offic-inarum) and maize (Zea mays), both of which are C4 grasses, highly efficient at converting solar energy into chemical energy, and both are food crops. As the systems for lignocellulosic bioethanol production become more efficient and cost effective, plant biomass from any source may be used as a feedstock for bioethanol production. Thus, a move away from using food plants to make fuel is possible, and sources of biomass such as wood from forestry and plant waste from cropping may be used. However, the bioethanol industry will need a continuous and reliable supply of biomass that can be produced at a low cost and with minimal use of water, fertilizer and arable land. As many C4 plants have high light, water and nitrogen use efficiency, as compared with C3 species, they are ideal as feedstock crops. We consider the productivity and resource use of a number of candidate plant species, and discuss biomass 'quality', that is, the composition of the plant cell wall.

  13. C4 plants as biofuel feedstocks: optimising biomass production and feedstock quality from a lignocellulosic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrt, Caitlin S; Grof, Christopher P L; Furbank, Robert T

    2011-02-01

    The main feedstocks for bioethanol are sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and maize (Zea mays), both of which are C(4) grasses, highly efficient at converting solar energy into chemical energy, and both are food crops. As the systems for lignocellulosic bioethanol production become more efficient and cost effective, plant biomass from any source may be used as a feedstock for bioethanol production. Thus, a move away from using food plants to make fuel is possible, and sources of biomass such as wood from forestry and plant waste from cropping may be used. However, the bioethanol industry will need a continuous and reliable supply of biomass that can be produced at a low cost and with minimal use of water, fertilizer and arable land. As many C(4) plants have high light, water and nitrogen use efficiency, as compared with C(3) species, they are ideal as feedstock crops. We consider the productivity and resource use of a number of candidate plant species, and discuss biomass 'quality', that is, the composition of the plant cell wall. PMID:21205189

  14. Survey of alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summarized will be results obtained from the production of biodiesel from several alternative feedstocks with promising agronomic characteristics. Such feedstocks include camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (Limnanth...

  15. Process for desulfurizing petroleum feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier

    2014-06-10

    A process for upgrading an oil feedstock includes reacting the oil feedstock with a quantity of an alkali metal, wherein the reaction produces solid materials and liquid materials. The solid materials are separated from the liquid materials. The solid materials may be washed and heat treated by heating the materials to a temperature above 400.degree. C. The heat treating occurs in an atmosphere that has low oxygen and water content. Once heat treated, the solid materials are added to a solution comprising a polar solvent, where sulfide, hydrogen sulfide or polysulfide anions dissolve. The solution comprising polar solvent is then added to an electrolytic cell, which during operation, produces alkali metal and sulfur.

  16. Proceedings. Feedstock preparation and quality 1997 workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Jan Erik [ed.

    1998-06-01

    The IEA Bioenergy Feedstock Preparation and Quality 1997 Workshop dealt with fuel feedstock quality improvement and methods to determine feedstock properties. It was arranged by the Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences on behalf of the IEA Bioenergy Task XII Activity 4.1 Feedstock Preparation and Quality. This Activity is a 3-year cooperation 1995-1997 between Denmark, Sweden and the USA, mainly based on information exchange. The workshop had two sections: presentations by invited experts, and country reports on recent development in feedstock preparation and quality in the three participating countries. Separate abstracts have been prepared for four of the six papers presented

  17. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.; Broderick, Thomas F.

    2011-10-11

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  18. COMPUTATIONAL RESOURCES FOR BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK SPECIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buell, Carol Robin [Michigan State University; Childs, Kevin L [Michigan State University

    2013-05-07

    While current production of ethanol as a biofuel relies on starch and sugar inputs, it is anticipated that sustainable production of ethanol for biofuel use will utilize lignocellulosic feedstocks. Candidate plant species to be used for lignocellulosic ethanol production include a large number of species within the Grass, Pine and Birch plant families. For these biofuel feedstock species, there are variable amounts of genome sequence resources available, ranging from complete genome sequences (e.g. sorghum, poplar) to transcriptome data sets (e.g. switchgrass, pine). These data sets are not only dispersed in location but also disparate in content. It will be essential to leverage and improve these genomic data sets for the improvement of biofuel feedstock production. The objectives of this project were to provide computational tools and resources for data-mining genome sequence/annotation and large-scale functional genomic datasets available for biofuel feedstock species. We have created a Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource that provides a web-based portal or clearing house for genomic data for plant species relevant to biofuel feedstock production. Sequence data from a total of 54 plant species are included in the Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource including model plant species that permit leveraging of knowledge across taxa to biofuel feedstock species.We have generated additional computational analyses of these data, including uniform annotation, to facilitate genomic approaches to improved biofuel feedstock production. These data have been centralized in the publicly available Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource (http://bfgr.plantbiology.msu.edu/).

  19. More valuable as petrochemical feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems facing the North American petrochemical industry were discussed with particular reference to the fact that high North American prices present a challenge to competitiveness in a globally traded market. A background of Dow Canada was provided, including details of its upgrading of natural gas liquids that would otherwise be combusted for electrical power generation. The value of the petrochemical industry was outlined, with details of employment, manufacturing output and exports. Alberta's relationship to the natural gas industry was reviewed. The role of petrochemicals as a nexus for bridging the resource sector with manufacturing, retail and transportation was discussed. The historic correlation between world Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and ethylene demand was presented. It was noted that the petrochemical industry currently competes with power generators for smaller volumes of natural gas liquids. As a highly energy intensive industry, inequities in gas pipeline haul charges and even small increases in gas prices has compromised the success of the petrochemical industry. It was noted that while crude oil is a globally traded commodity, natural gas liquids are generally traded at a more localized level, and factors that helped build the petrochemical industry and are now inhibiting growth. Ethane is the primary feedstock in the petrochemical industry. High natural gas prices affected the industry on two levels: volatility in a weakening industry and higher prices on primary feedstocks. It was estimated that changes in current trends were likely to take place in 5 to 10 years, following Northern gas developments. It was estimated that more than 50 per cent of new capacity investment in ethylene plants would take place in the Middle East in the next 5 years. No new plants are planned in Canada. It was concluded that low-cost feedstock advantages, as well as alternative feedstocks and the sustainment of a healthy industry are necessary for the

  20. Enhanced Feedstock Recycling of Post-Consumer Plastic

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron Akah, Jesus Hernandez-Martinez, Chandni Rallan, Arthur A. Garforth

    2015-01-01

    Feedstock recycling of waste plastics is becoming more crucial as a method to convert plastics back into a source of useful platform chemicals. Although thermal cracking presents easier options, the products have limited utility and present a higher energy burden than the method proposed in this paper, that of catalytichydrocracking a mildly exothermic process. This paper reports the use of metal loaded zeolite catalysts at much reduced temperatures (200 °C - 350 °C) to convert mixed plastic ...

  1. Liquid hot water pretreatment of multi feedstocks and enzymatic hydrolysis of solids obtained thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelin, Michele; Teixeira, José António

    2016-09-01

    Agricultural feedstocks (brewers' spent grain - BSG, corncob - CC, corn husk - CH, wheat straw - WS and Luffa sponge - LS) were pretreated by liquid hot water (LHW) in order to increase cellulose recovery and enzymatic saccharification. LHW-pretreatment resulted in hemicellulose solubilization, and solids enriched in cellulose. Chemical analysis showed different susceptibilities of the feedstocks to LHW-pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Pretreated feedstocks presented higher crystallinity (determined through X-ray diffraction) and thermal stability (determined through thermogravimetric analysis) than untreated feedstocks. SEM images confirmed the effect of LHW-pretreatment on structural changes. Moreover, enzymatic hydrolysis and cellulose conversion to glucose (CCG) were improved for pretreated feedstocks, with exception of LS. CCG (in relation to glucose potential on solids) followed the order: BSG>CH>WS>CC>LS. LHW-pretreatment showed to be a good technology to pretreat multi feedstocks and for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of recalcitrant agricultural feedstocks to sugars, which can be further converted to ethanol-fuel and other value-added chemicals. PMID:27318165

  2. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Yatish T. [Norfolk State University; Gardner, Todd H. [U.S. DOE

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  3. Evolution and Development of Effective Feedstock Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garold Gresham; Rachel Emerson; Amber Hoover; Amber Miller; William Bauer; Kevin Kenney

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blend stocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. The 2012 feedstock logistics milestone demonstrated that for high-yield areas that minimize the transportation distances of a low-density, unstable biomass, we could achieve a delivered cost of $35/ton. Based on current conventional equipment and processes, the 2012 logistics design is able to deliver the volume of biomass needed to fulfill the 2012 Renewable Fuel Standard’s targets for ethanol. However, the Renewable Fuel Standard’s volume targets are continuing to increase and are expected to peak in 2022 at 36 billion gallons. Meeting these volume targets and achieving a national-scale biofuels industry will require expansion of production capacity beyond the 2012 Conventional Feedstock Supply Design Case to access diverse available feedstocks, regardless of their inherent ability to meet preliminary biorefinery quality feedstock specifications. Implementation of quality specifications (specs), as outlined in the 2017 Design Case – “Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels” (in progress), requires insertion of deliberate, active quality controls into the feedstock supply chain, whereas the 2012 Conventional Design only utilizes passive quality controls.

  4. Effect of multiple-feedstock strategy on the economic and environmental performance of thermochemical ethanol production under extreme weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current US transportation sector mainly relies on liquid hydrocarbons derived from petroleum and about 60% of the petroleum consumed is from areas where supply may be disturbed by regional instability. This has led to serious concerns on energy security and global warming. To address these issues, numerous alternative energy carriers have been proposed. Among them, second generation biofuel is one of the most promising technologies. Gasification-based thermochemical conversion will bring flexibility to both feedstock and production sides of a plant, thus presents an attractive technical route to address both the energy security and global warming concerns. In this paper, thermochemical ethanol production using multiple-feedstock (corn stover, municipal solid waste, and wood chips) is simulated using Aspen Plus and compared with the single-feedstock scenario, in terms of economic performances, life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and survivability under extreme weather conditions. For a hypothetical facility in southwest Indiana it is found that multiple-feedstock strategy improves the net present value by 18% compared to single-feedstock strategy. This margin is increased to 57% when effects of extreme weather conditions on feedstock supply are considered. Moreover, multiple-feedstock fuel plant has no potential risk of bankruptcy during the payback period, while single-feedstock fuel plant has a 75% chance of bankruptcy. Although the multiple-feedstock strategy has 26% more GHG emission per liter of ethanol produced than the single-feedstock strategy, the trend is reversed if feedstock supply disruption is taken into account. Thus the idea of multiple-feedstock strategy is proposed to the future thermo chemical biofuel plants.

  5. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.; Broderick, Thomas F.

    2012-04-17

    A new class of plant biomass feedstock particles characterized by consistent piece size and shape uniformity, high skeletal surface area, and good flow properties. The particles of plant biomass material having fibers aligned in a grain are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces. The L.times.W surfaces of particles with L/H dimension ratios of 4:1 or less are further elaborated by surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The length dimension L is preferably aligned within 30.degree. parallel to the grain, and more preferably within 10.degree. parallel to the grain. The plant biomass material is preferably selected from among wood, agricultural crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  6. Upgrading of solid biofuels and feedstock quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burvall, Jan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden

    1998-06-01

    This paper treats upgrading of biomass to pellets, briquettes and powder and the quality needed of the initial feedstock. The main raw materials are wood and reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) 5 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  7. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, Laura [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Feedstock Platform Review meeting.

  8. Physiochemical Characterization of Briquettes Made from Different Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Karunanithy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Densification of biomass can address handling, transportation, and storage problems and also lend itself to an automated loading and unloading of transport vehicles and storage systems. The purpose of this study is to compare the physicochemical properties of briquettes made from different feedstocks. Feedstocks such as corn stover, switchgrass, prairie cord grass, sawdust, pigeon pea grass, and cotton stalk were densified using a briquetting system. Physical characterization includes particle size distribution, geometrical mean diameter (GMD, densities (bulk and true, porosity, and glass transition temperature. The compositional analysis of control and briquettes was also performed. Statistical analyses confirmed the existence of significant differences in these physical properties and chemical composition of control and briquettes. Correlation analysis confirms the contribution of lignin to bulk density and durability. Among the feedstocks tested, cotton stalk had the highest bulk density of 964 kg/m3 which is an elevenfold increase compared to control cotton stalk. Corn stover and pigeon pea grass had the highest (96.6% and lowest (61% durability.

  9. How non-conventional feedstocks will affect aromatics technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, E. [Clariant Produkte (Deutschland) GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    The abundance of non-conventional feedstocks such as coal and shale gas has begun to affect the availability of traditional base chemicals such as propylene and BTX aromatics. Although this trend is primarily fueled by the fast growing shale gas economy in the US and the abundance of coal in China, it will cause the global supply and demand situation to equilibrate across the regions. Lower demand for gasoline and consequently less aromatics rich reformate from refineries will further tighten the aromatics markets that are expected to grow at healthy rates, however. Refiners can benefit from this trend by abandoning their traditional fuel-oriented business model and becoming producers of petrochemical intermediates, with special focus on paraxylene (PX). Cheap gas from coal (via gasification) or shale reserves is an advantaged feedstock that offers a great platform to make aromatics in a cost-competitive manner, especially in regions where naphtha is in short supply. Gas condensates (LPG and naphtha) are good feedstocks for paraffin aromatization, and methanol from coal or (shale) gas can be directly converted to BTX aromatics (MTA) or alkylated with benzene or toluene to make paraxylene. Most of today's technologies for the production and upgrading of BTX aromatics and their derivatives make use of the unique properties of zeolites. (orig.)

  10. CARBONIZER TESTS WITH LAKELAND FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Lu; Z. Fan; R. Froehlich; A. Robertson

    2003-09-01

    Research has been conducted under United States Department of Energy Contract (USDOE) DE-AC21-86MC21023 to develop a new type of coal-fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant, called a Second Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Plant (2nd Gen PFB), offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 48%, with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than those of conventional pulverized coal-fired (PC) plants with wet flue gas desulfurization/scrubbers. The 2nd Gen PFB plant incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a carbonizer, the combustion of carbonizer char in a pressurized circulating fluidized (PCFB) bed boiler, and the combustion of carbonizer syngas in a topping combustor to achieve gas turbine inlet temperatures of 2700 F and higher. Under the USDOE Clean Coal V Demonstration Plant Program, a nominal 260 MWe plant demonstrating 2nd Gen PFB technology has been proposed for construction at the McIntosh Power Plant of the City of Lakeland, Florida. In the September-December 1997 time period, four test runs were conducted in Foster Wheeler's 12-inch diameter carbonizer pilot plant in Livingston New Jersey to ascertain carbonizer performance characteristics with the Kentucky No. 9 coal and Florida limestone proposed for use in the Lakeland plant. The tests were of a short-term nature exploring carbonizer carbon conversions, sulfur capture efficiencies and syngas alkali levels. The tests were successful; observed carbonizer performance was in agreement with predictions and no operating problems, attributed to the planned feedstocks, were encountered. The results of the four test runs are reported herein.

  11. Effects of surfactant on properties of MIM feedstock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-min; LIU Xiang-quan; LUO Feng-hua; YUE Jian-ling

    2007-01-01

    Effects of the surfactant for improving the properties of MIM feedstock were investigated. Feedstocks were prepared by 17-4PH stainless steel(SS) powder and paraffin wax-based binder containing different contents of stearic acid(SA) as the surfactant. The viscosity of the feedstock decreases significantly when the SA is added. Besides, the wetting angle of the binder against the 17-4PH SS powder decreases greatly and the critical solid loading increases with the adding of the SA. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy(FTIR) analysis was used to prove the interaction between the SA and the 17-4PH SS powder. Chemical bonding is found on the surface of 17-4PH SS powder after mixing and it helps a lot to enhance the interacting force between the binder and the powder. Then an adsorbing model was adopted to estimate the least content of the surfactant that formed a monolayer adsorption on the mono-sized spherical powder (with smooth surface). The least content of the surfactant is calculated to be 0.19%. Whereas, the experiments indicate that about 5% is the optimal value to improve the properties of the feedstock. The reason may come from two aspects: firstly, the powders used in current experiment are not all mono-sized spheres and the coarse surface of the powder has a great effect on the adsorptive capacity of the powder; secondly, multilayer adsorption is likely to occur on the powder surface, which will also increase the adsorptive capacity.

  12. An integrated bioconversion process for the production of L-lactic acid from starchy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, S.P.; Moon, S.H.

    1997-07-01

    The potential market for lactic acid as the feedstock for biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, and specialty chemicals is significant. L-lactic acid is often the desired enantiomer for such applications. However, stereospecific lactobacilli do not metabolize starch efficiently. In this work, Argonne researchers have developed a process to convert starchy feedstocks into L-lactic acid. The processing steps include starch recovery, continuous liquefaction, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Over 100 g/L of lactic acid was produced in less than 48 h. The optical purity of the product was greater than 95%. This process has potential economical advantages over the conventional process.

  13. A Review on Biomass Densification Systems to Develop Uniform Feedstock Commodities for Bioenergy Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney

    2011-11-01

    Developing uniformly formatted, densified feedstock from lignocellulosic biomass is of interest to achieve consistent physical properties like size and shape, bulk and unit density, and durability, which significantly influence storage, transportation and handling characteristics, and, by extension, feedstock cost and quality. A variety of densification systems are considered for producing a uniform format feedstock commodity for bioenergy applications, including (a) baler, (b) pellet mill, (c) cuber, (d) screw extruder, (e) briquette press, (f) roller press, (g) tablet press, and (g) agglomerator. Each of these systems has varying impacts on feedstock chemical and physical properties, and energy consumption. This review discusses the suitability of these densification systems for biomass feedstocks and the impact these systems have on specific energy consumption and end product quality. For example, a briquette press is more flexible in terms of feedstock variables where higher moisture content and larger particles are acceptable for making good quality briquettes; or among different densification systems, a screw press consumes the most energy because it not only compresses but also shears and mixes the material. Pretreatment options like preheating, grinding, steam explosion, torrefaction, and ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) can also help to reduce specific energy consumption during densification and improve binding characteristics. Binding behavior can also be improved by adding natural binders, such as proteins, or commercial binders, such as lignosulphonates. The quality of the densified biomass for both domestic and international markets is evaluated using PFI (United States Standard) or CEN (European Standard).

  14. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment for Selected Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, K.L.; Oladosu, G.A.; Wolfe, A.K.; Perlack, R.D.; Dale, V.H.

    2008-02-18

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as ‘available’ for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64

  15. High quality transportation fuels from renewable feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindfors, Lars Peter

    2010-09-15

    Hydrotreating of vegetable oils is novel process for producing high quality renewable diesel. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) are paraffinic hydrocarbons. They are free of aromatics, have high cetane numbers and reduce emissions. HVO can be used as component or as such. HVO processes can also be modified to produce jet fuel. GHG savings by HVO use are significant compared to fossil fuels. HVO is already in commercial production. Neste Oil is producing its NExBTL diesel in two plants. Production of renewable fuels will be limited by availability of sustainable feedstock. Therefore R and D efforts are made to expand feedstock base further.

  16. Engineering cyanobacteria as photosynthetic feedstock factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Stephanie G; Ducat, Daniel C

    2015-03-01

    Carbohydrate feedstocks are at the root of bioindustrial production and are needed in greater quantities than ever due to increased prioritization of renewable fuels with reduced carbon footprints. Cyanobacteria possess a number of features that make them well suited as an alternative feedstock crop in comparison to traditional terrestrial plant species. Recent advances in genetic engineering, as well as promising preliminary investigations of cyanobacteria in a number of distinct production regimes have illustrated the potential of these aquatic phototrophs as biosynthetic chassis. Further improvements in strain productivities and design, along with enhanced understanding of photosynthetic metabolism in cyanobacteria may pave the way to translate cyanobacterial theoretical potential into realized application.

  17. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  18. Designing relevant biochars as soil amendments using lignocellulosic-based and manure-based feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Biochars are a soil amendment produced from lignocellulosic and manure feedstocks. Not all biochars are viable soil amendments because of differences in their physical and chemical properties. Biochar could deliver more effective service as a soil amendment if its chemis...

  19. Biotechnology for renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg;

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the industrial organic chemicals are derived from fossil sources. With the oil and gas resources becoming limiting, biotechnology offers a sustainable alternative for production ofchemicals from renewable feedstocks. Yeast is an attractive cell factory forsustainable production...

  20. Preprocessing Moist Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biorefinery Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal Yancey; Christopher T. Wright; Craig Conner; J. Richard Hess

    2009-06-01

    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system of a lignocellulosic biorefinery. Preprocessing is generally accomplished using industrial grinders to format biomass materials into a suitable biorefinery feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many factors affect machine efficiency and the physical characteristics of preprocessed biomass. For example, moisture content of the biomass as received from the point of production has a significant impact on overall system efficiency and can significantly affect the characteristics (particle size distribution, flowability, storability, etc.) of the size-reduced biomass. Many different grinder configurations are available on the market, each with advantages under specific conditions. Ultimately, the capacity and/or efficiency of the grinding process can be enhanced by selecting the grinder configuration that optimizes grinder performance based on moisture content and screen size. This paper discusses the relationships of biomass moisture with respect to preprocessing system performance and product physical characteristics and compares data obtained on corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw as model feedstocks during Vermeer HG 200 grinder testing. During the tests, grinder screen configuration and biomass moisture content were varied and tested to provide a better understanding of their relative impact on machine performance and the resulting feedstock physical characteristics and uniformity relative to each crop tested.

  1. Balancing feedstock economics and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this analysis is to examine the economic balance between production of cellulosic biofuel feedstocks and ecosystem services at the farm level. A literature review of the economics of ecosystem services, ecosystem service impacts of biofuel production, and economic factors influencing ...

  2. Low temperature microwave-assisted vs conventional pyrolysis of various biomass feedstocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Shuttleworth; Vitaliy Budarin; Mark Gronnow; James H. Clark; Rafael Luque

    2012-01-01

    A comparison between conventional pyrolysis and a novel developed low-temperature microwave-assisted pyrolysis methodology has been performed for the valorisation of a range of biomass feedstocks including waste residues.Microwave pyrolysis was found to efficiently deliver comparable evolution of bio-gases in the system as compared with conventional pyrolysis at significantly reduced temperatures (120-180 ℃ vs 250-400 ℃).The gas obtained from microwave-assistet pyrolysis was found to contain CO2,CH4 and CO as major components as well as other related chemicals (e.g.acids,aldehydes,alkanes) which were obtained in different proportions depending on the selected feedstock.

  3. Sunflower-based Feedstocks in Nonfood Applications: Perspectives from Olefin Metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvey, Bassie B.

    2008-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) oil remains under-utilised albeit one of the major seed oils produced world-wide. Moreover, the high oleic sunflower varieties make the oil attractive for applications requiring high temperature processes and those targeting the C=C double bond functionality. Herein an overview of the recent developments in olefin metathesis of sunflower-based feedstocks is presented. The improved performance of olefin metathesis catalysts leading to high turnover numbers, high selectivity and catalyst recyclability, opens new opportunities for tailoring sunflower-based feedstocks into products required for possible new niche market applications. Promising results in biofuel, biopolymers, fragrances and fine chemicals applications have been reported. PMID:19325810

  4. System characteristics and performance evaluation of a trailer-scale downdraft gasifier with different feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Elango; Chung, J N

    2012-03-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the thermal profiles of a trailer-scale gasifier in different zones during the course of gasification and also to elaborate on the design, characteristics and performance of the gasification system using different biomass feedstock. The purpose is to emphasize on the effectiveness of distributed power generation systems and demonstrate the feasibility of such gasification systems in real world scenarios, where the lingo-cellulosic biomass resources are widely available and distributed across the board. Experimental data on the thermal profiles with respect to five different zones in the gasifier and a comprehensive thermal-chemical equilibrium model to predict the syngas composition are presented in detail. Four different feedstock-pine wood, horse manure, red oak, and cardboard were evaluated. The effects of C, H, O content variations in the feedstock on the thermal profiles, and the efficiency and viability of the trailer-scale gasifier are also discussed.

  5. Ecotoxicological characterization of biochars : role of feedstock and pyrolysis temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Domene, X.; Enders, A.; Hanley, K; Lehmann, J.

    2015-01-01

    Seven contrasting feedstocks were subjected to slow pyrolysis at low (300 or 350 °C) and high temperature (550 or 600 °C), and both biochars and the corresponding feedstocks tested for short-term ecotoxicity using basal soil respiration and collembolan reproduction tests. After a 28-d incubation, soil basal respiration was not inhibited but stimulated by additions of feedstocks and biochars. However, variation in soil respiration was dependent on both feedstock and pyrolysis temperature. In t...

  6. CARBON DIOXIDE AS A FEEDSTOCK.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ,C.; FUJITA,E.

    2000-12-09

    This report is an overview on the subject of carbon dioxide as a starting material for organic syntheses of potential commercial interest and the utilization of carbon dioxide as a substrate for fuel production. It draws extensively on literature sources, particularly on the report of a 1999 Workshop on the subject of catalysis in carbon dioxide utilization, but with emphasis on systems of most interest to us. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is an abundant (750 billion tons in atmosphere), but dilute source of carbon (only 0.036 % by volume), so technologies for utilization at the production source are crucial for both sequestration and utilization. Sequestration--such as pumping CO{sub 2} into sea or the earth--is beyond the scope of this report, except where it overlaps utilization, for example in converting CO{sub 2} to polymers. But sequestration dominates current thinking on short term solutions to global warming, as should be clear from reports from this and other workshops. The 3500 million tons estimated to be added to the atmosphere annually at present can be compared to the 110 million tons used to produce chemicals, chiefly urea (75 million tons), salicylic acid, cyclic carbonates and polycarbonates. Increased utilization of CO{sub 2} as a starting material is, however, highly desirable, because it is an inexpensive, non-toxic starting material. There are ongoing efforts to replace phosgene as a starting material. Creation of new materials and markets for them will increase this utilization, producing an increasingly positive, albeit small impact on global CO{sub 2} levels. The other uses of interest are utilization as a solvent and for fuel production and these will be discussed in turn.

  7. A survey of biodiesel feedstocks under performance perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats, can be produced from an ever-growing number of feedstocks. The development of the various feedstocks is spurred to a significant extent by the issue of availability as there is no feedstock that can replace significant am...

  8. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment For Selected Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Wolfe, Amy K [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; McMahon, Matthew [Appalachian State University

    2008-02-01

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as 'available' for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply

  9. Processing Cost Analysis for Biomass Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, P.C.

    2002-11-20

    The receiving, handling, storing, and processing of woody biomass feedstocks is an overlooked component of biopower systems. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to identify and characterize all the receiving, handling, storing, and processing steps required to make woody biomass feedstocks suitable for use in direct combustion and gasification applications, including small modular biopower (SMB) systems, and (2) to estimate the capital and operating costs at each step. Since biopower applications can be varied, a number of conversion systems and feedstocks required evaluation. In addition to limiting this study to woody biomass feedstocks, the boundaries of this study were from the power plant gate to the feedstock entry point into the conversion device. Although some power plants are sited at a source of wood waste fuel, it was assumed for this study that all wood waste would be brought to the power plant site. This study was also confined to the following three feedstocks (1) forest residues, (2) industrial mill residues, and (3) urban wood residues. Additionally, the study was confined to grate, suspension, and fluidized bed direct combustion systems; gasification systems; and SMB conversion systems. Since scale can play an important role in types of equipment, operational requirements, and capital and operational costs, this study examined these factors for the following direct combustion and gasification system size ranges: 50, 20, 5, and 1 MWe. The scope of the study also included: Specific operational issues associated with specific feedstocks (e.g., bark and problems with bridging); Opportunities for reducing handling, storage, and processing costs; How environmental restrictions can affect handling and processing costs (e.g., noise, commingling of treated wood or non-wood materials, emissions, and runoff); and Feedstock quality issues and/or requirements (e.g., moisture, particle size, presence of non-wood materials). The study found that over the

  10. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria: from bioremediation to bioenergy feedstock

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Ana Rita Castro

    2015-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Engenharia Química e Biológica. Bacterial storage lipids are being considered as viable alternative feedstocks for industrial and biotechnological applications, compared to conventional ones. The production of these bacterial compounds can be obtained from different carbon sources, including inexpensive and recalcitrant wastes. This thesis explores the potential of using hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria to obtain lipid reserve substances from hydrocarbon-based wastes, p...

  11. Thoughts on Optimization of Aromatic Feedstock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Jian

    2002-01-01

    This article refers to four cases of process unit combinations with different throughputs of aromatics unit for production of 450 kt/a paraxylene at a certain petrochemical complex in order to against a representative case (provided with an 800-kt/a CCR unit and a 600-kt/a disproportionation unit) and the feasibility and advantage of using prolysis gasoline as aromatic feedstock is studied.

  12. Pretreatments of lignocellulosic feedstock for bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Predojević Zlatica J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources (biofuels), either as a component in the conventional fossil fuels, gasoline and diesel, or as a pure biofuel, contributes to energy saving and decrease of total CO2 emission. The use of bioethanol mixed with gasoline significantly decreases gasoline consumption and contributes to environment protection. One of the problems in the production of bioethanol is the availability of sugar and starch based feedstock used for its production. However, lignocellulos...

  13. Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.

    2001-02-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a mission-oriented program of research and analysis whose goal is to develop and demonstrate cropping systems for producing large quantities of low-cost, high-quality biomass feedstocks for use as liquid biofuels, biomass electric power, and/or bioproducts. The program specifically supports the missions and goals of DOE's Office of Fuels Development and DOE's Office of Power Technologies. ORNL has provided technical leadership and field management for the BFDP since DOE began energy crop research in 1978. The major components of the BFDP include energy crop selection and breeding; crop management research; environmental assessment and monitoring; crop production and supply logistics operational research; integrated resource analysis and assessment; and communications and outreach. Research into feedstock supply logistics has recently been added and will become an integral component of the program.

  14. Method and apparatus for treating a cellulosic feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang A.; Burke, Murray J.; Hillier, Sunalie N.

    2015-09-08

    Methods and apparatus for treating, pre-treating, preparing and conveying a cellulosic feedstock, such as for ethanol production, are disclosed. More specifically, the invention relates to methods and apparatus for treating a cellulosic feedstock by mixing and heating the cellulosic feedstock and/or by moistening and heating the cellulosic feedstock. The invention also relates to a holding tank, and a method of utilizing the holding tank whereby bridging may be reduced or eliminated and may result in a product stream from autohydrolysis or hydrolysis having an improved yield. The invention further relates to methods and apparatus for obtaining and conveying a cellulosic feedstock, which may be used for the subsequent production of a fermentable sugar stream from the cellulose and hemicellulose in the cellulosic feedstock wherein the fermentable sugar stream may be used for subsequent ethanol production. The invention also relates to a method and apparatus for withdrawing one or more feedstock stream from a holding tank.

  15. Renewable Feedstocks: The Problem of Catalyst Deactivation and its Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Jean-Paul

    2015-11-01

    Much research has been carried out in the last decade to convert bio-based feedstock into fuels and chemicals. Most of the research focuses on developing active and selective catalysts, with much less attention devoted to their long-term stability. This Review considers the main challenges in long-term catalyst stability, discusses some fundamentals, and presents options for their mitigation. Three main challenges are discussed: catalyst fouling, catalyst poisoning, and catalyst destruction. Fouling is generally related to the deposition of insoluble components present in the feed or formed by degradation of the feed or intermediates. Poisoning is related to the deposition of electropositive contaminants (e.g. alkali and alkaline earth metals) on acid sites or of electronegative contaminants (e.g. N and S) at hydrogenation sites. Catalyst destruction results from the thermodynamic instability of most oxidic supports, solid acids/bases, and hydrogenation functions under hydrothermal conditions. PMID:26457585

  16. Biorefining of lignocellulosic feedstock--Technical, economic and environmental considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin; van der Voet, Ester; Huppes, Gjalt

    2010-07-01

    Biorefinery, an example of a multiple products system, integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power and chemicals from biomass. This study focuses on technical design, economic and environmental analysis of a lignocellulosic feedstock (LCF) biorefinery producing ethanol, succinic acid, acetic acid and electricity. As the potential worldwide demand of succinic acid and its derivatives can reach 30 million tons per year, succinic acid is a promising high-value product if production cost and market price are substantially lowered. The results of the economic analysis show that the designed refinery has great potentials compared to the single-output ethanol plant; even when the price of succinic acid is lowered or the capital investment doubled. In terms of eco-efficiency, the LCF biorefinery shows better environmental performances mainly in global warming potential due to CO(2) fixation during acid fermentation. The overall evaluation of the eco-efficiency depends on the importance attached to each impact category.

  17. Markets for Canadian bitumen-based feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken in an effort to determine the market potential for crude bitumen and derivative products from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in 2007. As part of the study, CERI assessed the economic viability of a wide range of bitumen-based feedstock based on their refining values, investigated the sensitivity of refinery demand to the prices of these feedstocks, and examined the competitiveness of bitumen-based feedstocks and conventional crudes. A US$18.00 per barrel price for West Texas Intermediate at Cushing, Oklahoma, was assumed in all calculations, including other crude prices, as well as for Western Canadian and US crude oil production forecasts. Four different scenarios have been considered, but only the 'most plausible' scenario is discussed in the report. Consequently, Hydrocracked/Aromatics Saturated Synthetic Crude Oil, which is currently only a hypothetical product, is excluded from consideration. The availability of historical price differentials for the various competing crudes was another assumption used in developing the scenario. Proxy prices for the bitumen-based feedstock were based on their respective supply costs. The study concludes that the principal dilemma facing bitumen producers in Western Canada is to determine the amount of upgrading necessary to ensure an economic market for their product in the future. In general, the greater the degree of upgrading, the higher is the demand for bitumen-based feedstock. However, it must be kept in mind that the upgrading decisions of other bitumen producers, along with many other factors, will have a decisive impact on the economics of any individual project. The combination of coking capacity and asphalt demand limits the market for heavy and extra-heavy crudes. As a result, the researchers concluded that major expansion of heavy crude conversion capacity may have to wait until the end of the current decade. The economic market for bitumen-based blends in 2007 is estimated at

  18. Economic evaluation of United States ethanol production from ligno-cellulosic feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youn-Sang

    This paper evaluates the economic feasibility and economy-wide impacts of the U. S. ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks (LCF) using Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA's) dilute acid hydrolysis process. A nonlinear mathematical programming model of a single ethanol producer, whose objective is profit maximization, is developed. Because of differences in their chemical composition and production process, lignocellulosic feedstocks are divided into two groups: Biomass feedstocks, which refer to crop residues, energy crops and woody biomass, and municipal solid waste (MSW). Biomass feedstocks are more productive and less costly in producing ethanol and co-products, while MSW generates an additional income to the producer from a tipping fee and recycling. The analysis suggests that, regardless of types of feedstocks used, TVA's conversion process can enhance the economic viability of ethanol production as long as furfural is produced from the hemicellulose fraction of feedstocks as a co-product. The high price of furfural makes it a major factor in determining the economic feasibility of ethanol production. Along with evaluating economic feasibility of LCF-to-ethanol production, the optimal size of a plant producing ethanol using TVA's conversion process is estimated. The larger plant would have the advantage of economies of scale, but also have a disadvantage of increased collection and transportation costs for bulky biomass from more distant locations. We assume that the plant is located in the state of Missouri and utilizes only feedstocks produced in the state. The results indicate that the size of a plant using Biomass feedstocks is much bigger than one using MSW. The difference of plant sizes results from plant location and feedstock availability. One interesting finding is that energy crops are not feasible feedstocks for LCF-to-ethanol production due to their high price. Next, a static CGE model is developed to estimate the U.S. economy

  19. Production of bacterial cellulose from alternate feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. N. Thompson; M. A. Hamilton

    2000-05-07

    Production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 10821 and 23770 in static cultures was tested from unamended food process effluents. Effluents included low- and high-solids potato effluents (LS and HS), cheese whey permeate (CW), and sugar beet raffinate (CSB). Strain 23770 produced 10% less cellulose from glucose than did 10821, and diverted more glucose to gluconate. Unamended HS, CW, and CSB were unsuitable for cellulose production by either strain, while LS was unsuitable for production by 10821. However, 23770 produced 17% more cellulose from LS than from glucose, indicating unamended LS could serve as a feedstock for bacterial cellulose.

  20. Production of Bacterial Cellulose from Alternate Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David Neil; Hamilton, Melinda Ann

    2000-05-01

    Production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 10821 and 23770 in static cultures was tested from unamended food process effluents. Effluents included low- and high-solids potato effluents (LS & HS), cheese whey permeate (CW), and sugar beet raffinate (CSB). Strain 23770 produced 10% less cellulose from glucose than did 10821, and diverted more glucose to gluconate. Unamended HS, CW, and CSB were unsuitable for cellulose production by either strain, while LS was unsuitable for production by 10821. However, 23770 produced 17% more cellulose from LS than from glucose, indicating unamended LS could serve as a feedstock for bacterial cellulose.

  1. Identification and thermochemical analysis of high-lignin feedstocks for biofuel and biochemical production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendu Venugopal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lignin is a highly abundant biopolymer synthesized by plants as a complex component of plant secondary cell walls. Efforts to utilize lignin-based bioproducts are needed. Results Herein we identify and characterize the composition and pyrolytic deconstruction characteristics of high-lignin feedstocks. Feedstocks displaying the highest levels of lignin were identified as drupe endocarp biomass arising as agricultural waste from horticultural crops. By performing pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we characterized lignin-derived deconstruction products from endocarp biomass and compared these with switchgrass. By comparing individual pyrolytic products, we document higher amounts of acetic acid, 1-hydroxy-2-propanone, acetone and furfural in switchgrass compared to endocarp tissue, which is consistent with high holocellulose relative to lignin. By contrast, greater yields of lignin-based pyrolytic products such as phenol, 2-methoxyphenol, 2-methylphenol, 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol and 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol arising from drupe endocarp tissue are documented. Conclusions Differences in product yield, thermal decomposition rates and molecular species distribution among the feedstocks illustrate the potential of high-lignin endocarp feedstocks to generate valuable chemicals by thermochemical deconstruction.

  2. Influence of feedstock particle size on lignocellulose conversion--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Bernardo C; Dien, Bruce S; Ting, K C; Singh, Vijay

    2011-08-01

    Feedstock particle sizing can impact the economics of cellulosic ethanol commercialization through its effects on conversion yield and energy cost. Past studies demonstrated that particle size influences biomass enzyme digestibility to a limited extent. Physical size reduction was able to increase conversion rates to maximum of ≈ 50%, whereas chemical modification achieved conversions of >70% regardless of biomass particle size. This suggests that (1) mechanical pretreatment by itself is insufficient to attain economically feasible biomass conversion, and, therefore, (2) necessary particle sizing needs to be determined in the context of thermochemical pretreatment employed for lignocellulose conversion. Studies of thermochemical pretreatments that have taken into account particle size as a factor have exhibited a wide range of maximal sizes (i.e., particle sizes below which no increase in pretreatment effectiveness, measured in terms of the enzymatic conversion resulting from the pretreatment, were observed) from pretreatment employed, with maximal size range decreasing as follows: steam explosion > liquid hot water > dilute acid and base pretreatments. Maximal sizes also appeared dependent on feedstock, with herbaceous or grassy biomass exhibiting lower maximal size range (biomass (>3 mm). Such trends, considered alongside the intensive energy requirement of size reduction processes, warrant a more systematic study of particle size effects across different pretreatment technologies and feedstock, as a requisite for optimizing the feedstock supply system.

  3. Sorghum as Dry Land Feedstock for Fuel Ethanol Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Donghai; WU Xiaorong

    2010-01-01

    Dry land crops such as sorghums(grain sorghum,sweet sorghum and forage sorghum)have been identified aspromising feedstocks for fuel ethanol production.The major issue for using the sweet sorghum as feedstock is its stability at room temperature.At room temperature,the sweet sorghum juice could lose from 40%to50%of its fermentable sugars from 7to14 days.No significant sugar content and profile changes were observed in juice stored at refrigerator temperature in two weeks.Ethanolfermentation efficiencies of fresh and frozen juice were high(-93%).Concentrated juice(≥25%sugar)had significantly lower efficiencies and large amounts of fructose left in finished beer; however,winery yeast strains and novel fermentation techniques maysolve these problems.The ethanol yield from sorghum grain increased as starch content increased.No linear relationship betweenstarch content and fermentation efficiency was found.Key factors affecting the ethanol fermentation efficiency of sorghum includestarches and protein digestibility,amylose-lipid complexes,tannin content,and mash viscosity.Life cycle analysis showed a positivenet energy value(NEV)=25 500 Btu/gal ethanol.Fourier transform infrared(FTIR)spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction(XRD)were used to determine changes in the structure and chemical composition of sorghum biomasses.Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment waseffective in removing the hemicellulose from biomasses and exposing the cellulose for enzymatic hydrolysis.Forage sorghum ligninhad a lower syringyl/guaiacyl ratio and its pretreated biomass was easier to hydrolyze.Up to 72% hexose yield and 94% pentoseyield were obtained by using a modified steam explosion with 2% sulfuric acid at 140"C for 30 min and enzymatic hydrolysis withcellulase.

  4. Preparation of gasification feedstock from leafy biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shone, C M; Jothi, T J S

    2016-05-01

    Dried leaves are a potential source of energy although these are not commonly used beside to satisfy daily energy demands in rural areas. This paper aims at preparing a leafy biomass feedstock in the form of briquettes which can be directly used for combustion or to extract the combustible gas using a gasifier. Teak (Tectona grandis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) leaves are considered for the present study. A binder-assisted briquetting technique with tapioca starch as binder is adopted. Properties of these leafy biomass briquettes such as moisture content, calorific value, compressive strength, and shatter index are determined. From the study, briquettes with biomass-to-binder ratio of 3:5 are found to be stable. Higher mass percentage of binder is considered for preparation of briquettes due to the fact that leafy biomasses do not adhere well on densification with lower binder content. Ultimate analysis test is conducted to analyze the gasification potential of the briquettes. Results show that the leafy biomass prepared from teak and rubber leaves has calorific values of 17.5 and 17.8 MJ/kg, respectively, which are comparable with those of existing biomass feedstock made of sawdust, rice husk, and rice straw. PMID:26289326

  5. New technologies and alternative feedstocks in petrochemistry and refining. Preprints of the conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, S.; Jess, A.; Lercher, J.A.; Lichtscheidl, J.; Marchionna, M. (eds.)

    2013-11-01

    This international conference paper provides a forum for chemists and engineers from refinery, petrochemistry and the chemical industry as well as from academia to discuss new technologies and alternative feedstocks in petrochemistry and refining with the special topic ''Shale Gas, Heavy Oils and Coal''. 23 Lectures and 18 Posters are presented. All papers are analyzed for the ENERGY database.

  6. SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION OF MICROALGAE OIL FEEDSTOCK USING MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AND CO2 FERTILIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gina Chaput; Kyle Charmanski; Ihab H. Farag

    2012-01-01

    The increasing scarcity of fossil fuels has forced industry to look for new cost effective, clean,and sustainable sources of energy. With recent advances in technology, biofuels have become a more viableoption. Microalgae are cost effective and efficient feedstock for the production of biodiesel. One of the algae advantages is the ability to grow it in a wastewater media. This provides essential nutrients without the addition of chemicals. When grown in a photobioreactor, the algae can be cul...

  7. Sugarcane straw as a feedstock for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Felipe Hernández-Pérez; Priscila Vaz de Arruda; Maria das Graças de Almeida Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sugarcane straw has become an available lignocellulosic biomass since the progressive introduction of the non-burning harvest in Brazil. Besides keeping this biomass in the field, it can be used as a feedstock in thermochemical or biochemical conversion processes. This makes feasible its incorporation in a biorefinery, whose economic profitability could be supported by integrated production of low-value biofuels and high-value chemicals, e.g., xylitol, which has important industrial ...

  8. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-01

    This report investigated the potential of using municipal solid waste (MSW) to make synthesis gas (syngas) suitable for production of liquid fuels. Issues examined include: • MSW physical and chemical properties affecting its suitability as a gasifier feedstock and for liquid fuels synthesis • expected process scale required for favorable economics • the availability of MSW in quantities sufficient to meet process scale requirements • the state-of-the-art of MSW gasification technology.

  9. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  10. Engineering plant oils as high-value industrial feedstocks for biorefining: the need for underpinning cell biology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant oils represent renewable sources of long-chain hydrocarbons that can be used as both fuel and chemical feedstocks, and genetic engineering offers an opportunity to create further high-value specialty oils for specific industrial uses. While many genes have been identified for the production of...

  11. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01

    The R D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650[degrees]F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  12. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01

    The R&D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650{degrees}F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  13. Biodiesel from non-food alternative feed-stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a potential feedstock for biodiesel (BD) production, Jojoba oil was extracted from Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis L.) plant seeds that contained around 50-60 wt.%, which were explored as non-food alternative feedstocks. Interestingly, Jojoba oil has long-chain wax esters and is not a typical trigly...

  14. Syngas. The flexible solution in a volatile feed-stock market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurzel, T. [Air Liquide Global E und C Solutions c/o Lurgi GmbH, Frankfurt a.M. (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    The paper presents the versatility of syngas allowing the extended application of new feedstock sources such as shale gas or coal to deliver fuels and chemicals traditionally derived from crude oil. In order to provide a holistic view on this topic of current interest, the syngas market, the pre-dominant production technologies and main economic consideration for selected applications are presented and analyzed. It can be concluded that a broad portfolio of well-mastered and referenced syngas production technologies which are continuously improved to meet actual market requirements (e.g. ability to valorize biomass) will remain key to enable economic solutions in a world characterized by growing dynamics with regards to the supply of (carbonaceous) feedstock. (orig.)

  15. Sunflower-based Feedstocks in Nonfood Applications: Perspectives from Olefin Metathesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassie B. Marvey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. oil remains under-utilised albeit one of the major seed oils produced world-wide. Moreover, the high oleic sunflower varieties make the oil attractive for applications requiring high temperature processes and those targeting the C=C double bond functionality. Herein an overview of the recent developments in olefin metathesis of sunflower-based feedstocks is presented. The improved performance of olefin metathesis catalysts leading to high turnover numbers, high selectivity and catalyst recyclability, opens new opportunities for tailoring sunflower-based feedstocks into products required for possible new niche market applications. Promising results in biofuel, biopolymers, fragrances and fine chemicals applications have been reported.

  16. Biomass Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Mohammad S. Roni; Patrick Lamers; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s bioenergy research program. As part of the research program INL investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. A series of reports were published between 2000 and 2013 to demonstrate the feedstock logistics cost. Those reports were tailored to specific feedstock and conversion process. Although those reports are different in terms of conversion, some of the process in the feedstock logistic are same for each conversion process. As a result, each report has similar information. A single report can be designed that could bring all commonality occurred in the feedstock logistics process while discussing the feedstock logistics cost for different conversion process. Therefore, this report is designed in such a way that it can capture different feedstock logistics cost while eliminating the need of writing a conversion specific design report. Previous work established the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $55/dry ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, low-cost feedstock. The 2017 programmatic target is to supply feedstock to the conversion facility that meets the in-feed conversion process quality specifications at a total logistics cost of $80/dry T. The $80/dry T. target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all conversion in-feed quality targets

  17. MODEL BASED BIOMASS SYSTEM DESIGN OF FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY SYSTEMS FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Jacob J. Jacobson; Kenneth M. Bryden

    2013-08-01

    Engineering feedstock supply systems that deliver affordable, high-quality biomass remains a challenge for the emerging bioenergy industry. Cellulosic biomass is geographically distributed and has diverse physical and chemical properties. Because of this feedstock supply systems that deliver cellulosic biomass resources to biorefineries require integration of a broad set of engineered unit operations. These unit operations include harvest and collection, storage, preprocessing, and transportation processes. Design decisions for each feedstock supply system unit operation impact the engineering design and performance of the other system elements. These interdependencies are further complicated by spatial and temporal variances such as climate conditions and biomass characteristics. This paper develops an integrated model that couples a SQL-based data management engine and systems dynamics models to design and evaluate biomass feedstock supply systems. The integrated model, called the Biomass Logistics Model (BLM), includes a suite of databases that provide 1) engineering performance data for hundreds of equipment systems, 2) spatially explicit labor cost datasets, and 3) local tax and regulation data. The BLM analytic engine is built in the systems dynamics software package PowersimTM. The BLM is designed to work with thermochemical and biochemical based biofuel conversion platforms and accommodates a range of cellulosic biomass types (i.e., herbaceous residues, short- rotation woody and herbaceous energy crops, woody residues, algae, etc.). The BLM simulates the flow of biomass through the entire supply chain, tracking changes in feedstock characteristics (i.e., moisture content, dry matter, ash content, and dry bulk density) as influenced by the various operations in the supply chain. By accounting for all of the equipment that comes into contact with biomass from the point of harvest to the throat of the conversion facility and the change in characteristics, the

  18. Bibliography on Biomass Feedstock Research: 1978-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, J.H.

    2003-05-01

    This report provides bibliographic citations for more than 1400 reports on biomass feedstock development published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and its collaborators from 1978 through 2002. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is engaged in analysis of biomass resource supplies, research on the sustainability of feedstock resources, and research on feedstock engineering and infrastructure. From 1978 until 2002, Oak Ridge National Laboratory also provided technical leadership for the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), which supported research to identify and develop promising energy crops. This bibliography lists reports published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and by its collaborators in the BFDP, including graduate student theses and dissertations.

  19. Biodiesel production from low cost and renewable feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Veera; Grant, Georgene; Patil, Prafulla; Deng, Shuguang

    2013-12-01

    Sustainable biodiesel production should: a) utilize low cost renewable feedstock; b) utilize energy-efficient, nonconventional heating and mixing techniques; c) increase net energy benefit of the process; and d) utilize renewable feedstock/energy sources where possible. In this paper, we discuss the merits of biodiesel production following these criteria supported by the experimental results obtained from the process optimization studies. Waste cooking oil, non-edible (low-cost) oils (Jatropha curcas and Camelina Sativa) and algae were used as feedstock for biodiesel process optimization. A comparison between conventional and non-conventional methods such as microwaves and ultrasound was reported. Finally, net energy scenarios for different biodiesel feedstock options and algae are presented.

  20. Microbial renewable feedstock utilization: A substrate-oriented approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumbold, K.; Buijsen, H.J.J. van; Gray, V.M.; Groenestijn, J.W. van; Overkamp, K.M.; Slomp, R.S.; Werf, M.J. van der; Punt, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates are used as the feedstock for industrial fermentations. These biomass hydrolysates consist of complex mixtures of different fermentable sugars, but also contain inhibitors and salts that affect the performance of the productgenerating microbes. The p

  1. Biodiesel From Alternative Oilseed Feedstocks: Production and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels from several alternative oilseed feedstocks, which included camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field mustard (Brassica juncea L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (L...

  2. Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Jacobson; R. Mohammad; K. Cafferty; K. Kenney; E. Searcy; J. Hansen

    2014-09-01

    The success of the earlier logistic pathway designs (Biochemical and Thermochemical) from a feedstock perspective was that it demonstrated that through proper equipment selection and best management practices, conventional supply systems (referred to in this report as “conventional designs,” or specifically the 2012 Conventional Design) can be successfully implemented to address dry matter loss, quality issues, and enable feedstock cost reductions that help to reduce feedstock risk of variable supply and quality and enable industry to commercialize biomass feedstock supply chains. The caveat of this success is that conventional designs depend on high density, low-cost biomass with no disruption from incremental weather. In this respect, the success of conventional designs is tied to specific, highly productive regions such as the southeastern U.S. which has traditionally supported numerous pulp and paper industries or the Midwest U.S for corn stover.

  3. Comparison of feedstocks for optical glass and optical plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krevor, David

    2010-08-01

    The raw materials for optical glasses and optical plastics are very different. The plastic feedstocks are volatile liquids, petrochemicals, which are highly refined by industrial distillation. The feedstocks for inorganic glasses are minerals, purified by solid processing methods. The optical plastic resin is always virgin stock; "regrind" is never used for high-quality optical plastics. In contrast, the inorganic optical glass feedstock is improved by adding "cullet", which is the recovered waste from breakage and trim during glass part production. This paper discusses the sources and refinement of feedstocks for both glass and plastic, including consideration of cost, recycle and ramifications for optical part production, and anticipated future trends. A snapshot summary of current marketplace conditions is given.

  4. Feedstock Supply and Logistics: Biomass as a Commodity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-05-06

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office and its partners are developing the technologies and systems needed to sustainably and economically deliver a broad range of biomass in formats that enable their efficient use as feedstocks for biorefineries.

  5. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible.

  6. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. PMID:27396682

  7. Sophorolipid production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Abdul

    The present study investigated the feasibility of production of sophorolipids (SLs) using yeast Candida bombicola grown on hydrolysates derived lignocellulosic feedstock either with or without supplementing oil as extra carbon source. Several researchers have reported using pure sugars and various oil sources for producing SLs which makes them expensive for scale-up and commercial production. In order to make the production process truly sustainable and renewable, we used feedstocks such as sweet sorghum bagasse, corn fiber and corn stover. Without oil supplementation, the cell densities at the end of day-8 was recorded as 9.2, 9.8 and 10.8 g/L for hydrolysate derived from sorghum bagasse, corn fiber, and corn fiber with the addition of yeast extract (YE) during fermentation, respectively. At the end of fermentation, the SL concentration was 3.6 g/L for bagasse and 1.0 g/L for corn fiber hydrolysate. Among the three major sugars utilized by C. bombicola in the bagasse cultures, glucose was consumed at a rate of 9.1 g/L-day; xylose at 1.8 g/L-day; and arabinose at 0.98 g/L-day. With the addition of soybean oil at 100 g/L, cultures with bagasse hydrolysates, corn fiber hydrolysates and standard medium had a cell content of 7.7 g/L; 7.9 g/L; and 8.9 g/L, respectively after 10 days. The yield of SLs from bagasse hydrolysate was 84.6 g/L and corn fiber hydrolysate was15.6 g/L. In the same order, the residual oil in cultures with these two hydrolysates was 52.3 g/L and 41.0 g/L. For this set of experiment; in the cultures with bagasse hydrolysate; utilization rates for glucose, xylose and arabinose was recorded as 9.5, 1.04 and 0.08 g/L-day respectively. Surprisingly, C. bombicola consumed all monomeric sugars and non-sugar compounds in the hydrolysates and cultures with bagasse hydrolysates had higher yield of SLs than those from a standard medium which contained pure glucose at the same concentration. Based on the SL concentrations and considering all sugars consumed

  8. Genetic Modification of Short Rotation Poplar Biomass Feedstock for Efficient Conversion to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinus, R.J.

    2000-08-30

    The Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing poplars (Populus species and hybrids) as sources of renewable energy, i.e., ethanol. Notable increases in adaptability, volume productivity, and pest/stress resistance have been achieved via classical selection and breeding and intensified cultural practices. Significant advances have also been made in the efficiencies of harvesting and handling systems. Given these and anticipated accomplishments, program leaders are considering shifting some attention to genetically modifying feedstock physical and chemical properties, so as to improve the efficiency with which feedstocks can be converted to ethanol. This report provides an in-depth review and synthesis of opportunities for and feasibilities of genetically modifying feedstock qualities via classical selection and breeding, marker-aided selection and breeding, and genetic transformation. Information was collected by analysis of the literature, with emphasis on that published since 1995, and interviews with prominent scientists, breeders, and growers. Poplar research is well advanced, and literature is abundant. The report therefore primarily reflects advances in poplars, but data from other species, particularly other shortrotation hardwoods, are incorporated to fill gaps. An executive summary and recommendations for research, development, and technology transfer are provided immediately after the table of contents. The first major section of the report describes processes most likely to be used for conversion of poplar biomass to ethanol, the various physical and chemical properties of poplar feedstocks, and how such properties are expected to affect process efficiency. The need is stressed for improved understanding of the impact of change on both overall process and individual process step efficiencies. The second part documents advances in trait measurement instrumentation and methodology

  9. State of the art on reactor designs for solar gasification of carbonaceous feedstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Tora, E.A.; Bruno, J.C.;

    2013-01-01

    The association of concentrated solar energy and biomass gasification has often been suggested as an interesting alternative to conventional autothermal processes where a significant portion of the biomass has to be used for heat generation to drive endothermic reactions. It is a clean process able...... to produce high quality synthesis gas with a higher output per unit of feedstock and that allows for the chemical storage of solar energy in the form of a readily transportable fuel, among other advantages. The present paper describes the latest advances in solar thermochemical reactors for gasification...

  10. Process Design and Evaluation for Chemicals Based on Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Wenjing

    One of the key steps in process design is choosing between alternative technologies, especially for processes producing bulk and commodity chemicals. Recently, driven by the increasing oil prices and diminishing reserves, the production of bulk and commodity chemicals from renewable feedstocks has...... development of chemicals based on renewable feedstocks. As an example, this thesis especially focuses on applying the methodology in process design and evaluation of the synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from the renewable feedstock glucose/fructose. The selected example is part of the chemoenzymatic...... gained considerable interest. Renewable feedstocks usually cannot be converted into fuels and chemicals with existing process facilities due to the molecular functionality and variety of the most common renewable feedstock (biomass). Therefore new types of catalytic methods as well as new types...

  11. Effect of hydrotreating FCC feedstock on product distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar-Sotelo, D.; Maya-Yescas, R.; Mariaca-Dominguez, E.; Rodriguez-Salomon, S.; Aguilera-Lopez, M. [Programa de Tratamiento de Crudo Maya, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Lazaro Cardenas 152, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, 07730 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-11-24

    The demand of low-sulfur fuels has been increasing during the last 20 years due to environmental concerns about SO{sub x} emissions from processing plants and engines. Due to its high contribution to the gasoline pool, hydrotreating fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) feedstock offers several advantages, such as the increase of conversion and yields of gasoline and liquid-phase gas, meanwhile sulfur content in fuels is diminished. However, there are more important factors to be considered when hydrotreating FCC feedstock.In this work, two FCC feedstocks, typical and hydrotreated, were converted in a microactivity test (MAT) reactor, as described by ASTM D-3907-92, at different severities and using two commercial catalysts. Feedstock conversion, product yields and selectivity to valuable products were compared against industrial-scale results predicted by using commercial FCC simulation software. Expected increment in conversion and yield to profitable products was observed when hydrotreated feedstock was used; simulation results follow acceptably MAT results. Some recommendations are given for looking closely at the overall behavior (riser-regenerator), using reliable kinetic models and simulation programs.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Oxide Feedstock Powders for the Fuel Cycle R&D Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voit, Stewart L [ORNL; Vedder, Raymond James [ORNL; Johnson, Jared A [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    Nuclear fuel feedstock properties, such as physical, chemical, and isotopic characteristics, have a significant impact on the fuel fabrication process and, by extension, the in-reactor fuel performance. This has been demonstrated through studies with UO{sub 2} spanning greater than 50 years. The Fuel Cycle R&D Program with The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy has initiated an effort to develop a better understanding of the relationships between oxide feedstock, fresh fuel properties, and in-reactor fuel performance for advanced mixed oxide compositions. Powder conditioning studies to enable the use of less than ideal powders for ceramic fuel pellet processing are ongoing at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and an understanding of methods to increase the green density and homogeneity of pressed pellets has been gained for certain powders. Furthermore, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing methods for the co-conversion of mixed oxides along with techniques to analyze the degree of mixing. Experience with the fabrication of fuel pellets using co-synthesized multi-constituent materials is limited. In instances where atomically mixed solid solutions of two or more species are needed, traditional ceramic processing methods have been employed. Solution-based processes may be considered viable synthesis options, including co-precipitation (AUPuC), direct precipitation, direct-conversion (Modified Direct Denitration or MDD) and internal/external gelation (sol-gel). Each of these techniques has various advantages and disadvantages. The Fiscal Year 2010 feedstock development work at ORNL focused on the synthesis and characterization of one batch of UO{sub x} and one batch of U{sub 80}Ce{sub 20}O{sub x}. Oxide material synthesized at ORNL is being shipped to LANL for fuel fabrication process development studies. The feedstock preparation was performed using the MDD process which utilizes a rotary kiln to continuously thermally denitrate double

  13. Cost Methodology for Biomass Feedstocks: Herbaceous Crops and Agricultural Residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    This report describes a set of procedures and assumptions used to estimate production and logistics costs of bioenergy feedstocks from herbaceous crops and agricultural residues. The engineering-economic analysis discussed here is based on methodologies developed by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) and the American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA). An engineering-economic analysis approach was chosen due to lack of historical cost data for bioenergy feedstocks. Instead, costs are calculated using assumptions for equipment performance, input prices, and yield data derived from equipment manufacturers, research literature, and/or standards. Cost estimates account for fixed and variable costs. Several examples of this costing methodology used to estimate feedstock logistics costs are included at the end of this report.

  14. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Woody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01

    A conventional woody feedstock design has been developed that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying woody biomass as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints and consideration of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move woody biomass from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the use of the slash stream since it is a more conservative analysis and represents the material actually used in the experimental part of the project.

  15. Effects of milling and active surfactants on rheological behavior of powder injection molding feedstock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范景莲; 黄伯云; 曲选辉

    2001-01-01

    The effects of milling and active surfactants on the rheological behavior of powder injection molding feedstock were discussed. The feedstock consists of traditional compositional 90W-7Ni-3Fe powder mixture and a wax based polymer binder. Before mixing feedstock, the powder mixture was milled for different times in a QM-1 high-energy ball mill. The viscosity of the feedstock was examined in a capillary rheometer. The rheological behavior was evaluated from viscosity data. The results show that the feedstock belongs to a pseudoplastic fluid, milling decreases viscosity of the feedstock and the sensitivity of viscosity to shear strain rate. The flowability, rheology and powder loading of this feedstock are improved by milling. Active surfactants such as stearic acid (SA) and di-n-octyl-o-phthalate (DOP) have great influences on the rheological properties of the feedstock. DOP improves the flowability and rheological stability of the feedstock further.

  16. Macroalgae as a Biomass Feedstock: A Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesijadi, Guritno; Jones, Susanne B.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2010-09-26

    A thorough of macroalgae analysis as a biofuels feedstock is warranted due to the size of this biomass resource and the need to consider all potential sources of feedstock to meet current biomass production goals. Understanding how to harness this untapped biomass resource will require additional research and development. A detailed assessment of environmental resources, cultivation and harvesting technology, conversion to fuels, connectivity with existing energy supply chains, and the associated economic and life cycle analyses will facilitate evaluation of this potentially important biomass resource.

  17. Impact of the lignin structure of three lignocellulosic feedstocks on their organosolv delignification. Effect of carbonium ion scavengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of autohydrolysis and aromatic scavengers on delignification patterns were evaluated using miscanthus (MxG), empty palm fruit bunch (EFB) and typha grass residue as feedstocks. Autohydrolysis was carried out without naphthol and in the presence of naphthol followed by delignification by ethanol organosolv process. Despite their close chemical composition, the three feedstocks demonstrated quite different patterns of delignification under the same condition of pretreatment. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic characterization of ethanol organosolv lignins (EOLs) extracted from the three feedstocks revealed information concerning syringyl, guaiacyl and hydroxyphenyl content (S/G/H ratios) which underpinned the differences among the feedstock behavior. The (S + H)/G ratios for MxG, EFB and typha were determined as 1.27, 2.33 and 2.70 respectively. The major cause of difference in behavior of feedstock during the pretreatment process was attributed to the variation in lignin composition. A good relationship was observed between S/G ratio and the scavenging effect of 2-naphthol. The effect of four additional aromatic scavengers viz. p-cresol, o-cresol, hydroquinone and dihydroxyanthraquinone (DHAQ) tested in miscanthus demonstrated a significant enhancement on delignification; the effect of p-cresol and DHAQ was tantamount to that of naphthol. Cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL) extracted from typha grass was also subjected to 13C NMR characterization in order to obtain a more complete picture of typha lignin. Comparison of NMR spectra of CEL and EOL from TC was performed for determining the processing effect in lignin structure. -- Highlights: ► Effect of autohydrolysis and aromatic scavengers on delignification patterns were evaluated. ► Ethanol organosolv lignins and Cellulolytic Enzyme Lignin extracted from typha were characterized. ► A correlation was observed between S + H/G ratio and the effect of aromatic scavengers

  18. Field-to-Fuel Performance Testing of Various Biomass Feedstocks: Production and Catalytic Upgrading of Bio-Oil to Refinery Blendstocks (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.; Westover, T.; Howe, D.; Evans, R.; French, R.; Kutnyakov, I.

    2014-09-01

    Large-scale, cost-competitive deployment of thermochemical technologies to replace petroleum oil with domestic biofuels will require inclusion of high volumes of low-cost, diverse biomass types into the supply chain. However, a comprehensive understanding of the impacts of feedstock thermo-physical and chemical variability, particularly inorganic matter (ash), on the yield and product distribution

  19. Non-destructive analysis of the conformational differences among feedstock sources and their corresponding co-products from bioethanol production with molecular spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, I. H.; Jonker, A.; Zhang, X.; Yu, P.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the possibility of using molecular spectroscopy with multivariate technique as a fast method to detect the source effects among original feedstock sources of wheat and their corresponding co-products, wheat DDGS, from bioethanol production. Different sources of the bioethanol feedstock and their corresponding bioethanol co-products, three samples per source, were collected from the same newly-built bioethanol plant with current bioethanol processing technology. Multivariate molecular spectral analyses were carried out using agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis (AHCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The molecular spectral data of different feedstock sources and their corresponding co-products were compared at four different regions of ca. 1800-1725 cm-1 (carbonyl Cdbnd O ester, mainly related to lipid structure conformation), ca. 1725-1482 cm-1 (amide I and amide II region mainly related to protein structure conformation), ca. 1482-1180 cm-1 (mainly associated with structural carbohydrate) and ca. 1180-800 cm-1 (mainly related to carbohydrates) in complex plant-based system. The results showed that the molecular spectroscopy with multivariate technique could reveal the structural differences among the bioethanol feedstock sources and among their corresponding co-products. The AHCA and PCA analyses were able to distinguish the molecular structure differences associated with chemical functional groups among the different sources of the feedstock and their corresponding co-products. The molecular spectral differences indicated the differences in functional, biomolecular and biopolymer groups which were confirmed by wet chemical analysis. These biomolecular and biopolymer structural differences were associated with chemical and nutrient profiles and nutrient utilization and availability. Molecular spectral analyses had the potential to identify molecular structure difference among bioethanol feedstock sources

  20. Oleic and Undecylenic Acids as Renewable Feedstocks in the Synthesis of Polyols and Polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Cádiz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the utilization of raw materials derived from renewable feedstock is in the spotlight of the chemical industry, as vegetable oils are one of the most important platform chemicals due to their universal availability, inherent biodegradability and low price. Taking into account that polyurethanes are one of the most important industrial products exhibiting versatile properties suitable for use in many fields, our research is focused on exploiting fatty acids in the preparation of biobased polyols and polyurethanes. This review is organized as a function of the nature of the final polyurethane systems; hence we describe the preparation of linear thermoplastic and crosslinked polyurethanes derived from oleic and undecylenic acids-based diols and polyols, respectively.

  1. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Feedstock Platform Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Feedstock Platform Portfolio Peer Review held on August 21st through 23rd in Washington D.C.

  2. The impact of silicon feedstock on the PV module cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    del Coso, G.; del Cañizo, C.; Sinke, W.C.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the use of new (solar grade) silicon feedstock materials on the manufacturing cost of wafer-based crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules is analyzed considering effects of material cost, efficiency of utilisation, and quality. Calculations based on data provided by European industry

  3. Lignocellulosic feedstock supply systems with intermodal and overseas transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, Ric; Searcy, E.; Kafferty, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Junginger, Martin; Jacobson, J.; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    With growing demand for internationally traded biomass, the logistic operations required to economically move biomass from the field or forest to end- users have become increasingly complex. To design cost effective and sustainable feedstock supply chains, it is important to understand the economics

  4. Irrigated Corn Cob Production and Quality: Potential Cellulosic Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalating fossil fuel cost and concern over global climate change have accelerated interest in cellulosic feedstocks, such as corn cobs, for liquid fuel production. Little information is available about corn cob yield and its N and C content. Available cob data was compiled and summarized from seve...

  5. Framework methodology for increased energy efficiency and renewable feedstock integration in industrial clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Framework methodology for energy efficiency of process plants and total sites. • Identification of suitable biorefinery based on host site future energy systems. • Case study results show large energy savings of site wide heat integration. • Case study on refrigeration systems: 15% shaft work savings potential. • Case study on biorefinery integration: utility savings potential of up to 37%. - Abstract: Energy intensive industries, such as the bulk chemical industry, are facing major challenges and adopting strategies to face these challenges. This paper investigates options for clusters of chemical process plants to decrease their energy and emission footprints. There is a wide range of technologies and process integration opportunities available for achieving these objectives, including (i) decreasing fossil fuel and electricity demand by increasing heat integration within individual processes and across the total cluster site; (ii) replacing fossil feedstocks with renewables and biorefinery integration with the existing cluster; (iii) increasing external utilization of excess process heat wherever possible. This paper presents an overview of the use of process integration methods for development of chemical clusters. Process simulation, pinch analysis, Total Site Analysis (TSA) and exergy concepts are combined in a holistic approach to identify opportunities to improve energy efficiency and integrate renewable feedstocks within such clusters. The methodology is illustrated by application to a chemical cluster in Stenungsund on the West Coast of Sweden consisting of five different companies operating six process plants. The paper emphasizes and quantifies the gains that can be made by adopting a total site approach for targeting energy efficiency measures within the cluster and when investigating integration opportunities for advanced biorefinery concepts compared to restricting the analysis to the individual constituent plants. The

  6. Fatty acid composition as a tool for screening alternative feedstocks for production of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Cori...

  7. Soil C storage and greenhouse gas emission perennial grasses managed for bio energy feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial grasses like switchgrass or big bluestem when managed as bioenergy feedstock require nitrogenous inputs. Nitrogen fertilizer frequently cause nitrous oxide emission. Therefore, managing grasses as feedstock may reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential expected from perennial. ...

  8. Conversion of poultry wastes into energy feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Kabadayi, Arzu; Ucar, Suat; Yanik, Jale

    2016-10-01

    In this study, conversion of wastes from poultry farming and industry into biochar and bio-oil via thermochemical processes was investigated. Fuel characteristics and chemical structure of biochars and bio-oils have been investigated using standard fuel analysis and spectroscopic methods. Biochars were produced from poultry litter through both hydrothermal carbonization (sub-critical water, 175-250°C) and pyrolysis over a temperature range between 250 and 500°C. In comparison to hydrothermal carbonization, pyrolysis at lower temperatures produced biochar with greater energy yield due to the higher mass yield. Biochars obtained by both processes were comparable to coal. Hydrothermal liquefaction of poultry meal at different temperatures (200-325°C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions. Higher temperatures favored the formation of bio-crude oil, with a maximum yield of 35wt.% at 300°C. The higher heating values of bio-oils showed that bio-oil could be a potential source of synthetic fuels. However, elemental analysis demonstrated the high nitrogen content of bio-oils. Therefore, bio-oils obtained from hydrothermal liquefaction of poultry meal should be upgraded for utilization as a transport and heating fuel. PMID:27440220

  9. Efficacy of fatty acid profile as a tool for screening feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel properties are largely dependent on the fatty acid (FA) composition of the feedstock from which biodiesel is prepared. Consequently, FA profile was employed as a screening tool for selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated FAs for further evaluation as biodiesel. Those feedstocks screened...

  10. Improvement to Maize Growth Caused by Biochars Derived From Six Feedstocks Prepared at Three Different Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yu; JIAO Yu-jie; ZHAO Xiao-rong; LI Gui-tong; ZHAO Li-xin; MENG Hai-bo

    2014-01-01

    Biochar is increasingly proposed as a soil amendment, with reports of benefits to soil physical, chemical and biological properties. In this study, different biochars were produced from 6 feedstocks, including straw and poultry manure, at 3 pyrolysis temperatures (200, 300 and 500°C) and then added separately to a calcareous soil. Their effects on soil properties and maize growth were evaluated in a pot experiment. The biochars derived from crop straw had much higher C but smaller N concentrations than those derived from poultry manure. Carbon concentrations, pH and EC values increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Biochar addition resulted in increases in mean maize dry matter of 12.73%and NPK concentrations of 30, 33 and 283%, respectively. Mean soil pH values were increased by 0.45 units. The biochar-amended soils had 44, 55, 254 and 537%more organic C, total N, Olsen-P and available K, respectively, than the control on average. Both feedstocks and pyrolysis temperature determined the characteristics of the biochar. Biochars with high mineral concentrations may act as mineral nutrient supplements.

  11. Metabolic engineering of plant oils and waxes for use as industrial feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhercke, Thomas; Wood, Craig C; Stymne, Sten; Singh, Surinder P; Green, Allan G

    2013-02-01

    Society has come to rely heavily on mineral oil for both energy and petrochemical needs. Plant lipids are uniquely suited to serve as a renewable source of high-value fatty acids for use as chemical feedstocks and as a substitute for current petrochemicals. Despite the broad variety of acyl structures encountered in nature and the cloning of many genes involved in their biosynthesis, attempts at engineering economic levels of specialty industrial fatty acids in major oilseed crops have so far met with only limited success. Much of the progress has been hampered by an incomplete knowledge of the fatty acid biosynthesis and accumulation pathways. This review covers new insights based on metabolic flux and reverse engineering studies that have changed our view of plant oil synthesis from a mostly linear process to instead an intricate network with acyl fluxes differing between plant species. These insights are leading to new strategies for high-level production of industrial fatty acids and waxes. Furthermore, progress in increasing the levels of oil and wax structures in storage and vegetative tissues has the potential to yield novel lipid production platforms. The challenge and opportunity for the next decade will be to marry these technologies when engineering current and new crops for the sustainable production of oil and wax feedstocks. PMID:23190163

  12. Metabolic engineering of plant oils and waxes for use as industrial feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhercke, Thomas; Wood, Craig C; Stymne, Sten; Singh, Surinder P; Green, Allan G

    2013-02-01

    Society has come to rely heavily on mineral oil for both energy and petrochemical needs. Plant lipids are uniquely suited to serve as a renewable source of high-value fatty acids for use as chemical feedstocks and as a substitute for current petrochemicals. Despite the broad variety of acyl structures encountered in nature and the cloning of many genes involved in their biosynthesis, attempts at engineering economic levels of specialty industrial fatty acids in major oilseed crops have so far met with only limited success. Much of the progress has been hampered by an incomplete knowledge of the fatty acid biosynthesis and accumulation pathways. This review covers new insights based on metabolic flux and reverse engineering studies that have changed our view of plant oil synthesis from a mostly linear process to instead an intricate network with acyl fluxes differing between plant species. These insights are leading to new strategies for high-level production of industrial fatty acids and waxes. Furthermore, progress in increasing the levels of oil and wax structures in storage and vegetative tissues has the potential to yield novel lipid production platforms. The challenge and opportunity for the next decade will be to marry these technologies when engineering current and new crops for the sustainable production of oil and wax feedstocks.

  13. How can we improve biomethane production per unit of feedstock in biogas plants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas production is one of the number of tools that may be used to alleviate the problems of global warming, energy security and waste management. Biogas plants can be difficult to sustain from a financial perspective. The facilities must be financially optimized through use of substrates with high biogas potential, low water content and low retention requirement. This research carried out in laboratory scale batch digesters assessed the biogas potential of energy crops (maize and grass silage) and solid manure fractions from manure separation units. The ultimate methane productivity in terms of volatile solids (VS) was determined as 330, 161, 230, 236, 361 L/kg VS from raw pig slurry, filter pressed manure fiber (FPMF), chemically precipitated manure fiber (CPMF), maize silage and grass silage respectively. Methane productivity based on mass (L/kg substrate) was significantly higher in FPMF (55 L/kg substrate), maize silage (68 L/kg substrate) and grass silage (45-124 L/kg substrate (depending on dry solids of feedstock)) as in comparison to raw pig slurry (10 L/kg substrate). The use of these materials as co-substrates with raw pig slurry will increase significantly the biomethane yield per unit feedstock in the biogas plant.

  14. Modeling Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraxner, Florian; Leduc, Sylvain; Kindermann, Georg; Fuss, Sabine; Pietsch, Stephan; Lakyda, Ivan; Serrano Leon, Hernan; Shchepashchenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    Sustainability of bioenergy is often indicated by the neutrality of emissions at the conversion site while the feedstock production site is assumed to be carbon neutral. Recent research shows that sustainability of bioenergy systems starts with feedstock management. Even if sustainable forest management is applied, different management types can impact ecosystem services substantially. This study examines different sustainable forest management systems together with an optimal planning of green-field bioenergy plants in the Alps. Two models - the biophysical global forest model (G4M) and a techno-economic engineering model for optimizing renewable energy systems (BeWhere) are implemented. G4M is applied in a forward looking manner in order to provide information on the forest under different management scenarios: (1) managing the forest for maximizing the carbon sequestration; or (2) managing the forest for maximizing the harvestable wood amount for bioenergy production. The results from the forest modelling are then picked up by the engineering model BeWhere, which optimizes the bioenergy production in terms of energy demand (power and heat demand by population) and supply (wood harvesting potentials), feedstock harvesting and transport costs, the location and capacity of the bioenergy plant as well as the energy distribution logistics with respect to heat and electricity (e.g. considering existing grids for electricity or district heating etc.). First results highlight the importance of considering ecosystem services under different scenarios and in a geographically explicit manner. While aiming at producing the same amount of bioenergy under both forest management scenarios, it turns out that in scenario (1) a substantially larger area (distributed across the Alps) will need to be used for producing (and harvesting) the necessary amount of feedstock than under scenario (2). This result clearly shows that scenario (2) has to be seen as an "intensification

  15. Multicrystalline silicon wafers prepared from upgraded metallurgical feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degoulange, J.; Trassy, C. [SIMAP UMR CNRS, INP Grenoble (France); Perichaud, I.; Martinuzzi, S. [TECSEN UMR CNRS-University Paul Cezanne-Aix, Marseille III (France)

    2008-10-15

    A solution to the problem of the shortage of silicon feedstock used to grow multicrystalline ingots can be the production of a feedstock obtained by the direct purification of upgraded metallurgical silicon by means of a plasma torch. It is found that the dopant concentrations in the material manufactured following this metallurgical route are in the 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} range. Minority carrier diffusion lengths L{sub n} are close to 35 {mu}m in the raw wafers and increases up to 120 {mu}m after the wafers go through the standard processing steps needed to make solar cells: phosphorus diffusion, aluminium-silicon alloying and hydrogenation by deposition of a hydrogen-rich silicon nitride layer followed by an annealing. L{sub n} values are limited by the presence of residual metallic impurities, mainly slow diffusers like aluminium, and also by the high doping level. (author)

  16. Understanding hydrothermal carbonization of mixed feedstocks for waste conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaowei

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is an environmentally beneficial means to convert waste materials to value-added solid and liquid products with minimal greenhouse gas emission. Research is lacking on understanding the influence of critical process conditions on product formation and environmental implication associated with HTC of waste streams. This work was conducted to determine how reaction conditions and heterogeneous compound mixtures (representative of municipal wastes) influence hydrothermal carbonization processes. The specific experiments include: (1) determine how carbonization product properties are manipulated by controlling feedstock composition, process conditions, and catalyst addition; (2) determine if carbonization of heterogeneous mixtures follows similar pathways as that with pure feedstocks; and (3) evaluate and compare the carbon and energy-related implications associated with carbonization products with those associated with other common waste management processes for solid waste.

  17. Effects of feedstocks on the process integration of biohydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foglia, Domenico; Wukovits, Walter; Friedl, Anton [Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Ljunggren, Mattias; Zacchi, Guido [Lund University, P. O. Box 124, Lund (Sweden); Urbaniec, Krzysztof; Markowski, Mariusz [Warsaw University of Technology, Plock (Poland)

    2011-08-15

    Future production of hydrogen must be sustainable. To obtain it, renewable resources have to be employed for its production. Fermentation of biomasses could be a viable way. The process evaluated is a two-step fermentation to produce hydrogen from biomass. Process options with barley straws, PSP, and thick juice as feedstocks have been compared on the basis of process balances. Aspen Plus has been used to calculate mass and energy balances taking into account the integration of the process. Results show that the production of hydrogen as energy carrier is technically feasible with all the considered feedstocks and thanks to heat integration, second generation biomass (PSP and barley straws) are competitive with food crops (thick juice). (orig.)

  18. Developing a sustainable bioprocessing strategy based on a generic feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, C; Koutinas, Wang R; Wang, R

    2004-01-01

    Based on current average yields of wheat per hectare and the saccharide content of wheat grain, it is feasible to produce wheat-based alternatives to many petrochemicals. However, the requirements in terms of wheat utilization would be equivalent to 82% of current production if intermediates and primary building blocks such as ethylene, propylene, and butadiene were to be produced in addition to conventional bioproducts. If only intermediates and bioproducts were produced this requirement would fall to just 11%, while bioproducts alone would require only 7%. These requirements would be easily met if the global wheat yield per hectare of cultivated land was increased from the current average of 2.7 to 5.5 tonnes ha(-1) (well below the current maximum). Preliminary economic evaluation taking into account only raw material costs demonstrated that the use of wheat as a generic feedstock could be advantageous in the case of bioproducts and specific intermediate petrochemicals. Gluten plays a significant role considering the revenue occurring when it is sold as a by-product. A process leading to the production of a generic fermentation feedstock from wheat has been devised and evaluated in terms of efficiency and economics. This feedstock aims at providing a replacement for conventional fermentation media and petrochemical feedstocks. The process can be divided into four major stages--wheat milling; fermentation of whole wheat flour by A. awamori leading to the production of enzymes and fungal cells; glucose enhancement via enzymatic hydrolysis of flour suspensions; and nitrogen/micronutrient enhancement via fungal cell autolysis. Preliminary costings show that the operating cost of the process depends on plant capacity, cereal market price, presence and market value of added-value by-products, labour costs, and mode of processing (batch or continuous). PMID:15217108

  19. RHEOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FEEDSTOCK FOR THE HYDROCRACKING OF WASTE PLASTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Nzerem, Petrus

    2013-01-01

    Hydrocracking of plastic wastes offers the best value in terms of quality of its process oil product among other feedstock recycling methods capable of recycling mixed plastic waste; a paraffin-rich synthetic crude similar in composition to gasoline and diesel is produced. Additional benefits of the process include heteroatom removal, catalyst conservation as well as a lower process temperature. However PVC content in mixed plastics waste and the high viscosity of plastics are prominent issue...

  20. Towards sustainable intensification of feedstock production with nutrient cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Seleiman, Mahmoud Fathy

    2014-01-01

    Sludge contains valuable nutrient sources such as N (3.1%), P (2.6%) and micronutrients as well as organic matter. Nevertheless, depending on the feedstock materials, sludge contains heavy metals and metalloids that can be partly taken up by plants. The continuing need for disposal of sludge is a challenge due to the increasing world population. Experiments were conducted at glasshouse and field at Viikki Experimental Farm, University of Helsinki, Finland, during 2008-2012, in order to s...

  1. Expected international demand for woody and herbaceous feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jacobson, Jacob [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mohammad, Roni [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Christopher [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The development of a U.S. bioenergy market and ultimately ‘bioeconomy’ has primarily been investigated with a national focus. Limited attention has been given to the potential impacts of international market developments. The goal of this project is to advance the current State of Technology of a single biorefinery to the global level providing quantitative estimates on how international markets may influence the domestic feedstock supply costs. The scope of the project is limited to feedstock that is currently available and new crops being developed to be used in a future U.S. bioeconomy including herbaceous residues (e.g., corn stover), woody biomass (e.g., pulpwood), and energy crops (e.g., switchgrass). The timeframe is set to the periods of 2022, 2030, and 2040 to align with current policy targets (e.g., the RFS2) and future updates of the Billion Ton data. This particular milestone delivers demand volumes for generic woody and herbaceous feedstocks for the main (net) importing regions along the above timeframes. The regional focus of the study is the European Union (EU), currently the largest demand region for U.S. pellets made from pulpwood and forest residues. The pellets are predominantly used in large-scale power plants (>5MWel) in the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands (NL), Belgium (BE), and Denmark (DK).

  2. Using Populus as a lignocellulosic feedstock for bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, Ilga; El-Kassaby, Yousry A

    2015-04-01

    Populus species along with species from the sister genus Salix will provide valuable feedstock resources for advanced second-generation biofuels. Their inherent fast growth characteristics can particularly be exploited for short rotation management, a time and energy saving cultivation alternative for lignocellulosic feedstock supply. Salicaceae possess inherent cell wall characteristics with favorable cellulose to lignin ratios for utilization as bioethanol crop. We review economically important traits relevant for intensively managed biofuel crop plantations, genomic and phenotypic resources available for Populus, breeding strategies for forest trees dedicated to bioenergy provision, and bioprocesses and downstream applications related to opportunities using Salicaceae as a renewable resource. Challenges need to be resolved for every single step of the conversion process chain, i.e., starting from tree domestication for improved performance as a bioenergy crop, bioconversion process, policy development for land use changes associated with advanced biofuels, and harvest and supply logistics associated with industrial-scale biorefinery plants using Populus as feedstock. Significant hurdles towards cost and energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and yield maximization with regards to biomass pretreatment, saccharification, and fermentation of celluloses and the sustainability of biorefineries as a whole still need to be overcome. PMID:25676392

  3. Application of Buckmaster Electrolyte Ion Leakage Test to Woody Biofuel Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, Thomas F [Forest Concepts, LLC; Dooley, James H [Forest Concepts, LLC

    2014-08-28

    In an earlier ASABE paper, Buckmaster reported that ion conductivity of biomass leachate in aqueous solution was directly correlated with activity access to plant nutrients within the biomass materials for subsequent biological or chemical processing. The Buckmaster test involves placing a sample of the particles in a beaker of constant-temperature deionized water and monitoring the change in electrical conductivity over time. We adapted the Buckmaster method to a range of woody biomass and other cellulosic bioenergy feedstocks. Our experimental results suggest differences of electrolyte leakage between differently processed woody biomass particles may be an indicator of their utility for conversion in bioenergy processes. This simple assay appears to be particularly useful to compare different biomass comminution techniques and particle sizes for biochemical preprocessing.

  4. Prospective framework for collection and exploitation of waste cooking oil as feedstock for energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhabhandhu, Ampaitepin; Tezuka, Tetsuo [Energy Economics Laboratory, Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    From the viewpoint of waste-to-energy, waste cooking oil is one of the attractive and available recycled feedstocks, apart from agricultural residues. The generation of energy from waste cooking oil is considered as an effective technique for waste management, as well as a beneficial form of energy recovery. Two alternative systems and a conventional system of waste cooking oil collection and conversion are evaluated by the cost benefit analysis in order to find a suitable method for waste-to-energy conversion. The results show that the collection of waste cooking oil with waste lubricating oil (System II) a useful alternative to the management of waste cooking oil (B/C > 1). The total heat produced by the combustion of pyrolytic oil at maximum and minimum conversion rates is also determined. The separate collection of waste cooking oil, subjected to chemical pre-treatment prior to introduction in a pyrolysis reactor (System III), is considered an undesirable option (B/C < 1) due to the cost of the chemicals involved. Although the exclusion of chemical pre-treatment makes System III a desirable option, the total amount of heat of combustion generated is less. The increased electricity cost required for the process has no effect on the benefit-cost ratio of System II. However, System III, excluding chemical pre-treatment, becomes an unprofitable alternative when the electricity cost reaches 100% of the fixed capital cost at the minimum conversion rate. (author)

  5. Biofuel production from microalgae as feedstock: current status and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song-Fang; Jin, Wen-Biao; Tu, Ren-Jie; Wu, Wei-Min

    2015-06-01

    Algal biofuel has become an attractive alternative of petroleum-based fuels in the past decade. Microalgae have been proposed as a feedstock to produce biodiesel, since they are capable of mitigating CO2 emission and accumulating lipids with high productivity. This article is an overview of the updated status of biofuels, especially biodiesel production from microalgae including fundamental research, culture selection and engineering process development; it summarizes research on mathematical and life cycle modeling on algae growth and biomass production; and it updates global efforts of research and development and commercialization attempts. The major challenges are also discussed.

  6. Estimating Biofuel Feedstock Water Footprints Using System Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inman, Daniel; Warner, Ethan; Stright, Dana; Macknick, Jordan; Peck, Corey

    2016-07-01

    Increased biofuel production has prompted concerns about the environmental tradeoffs of biofuels compared to petroleum-based fuels. Biofuel production in general, and feedstock production in particular, is under increased scrutiny. Water footprinting (measuring direct and indirect water use) has been proposed as one measure to evaluate water use in the context of concerns about depleting rural water supplies through activities such as irrigation for large-scale agriculture. Water footprinting literature has often been limited in one or more key aspects: complete assessment across multiple water stocks (e.g., vadose zone, surface, and ground water stocks), geographical resolution of data, consistent representation of many feedstocks, and flexibility to perform scenario analysis. We developed a model called BioSpatial H2O using a system dynamics modeling and database framework. BioSpatial H2O could be used to consistently evaluate the complete water footprints of multiple biomass feedstocks at high geospatial resolutions. BioSpatial H2O has the flexibility to perform simultaneous scenario analysis of current and potential future crops under alternative yield and climate conditions. In this proof-of-concept paper, we modeled corn grain (Zea mays L.) and soybeans (Glycine max) under current conditions as illustrative results. BioSpatial H2O links to a unique database that houses annual spatially explicit climate, soil, and plant physiological data. Parameters from the database are used as inputs to our system dynamics model for estimating annual crop water requirements using daily time steps. Based on our review of the literature, estimated green water footprints are comparable to other modeled results, suggesting that BioSpatial H2O is computationally sound for future scenario analysis. Our modeling framework builds on previous water use analyses to provide a platform for scenario-based assessment. BioSpatial H2O's system dynamics is a flexible and user

  7. Investigation of mouldability for feedstocks used powder injection moulding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karatas, Cetin [Gazi University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Technology, Teknikokullar, 06500 Ankara (Turkey); Soezen, Adnan [Gazi University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Technology, Teknikokullar, 06500 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: asozen@gazi.edu.tr; Arcaklioglu, Erol [The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, Tunus Caddesi No. 80 06100 Kavaklidere / Ankara (Turkey); Erguney, Sami [Gazi University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Technology, Teknikokullar, 06500 Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-10-15

    In this study performed experimental and theoretical analysis of mouldability for feedstocks used powder injection moulding. This study covers two main subjects: (i) The experimental analysis: The barrel temperature, injection pressure and flow rate are factors for powder injection moulding (PIM). Powder-binder mixture using as feedstock as feedstock in PIM requires a little more attention and sensitivity. Obtaining the balance among with pressure, temperature and especially flow rate are the most important in aspect of undesirable conclusions such as powder-binder separation, sink marks and crack in moulded party structure. In this study; available feed stocks using in PIM were injected in three different cavities which consist of zigzag form, constant cross section and stair form (in five different thicknesses) mouldability them are measured. Because of difference between material and binder measured lengths were different. These were measured as 533 mm, 268 mm, 211 mm and 150 mm in advanced materials trade mark Fe-2Ni, BASF firm Catamould AO-F, FN02, 316L stainless steel, respectively. (ii) The theoretical analysis: The use of artificial neural network (ANN) has been proposed to determine the mouldability for feedstocks using in powder injection moulding using results of experimental analysis. In order to train the neural network, limited experimental measurements were used as training and test data. The best fitting training data set was obtained with three and four neurons in the hidden-layer, which made it possible to predict yield length with accuracy at least as good as that of the experimental error, over the whole experimental range. After training, it was found the R{sup 2} values are 0.999463, 0.999445, 0.999574 and 0.999593for Fe-2Ni, BASF firm Catamould AO-F, FN02, 316L stainless steel, respectively. Similarly, these values for testing data are 0.999129, 0.999666, 0.998612 and 0.997512, respectively. As seen from the results of mathematical modeling

  8. Biofuels Feedstock Development Program annual progress report for 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.; McLaughlin, S.B.; McNabb, W.A.; Ranney, J.W.; Tuskan, G.A.; Turhollow, A.F.

    1992-12-01

    This report provides an overview of the ongoing research funded in 1991 by the Department of Energy's Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP). The BFDP is managed by the Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and encompasses the work formerly funded by the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program and the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. The combined program includes crop development research on both woody and herbaceous energy crop species, cross-cutting energy and environmental analysis and integration, and information management activities. Brief summaries of 26 different program activities are included in the report.

  9. Biofuels Feedstock Development Program annual progress report for 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.; McLaughlin, S.B.; McNabb, W.A.; Ranney, J.W.; Tuskan, G.A.; Turhollow, A.F.

    1992-12-01

    This report provides an overview of the ongoing research funded in 1991 by the Department of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP). The BFDP is managed by the Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and encompasses the work formerly funded by the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program and the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. The combined program includes crop development research on both woody and herbaceous energy crop species, cross-cutting energy and environmental analysis and integration, and information management activities. Brief summaries of 26 different program activities are included in the report.

  10. Increasing Feedstock Production for Biofuels: Economic Drivers, Environmental Implications, and the Role of Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    The Biomass Research and Development Board (Board) commissioned an economic analysis of feedstocks to produce biofuels. The Board seeks to inform investments in research and development needed to expand biofuel production. This analysis focuses on feedstocks; other interagency teams have projects underway for other parts of the biofuel sector (e.g., logistics). The analysis encompasses feedstocks for both conventional and advanced biofuels from agriculture and forestry sources.

  11. Environmental and financial implications of ethanol as a bioethylene feedstock versus as a transportation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Jon; Pourbafrani, Mohammad; Saville, Bradley A.; MacLean, Heather L.

    2015-12-01

    Bulk chemicals production from biomass may compete with biofuels for low-cost and sustainable biomass sources. Understanding how alternative uses of biomass compare in terms of financial and environmental parameters is therefore necessary to help ensure that efficient uses of resources are encouraged by policy and undertaken by industry. In this paper, we compare the environmental and financial performance of using ethanol as a feedstock for bioethylene production or as a transport fuel in the US life cycle-based models are developed to isolate the relative impacts of these two ethanol uses and generate results that are applicable irrespective of ethanol production pathway. Ethanol use as a feedstock for bioethylene production or as a transport fuel leads to comparable greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fossil energy consumption reductions relative to their counterparts produced from fossil sources. By displacing gasoline use in vehicles, use of ethanol as a transport fuel is six times more effective in reducing petroleum energy use on a life cycle basis. In contrast, bioethylene predominately avoids consumption of natural gas. Considering 2013 US ethanol and ethylene market prices, our analysis shows that bioethylene is financially viable only if significant price premiums are realized over conventional ethylene, from 35% to 65% depending on the scale of bioethylene production considered (80 000 t yr-1 to 240 000 t yr-1). Ethanol use as a transportation fuel is therefore the preferred pathway considering financial, GHG emissions, and petroleum energy use metrics, although bioethylene production could have strategic value if demand-side limitations of ethanol transport fuel markets are reached.

  12. Environmental and financial implications of ethanol as a bioethylene feedstock versus as a transportation fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk chemicals production from biomass may compete with biofuels for low-cost and sustainable biomass sources. Understanding how alternative uses of biomass compare in terms of financial and environmental parameters is therefore necessary to help ensure that efficient uses of resources are encouraged by policy and undertaken by industry. In this paper, we compare the environmental and financial performance of using ethanol as a feedstock for bioethylene production or as a transport fuel in the US life cycle-based models are developed to isolate the relative impacts of these two ethanol uses and generate results that are applicable irrespective of ethanol production pathway. Ethanol use as a feedstock for bioethylene production or as a transport fuel leads to comparable greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fossil energy consumption reductions relative to their counterparts produced from fossil sources. By displacing gasoline use in vehicles, use of ethanol as a transport fuel is six times more effective in reducing petroleum energy use on a life cycle basis. In contrast, bioethylene predominately avoids consumption of natural gas. Considering 2013 US ethanol and ethylene market prices, our analysis shows that bioethylene is financially viable only if significant price premiums are realized over conventional ethylene, from 35% to 65% depending on the scale of bioethylene production considered (80 000 t yr−1 to 240 000 t yr−1). Ethanol use as a transportation fuel is therefore the preferred pathway considering financial, GHG emissions, and petroleum energy use metrics, although bioethylene production could have strategic value if demand-side limitations of ethanol transport fuel markets are reached. (letter)

  13. SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION OF MICROALGAE OIL FEEDSTOCK USING MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AND CO2 FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Chaput

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing scarcity of fossil fuels has forced industry to look for new cost effective, clean,and sustainable sources of energy. With recent advances in technology, biofuels have become a more viableoption. Microalgae are cost effective and efficient feedstock for the production of biodiesel. One of the algae advantages is the ability to grow it in a wastewater media. This provides essential nutrients without the addition of chemicals. When grown in a photobioreactor, the algae can be cultivated on non-arable land, preventing competition with food supply unlike other leading biodiesel feedstocks such as canola and soybean crop. The strain of algae used in this study was Chlorella sp. The primary goals of this project were to determine the viability of algae growth in a wastewater medium, test the effectiveness of an alternate nitrogen source, andexamine the effects of CO2 fertilization on algae growth and lipid content. Sodium bicarbonate was used to simulate CO2 fertilization. Results showed that: the use of a 50/50 wastewater/reverse osmosis (RO medium yielded 83% of the lipid productivity of a 100% RO medium while the 100% wastewater medium yielded 35% of the lipid productivity; urea as a substitute for KNO3 in 100% RO, 50/50, and 100% Wastewater medium increased lipid productivity by 1.4%, 52.3%, and 88.3%, respectively. The lipid productivity of urea 100% wastewater medium was increased by 68.9% when fertilized with sodium bicarbonate. The optimum trial, a urea 100% wastewater medium with daily additions of sodium bicarbonate, had a lipid productivity of 0.062 grams/liter of growth medium and a volumetric biomass yield of 0.15 grams per liter-day.

  14. Feedstock quality : an important consideration in forest biomass supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryans, M. [FP Innovations, Vancouver, BC (Canada). FERIC

    2009-07-01

    The move to forest-based sources of biomass requires an emphasis on the quality of forest residues. Customers set the feedstock requirements, and demand homogeneous and predictable quality. The top quality factors are appropriate moisture content, consistent particle size, chlorine content, and clean material. The seasonal variability of the resource means that suppliers must determine how to deliver a year-round supply with appropriate moisture content. Methods such as pre-piling and covering with a tarp are being tested. Although mills tailored for biomass deliveries have modernized boilers capable of burning a variety of biomass feedstocks at varying moisture contents, a 10 per cent reduction in moisture content can offer a good return on investment because suppliers could transports more energy content and less water per tonne of biomass. This presentation also discussed the range of equipment choices available for delivering the right-sized biomass, and outlined the right and wrong practices that influence biomass quality along the supply chain. figs.

  15. Evaluation of attached periphytical algal communities for biofuel feedstock generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandefur, H.N.; Matlock, M.D.; Costello, T.A. [Arkansas Univ., Division of Agriculture, Fayetteville, AR (United States). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Center for Agricultural and Rural Sustainability

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that investigated the feasibility of using algal biomass as a feedstock for biofuel production. Algae has a high lipid content, and with its high rate of production, it can produce more oil on less land than traditional bioenergy crops. In addition, algal communities can remove nutrients from wastewater. Enclosed photobioreactors and open pond systems are among the many different algal growth systems that can be highly productive. However, they can also be difficult to maintain. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the ability of a pilot scale algal turf scrubber (ATS) to facilitate the growth of attached periphytic algal communities for the production of biomass feedstock and the removal of nutrients from a local stream in Springdale, Arizona. The ATS operated for a 9 month sampling period, during which time the system productivity averaged 26 g per m{sup 2} per day. The removal of total phosphorus and total nitrogen averaged 48 and 13 per cent, respectively.

  16. Biofuels feedstock development program. Annual progress report for 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.; McLaughlin, S.B.; McNabb, W.A.; Martin, S.A.; Ranney, J.W.; Tuskan, G.A.; Turhollow, A.F.

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) leads the nation in the research, development, and demonstration of environmentally acceptable and commercially viable dedicated feedstock supply systems (DFSS). The purpose of this report is to highlight the status and accomplishments of the research that is currently being funded by the BFDP. Highlights summarized here and additional accomplishments are described in more detail in the sections associated with each major program task. A few key accomplishments include (1) development of a methodology for doing a cost-supply analysis for energy crops and the application of that methodology to looking at possible land use changes around a specific energy facility in East Tennessee; (2) preliminary documentation of the relationship between woody crop plantation locations and bird diversity at sites in the Midwest, Canada, and the pacific Northwest supplied indications that woody crop plantations could be beneficial to biodiversity; (3) the initiation of integrated switchgrass variety trials, breeding research, and biotechnology research for the south/southeast region; (4) development of a data base management system for documenting the results of herbaceous energy crop field trials; (5) publication of three issues of Energy Crops Forum and development of a readership of over 2,300 individuals or organizations as determined by positive responses on questionnaires.

  17. Security of feedstocks supply for future bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Prachauthit Road, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    This study assesses the security of feedstock supply to satisfy the increased demand for bio-ethanol production based on the recent 15 years biofuels development plan and target (year 2008-2022) of the Thai government. Future bio-ethanol systems are modeled and the feedstock supply potentials analyzed based on three scenarios including low-, moderate- and high-yields improvement. The three scenarios are modeled and key dimensions including availability; diversity; and environmental acceptability of feedstocks supply in terms of GHG reduction are evaluated through indicators such as net feedstock balances, Shannon index and net life cycle GHG emissions. The results show that only the case of high yields improvement scenario can result in a reliable and sufficient supply of feedstocks to satisfy the long-term demands for bio-ethanol and other related industries. Cassava is identified as the critical feedstock and a reduction in cassava export is necessary. The study concludes that to enhance long-term security of feedstocks supply for sustainable bio-ethanol production in Thailand, increasing use of sugarcane juice as feedstock, improved yields of existing feedstocks and promoting production of bio-ethanol derived from agricultural residues are three key recommendations that need to be urgently implemented by the policy makers. (author)

  18. Device and method for upgrading petroleum feedstocks and petroleum refinery streams using an alkali metal conductive membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier

    2016-09-13

    A reactor has two chambers, namely an oil feedstock chamber and a source chamber. An ion separator separates the oil feedstock chamber from the source chamber, wherein the ion separator allows alkali metal ions to pass from the source chamber, through the ion separator, and into the oil feedstock chamber. A cathode is at least partially housed within the oil feedstock chamber and an anode is at least partially housed within the source chamber. A quantity of an oil feedstock is within the oil feedstock chamber, the oil feedstock comprising at least one carbon atom and a heteroatom and/or one or more heavy metals, the oil feedstock further comprising naphthenic acid. When the alkali metal ion enters the oil feedstock chamber, the alkali metal reacts with the heteroatom, the heavy metals and/or the naphthenic acid, wherein the reaction with the alkali metal forms inorganic products.

  19. Security of feedstocks supply for future bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assesses the security of feedstock supply to satisfy the increased demand for bio-ethanol production based on the recent 15 years biofuels development plan and target (year 2008-2022) of the Thai government. Future bio-ethanol systems are modeled and the feedstock supply potentials analyzed based on three scenarios including low-, moderate- and high-yields improvement. The three scenarios are modeled and key dimensions including availability; diversity; and environmental acceptability of feedstocks supply in terms of GHG reduction are evaluated through indicators such as net feedstock balances, Shannon index and net life cycle GHG emissions. The results show that only the case of high yields improvement scenario can result in a reliable and sufficient supply of feedstocks to satisfy the long-term demands for bio-ethanol and other related industries. Cassava is identified as the critical feedstock and a reduction in cassava export is necessary. The study concludes that to enhance long-term security of feedstocks supply for sustainable bio-ethanol production in Thailand, increasing use of sugarcane juice as feedstock, improved yields of existing feedstocks and promoting production of bio-ethanol derived from agricultural residues are three key recommendations that need to be urgently implemented by the policy makers. - Research highlights: →Bioethanol in Thailand derived from molasses, cassava, sugarcane juice could yield reductions of 64%, 49% and 87% in GHGs when compared to conventional gasoline. →High yields improvement are required for a reliable and sufficient supply of molasses, cassava and sugarcane to satisfy the long-term demands for bio-ethanol and other related industries. →Other factors to enhance long-term security of feedstocks supply for sustainable bioethanol production in Thailand include increasing use of sugarcane juice as feedstock and promoting production of bioethanol derived from agricultural residues.

  20. Preozonation of primary-treated municipal wastewater for reuse in biofuel feedstock generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondala, Andro H.; Hernandez, Rafael; French, W. Todd; Estévez, L. Antonio; Meckes, Mark; Trillo, Marlene; Hall, Jacqueline

    2010-11-09

    The results of a laboratory scale investigation on ozone pretreatment of primary-treated municipal wastewater for potential reuse in fermentation processes for the production of biofuels and bio-based feedstock chemicals were presented. Semi-batch preozonation with 3.0% (w/w) ozone at 1 L min -1 resulted into a considerable inactivation of the indigenous heterotrophic bacteria in the wastewater with less than 0.0002% comprising the ozone-resistant fraction of the microbial population. The disinfection process was modeled using first-order inactivation kinetics with a rate constant of 4.39 10 -3 s -1. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels were reduced by 30% in 1-h experiments. COD depletion was also modeled using a pseudo-first-order kinetics at a rate constant of 9.50 10 -5 s -1. Biological oxygen demand (BOD 5) values were reduced by 60% up to 20 min of ozonation followed by a plateau and some slight increases attributed to partial oxidation of recalcitrant materials. Ozone also had no substantial effect on the concentration of ammonium and phosphate ions, which are essential for microbial growth and metabolism. Preliminary tests indicated that oleaginous microorganisms could be cultivated in the ozonated wastewater, resulting in relatively higher cell densities than in raw wastewater and comparable results with autoclave-sterilized wastewater. This process could potentially produce significant quantities of oil for biofuel production from municipal wastewater streams.

  1. The Impact of Feedstock Supply and Petroleum Price Variability on Domestic Biofuel and Feedstock Markets – The Case of the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Yuki; Blandford, David; Surry, Yves R.

    2010-01-01

    The promotion of biofuel use in preference to traditional petroleum-based transportation fuel has linked agricultural commodity markets and energy markets more closely together. Biofuel policies can involve multiple policy instruments, but studies examining their effects on biofuel feedstock and energy markets are scarce. In addition, the impact of alternative policy approaches in the context of variability in petroleum prices and the supply of biofuel feedstock has received limited attention...

  2. Investigating the impact of biomass quality on near-infrared models for switchgrass feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey M. Kline

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the impact of incorporating switchgrass samples that have been in long term storage on the development of near-infrared (NIR multivariate calibration models and their predictive capabilities. Stored material contains more variation in their respective spectral signatures due to chemical changes in the bales with storage time. Partial least squares (PLS regression models constructed using NIR spectra of stored switchgrass possessed an instability that interfered with the correlation between the spectral data and measured chemical composition. The models were improved using calibration sample sets of equal parts stored and fresh switchgrass to more accurately predict the chemical composition of stored switchgrass. Acceptable correlation values (rcalibration were obtained using a calibration sample set composed of 25 stored samples and 25 samples of fresh switchgrass for cellulose (0.91, hemicellulose (0.74, total carbohydrates (0.76, lignin (0.98, extractives (0.92, and ash (0.87. Increasing the calibration sample set to 100 samples of equal parts stored to senesced material resulted in statistically increased (p = 0.05 correlations for total carbohydrates (0.89 and ash (0.96. When these models were applied to a separate validation set (equal to 10% of the calibration sample set, high correlation coefficients (r for predicted versus measured constituent content were observed for cellulose (0.94, total carbohydrates (0.98, lignin (0.91, extractives (0.97, and ash (0.90. For optimization of processing economics, the impact of feedstock storage must be investigated for implementation in conversion processes. While NIR is a well-known high-throughput technique for characterization of senesced switchgrass, the selection of appropriate calibration samples and consequent multivariate models must be taken into careful consideration for NIR application in a biomass storage facility for rapid chemical compositional

  3. Coke deactivation of catalysts for hydroprocessing of heavy petroleum feedstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwell's principal contribution to the study of the role of coke in the deactivation of catalysts for hydroprocessing of heavy petroleum feedstocks has been the development and application of nuclear microprobe methods to measure the distributions of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and other elements in coked catalyst pellets. Nuclear microprobe methods have been developed that allow the measurement of the distribution of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and heavier elements in coked catalyst pellets. At present analysis by both deuteron and helium-4 ion beams is necessary to cover the complete range of elements. The potential of using helium-3 irradiation alone to measure all elements is as yet unrealised. Applications have included studies of the variability of profiles in batches of used pellets, investigation of interrelationships between coke components and limited kinetic studies. Many of these applications have proved to be successful and nuclear microprobe methods should continue to be exploited studies of catalyst coking. (au)

  4. Evaluation of filamentous green algae as feedstocks for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Yonggang; Cui, Binjie; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-11-01

    Compared with unicellular microalgae, filamentous algae have high resistance to grazer-predation and low-cost recovery in large-scale production. Green algae, as the most diverse group of algae, included numerous filamentous genera and species. In this study, records of filamentous genera and species in green algae were firstly censused and classified. Then, seven filamentous strains subordinated in different genera were cultivated in bubbled-column to investigate their growth rate and energy molecular (lipid and starch) capacity. Four strains including Stigeoclonium sp., Oedogonium nodulosum, Hormidium sp. and Zygnema extenue were screened out due to their robust growth. And they all could accumulate triacylglycerols and starch in their biomass, but with different capacity. After nitrogen starvation, Hormidium sp. and Oedogonium nodulosum respectively exhibited high capacity of lipid (45.38% in dry weight) and starch (46.19% in dry weight) accumulation, which could be of high potential as feedstocks for biodiesel and bioethanol production. PMID:27598569

  5. Study on the Adaptability of Etheriifcation Feedstock to Reactor Type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Junyi; Yuan Qing; Wang Lei; Huang Tao

    2016-01-01

    A reactive C5 oleifns and methanol etheriifcation kinetic model based on E-R mechanism was established and three different types of reactors including the adiabatic ifxed-bed liquid reactor, the external loop reactor and the mixed-phase reactor were constructed by Aspen Plus. The adaptability of reactive C5 oleifns to these reactors was studied and simulated using various gasoline fractions with different oleifns content. After the theoretical model was validated by the experimental data of the etheriifcation of three C5 light cut fractions from different gasoline sources in different reactors, the simulated isoamylene conversion with reactive C5 olefin contents increasing from 10% to 60% was studied in the three different types of reactors for etheriifcation with methanol, respectively. Test results show that there is an obvious adaptability of the feedstock composition to the reactor type to achieve a high conversion.

  6. Development of a lactic acid production process using lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der E.C.

    2016-01-01

    The availability of crude oil is finite. Therefore, an alternative feedstock has to be found for the production of fuels and plastics. Lignocellulose is such an alternative feedstock. It is present in large quantities in agricultural waste material such as sugarcane bagasse. In this PhD thesis, lign

  7. 78 FR 45441 - Sugar Program; Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... ] bioenergy producers. The sugar producers are not small businesses according to the North American Industry... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1435 RIN 0560-AH86 Sugar Program; Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers... dispose of its sugar inventory and establishes the new Feedstock Flexibility Program (FFP). Through...

  8. Method for estimating processability of a hydrocarbon-containing feedstock for hydroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schabron, John F; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F

    2014-01-14

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock reactivity for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitates asphaltenes. Determined parameters and processabilities for a plurality of feedstocks can be used to generate a mathematical relationship between parameter and processability; this relationship can be used to estimate the processability for hydroprocessing for a feedstock of unknown processability.

  9. Gasification reactivity and ash sintering behaviour of biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moilanen, A.; Nasrullah, M.

    2011-12-15

    Char gasification reactivity and ash sintering properties of forestry biomass feedstocks selected for large-scale gasification process was characterised. The study was divided into two parts: (1) Internal variation of the reactivity and the ash sintering of feedstocks. (2) Measurement of kinetic parameters of char gasification reactions to be used in the modelling of a gasifier. The tests were carried out in gases relevant to pressurized oxygen gasification, i.e. steam and carbon dioxide, as well as their mixtures with the product gases H{sub 2} and CO. The work was based on experimental measurements using pressurized thermobalance. In the tests, the temperatures were below 1000 deg C, and the pressure range was between 1 and 20 bar. In the first part, it was tested the effect of growing location, storage, plant parts and debarking method. The following biomass types were tested: spruce bark, pine bark, aspen bark, birch bark, forestry residue, bark feedstock mixture, stump chips and hemp. Thick pine bark had the lowest reactivity (instantaneous reaction rate 14%/min) and hemp the highest (250%/min); all other biomasses laid between these values. There was practically no difference in the reactivities among the spruce barks collected from the different locations. For pine bark, the differences were greater, but they were probably due to the thickness of the bark rather than to the growth location. For the spruce barks, the instantaneous reaction rate measured at 90% fuel conversion was 100%/min, for pine barks it varied between 14 and 75%/min. During storage, quite large local differences in reactivity seem to develop. Stump had significantly lower reactivity compared with the others. No clear difference in the reactivity was observed between barks obtained with the wet and dry debarking, but, the sintering of the ash was more enhanced for the bark from dry debarking. Char gasification rate could not be modelled in the gas mixture of H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2

  10. Paving the way for sustainable bioenergy in Europe: technological options and research avenues for large-scale biomass feedstock supply

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle, Benoit; Bamière, Laure; Caldes, Natalia; Cara, Stéphane; Decocq, Guillaume; Ferchaud, Fabien; Lechon, Yolanda; Loyce, Chantal,; Pelzer, Elise; Wohlfahrt, Julie; Richard, Guy

    2013-01-01

    submitted to Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Meeting future policy targets for bioenergy development worldwide poses major challenges for biomass feedstock supply chains in terms of competitiveness, reliability and sustainability. This paper reviews current knowledge on the sustainability of agricultural feedstock supply chains and emphasize future research needs. It covers annual and perennial feedstocks, and environmental, economic and social aspects. Knowledge gaps and technolo...

  11. Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil as an alternative feedstock for the production of biodiesel in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinas, P.; Karavalakis, G.; Davaris, C.; Anastopoulos, G.; Karonis, D.; Zannikos, F.; Stournas, S.; Lois, E. [Laboratory of Fuels and Lubricants Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece)

    2009-01-15

    In recent years, the acceptance of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) as a substitute to petroleum diesel has rapidly grown in Greece. The raw materials for biodiesel production in this country mainly include traditional seed oils (cotton seed oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil and rapeseed oil) and used frying oils. In the search for new low-cost alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production, this study emphasizes the evaluation of pumpkin seed oil. The experimental results showed that the oil content of pumpkin seeds was remarkably high (45%). The fatty acid profile of the oil showed that is composed primarily of linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The oil was chemically converted via an alkaline transesterification reaction with methanol to methyl esters, with a yield nearly 97.5 wt%. All of the measured properties of the produced biodiesel met the current quality requirements according to EN 14214. Although this study showed that pumpkin oil could be a promising feedstock for biodiesel production within the EU, it is rather difficult for this production to be achieved on a large scale. (author)

  12. Microalgae consortia cultivation in dairy wastewater to improve the potential of nutrient removal and biodiesel feedstock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lei; Wang, Zhongming; Sun, Yongming; Shu, Qing; Feng, Pingzhong; Zhu, Liandong; Xu, Jin; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2016-05-01

    The potential of microalgae consortia used in dairy wastewater treatment combined with microalgae biodiesel feedstock production was evaluated by comparing the nutrient removal of dairy wastewater, the growth of cells, and the lipid content and composition of biomass between monoalgae and microalgae consortia cultivation system. Our results showed that higher chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (maximum, 57.01-62.86 %) and total phosphorus (TP) removal (maximum, 91.16-95.96 %) were achieved in almost microalgae consortia cultivation system than those in Chlorella sp. monoalgae cultivation system (maximum, 44.76 and 86.74 %, respectively). In addition, microalgae consortia cultivation except the mixture of Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus spp. reached higher biomass concentration (5.11-5.41 g L(-1)), biomass productivity (730.4-773.2 mg L(-1) day(-1)), and lipid productivity (143.7-150.6 mg L(-1) day(-1)) than those of monoalgae cultivation (4.72 g L(-1), 674.3, and 142.2 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively) on the seventh day. Furthermore, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles indicated the lipids produced from microalgae consortia cultivation system were more suitable for biodiesel production. The microalgae consortia display superiority in dairy wastewater treatment and the getting feedstock for biodiesel production. PMID:26780059

  13. Molding Properties of Inconel 718 Feedstocks Used in Low-Pressure Powder Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Fareh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of binders and temperature on the rheological properties of feedstocks used in low-pressure powder injection molding was investigated. Experiments were conducted on different feedstock formulations obtained by mixing Inconel 718 powder with wax-based binder systems. The shear rate sensitivity index and the activation energy were used to study the degree of dependence of shear rate and temperature on the viscosity of the feedstocks. The injection performance of feedstocks was then evaluated using an analytical moldability model. The results indicated that the viscosity profiles of feedstocks depend significantly on the binder constituents, and the secondary binder constituents play an important role in the rheological behavior (pseudoplastic or near-Newtonian exhibited by the feedstock formulations. Viscosity values as low as 0.06 to 2.9 Pa·s were measured at high shear rates and high temperatures. The results indicate that a feedstock containing a surfactant agent exhibits the best moldability characteristics.

  14. Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes as feedstock for ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuloyo, Olukayode O; du Preez, James C; García-Aparicio, Maria del Prado; Kilian, Stephanus G; Steyn, Laurinda; Görgens, Johann

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production using an enzymatic hydrolysate of pretreated cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear cactus) as carbohydrate feedstock was investigated, including a comprehensive chemical analysis of the cladode biomass and the effects of limited aeration on the fermentation profiles and sugar utilization. The low xylose and negligible mannose content of the cladode biomass used in this study suggested that the hemicellulose structure of the O. ficus-indica cladode was atypical of hardwood or softwood hemicelluloses. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation procedures using Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 40 and 35 °C, respectively, gave similar ethanol yields under non-aerated conditions. In oxygen-limited cultures K. marxianus exhibited almost double the ethanol productivity compared to non-aerated cultures, although after sugar depletion utilization of the produced ethanol was evident. Ethanol concentrations of up to 19.5 and 20.6 g l(-1) were obtained with K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae, respectively, representing 66 and 70 % of the theoretical yield on total sugars in the hydrolysate. Because of the low xylan content of the cladode biomass, a yeast capable of xylose fermentation might not be a prerequisite for ethanol production. K. marxianus, therefore, has potential as an alternative to S. cerevisiae for bioethanol production. However, the relatively low concentration of fermentable sugars in the O. ficus-indica cladode hydrolysate presents a technical constraint for commercial exploitation. PMID:25248867

  15. Strategies for Lipid Production Improvement in Microalgae as a Biodiesel Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z. H.; Hiltunen, E.

    2016-01-01

    In response to the energy crisis, global warming, and climate changes, microalgae have received a great deal of attention as a biofuel feedstock. Due to a high lipid content in microalgal cells, microalgae present as a promising alternative source for the production of biodiesel. Environmental and culturing condition variations can alter lipid production as well as chemical compositions of microalgae. Therefore, application of the strategies to activate lipid accumulation opens the door for lipid overproduction in microalgae. Until now, many original studies regarding the approaches for enhanced microalgal lipid production have been reported in an effort to push forward the production of microalgal biodiesel. However, the current literature demonstrates fragmented information available regarding the strategies for lipid production improvement. From the systematic point of view, the review highlights the main approaches for microalgal lipid accumulation induction to expedite the application of microalgal biodiesel as an alternative to fossil diesel for sustainable environment. Of the several strategies discussed, the one that is most commonly applied is the design of nutrient (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur) starvation or limitation. Other viable approaches such as light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, salinity stress, and metal influence can also achieve enhanced microalgal lipid production. PMID:27725942

  16. Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes as feedstock for ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuloyo, Olukayode O; du Preez, James C; García-Aparicio, Maria del Prado; Kilian, Stephanus G; Steyn, Laurinda; Görgens, Johann

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production using an enzymatic hydrolysate of pretreated cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear cactus) as carbohydrate feedstock was investigated, including a comprehensive chemical analysis of the cladode biomass and the effects of limited aeration on the fermentation profiles and sugar utilization. The low xylose and negligible mannose content of the cladode biomass used in this study suggested that the hemicellulose structure of the O. ficus-indica cladode was atypical of hardwood or softwood hemicelluloses. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation procedures using Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 40 and 35 °C, respectively, gave similar ethanol yields under non-aerated conditions. In oxygen-limited cultures K. marxianus exhibited almost double the ethanol productivity compared to non-aerated cultures, although after sugar depletion utilization of the produced ethanol was evident. Ethanol concentrations of up to 19.5 and 20.6 g l(-1) were obtained with K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae, respectively, representing 66 and 70 % of the theoretical yield on total sugars in the hydrolysate. Because of the low xylan content of the cladode biomass, a yeast capable of xylose fermentation might not be a prerequisite for ethanol production. K. marxianus, therefore, has potential as an alternative to S. cerevisiae for bioethanol production. However, the relatively low concentration of fermentable sugars in the O. ficus-indica cladode hydrolysate presents a technical constraint for commercial exploitation.

  17. An overview of empty fruit bunch from oil palm as feedstock for bio-oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Empty fruit bunch (EFB) from oil palm is one of the potential biomass to produce biofuels like bio-oil due to its abundant supply and favorable physicochemical characteristics. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents an overview of EFB as a feedstock for bio-oil production. The fundamental characteristics of EFB in terms of proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and chemical composition, as well as the recent advances in EFB conversion processes for bio-oil production like pyrolysis and solvolysis are outlined and discussed. A comparison of properties in terms of proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and fuel properties between the bio-oil from EFB and petroleum fuel oil is included. The major challenges and future prospects towards the utilization of EFB as a useful resource for bio-oil production are also addressed. - Highlights: • Palm EFB has high heating value and low greenhouse gas emissions during combustion. • Conversion of EFB to bio-oil is mainly by fast pyrolysis without and with catalyst. • Bio-oil from EFB is lower in heating value, heavier and more acidic than fuel oil. • The viscosity of bio-oil from EFB is between those of light and heavy fuel oils. • The flash and pour points of bio-oil from EFB are close to those of light fuel oil

  18. Desarrollo de feedstocks para el moldeo por inyección de metales (MIM).

    OpenAIRE

    Torralba Castelló, José Manuel; Jiménez Morales, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    En la actualidad, más del 90% del feedstock utilizado en Europa, es un feedstock que se vende bajo patente de la multinacional BASF, con escasas posibilidades de modificación en cuanto a composiciones y con poco margen de costes (en Japón o EEUU el porcentaje es muy inferior). Nuestro grupo de investigación, Grupo de Tecnología de Polvos (GTP), está capacitado para el desarrollo de feedstocks a medida y con posibilidad de ser desarrollado ‘in situ’ por y para cualquier fabricante de piezas ví...

  19. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-06-14

    Methods and systems for making dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids using metathesis are generally disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin ester with an internal olefin ester in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In some embodiments, the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester are derived from a renewable feedstock, such as a natural oil feedstock. In some such embodiments, the natural oil feedstock, or a transesterified derivative thereof, is metathesized to make the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester.

  20. Low-Cost Feedstock Conversion to Biodiesel via Ultrasound Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Ameer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has attracted increasing interest and has proved to be a good substitute for fossil-based fuels due to its environmental advantages and availability from renewable resources such as refined and waste vegetable oils. Several studies have shown that biodiesel is a better fuel than the fossil-derived diesel in terms of engine performance, emissions reduction, lubricity and environmental benefits. The increasing popularity of biodiesel has generated great demand for its commercial production methods, which in turn calls for the development of technically and economically sound process technologies. This paper explores the applicability of ultrasound in the optimization of low-cost feedstock – in this case waste cooking oil – in the transesterification conversion to biodiesel. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the waste oil using ultrasound was higher than with the mechanical stirring method. The optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil ratio at a reaction temperature of 30 °C and a reaction time of 30 min and 0.75% KOH (wt/wt catalyst concentration was obtained for the transesterification of the waste oil via the use of ultrasound.

  1. Corn-based feedstock for biofuels: Implications for agricultural sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Crop residue as a source of feedstock for biofuels production must retain ecosystem services and be sustainable. The challenge is to develop cropping system management strategies that balance the demand for increasing biofuel needs with ecosystem sustainability. This study was designed to evaluate impacts of changes in land use and management caused by corn-based biofuel production (grain, cob, stover) on soil fertility and ecosystem sustainability. Our specific goal was to investigate how the levels of corn residue removal influence current soil carbon and nutrient budgets and how these budgets are maintained under proposed production scenarios. Soil organic carbon (SOC), an important carbon component in the life cycle of biofuel production, is a sensitive indicator of cropping system sustainability. We used a soil carbon and nutrient balance approach developed from published field observations and a validated mechanistic model to analyze historical corn grain yields and fertilizer usage associated with various management practices at the county scale across the United States. Our analyses show that ecosystem carbon flux demonstrates significant spatial variability, relying heavily on the total biomass production level and residue harvest intensity; SOC budgets depend mainly on the proportion of residue removal, tillage type, and previous SOC stock level. Our results also indicate that corn cob removal for biofuel has little effect on soil carbon and nutrient balances under conventional management practices, while necessary irrigation can contribute greatly to corn-based biofuel production and ecosystem sustainability in the western side of the Great Plains and the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains.

  2. The potential of restaurant trap grease as biodiesel feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichart Hasuntree

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using restaurant trap grease as feedstock in the production of biodiesel via acid catalyzed esterificationis explored in this study. Sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst for the esterification reaction of free fatty acid (FFA andmethanol. The FFA levels of restaurant trap greases were reduced from 60.38±2.22 mg KOH/g to 11.60±1.60 mgKOH/g whenconditions for biodiesel production are as follow: methanol-to-FFA ratio of 5:1, 5 wt.% H2SO4, and a reaction temperature at60°C with a reaction time of 60 min. During the acid-catalyzed esterification, the percentage of methyl esters resulting fromconversion of FFA in the obtained product was 83.59±1.51% based on the result of 1H NMR analysis. Data obtained from the23 full factorial designs revealed that methanol-to-FFA ratio term had the most significant effect on the percentage of methylesters, followed by the H2SO4 concentration. Conversely, reaction time between 1 and 3 hours had no significant effect on theesterification of trap greases.

  3. Characterization of food waste as feedstock for anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruihong Zhang; El-Mashad, H.M.; Hartman, K.; Fengyu Wang; Guangqing Liu [University of California (United States). Biological and Agricultural Engineering; Choate, C.; Gamble, P. [Norcal Waste Systems, Inc., Dixon, CA (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Food waste collected in the City of San Francisco, California, was characterized for its potential for use as a feedstock for anaerobic digestion processes. The daily and weekly variations of food waste composition over a two-month period were measured. The anaerobic digestibility and biogas and methane yields of the food waste were evaluated using batch anaerobic digestion tests performed at 50 {sup o}C. The daily average moisture content (MC) and the ratio of volatile solids to total solids (VS/TS) determined from a week-long sampling were 70% and 83%, respectively. The nutrient content analysis showed that the food waste contained well balanced nutrients for anaerobic microorganisms. The methane yield was determined to be 348 and 435 mL/g VS, respectively, after 10 and 28 days of digestion. The average methane content of biogas was 73%. The average VS destruction was 81% at the end of the 28-day digestion test. The results of this study indicate that the food waste is a highly desirable substrate for anaerobic digester with regards to its high biodegradability and methane yield. (author)

  4. Assessing Pinyon Juniper Feedstock Properties and Utilization Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresham, Garold Linn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kenney, Kevin Louis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a major ecosystem type found in the Southwest and the Intermountain West regions of the United States. These ecosystems are characterized by the presence of several different species of pinyon pine and juniper as the dominant plant cover. Since the 1800s, pinyon-juniper woodlands have rapidly expanded their range at the expense of existing ecosystems. Additionally, existing woodlands have become more dense, potentially increasing fire hazards. Land managers responsible for these areas often desire to reduce pinyonjuniper coverage on their lands for a variety of reasons, including restoration to previous vegetative cover, mitigation of fire risk, and improvement in wildlife habitat. However, the cost of clearing or thinning pinyon-juniper stands can be prohibitive. One reason for this is the lack of utilization options for the resulting biomass that could help recover some of the cost of pinyonjuniper stand management. The goal of this project was to assess the feedstock characteristics of biomass from a pinyon-juniper harvest so that potential applications for the biomass may be evaluated.

  5. Evaluation of Co-precipitation Processes for the Synthesis of Mixed-Oxide Fuel Feedstock Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Emory D [ORNL; Voit, Stewart L [ORNL; Vedder, Raymond James [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    The focus of this report is the evaluation of various co-precipitation processes for use in the synthesis of mixed oxide feedstock powders for the Ceramic Fuels Technology Area within the Fuels Cycle R&D (FCR&D) Program's Advanced Fuels Campaign. The evaluation will include a comparison with standard mechanical mixing of dry powders and as well as other co-conversion methods. The end result will be the down selection of a preferred sequence of co-precipitation process for the preparation of nuclear fuel feedstock materials to be used for comparison with other feedstock preparation methods. A review of the literature was done to identify potential nitrate-to-oxide co-conversion processes which have been applied to mixtures of uranium and plutonium to achieve recycle fuel homogeneity. Recent studies have begun to study the options for co-converting all of the plutonium and neptunium recovered from used nuclear fuels, together with appropriate portions of recovered uranium to produce the desired mixed oxide recycle fuel. The addition of recycled uranium will help reduce the safeguard attractiveness level and improve proliferation resistance of the recycled fuel. The inclusion of neptunium is primarily driven by its chemical similarity to plutonium, thus enabling a simple quick path to recycle. For recycle fuel to thermal-spectrum light water reactors (LWRs), the uranium concentration can be {approx}90% (wt.), and for fast spectrum reactors, the uranium concentration can typically exceed 70% (wt.). However, some of the co-conversion/recycle fuel fabrication processes being developed utilize a two-step process to reach the desired uranium concentration. In these processes, a 50-50 'master-mix' MOX powder is produced by the co-conversion process, and the uranium concentration is adjusted to the desired level for MOX fuel recycle by powder blending (milling) the 'master-mix' with depleted uranium oxide. In general, parameters that must be

  6. Prospects for pipeline delivery of hydrogen as a fuel and as a chemical feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.P.; Biederman, N.P.; Darrow, K.G. Jr.; Konopka, A.J.; Wurm, J.

    1976-01-01

    The prospects for hydrogen pipelining over long distances are very real, as is the need to develop this capability. The technical problems involved do not appear to be too severe, but there are still some unknown quantities that require research and development, not the least of which is concerned with possible hydrogen embrittlement. The gas industry has many opportunities to become involved with future energy technology by means of its present capability to transmit gaseous energy over long distances. The initial concept of the ''hydrogen economy'' was a somewhat idealistic approach to solving the national energy problem with a completely new energy distribution system. After a few years of study of this concept, some rather more realistic and somewhat more limited options are emerging that will involve the pipelining of hydrogen and should involve the gas industry.

  7. Prospects for pipeline delivery of hydrogen as a fuel and as a chemical feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, D. P.; Biederman, N. P.; Darrow, K. G., Jr.; Konopka, A. J.; Wurm, J.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of using hydrogen for storing and carrying energy obtained from nonfossil sources such as nuclear and solar energy is examined. According to the method proposed, these nonfossil raw energy sources will be used to obtain hydrogen from water by three basically distinct routes: (1) electrical generation followed by electrolysis; (2) thermochemical decomposition; and (3) direct neutron or ultraviolet irradiation of hydrogen bearing molecules. The hydrogen obtained will be transmitted in long-distance pipelines, and distributed to all energy-consuming sectors. As a fuel gas, hydrogen has many qualities similar to natural gas and with only minor modifications, it can be transmitted and distributed in the same equipment, and can be burned in the same appliances as natural gas. Hydrogen can also be used as a clean fuel (water is the only combustion product) for automobiles, fleet vehicles, and aircraft.

  8. From biofuel to bioproduct: is bioethanol a suitable fermentation feedstock for synthesis of bulk chemicals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weusthuis, R.A.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The first pilot-scale factories for the production of bioethanol from lignocellulose have been installed, indicating that we are on the brink of overcoming most hurdles for an economically feasible process. When bioethanol is competitive as biofuel with fuels originating from petrochemical resources

  9. Novel strategies for biobased feedstock utilization: Efficiency, optimization and production of a platform chemical

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, F.W.

    2010-01-01

    Due to evident environmental, economical and political reasons, it is becoming inevitable to shift society’s dependence away from fossil towards renewable, bio-based resources. However, for efficient implementation of biobased resources, cost effectiveness is key. In this thesis, different possibili

  10. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.I.C.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1977-11-01

    Progress in studies on the production of reducing sugars and other products by Clostridium thermocellum on cellulosic biomass is reported. The rate of reducing sugar production using corn residue was found to be equal if not greater than on solka floc. Current work is being devoted towards elucidating discrepancies between reducing sugar analysis and high pressure liquid chromatography sugar analysis in order to permit accurate material balances to be completed. Studies are reported in further characterizing the plasmics of C. thermocellum and in the development of protoplasts of the same microorganism. A process and economic analysis for the production of 200 x 10/sup 6/ pounds (90 x 10/sup 6/ kilograms) per year of soluble reducing sugars from corn stover cellulose, using enzymes derived from Clostridium thermocellum was designed. Acrylic acid was produced in resting cell preparation of Clostridium propionicum from both ..beta..-alanine and from propionic acid. Results from the conversion of corn stover hydrolyzates to lactic acid, a precursor to acrylic acid, show that up to 70% of the sugars produced are converted to lactic acid. Efforts are proceeding to improve the conversion yield and carry out the overall conversion of corn stover to acrylic acid in the same fermentor. Results on the production of acetone and butanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum demonstrated the capability of the strain to produce mixed solvents in concentration and conversion similar to that achieved in industrial processes. Various studies on the production of acetic acid by Clostridium thermoaceticum are also reported.

  11. Microbial production host selection for converting second-generation feedstocks into bioproducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumbold, K.; Buijsen, H.J.J. van; Overkamp, K.M.; Groenestijn, J.W. van; Punt, P.J.; Werf, M.J.V.D.

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates are used as the feedstock for industrial fermentations. These biomass hydrolysates are complex mixtures of different fermentable sugars, but also inhibitors and salts that affect the performance of the microbial production host. The performance of si

  12. Investigation of sample preparation on the moldability of ceramic injection molding feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Jared

    Ceramic injection molding is a desirable option for those who are looking to make ceramic parts with complex geometries. Formulating the feedstock needed to produce ideal parts is a difficult process. In this research a series of feedstock blends will be evaluated for moldability. This was done by investigating their viscosity, and how certain components affect the overall ability to flow. These feedstocks varied waxes, surfactants, and solids loading. A capillary rheometer was used to characterize some of the materials, which led to one batch being selected for molding trials. The parts were sintered and further refinements were made to the feedstock. Solids loading was increased from 77.5% to 82%, which required different ratios of organics to flow. Finally, the ceramic powders were treated to lower their specific surface area before being compounded, which resulted in materials that would process easily through an extruder and exhibit properties suitable for CIM.

  13. The flexible feedstock concept in Industrial Biotechnology: Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and yeast strains for access to alternative carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendisch, Volker F; Brito, Luciana Fernandes; Gil Lopez, Marina; Hennig, Guido; Pfeifenschneider, Johannes; Sgobba, Elvira; Veldmann, Kareen H

    2016-09-20

    Most biotechnological processes are based on glucose that is either present in molasses or generated from starch by enzymatic hydrolysis. At the very high, million-ton scale production volumes, for instance for fermentative production of the biofuel ethanol or of commodity chemicals such as organic acids and amino acids, competing uses of carbon sources e.g. in human and animal nutrition have to be taken into account. Thus, the biotechnological production hosts E. coli, C. glutamicum, pseudomonads, bacilli and Baker's yeast used in these large scale processes have been engineered for efficient utilization of alternative carbon sources. This flexible feedstock concept is central to the use of non-glucose second and third generation feedstocks in the emerging bioeconomy. The metabolic engineering efforts to broaden the substrate scope of E. coli, C. glutamicum, pseudomonads, B. subtilis and yeasts to include non-native carbon sources will be reviewed. Strategies to enable simultaneous consumption of mixtures of native and non-native carbon sources present in biomass hydrolysates will be summarized and a perspective on how to further increase feedstock flexibility for the realization of biorefinery processes will be given. PMID:27491712

  14. Pyrolysis as a way to close a CFRC life cycle: Carbon fibers recovery and their use as feedstock for a new composite production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, Loris; Benelli, Tiziana; Mazzocchetti, Laura; Leonardi, Chiara; Zattini, Giorgio; Minak, Giangiacomo; Dolcini, Enrico; Tosi, Cristian; Montanari, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    Pyrolysis is shown to be an efficient method for recycling carbon fiber composites in the form of both uncured prepregs scraps or as cured end-of-life objects. The pyrolytic process leads to different products in three physical states of matter. The gaseous fraction, called syngas, can be used as energy feedstock in the process itself. The oil fraction can be used as fuel or chemical feedstock. The solid residue contains substantially unharmed carbon fibers that can be isolated and recovered for the production of new composite materials, thus closing the life cycle of the composite in a "cradle to cradle" approach. All the pyrolysis outputs were thoroughly analyzed and characterized in terms of composition for oil and gas fraction and surface characteristics of the fibers. In particular, it is of paramount importance to correlate the aspect and properties of the fibers obtained with different composite feedstock and operational conditions, that can be significantly different, with the reinforcing performance in the newly produced Recycled Carbon Fibers Reinforced Polymers. Present results have been obtained on a pyrolysis pilot plant that offers the possibility of treating up to 70kg of materials, thus leading to a significant amount of products to be tested in the further composites production, focused mainly on chopped carbon fiber reinforcement.

  15. Parametric Gasification of Oak and Pine Feedstocks Using the TCPDU and Slipstream Water-Gas Shift Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrdlicka, J.; Feik, C.; Carpenter, D.; Pomeroy, M.

    2008-12-01

    With oak and pine feedstocks, the Gasification of Biomass to Hydrogen project maximizes hydrogen production using the Full Stream Reformer during water-gas shift fixed-bed reactor testing. Results indicate that higher steam-to-biomass ratio and higher thermal cracker temperature yield higher hydrogen concentration. NREL's techno-economic models and analyses indicate hydrogen production from biomass may be viable at an estimated cost of $1.77/kg (current) and $1.47/kg (advanced in 2015). To verify these estimates, NREL used the Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU), an integrated system of unit operations that investigates biomass thermochemical conversion to gaseous and liquid fuels and chemicals.

  16. Process for Generation of Hydrogen Gas from Various Feedstocks Using Thermophilic Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooteghem Van, Suellen

    2005-09-13

    A method for producing hydrogen gas is provided comprising selecting a bacteria from the Order Thermotogales, subjecting the bacteria to a feedstock and to a suitable growth environment having an oxygen concentration below the oxygen concentration of water in equilibrium with air; and maintaining the environment at a predetermined pH and at a temperature of at least approximately 45 degrees C. for a time sufficient to allow the bacteria to metabolize the feedstock.

  17. A Baseline Study of Biofuel Feedstock Growth on Non-Traditional Agronomic Land in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Hanks, Dallas A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the Non-Traditional Agronomic Land (NTAL) Project is to develop sustainable, agronomic, crop growth methods that will allow biofuel feedstock production to occur on marginal or non-traditional plots of land, e.g., roadways, railroads, airports, and military installations. Recent economic feasibility models by Utah State University (USU) indicate these lands could, in theory, produce one billion gallons of economically viable new feedstock annually. Specifically, USU models show th...

  18. The Development of a Hydrothermal Method for Slurry Feedstock Preparation for Gasification Technology

    OpenAIRE

    He, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Liquid fuels produced via the steam hydrogasification of biomass feedstock followed by downstream gas to liquid processes appears to be a cost effective approach to replace fossil fuels, to decrease the dependence of imported oil and to decrease greenhouse gas emissions. A critical technical obstacle of using biomass feedstock effectively in many gasification processes, including steam hydrogasification, is the need to prepare a high carbon concentrated (i.e., high energy) slurry that can b...

  19. Assessment on the Use of Marginal Areas for Cultivation of Feedstock for Biofuel

    OpenAIRE

    Briones, Roehlano M.

    2011-01-01

    The Philippines has made a major push toward development of biofuel, enacting biofuels mandates and subsidies by the Biofuels Law. To maintain food security, biofuels policies currently restrict feedstock production to marginal lands. This raises its own issues related to commercial viability, small farmer livelihood, and environmental sustainability. This study conducts a field investigation of these issues, covering small holder feedstock producers producing sugarcane, cassava, and coconut....

  20. The effect of feedstock cost on biofuel cost as exemplified by biomethane production from grass silage.

    OpenAIRE

    McEniry, J.; O’Kiely, P.; Crosson, P.; Groom, Elaine; Murphy, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The potential variance in feedstock costs can have signifi cant implications for the cost of a biofuel and the fi nancial viability of a biofuel facility. This paper employs the Grange Feed Costing Model to assess the cost of on-farm biomethane production using grass silages produced under a range of management scenarios. These costs were compared with the cost of wheat grain and sugarbeet roots for ethanol production at an industrial scale. Of the three feedstocks examined, grass s...

  1. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Meredith C.; Doran-Peterson, Joy [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    2012-08-15

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes. (orig.)

  2. Characterization of Spartina alterniflora as feedstock for anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), a saltmarsh plant with high production, was characterized for its potential for use as feedstock for anaerobic digestion processes. The anaerobic digestibility and biogas yield of S. alterniflora were evaluated by anaerobic batch digestion experiments performed at 35 ± 1 C at initial volatile solids (VS) of 6%. The nutrient content analysis indicated that S. alterniflora contained the required nutrition for anaerobic microorganisms, but its high C/N of 58.8, high K and Na contents of 8.1, 22.7 g kg-1, respectively, may be disadvantageous to its anaerobic digestion. The cumulative biogas yield was determined to be 358 L kg-1 VS and the biodegradation efficiency was 45% after 60 days of digestion. The methane content of biogas increased from 53% on day 3 to around 62% after 13 days of digestion. The changes of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) indicated that the acidification of S. alterniflora was propionate-type fermentation with proportion of acetate and propionate ranging from 54.8% to 98.4%, and the hydrolysis of lignocellulose was the rate-limiting step for its anaerobic digestion. The analysis of cations suggested that K+ and Mg2+, with the maximum concentration of 1.35 and 0.43 g L-1 in fermentation liquor, respectively, could be inhibitory to the anaerobic digestion of S. alterniflora. It is concluded that S. alterniflora can be transformed into clean energy by anaerobic digestion and the high contents of K, Na, Ca and Mg may be the inhibitory factors when S. alterniflora is digested by continuous or semi-continuous anaerobic process. (author)

  3. Evaluating silicon concentrations in biofuel feedstock crops Miscanthus and switchgrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon (Si) concentrations in biofuel feedstock crops have a critical role in combustion processes. The purpose of this study was to quantify Si concentrations in plant biomass samples and to evaluate the contributing factors for Si concentrations. We determined total Si concentrations in Miscanthus x giganteus (M. x giganteus) collected from various research trial plots in the eastern U.S. and in Miscanthus spp. and Panicum virgatum, 'Cave-in-Rock' (switchgrass) from an additional eight trial plots established across Illinois. Whole aboveground plant biomass at each site were air-dried and ground. Total Si concentrations in plant samples were determined by dry-ashing plant tissue in a muffle furnace, followed by alkaline fusion and then colorimetric analysis. Average Si concentrations in statewide M. x giganteus plant samples ranged from 0.72% to 1.6% and samples from within Illinois ranged from 0.55% to 2.4%. The overall median value of concentrations in M. x giganteus samples among all sites was 1.08%. The median value in switchgrass samples (1.5%) was 1.4 times higher than that for M. x giganteus. Among six other Miscanthus spp. samples from the Urbana trial plot in Illinois, Si concentrations were about 1/3 that of M. x giganteus. Variation in Si concentrations tended to be associated with temperature and precipitation of the location where the biofuel crops are being grown. We did not find any relationship between soil type and plant Si concentrations. Long-term evaluations of soil mineral concentrations and additional environmental factors are required to better understand the contributing factors for Si concentrations. -- Highlights: → Si concentrations were determined in Miscanthus and switchgrass biomass. → Biomass samples were from trials in the eastern USA. → Median switchgrass Si concentration was 1.4 times higher than Miscanthus. → Temperature and precipitation seemed to control Si concentrations. → Soil mineral and additional environmental

  4. Chemical hazards analysis of resilient flooring for healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Tom; Silas, Julie; Vallette, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses resilient flooring, evaluating the potential health effects of vinyl flooring and the leading alternatives-synthetic rubber, polyolefin, and linoleum-currently used in the healthcare marketplace. The study inventories chemicals incorporated as components of each of the four material types or involved in their life cycle as feedstocks, intermediary chemicals, or emissions. It then characterizes those chemicals using a chemical hazard-based framework that addresses persistence and bioaccumulation, human toxicity, and human exposures. PMID:21165873

  5. Value of Distributed Preprocessing of Biomass Feedstocks to a Bioenergy Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T Wright

    2006-07-01

    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system and the front-end of a biorefinery. Its purpose is to chop, grind, or otherwise format the biomass into a suitable feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many variables such as equipment cost and efficiency, and feedstock moisture content, particle size, bulk density, compressibility, and flowability affect the location and implementation of this unit operation. Previous conceptual designs show this operation to be located at the front-end of the biorefinery. However, data are presented that show distributed preprocessing at the field-side or in a fixed preprocessing facility can provide significant cost benefits by producing a higher value feedstock with improved handling, transporting, and merchandising potential. In addition, data supporting the preferential deconstruction of feedstock materials due to their bio-composite structure identifies the potential for significant improvements in equipment efficiencies and compositional quality upgrades. Theses data are collected from full-scale low and high capacity hammermill grinders with various screen sizes. Multiple feedstock varieties with a range of moisture values were used in the preprocessing tests. The comparative values of the different grinding configurations, feedstock varieties, and moisture levels are assessed through post-grinding analysis of the different particle fractions separated with a medium-scale forage particle separator and a Rototap separator. The results show that distributed preprocessing produces a material that has bulk flowable properties and fractionation benefits that can improve the ease of transporting, handling and conveying the material to the biorefinery and improve the biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes.

  6. Effects of feedstock and pyrolysis temperature on biochar adsorption of ammonium and nitrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiapu Gai

    Full Text Available Biochar produced by pyrolysis of biomass can be used to counter nitrogen (N pollution. The present study investigated the effects of feedstock and temperature on characteristics of biochars and their adsorption ability for ammonium N (NH4(+-N and nitrate N (NO3(--N. Twelve biochars were produced from wheat-straw (W-BC, corn-straw (C-BC and peanut-shell (P-BC at pyrolysis temperatures of 400, 500, 600 and 700°C. Biochar physical and chemical properties were determined and the biochars were used for N sorption experiments. The results showed that biochar yield and contents of N, hydrogen and oxygen decreased as pyrolysis temperature increased from 400°C to 700°C, whereas contents of ash, pH and carbon increased with greater pyrolysis temperature. All biochars could sorb substantial amounts of NH4(+-N, and the sorption characteristics were well fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model. The ability of biochars to adsorb NH4(+-N followed: C-BC>P-BC>W-BC, and the adsorption amount decreased with higher pyrolysis temperature. The ability of C-BC to sorb NH4(+-N was the highest because it had the largest cation exchange capacity (CEC among all biochars (e.g., C-BC400 with a CEC of 38.3 cmol kg(-1 adsorbed 2.3 mg NH4(+-N g(-1 in solutions with 50 mg NH4(+ L(-1. Compared with NH4(+-N, none of NO3(--N was adsorbed to biochars at different NO3(- concentrations. Instead, some NO3(--N was even released from the biochar materials. We conclude that biochars can be used under conditions where NH4(+-N (or NH3 pollution is a concern, but further research is needed in terms of applying biochars to reduce NO3(--N pollution.

  7. Radiation methods for upgrading and refining of feedstock for oil chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Upgrading and deep processing of heavy natural and artificial hydrocarbon mixes is a serious technological problem. Such countries as Canada, Kazakhstan, Russia, USA, and Venezuela are extremely rich with heavy hydrocarbon reserves such as heavy oil or bitumen, the giant Athabaska oil sand deposits. Commercial development of these resources has a global strategic importance. However, the presently applied classic thermocatalytic processing technology of bitumen and heavy oil has several serious technological problems is hamped further development of these fields because: Produced bitumen extracts and/or original heavy crudeoil are poorly flowing substances and can not be directly transported through pipelines - most effective transportation systems. They must be physically (using diluent) and/or chemically (by cracking) transformed into moveable substances. Nonupgraded bitumen extract and originally heavy crude are of low market value and also cannot be processed by majority existing refineries even in the countries of developed oil industry. When refined, non-upgraded bitumen extracts and heavy crude produces relatively small amounts of market valuable and satisfying environmental requirement products. Methods for oil feedstock radiation-induced conversion developed by the authors of the paper are based on original experiments on radiation processing of heavy and high-viscous oil, refining residue, heavy oil, oil product wastes, etc. Our analysis shows that radiation technology of hydrocarbon processing with its low capital and operational costs that several times lower than those for a conventional refinery, shall allow economically, technologically and environmentally overcoming noted problems by the most effective way. In this paper we discuss only applications of oil radiation processing for solution of transportation and refining problems of heavy oil crude and bitumen extract. Numerous laboratory experiments have

  8. Improved Method for Isolation of Microbial RNA from Biofuel Feedstock for Metatranscriptomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao, Hailan; Markillie, Lye Meng; Culley, David E.; Mackie, Roderick I.; Hess, Matthias

    2013-03-28

    Metatranscriptomics—gene express profiling via DNA sequencing—is a powerful tool to identify genes that are ac- tively expressed and might contribute to the phenotype of individual organisms or the phenome (the sum of several phenotypes) of a microbial community. Furthermore, metatranscriptome studies can result in extensive catalogues of genes that encode for enzymes of industrial relevance. In both cases, a major challenge for generating a high quality metatranscriptome is the extreme lability of RNA and its susceptibility to ubiquitous RNAses. The microbial commu- nity (the microbiome) of the cow rumen efficiently degrades lignocelullosic biomass, generates significant amounts of methane, a greenhouse gas twenty times more potent than carbon dioxide, and is of general importance for the physio- logical wellbeing of the host animal. Metatranscriptomes of the rumen microbiome from animals kept under different conditions and from various types of rumen-incubated biomass can be expected to provide new insights into these highly interesting phenotypes and subsequently provide the framework for an enhanced understanding of this socio- economically important ecosystem. The ability to isolate large amounts of intact RNA will significantly facilitate accu- rate transcript annotation and expression profiling. Here we report a method that combines mechanical disruption with chemical homogenization of the sample material and consistently yields 1 mg of intact RNA from 1 g of rumen-in- cubated biofuel feedstock. The yield of total RNA obtained with our method exceeds the RNA yield achieved with pre- viously reported isolation techniques, which renders RNA isolated with the method presented here as an ideal starting material for metatranscriptomic analyses and other molecular biology applications that require significant amounts of starting material.

  9. Sugarcane straw as a feedstock for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Hernández-Pérez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sugarcane straw has become an available lignocellulosic biomass since the progressive introduction of the non-burning harvest in Brazil. Besides keeping this biomass in the field, it can be used as a feedstock in thermochemical or biochemical conversion processes. This makes feasible its incorporation in a biorefinery, whose economic profitability could be supported by integrated production of low-value biofuels and high-value chemicals, e.g., xylitol, which has important industrial and clinical applications. Herein, biotechnological production of xylitol is presented as a possible route for the valorization of sugarcane straw and its incorporation in a biorefinery. Nutritional supplementation of the sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate as a function of initial oxygen availability was studied in batch fermentation of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The nutritional supplementation conditions evaluated were: no supplementation; supplementation with (NH42SO4, and full supplementation with (NH42SO4, rice bran extract and CaCl2·2H2O. Experiments were performed at pH 5.5, 30 °C, 200 rpm, for 48 h in 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing either 25 or 50 mL of medium in order to vary initial oxygen availability. Without supplementation, complete consumption of glucose and partial consumption of xylose were observed. In this condition the maximum xylitol yield (0.67 g g-1 was obtained under reduced initial oxygen availability. Nutritional supplementation increased xylose consumption and xylitol production by up to 200% and 240%, respectively. The maximum xylitol volumetric productivity (0.34 g L-1 h-1 was reached at full supplementation and increased initial oxygen availability. The results demonstrated a combined effect of nutritional supplementation and initial oxygen availability on xylitol production from sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate.

  10. Sugarcane straw as a feedstock for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, Andrés Felipe; de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane straw has become an available lignocellulosic biomass since the progressive introduction of the non-burning harvest in Brazil. Besides keeping this biomass in the field, it can be used as a feedstock in thermochemical or biochemical conversion processes. This makes feasible its incorporation in a biorefinery, whose economic profitability could be supported by integrated production of low-value biofuels and high-value chemicals, e.g., xylitol, which has important industrial and clinical applications. Herein, biotechnological production of xylitol is presented as a possible route for the valorization of sugarcane straw and its incorporation in a biorefinery. Nutritional supplementation of the sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate as a function of initial oxygen availability was studied in batch fermentation of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The nutritional supplementation conditions evaluated were: no supplementation; supplementation with (NH4)2SO4, and full supplementation with (NH4)2SO4, rice bran extract and CaCl2·2H2O. Experiments were performed at pH 5.5, 30°C, 200rpm, for 48h in 125mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing either 25 or 50mL of medium in order to vary initial oxygen availability. Without supplementation, complete consumption of glucose and partial consumption of xylose were observed. In this condition the maximum xylitol yield (0.67gg(-1)) was obtained under reduced initial oxygen availability. Nutritional supplementation increased xylose consumption and xylitol production by up to 200% and 240%, respectively. The maximum xylitol volumetric productivity (0.34gL(-1)h(-1)) was reached at full supplementation and increased initial oxygen availability. The results demonstrated a combined effect of nutritional supplementation and initial oxygen availability on xylitol production from sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate. PMID:26991282

  11. Technical and economic feasibility of utilizing apple pomace as a boiler feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargent, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Apple pomace or presscake, was evaluated for suitability as a boiler feedstock for Michigan firms processing apple juice. Based upon the physical and chemical characteristics of pomace, handling/direct combustion systems were selected to conform with operating parameters typical of the industry. Fresh pomace flow rates of 29,030 and 88,998 kg/day (64,000 and 194,000 lb/day) were considered as representative of small and large processors, respectively, and the material was assumed to be dried to 15% moisture content (wet basis) prior to storage and combustion. Boilers utilizing pile-burning, fluidized-bed-combustion, and suspension-firing technologies were sized for each flow rate, resulting in energy production of 2930 and 8790 kW (10 and 30 million Btu/h), respectively. A life-cycle cost analysis was performed giving Average Annual Costs for the three handling/combustion system combinations (based on the Uniform Capital Recovery factor). An investment loan at 16% interest with a 5-year payback period was assumed. The break-even period for annual costs was calculated by anticipated savings incurred through reduction of fossil-fuel costs during a 5-month processing season. Large processors, producing more than 88,998 kg pomace/day, could economically convert to a suspension-fired system substituting for fuel oil, with break-even occurring after 4 months of operation of pomace per year. Small processors, producing less than 29,030 kg/day, could not currently convert to pomace combustion systems given these economic circumstances. A doubling of electrical-utility costs and changes in interest rates from 10 to 20% per year had only slight effects on the recovery of Average Annual Costs. Increases in fossil-fuel prices and the necessity to pay for pomace disposal reduced the cost-recovery period for all systems, making some systems feasible for small processors. 39 references, 13 figures, 10 tables.

  12. Sorption Characteristic of Phenanthrene on Biochar-Amended Soils: Effect of feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, and aging duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, S.; Kim, C.; Kim, Y. S.; Kim, J.

    2015-12-01

    The high sorption capacity of biochar is widely known in environmental studies. Especially, biochar is effective for removal of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) due to high surface area and porosity. In this study, the sorption characteristic of biochar-amended soil was evaluated by sorption kinetic experiment of phenanthrene (PHE). For PHE sorption test, the effect of biochar feedstock (sludge waste char (SWC), municipal waste char (MWC) and wood char (WC), Giant Miscanthus (GM)), pyrolysis temperature (400°C, 500°C and 700°C,), and duration of amending period (0, 3, 6, and 12 months) was assessed. Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques were used to detect pore structure and the surface functional group of biochar amended soils. For all kinetic tests, apparent sorption equilibrium was attained in 24 hr. The result showed that sorption capacity of biochar amended soils was greatly influenced by biochar feedstock and pyrolysis temperature. For all samples, the sorption capacity of PHE by biochar amended soils decreased with aging period. This observation is due to the fact that the aromatic characters of biochar are different by feedstock and pyrolysis temperature and the amount of O-containing hydrophilic functional groups increased surfaces of biochar by natural oxidation (e.g. carboxyl groups) as confirmed by the result of FT-IR and FE-SEM. In addition, biochar pore blockage by inorganic minerals, which tended to increase with aging period, might attenuate the sorption capacity of samples. In conclusion, biochar derived from various feed stocks are all effective for PHE sorption. But the sorption capacity of biochar amended soils decreased with increasing aging duration most likely due to increasing hydrophilic functional groups of biochar surfaces and pore blockage by inorganic minerals in the weathering processes. Therefore, for the design of biochar amendment to attenuate

  13. Effects of Torrefaction Temperature on Pyrolysis Vapor Products of Woody and Herbaceous Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starace, Anne K.; Evans, Robert J.; Lee, David D.; Carpenter, Daniel L.

    2016-07-21

    A variety of hardwood, softwood, and herbaceous feedstocks (oak, southern yellow pine mix, loblolly pine, pinyon-juniper mix, and switchgrass) were each torrefied at 200, 250, and 300 degrees C. Each of the feedstocks was pyrolyzed and the resulting vapors were analyzed with a molecular beam mass spectrometer (py-MBMS). Compositional analysis was used to measure the total lignin content of three of the feedstocks (southern yellow pine, softwood; oak, hardwood; and switchgrass, herbaceous) before and after torrefaction at 300 degrees C, and large differences in the fraction of lignin lost during torrefaction were found between feedstocks, with oak having the largest decrease in lignin during torrefaction and switchgrass having the least. It is hypothesized that these differences in the thermal degradation are due to, in part, the different ratios of S, G, and H lignins in the feedstocks. Additionally, the torrefaction of kraft lignin was studied using thermogravimetric analysis coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TGA-FTIR) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).

  14. Acceptable contamination levels in solar grade silicon: From feedstock to solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, J. [Instituto de Energia Solar, Avd. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jasmin.hofstetter@ies-def.upm.es; Lelievre, J.F.; Canizo, C.; Luque, A. del [Instituto de Energia Solar, Avd. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    Ultimately, alternative ways of silicon purification for photovoltaic applications are developed and applied. There is an ongoing debate about what are the acceptable contamination levels within the purified silicon feedstock to specify the material as solar grade silicon. Applying a simple model and making some additional assumptions, we calculate the acceptable contamination levels of different characteristic impurities for each fabrication step of a typical industrial mc-Si solar cell. The acceptable impurity concentrations within the finished solar cell are calculated for SRH recombination exclusively and under low injection conditions. It is assumed that during solar cell fabrication impurity concentrations are only altered by a gettering step. During the crystallization process, impurity segregation at the solid-liquid interface and at extended defects are taken into account. Finally, the initial contamination levels allowed within the feedstock are deduced. The acceptable concentration of iron in the finished solar cell is determined to be 9.7x10{sup -3} ppma whereas the concentration in the silicon feedstock can be as high as 12.5 ppma. In comparison, the titanium concentration admitted in the solar cell is calculated to be 2.7x10{sup -4} ppma and the allowed concentration of 2.2x10{sup -2} ppma in the feedstock is only two orders of magnitude higher. Finally, it is shown theoretically and experimentally that slow cooling rates can lead to a decrease of the interstitial Fe concentration and thus relax the purity requirements in the feedstock.

  15. The U.S. biodiesel use mandate and biodiesel feedstock markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of individual biodiesel feedstocks or broad approaches that lump animal fats and vegetable oils into a single aggregate straddle the true case of imperfect but by no means inconsequential substitution among fats and oils by different users. United States biofuel policy includes a biodiesel use mandate that rises to almost 4 hm3 by 2012, calling for biomass feedstock analysis that recognizes the complex interdependence among potential feedstocks and competition for food and industrial uses. We model biodiesel input markets to investigate the implications of the mandate for quantities and prices with and without a provision disallowing biodiesel made from soybean oil. Findings suggest a hierarchy of price effects that tends to be largest for cheaper fats and oils typically used for industrial and feed purposes and smallest for fats and oils traditionally used exclusively for direct consumption, with the cross-commodity effects and other key economic parameters playing a critical part in determining the scale in each case. Although sensitive to the exact parameters used, our results argue against overly simplifying feedstock markets by holding prices constant when considering the economics of a particular feedstock or if estimating the broader impacts of rising biodiesel production on competing uses. (author)

  16. Influence of binder system and temperature on rheological properties of water atomized 316L powder injection moulding feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Uğur GÖKMEN; Türker, Mehmet; ÇİNİCİ, Hanifi

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain a proper powder injection molding the rheological behavior of feedstocks should be known. To determine the binder effect on the rheological behavior of 316L stainless steel powders feedstock two different feedstock were prepared. In the current experiments water atomized 316L stainless steel powders (-20 µm) were used. Two types of binders, one of which is mainly paraffin wax can be dissolved in heptane and the other Polietilenglikol (PEG) based and can be dissolved in wate...

  17. Characterization of potassium hydroxide (KOH) modified hydrochars from different feedstocks for enhanced removal of heavy metals from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kejing; Tang, Jingchun; Gong, Yanyan; Zhang, Hairong

    2015-11-01

    Hydrochars produced from different feedstocks (sawdust, wheat straw, and corn stalk) via hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) and KOH modification were used as alternative adsorbents for aqueous heavy metals remediation. The chemical and physical properties of the hydrochars and KOH-treated hydrochars were characterized, and the ability of hydrochars for removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions as a function of reaction time, pH, and initial contaminant concentration was tested. The results showed that KOH modification of hydrochars might have increased the aromatic and oxygen-containing functional groups, such as carboxyl groups, resulting in about 2-3 times increase of cadmium sorption capacity (30.40-40.78 mg/g) compared to that of unmodified hydrochars (13.92-14.52 mg/g). The sorption ability among different feedstocks after modification was as the following: sawdust > wheat straw > corn stack. Cadmium sorption kinetics on modified hydrochars could be interpreted with a pseudo-second order, and sorption isotherm was simulated with Langmuir adsorption model. High cadmium uptake on modified hydrochars was observed over the pH range of 4.0-8.0, while for other heavy metals (Pb(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+)) the range was 4.0-6.0. In a multi-metal system, the sorption capacity of heavy metals by modified hydrochars was also higher than that by unmodified ones and followed the order of Pb(II) > Cu(II) > Cd(II) > Zn(II). The results suggest that KOH-modified hydrochars can be used as a low cost, environmental-friendly, and effective adsorbent for heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions.

  18. Sustainability of biofuels and renewable chemicals production from biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Manfred

    2015-12-01

    In the sectors of biofuel and renewable chemicals the big feedstock demand asks, first, to expand the spectrum of carbon sources beyond primary biomass, second, to establish circular processing chains and, third, to prioritize product sectors exclusively depending on carbon: chemicals and heavy-duty fuels. Large-volume production lines will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission significantly but also low-volume chemicals are indispensable in building 'low-carbon' industries. The foreseeable feedstock change initiates innovation, securing societal wealth in the industrialized world and creating employment in regions producing biomass. When raising the investments in rerouting to sustainable biofuel and chemicals today competitiveness with fossil-based fuel and chemicals is a strong issue. Many countries adopted comprehensive bioeconomy strategies to tackle this challenge. These public actions are mostly biased to biofuel but should give well-balanced attention to renewable chemicals as well.

  19. Sustainability of biofuels and renewable chemicals production from biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Manfred

    2015-12-01

    In the sectors of biofuel and renewable chemicals the big feedstock demand asks, first, to expand the spectrum of carbon sources beyond primary biomass, second, to establish circular processing chains and, third, to prioritize product sectors exclusively depending on carbon: chemicals and heavy-duty fuels. Large-volume production lines will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission significantly but also low-volume chemicals are indispensable in building 'low-carbon' industries. The foreseeable feedstock change initiates innovation, securing societal wealth in the industrialized world and creating employment in regions producing biomass. When raising the investments in rerouting to sustainable biofuel and chemicals today competitiveness with fossil-based fuel and chemicals is a strong issue. Many countries adopted comprehensive bioeconomy strategies to tackle this challenge. These public actions are mostly biased to biofuel but should give well-balanced attention to renewable chemicals as well. PMID:26256682

  20. The effect of aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment on methane generation uing different lignocellulosic feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Jonuzaj, Suela; Gavala, Hariklia N.;

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass including agricultural and forestry residues, perennial crops, softwoods and hardwoods, can be used as feedstock for methane production. Although being abundant and almost zero cost feedstocks, the main obstacles of their use are the low efficiencies and yields attained, due...... for enhanced methane production, so far. In the present study AAS has been tested as a pretreatment method in anaerobic digestion of three lignocellulosic feedstocks with a different origin: one agricultural residue: sunflower straw, one perennial crop: grass and a hardwood: poplar. The effect of the AAS......., Aita G, Day DF.: Compositional changes in sugarcane bagasse on low temperature, long-term diluted ammonia treatment, Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 161, 34–40 (2010) [2] Himmelsbach, J., Raman, D., Anex, R., Burns, R., Faulhaber, C. :Effect of ammonia soaking pretreatment and enzyme addition on biochemical...

  1. Strategy of changing cracking furnace feedstock based on improved group search optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyu Nian; Zhenlei Wang; Feng Qian

    2015-01-01

    The scheduling process of cracking furnace feedstock is important in an ethylene plant. In this paper it is described as a constraint optimization problem. The constraints consist of the cycle of operation, maximum tube metal temperature, process time of each feedstock, and flow rate. A modified group search optimizer is pro-posed to deal with the optimization problem. Double fitness values are defined for every group. First, the factor of penalty function should be changed adaptively by the ratio of feasible and general solutions. Second, the“excel-lent”infeasible solution should be retained to guide the search. Some benchmark functions are used to evaluate the new algorithm. Final y, the proposed algorithm is used to optimize the scheduling process of cracking furnace feedstock. And the optimizing result is obtained.

  2. Dynamic impacts of high oil prices on the bioethanol and feedstock markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the impacts of high international oil prices on the bioethanol and corn markets in the US. Between 2007 and 2008, the prices of major grain crops had increased sharply, reflecting the rise in international oil prices. These dual price shocks had caused substantial harm to the global economy. Employing a structural vector auto-regression model (SVAR), we analyze how increases in international oil prices could impact the prices of and demand for corn, which is used as a major bioethanol feedstock in the US. The results indicate that an increase in the oil price would increase bioethanol demand for corn and corn prices in the short run and that corn prices would stabilize in the long run as corn exports and feedstock demand for corn decline. Consequently, policies supporting biofuels should encourage the use of bioethanol co-products for feed and the development of marginal land to mitigate increases in the feedstock price. (author)

  3. Biobutanol as a Potential Sustainable Biofuel - Assessment of Lignocellulosic and Waste-based Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Niemisto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the production process of an alternative transportation biofuel, biobutanol. European legislation concerning biofuels and their sustainability criteria are also briefly described. The need to develop methods to ensure more sustainable and efficient biofuel production processes is recommended. In addition, the assessment method to evaluate the sustainability of biofuels is considered and sustainability assessment of selected feedstocks for biobutanol production is performed. The benefits and potential of using lignocellulosic and waste materials as feedstocks in the biobutanol production process are also discussed. Sustainability assessment in this paper includes cultivation, harvest/collection and upstream processing (pretreatment of feedstocks, comparing four main biomass sources: food crops, non-food crops, food industry by-product and wood-based biomass. It can be concluded that the highest sustainable potential in Finland is when biobutanol production is integrated into pulp & paper mills.

  4. Solar cells from 120 PPMA carbon-contaminated feedstock without significantly higher reverse current or shunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manshanden, P.; Coletti, G. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    In a bid to drive down the cost of silicon wafers, several options for solar grade silicon feedstock have been investigated over the years. All methods have in common that the resulting silicon contains higher levels of impurities like dopants, oxygen, carbon or transition metals, the type and level of impurities depending on the raw materials and refining processes. In this work wafers from a p-type mc-Si ingot made with feedstock contaminated with 120 ppma of carbon have been processed into solar cells together with reference uncontaminated feedstock from semiconductor grade polysilicon with <0.4 ppma carbon. The results show that comparable reverse current, shunts, and efficiencies can be reached for both types of wafers. Gettering and defect hydrogenation effectiveness also did not deviate from the reference. Electroluminescence pictures do not show increased hotspot formation, even at -16V.

  5. 100 years of refrigeration engineering in the chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, K.

    1987-11-01

    The report reviews the many uses of cold in the chemical industry. As an example, the development of the refrigeration system of a large chemical plant is described which distributes cold nearly without losses from a central refrigeration unit and can be controlled for optimum adaptation to the various chemical production processes. The contribution of refrigeration to higher product quality, higher product yield, materials recycling to save feedstocks, energy conservation by means of heat pumps, and environmental protection is pointed out.

  6. Sugar cane/sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock in Louisiana and Piedmont

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost to provide readily fermentable feedstock for a year round sweet sorghum-to-ethanol production facility, up to the point at which fermentation begins, was determined. It was assumed that sweet sorghum is produced on marginal crop lands in the Southeastern Piedmont, and is purchased, standing in the field by a central ethanol production facility. Feedstock cost varied from $1.96 to $2.98/gal of ethanol potential depending on harvest system and use of by-products. Major contributors to feedstock cost were field production, harvest/field processing, and cost to evaporate juice to a storable syrup. Cost to transport feedstock to a central production facility, and cost of storage were relatively minor components of total cost, contributing only $0.05 and $0.06/gal ethanol potential, respectively. For a point of comparison, cost of producing ethanol feedstock from sugar cane, based on current processing practices in Louisiana sugar mills, was determined to be $2.50/gal ethanol potential. This cost is higher than determined for most options in the Piedmont for two reasons: (1) sugar cane demands a higher price in Louisiana than was assumed for sweet sorghum in the Piedmont, and (2) little market exists in Louisiana for by-products of sugar milling, consequently, no by-product credit was assigned. Current market value of ethanol must approximately double before a sweet sorghum-to-ethanol industry in the Piedmont could be economically viable, as no opportunity was identified for a significant reduction in feedstock cost

  7. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-03-15

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  8. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  9. Bioethanol - Status report on bioethanol production from wood and other lignocellulosic feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott-Kerr, Chris; Johnson, Tony; Johnson, Barbara; Kiviaho, Jukka

    2010-09-15

    Lignocellulosic biomass is seen as an attractive feedstock for future supplies of renewable fuels, reducing the dependence on imported petroleum. However, there are technical and economic impediments to the development of commercial processes that utilise biomass feedstocks for the production of liquid fuels such as ethanol. Significant investment into research, pilot and demonstration plants is on-going to develop commercially viable processes utilising the biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies for ethanol. This paper reviews the current status of commercial lignocellulosic ethanol production and identifies global production facilities.

  10. Biotechnology for producing fuels and chemicals from biomass. Volume 2: Fermentation chemicals from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villet, R.

    1981-02-01

    The technological and economic feasibility of producing chemicals by fermentation is discussed: acetone; butanol; acetic acid; citric acid; 2,3-butanediol, and propionic acid. Improved cost of fermentative production will hinge on improving yields and using cellulosic feedstocks. The market for acetic acid is likely to grow 5 percent to 7 percent/yr. A potential process for production is the fermentation of hydrolyzed cellulosic material to ethanol followed by chemical conversion to acetic acid. The feedstock cost is 15 to 20 percent of the overall cost of production. The anticipated 5 percent growth in demand for citric acid could be enhanced by using it to displace phosphates in detergent manufacture. A number of useful chemicals can be derived from 2,3-butanediol, which has not been produced commercially on a large scale. The commercial fermentative production of propionic acid has not yet been developed.

  11. 78 FR 49749 - Williams Olefins Feedstock Pipelines, L.L.C.; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Williams Olefins Feedstock Pipelines, L.L.C.; Notice of Petition for... Practices and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207(a)(2)(2012), Williams Olefins Feedstock Pipelines, L.L.C., filed...

  12. Biodiesel from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seed oil, a potential non-food feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil extracted from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seeds was investigated as a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was prepared by sodium methoxide-catalyzed transesterification of the oil with methanol. Fuel properties that were determined include cetane numb...

  13. Two-stage Hydrolysis of Invasive Algal Feedstock for Ethanol Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Wang; Xianhua Liu; Guangyi Wang

    2011-01-01

    The overall goal of this work was to develop a saccharification method for the production of third generation biofuel(i.e.bioethanol) using feedstock of the invasive marine macroalga Gracilaria salicornia.Under optimum conditions(120℃ and 2% sulfuric acid for 30 min), dilute acid hydrolysis of the homogenized invasive plants yielded a low concentration of glucose(4.1mM or 4.3g glucose/kg fresh algal biomass). However, two-stage hydrolysis of the homogenates (combination of dilute acid hydrolysis with enzymatic hydrolysis) produced 13.8g of glucose from one kilogram of fresh algal feedstock. Batch fermentation analysis produced 79.1g EtOH from one kilogram of dried invasive algal feedstock using the ethanologenic strain Escherichia coli K011. Furthermore, ethanol production kinetics indicated that the invasive algal feedstock contained different types of sugar, including C5-sugar. This study represents the first report on third generation biofuel production from invasive macroalgae, suggesting that there is great potential for the production of renewable energy using marine invasive biomass.

  14. Apparatus and method for converting biomass to feedstock for biofuel and biochemical manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, John; Qiao, Ming; Woods, Elizabeth M.; Cortright, Randy D.; Myren, Paul

    2015-12-15

    The present invention includes improved systems and methods for producing biomass-derived feedstocks for biofuel and biochemical manufacturing processes. The systems and methods use components that are capable of transferring relatively high concentrations of solid biomass utilizing pressure variations between vessels, and allows for the recovery and recycling of heterogeneous catalyst materials.

  15. Gene flow matters in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a potential widespread biofuel feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwit, Charles; Stewart, C Neal

    2012-01-01

    There currently exists a large push for the use, improvement, and expansion via landscape modification of dedicated biofuel crops (feedstocks) in the United States and in many parts of the world. Ecological concerns have been voiced because many biofuel feedstocks exhibit characteristics associated with invasiveness, and due to potential negative consequences of agronomic genes in native wild populations. Seed purity concerns for biofuel feedstock cultivars whose seeds would be harvested in agronomic fields also exist from the agribusiness sector. The common thread underlying these concerns, which have regulatory implications, is gene flow; thus detailed knowledge of gene flow in biofuel crop plants is important in the formulation of environmental risk management plans. Here, we synthesize the current state of knowledge of gene flow in an exemplary biofuel crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), which is native to eastern North America and is currently experiencing conventional and technological advances in biomass yields and ethanol production. Surprisingly little is known regarding aspects of switchgrass pollen flow and seed dispersal, and whether native populations of conspecific or congeneric relatives will readily cross with current agronomic switchgrass cultivars. We pose that filling these important gaps will be required to confront the sustainability challenges of widespread planting of biofuel feedstocks.

  16. An overview of palm, jatropha and algae as a potential biodiesel feedstock in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high demand to replace petroleum fuel makes renewable and sustainable sources such as Palm oil, Jatropha oil and Algae a main focus feedstock for biodiesel production in Malaysia. There are many studies conducted on Palm oil and Jatropha oil, however, the use of Algae as an alternative fuel is still in its infancy. Malaysia already implemented B5 based Palm oil as a feedstock and this biodiesel has been proven safe and can be used without any engine modification. The use of biodiesel produced from these feedstock will also developed domestic economic and provide job opportunities especially in the rural area. In addition, biodiesel has many advantages especially when dealing with the emissions produce as compared to petroleum fuel such as; it can reduce unwanted gases and particulate matter harmful to the atmosphere and mankind. Thus, this paper gathered and examines the most prominent engine emission produced from Palm oil and Jatropha feedstock and also to observe the potential of Algae to be one of the sources of alternative fuel in Malaysia

  17. Improving Enzyme Activity and Broadening Selectivity for Biological Desulfurization and Upgrading of Petroleum Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhijeet P. Borole; Choo Y. Hamilton; Karen Miller; Brian Davison; Matthew Grossman; Robert Shong

    2003-05-12

    The objective of this project was to develop improved biocatalysts for desulfurization and upgrading of petroleum feedstocks. The goal was to improve the activity and broaden the selectivity of desulfurization enzymes using directed evolution as a tool as well as to explore the impact of ring-opening on biological desulfurization

  18. Agave: a biofuel feedstock for arid and semi-arid environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Stephen; Martin, Jeffrey; Simpson, June; Wang, Zhong; Visel, Axel

    2011-05-31

    Efficient production of plant-based, lignocellulosic biofuels relies upon continued improvement of existing biofuel feedstock species, as well as the introduction of newfeedstocks capable of growing on marginal lands to avoid conflicts with existing food production and minimize use of water and nitrogen resources. To this end, specieswithin the plant genus Agave have recently been proposed as new biofuel feedstocks. Many Agave species are adapted to hot and arid environments generally unsuitable forfood production, yet have biomass productivity rates comparable to other second-generation biofuel feedstocks such as switchgrass and Miscanthus. Agavesachieve remarkable heat tolerance and water use efficiency in part through a Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) mode of photosynthesis, but the genes andregulatory pathways enabling CAM and thermotolerance in agaves remain poorly understood. We seek to accelerate the development of agave as a new biofuelfeedstock through genomic approaches using massively-parallel sequencing technologies. First, we plan to sequence the transcriptome of A. tequilana to provide adatabase of protein-coding genes to the agave research community. Second, we will compare transcriptome-wide gene expression of agaves under different environmentalconditions in order to understand genetic pathways controlling CAM, water use efficiency, and thermotolerance. Finally, we aim to compare the transcriptome of A.tequilana with that of other Agave species to gain further insight into molecular mechanisms underlying traits desirable for biofuel feedstocks. These genomicapproaches will provide sequence and gene expression information critical to the breeding and domestication of Agave species suitable for biofuel production.

  19. Biodiesel Derived from a Feedstock Enriched in Palmitoleic Acid, Macadamia Nut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous vegetable oils, animal fats or other feedstocks have been investigated for obtaining biodiesel, defined as the mono alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. While biodiesel is competitive with petrodiesel, technical problems facing biodiesel include cold flow and oxidative stability...

  20. Gene flow matters in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a potential widespread biofuel feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwit, Charles; Stewart, C Neal

    2012-01-01

    There currently exists a large push for the use, improvement, and expansion via landscape modification of dedicated biofuel crops (feedstocks) in the United States and in many parts of the world. Ecological concerns have been voiced because many biofuel feedstocks exhibit characteristics associated with invasiveness, and due to potential negative consequences of agronomic genes in native wild populations. Seed purity concerns for biofuel feedstock cultivars whose seeds would be harvested in agronomic fields also exist from the agribusiness sector. The common thread underlying these concerns, which have regulatory implications, is gene flow; thus detailed knowledge of gene flow in biofuel crop plants is important in the formulation of environmental risk management plans. Here, we synthesize the current state of knowledge of gene flow in an exemplary biofuel crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), which is native to eastern North America and is currently experiencing conventional and technological advances in biomass yields and ethanol production. Surprisingly little is known regarding aspects of switchgrass pollen flow and seed dispersal, and whether native populations of conspecific or congeneric relatives will readily cross with current agronomic switchgrass cultivars. We pose that filling these important gaps will be required to confront the sustainability challenges of widespread planting of biofuel feedstocks. PMID:22471071

  1. 76 FR 64839 - Sugar Program; Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... notice related to 7 CFR part 3015, subpart V, published in the Federal Register on June 24, 1983 (48 FR...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation 7 CFR Part 1435 RIN 0560-AH86 Sugar Program; Feedstock.... SUMMARY: The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) proposes regulations with respect to general...

  2. The National Biofuels Strategy - Importance of sustainable feedstock production systems in regional-based supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Region-based production systems are needed to produce the feedstocks that will be turned into the biofuels required to meet Federal mandated targets. Executive and Legislative actions have put into motion significant government responses designed to advance the development and production of domestic...

  3. Biobutanol as a Potential Sustainable Biofuel - Assessment of Lignocellulosic and Waste-based Feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Niemisto; Paula Saavalainen; Eva Pongracz; Riitta L. Keiski

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the production process of an alternative transportation biofuel, biobutanol. European legislation concerning biofuels and their sustainability criteria are also briefly described. The need to develop methods to ensure more sustainable and efficient biofuel production processes is recommended. In addition, the assessment method to evaluate the sustainability of biofuels is considered and sustainability assessment of selected feedstocks for biobutanol production is perform...

  4. An overview of palm, jatropha and algae as a potential biodiesel feedstock in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, S.; Abdullah, N. R.; Mamat, R.; Rashid, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    The high demand to replace petroleum fuel makes renewable and sustainable sources such as Palm oil, Jatropha oil and Algae a main focus feedstock for biodiesel production in Malaysia. There are many studies conducted on Palm oil and Jatropha oil, however, the use of Algae as an alternative fuel is still in its infancy. Malaysia already implemented B5 based Palm oil as a feedstock and this biodiesel has been proven safe and can be used without any engine modification. The use of biodiesel produced from these feedstock will also developed domestic economic and provide job opportunities especially in the rural area. In addition, biodiesel has many advantages especially when dealing with the emissions produce as compared to petroleum fuel such as; it can reduce unwanted gases and particulate matter harmful to the atmosphere and mankind. Thus, this paper gathered and examines the most prominent engine emission produced from Palm oil and Jatropha feedstock and also to observe the potential of Algae to be one of the sources of alternative fuel in Malaysia.

  5. Towards fermentation of galacturonic acid-containing feedstocks with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisjes, E.H.

    2013-01-01

    The ambition to reduce our current dependence on fossil transportation fuels has driven renewed interest in bioethanol. Pectin-rich feedstocks like sugar beet pulp and citrus peel, which are currently sold as cattle feed, are promising raw materials for the production of bioethanol. This thesis expl

  6. Catalytic Hydrothermal Conversion of Wet Biomass Feedstocks and Upgrading – Process Design and Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    Liquid biofuels will play a major role for a more sustainable energy system of the future. The CatLiq® process is a 2nd generation biomass conversion process that is based on hydrothermal liquefaction. Hydrothermal liquefaction offers a very efficient and feedstock flexible way of converting...

  7. Effects of Biochar Feedstock and Pyrolysis Temperature on Growth of Corn, Soybean, Lettuce and Carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar, the carbon-rich material remaining after pyrolysis (low oxygen) of cellulosic feedstocks, has the potential as a soil amendment to sequester carbon, improve soil water-holding capacity, and increase nutrient retention thereby enhancing soil conditions to benefit plant gr...

  8. Potential bioethanol feedstock availability around nine locations in the Republic of Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverell, R.; McDonnell, K.; Devlin, G. [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Agriculture and Food Science Building, University College Dublin, Belfield (Ireland)

    2009-07-01

    The Republic of Ireland, like many other countries is trying to diversify energy sources to counteract environmental, political and social concerns. Bioethanol from domestically grown agricultural crops is an indigenously produced alternative fuel that can potentially go towards meeting the goal of diversified energy supply. The Republic of Ireland's distribution of existing soils and agricultural land-uses limit arable crop land to around 10% of total agricultural area. Demand for land to produce arable crops is expected to decrease, which could open the opportunity for bioethanol production. Bioethanol production plants are required to be of a sufficient scale in order to compete economically with other fuel sources, it is important therefore to determine if enough land exists around potential ethanol plant locations to meet the potential demands for feedstock. This study determines, through the use of a developed GIS based model, the potential quantities of feedstock that is available in the hinterlands of nine locations in the Republic of Ireland. The results indicate that three locations can meet all its feedstock demands using indigenously grown sugarbeet, while only one location can meet its demands using a combination of indigenous wheat and straw as the two locally sourced feedstocks. (author)

  9. Sustainability of perennial grass yields as bioenergy feedstock for the southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warm-season perennial grasses will be part of the biomass production system in the Southeast for the emerging bioenergy industry. Among the candidates for dedicated feedstocks are energy cane (Sacchurum sp.), Miscanthus x gigantius, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and napiergrass (Pennistem purpure...

  10. Energy analysis of using macroalgae from eutrophic waters as a bioethanol feedstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele; Østergård, Hanne; Bastianoni, Simone

    2014-01-01

    , and in KB runoff from agricultural land constitutes 86%. The environmental support needed for producing one Joule of bioethanol is somewhat more than for a number of other bioethanol feedstocks being 2.12 x 106 solar equivalent Joules (seJ) for OL and 2.56 x 106 seJ for KB. However, a high percentage...

  11. CONTEXT MATTERS: THE IMPORTANCE OF MARKET CHARACTERISTICS IN THE VOLATILITY OF FEEDSTOCK COSTS FOR BIOGAS PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, A; Van Meensel, J; Mondelaers, K; Buysse, J

    2015-01-01

    Recently, biogas plant managers in Flanders face increased financial uncertainty. Between 2011 and 2012, 20% of the Flemish biogas plants went bankrupt. Difficulties in obtaining feedstock at stable and affordable prices is one reason why the biogas sector struggles. In literature, contracting is often proposed as a way to decrease the volatility of the feedstock costs. However, these studies generally do not consider the context in which the biogas plant manager needs to buy the feedstock. Yet, this context could be of specific importance when biogas plant managers are in competition with other users of the same biomass type. Silage maize is an example of such a feedstock, as it is both used by dairy farmers and biogas plant managers. Using a combination of qualitative research and agent-based modelling, we investigated the effect of specific characteristics of the silage maize market on the acquisition of local silage maize by biogas plant managers. This paper details the institutional arrangements of the silage maize market in Flanders and the results of a scenario analysis, simulating three different scenarios. As shown by the results, the time of entry into the market, as well as the different institutional arrangements used by the biogas plant managers as opposed to dairy farmers could explain the difficulties in obtaining a stable supply of local silage maize by biogas plants. Our findings can help to develop mitigation strategies addressing these difficulties.

  12. Evaluation of Indian milkweed (Calotropis gigantea) seed oil as alternative feedstock for biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calotropis gigantea (Indian milkweed) is a common plant in Asia that grows as a weed on open waste ground. Flowering and fruiting take place throughout the year. In this study, Indian milkweed oil was evaluated as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil was extracted from Indian milk...

  13. 26 CFR 48.4082-7 - Kerosene; exemption for feedstock purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Kerosene; exemption for feedstock purposes. 48.4082-7 Section 48.4082-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... same form as the model certificate provided in paragraph (e)(2) of this section, and contains...

  14. Assessment of leaf/stem ratio in wheat straw feedstock and impact on enzymatic conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Heng; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Willats, William George Tycho;

    2014-01-01

    conversion processes and additionally in feedstock breeding. Furthermore, this highlights the need for rapid techniques for determining L/S ratio in wheat straw harvests. The CoMPP data on specific carbohydrates and leaf pectin highlight carbohydrate epitopes that may be useful as markers in the development...

  15. Biotechnology for Chemical Production: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Mark J; Van Dien, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Biotechnology offers a new sustainable approach to manufacturing chemicals, enabling the replacement of petroleum-based raw materials with renewable biobased feedstocks, thereby reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, toxic byproducts, and the safety risks associated with traditional petrochemical processing. Development of such bioprocesses is enabled by recent advances in genomics, molecular biology, and systems biology, and will continue to accelerate as access to these tools becomes faster and cheaper.

  16. Biotechnology for Chemical Production: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Mark J; Van Dien, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Biotechnology offers a new sustainable approach to manufacturing chemicals, enabling the replacement of petroleum-based raw materials with renewable biobased feedstocks, thereby reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, toxic byproducts, and the safety risks associated with traditional petrochemical processing. Development of such bioprocesses is enabled by recent advances in genomics, molecular biology, and systems biology, and will continue to accelerate as access to these tools becomes faster and cheaper. PMID:26683567

  17. Interactive effects of biochar ageing in soils related to feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, and historic charcoal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitkötter, Julian; Marschner, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is suggested for soil amelioration and carbon sequestration, based on its assumed role as the key factor for the long-term fertility of Terra preta soils. Several studies have shown that certain biochar properties can undergo changes through ageing processes, especially regarding charge characteristics. However, only a few studies determined the changes of different biochars under the same incubation conditions and in different soils. The objective of this study was to characterize the changes of pine chip (PC)- and corn digestate (CD)-derived biochars pyrolyzed at 400 or 600 °C during 100 days of laboratory incubation in a historical kiln soil and an adjacent control soil. Separation between soil and biochar was ensured by using mesh bags. Especially, changes in charge characteristics depended on initial biochar properties affected by feedstock and pyrolysis temperature and on soil properties affected by historic charcoal production. While the cation exchange capacity (CEC) markedly increased for both CD biochars during incubation, PC biochars showed no or only slight increases in CEC. Corresponding to the changes in CEC, ageing of biochars also increased the amount of acid functional groups with increases being in average about 2-fold higher in CD biochars than in PC biochars. Further and in contrast to other studies, the surface areas of biochars increased during ageing, likely due to ash leaching and degradation of tar residues. Changes in CEC and surface acidity of CD biochars were more pronounced after incubation in the control soil, while surface area increase was higher in the kiln soil. Since the two acidic forest soils used in this this study did not greatly differ in physical or chemical properties, the main process for inducing these differences in the buried biochar most likely is related to the differences in dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Although the kiln soil contained about 50% more soil organic carbon due to the presence of charcoal

  18. Microbial production host selection for converting second-generation feedstocks into bioproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Groenestijn Johan W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasingly lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates are used as the feedstock for industrial fermentations. These biomass hydrolysates are complex mixtures of different fermentable sugars, but also inhibitors and salts that affect the performance of the microbial production host. The performance of six industrially relevant microorganisms, i.e. two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum, two yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis and two fungi (Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei were compared for their (i ability to utilize monosaccharides present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, (ii resistance against inhibitors present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, (iii their ability to utilize and grow on different feedstock hydrolysates (corn stover, wheat straw, sugar cane bagasse and willow wood. The feedstock hydrolysates were generated in two manners: (i thermal pretreatment under mild acid conditions followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and (ii a non-enzymatic method in which the lignocellulosic biomass is pretreated and hydrolyzed by concentrated sulfuric acid. Moreover, the ability of the selected hosts to utilize waste glycerol from the biodiesel industry was evaluated. Results Large differences in the performance of the six tested microbial production hosts were observed. Carbon source versatility and inhibitor resistance were the major discriminators between the performances of these microorganisms. Surprisingly all 6 organisms performed relatively well on pretreated crude feedstocks. P. stipitis and A. niger were found to give the overall best performance C. glutamicum and S. cerevisiae were shown to be the least adapted to renewable feedstocks. Conclusion Based on the results obtained we conclude that a substrate oriented instead of the more commonly used product oriented approach towards the selection of a microbial production host will avoid the requirement for extensive metabolic

  19. Impact of Technology and Feedstock Choice on the Environmental Footprint of Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. B.; Dodder, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The implementation of the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard program (RFS2) has led to a dramatic shift in the use of biofuel in the U.S. transportation system over the last decade. To satisfy this demand, the production of U.S. corn-based ethanol has grown rapidly, with an average increase of over 25% annually from 2002 to 2010. RFS2 requires a similarly steep increase in the production of advanced biofuels, such as cellulosic ethanol. Unlike corn-based ethanol, which is derived from the biochemical fermentation of sugars in wet and dry mills, it is likely that a more diverse suite of technologies will need to be developed to be able to meet the advanced biofuel RFS2 targets, including biochemical as well as thermochemical (e.g., gasification and pyrolysis) approaches. Rather than relying on energy crops, a potential advantage of thermochemical approaches is the ability to use a wider variety of feedstocks, including municipal solid waste and wood waste. In this work, we conduct a system-level analysis to understand how technology and feedstock choice can impact the environmental footprint of biofuels in the U.S. We use a least-cost optimization model of the U.S. energy system to account for interactions between various components of the energy system: industrial, transportation, electric, and residential/commercial sectors. The model was used to understand the scale of feedstock demand required from dedicated energy crops, as well as other biomass feedstocks, in order to meet the RFS2 mandate. On a regional basis, we compare the overall water-consumption and land requirements for biofuels production given a suite of liquid-fuel production technologies. By considering a range of scenarios, we examine how the use of various feedstocks (e.g., agricultural residues, wood wastes, mill residues and municipal wastes) can be used to off-set environmental impacts as compared to relying solely on energy crops.

  20. Bio-energy feedstock yields and their water quality benefits in Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Cellulosic and agricultural bio-energy crops can, under careful management, be harvested as feedstock for bio-fuels production and provide environmental benefits. However, it is required to quantify their relative advantages in feedstock production and water quality. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate potential feedstock yield and water quality benefit scenarios of bioenergy crops: Miscanthus (Miscanthus-giganteus), Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), Soybean {Glycine max (L.) Merr.}, and Corn (Lea mays) in the Upper Pearl River watershed (UPRW), Mississippi using a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The SWAT model was calibrated (January 1981 to December 1994) and validated (January 1995 to September 2008) using monthly measured stream flow data. The calibrated and validated model determined good to very good performance for stream flow prediction (R2 and E from 0.60 to 0.86). The RMSE values (from 14 m3 s-1 to 37 m3 s-1) were estimated at similar levels of errors during model calibration and validation. The long-term average annual potential feedstock yield as an alternative energy source was determined the greatest when growing Miscanthus grass (373,849 Mg) as followed by Alfalfa (206,077 Mg), Switchgrass (132,077 Mg), Johnsongrass (47,576 Mg), Soybean (37,814 Mg), and Corn (22,069 Mg) in the pastureland and cropland of the watershed. Model results determined that average annual sediment yield from the Miscanthus grass scenario determined the least (1.16 Mg/ha) and corn scenario the greatest (12.04 Mg/ha). The SWAT model simulated results suggested that growing Miscanthus grass in the UPRW would have the greatest potential feedstock yield and water quality benefits.

  1. The role of microalgae as biodiesel feedstock in a tropical setting: Economics, agro-energy competitiveness, and potential impacts on regional agricultural feedstock production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Matias G.

    The objective of this study is to obtain a realistic evaluation of the potential role of microalgae as a biodiesel feedstock in a tropical setting. First, microalgae economics are estimated, including the detailed design of a 400 ha microalgae open pond production farm together with the microalgae biomass and crude oil production costs calculations. Sensitivity analysis and a stochastic evaluation of the microalgae venture chances for profit are also included. Next, microalgae potential for biodiesel production is compared to traditional oil crops such as soybeans and African palm. This comparison is performed using the Northeast Region (NER) of Brazil as background. Six potential biodiesel feedstock sources produced in the NER and microalgae are compared considering selected environmental, economic and social sustainability indicators. Finally, in the third chapter, the study proposes a cropland allocation model for the NER. The model aims to offer insights to the decision maker concerning biofuel development strategies and their impact on regional agricultural feedstock production. In the model, cropland allocation among three agriculture feedstock sectors, namely staple food, commodity export and biofuel is optimized through the use of the multiple objective technique referred to as compromise programming (CP). Our results indicate a projected microalgae total production cost of R 78,359 ha-1 (US43,533), which has a breakdown as follows: R 34,133 ha-1 (US18,963) for operating costs and R 44,226 ha-1 (US24,570) for overhead (ownership) costs. Our stochastic analysis indicates that microalgae production under the conditions assumed in the baseline scenario of this study has a 0% chance to present a positive NPV for a microalgae crude oil price of R 1.86. This price corresponds to an international oil price around US 77 bbl-1. To obtain a reasonable investment return (IRR = 12%) from the microalgae farm, an international oil price as high as US 461 bbl-1 is

  2. Catalytic Lignin Valorization Process for the Production of Aromatic Chemicals and Hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakzeski, J.; Jongerius, A.L.; Bruijnincx, P.C.A.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    With dwindling reserves of fossil feedstock as a resource for chemicals production, the fraction of chemicals and energy supplied by alternative, renewable resources, such as lignin, can be expected to increase in the foreseeable future. Here, we demonstrate a catalytic process to valorize lignin (e

  3. Fermentative production of high titer gluconic and xylonic acids from corn stover feedstock by Gluconobacter oxydans and techno-economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongsen; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2016-11-01

    High titer gluconic acid and xylonic acid were simultaneously fermented by Gluconobacter oxydans DSM 2003 using corn stover feedstock after dry dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment, biodetoxification and high solids content hydrolysis. Maximum sodium gluconate and xylonate were produced at the titer of 132.46g/L and 38.86g/L with the overall yield of 97.12% from glucose and 90.02% from xylose, respectively. The drawbacks of filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger including weak inhibitor tolerance, large pellet formation and no xylose utilization were solved by using the bacterium strain G. oxydans. The obtained sodium gluconate/xylonate product was highly competitive as cement retarder additive to the commercial product from corn feedstock. The techno-economic analysis (TEA) based on the Aspen Plus modeling was performed and the minimum sodium gluconate/xylonate product selling price (MGSP) was calculated as $0.404/kg. This study provided a practical and economic competitive process of lignocellulose utilization for production of value-added biobased chemicals.

  4. Potential Land Competition Between Open-Pond Microalgae Production and Terrestrial Dedicated Feedstock Supply Systems in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langholtz, Matthew; Coleman, Andre M.; Eaton, Laurence; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Hellwinckel , Chad M.; Brandt, Craig C.

    2016-08-01

    Biofuels produced from both terrestrial and algal biomass feedstocks can contribute to energy security while providing economic, environmental, and social benefits. To assess the potential for land competition between these two feedstock types in the United States, we evaluate a scenario in which 41.5 x 109 L yr-1 of second-generation biofuels are produced on pastureland, the most likely land base where both feedstock types may be deployed. This total includes 12.0 x 109 L yr-1 of biofuels from open-pond microalgae production and 29.5 x 109 L yr-1 of biofuels from terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems. Under these scenarios, open-pond microalgae production is projected to use 1.2 million ha of private pastureland, while terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems would use 14.0 million ha of private pastureland. A spatial meta-analysis indicates that potential competition for land under these scenarios would be concentrated in 110 counties, containing 1.0 and 1.7 million hectares of algal and terrestrial dedicated feedstock production, respectively. A land competition index applied to these 110 counties suggests that 38 to 59 counties could experience competition for upwards of 40% of a county’s pastureland. However, this combined 2.7 million ha represents only 2%-5% of total pastureland in the U.S., with the remaining 12.5 million ha of algal or terrestrial dedicated feedstock production on pastureland in non-competing areas.

  5. Development of High Yield Feedstocks and Biomass Conversion Technology for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Andrew G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Crow, Susan [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); DeBeryshe, Barbara [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ha, Richard [Hamakua Springs County Farms, Hilo, HI (United States); Jakeway, Lee [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Khanal, Samir [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Nakahata, Mae [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Ogoshi, Richard [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Shimizu, Erik [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Stern, Ivette [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turano, Brian [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turn, Scott [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Yanagida, John [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This project had two main goals. The first goal was to evaluate several high yielding tropical perennial grasses as feedstock for biofuel production, and to characterize the feedstock for compatible biofuel production systems. The second goal was to assess the integration of renewable energy systems for Hawaii. The project focused on high-yield grasses (napiergrass, energycane, sweet sorghum, and sugarcane). Field plots were established to evaluate the effects of elevation (30, 300 and 900 meters above sea level) and irrigation (50%, 75% and 100% of sugarcane plantation practice) on energy crop yields and input. The test plots were extensive monitored including: hydrologic studies to measure crop water use and losses through seepage and evapotranspiration; changes in soil carbon stock; greenhouse gas flux (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from the soil surface; and root morphology, biomass, and turnover. Results showed significant effects of environment on crop yields. In general, crop yields decrease as the elevation increased, being more pronounced for sweet sorghum and energycane than napiergrass. Also energy crop yields were higher with increased irrigation levels, being most pronounced with energycane and less so with sweet sorghum. Daylight length greatly affected sweet sorghum growth and yields. One of the energy crops (napiergrass) was harvested at different ages (2, 4, 6, and 8 months) to assess the changes in feedstock characteristics with age and potential to generate co-products. Although there was greater potential for co-products from younger feedstock, the increased production was not sufficient to offset the additional cost of harvesting multiple times per year. The feedstocks were also characterized to assess their compatibility with biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes. The project objectives are being continued through additional support from the Office of Naval Research, and the Biomass Research and Development

  6. Genetic Improvement of Switchgrass and Other Herbaceous Plants for Use as Biomass Fuel Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, K.P.

    2001-01-11

    It should be highly feasible to genetically modify the feedstock quality of switchgrass and other herbaceous plants using both conventional and molecular breeding techniques. Effectiveness of breeding to modify herbages of switchgrass and other perennial and annual herbaceous species has already been demonstrated. The use of molecular markers and transformation technology will greatly enhance the capability of breeders to modify the plant structure and cell walls of herbaceous plants. It will be necessary to monitor gene flow to remnant wild populations of plants and have strategies available to curtail gene flow if it becomes a potential problem. It also will be necessary to monitor plant survival and long-term productivity as affected by genetic changes that improve forage quality. Information on the conversion processes that will be used and the biomass characteristics that affect conversion efficiency and rate is absolutely essential as well as information on the relative economic value of specific traits. Because most forage or biomass quality characteristics are highly affected by plant maturity, it is suggested that plant material of specific maturity stages be used in research to determining desirable feedstock quality characteristics. Plant material could be collected at various stages of development from an array of environments and storage conditions that could be used in conversion research. The same plant material could be used to develop NIRS calibrations that could be used by breeders in their selection programs and also to develop criteria for a feedstock quality assessment program. Breeding for improved feedstock quality will likely affect the rate of improvement of biomass production per acre. If the same level of resources are used, multi-trait breeding simply reduces the selection pressure and hence the breeding progress that can be made for a single trait unless all the traits are highly correlated. Since desirable feedstock traits are likely

  7. Engineering plant oils as high-value industrial feedstocks for biorefining - the need for underpinning cell biology research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J.M. (US Arid-Land Agricultural Research Center, United States Dept. of Agriculture, Maricopa (US)); Mullen, R.T. (University of Guelph, Dept. of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Ontario (CA))

    2008-01-15

    Plant oils represent renewable sources of long-chain hydrocarbons that can be used as both fuel and chemical feedstocks, and genetic engineering offers an opportunity to create further high-value specialty oils for specific industrial uses. While many genes have been identified for the production of industrially important fatty acids, expression of these genes in transgenic plants has routinely resulted in a low accumulation of the desired fatty acids, indicating that significantly more knowledge of seed oil production is required before any future rational engineering designs are attempted. Here, we provide an overview of the cellular features of fatty acid desaturases, the so-called diverged desaturases, and diacylglycerol acyltransferases, three sets of enzymes that play a central role in determining the types and amounts of fatty acids that are present in seed oil, and as such, the final application and value of the oil. Recent studies of the intracellular trafficking, assembly and regulation of these enzymes have provided new insights to the mechanisms of storage oil production, and suggest that the compartmentalization of enzyme activities within specific regions or subdomains of the ER may be essential for both the synthesis of novel fatty acid structures and the channeling of these important fatty acids into seed storage oils. (au)

  8. Life-cycle assessment of biomass-derived refinery feedstocks for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, J.; Rogers, S. [Federal Energy Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Spath, P.L.; Mann, M.K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The U.S., by ratification of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, has pledged to emit no higher levels of greenhouse gases in the year 2000 than it did in 1990. Biomass-derived products have been touted as a possible solution to the potential problem of global warming. However, past studies related to the production of liquid fuels, chemicals, gaseous products, or electricity from biomass have considered only the economics of producing these commodities. The environmental benefits have not been fully quantified. Evaluating the environmental impact of various biomass-based systems has begun using life-cycle assessment. A refinery Linear Programming model previously developed has been modified to examine the effects of CO{sub 2}-capping on the U.S. refining industry and the transportation sector as a whole. By incorporating the results of a CO{sub 2} emissions inventory into the model, the economic impact of emissions-reduction strategies can be estimated. Thus, the degree to which global warming can be solved by supplementing fossil fuels with biomass-derived products can be measured, allowing research and development to be concentrated on the most environmental and economically attractive technology mix. Biomass gasification to produce four different refinery feedstocks was considered in this analysis. (author)

  9. Preliminary life-cycle assessment of biomass-derived refinery feedstocks for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, J.J. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rogers, S. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Spath, P.L.; Mann, M.K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The US by ratification of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has pledged to emit no higher levels of greenhouse gases in the year 2000 than it did in 1990. Biomass-derived products have been touted as a possible solution to the potential problem of global warming. However, past studies related to the production of liquid fuels, chemicals, gaseous products, or electricity from biomass, have only considered the economics of producing these commodities. The environmental benefits have not been fully quantified and factored into these estimates until recently. Evaluating the environmental impact of various biomass systems has begun using life-cycle assessment. A refinery Linear Programming model previously developed has been modified to examine the effects of CO{sub 2}-capping on the US refining industry and the transportation sector as a whole. By incorporating the results of a CO{sub 2} emissions inventory into the model, the economic impact of emissions reduction strategies can be estimated. Thus, the degree to which global warming can be solved by supplementing fossil fuels with biomass-derived products can be measured, allowing research and development to be concentrated on the most environmentally and economically attractive technology mix. Biomass gasification to produce four different refinery feedstocks was considered in this analysis. These biomass-derived products include power, fuel gas, hydrogen for refinery processing, and Fischer-Tropsch liquids for upgrading and blending into finished transportation fuels.

  10. Mechanisms of mercury removal by biochars produced from different feedstocks determined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Ptacek, Carol J; Blowes, David W; Landis, Richard C

    2016-05-01

    Thirty-six biochars produced from distinct feedstocks at different temperatures were evaluated for their potential to remove mercury (Hg) from aqueous solution at environmentally relevant concentrations. Concentrations of total Hg (THg) decreased by >90% in batch systems containing biochars produced at 600 and 700 °C and by 40-90% for biochars produced at 300 °C. Elevated concentrations of SO4(2-) (up to 1000 mg L(-1)) were observed in solutions mixed with manure-based biochars. Sulfur X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses indicate the presence of both reduced and oxidized S species in both unwashed and washed biochars. Sulfur XANES spectra obtained from biochars with adsorbed Hg were similar to those of washed biochars. Micro-X-ray fluorescence mapping results indicate that Hg was heterogeneously distributed across biochar particles. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure modeling indicates Hg was bound to S in biochars with high S content and to O and Cl in biochars with low S content. The predominant mechanisms of Hg removal are likely the formation of chemical bonds between Hg and various functional groups on the biochar. This investigation provides information on the effectiveness and mechanisms of Hg removal that is critical for evaluating biochar applications for stabilization of Hg in surface water, groundwater, soils, and sediments. PMID:26844404

  11. BIOMASS AS A RENEWABLE SOURCE OF CHEMICALS FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, M. Murtala; Nasri, N. Shawal; Hamza, D. Usman

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide demand for cleaner burning fuels and ‘clean’ chemicals has been increasing from the global issues of environmental concern. This lead to a greater utilization of renewable resources to replace the old and existing fossil based feedstock for liquid fuels and chemicals. The ability to re-grow harvested biomass and recapture the carbon emitted to the atmosphere through photosynthesis allows the possibility of carbon neutrality encouraged the use of biomass. Moreso, the unstable rise of...

  12. Two novel approaches used to produce biodiesel from low-cost feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, X.; Chen, F. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition; Wang, X. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Genetics and Biochemistry

    2010-07-01

    The cost of feedstock has a significant effect of the economic viability of biodiesel production. The paper discussed a preliminary study looking at 2 approaches used to economically produce biodiesel, one from waste cooking oil (WCO) and the other from flaked cottonseed. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis was used to produce biodiesel from WCO, and in situ transesterification was used to produce biodiesel from the flaked cottonseed. The use of WCO solves the problem of waste disposal and also generates an environmentally benign fuel while at the same time lowering the costs involved in producing biodiesel. Ultrasonification has proven to be an efficient, low-cost, energy saving means of producing biodiesel. In situ transesterification makes solvent extraction and oil cleanup prior to biodiesel synthesis unnecessary, thereby simplifying the reaction steps. Based on the results of gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography tests, both approaches are feasible for the production of biodiesel from low-cost feedstock. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Calophyllum inophyllum L. as a future feedstock for bio-diesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atabania, A.E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Khartoum (Sudan)], email: a_atabani2@msn.com, email: ardinsu@yahoo.co.id; Silitonga, A.S.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjukia, H.H.; Badruddin, I.A. [University of Malaya (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the energy crisis and the concerns about climate change, the possibility of using biodiesel as an alternative energy resource has been examined. It has been found that biodiesel could be a solution for the future but the first generation of biodiesel, prepared from edible vegetable oils, has raised important concerns about food and environmental problems. The aim of this study is to assess if Calophyllum inophyllum, a non-edible oil, could be used for biodiesel production. Density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, flashpoint and iodine value were determined on Calophyllum inophyllum trees from Cilacap, Indonesia and compared in light of ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. It was found that Calophyllum inophyllum would be a satisfactory feedstock to produce biodiesel in the future. This study demonstrated that Calophyllum inophyllum has the potential to be a biodiesel feedstock and further research should be carried out on engine performance, combustion and emission performance of biodiesel produced from Calophyllum inophyllum.

  14. Economic feasibility of producing sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock in the southeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the feasibility of producing sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as an ethanol feedstock in the southeastern United States through representative counties in Mississippi. We construct enterprise budgets along with estimates of transportation costs to estimate sweet sorghum producers' breakeven costs for producing and delivering sweet sorghum biomass. This breakeven cost for the sweet sorghum producer is used to estimate breakeven costs for the ethanol producer based on wholesale ethanol price, production costs, and transportation and marketing costs. Stochastic models are developed to estimate profits for sweet sorghum and competing crops in two representative counties in Mississippi, with sweet sorghum consistently yielding losses in both counties. -- Highlights: → We examine the economic feasibility of sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock. → We construct enterprise budgets along with estimates of transportation costs. → We estimate breakeven costs for producing and delivering sweet sorghum biomass. → Stochastic models determine profits for sweet sorghum in two Mississippi counties.

  15. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  16. A Saponification Method for Chlorophyll Removal from Microalgae Biomass as Oil Feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Xu, Jin; Wu, Hualian; Wang, Guanghua; Dai, Shikun; Fan, Jiewei; He, Hui; Xiang, Wenzhou

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae oil is an optimal feedstock for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biodiesel production, but its high levels of chlorophyll limit its large-scale application. To date, few effective approaches have been developed to remove chlorophyll from microalgae oil. The main purpose of this study was to present a preprocessing method of algae oil feedstock (Scenedesmus) to remove chlorophyll by saponification. The results showed that 96% of chlorophyll in biomass was removed. High quality orange transparent oil could be extracted from the chlorophyll reduced biomass. Specifically, the proportion of neutral lipids and saturation levels of fatty acids increased, and the pigments composition became carotenoids-based. The critical parameters of chlorophyll reduced biodiesel conformed to the standards of the USA, China and EU. Sodium copper chlorophyllin could be prepared from the bleaching effluent. The results presented herein offer a useful pathway to improve the quality of microalgae oil and reduce the cost of microalgae biodiesel. PMID:27618070

  17. A Saponification Method for Chlorophyll Removal from Microalgae Biomass as Oil Feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Xu, Jin; Wu, Hualian; Wang, Guanghua; Dai, Shikun; Fan, Jiewei; He, Hui; Xiang, Wenzhou

    2016-09-07

    Microalgae oil is an optimal feedstock for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biodiesel production, but its high levels of chlorophyll limit its large-scale application. To date, few effective approaches have been developed to remove chlorophyll from microalgae oil. The main purpose of this study was to present a preprocessing method of algae oil feedstock (Scenedesmus) to remove chlorophyll by saponification. The results showed that 96% of chlorophyll in biomass was removed. High quality orange transparent oil could be extracted from the chlorophyll reduced biomass. Specifically, the proportion of neutral lipids and saturation levels of fatty acids increased, and the pigments composition became carotenoids-based. The critical parameters of chlorophyll reduced biodiesel conformed to the standards of the USA, China and EU. Sodium copper chlorophyllin could be prepared from the bleaching effluent. The results presented herein offer a useful pathway to improve the quality of microalgae oil and reduce the cost of microalgae biodiesel.

  18. Effect of thermo-mechanical properties of PIM feedstock on compacts shape retention during debinding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The removal of the binder from the powder compacts (debinding) can be a slow step and a source of problems. To improve the debinding process of powder injection molding operation, it's necessary to understand the thermal and mechanical properties of powder injection molding feedstocks and to find the major causes responsible for molding difficulties and compacts shape retention during debinding process. The effects of thermo-mechanical properties of the PIM feedstock on the compacts shape retention during debinding process were discussed and explained from practical point of view. The results indicate that the heat of fusion affects the cooling time. The binder component with high heat of fusion and high-decomposed temperature is more effective as the second binder component for the compact to retain its shape during debinding.

  19. Rheologic behavior and PIM processing of WC-TiC-Co powder feedstock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuanhui Qu; Jianxiang Gao; Mingli Qin; Changming Lei

    2004-01-01

    An improved wax-based binder was developed for the powder injection molding (PIM) of WC-TiC-Co cemented carbides.The critical powder loading and the rheologic behavior of the feedstock were determined. It was found that the critical powder loading could achieve up to 62.5% (volume fraction) and the feedstock exhibited a pseudo-plastic flow behavior. The injection molding,debinding and sintering processes were studied. The dimension deviation of the sintered samples could be controlled in the range of ±0.2% with the optimized processing parameters and the mechanical properties were better than or equivalent to those of the same alloy made by conventional press-sintering process.

  20. Modifying lignin to improve bioenergy feedstocks: strengthening the barrier against pathogens?†

    OpenAIRE

    Sattler, Scott E.; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L.

    2013-01-01

    Lignin is a ubiquitous polymer present in cell walls of all vascular plants, where it rigidifies and strengthens the cell wall structure through covalent cross-linkages to cell wall polysaccharides. The presence of lignin makes the cell wall recalcitrant to conversion into fermentable sugars for bioenergy uses. Therefore, reducing lignin content and modifying its linkages have become major targets for bioenergy feedstock development through either biotechnology or traditional plant breeding. ...

  1. Triacylglycerol profiling of microalgae strains for biofuel feedstock by liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    MacDougall, Karen M.; McNichol, Jesse; Patrick J McGinn; O’Leary, Stephen J. B.; Melanson, Jeremy E.

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels from photosynthetic microalgae are quickly gaining interest as a viable carbon-neutral energy source. Typically, characterization of algal feedstock involves breaking down triacylglycerols (TAG) and other intact lipids, followed by derivatization of the fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters prior to analysis by gas chromatography (GC). However, knowledge of the intact lipid profile could offer significant advantages for discovery stage biofuel research such as the selection of an a...

  2. Impacts of near-future cultivation of biofuel feedstocks on atmospheric composition and local air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, K.; Folberth, G.; Hewitt, C. N.; Wild, O.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale production of feedstock crops for biofuels will lead to land use changes. We quantify the effects of realistic land use change scenarios for biofuel feedstock production on isoprene emissions and hence atmospheric composition and chemistry using the HadGEM2 model. Two feedstocks are considered: oil palm for biodiesel in the tropics and short rotation coppice (SRC) in the mid-latitudes. In total, 69 Mha of oil palm and 9 Mha of SRC are planted, each sufficient to replace just over 1% of projected global fossil fuel demand in 2020. Both planting scenarios result in increases in total global annual isoprene emissions of about 1%. In each case, changes in surface concentrations of ozone and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (bSOA) are substantial at the regional scale, with implications for air quality standards. However, the changes in tropospheric burden of ozone and the OH radical, and hence effects on global climate, are negligible. Over SE Asia, one region of oil palm planting, increases in annual mean surface ozone and bSOA concentrations reach over 3 ppbv (+11%) and 0.4 μg m-3 (+10%) respectively for parts of Borneo, with monthly mean increases of up to 6.5 ppbv (+25%) and 0.5 μg m-3 (+12%). Under the SRC scenario, Europe experiences monthly mean changes of over 0.6 ppbv (+1%) and 0.1 μg m-3 (+5%) in June and July, with peak increases of over 2 ppbv (+3%) and 0.5 μg m-3 (+8 %). That appreciable regional atmospheric impacts result from low level planting scenarios demonstrates the need to include changes in emissions of reactive trace gases such as isoprene in life cycle assessments performed on potential biofuel feedstocks.

  3. Development and Characterization of a Metal Injection Molding Bio Sourced Inconel 718 Feedstock Based on Polyhydroxyalkanoates

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Royer; Thierry Barrière; Jean-Claude Gelin

    2016-01-01

    The binder plays the most important role in the metal injection molding (MIM) process. It provides fluidity of the feedstock mixture and adhesion of the powder to keep the molded shape during injection molding. The binder must provide strength and cohesion for the molded part and must be easy to remove from the molded part. Moreover, it must be recyclable, environmentally friendly and economical. Also, the miscibility between polymers affects the homogeneity of the injected parts. The goal of...

  4. Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp. for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Vidyadharani Gopalakrishnan; Dhandapani Ramamurthy

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AA...

  5. Lignocellulosic agriculture wastes as biomass feedstocks for second-generation bioethanol production: concepts and recent developments

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Jitendra Kumar; Saini, Reetu; Tewari, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Production of liquid biofuels, such as bioethanol, has been advocated as a sustainable option to tackle the problems associated with rising crude oil prices, global warming and diminishing petroleum reserves. Second-generation bioethanol is produced from lignocellulosic feedstock by its saccharification, followed by microbial fermentation and product recovery. Agricultural residues generated as wastes during or after processing of agricultural crops are one of such renewable and lignocellulos...

  6. Anaerobic Decomposition of Switchgrass by Tropical Soil-Derived Feedstock-Adapted Consortia

    OpenAIRE

    DeAngelis, Kristen M.; Fortney, Julian L.; Borglin, Sharon; Silver, Whendee L.; Simmons, Blake A.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tropical forest soils decompose litter rapidly with frequent episodes of anoxic conditions, making it likely that bacteria using alternate terminal electron acceptors (TEAs) play a large role in decomposition. This makes these soils useful templates for improving biofuel production. To investigate how TEAs affect decomposition, we cultivated feedstock-adapted consortia (FACs) derived from two tropical forest soils collected from the ends of a rainfall gradient: organic matter-rich tr...

  7. Improvement of hydrogen solubility and entrainment in hydrocracker feedstocks. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1997-02-01

    The project consisted of two tasks: (1) development of a thermodynamic model for hydrogen solubility in hydrocarbons and extension of this model to predict solubility of hydrogen in hydrocracker feedstocks at conditions similar to those of hydrocracking operations, and (2) design and construction of a gas solubility apparatus to measure solubility of hydrogen in hydrocarbons and in hydrocracker feedstocks. The theoretical work proposed was fully accomplished by developing a sophisticated model for hydrogen solubility in hydrocarbons and in hydrocracker feedstocks at advanced temperatures and pressures. The proposed experimental work ran into a number of obstacles, especially to get the original and newly designed on-line sampling technique to function properly. A number of calibrations and tests for reproducibility were necessary to assure the accuracy of measured data. Although a very well designed gas solubility apparatus was built, not much time was left to generate significant hydrogen solubility data. The plans are to use the apparatus in future to measure hydrogen solubility data in liquid fuels to facilitate more efficient design of fuel conversion systems.

  8. Screening microalgae isolated from urban storm- and wastewater systems as feedstock for biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimi, Rebecca; Kirkwood, Andrea E

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting microalgae as feedstock for biofuel production is a growing field of research and application, but there remain challenges related to industrial viability and economic sustainability. A solution to the water requirements of industrial-scale production is the use of wastewater as a growth medium. Considering the variable quality and contaminant loads of wastewater, algal feedstock would need to have broad tolerance and resilience to fluctuating wastewater conditions during growth. As a first step in targeting strains for growth in wastewater, our study isolated microalgae from wastewater habitats, including urban stormwater-ponds and a municipal wastewater-treatment system, to assess growth, fatty acids and metal tolerance under standardized conditions. Stormwater ponds in particular have widely fluctuating conditions and metal loads, so microalgae from this type of environment may have desirable traits for growth in wastewater. Forty-three algal strains were isolated in total, including several strains from natural habitats. All strains, with the exception of one cyanobacterial strain, are members of the Chlorophyta, including several taxa commonly targeted for biofuel production. Isolates were identified using taxonomic and 18S rRNA sequence methods, and the fastest growing strains with ideal fatty acid profiles for biodiesel production included Scenedesmus and Desmodesmus species (Growth rate (d(-1)) > 1). All isolates in a small, but diverse taxonomic group of test-strains were tolerant of copper at wastewater-relevant concentrations. Overall, more than half of the isolated strains, particularly those from stormwater ponds, show promise as candidates for biofuel feedstock. PMID:27635353

  9. Development of a feedstock formulation based on PP for MIM of carbides reinforced M2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Várez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Influence of binder composition on some selected properties of feedstock contained powder of M2 with 10% of carbides powders are demonstrated in the paper.Design/methodology/approach: Torque-load test, rheological tests.Findings: Examination of the effect of the binder type and portion on structure and properties of the experimental tool materials with the cermets structure revealed that using the stearic acid reduces viscosity, thus improving technological properties of the feedstock. Employment of polyethylene instead of the high density polypropylene reduces viscosity and torque-load of the investigated feedstocks. Therefore, there is a possibility to increase the portion of the metallic or ceramic powder.Practical implications: It is expected that further investigations of these materials will make possible their injection moulding, as well as their heat treatment increasing hardness and strength of matrix and thereby of the whole tool material. The extrusion process or PIM (Powder Injection Moulding gives the possibility to manufacturing tools materials on the basis of high speed-steel which characterised very good properties with their final or near net shape.Originality/value: In the paper the using extruding of the polymer-powder mix gives the possibility to fabricate cermets which, with their structure and mechanical properties, fill the gap in tool materials between the high-speed steels and cemented carbides.

  10. Molding Properties and Causes of Deterioration of Recycled Powder Injection Molding Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L. H.; Hwang, K. S.; Fan, Y. L.

    2009-12-01

    To lower the manufacturing cost of powder injection molded products, the gate, runner, sprue, and green parts with defects are usually recycled. Unfortunately, these feedstocks deteriorate as the number of recycling iterations increases. This study presents an investigation of the molding properties and the causes of the deterioration of the recycled feedstocks by monitoring changes in melting points, in-situ strength changes during solvent debinding, spiral length, and viscosity. The oxygen content measurements indicate that serious oxidation occurs after recycling, particularly in the paraffin wax (PW). The results of the molecular weight from gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) also show that the polyethylene (PE) deteriorates during recycling. The viscosity of the 1R (recycled once) feedstock was slightly lower than that of the fresh material. However, as the number of recycling iterations increased, the viscosity increased again. As a result, the spiral length decreased and the required injection pressure increased. It was also noticed that more defects developed along the molding and debinding process.

  11. Optimal Distribution of Biofuel Feedstocks within Marginal Land in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, D.

    2015-12-01

    The United States can have 43 to 123 Mha of marginal land to grow second generation biofuel feedstocks. A physiological and biophysical model (BioCro) was run using 30 yr climate data (NARR) and SSURGO soil data for the conterminous United Stated to simulate growth of miscanthus, switchgrass, sugarcane, and short rotation coppice. Overlay analyses of the regional maps of predicted yields and marginal land suggest maximum availability of 0.33, 1.15, 1.13, and 1.89 PG year-1 of biomass from sugarcane, willow, switchgrass, and miscanthus, respectively. Optimal distribution of these four biofuel feedstocks within the marginal land in the USA can provide up to 2 PG year-1 of biomass for the production of second generation of biofuel without competing for crop land used for food production. This approach can potentially meet a significant fraction of liquid fuel demand in the USA and reduce greenhouse gas emission while ensuring that current crop land under food production is not used for growing biofuel feedstocks.

  12. Landscape management for sustainable supplies of bio energy feedstock and enhanced soil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture can simultaneously address global food, feed, fiber, and energy challenges provided our soil, water, and air resources are not compromised in doing so. Our objective is to present a landscape management concept as an approach for integrating multiple bio energy feedstock sources into current crop production systems. This is done to show how multiple, increasing global challenges can be met in a sustainable manner. We discuss how collaborative research among Usda-Agricultural Research Service (ARS), US Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL), several university extension and research partners, and industry representatives [known as the Renewable Energy Assessment Project (Reap) team] has led to the development of computer-based decision aids for guiding sustainable bio energy feedstock production. The decision aids, known initially as the Corn Stover Tool and more recently as the Landscape Environmental Assessment Framework (Leaf) are tools designed to recognize the importance of nature s diversity and can therefore be used to guide sustainable feedstock production without having negative impacts on critical ecosystem services. Using a 57 ha farm site in central Iowa, USA, we show how producer decisions regarding corn (Zea mays L.) stover harvest within the US Corn Belt can be made in a more sustainable manner. This example also supports Reap team conclusions that stover should not be harvested if average grain yields are less than 11 Mg ha-1 unless more balanced landscape management practices are implemented. The tools also illustrate the importance of sub-field management and site-specific stover harvest strategies

  13. Design of a GIS-Based Web Application for Simulating Biofuel Feedstock Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Prilepova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Short rotation woody crops (SRWC, such as hybrid poplar, have the potential to serve as a valuable feedstock for cellulosic biofuels. Spatial estimates of biomass yields under different management regimes are required for assisting stakeholders in making better management decisions and to establish viable woody cropping systems for biofuel production. To support stakeholders in their management decisions, we have developed a GIS-based web interface using a modified 3PG model for spatially predicting poplar biomass yields under different management and climate conditions in the U.S. Pacific Northwest region. The application is implemented with standard HTML5 components, allowing its use in a modern browser and dynamically adjusting to the client screen size and device. In addition, cloud storage of the results makes them accessible on any Internet-enabled device. The web interface appears simple, but is powerful in parameter manipulation and in visualizing and sharing the results. Overall, this application comprises dynamic features that enable users to run SRWC crop growth simulations based on GIS information and contributes significantly to choosing appropriate feedstock growing locations, anticipating the desired physiological properties of the feedstock and incorporating the management and policy analysis needed for growing hybrid poplar plantations.

  14. Compositional and Agronomic Evaluation of Sorghum Biomass as a Potential Feedstock for Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, J.; Wolfrum, E.; Bean, B.; Rooney, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    One goal of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee was to replace 30% of current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. This will take mixtures of various feedstocks; an annual biomass feedstock such as sorghum will play an important role in meeting this goal. Commercial forage sorghum samples collected from field trials grown in Bushland, TX in 2007 were evaluated for both agronomic and compositional traits. Biomass compositional analysis of the samples was performed at the National Renewable Energy Lab in Golden, CO following NREL Laboratory Analytical Procedures. Depending on the specific cultivar, several additional years of yield data for this location were considered in establishing agronomic potential. Results confirm that sorghum forages can produce high biomass yields over multiple years and varied growing conditions. In addition, the composition of sorghum shows significant variation, as would be expected for most crops. Using theoretical estimates for ethanol production, the sorghum commercial forages examined in this study could produce an average of 6147 L ha{sup -1} of renewable fuels. Given its genetic variability, a known genomic sequence, a robust seed industry, and biomass composition, sorghum will be an important annual feedstock to meet the alternative fuel production goals legislated by the US Energy Security Act of 2007.

  15. Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp. for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadharani Gopalakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AAS analysis. There was especially a reduction in heavy metal like lead (Pb concentration from 0.002 ppm to 0.001 ppm after Neochloris sp. treatment. Neochloris sp. cultivated in Bold Basal Medium (BBM (specific algal medium produced 41.93% total lipid and 36.69% lipid was produced in effluent based cultivation. Surprisingly Neochloris sp. cultivated in effluent was found with enhanced neutral lipid content, and it was confirmed by Nile red fluorescence assay. Further the particular enrichment in oleic acid content of the cells was confirmed with thin layer chromatography (TLC with oleic acid pure (98% control. The overall results suggested that textile dyeing industry effluent could serve as the best lipid productive medium for Neochloris sp. biodiesel feedstock preparation. This study was found to have a significant impact on reducing the biodiesel feedstock preparation cost with simultaneous lipid induction by heavy metal stress to microalgae.

  16. Review: Balancing Limiting Factors and Economic Drivers to Achieve Sustainable Midwestern US Agricultural Residue Feedstock Supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wally W. Wilhelm; J. Richard Hess; Douglas L. Karlen; David J. Muth; Jane M. F. Johnson; John M. Baker; Hero T. Gollany; Jeff M. Novak; Diane E. Stott; Gary E. Varvel

    2010-10-01

    Advanced biofuels will be developed using cellulosic feedstock rather than grain or oilseed crops that can also be used for food and feed. To be sustainable, these new agronomic production systems must be economically viable without degrading soil resources. This review examines six agronomic factors that collectively define many of the limits and opportunities for harvesting crop residue for biofuel feedstock. These six “limiting factors” are discussed in relationship to economic drivers associated with harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover as a potential cellulosic feedstock. The limiting factors include soil organic carbon, wind and water erosion, plant nutrient balance, soil water and temperature dynamics, soil compaction, and off-site environmental impacts. Initial evaluations using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2.0 (RUSLE2) show that a single factor analysis based on simply meeting tolerable soil loss might indicate stover could be harvested sustainably, but the same analysis based on maintaining soil organic carbon shows the practice to be non-sustainable. Modifying agricultural management to include either annual or perennial cover crops is shown to meet both soil erosion and soil carbon requirements. The importance of achieving high yields and planning in a holistic manner at the landscape scale are also shown to be crucial for balancing limitations and drivers associated with renewable bioenergy production.

  17. Release of soluble elements from biochars derived from various biomass feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hailu; Che, Xiaodong; Ding, Zhuhong; Hu, Xin; Creamer, Anne Elise; Chen, Hao; Gao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Biochar as soil amendment can increase soil carbon (C) sequestration and mineral nutrients; however, some of its soluble elements may also be unintentionally released during the application. In this work, eight types of biochars were derived from herbaceous, woody, and waste (tailing, manure, sludge) biomass feedstocks through slow pyrolysis at 600 °C in N2. The elemental composition, specific surface area, morphology, crystalline phases, thermal stability, surface functional groups, and pH of the point of zero charge of the biochars were determined using various methods. These properties varied significantly among the tested biochars, suggesting that feedstock type played an important role in controlling their properties. Laboratory release and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure extraction experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential release of nutritious and toxic element from biochars. Results showed that all the biochars released nutritious elements and thus, may be beneficial to plants when amended in soils. In general, biochars produced from herbaceous and woody biomass feedstocks showed low risks of releasing toxic elements. Biochar derived from sludge, however, might present ecotoxicological challenges for its environmental applications due to the release of toxic elements, such as heavy metals. PMID:26408115

  18. Progress in the production of bioethanol on starch-based feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragiša Savić

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol produced from renewable biomass, such as sugar, starch, or lignocellulosic materials, is one of the alternative energy resources, which is both renewable and environmentally friendly. Although, the priority in global future ethanol production is put on lignocellulosic processing, which is considered as one of the most promising second-generation biofuel technologies, the utilizetion of lignocellulosic material for fuel ethanol is still under improvement. Sugar- based (molasses, sugar cane, sugar beet and starch-based (corn, wheat, triticale, potato, rice, etc. feedstock are still currently predominant at the industrial level and they are, so far, economically favorable compared to lingocelluloses. Currently, approx. 80 % of total world ethanol production is obtained from the fermentation of simple sugars by yeast. In Serbia, one of the most suitable and available agricultural raw material for the industrial ethanol production are cereals such as corn, wheat and triticale. In addition, surpluses of this feedstock are being produced in our country constantly. In this paper, a brief review of the state of the art in bioethanol production and biomass availability is given, pointing out the progress possibilities on starch-based production. The progress possibilities are discussed in the domain of feedstock choice and pretreatment, optimization of fermentation, process integration and utilization of the process byproducts.

  19. R3DO: A Plastic Recycling System For Creating 3D Printer Feedstock On-Orbit Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An automated in-space recycling system for 3D printer feedstock will provide game-changing resupply benefits including but not limited to launch mass reduction,...

  20. 水煤浆加压气化原料用煤更换总结%Sum-Up of Change of Feedstock Coal for Pressure Gasification of Coal-Water Slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范立明

    2000-01-01

    Weihe Chemical Fertilizer Plant originally used Huan-gling coal, but due to its high ash content and ash fusion point, it becamean obstacle in the long-term stable operation of the Texaco Gasifier. Afterextensive survey and study and analysis, the feedstock coal has beenchanged to Huating coal, which basically satisfies the requirements forlong-term stable operation of the gasifier. An analysis is given of the rea-sons for changing the feedstock coal, trial operating by using Huating coalas feedstock and results obtained, and demonstrations are presented. Amethod is put forward for further improvement on the slurrying property ofthe coal in future.%渭河化肥厂原采用的黄陵煤由于煤质灰份含量及灰熔点偏高,影响德士古气化炉长周期稳定运行。经广泛调研分析之后,原料煤更换为华亭煤,基本满足了气化炉长周期稳定运行的要求。对原料煤更换的原因、试烧及结果进行了分析论证,指出了今后应进一步提高煤的成浆性能的方法。

  1. Test Plan for Evaluating Hammer and Fixed Cutter Grinders Using Multiple Varieties and Moistures of Biomass Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not listed

    2007-07-01

    Biomass preprocessing is a critical operation in the preparation of feedstock for the front-end of a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery. Its purpose is to chop, grind, or otherwise format the biomass material into a suitable feedstock for optimum conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Without this operation, the natural size, bulk density, and flowability characteristics of harvested biomass would decrease the capacities and efficiencies of feedstock assembly unit operations and biorefinery conversion processes to the degree that programmatic cost targets could not be met. The preprocessing unit operation produces a bulk flowable material that 1) improves handling and conveying efficiencies throughout the feedstock assembly system and biorefinery 2) increases biomass surface areas for improved pretreatment efficiencies, 3) reduces particle sizes for improved feedstock uniformity and density, and 4) fractionates structural components for improved compositional quality. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is tasked with defining the overall efficiency/effectiveness of current commercial hammer and fixed cutter grinding systems and other connecting systems such as harvest and collection, storage, transportation, and handling for a wide variety of feedstock types used in bioethanol or syngas production. This test plan details tasks and activities for two separate full-scale grinding tests: Material Characterization Test and Machine Characterization Test. For the Material Characterization Test, a small amount (~5-7 tons each) of several feedstock varieties will be ground. This test will define the fractionation characteristics of the grinder that affect the bulk density, particle size distribution, and quality of the size reduced biomass resulting from different separation screen sizes. A specific screen size will be selected based on the characteristics of the ground material. The Machine Characterization Test will then use this selected screen to grind several 30

  2. Mitigating Land Use Changes From Biofuel Expansion: An Assessment of Biofuel Feedstock Yield Potential in APEC Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Elobeid, Amani E.; Tokgoz, Simla; Yu, Tun-Hsiang

    2009-01-01

    The emerging biofuel sector has drawn great interest as an alternative source of fuel for transportation. The expansion of biofuels greatly impacts world agricultural markets, since currently, the primary feedstocks for ethanol and biodiesel production are field crops and their derived products. There is great interest in the potential of countries to expand their biofuel sectors through increased production of feedstocks. The long-term potential for developing first-generation biofuels in ma...

  3. Canadian boreal pulp and paper feedstocks contain neuroactive substances that interact in vitro with GABA and dopaminergic systems in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waye, Andrew; Annal, Malar; Tang, Andrew; Picard, Gabriel; Harnois, Frédéric; Guerrero-Analco, José A; Saleem, Ammar; Hewitt, L Mark; Milestone, Craig B; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Trudeau, Vance L; Arnason, John T

    2014-01-15

    Pulp and paper wood feedstocks have been previously implicated as a source of chemicals with the ability to interact with or disrupt key neuroendocrine endpoints important in the control of reproduction. We tested nine Canadian conifers commonly used in pulp and paper production as well as 16 phytochemicals that have been observed in various pulp and paper mill effluent streams for their ability to interact in vitro with the enzymes monoamine oxidase (MAO), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and GABA-transaminase (GABA-T), and bind to the benzodiazepine-binding site of the GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)-BZD). These neuroendocrine endpoints are also important targets for treatment of neurological disorders such as anxiety, epilepsy, or depression. MAO and GAD were inhibited by various conifer extracts of different polarities, including major feedstocks such as balsam fir, black spruce, and white spruce. MAO was selectively stimulated or inhibited by many of the tested phytochemicals, with inhibition observed by a group of phenylpropenes (e.g. isoeugenol and vanillin). Selective GAD inhibition was also observed, with all of the resin acids tested being inhibitory. GABA(A)-BZD ligand displacement was also observed. We compiled a table identifying which of these phytochemicals have been described in each of the species tested here. Given the diversity of conifer species and plant chemicals with these specific neuroactivities, it is reasonable to propose that MAO and GAD inhibition reported in effluents is phytochemical in origin. We propose disruption of these neuroendocrine endpoints as a possible mechanism of reproductive inhibition, and also identify an avenue for potential research and sourcing of conifer-derived neuroactive natural products. PMID:24041600

  4. Chemical, electrochemical, and thermal bridges for transmission of OTEC power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederman, N.P.; Sinnott, J.; Talib, A.; Blazek, C.F.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical and electrochemical means of providing a ''bridge'' from an OTEC plant to an energy market offer a number of advantages over electric cable transmission. The most recent work done by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) on assessing various forms of chemical, electrochemical, and thermal energy carriers for OTEC plants is reported. These energy carriers were evaluated in terms of their overall technical feasibility and economic potential in the energy marketplace as means for augmenting conventional chemical fuels, providing peaking electric power, and as chemical feedstocks.

  5. Development of a system for characterizing biomass quality of lignocellulosic feedstocks for biochemical conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick Thomas

    The purpose of this research was twofold: (i) to develop a system for screening lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks for biochemical conversion to biofuels and (ii) to evaluate brown midrib corn stover as feedstock for ethanol production. In the first study (Chapter 2), we investigated the potential of corn stover from bm1-4 hybrids for increased ethanol production and reduced pretreatment intensity compared to corn stover from the isogenic normal hybrid. Corn stover from hybrid W64A X A619 and respective isogenic bm hybrids was pretreated by aqueous ammonia steeping using ammonium hydroxide concentrations from 0 to 30%, by weight, and the resulting residues underwent simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) to ethanol. Dry matter (DM) digested by SSCF increased with increasing ammonium hydroxide concentration across all genotypes (P>0.0001) from 277 g kg-1 DM in the control to 439 g kg-1 DM in the 30% ammonium hydroxide pretreatment. The bm corn stover materials averaged 373 g kg-1 DM of DM digested by SSCF compared with 335 g kg-1 DM for the normal corn stover (Pcell-wall carbohydrate hydrolysis of corn stover, (ii) the lowest initial cell-wall carbohydrate concentration, (iii) the lowest dry matter remaining after pretreatment, and (iv) the highest amount of monosaccharides released during enzymatic hydrolysis. However, bm corn stover did not reduce the severity of aqueous ammonia steeping pretreatment needed to maximize DM hydrolysis during SSCF compared with normal corn stover. In the remaining studies (Chapters 3 thru 5), a system for analyzing the quality of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks for biochemical conversion to biofuels (i.e., pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation) was developed. To accomplish this, a carbohydrate availability model was developed to characterize feedstock quality. The model partitions carbohydrates within a feedstock material into fractions based on their availability to be converted to fermentable

  6. Forest based biomass for energy in Uganda: Stakeholder dynamics in feedstock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insufficient energy supply and low levels of development are closely linked. Both are major issues in Uganda where growing demand cannot be met by overstretched infrastructure and the majority still rely on traditional biomass use. Uganda's renewable energy policy focuses on decentralised sources including modern biomass. In this paper, stakeholder dynamics and potential socio-economic impacts of eight modern bioenergy feedstock production models in Uganda are considered, and key considerations for future planning provided. For these models the main distinctions were land ownership (communal or private) and feedstock type (by-product or plantation). Key social issues varied by value chain (corporate, government or farmer/NGO), and what production arrangement was in place (produced for own use or sale). Small, privately owned production models can be profitable but are unlikely to benefit landless poor and, if repeated without strategic planning, could result in resource depletion. Larger projects can have greater financial benefits, though may have longer term natural resource impacts felt by adjacent communities. Bioenergy initiatives which allow the rural poor to participate through having a collaborative stake, rather than receiving information, and provide opportunities for the landless are most likely to result in socio-economic rural development to meet policy goals. The structured approach to understanding stakeholder dynamics used was found to be robust and sufficiently adaptable to provide meaningful analysis. In conclusion; local, context-specific planning and assessment for bioenergy projects, where all stakeholders have the opportunity to be collaborators in the process throughout its full lifecycle, is required to achieve rural development objectives. -- Highlights: • Stakeholder dynamics and socio-economics in 8 Ugandan bioenergy projects considered. • Key distinctions were ownership, feedstock, value chain and production arrangement. • Small

  7. Performance Analysis of an Integrated Fixed Bed Gasifier Model for Different Biomass Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmina Begum

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy recovery from biomass by gasification technology has attracted significant interest because it satisfies a key requirement of environmental sustainability by producing near zero emissions. Though it is not a new technology, studies on its integrated process simulation and analysis are limited, in particular for municipal solid waste (MSW gasification. This paper develops an integrated fixed bed gasifier model of biomass gasification using the Advanced System for Process ENngineering (Aspen Plus software for its performance analysis. A computational model was developed on the basis of Gibbs free energy minimization. The model is validated with experimental data of MSW and food waste gasification available in the literature. A reasonable agreement between measured and predicted syngas composition was found. Using the validated model, the effects of operating conditions, namely air-fuel ratio and gasifier temperature, on syngas production are studied. Performance analyses have been done for four different feedstocks, namely wood, coffee bean husks, green wastes and MSWs. The ultimate and proximate analysis data for each feedstock was used for model development. It was found that operating parameters have a significant influence on syngas composition. An air-fuel ratio of 0.3 and gasifier temperature of 700 °C provides optimum performance for a fixed bed gasifier for MSWs, wood wastes, green wastes and coffee bean husks. The developed model can be useful for gasification of other biomasses (e.g., food wastes, rice husks, poultry wastes and sugarcane bagasse to predict the syngas composition. Therefore, the study provides an integrated gasification model which can be used for different biomass feedstocks.

  8. Dynamic impacts of high oil prices on the bioethanol and feedstock markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the impacts of high international oil prices on the bioethanol and corn markets in the US. Between 2007 and 2008, the prices of major grain crops had increased sharply, reflecting the rise in international oil prices. These dual price shocks had caused substantial harm to the global economy. Employing a structural vector auto-regression model (SVAR), we analyze how increases in international oil prices could impact the prices of and demand for corn, which is used as a major bioethanol feedstock in the US. The results indicate that an increase in the oil price would increase bioethanol demand for corn and corn prices in the short run and that corn prices would stabilize in the long run as corn exports and feedstock demand for corn decline. Consequently, policies supporting biofuels should encourage the use of bioethanol co-products for feed and the development of marginal land to mitigate increases in the feedstock price. - Research highlights: → World economy experienced 'dual shocks', which were caused by skyrocketed oil prices and grain prices between 2007 and 2008. → Sharp increases in ethanol production in response to high oil prices were considered as a major driving force to 'ag-flation' in the United States. → Applying a time series econometric tool, called the 'structural vector auto-regression model', we evaluated relationship between ethanol production and corn prices. → The result shows that ethanol production affects corn prices in the short run, while corn prices are lowered as other corn demands (feed for livestock or export demand) decline in the long run.

  9. The potential impacts of biomass feedstock production on water resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, K C; Hunt, P G; Cantrell, K B; Ro, K S

    2010-03-01

    Biofuels are a major topic of global interest and technology development. Whereas bioenergy crop production is highly dependent on water, bioenergy development requires effective allocation and management of water. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the bioenergy production relative to the impacts on water resource related factors: (1) climate and weather impact on water supplies for biomass production; (2) water use for major bioenergy crop production; and (3) potential alternatives to improve water supplies for bioenergy. Shifts to alternative bioenergy crops with greater water demand may produce unintended consequences for both water resources and energy feedstocks. Sugarcane and corn require 458 and 2036 m(3) water/m(3) ethanol produced, respectively. The water requirements for corn grain production to meet the US-DOE Billion-Ton Vision may increase approximately 6-fold from 8.6 to 50.1 km(3). Furthermore, climate change is impacting water resources throughout the world. In the western US, runoff from snowmelt is occurring earlier altering the timing of water availability. Weather extremes, both drought and flooding, have occurred more frequently over the last 30 years than the previous 100 years. All of these weather events impact bioenergy crop production. These events may be partially mitigated by alternative water management systems that offer potential for more effective water use and conservation. A few potential alternatives include controlled drainage and new next-generation livestock waste treatment systems. Controlled drainage can increase water available to plants and simultaneously improve water quality. New livestock waste treatments systems offer the potential to utilize treated wastewater to produce bioenergy crops. New technologies for cellulosic biomass conversion via thermochemical conversion offer the potential for using more diverse feedstocks with dramatically reduced water requirements. The development of bioenergy

  10. Manipulating microRNAs for improved biomass and biofuels from plant feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Jennifer Lynn; Zhang, Baohong; Stewart, Charles Neal

    2015-04-01

    Petroleum-based fuels are nonrenewable and unsustainable. Renewable sources of energy, such as lignocellulosic biofuels and plant metabolite-based drop-in fuels, can offset fossil fuel use and reverse environmental degradation through carbon sequestration. Despite these benefits, the lignocellulosic biofuels industry still faces many challenges, including the availability of economically viable crop plants. Cell wall recalcitrance is a major economic barrier for lignocellulosic biofuels production from biomass crops. Sustainability and biomass yield are two additional, yet interrelated, foci for biomass crop improvement. Many scientists are searching for solutions to these problems within biomass crop genomes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in almost all biological and metabolic process in plants including plant development, cell wall biosynthesis and plant stress responses. Because of the broad functions of their targets (e.g. auxin response factors), the alteration of plant miRNA expression often results in pleiotropic effects. A specific miRNA usually regulates a biologically relevant bioenergy trait. For example, relatively low miR156 overexpression leads to a transgenic feedstock with enhanced biomass and decreased recalcitrance. miRNAs have been overexpressed in dedicated bioenergy feedstocks such as poplar and switchgrass yielding promising results for lignin reduction, increased plant biomass, the timing of flowering and response to harsh environments. In this review, we present the status of miRNA-related research in several major biofuel crops and relevant model plants. We critically assess published research and suggest next steps for miRNA manipulation in feedstocks for increased biomass and sustainability for biofuels and bioproducts. PMID:25707745

  11. Platform Chemicals from an Oilseed Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tupy, Mike; Schrodi Yann

    2006-11-06

    The US chemical industry is $460 billion in size where a $150 billion segment of which is non-oxygenated chemicals that is sourced today via petroleum but is addressable by a renewable feedstock if one considers a more chemically reduced feedstock such as vegetable oils. Vegetable oil, due to its chemical functionality, provides a largely untapped opportunity as a renewable chemical source to replace petroleum-derived chemicals and produce platform chemicals unavailable today. This project examined the fertile intersection between the rich building blocks provided by vegetable oils and the enhanced chemical modification capability provided by metathesis chemistry. The technology advanced in this study is the process of ethylene cross-metathesis (referred to as ethenolysis) with vegetable oil and vegetable oil derivatives to manufacture the platform-chemical 9-decenoic acid (or 9DA) and olefin co-products. The project team meet its goals of demonstrating improved catalyst efficiencies of several multiples, deepening the mechanistic understanding of metathesis, synthesis and screening of dozens of new catalysts, designing and modeling commercial processes, and estimating production costs. One demonstrable result of the study was a step change improvement in catalyst turnover number in the ethenolysis of methyl oleate as reported here. We met our key measurable of producing 100 lbs of 9DA at the pilot-scale, which demonstrated ability to scale-up ethenolysis. DOE Project funding had significant positive impact on development of metathetically modified vegetable oils more broadly as the Cargill/Materia partnership, that was able to initiate primarily due to DOE funding, has succeeded in commercializing products, validating metathesis as a platform technology, and expanding a diverse products portfolio in high value and in large volume markets. Opportunities have expanded and business development has gained considerable momentum and enabled further expansion of the

  12. Growth, Fatty Acid, and Lipid Composition of Marine Microalgae Skeletonema costatum Available in Bangladesh Coast: Consideration as Biodiesel Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Sharmin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the various potential sources of renewable energy, biofuels are of most interest. Marine microalgae are the most promising oil sources for making biofuels, which can grow very rapidly and convert solar energy to chemical energy via CO2 fixation. The fatty acid profile of almost all the microalgal oil is suitable for the synthesis of biofuel. In this research, fatty acid and lipid contents of Bangladeshi strains of marine microalgae Skeletonema costatum were performed. For this, the crude oil was extracted by Soxhlet extraction method, using three most common solvent systems, pure hexane and mixture of CHCl3 : MeOH (2 : 1 and hexane : EtOH (3 : 1 one by one. Highest oil recovery (15.37% came from CHCl3 : MeOH (2 : 1 solvent system from dry biomass whereas the lowest (2.49% came from n-hexane from wet biomass. The qualitative analysis of the extracted oil by GC/MS analysis revealed that it contained significant amount of myristic acid (C14:0, palmitic acid (C16:0, stearic acid (C18:0, and palmitoleic acid (C16:1. It also indicated presence of hexadecatrienoic acid, benzenedicarboxylic acid, oleic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 9-Octadecenoic acid methyl ester (C19H36O2, and so forth. The obtained fatty acid profile indicates high potentiality of S. costatum species to be used as promising biofuel feedstock a little improvisation and substantially it can replace diesel in near future.

  13. Long-Term Variability in Sugarcane Bagasse Feedstock Compositional Methods: Sources and Magnitude of Analytical Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, David W.; Sluiter, Justin B.; Sluiter, Amie; Payne, Courtney; Crocker, David P.; Tao, Ling; Wolfrum, Ed

    2016-10-18

    In an effort to find economical, carbon-neutral transportation fuels, biomass feedstock compositional analysis methods are used to monitor, compare, and improve biofuel conversion processes. These methods are empirical, and the analytical variability seen in the feedstock compositional data propagates into variability in the conversion yields, component balances, mass balances, and ultimately the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). We report the average composition and standard deviations of 119 individually extracted National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) bagasse [Reference Material (RM) 8491] run by seven analysts over 7 years. Two additional datasets, using bulk-extracted bagasse (containing 58 and 291 replicates each), were examined to separate out the effects of batch, analyst, sugar recovery standard calculation method, and extractions from the total analytical variability seen in the individually extracted dataset. We believe this is the world's largest NIST bagasse compositional analysis dataset and it provides unique insight into the long-term analytical variability. Understanding the long-term variability of the feedstock analysis will help determine the minimum difference that can be detected in yield, mass balance, and efficiency calculations. The long-term data show consistent bagasse component values through time and by different analysts. This suggests that the standard compositional analysis methods were performed consistently and that the bagasse RM itself remained unchanged during this time period. The long-term variability seen here is generally higher than short-term variabilities. It is worth noting that the effect of short-term or long-term feedstock compositional variability on MESP is small, about $0.03 per gallon. The long-term analysis variabilities reported here are plausible minimum values for these methods, though not necessarily average or expected variabilities. We must emphasize the importance of training and

  14. Impacts of near-future cultivation of biofuel feedstocks on atmospheric composition and local air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ashworth

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale production of feedstock crops for biofuels will lead to land-use changes. We quantify the effects of realistic land use change scenarios for biofuel feedstock production on isoprene emissions and hence atmospheric composition and chemistry using the HadGEM2 model. Two feedstocks are considered: oil palm for biodiesel in the tropics and short rotation coppice (SRC in the mid-latitudes. In total, 69 Mha of oil palm and 92 Mha of SRC are planted, each sufficient to replace just over 1 % of projected global fossil fuel demand in 2020. Both planting scenarios result in increases in total global annual isoprene emissions of about 1 %. In each case, changes in surface concentrations of ozone and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (bSOA are significant at the regional scale and are detectable even at a global scale with implications for air quality standards. However, the changes in tropospheric burden of ozone and the OH radical, and hence effects on global climate, are negligible. The oil palm plantations and processing plants result in global average annual mean increases in ozone and bSOA of 38 pptv and 2 ng m−3 respectively. Over SE Asia, one region of planting, increases reach over 2 ppbv and 300 ng m−3 for large parts of Borneo. Planting of SRC causes global annual mean changes of 46 pptv and 3 ng m−3. Europe experiences peak monthly mean changes of almost 0.6 ppbv and 90 ng m−3 in June and July. Large areas of Central and Eastern Europe see changes of over 1.5 ppbv and 200 ng m−3 in the summer. That such significant atmospheric impacts from low level planting scenarios are discernible globally clearly demonstrates the need to include changes in emissions of reactive trace gases such as isoprene in life cycle assessments performed on potential biofuel feedstocks.

  15. Uncertainties in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Advanced Biomass Feedstock Logistics Supply Chains in Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Nguyen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To meet Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA cellulosic biofuel mandates, the United States will require an annual domestic supply of about 242 million Mg of biomass by 2022. To improve the feedstock logistics of lignocellulosic biofuels in order to access available biomass resources from areas with varying yields, commodity systems have been proposed and designed to deliver quality-controlled biomass feedstocks at preprocessing “depots”. Preprocessing depots densify and stabilize the biomass prior to long-distance transport and delivery to centralized biorefineries. The logistics of biomass commodity supply chains could introduce spatially variable environmental impacts into the biofuel life cycle due to needing to harvest, move, and preprocess biomass from multiple distances that have variable spatial density. This study examines the uncertainty in greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of corn stover logistics within a bio-ethanol supply chain in the state of Kansas, where sustainable biomass supply varies spatially. Two scenarios were evaluated each having a different number of depots of varying capacity and location within Kansas relative to a central commodity-receiving biorefinery to test GHG emissions uncertainty. The first scenario sited four preprocessing depots evenly across the state of Kansas but within the vicinity of counties having high biomass supply density. The second scenario located five depots based on the shortest depot-to-biorefinery rail distance and biomass availability. The logistics supply chain consists of corn stover harvest, collection and storage, feedstock transport from field to biomass preprocessing depot, preprocessing depot operations, and commodity transport from the biomass preprocessing depot to the biorefinery. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the spatial uncertainty in the feedstock logistics gate-to-gate sequence. Within the logistics supply chain GHG emissions are most sensitive to the

  16. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Synthesis Using Arc Discharge with Hydrocarbon as Feedstock

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhary, K. T.; Z. H. Rizvi; Bhatti, K. A.; Ali, J; P. P. Yupapin

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) by arc discharge process is investigated with methane (CH4) as background and feedstock gas. The arc discharge is carried out between two graphite electrodes for ambient pressures 100, 300, and 500 torr and arc currents 50, 70, and 90 A. Plasma kinetics such as the density and temperature for arc discharge carbon plasma is determined to find out the contribution of physical parameters as arc current and ambient pressure on the plasma dynamics a...

  17. Effect of feedstock end boiling point on product sulphur during ultra deep diesel hydrodesulphurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratiev, D.; Ivanov, A.; Jelyaskova, M. [Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas AD, Bourgas (Bulgaria)

    2004-12-01

    An investigation was carried out to test the feasibility of producing 50 and 10 ppm sulphur diesel in a conventional hydrotreating unit operating at low pressure conditions by varying the feedstock end boiling point. Middle distillate fractions distilled from a mixture of Ural crude oil, reduced crude, vacuum gas oil, naphtha and low sulphur crude oils with 95% vol. points of 274, 359, 343, 333, and 322 C (ASTM D-86 method) and sulphur contents of 0.36, 0.63, 0.99, 0.57, and 0.47%, respectively, were hydrotreated using the Akzo Nobel Stars family Co-Mo KF-757 catalyst in a trickle bed pilot plant at following conditions: reactor inlet temperature range of 320-360 C; liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) range of 1-2 h{sup -1}; total reactor pressure of 3.5 MPa; treating gas: feedstock ratio of 250 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3}. It was found that the determinant factor for the attainment of ultra low sulphur levels during middle distillate hydrodesulphurization was not the total sulphur content in the feed but the content of the material boiling above 340 C (according to TBP). For all LHSVs and reactor inlet temperatures studied the product sulphur dependence on the feed 340 C+ fraction content was approximated by second order power law. The specification of 50 ppm sulphur was achieved with all studied feedstocks. However the 10ppm sulphur limit could be met only by feedstocks with 95% vol. points below 333 C, which is accompanied by about 10% reduction of the diesel potential. The hydrotreatment tests on a blend 80% straight run gas oil (ASTM D-86 95% vol. of 274 C)/20%FCC LCO (ASTM D-86 95% vol. of 284 C) showed product sulphur levels which were not higher than those obtained by hydrotreatment of the straight run gas oil, indicating that undercutting the FCC LCO gives the refiner the opportunity to increase the potential for the production of 10 ppm sulphur diesel at the conditions of the conventional hydrotreating unit operating at low pressure. The product cetane index was

  18. The Impact of an EU-US TTIP Agreement on Biofuel and Feedstock Markets

    OpenAIRE

    BEGHIN, JOHN C; Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Gohin, Alex

    2014-01-01

    We assess the impact of a potential TTIP bilateral free trade agreement on the EU and US bio-economies (feedstock, biofuels, by-products, and related competing crops) and major trade partners in these markets. The analysis develops a multi-market model that incorporates bilateral trade flows (US to EU, EU to US, and similarly with third countries) and is calibrated to OECD-FAO baseline for 2013–2022 to account for recent policy decisions. The major policy reforms from a TTIP involve tariff an...

  19. Effect of organic loading rate and feedstock composition on foaming in manure-based biogas reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occur in biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. In the present study, the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) and feedstock composition on foaming was elucidated in continuous reactor experiments. By stepwise...... increasing the OLR and the concentration of proteins or lipids in the substrate, foaming in biogas reactors was investigated. No foam formation was observed at the OLR of 3.5. g volatile solids/(L-reactor·day). Organic loading was the main factor affecting foam formation in manure digester, while the organic...

  20. Identifying the point of departures for the detailed sustainability assessment of biomass feedstocks for biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Dalgaard, Tommy

    aspects between the current application and future potentials. In Denmark, straw is widely used as a source of energy for heat and power production and for animal production. Thus, the overall sustainability and the year-round supply should be examined, particularly if it acts as a principal feedstock...... for biorefineries and potential impacts to the existing market. This study aims to assist in the sustainability assessment of straw conversion in the biochemical conversion routes to deliver bioethanol and other biobased products. For the comparison, conversion of straw to produce heat and electricity in a Combined...

  1. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  2. Economic Impacts of Using Switchgrass as a Feedstock for Ethanol Production: A Case Study Located in East Tennessee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton C. English

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major motivations to establish a biobased energy sector in the United States is to promote economic development in the rural areas of the nation. This study estimated the economic impact of investing and operating a switchgrass-based ethanol plant in East Tennessee. Applying a spatially oriented mixed-integer mathematical programming model, we first determined the location of biorefinery, feedstock draw area, and the resources used in various feedstock supply systems by minimizing the total plant gate cost of feedstock. Based on the model output, an input-output model was utilized to determine the total economic impact, including direct, indirect, and induced effects of feedstock investment and annual production in the study region. Moreover, the economic impact of ethanol plant investment and annual conversion operation was analyzed. Results suggest that the total annual expenditures in an unprotected large round bale system generated a total $92.5 million in economic output within the 13 counties of East Tennessee. In addition, an estimated $234 million in overall economic output was generated through the operation of the biorefinery. This research showed that the least-cost configuration of the feedstock supply chain influenced the levels and types of economic impact of biorefinery.

  3. Growth and fatty acid characterization of microalgae isolated from municipal waste-treatment systems and the potential role of algal-associated bacteria in feedstock production

    OpenAIRE

    Stemmler, Kevin; Massimi, Rebecca; Kirkwood, Andrea E.

    2016-01-01

    Much research has focused on growing microalgae for biofuel feedstock, yet there remain concerns about the feasibility of freshwater feedstock systems. To reduce cost and improve environmental sustainability, an ideal microalgal feedstock system would be fed by municipal, agricultural or industrial wastewater as a main source of water and nutrients. Nonetheless, the microalgae must also be tolerant of fluctuating wastewater quality, while still producing adequate biomass and lipid yields. To ...

  4. Gaseous product mixture from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis as an efficient carbon feedstock for low temperature CVD growth of carbon nanotube carpets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almkhelfe, Haider; Carpena-Núñez, Jennifer; Back, Tyson C; Amama, Placidus B

    2016-07-21

    Low-temperature chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of carbon nanotube (CNT) carpets from Fe and Fe-Cu catalysts using a gaseous product mixture from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS-GP) as a superior carbon feedstock is demonstrated. This growth approach addresses a persistent issue of obtaining thick CNT carpets on temperature-sensitive substrates at low temperatures using a non-plasma CVD approach without catalyst pretreatment and/or preheating of the carbon feedstock. The efficiency of the process is evidenced by the highly dense, vertically aligned CNT structures from both Fe and Fe-Cu catalysts even at temperatures as low as 400 °C - a record low growth temperature for CNT carpets obtained via conventional thermal CVD. The grown CNTs exhibit a straight morphology with hollow interior and parallel graphitic planes along the tube walls. The apparent activation energies for CNT carpet growth on Fe and Fe-Cu catalysts are 0.71 and 0.54 eV, respectively. The synergistic effect of Fe and Cu show a strong dependence on the growth temperature, with Cu being more influential at temperatures higher than 450 °C. The low activation energies and long catalyst lifetimes observed are rationalized based on the unique composition of FTS-GP and Gibbs free energies for the decomposition reactions of the hydrocarbon components. The use of FTS-GP facilitates low-temperature growth of CNT carpets on traditional (alumina film) and nontraditional substrates (aluminum foil) and has the potential of enhancing CNT quality, catalyst lifetime, and scalability. PMID:27353432

  5. Modification of Corn Starch Ethanol Refinery to Efficiently Accept Various High-Impact Cellulosic Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derr, Dan

    2013-12-30

    The goal of the Corn-to-Cellulosic Migration (CCM) pilot facility was to demonstrate the implementation of advanced technologies and methods for conversion of non-food, cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol, assess the economics of the facility and evaluate potential environmental benefits for biomass to fuels conversion. The CCM project was comprised of design, build, and operate phases for the CCM pilot facility as well as research & development, and modeling components. The CCM pilot facility was designed to process 1 tonne per day of non-food biomass and biologically convert that biomass to ethanol at a rate of 70 gallons per tonne. The plant demonstrated throughputs in excess of 1 tonne per day for an extended run of 1400 hours. Although target yields were not fully achieved, the continuous operation validated the design and operability of the plant. These designs will permit the design of larger scale operations at existing corn milling operations or for greenfield plants. EdeniQ, a partner in the project and the owner of the pilot plant, continues to operate and evaluate other feedstocks.

  6. dEMBF: A Comprehensive Database of Enzymes of Microalgal Biofuel Feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae have attracted wide attention as one of the most versatile renewable feedstocks for production of biofuel. To develop genetically engineered high lipid yielding algal strains, a thorough understanding of the lipid biosynthetic pathway and the underpinning enzymes is essential. In this work, we have systematically mined the genomes of fifteen diverse algal species belonging to Chlorophyta, Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Haptophyta, to identify and annotate the putative enzymes of lipid metabolic pathway. Consequently, we have also developed a database, dEMBF (Database of Enzymes of Microalgal Biofuel Feedstock), which catalogues the complete list of identified enzymes along with their computed annotation details including length, hydrophobicity, amino acid composition, subcellular location, gene ontology, KEGG pathway, orthologous group, Pfam domain, intron-exon organization, transmembrane topology, and secondary/tertiary structural data. Furthermore, to facilitate functional and evolutionary study of these enzymes, a collection of built-in applications for BLAST search, motif identification, sequence and phylogenetic analysis have been seamlessly integrated into the database. dEMBF is the first database that brings together all enzymes responsible for lipid synthesis from available algal genomes, and provides an integrative platform for enzyme inquiry and analysis. This database will be extremely useful for algal biofuel research. It can be accessed at http://bbprof.immt.res.in/embf.

  7. Characterization and Screening of Native Scenedesmus sp. Isolates Suitable for Biofuel Feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gour, Rakesh Singh; Chawla, Aseem; Singh, Harvinder; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh; Kant, Anil

    2016-01-01

    In current study isolates of two native microalgae species were screened on the basis of growth kinetics and lipid accumulation potential. On the basis of data obtained on growth parameters and lipid accumulation, it is concluded that Scenedesmus dimorphus has better potential as biofuel feedstock. Two of the isolates of Scenedesmus dimorphus performed better than other isolates with respect to important growth parameters with lipid content of ~30% of dry biomass. Scenedesmus dimorphus was found to be more suitable as biodiesel feedstock candidate on the basis of cumulative occurrence of five important biodiesel fatty acids, relative occurrence of SFA (53.04%), MUFA (23.81%) and PUFA (19.69%), and more importantly that of oleic acid in its total lipids. The morphological observations using light and Scanning Electron Microscope and molecular characterization using amplified 18S rRNA gene sequences of microalgae species under study were also performed. Amplified 18S rRNA gene fragments of the microalgae species were sequenced, annotated at the NCBI website and phylogenetic analysis was done. We have published eight 18S rRNA gene sequences of microalgae species in NCBI GenBank. PMID:27195694

  8. Interactions of woody biofuel feedstock production systems with water resources: Considerations for sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, Carl,C.; Amatya, Devendra; Coleman, Mark.

    2008-07-01

    Abstract. Water resources are important for the production of woody biofuel feedstocks. It is necessary to ensure that production systems do not adversely affect the quantity or quality of surface and ground water. The effects of woody biomass plantations on water resources are largely dependent on the prior land use and the management regime. Experience from both irrigated and non-irrigated systems has demonstrated that woody biofuel production systems do not impair water quality. Water quality actually improves from conversion of idle or degraded agricultural lands to woody biomass plantations. Site water balance may be altered by cultivation of woody biomass plantations relative to agricultural use, due to increases in evapostranspiration (ET) and storage. Incorporation of woody biomass production plantations within the landscape provides an opportunity to improve the quality of runoff water and soil conservation. Given the centrality of water resources to the sustainability of ecosystem services and other values derived, the experience with woody biofuels feedstock production systems is positive. Keywords. Short rotation woody crop, forest hydrology, water quality, hardwood plantation.

  9. Low Cost and Energy Efficient Methods for the Manufacture of Semi-Solid (SSM) Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diran Apelian; Qingyue Pan; Makhlouf Makhlouf

    2005-11-07

    The SSM Consortium (now ACRC) at WPI has been carrying out fundamental, pre-competitive research in SSM for several years. Current and past research (at WPI) has generated many results of fundamental and applied nature, which are available to the SSM community. These include materials characterization, yield stress effects, alloy development, rheological properties, process modeling/simulation, semi-solid slurry formation, etc. Alternative method to produce SSM slurries at lower processing costs and with reduced energy consumption is a critical need. The production of low cost SSM feedstock will certainly lead to a dramatic increase in the tonnage of castings produced by SSM, and will provide end users such as the transportation industry, with lighter, cheaper and high performance materials. In this program, the research team has addressed three critical issues in semi-solid processing. They are: (1) Development of low cost, reliable slurry-on-demand approaches for semi-solid processing; (2) Application of the novel permanent grain refining technology-SiBloy for the manufacture of high-quality SSM feedstock, and (3) Development of computational and modeling tools for semi-solid processing to enhance SSM process control. Salient results from these studies are summarized and detailed in our final technical report.

  10. Prediction of syngas quality for two-stage gasification of selected waste feedstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper compares the syngas produced from methane with the syngas obtained from the gasification, in a two-stage reactor, of various waste feedstocks. The syngas composition and the gasification conditions were simulated using a simple thermodynamic model. The waste feedstocks considered are: landfill gas, waste oil, municipal solid waste (MSW) typical of a low-income country, the same MSW blended with landfill gas, refuse derived fuel (RDF) made from the same MSW, the same RDF blended with waste oil and a MSW typical of a high-income country. Energy content, the sum of H2 and CO gas percentages, and the ratio of H2 to CO are considered as measures of syngas quality. The simulation shows that landfill gas gives the best results in terms of both H2 + CO and H2/CO, and that the MSW of low-income countries can be expected to provide inferior syngas on all three quality measures. Co-gasification of the MSW from low-income countries with landfill gas, and the mixture of waste oil with RDF from low-income MSW are considered as options to improve gas quality

  11. dEMBF: A Comprehensive Database of Enzymes of Microalgal Biofuel Feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae have attracted wide attention as one of the most versatile renewable feedstocks for production of biofuel. To develop genetically engineered high lipid yielding algal strains, a thorough understanding of the lipid biosynthetic pathway and the underpinning enzymes is essential. In this work, we have systematically mined the genomes of fifteen diverse algal species belonging to Chlorophyta, Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Haptophyta, to identify and annotate the putative enzymes of lipid metabolic pathway. Consequently, we have also developed a database, dEMBF (Database of Enzymes of Microalgal Biofuel Feedstock), which catalogues the complete list of identified enzymes along with their computed annotation details including length, hydrophobicity, amino acid composition, subcellular location, gene ontology, KEGG pathway, orthologous group, Pfam domain, intron-exon organization, transmembrane topology, and secondary/tertiary structural data. Furthermore, to facilitate functional and evolutionary study of these enzymes, a collection of built-in applications for BLAST search, motif identification, sequence and phylogenetic analysis have been seamlessly integrated into the database. dEMBF is the first database that brings together all enzymes responsible for lipid synthesis from available algal genomes, and provides an integrative platform for enzyme inquiry and analysis. This database will be extremely useful for algal biofuel research. It can be accessed at http://bbprof.immt.res.in/embf. PMID:26727469

  12. dEMBF: A Comprehensive Database of Enzymes of Microalgal Biofuel Feedstock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Misra

    Full Text Available Microalgae have attracted wide attention as one of the most versatile renewable feedstocks for production of biofuel. To develop genetically engineered high lipid yielding algal strains, a thorough understanding of the lipid biosynthetic pathway and the underpinning enzymes is essential. In this work, we have systematically mined the genomes of fifteen diverse algal species belonging to Chlorophyta, Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Haptophyta, to identify and annotate the putative enzymes of lipid metabolic pathway. Consequently, we have also developed a database, dEMBF (Database of Enzymes of Microalgal Biofuel Feedstock, which catalogues the complete list of identified enzymes along with their computed annotation details including length, hydrophobicity, amino acid composition, subcellular location, gene ontology, KEGG pathway, orthologous group, Pfam domain, intron-exon organization, transmembrane topology, and secondary/tertiary structural data. Furthermore, to facilitate functional and evolutionary study of these enzymes, a collection of built-in applications for BLAST search, motif identification, sequence and phylogenetic analysis have been seamlessly integrated into the database. dEMBF is the first database that brings together all enzymes responsible for lipid synthesis from available algal genomes, and provides an integrative platform for enzyme inquiry and analysis. This database will be extremely useful for algal biofuel research. It can be accessed at http://bbprof.immt.res.in/embf.

  13. Pricing model for biodiesel feedstock. A case study of Chhattisgarh in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the global trend, India declared its biofuel policy in which biodiesel, primarily from jatropha, would meet 20% of the diesel demand beginning with 2011-2012. To promote biofuel, Indian government has announced biodiesel purchase price as well as compulsory blending ratio. But, these measures have not worked to create large scale biodiesel production in India. With this backdrop, this paper highlights about the importance of a sound pricing policy focusing on the entire value chain of biodiesel production. The analysis is based on field level data from Chhattisgarh, the leading state in the production of jatropha. Such a sound pricing policy has to deal with the prices of feedstock, by-products and final product like biodiesel. It would also have to reflect on the business model of production of biodiesel. The simulation exercises in our model shows that the business returns from the production of biodiesel and the minimum support price (MSP) of the feedstock for biodiesel (i.e. jatropha seeds in this case) are sensitive to various parameters like seed yields, technological efficiency, by product and petro-diesel prices. An effective price policy framework has to consider all these factors to create a platform for sustainable biodiesel production in India. (author)

  14. Pricing model for biodiesel feedstock: A case study of Chhattisgarh in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the global trend, India declared its biofuel policy in which biodiesel, primarily from jatropha, would meet 20% of the diesel demand beginning with 2011-2012. To promote biofuel, Indian government has announced biodiesel purchase price as well as compulsory blending ratio. But, these measures have not worked to create large scale biodiesel production in India. With this backdrop, this paper highlights about the importance of a sound pricing policy focusing on the entire value chain of biodiesel production. The analysis is based on field level data from Chhattisgarh, the leading state in the production of jatropha. Such a sound pricing policy has to deal with the prices of feedstock, by-products and final product like biodiesel. It would also have to reflect on the business model of production of biodiesel. The simulation exercises in our model shows that the business returns from the production of biodiesel and the minimum support price (MSP) of the feedstock for biodiesel (i.e. jatropha seeds in this case) are sensitive to various parameters like seed yields, technological efficiency, by product and petro-diesel prices. An effective price policy framework has to consider all these factors to create a platform for sustainable biodiesel production in India. - Research highlights: → India's biodiesel program began way back in 2003. → Success is limited. → Effective policy frame is missing. → Paper proposed to address the same with field level observation.

  15. Algae as a Feedstock for Transportation Fuels. The Future of Biofuels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill, Ralph [Sentech, Inc., Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Consulting, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Events in world energy markets over the past several years have prompted many new technical developments as well as political support for alternative transportation fuels, especially those that are renewable. We have seen dramatic rises in the demand for and production of fuel ethanol from sugar cane and corn and biodiesel from vegetable oils. The quantities of these fuels being used continue to rise dramatically, and their use is helping to create a political climate for doing even more. But, the quantities are still far too small to stem the tide of rising crude prices worldwide. In fact, the use of some traditional crops (corn, sugar, soy, etc.) in making fuels instead of food is apparently beginning to impact the cost of food worldwide. Thus, there is considerable interest in developing alternative biofuel feedstocks for use in making fuels -- feedstocks that are not used in the food industries. Of course, we know that there is a lot of work in developing cellulosic-based ethanol that would be made from woody biomass. Process development is the critical path for this option, and the breakthrough in reducing the cost of the process has been elusive thus far. Making biodiesel from vegetable oils is a well-developed and inexpensive process, but to date there have been few reasonable alternatives for making biodiesel, although advanced processes such as gasification of biomass remain an option.

  16. A NEW EXPLICIT SIMULATION FOR MOULD FILLING WITH HIGH VISCOUS FEEDSTOCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengZhiqiang; BarriereThierry; LiuBaosheng; GelinJeanClaude

    2004-01-01

    In the simulation of the metal injection moulding (MIM), the behaviours of feedstock are much different from which of the polymer injection. It is a mixture of the metallic powder in high concentration and some plastic binder. The advance in simulation of the mould filling with such high viscous feedstock is featured by the development of a fully explicit vectorial algorithm.On the basis of previous explicit software realized by the authors, the new algorithm avoids the global solution for pressure fields and the use of MINI elements to improve its efficiency. Except for the operations at element level, neither global solution nor the construction of global matrix is required in simulation. A special strategy is used to regulate the incompressibility condition in filled domain at each time step. In case of the MIM problems, this method provides a fast wayto simulate the filling processes. The computational cost is about linearly proportional to the degree of freedom number. Moreover, this vectorial algorithm can be easily parallelized for high performance computation with multi-clusters. The comparison of numerical results with previous simulations on 3D cases proves the validity and efficiency of new algorithm.

  17. Investigating 'Egusi' (citrullus colocynthis l.) seed oil as potential biodiesel feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giwa, S.; Adam, N. M. [Alternative and Renewable Energy Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA)/Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang Darul Ehsan, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdullah, L. Ch. [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang Darul Ehsan, Selangor (Malaysia); Laboratory of Biopolymer and Derivatives, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP), University Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang Darul Ehsan, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel's acceptance as a substitute for fossil-derived diesel has grown the world over. However, the food-fuel debate over conventional vegetable oils has rekindled research interest in exploring lesser known and minor oil crops. In this work, egusi melon seed oil was studied for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Crude egusi melon seed oil was transesterified using sodium methoxide as the catalyst at 60 {sup o}C and an oil/methanol ratio of 1:6 to produce its corresponding methyl esters. Egusi melon oil methyl ester (EMOME) yield was 82%. Gas chromatographic analysis of EMOME showed that it was composed mainly of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic esters, which is similar to the profile of sunflower, soybean and safflower oil. All the measured fuel properties of EMOME satisfied both the ASTM D6751 and the EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Fuel properties of EMOME were essentially identical with those of soybean, safflower and sunflower biodiesel. Remarkably, the kinematic viscosity of EMOME was measured to be 3.83 mm{sup 2}/s, a value lower than most biodiesel fuels reported in the literature. The potential of egusi melon seed oil as a biodiesel feedstock is clearly presented in this study. (author)

  18. Increasing secondary and renewable material use: a chance constrained modeling approach to manage feedstock quality variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivetti, Elsa A; Gaustad, Gabrielle G; Field, Frank R; Kirchain, Randolph E

    2011-05-01

    The increased use of secondary (i.e., recycled) and renewable resources will likely be key toward achieving sustainable materials use. Unfortunately, these strategies share a common barrier to economical implementation - increased quality variation compared to their primary and synthetic counterparts. Current deterministic process-planning models overestimate the economic impact of this increased variation. This paper shows that for a range of industries from biomaterials to inorganics, managing variation through a chance-constrained (CC) model enables increased use of such variable raw materials, or heterogeneous feedstocks (hF), over conventional, deterministic models. An abstract, analytical model and a quantitative model applied to an industrial case of aluminum recycling were used to explore the limits and benefits of the CC formulation. The results indicate that the CC solution can reduce cost and increase potential hF use across a broad range of production conditions through raw materials diversification. These benefits increase where the hFs exhibit mean quality performance close to that of the more homogeneous feedstocks (often the primary and synthetic materials) or have large quality variability. In terms of operational context, the relative performance grows as intolerance for batch error increases and as the opportunity to diversify the raw material portfolio increases.

  19. Potential land for plantation of Jatropha curcas as feedstocks for biodiesel in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As a renewable energy,biofuel has attracted great attention in China and the rest of world.Concerned with the national food security,China recently has shifted its biofuel development priority from grain-based to non-grain-based biofuels,including forest-based biodiesel,since 2007.Jatropha curcas is one of major biodiesel feedstocks.However,there is rising debate on availability of land for expanding Jatropha curcas areas.The overall goal of this paper is to evaluate potential land for Jatropha curcas used as feedstock for biodiesel in China.Based on remote sensing data on land use,data on meteorological,soil and land slope,and suitable environment for Jatropha curcas plantation,this study uses Agro Ecological Zone method and considers social-economic constraints to evaluate potential suitable land for Jatropha curcas plantation in China’s major Jatropha curcas production region,Southwest China.The results show that while there are some potential lands to expand Jatropha curcas areas,amount of these lands will hardly meet the government’s target for Jatropha curcas-based biodiesels development in the future.China may need to reconsider its long-term targets on the development of Jatropha curcas-based biodiesels.

  20. Effect of Agricultural Feedstock to Energy Conversion Rate on Bioenergy and GHG Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chun Kung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan is eager to develop renewable energy because it is vulnerable to energy price distortion and ocean level rise. Previous studies show bioenergy technologies can be applied mutually, but pay little attention on feedstocks to energy conversion rate, which has potential influences on policy making in renewable energy and environment. This study employs a price endogenous mathematical programming model to simultaneously simulate the market operations under various feedstocks to energy conversion rates, energy prices, and greenhouse gas (GHG prices. The result shows pyrolysis-based electricity can reach up to 2.75 billion kWh annually, but it will be driven out at low conversion rate and high GHG price. Pyrolysis plus biochar application will be the optimal option in terms of carbon sequestration. Market valuation on potential threats of extreme weather could have substantial influences on ethanol and renewable electricity generation. To achieve aimed GHG emission reduction and/or bioenergy production, government intervention may be involved to align the market operation with Taiwan’s environmental policy.

  1. Characterization and Screening of Native Scenedesmus sp. Isolates Suitable for Biofuel Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gour, Rakesh Singh; Chawla, Aseem; Singh, Harvinder; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh; Kant, Anil

    2016-01-01

    In current study isolates of two native microalgae species were screened on the basis of growth kinetics and lipid accumulation potential. On the basis of data obtained on growth parameters and lipid accumulation, it is concluded that Scenedesmus dimorphus has better potential as biofuel feedstock. Two of the isolates of Scenedesmus dimorphus performed better than other isolates with respect to important growth parameters with lipid content of ~30% of dry biomass. Scenedesmus dimorphus was found to be more suitable as biodiesel feedstock candidate on the basis of cumulative occurrence of five important biodiesel fatty acids, relative occurrence of SFA (53.04%), MUFA (23.81%) and PUFA (19.69%), and more importantly that of oleic acid in its total lipids. The morphological observations using light and Scanning Electron Microscope and molecular characterization using amplified 18S rRNA gene sequences of microalgae species under study were also performed. Amplified 18S rRNA gene fragments of the microalgae species were sequenced, annotated at the NCBI website and phylogenetic analysis was done. We have published eight 18S rRNA gene sequences of microalgae species in NCBI GenBank. PMID:27195694

  2. Green biodiesel production: a review on feedstock, catalyst, monolithic reactor, and supercritical fluid technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizo Edwin Gumba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of alternative energy is primarily catalyzed by the negative environmental impacts and energy depletion caused by the excessive usage of fossil fuels. Biodiesel has emerged as a promising substitute to petrodiesel because it is biodegradable, less toxic, and reduces greenhouse gas emission. Apart from that, biodiesel can be used as blending component or direct replacements for diesel fuel in automotive engines. A diverse range of methods have been reported for the conversion of renewable feedstocks (vegetable oil or animal fat into biodiesel with transesterification being the most preferred method. Nevertheless, the cost of producing biodiesel is higher compared to fossil fuel, thus impeding its commercialization potentials. The limited source of reliable feedstock and the underdeveloped biodiesel production route have prevented the full-scale commercialization of biodiesel in many parts of the world. In a recent development, a new technology that incorporates monoliths as support matrices for enzyme immobilization in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 for continuous biodiesel production has been proposed to solve the problem. The potential of SC-CO2 system to be applied in enzymatic reactors is not well documented and hence the purpose of this review is to highlight the previous studies conducted as well as the future direction of this technology.

  3. High-solids enrichment of thermophilic microbial communities and their enzymes on bioenergy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A. P.; Allgaier, M.; Singer, S.W.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B.A.; Hugenholtz, P.; VanderGheynst, J.S.

    2011-04-01

    Thermophilic microbial communities that are active in a high-solids environment offer great potential for the discovery of industrially relevant enzymes that efficiently deconstruct bioenergy feedstocks. In this study, finished green waste compost was used as an inoculum source to enrich microbial communities and associated enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose during thermophilic high-solids fermentation of the bioenergy feedstocks switchgrass and corn stover. Methods involving the disruption of enzyme and plant cell wall polysaccharide interactions were developed to recover xylanase and endoglucanase activity from deconstructed solids. Xylanase and endoglucanase activity increased by more than a factor of 5, upon four successive enrichments on switchgrass. Overall, the changes for switchgrass were more pronounced than for corn stover; solids reduction between the first and second enrichments increased by a factor of four for switchgrass while solids reduction remained relatively constant for corn stover. Amplicon pyrosequencing analysis of small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes recovered from enriched samples indicated rapid changes in the microbial communities between the first and second enrichment with the simplified communities achieved by the third enrichment. The results demonstrate a successful approach for enrichment of unique microbial communities and enzymes active in a thermophilic high-solids environment.

  4. Investigating “Egusi” (Citrullus Colocynthis L. Seed Oil as Potential Biodiesel Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Giwa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel’s acceptance as a substitute for fossil-derived diesel has grown the world over. However, the food-fuel debate over conventional vegetable oils has rekindled research interest in exploring lesser known and minor oil crops. In this work, egusi melon seed oil was studied for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Crude egusi melon seed oil was transesterified using sodium methoxide as the catalyst at 60 °C and an oil/methanol ratio of 1:6 to produce its corresponding methyl esters. Egusi melon oil methyl ester (EMOME yield was 82%. Gas chromatographic analysis of EMOME showed that it was composed mainly of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic esters, which is similar to the profile of sunflower, soybean and safflower oil. All the measured fuel properties of EMOME satisfied both the ASTM D6751 and the EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Fuel properties of EMOME were essentially identical with those of soybean, safflower and sunflower biodiesel. Remarkably, the kinematic viscosity of EMOME was measured to be 3.83 mm2/s, a value lower than most biodiesel fuels reported in the literature. The potential of egusi melon seed oil as a biodiesel feedstock is clearly presented in this study.

  5. Lignin Valorisation for Chemicals and (Transportation) Fuels via (Catalytic) Pyrolysis and Hydrodeoxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wild, Paul; Van der Laan, Ron; Kloekhorst, Arjan; Heeres, Hero

    2009-01-01

    New technology is needed to exploit the potential of lignin as a renewable feedstock for fuels, chemicals and performance products. Fast fluidized bed pyrolysis of different lignins at 400 degrees C yields up to 2.1 wt% (d.b.) of a phenolic fraction containing 10 wt%, (d.b.) of several phenols. Subs

  6. Catalytic Deoxygenation of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides for Production of Fuels and Chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollak, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e. coal, gas, oil) currently cover over 80 % of the world’s energy demand. The use of alternative resources for the production of fuels and chemicals has been an important research area over the last decade. This was not only stimulated by the declining fossil feedstock resources and

  7. The Integrated Biorefinery: Conversion of Corn Fiber to Value-added Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susanne Kleff

    2007-03-24

    This presentation provides a summary of Michigan Biotechnology Institute's efforts to employ the corn fiber fraction of a dry grind ethanol plant as a feedstock to produce succinic acid which has potential as a building block intermediate for a wide range of commodity chemicals.

  8. Advanced Systems for Preprocessing and Characterizing Coal-Biomass Mixtures as Next-Generation Fuels and Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmis, Michael [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Luttrell, Gerald [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Ripepi, Nino [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Bratton, Robert [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Dohm, Erich [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The research activities presented in this report are intended to address the most critical technical challenges pertaining to coal-biomass briquette feedstocks. Several detailed investigations were conducted using a variety of coal and biomass feedstocks on the topics of (1) coal-biomass briquette production and characterization, (2) gasification of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, (3) combustion of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, and (4) conceptual engineering design and economic feasibility of briquette production. The briquette production studies indicate that strong and durable co-firing feedstocks can be produced by co-briquetting coal and biomass resources commonly available in the United States. It is demonstrated that binderless coal-biomass briquettes produced at optimized conditions exhibit very high strength and durability, which indicates that such briquettes would remain competent in the presence of forces encountered in handling, storage and transportation. The gasification studies conducted demonstrate that coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes are exceptional gasification feedstocks, particularly with regard to the synergistic effects realized during devolatilization of the blended materials. The mixture combustion studies indicate that coal-biomass mixtures are exceptional combustion feedstocks, while the briquette combustion study indicates that the use of blended briquettes reduces NOx, CO2, and CO emissions, and requires the least amount of changes in the operating conditions of an existing coal-fired power plant. Similar results were obtained for the physical durability of the pilot-scale briquettes compared to the bench-scale tests. Finally, the conceptual engineering and feasibility analysis study for a commercial-scale briquetting production facility provides preliminary flowsheet and cost simulations to evaluate the various feedstocks, equipment selection and operating parameters.

  9. Advanced Systems for Preprocessing and Characterizing Coal-Biomass Mixtures as Next-Generation Fuels and Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmis, Michael; Luttrell, Gerald; Ripepi, Nino; Bratton, Robert; Dohm, Erich

    2014-06-30

    The research activities presented in this report are intended to address the most critical technical challenges pertaining to coal-biomass briquette feedstocks. Several detailed investigations were conducted using a variety of coal and biomass feedstocks on the topics of (1) coal-biomass briquette production and characterization, (2) gasification of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, (3) combustion of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, and (4) conceptual engineering design and economic feasibility of briquette production. The briquette production studies indicate that strong and durable co-firing feedstocks can be produced by co-briquetting coal and biomass resources commonly available in the United States. It is demonstrated that binderless coal-biomass briquettes produced at optimized conditions exhibit very high strength and durability, which indicates that such briquettes would remain competent in the presence of forces encountered in handling, storage and transportation. The gasification studies conducted demonstrate that coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes are exceptional gasification feedstocks, particularly with regard to the synergistic effects realized during devolatilization of the blended materials. The mixture combustion studies indicate that coal-biomass mixtures are exceptional combustion feedstocks, while the briquette combustion study indicates that the use of blended briquettes reduces NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, and CO emissions, and requires the least amount of changes in the operating conditions of an existing coal-fired power plant. Similar results were obtained for the physical durability of the pilot-scale briquettes compared to the bench-scale tests. Finally, the conceptual engineering and feasibility analysis study for a commercial-scale briquetting production facility provides preliminary flowsheet and cost simulations to evaluate the various feedstocks, equipment selection and operating parameters.

  10. Insight on Biomass Supply and Feedstock Definition for Fischer-Tropsch Based BTL Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process chains of thermo chemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass through gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (known as BTL) represent promising alternatives for biofuels production. Since biomass is heterogeneous and not homogeneously spread over territories, one of the major technological stakes of the project is to develop a flexible industrial chain capable of co-treating the widest possible range of biomass and fossil fuel feedstock. The present study aims at characterizing biomass diversity (availability and potentials by area, cost and mineral composition) by carrying out a state of the art, as a preliminary step in order to define a series of biomass to be tested in the demonstration plant and therefore define specifications for the process. Fifty different biomass were considered for their bio-energy application potential and were finally classified into four categories: agricultural by-products, dedicated energy crops, (Very) Short Rotation Coppice ((V)SRC) and forestry biomass. Biomass availability and potentials were investigated by the mean of a literature review of past and current projects (e.g. RENEW project, Biomass Energy Europe Project, etc.) and scientific articles. Most collected data are technical potentials, meaning that they take into account biophysical limits of crops and forests, technological possibilities, competition with other land uses and ecological constraints (e.g. natural reserves). Results show various emerging markets: North and South America have considerable amounts of agricultural by-products, forest residues, and large land areas which could be dedicated to energy crops; Africa shows relevant possibilities to grow Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) and energy crops; Russia has large available quantities of agricultural by-products and forest residues, as well as little valuable land where energy crops and SRC could be grown, and Asia shows relevant amounts of forest residues and possibilities of growing SRC, as well

  11. Nitrogen enrichment potential of biochar in relation to pyrolysis temperature and feedstock quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassal, Rachhpal S; Johnson, Mark S; Molodovskaya, Marina; Black, T Andrew; Jollymore, Ashlee; Sveinson, Kelly

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) enrichment of biochar from both inorganic and organic waste N sources has the potential to add economic and environmental value through its use as a slow release N fertilizer. We investigated the sorption of N by, and its release from, biochar made at pyrolysis temperatures of 400, 500 and 600 °C from three feedstocks: poultry litter (PL with a carbon (C) to N ratio (C:N) of 14), softwood chips of spruce-pine-fir (SPF with a C:N of 470), and a 50:50 mixture of PL and SPF (PL/SPF). The prepared biochars were enriched with ammonium nitrate (AN) and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN). PL biochars had the lowest C content (50-56% C), but the highest pH (9.3-9.9), electrical conductivity (EC, 780-960 dS m(-1)), cation exchange capacity (CEC, 40-46 cmol kg(-1)), and N content (3.3-4.5%). While N content and hydrogen (H) to C atomic ratio (H:C) decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature irrespective of the feedstock used, both pH and EC slightly increased with pyrolysis temperature for all feedstocks. The PL and SPF biochars showed similar H:C and also similar N sorption and N release at all pyrolysis temperatures. These biochars sorbed up to 5% N by mass, irrespective of the source of N. However, PL/SPF biochar performed poorly in sorbing N from either AN or UAN. Biochar H:C was found to be unrelated to N sorption rates, suggesting that physical adsorption on active surfaces was the main mechanism of N sorption in these biochars. There were minor differences between N sorbed from NO3-N and NH4-N among different biochars. Very small amounts of sorbed N (0.2-0.4 mg N g(-1) biochar) was released when extracted with 1 M KCl solution, indicating that the retained N was strongly held in complex bonds, more so for NH4-N because the release of NO3-N was 3-4 times greater than that of NH4-N. NH4-N sorption far exceeded the effective CEC of the biochars, thereby suggesting that most of the sorption may be due to physical entrapment of NH4(+) in biochar pores

  12. Process designs and cost estimates for a medium Btu gasification plant using a wood feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desrosiers, R. E.

    1979-02-01

    A gasification plant to effect the conversion of wood to medium-Btu gas has been designed. The Purox gasifier and associated equipment were selected as a prototype, since this system is nearer to commercialization than others considered. The object was to determine the cost of those processing steps common to all gasification schemes and to identify specific research areas. A detailed flowsheet and mass-balance are presented. Capital investment statements for three plant sizes (400, 800, 1,600 oven-dry tons per day) are included along with manufacturing costs for each of these plants at three feedstock prices: $10, $20, $30 per green ton (or $20, $40, $60 per dry ton). The design incorporates a front-end handling system, package cryogenic oxygen plant, the Purox gasifier, a gas-cleaning train consisting of a spray scrubber, ionizing wet scrubber, and condenser, and a wastewater treatment facility including a cooling tower and a package activated sludge unit. Cost figures for package units were obtained from suppliers and used for the oxygen and wastewater treatment plants. The gasifier is fed with wood chips at 20% moisture (wet basis). For each pound of wood, 0.32 lb of oxygen are required, and 1.11 lb of gas are produced. The heating value of the gas product is 300 Btu/scf. For each Btu of energy input (feed + process energy) to the plant, 0.91 Btu exists with the product gas. Total capital investments required for the plants considered are $9, $15, and $24 million (1978) respectively. In each case, the oxygen plant represents about 50% of the total investment. For feedstock prices from $10 to $30 per green ton ($1.11 to $3.33 per MM Btu), break-even costs of fuel gas range from $3 to $7 per MM Btu. At $30/ton, the feedstock cost represents approximately 72% of the total product cost for the largest plant size; at $10/ton, it represents only 47% of product cost.

  13. Using biomass of starch-rich transgenic Arabidopsis vacuolar as feedstock for fermentative hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Yung-Chung; Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Chen, Chun-Yen [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Huang, Li-Fen; Chang, Jo-Shu [Yuan Ze Univ., Tao-yuan, Taiwan (China). Graduate School of Biotechnology and Bioengineering

    2010-07-01

    Cellulose is the major constitute of plant biomass and highly available in agricultural wastes and industrial effluents, thereby being a cost-effective feedstock for bioenergy production. However, most hydrogen producing bacteria (HPB) could not directly convert cellulosic materials (such as rice husk and rice straw) into hydrogen whereas most HPB could utilize sugar and starch for hydrogen production. In this work, we used an indigenous bacterial isolate Clostridium butyricum CGS2 as HPB, which could directly convert soluble starch into H2 with a maximum H2 production rate and a H2 yield of 205.07 ml H2/h/l and 6.46 mmol H2/g starch, respectively. However, C. butyricum CGS2 could not ferment pure cellulosic materials such as carboxymethyl cellulose and xylan. Moreover, we found that C. butyricum CGS2 could utilize rich husk to produce H2 at a rate of 13.19 ml H2/h/l due to the starch content in rice husk (H2 yield = 1.49 mmol H2/g rice husk). In contrast, since lacking starch content, rice straw cannot be converted to H2 by C. butyricum CGS2. The foregoing results suggest that increasing the starch content in the natural agricultural wastes may make them better feedstock for fermentative H2 production. Hence, a genetically modified plant (Arabidopsis vacuolar) was constructed to enhance its starch concentration. The starch concentration of mutant plant S1 increased to 10.67 mg/fresh weight, which is four times higher than that of wild type plant. Using mutant plant S1 as carbon source, C. butyricum CGS2 was able to give a high cumulative H2 production and H2 production rate of 285.4 ml H2/l and 43.6 ml/h/l, respectively. The cumulative H2 production and H2 production rate both increased when the concentration of the transgenic plant was increased. Therefore, this study successful demonstrated the feasibility of expressing starch on genetically-modified plants to create a more effective feedstock for dark H2 fermentation. (orig.)

  14. Biotechnology for producing fuels and chemicals from biomass. Volume II. Fermentation chemicals from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villet, R. (ed.)

    1981-02-01

    The technological and economic feasibility of producing some selected chemicals by fermentation is discussed: acetone, butanol, acetic acid, citric acid, 2,3-butanediol, and propionic acid. The demand for acetone and butanol has grown considerably. They have not been produced fermentatively for three decades, but instead by the oxo and aldol processes. Improved cost of fermentative production will hinge on improving yields and using cellulosic feedstocks. The market for acetic acid is likely to grow 5% to 7%/yr. A potential process for production is the fermentation of hydrolyzed cellulosic material to ethanol followed by chemical conversion to acetic acid. For about 50 years fermentation has been the chief process for citric acid production. The feedstock cost is 15% to 20% of the overall cost of production. The anticipated 5%/yr growth in demand for citric acid could be enhanced by using it to displace phosphates in detergent manufacture. A number of useful chemicals can be derived from 2,3-butanediol, which has not been produced commercially on a large scale. R and D are needed to establish a viable commercial process. The commercial fermentative production of propionic acid has not yet been developed. Recovery and purification of the product require considerable improvement. Other chemicals such as lactic acid, isopropanol, maleic anhydride, fumarate, and glycerol merit evaluation for commercial fermentative production in the near future.

  15. Final Technical Report: A Paradigm Shift in Chemical Processing: New Sustainable Chemistries for Low-VOC Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kenneth F.

    2006-07-26

    The project employed new processes to make emulsion polymers from reduced levels of petroleum-derived chemical feedstocks. Most waterborne paints contain spherical, emulsion polymer particles that serve as the film-forming binder phase. Our goal was to make emulsion polymer particles containing 30 percent feedstock that would function as effectively as commercial emulsions made from higher level feedstock. The processes developed yielded particles maintained their film formation capability and binding capacity while preserving the structural integrity of the particles after film formation. Rohm and Haas Company (ROH) and Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) worked together to employ novel polymer binders (ROH) and new, non-volatile, biomass-derived coalescing agents (ADM). The University of Minnesota Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science utilized its unique microscopy capabilities to characterize films made from the New Emulsion Polymers (NEP).

  16. Assessment of holocellulose for the production of bioethanol by conserving Pinus radiata cones as renewable feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Amudhavalli; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Gedanken, Aharon

    2015-10-01

    Renewable and green energy sources are much sought. Bioethanol is an environmentally friendly transportation fuel. Pine cones from Pinus radiata were shown to be a potential feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Alkaline (NaOH) pretreatment was carried out to delignify the lignocellulosic material and generate holocellulose (72 wt. % yield). The pretreated biomass was hydrolysed using HCl as catalyst under microwave irradiation and hydrothermal conditions. Microwave irradiation was found to be better than the hydrothermal process. Microwave irradiation accelerated the hydrolysis of biomass (42 wt. % conversion) with the reaction conditions being 3 M HCl and 5 min of irradiation time. Interestingly, even the xylose, which is the major component of the hydrolyzate was found to be metabolized to ethanol using Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the experimental conditions. 5.7 g of ethanol could be produced from 100 g of raw pine cones. PMID:26247310

  17. Natural gas and biofuel as feedstock for hydrogen production on Ni catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pasquale Corbo; Fortunato Migliardini

    2009-01-01

    In this article,the aptitude of natural gas as feedstock in steam reforming process for hydrogen production is compared with that of different liquid fuels (pure compounds and commercial fuels),with the aim to investigate the potentialities of biofuels to overcome the CO2 emission problems deriving from fossil fuel processing.The performances of a nickel based catalyst (commercially used in steam reforming of natural gas) were evaluated in terms of feed conversion and yield to the different products as function of temperature,space velocity and water/fuel ratio.Furthermore,a preliminary evaluation of catalyst durability was effected by monitoring yield to H2 versus time on stream and measuring coke formation at the end of experimental tests.High yields to hydrogen were obtained with ail fuels investigated,whereas the deactivation phenomena,which are correlated to carbon deposition on the catalyst,were observed with all tested fuels,except for methane and biofuel.

  18. High free fatty acid coconut oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakpong, Piyanuch; Wootthikanokkhan, Sasiwimol [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Krungthep, 2 Nanglinchee Road, Sathorn, Bangkok 10120 (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Coconut oil having 12.8% free fatty acid (FFA) was used as a feedstock to produce biodiesel by a two-step process. In the first step, FFA level of the coconut oil was reduced to 0.6% by acid-catalyzed esterification. In the second step, triglycerides in product from the first step were transesterified with methanol by using an alkaline catalyst to produce methyl esters and glycerol. Effect of parameters related to these processes was studied and optimized, including methanol-to-oil ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time. Methyl ester content of the coconut biodiesel was determined by GC to be 98.4% under the optimum condition. The viscosity of coconut biodiesel product was very close to that of Thai petroleum diesel and other measured properties met the Thai biodiesel (B100) specification. (author)

  19. The use of conservation biomass feedstocks as potential bioenergy resources in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D; Mitchell, E J S; Lea-Langton, A R; Parmar, K R; Jones, J M; Williams, A

    2016-07-01

    A number of countries have introduced energy policies to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide which, in the case of bio-heat, has resulted in increased use of small wood burning stoves and boilers, particularly in Europe. There are issues surrounding the supply of sustainable wood feedstock, prompting a desire to utilise local biomass resources. This includes biomass generated through the management of natural woodlands in nature reserves and conservation areas. These management practices can also extend to other areas, such as raised bog wildernesses and estuary Reed beds. We term the biomass from this resource as conservation biomass. This study is concerned with the viability of this resource as a fuel within the United Kingdom, and combustion tests were carried out using a small domestic stove. It was concluded that there is as much as 500kty(-1) that could be used in this way.

  20. The use of conservation biomass feedstocks as potential bioenergy resources in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D; Mitchell, E J S; Lea-Langton, A R; Parmar, K R; Jones, J M; Williams, A

    2016-07-01

    A number of countries have introduced energy policies to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide which, in the case of bio-heat, has resulted in increased use of small wood burning stoves and boilers, particularly in Europe. There are issues surrounding the supply of sustainable wood feedstock, prompting a desire to utilise local biomass resources. This includes biomass generated through the management of natural woodlands in nature reserves and conservation areas. These management practices can also extend to other areas, such as raised bog wildernesses and estuary Reed beds. We term the biomass from this resource as conservation biomass. This study is concerned with the viability of this resource as a fuel within the United Kingdom, and combustion tests were carried out using a small domestic stove. It was concluded that there is as much as 500kty(-1) that could be used in this way. PMID:27107483

  1. Identification and genetic characterization of maize cell wall variation for improved biorefinery feedstock characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauly, Markus [UC Berkeley; Hake, Sarah [USDA Albany

    2013-10-31

    The objectives of this program are to 1) characterize novel maize mutants with altered cell walls for enhanced biorefinery characteristics and 2) find quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to biorefinery characteristics by taking advantage of the genetic diversity of maize. As a result a novel non-transgenic maize plant (cal1) has been identified, whose stover (leaves and stalk) contain more glucan in their walls leading to a higher saccharification yield, when subjected to a standard enzymatic digestion cocktail. Stacking this trait with altered lignin mutants yielded evene higher saccharification yields. Cal-1 mutants do not show a loss of kernel and or biomass yield when grown in the field . Hence, cal1 biomass provides an excellent feedstock for the biofuel industry.

  2. From a single pellet press to a bench scale pellet mill - Pelletizing six different biomass feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Shang, Lei; Sárossy, Zsuzsa;

    2016-01-01

    (SPP) can be extrapolated to larger scale pellet mills. The single pellet press was used to find the optimum moisture content and die operating temperature for pellet production. Then, these results were compared with those obtained from a bench-scale pellet mill. A moisture content of around 10 wt......The increasing demand for biomass pellets requires the investigation of alternative raw materials for pelletizetion. In the present paper, the pelletization process of fescue, alfalfa, sorghum, triticale, miscanthus and willow is studied to determine if results obtained in a single pellet press.......% was found to be optimal for the six biomass feedstocks. A friction increase was seen when the die temperature increased from room temperature to 60-90 degrees C for most biomass types, and then a friction decrease when the die temperature increased further. The results obtained in the bench...

  3. Cultivation of Microalgae Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. as a Potentional Biofuel Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. dr. Violeta Makareviciene

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth of two robust algae strains Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. growing in Lithuanian lakes was investigated with the aim to obtain optimum conditions for biomass cultivation for biofuel production in the Lithuanian environment. Samples were taken from different nitrogen sources and of different concentrations, with addition of various concentrations of CO2 and in the presence of salt. The best biomass productivity was achieved using urea as a nitrogen source or modified growing medium BG11 with decreased concentration of NaNO3. The positive impact on the growth of biomass was achieved by aeration with CO2 (especially with concentration of 24%. Additional research into the removal of pollutants, such inorganic salts of nitrogen and phosphorus and organic materials from wastewater using microalgae has revealed good possibilities of using both algae strains in wastewater treatment plants. A content of oil in Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. has suggested their potential use as biodiesel feedstock.

  4. Recycling of Al-Si die casting scraps for solar Si feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kum-Hee; Jeon, Je-Beom; Youn, Ji-Won; Kim, Suk Jun; Kim, Ki-Young

    2016-05-01

    Recycling of aluminum die-casting scraps for solar-grade silicon (SOG-Si) feedstock was performed successfully. 3 N purity Si was extracted from A383 die-casting scrap by using the combined process of solvent refining and an advanced centrifugal separation technique. The efficiency of separating Si from scrap alloys depended on both impurity level of scraps and the starting temperature of centrifugation. Impurities in melt and processing temperature governed the microstructure of the primary Si. The purity of Si extracted from the scrap melt was 99.963%, which was comparable to that of Si extracted from a commercial Al-30 wt% Si alloy, 99.980%. The initial purity of the scrap was 2.2% lower than that of the commercial alloy. This result confirmed that die-casting scrap is a potential source of high-purity Si for solar cells.

  5. Influence of atmospheric plasma spray parameters on YSZ coatings obtained from micro and nano structured feedstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, the influence of atmospheric plasma spray (APS) parameters on the deposition of two commercial YSZ feedstocks, one conventional and one non-conductor's, has been studied. First the study focused on how the variability of the different parameters affects the particle behaviour during spraying. For this purpose, a sensor which enables to measure the particle temperature and velocity inside the plasma was used. Once the spraying parameters influence was known, both powders were deposited by APS onto stainless steel substrates modifying the higher influencing parameters. These coatings have been characterised and the influence of the particle behaviour on the coating microstructure and properties has been analysed. This work concludes the spraying parameters variation affects on the particle velocity and temperature inside the plasma plume and this behaviour influences, in turn but in a different way, on the final coating characteristics when using different powders (micro- and nano structured). (Author)

  6. Decanter cake as a feedstock for biodiesel production: A first report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Decanter cake as a potential waste feedstock for biodiesel production. • Ultrasound-aided transesterification achieving nearly 86% conversion in 1 h. • Boiler ash, a waste product, was successfully used as a catalyst. - Abstract: Decanter cake (DC), with an oil content of 11.5 ± 0.18 wt.%, was subjected to ultrasound-aided transesterification using boiler ash as a base catalyst, petroleum ether and hexane as co-solvents. Optimization work revealed that at MeOH:oil mass ratio of 6:1 and 2.3 wt.% catalyst (based on DC weight) with 1:2 co-solvents:DC mass ratio as the optimal reaction conditions. Both decanter cake and boiler ash, waste materials from oil palm mill, were successfully utilized to produce methyl ester (biodiesel) with highest conversion of 85.9 wt.% in a 1 h reaction period at 55 °C

  7. Manufacturing Process Development to Produce Depleted Uranium Wire for EBAM Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, David John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clarke, Kester Diederik [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coughlin, Daniel Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scott, Jeffrey E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-06-30

    Wire produced from depleted uranium (DU) is needed as feedstock for the Electron-Beam Additive Manufacturing (EBAM) process. The goal is to produce long lengths of DU wire with round or rectangular cross section, nominally 1.5 mm (0.060 inches). It was found that rolling methods, rather than swaging or drawing, are preferable for production of intermediate quantities of DU wire. Trials with grooveless rolling have shown that it is suitable for initial reductions of large stock. Initial trials with grooved rolling have been successful, for certain materials. Modified square grooves (square round-bottom vee grooves) with 12.5 % reduction of area per pass have been selected for the reduction process.

  8. Testing and evaluation of an alcohol production facility utilizing potatoes as a feedstock. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuby, W.; Nackord, S.; Wyss, W.

    1984-05-01

    This study presents the sampling and analysis results for the characterization of liquid effluents and solid residuals from a culled potato feedstock process for the production of ethanol for use as fuel. The facility tested produces approximately 1 million gallons per year of ethanol and is located in eastern Idaho. Liquid and solid samples were taken throughout the process from the following locations: sluice/flume water, chopper product, makeup water, cooker product, fermenter product, beer tank, stillage, interim and final product, washwater, fuel oil, bath and 'Sparkle' bath. Analytical results for the ethanol plant effluents include: ethanol and sugar content, conventional parameters, metals, cyanide, phenols, nutrients, oil and grease, priority pollutant organics, and selected pesticides. The most significant characteristics of concern were the BOD and COD levels.

  9. Biomass Cost Index: mapping biomass-to-biohydrogen feedstock costs by a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulou, L K; Karaoglanoglou, L S; Koukios, E G

    2011-02-01

    Making decisions and developing policy in the field of biofuel and bioenergy is complex because of the large number and potential arrangements of feedstocks, technologies and supply chain options. Although, the technical optimisation and sustainability of any biomass to biofuel production chain is of major importance, the overall chain cost is still considered as the key for their market deployment. A significant percentage of this cost is attributed to primary generation, transportation/handling and pretreatment of the biomass. The separation of the system into smaller semi-independent sub-systems and dealing with their interfaces, provides the pathway to map this complex landscape. The main scope of this work is to present a tool, which was developed for the comparison of diverse biomass-to-biofuel systems, in order to facilitate the cost-wise decision making on this field. PMID:21074419

  10. The potential of Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973 for sugar feedstock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kuo; Tan, Xiaoming; Liang, Yajing; Lu, Xuefeng

    2016-09-01

    It is important to obtain abundant sugar feedstocks economically and sustainably for bio-fermentation industry, especially for producing cheap biofuels and biochemicals. Besides plant biomass, photosynthetic cyanobacteria have also been considered to be potential microbe candidates for sustainable production of carbohydrate feedstocks. As the fastest growing cyanobacterium reported so far, Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973 (Syn2973) might have huge potential for bioproduction. In this study, we explored the potentials of this strain as photo-bioreactors for sucrose and glycogen production. Under nitrogen-replete condition, Syn2973 could accumulate glycogen with a rate of 0.75 g L(-1) day(-1) at the exponential phase and reach a glycogen content as high as 51 % of the dry cell weight (DCW) at the stationary phase. By introducing a sucrose transporter CscB, Syn2973 was endowed with an ability to secrete over 94 % sucrose out of cells under salt stress condition. The highest extracellular sucrose productivity reached 35.5 mg L(-1) h(-1) for the Syn2973 strain expressing cscB, which contained the similar amounts of intracellular glycogen with the wild type. Potassium chloride was firstly proved to induce sucrose accumulation as well as sodium chloride in Syn2973. By semi-continuous culturing, 8.7 g L(-1) sucrose was produced by the cscB-expressing strain of Syn2973 in 21 days. These results support that Syn2973 is a promising candidate with great potential for production of sugars. PMID:27079574

  11. Deep HDS on doped molybdenum carbides. From probe molecules to real feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Costa, Patrick; Manoli, Jean-Marie; Potvin, Claude; Djega-Mariadassou, Gerald [Laboratoire Reactivite de Surface, CNRS UMR 7609, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, Case 178, Tour 54-55, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2005-10-30

    Deep HDS on phosphorus and nickel-alumina-supported molybdenum oxycarbides was studied, first, with probe molecules then with real feedstocks. Catalysts were characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, CO chemisorption, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Propene and tetralin hydrogenation were used to probe the activity of the doped materials. Hydrodesulfurization of 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene was investigated as a probe for the deep HDS of diesel fuel. For contact times ranging from 0 to 0.4s, the HDS of 4,6-DMDBT is zeroth-order with respect to the reactant and proceeds via two parallel routes, direct desulfurization and hydrogenation pathways, the former being preponderant. Phosphorus and nickel modify the catalytic behaviour and induce the highest HDS activity. Deep hydrodesulphurization (HDS) of diesel fuels was carried out on promoted or non-promoted Mo{sub 2}C-supported {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and on bulk Mo{sub 2}C under standard industrial conditions. The effect of the promoter was investigated for different feedstocks on HDS and hydrogenation (HDA) with very low levels of sulfur. The HDS conversion indicated that P-doped alumina supported carbide catalysts were as active as a commercial Co-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst for low level of sulfur in the feed. Furthermore, the refractory compounds, such as 4,6-DMDBT were only transformed on molybdenum carbide catalyst under industrial conditions for hydrotreated gas oils. For feeds containing less than 50wt.ppm in sulfur, P-doped carbides were more active than commercial catalysts for HDA, as well as deep HDS or HDN.

  12. A Novel Plasma-Sprayed Nanostructured Coating with Agglomerated-Unsintered Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Deming; Gao, Jianyi

    2016-01-01

    In this article, an unusual agglomerated powder of Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) that did not undergo calcination was introduced as a feedstock for thermal spray deposition using internal injection atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and the very-low-pressure plasma spray (VLPPS) methods at an ambient pressure of 100-150 Pa. The results show that the microstructure of the coating is influenced not only by the spray parameters (such as arc gas composition, ambient pressure, and arc current) but also by the manufacture process of the agglomerates particularly the sintering process. The microstructure of the coating exhibited a bimodal structure if the APS method was used; in this case, the microstructure resembles that of other nanostructured coatings using regular agglomerated-sintered feedstock. A coating having a novel fully nano-equiaxed structure with a microporosity of 10-15% was first successfully deposited using VLPPS with 20Ar-30He SLPM plasma gas flows at a current of 500 A. The experimental results suggest that the nano-scale equiaxed structure in the coating is directly formed from original nanoparticles that had undergone melting, while inside the nozzle they were subsequently solidified on the substrate. The VLPPS method, which offers some unique advantages over the conventional plasma spray process, is generic in nature and can potentially be used to deposit a wide variety of ceramic coatings for diverse applications. The thermal conductivity values of the fully nanostructured and bimodal structured coatings were measured, and the microstructures of the coating both in the as-sprayed state and after heat treatment for 10 h at 1300 °C were investigated.

  13. Biological conversion assay using Clostridium phytofermentans to estimate plant feedstock quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Scott J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is currently considerable interest in developing renewable sources of energy. One strategy is the biological conversion of plant biomass to liquid transportation fuel. Several technical hurdles impinge upon the economic feasibility of this strategy, including the development of energy crops amenable to facile deconstruction. Reliable assays to characterize feedstock quality are needed to measure the effects of pre-treatment and processing and of the plant and microbial genetic diversity that influence bioconversion efficiency. Results We used the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans to develop a robust assay for biomass digestibility and conversion to biofuels. The assay utilizes the ability of the microbe to convert biomass directly into ethanol with little or no pre-treatment. Plant samples were added to an anaerobic minimal medium and inoculated with C. phytofermentans, incubated for 3 days, after which the culture supernatant was analyzed for ethanol concentration. The assay detected significant differences in the supernatant ethanol from wild-type sorghum compared with brown midrib sorghum mutants previously shown to be highly digestible. Compositional analysis of the biomass before and after inoculation suggested that differences in xylan metabolism were partly responsible for the differences in ethanol yields. Additionally, we characterized the natural genetic variation for conversion efficiency in Brachypodium distachyon and shrub willow (Salix spp.. Conclusion Our results agree with those from previous studies of lignin mutants using enzymatic saccharification-based approaches. However, the use of C. phytofermentans takes into consideration specific organismal interactions, which will be crucial for simultaneous saccharification fermentation or consolidated bioprocessing. The ability to detect such phenotypic variation facilitates the genetic analysis of mechanisms underlying plant feedstock quality.

  14. Biomass supply chain management in North Carolina (part 2: biomass feedstock logistical optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Caffrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass logistics operations account for a major portion of the feedstock cost of running a biorefinery, and make up a significant portion of total system operational costs. Biomass is a bulky perishable commodity that is required in large quantities year round for optimal biorefinery operations. As a proof of concept for a decision making tool for biomass production and delivery, a heuristic was developed to determine biorefinery location, considering city size, agricultural density, and regional demographics. Switchgrass and sorghum (with winter canola were selected to examine as viable biomass feedstocks based on positive economic results determined using a predictive model for cropland conversion potential. Biomass harvest systems were evaluated to examine interrelationships of biomass logistical networks and the least cost production system, with results demonstrating a need to shift to maximize supply-driven production harvest operations and limit storage requirements. For this supply-driven production harvest operations approach a harvest window from September until March was selected for producing big square bales of switchgrass for storage until use, forage chopped sorghum from September to December, and forage chopped switchgrass from December to March. A case study of the three major regions of North Carolina (Mountains, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain was used to assess logistical optimization of the proposed supply-driven production harvest system. Potential biomass production fields were determined within a hundred mile radius of the proposed biorefinery location, with individual fields designated for crop and harvest system by lowest transportation cost. From these selected fields, crops and harvest system regional storage locations were determined using an alternate location-allocation heuristic with set storage capacity per site. Model results showed that the supply-driven production harvest system greatly reduced system complexity

  15. Production of biodiesel from melia azedarach seed oil: a non- edible feedstock for biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel (BD) is a first-generation biofuel that has emerged as a renewable alternative diesel fuel, obtained by the transesterification of vegetable oils and animals fats, using a short-chain alcohol and a catalyst that may be an acid, a base or an enzyme. BD can be used in the existing compression-ignition engines without any further modification. Presently, most of the BD production is being carried out using edible vegetable oil which has put a strain on the food supply and, hence, has led it into a competition with the food industry. It has also resulted in a rise in the prices of such feed stocks. Hence, search for the newer and non-edible feed stocks is becoming increasingly important. The objective of the present work is to explore the utility of Melia azedarach seed oil, a non-edible feedstock, for the preparation of BD. The oil was extracted by using n-hexane as a solvent and a oil content of 32% was obtained. As a result of transesterification using sodium hydroxide and methanol, 80% conversion of the oil into BD was obtained. Fatty acid profile of the oil and the BD were found to be almost the same. Different fuel properties of the BD prepared were studied including viscosity, iodine number, acid number, cold point and cetane number, and the values obtained are 4.7, 112, 0.45 mg KOH/g, < -10 deg. C and 45, respectively. Although the oxidation stability is less than the required standard value by EN 14214, but it can be enhanced by introducing some additives into the final product. Other properties were found to be in agreement with the required specifications for BD by EN 14214, hence Melia azedarach seed oil is a suitable non-edible feedstock for the production of BD. (author)

  16. Mapping marginal croplands suitable for cellulosic feedstock crops in the Great Plains, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2016-01-01

    Growing cellulosic feedstock crops (e.g., switchgrass) for biofuel is more environmentally sustainable than corn-based ethanol. Specifically, this practice can reduce soil erosion and water quality impairment from pesticides and fertilizer, improve ecosystem services and sustainability (e.g., serve as carbon sinks), and minimize impacts on global food supplies. The main goal of this study was to identify high-risk marginal croplands that are potentially suitable for growing cellulosic feedstock crops (e.g., switchgrass) in the US Great Plains (GP). Satellite-derived growing season Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, a switchgrass biomass productivity map obtained from a previous study, US Geological Survey (USGS) irrigation and crop masks, and US Department of Agriculture (USDA) crop indemnity maps for the GP were used in this study. Our hypothesis was that croplands with relatively low crop yield but high productivity potential for switchgrass may be suitable for converting to switchgrass. Areas with relatively low crop indemnity (crop indemnity failures. Results show that approximately 650 000 ha of marginal croplands in the GP are potentially suitable for switchgrass development. The total estimated switchgrass biomass productivity gain from these suitable areas is about 5.9 million metric tons. Switchgrass can be cultivated in either lowland or upland regions in the GP depending on the local soil and environmental conditions. This study improves our understanding of ecosystem services and the sustainability of cropland systems in the GP. Results from this study provide useful information to land managers for making informed decisions regarding switchgrass development in the GP.

  17. Solvent-extractable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar: influence of pyrolysis temperature and feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiluweit, Marco; Kleber, Markus; Sparrow, Margaret A; Simoneit, Bernd R T; Prahl, Fredrick G

    2012-09-01

    Despite the increasing agricultural use of biochar as a way of combining the utilization of biomass for energy production with the removal of CO(2) from the atmosphere, it is not known how variations in pyrolysis temperature and feedstock type affect concentration and composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that inevitably form and associate with biochar. To close this knowledge gap, we quantified 11 unsubstituted three- to five-ring PAHs as well as alkylated forms of phenanthrene and anthracene in grass and wood chars produced in 100 °C increments across a temperature range (100 to 700 °C). Our results show that solvent-extractable PAH concentrations in biochars produced at heat treatment temperatures (HTTs) of 400 and 500 °C greatly exceed those observed at higher and lower temperature, supporting a low HTT solid-phase formation mechanism operable at temperatures commonly used for industrial biochar production. The maximum extractable yield of 'pyrolytic' unsubstituted PAHs for grass (22 μg g(-1) at HTT = 500 °C) greatly exceeds the value for wood (5.9 μg g(-1)). Moreover, PAH signatures (e.g., total monomethylphenanthrene to phenanthrene ratios, MP/P ~2-3) at intermediate temperatures (400 °C) resemble those of fossil oils rather than that commonly attributed to pyrolytic products. Further research is needed to characterize the PAH evolution in modern pyrolysis reactors and assess the fate of biochar-bound PAHs in soils and sediments. Various commonly applied PAH ratios and indicator compounds show promise as markers for specific feedstock materials and pyrolysis conditions of biochars in environmental systems.

  18. Catalytic conversion of biomass-derived feedstocks into olefins and aromatics with ZSM-5: the hydrogen to carbon effective ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Vispute, Tushar; Xiao, R; Huber, George W.

    2011-01-01

    Catalytic conversion of ten biomass-derived feedstocks, i.e.glucose, sorbitol, glycerol, tetrahydrofuran, methanol and different hydrogenated bio-oil fractions, with different hydrogen to carbon effective (H/C{sub eff}) ratios was conducted in a gas-phase flow fixed-bed reactor with a ZSM-5 catalyst. The aromatic + olefin yield increases and the coke yield decreases with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio of the feed. There is an inflection point at a H/C{sub eff} ratio = 1.2, where the aromatic + olefin yield does not increase as rapidly as it does prior to this point. The ratio of olefins to aromatics also increases with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. CO and CO₂ yields go through a maximum with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. The deactivation rate of the catalyst decreases significantly with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. Coke was formed from both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for the ten feedstocks showed that the formation of coke from homogeneous reactions decreases with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. Feedstocks with a H/C{sub eff} ratio less than 0.15 produce large amounts of undesired coke (more than 12 wt%) from homogeneous decomposition reactions. This paper shows that the conversion of biomass-derived feedstocks into aromatics and olefins using zeolite catalysts can be explained by the H/C{sub eff} ratio of the feed.

  19. Impacts of bioenergy feedstock production on environmental factors in the Central U.S. using an agroecosystem model (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twine, T. E.; Vanloocke, A. D.; Williams, M.; Bernacchi, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Renewable Fuel Standard in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requires annual U.S. production of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels by 2022, nearly half of this from cellulosic biofuels. We have little guidance as to where to grow bioenergy feedstocks to maximize yield without competing for food resources, and little understanding of the environmental and economic impacts of their production. Furthermore, it is unclear how bioenergy feedstocks might be incorporated into the current landscape to minimize environmental consequences. Numerical models allow us to predict environmental impacts across large spatial domains and long time periods by simulating the response of potential feedstocks to drivers such as soil type and climate. We used the Agro-IBIS (Integrated Biosphere Simulator, agricultural version) model to quantify the impacts on Midwest U.S. water and energy budgets from land use for bioenergy production. We analyzed effects of changes in land cover (e.g., from current crops to perennial grasses) as well as changes in management (e.g., removal of crop residues for fuel). Our analyses indicate that perennial grasses can substantially increase evapotranspiration (water transport to the atmosphere) in locations where fraction cover is greater than 25%. This change in evapotranspiration is lowest in regions where current crops and grasses are highly productive and evapotranspiration is large, and is highest in semi-arid regions where productivity is lower. These results imply that growing bioenergy feedstocks on marginal lands could have substantial effects on water resources.

  20. Agronomic comparison of several brassica species in the U.S. Corn Belt as feedstock for hydrotreated jet fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through a patented process developed in the U.S., hydrotreated renewable jet fuel (HRJ) derived from plant oils has been commercially demonstrated. However, full-scale production has not yet come to fruition because HRJ is not economically competitive with petroleum-based fuels due to high feedstock...

  1. Tailoring the microstructure of porous MgO supports for asymmetric oxygen separation membranes: Optimization of thermoplastic feedstock systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothanda Ramachandran, Dhavanesan; Clemens, F.; Glasscock, Julie;

    2014-01-01

    Porous magnesium oxide (MgO) structures were prepared by thermoplastic processing for use as supports in asymmetric thin film oxygen transport membranes (OTMs). The open porosity, pore size distribution, and resulting gas permeability of the MgO structures were measured for different feedstock...

  2. Tailoring the porosity and shrinkage of extruded MgO support tubes for oxygen separation membranes by thermoplastic feedstock development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothanda Ramachandran, Dhavanesan; Kaiser, Andreas; Glasscock, Julie;

    for co-extrusion and co-sintering of a porous Magnesium oxide (MgO) support with a thin film of cerium gadolinium oxide (Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95-δ, CGO) as active oxygen transport membrane layer has been developed using a thermoplastic ceramic system and graphite as pore former. The feedstocks have been...

  3. Novel storage technologies for raw and clarified syrup biomass feedstocks from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attention is currently focused on developing sustainable supply chains of sugar feedstocks for new, flexible biorefineries. Fundamental processing needs identified by industry for the large-scale manufacture of biofuels and bioproducts from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) include stabiliz...

  4. Methods for conversion of carbohydrates in ionic liquids to value-added chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haibo; Holladay, Johnathan E.

    2011-05-10

    Methods are described for converting carbohydrates including, e.g., monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides in ionic liquids to value-added chemicals including furans, useful as chemical intermediates and/or feedstocks. Fructose is converted to 5-hydroxylmethylfurfural (HMF) in the presence of metal halide and acid catalysts. Glucose is effectively converted to HMF in the presence of chromium chloride catalysts. Yields of up to about 70% are achieved with low levels of impurities such as levulinic acid.

  5. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.

    2005-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are both strongly committed to expanding the role of biomass as an energy source. In particular, they support biomass fuels and products as a way to reduce the need for oil and gas imports; to support the growth of agriculture, forestry, and rural economies; and to foster major new domestic industries--biorefineries--making a variety of fuels, chemicals, and other products. As part of this effort, the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee, a panel established by the Congress to guide the future direction of federally funded biomass R&D, envisioned a 30 percent replacement of the current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. Biomass--all plant and plant-derived materials including animal manure, not just starch, sugar, oil crops already used for food and energy--has great potential to provide renewable energy for America's future. Biomass recently surpassed hydropower as the largest domestic source of renewable energy and currently provides over 3 percent of the total energy consumption in the United States. In addition to the many benefits common to renewable energy, biomass is particularly attractive because it is the only current renewable source of liquid transportation fuel. This, of course, makes it invaluable in reducing oil imports--one of our most pressing energy needs. A key question, however, is how large a role could biomass play in responding to the nation's energy demands. Assuming that economic and financial policies and advances in conversion technologies make biomass fuels and products more economically viable, could the biorefinery industry be large enough to have a significant impact on energy supply and oil imports? Any and all contributions are certainly needed, but would the biomass potential be sufficiently large to justify the necessary capital replacements in the fuels and automobile sectors? The purpose of this report is to determine

  6. The effects of feedstock pre-treatment and pyrolysis temperature on the production of biochar from the green seaweed Ulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; de Nys, Rocky

    2016-03-15

    Green seaweeds from the genus Ulva are a promising feedstock for the production of biochar for carbon (C) sequestration and soil amelioration. Ulva can be cultivated in waste water from land-based aquaculture and Ulva blooms ("green tides") strand millions of tons of biomass on coastal areas of Europe and China each year. The conversion of Ulva into biochar could recycle C and nutrients from eutrophic water into agricultural production. We produce biochar from Ulva ohnoi, cultivated in waste water from an aquaculture facility, and characterize its suitability for C sequestration and soil amelioration through bio-chemical analyses and plant growth experiments. Two biomass pre-treatments (fresh water rinsing to reduce salt, and pelletisation to increase density) were crossed with four pyrolysis temperatures (300-750 °C). Biomass rinsing decreased the ash and increased the C content of the resulting biochar. However, biochar produced from un-rinsed biomass had a higher proportion of fixed C and a higher yield. C sequestration decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures due to the combination of lower yield and lower total C content of biochar produced at high temperatures. Biochar produced from un-rinsed biomass at 300 °C had the greatest gravimetric C sequestration (110-120 g stable C kg(-1) seaweed). Biochar produced from un-pelletised Ulva enhanced plant growth three-fold in low fertility soils when the temperature of pyrolysis was less than 450 °C. The reduced effectiveness of the high-temperature biochars (>450 °C) was due to a lower N and higher salt content. Soil ameliorated with biochar produced from pelletised biomass had suppressed plant germination and growth. The most effective biochar for C sequestration and soil amelioration was produced from un-rinsed and un-pelletised Ulva at 300 °C. The green tide that occurs annually along the Shandong coastline in China generates sufficient biomass (200,000 tons dry weight) to ameliorate 12,500

  7. The effects of feedstock pre-treatment and pyrolysis temperature on the production of biochar from the green seaweed Ulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; de Nys, Rocky

    2016-03-15

    Green seaweeds from the genus Ulva are a promising feedstock for the production of biochar for carbon (C) sequestration and soil amelioration. Ulva can be cultivated in waste water from land-based aquaculture and Ulva blooms ("green tides") strand millions of tons of biomass on coastal areas of Europe and China each year. The conversion of Ulva into biochar could recycle C and nutrients from eutrophic water into agricultural production. We produce biochar from Ulva ohnoi, cultivated in waste water from an aquaculture facility, and characterize its suitability for C sequestration and soil amelioration through bio-chemical analyses and plant growth experiments. Two biomass pre-treatments (fresh water rinsing to reduce salt, and pelletisation to increase density) were crossed with four pyrolysis temperatures (300-750 °C). Biomass rinsing decreased the ash and increased the C content of the resulting biochar. However, biochar produced from un-rinsed biomass had a higher proportion of fixed C and a higher yield. C sequestration decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures due to the combination of lower yield and lower total C content of biochar produced at high temperatures. Biochar produced from un-rinsed biomass at 300 °C had the greatest gravimetric C sequestration (110-120 g stable C kg(-1) seaweed). Biochar produced from un-pelletised Ulva enhanced plant growth three-fold in low fertility soils when the temperature of pyrolysis was less than 450 °C. The reduced effectiveness of the high-temperature biochars (>450 °C) was due to a lower N and higher salt content. Soil ameliorated with biochar produced from pelletised biomass had suppressed plant germination and growth. The most effective biochar for C sequestration and soil amelioration was produced from un-rinsed and un-pelletised Ulva at 300 °C. The green tide that occurs annually along the Shandong coastline in China generates sufficient biomass (200,000 tons dry weight) to ameliorate 12,500

  8. Projecting future grassland productivity to assess the sustainability of potential biofuel feedstock areas in the Greater Platte River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Boyte, Stephen; Phyual, Khem

    2014-01-01

    This study projects future (e.g., 2050 and 2099) grassland productivities in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB) using ecosystem performance (EP, a surrogate for measuring ecosystem productivity) models and future climate projections. The EP models developed from a previous study were based on the satellite vegetation index, site geophysical and biophysical features, and weather and climate drivers. The future climate data used in this study were derived from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model 3.0 ‘SRES A1B’ (a ‘middle’ emissions path). The main objective of this study is to assess the future sustainability of the potential biofuel feedstock areas identified in a previous study. Results show that the potential biofuel feedstock areas (the more mesic eastern part of the GPRB) will remain productive (i.e., aboveground grassland biomass productivity >2750 kg ha−1 year−1) with a slight increasing trend in the future. The spatially averaged EPs for these areas are 3519, 3432, 3557, 3605, 3752, and 3583 kg ha−1 year−1 for current site potential (2000–2008 average), 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099, respectively. Therefore, the identified potential biofuel feedstock areas will likely continue to be sustainable for future biofuel development. On the other hand, grasslands identified as having no biofuel potential in the drier western part of the GPRB would be expected to stay unproductive in the future (spatially averaged EPs are 1822, 1691, 1896, 2306, 1994, and 2169 kg ha−1 year−1 for site potential, 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099). These areas should continue to be unsuitable for biofuel feedstock development in the future. These future grassland productivity estimation maps can help land managers to understand and adapt to the expected changes in future EP in the GPRB and to assess the future sustainability and feasibility of potential biofuel feedstock areas.

  9. Replication of microchannel structures in WC-Co feedstock using elastomeric replica moulds by hot embossing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, M; Gelin, J-C; Barrière, T

    2015-10-01

    Hot embossing is a net shaping process that is able to produce the micro-components of polymers with intrinsic and complex shapes at lower cost compared with machining and injection moulding. However, the emboss of hard metals, such as WC-Co, is more challenging due to their high thermal conductivity and ease of agglomeration. Thus, a WC-Co alloy mixed with a wax-based binder feedstock was selected. The formed feedstock exhibited pseudo-plastic flow and was successfully embossed (green part). Here, we developed a novel process that is used to replicate polymer microfluidic chips while simultaneously reducing the channel surface roughness of the mould insert, yielding optical-grade (less than 100 nm surface roughness) channels and reservoirs. This paper concerns the replication of metallic microfluidic mould inserts in WC-Co and the parameters associated with feedstock formation via a hot embossing process. A suitable formulation for micro-powder hot embossing has been established and characterised by thermogravimetric analyses and measurements of mixing torques to verify and quantify the homogeneity of the proposed feedstocks. The relative density of the samples increased with processing temperature, and almost fully dense materials were obtained. In this work, the effects of the sintering temperature on the physical properties were systematically analysed. The evolution of the metal surface morphology during the hot embossing process was also investigated. The results indicate that the feedstock can be used to manufacture micro-fluidic die mould cavities with a low roughness, proper dimensions and good shape retention. The shrinkage of the sintered part was approximately 19-24% compared with that of the brown part. PMID:26117760

  10. LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE SUPPLIES OF BIOENERGY FEEDSTOCK AND ENHANCED SOIL QUALITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas L. Karlen; David J. Muth, Jr.

    2012-09-01

    Agriculture can simultaneously address global food, feed, fiber, and energy challenges provided our soil, water, and air resources are not compromised in doing so. As we embark on the 19th Triennial Conference of the International Soil and Tillage Research Organization (ISTRO), I am pleased to proclaim that our members are well poised to lead these endeavors because of our comprehensive understanding of soil, water, agricultural and bio-systems engineering processes. The concept of landscape management, as an approach for integrating multiple bioenergy feedstock sources, including biomass residuals, into current crop production systems, is used as the focal point to show how these ever-increasing global challenges can be met in a sustainable manner. Starting with the 2005 Billion Ton Study (BTS) goals, research and technology transfer activities leading to the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Revised Billion Ton Study (BT2) and development of a residue management tool to guide sustainable crop residue harvest will be reviewed. Multi-location USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Renewable Energy Assessment Project (REAP) team research and on-going partnerships between public and private sector groups will be shared to show the development of landscape management strategies that can simultaneously address the multiple factors that must be balanced to meet the global challenges. Effective landscape management strategies recognize the importance of nature’s diversity and strive to emulate those conditions to sustain multiple critical ecosystem services. To illustrate those services, the soil quality impact of harvesting crop residues are presented to show how careful, comprehensive monitoring of soil, water and air resources must be an integral part of sustainable bioenergy feedstock production systems. Preliminary analyses suggest that to sustain soil resources within the U.S. Corn Belt, corn (Zea mays L.) stover should not be harvested if average grain

  11. SLUG FLOW PROCESSING IN MICROREACTORS FOR BIO-BASED CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING: SYNTHESIS AND OXIDATION OF 5-HYDROXYMETHYLFURFURAL AS POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yue, Jun; Deuss, Peter; Zhang, Zheng; Hommes, Arne; Heeres, Hero

    2016-01-01

    The ever increasing global demand on fossil resources that are limited in reserves has directed numerous research efforts recently towards the development of more sustainable feedstocks as the source for the production of fuels, chemicals and (performance) materials. Conversion of biomass (particula

  12. Bioenergy Landscape Design to Minimize the Environmental Impacts of Feedstock Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J.; Dinh, T.; Paustian, K.

    2012-12-01

    The United States has adopted aggressive mandates for the use of biofuels in an attempt to improve domestic energy security, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector, and stimulate rural development. The Renewable Fuel Standard requires that the environmental impact of all conventional, advanced, and cellulosic biofuels be evaluated through standardized lifecycle assessment (LCA) techniques relative to a baseline of petroleum-derived gasoline and diesel fuels. A significant fraction of the energy use, GHG emissions, and water quality impact of the production of all types of biofuel occurs during the cultivation of feedstocks (either starch- or oil-based or lignocellulosic), which requires some combination of crop switching, land use change, or cultivation intensification. Furthermore, these impacts exhibit a high degree of spatial variability with local climate, soil type, land use history, and farm management practices. Here we present a spatially-explicit LCA methodology based on the DayCent soil biogeochemistry model capable of accurately evaluating cultivation impacts for a variety of biofuel feedstocks. This methodology considers soil GHG emissions and nitrate leaching as well as the embodied emissions of agricultural inputs and fuels used for field operations and biomass transport to a centralized collection point (biorefinery or transportation hub). Model results are incorporated into a biomass production cost analysis in order to identify the impact of different system designs on production cost. Finally, the resulting multi-criteria optimization problem is solved by monetizing all environmental externalities based on figures from the non-market valuation literature and using a heuristic optimization algorithm to identify optimal cultivation areas and collection point locations to minimize overall environmental impacts at lowest possible cost. Preliminary analysis results are presented for an illustrative case study of switchgrass

  13. Semi-mechanistic Model Applied to the Search for Economically Optimal Conditions and Blending of Gasoline Feedstock for Steam-cracking Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaba Adam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam-cracking is energetically intensive large-scaled process which transforms a wide range of hydrocarbons feedstock to petrochemical products. The dependence of products yields on feedstock composition and reaction conditions has been successfully described by mathematical models which are very useful tools for the optimization of cracker operation. Remaining problem is to formulate objective function for such an optimization. Quantitative criterion based on the process economy is proposed in this paper. Previously developed and verified industrial steam-cracking semi-mechanistic model is utilized as supporting tool for economic evaluation of selected gasoline feedstock. Economic criterion is established as the difference between value of products obtained by cracking of studied feedstock under given conditions and the value of products obtained by cracking of reference feedstock under reference conditions. As an example of method utilization, optimal reaction conditions were searched for each of selected feedstock. Potential benefit of individual cracking and cracking of grouped feedstocks in the contrast to cracking under the middle of optimums is evaluated and also compared to cracking under usual conditions.

  14. The Social and Environmental Impacts of Biofuel Feedstock Cultivation: Evidence from Multi-Site Research in the Forest Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pacheco

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Preoccupation with global energy supplies and climate change in the global North, and a desire to improve the balance of trade and capture value in the emerging carbon market by developing countries, together place biofuels firmly on the map of global land use change. Much of this recent land use change is occurring in developing countries where large agro-ecologically suitable tracts of land may be accessed at lower economic and opportunity cost. This is leading to the gradual penetration of commercial crops that provide suitable biofuel feedstocks (e.g., sugarcane, soybean, oil palm, jatropha into rural communities and forested landscapes throughout many areas of the global South. Expansion of biofuel feedstock cultivation in developing countries is widely embraced by producer country governments as a means to achieve energy security and stimulate rural economic development through employment and smallholder market integration. It is also expected that foreign and domestic investments in biofuel feedstock cultivation will lead to positive economic spillovers from knowledge transfer and investor contributions to social and physical infrastructure. While biofuel feedstocks are expanding through large industrial-scale plantations and smallholder production alike, the expansion of industrial-scale production systems has been countered by a critical response by civil society actors concerned about the implications for rural livelihoods, customary land rights, and the environmental effects of biofuel feedstock cultivation. To date, however, limited data exist to demonstrate the conditions under which widely anticipated economic and climate change mitigation benefits accrue in practice, and the implications of these developments for forests, local livelihoods, and the climate change mitigation potential of biofuels. In such a situation, debates are easily polarized into those for and against biofuels. This special issue seeks to nuance this debate by

  15. Efficient inclusion body processing using chemical extraction and high gradient magnetic fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Choe, W.S.; Middelberg, A.P.J.;

    2003-01-01

    was achieved very rapidly ( 100 mM imidazole in the equilibration buffer. The influence of feedstock complexity on Ll adsorption to the Cu2+-charged type II magnetic chelators was studied using various dilutions of four crude chemical E. coli cell extracts containing denatured L I protein. Undiminished Ll...... adsorption to these adsorbents (relative to the 8 M urea-phosphate buffer case) was observed with the least complex of these feed materials, i.e., a partially clarified (12 g dry weight L-1) and spermine-treated chemical cell extract (feedstock B). Efficient recovery of Ll from feed B was demonstrated......In this study we introduce a radical new approach for the recovery of proteins expressed in the form of inclusion bodies, involving W chemical extraction from the host cells, (ii) adsorptive capture of the target protein onto small magnetic adsorbents, and (iii) subsequent rapid collection...

  16. Devising efficient biotechnological processes for the production of fuels and chemicals from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villet, R. H.

    1982-05-01

    Research directed toward improving ethanol processes based on readily fermentable feedstocks is discussed. Efforts were also made to develop novel fermentation systems. Reducing the cost of producing ethanol and other chemicals requires using cellulosics as feedstocks, which when hydrolyzed form hexose sugars readily metabolized by yeast. A program was undertaken to discover thermophilic organisms that convert various biopolymers to ethanol and other chemical products. Lipids suitable as diesel oil extenders are produced by microorganisms. A screening program was undertaken to identify microbial strains with a biotechnological potential. This involved a precise, quantitative chemical analysis of lipid products. Some work on developing a 2,3-butanediol fermentation process is described. During the fermentation process ethanol is also produced. To improve the ratio of butanediol to ethanol, a program of genetic and physiological research was designed and initiated.

  17. Chemical use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of research and activities related to chemical use on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. The chemicals used on the Refuge...

  18. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  19. Energy crops for biofuel feedstocks: facts and recent patents on genetic manipulation to improve biofuel crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh

    2013-12-01

    Burning fossil-fuels to meet the global energy requirements by human being has intensified the concerns of increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. Therefore, serious efforts are required to develop nonfossil-based renewable energy sources. Plants are more efficient in utilizing solar energy to convert it into biomass which can be used as feedstocks for biofuel production. Hence with the increasing demands of energy and the needs of cost-effective, sustainable production of fuels, it has become necessary to switch over to plant biomass as a renewable source of energy. Biofuels derived from more sustainable biological materials such as lignocellulosic plant residues, considered as second generation biofuels, are more dependable. However, there are technical challenges such as pretreatment and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to convert it into fermentable sugars. Plant genetic engineering has already proven its potential in modifying cell wall composition of plants for enhancing the efficiency of biofuel production. Interest and potential in the area are very much evident from the growing number of patents in the recent years on the subject. In this review, recent trends in genetic engineering of energy crops for biofuel production have been introduced, and strategies for the future developments have been discussed.

  20. Assessing county-level water footprints of different cellulosic-biofuel feedstock pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yi-Wen; Wu, May

    2012-08-21

    While agricultural residue is considered as a near-term feedstock option for cellulosic biofuels, its sustainability must be evaluated by taking water into account. This study aims to analyze the county-level water footprint for four biofuel pathways in the United States, including bioethanol generated from corn grain, stover, wheat straw, and biodiesel from soybean. The county-level blue water footprint of ethanol from corn grain, stover, and wheat straw shows extremely wide variances with a national average of 31, 132, and 139 L of water per liter biofuel (L(w)/L(bf)), and standard deviation of 133, 323, and 297 L(w)/L(bf), respectively. Soybean biodiesel production results in a blue water footprint of 313 L(w)/L(bf) on the national average with standard deviation of 894 L(w)/L(bf). All biofuels show a greater green water footprint than the blue one. This work elucidates how diverse spatial resolutions affect biofuel water footprints, which can provide detailed insights into biofuels' implications on local water sustainability.

  1. Energy crops for biofuel feedstocks: facts and recent patents on genetic manipulation to improve biofuel crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh

    2013-12-01

    Burning fossil-fuels to meet the global energy requirements by human being has intensified the concerns of increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. Therefore, serious efforts are required to develop nonfossil-based renewable energy sources. Plants are more efficient in utilizing solar energy to convert it into biomass which can be used as feedstocks for biofuel production. Hence with the increasing demands of energy and the needs of cost-effective, sustainable production of fuels, it has become necessary to switch over to plant biomass as a renewable source of energy. Biofuels derived from more sustainable biological materials such as lignocellulosic plant residues, considered as second generation biofuels, are more dependable. However, there are technical challenges such as pretreatment and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to convert it into fermentable sugars. Plant genetic engineering has already proven its potential in modifying cell wall composition of plants for enhancing the efficiency of biofuel production. Interest and potential in the area are very much evident from the growing number of patents in the recent years on the subject. In this review, recent trends in genetic engineering of energy crops for biofuel production have been introduced, and strategies for the future developments have been discussed. PMID:24456235

  2. The Effects of Biofuel Feedstock Production on Farmers’ Livelihoods in Ghana: The Case of Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Acheampong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The widespread acquisition of land for large-scale/commercial production of biofuel crops in Ghana has raised concerns from civil society organizations, local communities and other parties, regarding the impact of these investments on local livelihoods. This paper assessed the effect of large-scale acquisition of land for production of Jatropha curcas on farmers’ livelihoods in Ghana. The study was conducted in 11 communities spanning the major agro-ecological zones and political divisions across Ghana. Methods of data collection included questionnaire survey, interviews and focus group discussions. Results show that several households have lost their land to Jatropha plantations leading, in some cases, to violent conflicts between biofuel investors, traditional authorities and the local communities. Most people reported that, contrary to the belief that Jatropha does well on marginal lands, the lands acquired by the Jatropha Companies were productive lands. Loss of rights over land has affected households’ food production and security, as many households have resorted to reducing the area they have under cultivation, leading to shortening fallow periods and declining crop yields. In addition, although the cultivation of Jatropha led to the creation of jobs in the communities where they were started, such jobs were merely transient. The paper contends that, even though the impact of Jatropha feedstock production on local livelihoods in Ghana is largely negative, the burgeoning industry could be developed in ways that could support local livelihoods.

  3. Comparative evaluation of thermal degradation for biodiesels derived from various feedstocks through transesterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • TG–FTIR is employed to evaluate thermal degradation characteristics of biodiesels. • Lower content of unsaturated fatty acid is responsible for higher thermal stability. • Evolved products are alkanes, aldehyde/ketones, ethers, alkenes and CO2. - Abstract: Biodiesel is commonly derived from various feedstocks through transesterification. Since thermal degradation is concerned with a lot of scientific applications, it is essential to evaluate the thermal degradation characteristics for biodiesel. In this study, thermal degradation of biodiesel is investigated through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The fatty acid composition and the characteristic functional groups of biodiesel are detected by gas chromatography (GC) and FTIR in advance. Then, TGA experiments are conducted at linear heating rates from 20 °C min−1 to 40 °C min−1 under nitrogen atmosphere in temperature range from 25 °C to 600 °C. Subsequently, the activation energy, including enthalpy, is determined by Friedman method and Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method and the reaction order is calculated through the Avrami theory. In addition, the pre-exponential factor, the Gibbs free energy, and the entropy are also calculated. Finally, to obtain a comprehensive understanding for thermal degradation of biodiesels, all evolved products are detected by FTIR in real time

  4. Assessment of xylanase activity in dry storage as a potential method of reducing feedstock cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William A; Thompson, David N; Thompson, Vicki S; Radtke, Corey W; Carter, Brady

    2009-05-01

    Enzymatic preprocessing of lignocellulosic biomass in dry storage systems has the potential to improve feedstock characteristics and lower ethanol production costs. To assess the potential for endoxylanase activity at low water contents, endoxylanase activity was tested using a refined wheat arabinoxylan substrate and three commercial endoxylanases over the water activity range 0.21-1.0, corresponding to water contents of 5% to >60% (dry basis). Homogeneously mixed dry samples were prepared at a fixed enzyme to substrate ratio and incubated in chambers at a variety of fixed water activities. Replicates were sacrificed periodically, and endoxylanase activity was quantified as an increase in reducing sugar relative to desiccant-stored controls. Endoxylanase activity was observed at water activities over 0.91 in all enzyme preparations in less than 4 days and at a water activity of 0.59 in less than 1 week in two preparations. Endoxylanase activity after storage was confirmed for selected desiccant-stored controls by incubation at 100% relative humidity. Water content to water activity relationships were determined for three lignocellulosic substrates, and results indicate that two endoxylanase preparations retained limited activity as low as 7% to 13% water content (dry basis), which is well within the range of water contents representative of dry biomass storage. Future work will examine the effects of endoxylanase activity toward substrates such as corn stover, wheat straw, and switchgrass in low water content environments.

  5. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Hua; Krens, Frans; Smith, Mark A; Li, Xueyuan; Qi, Weicong; van Loo, Eibertus N; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Nazarenus, Tara J; Huai, Dongxin; Taylor, David C; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Green, Allan G; Shockey, Jay; Klasson, K Thomas; Mullen, Robert T; Huang, Bangquan; Dyer, John M; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2016-01-01

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemical-type functionalities. A wide array of industrial vegetable oils can be generated through biotechnology, but will likely require non-commodity oilseed platforms dedicated to specialty oil production for commercial acceptance. Here we show the feasibility of three Brassicaceae oilseeds crambe, camelina, and carinata, none of which are widely cultivated for food use, as hosts for complex metabolic engineering of wax esters for lubricant applications. Lines producing wax esters >20% of total seed oil were generated for each crop and further improved for high temperature oxidative stability by down-regulation of fatty acid polyunsaturation. Field cultivation of optimized wax ester-producing crambe demonstrated commercial utility of these engineered crops and a path for sustainable production of other industrial oils in dedicated specialty oilseeds. PMID:26916792

  6. Rhazya stricta Decne seed oil as an alternative, non-conventional feedstock for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • First report of Rhazia stricta seed oil as feedstock for biodiesel production. • Biodiesel is prepared by alkaline transesterification. • Biodiesel from R. stricta oil meets specifications in biodiesel standards. - Abstract: Rhazya stricta Decne (R. stricta) is a hardy, drought-resistant, and arid land plant that is widely distributed from the Middle East to South Asia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of R. stricta seed oil as an alternative source of triacylglycerols that may be suitable for the synthesis of biodiesel. The oil content of the seeds was approximately 14% and was mainly composed of the fatty acids linoleic (60.95%) and oleic (25.48%) acid. R. stricta methyl esters (RSME) were prepared by a base-catalyzed transesterification reaction. The conversion rate of the triacylglycerols to the corresponding methyl esters was determined by 1H-NMR to be approximately 97%. This study showed that the fuel properties of the RSMEs are comparable to other vegetable oil methyl esters that are commonly used as biodiesels. R. stricta plantations will therefore be suitable for promoting sustainable agriculture and for producing biodiesel with viable prices in arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world

  7. Valorization of Palm Oil Industrial Waste as Feedstock for Lipase Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Erick A; Tardioli, Paulo W; Farinas, Cristiane S

    2016-06-01

    The use of residues from the industrial processing of palm oil as carbon source and inducer for microbial lipase production can be a way to add value to such residues and to contribute to reduced enzyme costs. The aim of this work was to investigate the feasibility of using palm oil industrial waste as feedstock for lipase production in different cultivation systems. Evaluation was made of lipase production by a selected strain of Aspergillus niger cultivated under solid-state (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF). Lipase activity levels up to 15.41 IU/mL were achieved under SSF. The effects of pH and temperature on the lipase activity of the SSF extract were evaluated using statistical design methodology, and maximum activities were obtained between pH 4.0 and 6.5 and at temperatures between 37 and 55 °C. This lipase presented good thermal stability up to 60 °C and higher specificity towards long carbon chain substrates. The results demonstrate the potential application of palm oil industrial residues for lipase production and contribute to the technological advances needed to develop processes for industrial enzymes production. PMID:26892007

  8. Assessing county-level water footprints of different cellulosic-biofuel feedstock pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yi-Wen; Wu, May

    2012-08-21

    While agricultural residue is considered as a near-term feedstock option for cellulosic biofuels, its sustainability must be evaluated by taking water into account. This study aims to analyze the county-level water footprint for four biofuel pathways in the United States, including bioethanol generated from corn grain, stover, wheat straw, and biodiesel from soybean. The county-level blue water footprint of ethanol from corn grain, stover, and wheat straw shows extremely wide variances with a national average of 31, 132, and 139 L of water per liter biofuel (L(w)/L(bf)), and standard deviation of 133, 323, and 297 L(w)/L(bf), respectively. Soybean biodiesel production results in a blue water footprint of 313 L(w)/L(bf) on the national average with standard deviation of 894 L(w)/L(bf). All biofuels show a greater green water footprint than the blue one. This work elucidates how diverse spatial resolutions affect biofuel water footprints, which can provide detailed insights into biofuels' implications on local water sustainability. PMID:22816524

  9. Triacylglycerol profiling of microalgae strains for biofuel feedstock by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Karen M; McNichol, Jesse; McGinn, Patrick J; O'Leary, Stephen J B; Melanson, Jeremy E

    2011-11-01

    Biofuels from photosynthetic microalgae are quickly gaining interest as a viable carbon-neutral energy source. Typically, characterization of algal feedstock involves breaking down triacylglycerols (TAG) and other intact lipids, followed by derivatization of the fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters prior to analysis by gas chromatography (GC). However, knowledge of the intact lipid profile could offer significant advantages for discovery stage biofuel research such as the selection of an algal strain or the optimization of growth and extraction conditions. Herein, lipid extracts from microalgae were directly analyzed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) using a benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Phospholipids, glycolipids, and TAGs were analyzed in the same chromatographic run, using a combination of accurate mass and diagnostic fragment ions for identification. Using this approach, greater than 100 unique TAGs were identified over the six algal strains studied and TAG profiles were obtained to assess their potential for biofuel applications. Under the growth conditions employed, Botryococcus braunii and Scenedesmus obliquus yielded the most comprehensive TAG profile with a high abundance of TAGs containing oleic acid. PMID:21915640

  10. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammad S. Roni; Kara G. Cafferty; Christopher T Wright; Lantian Ren

    2015-06-01

    China has abundant biomass resources, which can be used as a potential source of bioenergy. However, China faces challenges implementing biomass as an energy source, because China has not developed the highly networked, high-volume biomass logistics systems and infrastructure. This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to the U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum under different scenarios in China. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study shows that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk will be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/ dry metric ton, respectively, for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk will be down to $36.01/ dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also performed a sensitivity analysis to find the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. A sensitivity analysis shows that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, causing a variation of $6 to $12/metric ton.

  11. Meat waste as feedstock for home composting: Effects on the process and quality of compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storino, Francesco; Arizmendiarrieta, Joseba S; Irigoyen, Ignacio; Muro, Julio; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro M

    2016-10-01

    Home composting is a powerful tool, which is spreading in different parts of the world, to reduce the generation of municipal waste. However, there is debate concerning the appropriateness, in terms of domestic hygiene and safety, of keeping a composter bin in the household deputed to kitchen waste of animal origin, such as meat or fish scraps and pet droppings. The purpose of our work was to study how the addition of meat scraps to household waste influences the composting process and the quality of the final compost obtained. We compared four raw material mixtures, characterized by a different combination of vegetable and meat waste and different ratios of woody bulking agent. Changes in temperature, mass and volume, phenotypic microbial diversity (by Biolog™) and organic matter humification were determined during the process. At the end of the experiment, the four composts were weighed and characterized by physicochemical analysis. In addition, the presence of viable weed seeds was investigated and a germination bioassay was carried out to determine the level of phytotoxicity. Finally, the levels of pathogens (Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp.) were also determined in the final compost. Here we show that the presence of meat waste as raw feedstock for composting in bins can improve the activity of the process, the physicochemical characteristics and maturity of the compost obtained, without significantly affecting its salinity, pH and phytotoxicity. Pathogen levels were low, showing that they can be controlled by an intensive management and proper handling of the composter bins. PMID:27422047

  12. Effects of Biomass Feedstocks and Gasification Conditions on the Physiochemical Properties of Char

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L. Huhnke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Char is a low-value byproduct of biomass gasification and pyrolysis with many potential applications, such as soil amendment and the synthesis of activated carbon and carbon-based catalysts. Considering these high-value applications, char could provide economic benefits to a biorefinery utilizing gasification or pyrolysis technologies. However, the properties of char depend heavily on biomass feedstock, gasifier design and operating conditions. This paper reports the effects of biomass type (switchgrass, sorghum straw and red cedar and equivalence ratio (0.20, 0.25 and 0.28, i.e., the ratio of air supply relative to the air that is required for stoichiometric combustion of biomass, on the physiochemical properties of char derived from gasification. Results show that the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface areas of most of the char were 1–10 m2/g and increased as the equivalence ratio increased. Char moisture and fixed carbon contents decreased while ash content increased as equivalence ratio increased. The corresponding Fourier Transform Infrared spectra showed that the surface functional groups of char differed between biomass types but remained similar with change in equivalence ratio.

  13. Preservation of Seed Crystals in Feedstock Melting for Cast Quasi-Single Crystalline Silicon Ingots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaoyang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of seed crystals is important for the casting of quasi-single crystalline (QSC silicon ingots. We carried out transient global simulations of the feedstock melting process in an industrial-sized directional solidification (DS furnace to investigate key factors influencing seed preservation. The power distribution between the top and side heaters is adjusted in the conventional furnace for multicrystalline silicon ingots and in the evolved furnace with a partition block for QSC silicon ingots. The evolution of the solid-liquid interface for melting and the temperature distribution in the furnace core area are analyzed. The power distribution can influence the temperature gradient in the silicon domain significantly. However, its effect on seed preservation is limited in both furnaces. Seed crystals can be preserved in the evolved furnace, as the partition block reduces the radiant heat flux from the insulation walls to the heat exchange block and prevents the heat flowing upwards under the crucible. Therefore, the key to seed preservation is to control radiant heat transfer in the DS furnace and guarantee downward heat flux under the crucible.

  14. Neochloris oleoabundans grown on anaerobically digested dairy manure for concomitant nutrient removal and biodiesel feedstock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microalgae have been investigated as a promising biodiesel feedstock; however, large-scale production is not currently cost-competitive with petroleum diesel, and its environmental impacts have received little attention. Using wastewater to supply nutrients for algal growth obviates synthetic fertilizer use, provides on-site nutrient removal, and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. In this work, anaerobically digested dairy manure was used to grow the oleaginous green alga Neochloris oleoabundans. In batch culture experiments with both synthetic media and anaerobic digester effluent, N. oleoabundans assimilated 90-95% of the initial nitrate and ammonium after 6 d and yielded 10-30% fatty acid methyl esters on a dry weight basis. Cellular lipid content and the N concentration in the growth media were inversely correlated. In addition, the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (i.e. C16:3, C18:2, and C18:3) decreased with N concentration over time while the proportion of C18:1 fatty acid increased. Although N deficiency is likely the primary driver behind lipid accumulation, the influence of culture pH confounded results and requires further study. Other living microorganisms in the digester effluent were not observed to affect algal growth and lipid productivity, though the breakdown of organic nitrogen may have hindered lipid accumulation traditionally achieved through the manipulation of synthetic media. This work highlights the potential for waste-grown mono-algal cultures to produce high quality biodiesel while accomplishing simultaneous wastewater treatment.

  15. GlidArc-assisted production of synthesis gas from various carbonaceous feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czernichowski, A.; Czernichowski, M. [Etudes Chimiques et Physiques, La Ferte Saint Aubin (France); Czernichowski, P. [WESCO, Conroe, TX (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells can only be powered by pure hydrogen, while carbon monoxide mixed with hydrogen (called synthesis gas) can be converted by both solid oxide or molten carbonate fuel cells (SOFC or MCFC). The production of hydrogen from various fossil or renewable feedstocks requires a deep cleaning of the feeds to avoid reformer catalyst poisoning. This paper proposes a non-catalytic process whereby almost any carbonaceous feed is converted into synthesis gas in the presence of high-voltage discharges (called GlidArc) which assists the exothermic partial oxidation (POX). Air is the only oxidant. Tests were performed using natural gas, cyclohexane, heptane, toluene, different gasolines, and different diesel oils, including logistic oils. The reactors, operating at atmospheric pressure and requiring less than 0.5 kilo watt (kW) of electric power, produced nitrogen-diluted SynGas which contained up to 27 per cent hydrogen and up to 23 per cent carbon monoxide. Test results indicate that the process is compact and easily scalable. The process can reform various fossil- or bio-derived fuels without prior removal of sulphur or other poison additives. It does not produce any soot and does not require any water or steam circuits or heaters. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  16. Fermentative Polyhydroxybutyrate Production from a Novel Feedstock Derived from Bakery Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pleissner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Halomonas boliviensis was cultivated on bakery waste hydrolysate and seawater in batch and fed-batch cultures for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB production. Results demonstrated that bakery waste hydrolysate and seawater could be efficiently utilized by Halomonas boliviensis while PHB contents between 10 and 30% (w/w were obtained. Furthermore, three methods for bakery waste hydrolysis were investigated for feedstock preparation. These include: (1 use of crude enzyme extracts from Aspergillus awamori, (2 Aspergillus awamori solid mashes, and (3 commercial glucoamylase. In the first method, the resultant free amino nitrogen (FAN concentration in hydrolysates was 150 and 250 mg L−1 after 20 hours at enzyme-to-solid ratios of 6.9 and 13.1 U g−1, respectively. In both cases, the final glucose concentration was around 130–150 g L−1. In the second method, the resultant FAN and glucose concentrations were 250 mg L−1 and 150 g L−1, respectively. In the third method, highest glucose and lowest FAN concentrations of 170–200 g L−1 and 100 mg L−1, respectively, were obtained in hydrolysates after only 5 hours. The present work has generated promising information contributing to the sustainable production of bioplastic using bakery waste hydrolysate.

  17. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Synthesis Using Arc Discharge with Hydrocarbon as Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. T. Chaudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT by arc discharge process is investigated with methane (CH4 as background and feedstock gas. The arc discharge is carried out between two graphite electrodes for ambient pressures 100, 300, and 500 torr and arc currents 50, 70, and 90 A. Plasma kinetics such as the density and temperature for arc discharge carbon plasma is determined to find out the contribution of physical parameters as arc current and ambient pressure on the plasma dynamics and growth of MWCNT. With increase in applied arc current and ambient pressure, an increase in plasma temperature and density is observed. The synthesized samples of MWCNT at different experimental conditions are characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. A decrease in the diameter and improvement in structure quality and growth of MWCNT are observed with increase in CH4 ambient pressure and arc current. For CH4 ambient pressure 500 torr and arc current 90 A, the well-aligned and straight MWCNT along with graphene stakes are detected.

  18. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Hua; Krens, Frans; Smith, Mark A; Li, Xueyuan; Qi, Weicong; van Loo, Eibertus N; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Nazarenus, Tara J; Huai, Dongxin; Taylor, David C; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Green, Allan G; Shockey, Jay; Klasson, K Thomas; Mullen, Robert T; Huang, Bangquan; Dyer, John M; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2016-02-26

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemical-type functionalities. A wide array of industrial vegetable oils can be generated through biotechnology, but will likely require non-commodity oilseed platforms dedicated to specialty oil production for commercial acceptance. Here we show the feasibility of three Brassicaceae oilseeds crambe, camelina, and carinata, none of which are widely cultivated for food use, as hosts for complex metabolic engineering of wax esters for lubricant applications. Lines producing wax esters >20% of total seed oil were generated for each crop and further improved for high temperature oxidative stability by down-regulation of fatty acid polyunsaturation. Field cultivation of optimized wax ester-producing crambe demonstrated commercial utility of these engineered crops and a path for sustainable production of other industrial oils in dedicated specialty oilseeds.

  19. Valorization of Palm Oil Industrial Waste as Feedstock for Lipase Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Erick A; Tardioli, Paulo W; Farinas, Cristiane S

    2016-06-01

    The use of residues from the industrial processing of palm oil as carbon source and inducer for microbial lipase production can be a way to add value to such residues and to contribute to reduced enzyme costs. The aim of this work was to investigate the feasibility of using palm oil industrial waste as feedstock for lipase production in different cultivation systems. Evaluation was made of lipase production by a selected strain of Aspergillus niger cultivated under solid-state (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF). Lipase activity levels up to 15.41 IU/mL were achieved under SSF. The effects of pH and temperature on the lipase activity of the SSF extract were evaluated using statistical design methodology, and maximum activities were obtained between pH 4.0 and 6.5 and at temperatures between 37 and 55 °C. This lipase presented good thermal stability up to 60 °C and higher specificity towards long carbon chain substrates. The results demonstrate the potential application of palm oil industrial residues for lipase production and contribute to the technological advances needed to develop processes for industrial enzymes production.

  20. Co-firing in coal power plants and its impact on biomass feedstock availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several states have a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and allow for biomass co-firing to meet the RPS requirements. In addition, a federal renewable fuel standard (RFS) mandates an increase in cellulosic ethanol production over the next decade. This paper quantifies the effects on local biomass supply and demand of different co-firing policies imposed on 398 existing coal-fired power plants. Our model indicates which counties are most likely to be able to sustain cellulosic ethanol plants in addition to co-firing electric utilities. The simulation incorporates the county-level biomass market of corn stover, wheat straw, switchgrass, and forest residues as well as endogenous crop prices. Our scenarios indicate that there is sufficient feedstock availability in Southern Minnesota, Iowa, and Central Illinois. Significant supply shortages are observed in Eastern Ohio, Western Pennsylvania, and the tri-state area of Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky which are characterized by a high density of coal-fired power plants with high energy output. - Highlights: • Co-firing in coal-power plants can lead to biomass supply shortage. • The level of shortage depends also on the switchgrass production cost. • Little to no shortages occur in the Corn Belt and the Great Plains. • Biomass co-firing in power plants limits the supply for cellulosic ethanol plants

  1. Potential plant oil feedstock for lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-seven types of plants found to contain more than 25% of oil (w/w) were selectively examined from 44 species. Saponification number (SN), iodine value (IV), cetane number (CN) and viscosity (η) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of oils were empirically determined, and they varied from 182 to 262, 3.60 to 142.70, 39.32 to 65.80 and 2.29 to 3.95, respectively. Fatty acid compositions, IV, CN and η were used to predict the quality of FAMEs for use as biodiesel. FAMEs of plant oils of 15 species were found to be most suitable for use as biodiesel by meeting the major specification of biodiesel standards of Thailand, USA and European Standard Organization. The oils from these 15 species were further investigated for the conversion efficiency of biodiesel in lipase-catalyzed transesterification reaction with Novozyme 435 and Lipozyme RM IM. Oils of four species, palm (Elaeis guineensis), physic nut (Jatropha curcas), papaya (Carica papaya) and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), can be highly converted to biodiesel by transesterification using Novozyme 435- or Lipozyme RM IM-immobilized lipase as catalyst. Therefore, these selected plants would be economically considered as the feedstock for biodiesel production by biocatalyst

  2. Sweet sorghum as feedstock for ethanol production: enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, Bálint; Réczey, Jutka; Somorai, Zsolt; Kádár, Zsófia; Dienes, Dóra; Réczey, Kati

    2009-05-01

    Sweet sorghum is an attractive feedstock for ethanol production. The juice extracted from the fresh stem is composed of sucrose, glucose, and fructose and can therefore be readily fermented to alcohol. The solid fraction left behind, the so-called bagasse, is a lignocellulosic residue which can also be processed to ethanol. The objective of our work was to test sweet sorghum, the whole crop, as a potential raw material of ethanol production, i.e., both the extracted sugar juice and the residual bagasse were tested. The juice was investigated at different harvesting dates for sugar content. Fermentability of juices extracted from the stem with and without leaves was compared. Sweet sorghum bagasse was steam-pretreated using various pretreatment conditions (temperatures and residence times). Efficiency of pretreatments was characterized by the degree of cellulose hydrolysis of the whole pretreated slurry and the separated fiber fraction. Two settings of the studied conditions (190 degrees C, 10 min and 200 degrees C, 5 min) were found to be efficient to reach conversion of 85-90%.

  3. A short review on SSF – an interesting process option for ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertilsson Magnus

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF is one process option for production of ethanol from lignocellulose. The principal benefits of performing the enzymatic hydrolysis together with the fermentation, instead of in a separate step after the hydrolysis, are the reduced end-product inhibition of the enzymatic hydrolysis, and the reduced investment costs. The principal drawbacks, on the other hand, are the need to find favorable conditions (e.g. temperature and pH for both the enzymatic hydrolysis and the fermentation and the difficulty to recycle the fermenting organism and the enzymes. To satisfy the first requirement, the temperature is normally kept below 37°C, whereas the difficulty to recycle the yeast makes it beneficial to operate with a low yeast concentration and at a high solid loading. In this review, we make a brief overview of recent experimental work and development of SSF using lignocellulosic feedstocks. Significant progress has been made with respect to increasing the substrate loading, decreasing the yeast concentration and co-fermentation of both hexoses and pentoses during SSF. Presently, an SSF process for e.g. wheat straw hydrolyzate can be expected to give final ethanol concentrations close to 40 g L-1 with a yield based on total hexoses and pentoses higher than 70%.

  4. Potential plant oil feedstock for lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Piriyakananon, Kingkaew; Tantong, Supalak; Thakernkarnkit, Weerasak; Yongvanich, Tikamporn [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Biofuel Production by Biocatalyst Research Unit, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Chulalaksananukul, Warawut [Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Biofuel Production by Biocatalyst Research Unit, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2008-12-15

    Twenty-seven types of plants found to contain more than 25% of oil (w/w) were selectively examined from 44 species. Saponification number (SN), iodine value (IV), cetane number (CN) and viscosity ({eta}) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of oils were empirically determined, and they varied from 182 to 262, 3.60 to 142.70, 39.32 to 65.80 and 2.29 to 3.95, respectively. Fatty acid compositions, IV, CN and {eta} were used to predict the quality of FAMEs for use as biodiesel. FAMEs of plant oils of 15 species were found to be most suitable for use as biodiesel by meeting the major specification of biodiesel standards of Thailand, USA and European Standard Organization. The oils from these 15 species were further investigated for the conversion efficiency of biodiesel in lipase-catalyzed transesterification reaction with Novozyme 435 and Lipozyme RM IM. Oils of four species, palm (Elaeis guineensis), physic nut (Jatropha curcas), papaya (Carica papaya) and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), can be highly converted to biodiesel by transesterification using Novozyme 435- or Lipozyme RM IM-immobilized lipase as catalyst. Therefore, these selected plants would be economically considered as the feedstock for biodiesel production by biocatalyst. (author)

  5. Comparison of solid-state to liquid anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic feedstocks for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dan; Shi, Jian; Li, Yebo

    2012-11-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, wheat straw, yard waste, leaves, waste paper, maple, and pine) were evaluated for methane production under liquid anaerobic digestion (L-AD) and solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD). No significant difference in methane yield between L-AD and SS-AD, except for waste paper and pine, were found. However, the volumetric productivity was 2- to 7-fold greater in the SS-AD system compared with the L-AD system, except for paper. Methane yields from corn stover, wheat straw, and switchgrass were 2-5 times higher than those from yard waste, maple, and pine biomass. Waste paper had a methane yield of only 15 L/kg VS caused by souring during SS-AD due to organic overloading. Pine also had very low biogas yield of 17 L/kg VS, indicating the need for pretreatment prior to SS-AD. The findings of this study can guide future studies to improve the efficiency and stability of SS-AD of lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:22995169

  6. Stability and reliability of anodic biofilms under different feedstock conditions: Towards microbial fuel cell sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiseon You

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stability and reliability of microbial fuel cell anodic biofilms, consisting of mixed cultures, were investigated in a continuously fed system. Two groups of anodic biofilm matured with different substrates, acetate and casein for 20–25 days, reached steady states and produced 80–87 μW and 20–29 μW consistently for 3 weeks, respectively. When the substrates were swapped, the casein-enriched group showed faster response to acetate and higher power output, compared to the acetate-enriched group. Also when the substrates were switched back to their original groups, the power output of both groups returned to the previous levels more quickly than when the substrates were swapped the first time. During the substrate change, both MFC groups showed stable power output once they reached their steady states and the output of each group with different substrates was reproducible within the same group. Community level physiological profiling also revealed the possibility of manipulating anodic biofilm metabolisms through exposure to different feedstock conditions.

  7. Scum sludge as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production from wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Feng, Sha; Bai, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Jingchan; Xia, Siqing

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare the component and yield of biodiesel obtained by different methods from different sludge in a wastewater treatment plant. Biodiesel was produced by ex-situ and in-situ transesterification of scum, primary and secondary sludge respectively. Results showed that scum sludge had a higher calorific value and neutral lipid than that of primary and secondary sludge. The lipid yield accounted for one-third of the dried scum sludge and the maximum yield attained 22.7% under in-situ transesterification. Furthermore the gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) revealed that all sludge contained a significant amount of palmitic acid (C16:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) regardless of extraction solvents and sludge types used. However, the difference lay in that oleic acid methyl ester was the dominant component in FAMEs produced from scum sludge while palmitic acid methyl ester was the dominant component in FAMEs from primary and secondary sludge. In addition, the percentage of unsaturated fatty acid ester in FAMEs from scum sludge accounted for 57.5-64.1% of the total esters, which was higher than the equivalent derived from primary and secondary sludge. In brief, scum sludge is a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel and more work is needed in the future.

  8. Metabolic design for cyanobacterial chemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, John W K; Atsumi, Shota

    2014-06-01

    Photosynthetic chemical production in cyanobacteria is a promising technology for renewable energy, CO2 mitigation, and fossil fuel replacement. Metabolic engineering has enabled a direct biosynthetic process from CO2 fixation to chemical feedstocks and biofuels, without requiring costly production, storage, and breakdown of cellulose or sugars. However, direct production technology is challenged by a need to achieve high-carbon partitioning to products in order to be competitive. This review discusses principles for the design of biosynthetic pathways in cyanobacteria and describes recent advances in relevant genetic tools. This field is at a critical juncture in assessing the strength and feasibility of carbon partitioning. To address this, we have included the stoichiometry of reducing equivalents and carbon conservation for heterologous pathways, and a method for calculating product yields against a theoretical maximum.

  9. Chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  10. Torrefaction reduction of coke formation on catalysts used in esterification and cracking of biofuels from pyrolysed lignocellulosic feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastner, James R; Mani, Sudhagar; Hilten, Roger; Das, Keshav C

    2015-11-04

    A bio-oil production process involving torrefaction pretreatment, catalytic esterification, pyrolysis, and secondary catalytic processing significantly reduces yields of reactor char, catalyst coke, and catalyst tar relative to the best-case conditions using non-torrefied feedstock. The reduction in coke as a result of torrefaction was 28.5% relative to the respective control for slow pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading. In fast pyrolysis bio-oil processing, the greatest reduction in coke was 34.9%. Torrefaction at 275.degree. C. reduced levels of acid products including acetic acid and formic acid in the bio-oil, which reduced catalyst coking and increased catalyst effectiveness and aromatic hydrocarbon yields in the upgraded oils. The process of bio-oil generation further comprises a catalytic esterification of acids and aldehydes to generate such as ethyl levulinate from lignified biomass feedstock.

  11. Integrating multimodal transport into cellulosic biofuel supply chain design under feedstock seasonality with a case study based on California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fei; Huang, Yongxi; Eksioglu, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    A multistage, mixed integer programing model was developed that fully integrates multimodal transport into the cellulosic biofuel supply chain design under feedstock seasonality. Three transport modes are considered: truck, single railcar, and unit train. The goal is to minimize the total cost for infrastructure, feedstock harvesting, biofuel production, and transportation. Strategic decisions including the locations and capacities of transshipment hubs, biorefineries, and terminals and tactical decisions on system operations are optimized in an integrated manner. When the model was implemented to a case study of cellulosic ethanol production in California, it was found that trucks are convenient for short-haul deliveries while rails are more effective for long-haul transportation. Taking the advantage of these benefits, the multimodal transport provides more cost effective solutions than the single-mode transport (truck). PMID:24275021

  12. Effect of the particle size and solids volume fraction on the thermal degradation behaviour of Invar 36 feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo García, Javier; Fernández-Blázquez, J.P.; Jiménez Morales, Antonia; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.; Torralba, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Degradation kinetics and the thermal stability of Invar 36 powder injection moulding feedstocks (PIM) based on cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) binders were investigated using simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis (STA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The initial decomposition temperature (IDT) and the integral procedure decomposition temperature (IPDT) were used to analyse the thermal stability of the binder system as a function of the solid loadi...

  13. Thermal stability and degradation kinetics of feedstocks for powder injection moulding - A new way to determine optimal solid loading?

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo García, Javier; Jiménez Morales, Antonia; Torralba, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Degradation kinetics and the thermal stability of zircon powder injection moulding feedstocks (PIM) based on cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) binders were investigated using simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis (STA). The initial decomposition temperature (IDT) and the integral procedure decomposition temperature (IPDT) were used to analyse the thermal stability of the binder system as a function of the solid loading content. The degradation kinetics was studi...

  14. Prebiotic xylo-oligosaccharides as high-value co-products on an integrated biorefinery approach from lignocellulosic feedstock

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Patrícia; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Esteves, M. P.; Gírio, Francisco M.

    2008-01-01

    The present work proposes the production of prebiotic xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) as high-value co-products of the Lignocellulose Feedstock Biorefinery concept, foreseeing potential applications on food, feed and nutraceutical industries. Autohydrolysis was used to selectively solubilise the hemicellulosic fraction of several xylan-rich, widely available, agricultural, agro-industrial and forestry by-products: corn cobs, brewery’s spent grain and Eucalyptus wood chips. The soluble hemicellulo...

  15. Single cell oil of oleaginous fungi from the tropical mangrove wetlands as a potential feedstock for biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Khot Mahesh; Kamat Srijay; Zinjarde Smita; Pant Aditi; Chopade Balu; RaviKumar Ameeta

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Single cell oils (SCOs) accumulated by oleaginous fungi have emerged as a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. Though fungi from mangrove ecosystem have been reported for production of several lignocellulolytic enzymes, they remain unexplored for their SCO producing ability. Thus, these oleaginous fungi from the mangrove ecosystem could be suitable candidates for production of SCOs from lignocellulosic biomass. The accumulation of lipids being species ...

  16. Indirect Land Use Change From Increased Biofuels Demand - Comparison of Models and Results for Marginal Biofuels Production from Different Feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Robert; MULLIGAN DECLAN; Marelli, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the ILUC results produced by different economic models for marginal increases in biofuel production from different feedstocks. The work is the result of a survey of marginal calculations launched by the JRC-IE during 2009, involving some of the best known models worldwid. The modellers were requested by JRC-IE to run scenarios corresponding as closely as possible to the following specification (e.g. marginal runs against existing baseline of the following scenarios): A ...

  17. High Protein- and High Lipid-Producing Microalgae from Northern Australia as Potential Feedstock for Animal Feed and Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Duong, Thang; Ahmed, Faruq; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Quigley, Simon; Nowak, Ekaterina; Schenk, Peer M.

    2015-01-01

    Microalgal biomass can be used for biodiesel, feed, and food production. Collection and identification of local microalgal strains in the Northern Territory, Australia was conducted to identify strains with high protein and lipid contents as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel production, respectively. A total of 36 strains were isolated from 13 samples collected from a variety of freshwater locations, such as dams, ponds, and streams and subsequently classified by 18S rDNA sequ...

  18. Identification and overexpression of a Knotted1-like transcription factor in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) for lignocellulosic feedstock improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Wegi eWuddineh; Mitra eMazarei; Ji-Yi eZhang; Geoffrey eTurner; Robert eSykes; Decker, Stephen R.; Mark eDavis; Michael eUdvardi; Neal eStewart

    2016-01-01

    High biomass production and wide adaptation has made switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) an important candidate lignocellulosic bioenergy crop. One major limitation of this and other lignocellulosic feedstocks is the recalcitrance of complex carbohydrates to hydrolysis for conversion to biofuels. Lignin is the major contributor to recalcitrance as it limits the accessibility of cell wall carbohydrates to enzymatic breakdown into fermentable sugars. Therefore, genetic manipulation of the lignin ...

  19. Identification and Overexpression of a Knotted1-Like Transcription Factor in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) for Lignocellulosic Feedstock Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Wuddineh, Wegi A.; Mazarei, Mitra; Zhang, Ji-Yi; Turner, Geoffrey B; Sykes, Robert W.; Decker, Stephen R.; Davis, Mark F.; Udvardi, Michael K; Stewart, C. Neal

    2016-01-01

    High biomass production and wide adaptation has made switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) an important candidate lignocellulosic bioenergy crop. One major limitation of this and other lignocellulosic feedstocks is the recalcitrance of complex carbohydrates to hydrolysis for conversion to biofuels. Lignin is the major contributor to recalcitrance as it limits the accessibility of cell wall carbohydrates to enzymatic breakdown into fermentable sugars. Therefore, genetic manipulation of the lignin ...

  20. Farm systems assessment of bioenergy feedstock production: Integrating bio-economic models and life cycle analysis approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Glithero, N.J.; Ramsden, S.J.; Wilson, P

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and energy security concerns have driven the development of policies that encourage bioenergy production. Meeting EU targets for the consumption of transport fuels from bioenergy by 2020 will require a large increase in the production of bioenergy feedstock. Initially an increase in ‘first generation’ biofuels was observed, however ‘food competition’ concerns have generated interest in second generation biofuels (SGBs). These SGBs can be produced from co-products (e.g. cereal s...

  1. Agave proves to be a low recalcitrant lignocellulosic feedstock for biofuels production on semi-arid lands

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hongjia; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Marcus B. Foston; Ding, Shi-You; Kumar, Rajeev; Gao, Xiadi; Mittal, Ashutosh; Yarbrough, John M; Himmel, Michael E.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Hahn, Michael G.; Wyman, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    Background Agave, which is well known for tequila and other liquor production in Mexico, has recently gained attention because of its attractive potential to launch sustainable bioenergy feedstock solutions for semi-arid and arid lands. It was previously found that agave cell walls contain low lignin and relatively diverse non-cellulosic polysaccharides, suggesting unique recalcitrant features when compared to conventional C4 and C3 plants. Results Here, we report sugar release data from fung...

  2. Chemical Leukoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Vestita, Michelangelo; Romita, Paolo; Filoni, Angela; Foti, Caterina; Angelini, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Chemical leukoderma, often clinically mimicking idiopathic vitiligo and other congenital and acquired hypopigmentation, is an acquired form of cutaneous pigment loss caused by exposure to a variety of chemicals that act through selective melanocytotoxicity. Most of these chemicals are phenols and aromatic or aliphatic catechols derivatives. These chemicals, however, are harmful for melanocytes in individuals with an individual susceptibility. Nowadays, chemical leukoderma is fairly common, caused by common domestic products. The presence of numerous acquired confetti- or pea-sized macules is clinically characteristic of chemical leukoderma, albeit not diagnostic. Other relevant diagnostic elements are a history of repeated exposure to a known or suspected depigmenting agent at the sites of onset and a macules distribution corresponding to sites of chemical exposure. Spontaneous repigmentation has been reported when the causative agent is avoided; the repigmentation process is perifollicular and gradual, taking place for a variable period of weeks to months. PMID:27172302

  3. Effect of mixing on the rheology and particle characteristics of tungsten-based powder injection molding feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suri, Pavan; Atre, Sundar V.; German, Randall M.; Souza, Jupiter P. de

    2003-09-15

    This study investigates the effect of mixing technique and particle characteristics on the rheology and agglomerate dispersion of tungsten-based powder injection molding (PIM) feedstock. Experiments were conducted with as-received (agglomerated) and rod-milled (deagglomerated) tungsten powder mixed in a paraffin wax-polypropylene binder. Increase in the mixing shear rate decreased the agglomerate size of the agglomerated tungsten powder, decreased the viscosity, and improved the flow stability of the feedstock, interpreted as increased homogeneity of the feedstock. Higher solids volume fraction, lower mixing torques, and improved homogeneity were observed with deagglomerated tungsten powder, emphasizing the importance of particle characteristics and mixing procedures in the PIM process. Hydrodynamic stress due to mixing and the cohesive strength of the tungsten agglomerate were calculated to understand the mechanism of deagglomeration and quantify the effect of mixing. It was concluded that deagglomeration occurs due to a combination of rupture and erosion with the local hydrodynamic stresses exceeding the cohesive strength of the agglomerate.

  4. Assessing regional hydrology and water quality implications of large-scale biofuel feedstock production in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Yonas; Yan, Eugene; Wu, May

    2012-08-21

    A recent U.S. Department of Energy study estimated that more than one billion tons of biofuel feedstock could be produced by 2030 in the United States from increased corn yield, and changes in agricultural and forest residue management and land uses. To understand the implications of such increased production on water resources and stream quality at regional and local scales, we have applied a watershed model for the Upper Mississippi River Basin, where most of the current and future crop/residue-based biofuel production is expected. The model simulates changes in water quality (soil erosion, nitrogen and phosphorus loadings in streams) and resources (soil-water content, evapotranspiration, and runoff) under projected biofuel production versus the 2006 baseline year and a business-as-usual scenario. The basin average results suggest that the projected feedstock production could change the rate of evapotranspiration in the UMRB by approximately +2%, soil-water content by about -2%, and discharge to streams by -5% from the baseline scenario. However, unlike the impacts on regional water availability, the projected feedstock production has a mixed effect on water quality, resulting in 12% and 45% increases in annual suspended sediment and total phosphorus loadings, respectively, but a 3% decrease in total nitrogen loading. These differences in water quantity and quality are statistically significant (p < 0.05). The basin responses are further analyzed at monthly time steps and finer spatial scales to evaluate underlying physical processes, which would be essential for future optimization of environmentally sustainable biofuel productions.

  5. Field-to-Fuel Performance Testing of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks: An Integrated Study of the Fast Pyrolysis/Hydrotreating Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Daniel T.; Westover, Tyler; Carpenter, Daniel; Santosa, Daniel M.; Emerson, Rachel; Deutch, Steve; Starace, Anne; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Lukins, Craig D.

    2015-05-21

    Feedstock composition can affect final fuel yields and quality for the fast pyrolysis and hydrotreatment upgrading pathway. However, previous studies have focused on individual unit operations rather than the integrated system. In this study, a suite of six pure lignocellulosic feedstocks (clean pine, whole pine, tulip poplar, hybrid poplar, switchgrass, and corn stover) and two blends (equal weight percentages whole pine/tulip poplar/switchgrass and whole pine/clean pine/hybrid poplar) were prepared and characterized at Idaho National Laboratory. These blends then underwent fast pyrolysis at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and hydrotreatment at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Although some feedstocks showed a high fast pyrolysis bio-oil yield such as tulip poplar at 57%, high yields in the hydrotreater were not always observed. Results showed overall fuel yields of 15% (switchgrass), 18% (corn stover), 23% (tulip poplar, Blend 1, Blend 2), 24% (whole pine, hybrid poplar) and 27% (clean pine). Simulated distillation of the upgraded oils indicated that the gasoline fraction varied from 39% (clean pine) to 51% (corn stover), while the diesel fraction ranged from 40% (corn stover) to 46% (tulip poplar). Little variation was seen in the jet fuel fraction at 11 to 12%. Hydrogen consumption during hydrotreating, a major factor in the economic feasibility of the integrated process, ranged from 0.051 g/g dry feed (tulip poplar) to 0.070 g/g dry feed (clean pine).

  6. Influence of binder system and temperature on rheological properties of water atomized 316L powder injection moulding feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur GÖKMEN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a proper powder injection molding the rheological behavior of feedstocks should be known. To determine the binder effect on the rheological behavior of 316L stainless steel powders feedstock two different feedstock were prepared. In the current experiments water atomized 316L stainless steel powders (-20 µm were used. Two types of binders, one of which is mainly paraffin wax can be dissolved in heptane and the other Polietilenglikol (PEG based and can be dissolved in water, were used. Polypropylene was used as binder and steric acid was used as lubricant for both binder systems as skeleton binder. Dry binder system were mixed for 30 min in a three dimensional Turbola. Capillary rheometer was used to characterize the rheological properties of feed stocks at 150-200 °C and a pressures of 0.165-2.069 MPa. Powder loading capacity of PEG and PW based feed stocks were found to be %55 and %61 respectively. The lowest viscosity of PEG and PW based feed stocks were found to be 304.707 Pa.s and 48.857 Pa.s respectively.Keywords: PIM, Binder, Rheological properties

  7. Screening of Industrial Wastewaters as Feedstock for the Microbial Production of Oils for Biodiesel Production and High-Quality Pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Schneider

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biodiesel has notably increased over the past decade. Currently, plant oil is the main feedstock for biodiesel production, but, due to concerns related to the competition with food production, alternative oil feedstocks have to be found. Oleaginous yeasts are known to produce high amounts of lipids, but no integrated process from microbial fermentation to final biodiesel production has reached commercial realization yet due to economic constraints. Therefore, growth and lipid production of red yeast Rhodotorula glutinis was tested on low-cost substrates, namely, wastewaters from potato, fruit juice, and lettuce processing. Additionally, the production of carotenoids as high-value by-products was examined. All evaluated wastewaters met the general criteria for microbial lipid production. However, no significant increase in lipid content was observed, probably due to lack of available carbon in wastewaters from fruit juice and lettuce processing, and excess of available nitrogen in potato processing wastewater, respectively. During growth on wastewaters from fruit juice and lettuce processing the carotenoid content increased significantly in the first 48 hours. The relations between carbon content, nitrogen content, and carotenoid production need to be further assessed. For economic viability, lipid and carotenoid production needs to be increased significantly. The screening of feedstocks should be extended to other wastewaters.

  8. Comparative feedstock analysis in Setaria viridis L. as a model for C4 bioenergy grasses and Panicoid crop species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carloalberto ePetti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Second generation feedstocks for bioethanol will likely include a sizable proportion of perennial C4 grasses, principally in the Panicoideae clade. The Panicoideae contain agronomically important annual grasses including Zea mays L. (maize, Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench (sorghum, and Saccharum officinarum L. (sugar cane as well as promising second generation perennial feedstocks including Miscanthus x giganteus and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass. The underlying complexity of these polyploid grass genomes is a major limitation for their direct manipulation and thus driving a need for rapidly cycling comparative model. Setaria viridis (green millet is a rapid cycling C4 Panicoid grass with a relatively small and sequenced diploid genome and abundant seed production. Stable, transient and protoplast transformation technologies have also been developed for S. viridis making it a potentially excellent model for other C4 bioenergy grasses. Here, the lignocellulosic feedstock composition, cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor (CBI response and saccharification dynamics of S. viridis are compared with the annual s00orghum and maize and the perennial switchgrass bioenergy crops as a baseline study into the applicability for translational research. A genome-wide systematic investigation of the cellulose synthase-A (CesA genes was performed identifying eight candidate sequences. Two-developmental stages; a metabolically active young tissue and b metabolically plateaued (mature material are examined to compare biomass performance metrics.

  9. Assessing Site Availability of Aspen and Northern Hardwoods for Potential Feedstock Development in Michigan: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Alian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of wood and wood byproducts as biomass feedstocks is of increasing interest as a source of ethanol and electricity. Second generation woody feedstock sources in Michigan, e.g., hybrid poplar and hybrid willow (Populus spp., and native forests, particularly aspen and northern hardwoods, are a potential source of woody biomass for these uses. This study provides a geographic information system (GIS framework for assessing the current spatial extent of aspen and northern hardwoods and their proximity to roads. Additionally, the potential for expanding the area of these feedstock sources based on pre-European settlement vegetation cover is assessed. Utilizing GIS technology to compile, edit and analyze available geospatial data (e.g., present day and pre-European settlement land use/cover, soils, road infrastructure, and land ownership for counties located in the eastern half of the Upper Peninsula and northern half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan provides a robust framework for various management scenarios to be evaluated in a cost effective manner and foster better decision making.

  10. Effects of feedstock carbon to nitrogen ratio and organic loading on foaming potential in mesophilic food waste anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimu, Musa Idris; Mohd Ghazi, Tinia Idaty; Harun, Mohd Razif; Idris, Azni

    2015-05-01

    Foaming problem which occurred occasionally during food waste (FW) anaerobic digestion (AD) was investigated with the Malaysian FW by stepwise increase in organic loading (OL) from 0.5 to 7.5 g VS/L. The FW feedstock with carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 17 was upgraded to C/N ratio of 26 and 30 by mixing with other wastes. The digestion which was carried out at 37 °C in 1-L batch reactors showed that foam formation initiated at OL of 1.5 g VS/L and was further enhanced as OL of feedstock was increased. The digestion foaming reached its maximum at OL of 5.5 g VS/L and did not increase further even when OL was increased to 7.5 g VS/Ld. Increase in the C/N ratio of feedstock significantly enhanced the microbial degradation activity, leading to better removal of foam causing intermediates and reduced foaming in the reactor by up to 60%. PMID:25761621

  11. Aspects technologiques de la pyrolyse des charges lourdes Technological Aspects of the Pyrolysis of Heavy Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhoe A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les charges lourdes présentent des caractéristiques particulières pour la pyrolyse, tant en ce qui concerne les rendements, qu'en ce qui concerne la chauffe jusqu'à la température de réaction, et ceci a un rapport direct sur les différentes sections d'une unité d'éthylène. Les charges lourdes peuvent être soumises à la pyrolyse, soit directement, soit après un prétraitement qui modifie leurs structures afin d'obtenir de meilleurs rendements en produits à haute valeur. Ce choix n'est plus à l'heure actuelle qu'un choix économique, étant donné que les technologies existent et ont été démontrées industriellement. Plusieurs types de procédés de prétraitement ont été développés et le choix du meilleur procédé dépendra de la valorisation des produits secondaires et de l'utilisation du produit prétraité dans une unité d'éthylène à construire ou déjà existarite. Finalement, plusieurs technologies nouvelles de pyrolyse à haute sévérité sont en cours de développement, mais il n'est pas encore certain qu'elles soient mûres pour l'application à l'échelle industrielle, ou si elles peuvent prétendre à une large couverture du marché des oléfines. Heavy feedstocks have special characteristies for pyrolysis with regard to both yields and heating to attain the reaction temperature. This is in direct relationship to the different sections of an ethylene plant. Heavy feedstocks may be subjected to pyrolysis, either directly or after a pretreatment to modify their structures so as to obtain better yields of high-value products. This choice is now no longer an economic choice considering the technologies that exist and have been industrially demonstrated. Several types of pretreatment processes have been developed, and the choice of the best process depends on the valorisation of the secondary products and on the use of the pretreated products in an ethylene plant to be built or already existing. Lastly, several

  12. MCM-41-supported cobalt-molybdenum catalysts for deep hydrodesulfurization of diesel and jet fuel feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday Tsrpr

    Regulatory issues require new catalysts for the deep hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of refractory polyaromatic sulfur compounds such as 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) present in diesel and jet fuel. Molybdenum sulfide (MoS2 ) supported on mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41 and promoted by cobalt was hypothesized to have superior activity for deep HDS because of MCM-41's (1) high surface area and uniform mesopores and (2) superior acidity as compared to conventional supports such as gamma-alumina (gamma-Al 2O3). This study examines the role of MCM-41 as a support for new cobalt (Co)-molybdenum (Mo) HDS catalysts. At CoO-MoO3 loadings typical of commercially available HDS catalysts, MCM-41-supported catalysts were only slightly better. At higher loadings---27.0% (by weight) MoO3 and 5.8% CoO---MCM-41-supported catalysts were twice more active than the commercial catalyst. This difference in activities is related to the degree of MoS2 stacking. Remarkable increase in the conversion of 4,6-DMDBT was observed over MCM-41-supported catalysts with decreasing SiO2/Al2O 3 ratio. More significantly, the SiO2/Al2O 3 ratio of MCM-41 has a profound effect on product distribution and catalyst selectivity. Irrespective of CoO-MoO3 loading, catalysts using MCM-41 with a SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of 50 convert more of 4,6-DMDBT through the highly desirable hydrogenolysis pathway. The acidity of these catalysts was measured and correlated to their selectivities for hydrogenolysis and hydrocracking. Co-Mo/MCM-41 continued to demonstrate activities twice that of the commercial catalyst for the HDS of 4,6-DMDBT in petroleum-derived feedstocks such as light cycle oil. However, for a blend of coal- and petroleum-derived feedstocks, nitrogen from the coal-derived liquid inhibited both catalysts for the HDS of 4,6-DMDBT. Basic nitrogen, e.g., quinoline, significantly retards the HDS of 4,6-DMDBT over both catalysts. Non-basic carbazole, on the other hand, inhibited the MCM-41-supported

  13. Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    The issues of the geothermal resource at Brady's Hot Springs are dealt with: the prospective supply of feedstocks to the ethanol plant, the markets for the spent grain by-products of the plant, the storage, handling and transshipment requirements for the feedstocks and by-products from a rail siding facility at Fernley, the probable market for fuel ethanol in the region, and an assessment of the economic viability of the entire undertaking.

  14. Quantifying the Impact of Feedstock Quality on the Design of Bioenergy Supply Chain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystel K. Castillo-Villar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Logging residues, which refer to the unused portions of trees cut during logging, are important sources of biomass for the emerging biofuel industry and are critical feedstocks for the first-type biofuel facilities (e.g., corn-ethanol facilities. Logging residues are under-utilized sources of biomass for energetic purposes. To support the scaling-up of the bioenergy industry, it is essential to design cost-effective biofuel supply chains that not only minimize costs, but also consider the biomass quality characteristics. The biomass quality is heavily dependent upon the moisture and the ash contents. Ignoring the biomass quality characteristics and its intrinsic costs may yield substantial economic losses that will only be discovered after operations at a biorefinery have begun. This paper proposes a novel bioenergy supply chain network design model that minimizes operational costs and includes the biomass quality-related costs. The proposed model is unique in the sense that it supports decisions where quality is not unrealistically assumed to be perfect. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is proven by assessing a case study in the state of Tennessee, USA. The results demonstrate that the ash and moisture contents of logging residues affect the performance of the supply chain (in monetary terms. Higher-than-target moisture and ash contents incur in additional quality-related costs. The quality-related costs in the optimal solution (with final ash content of 1% and final moisture of 50% account for 27% of overall supply chain cost. Based on the numeral experimentation, the total supply chain cost increased 7%, on average, for each additional percent in the final ash content.

  15. Regional Environmental Impacts of Biofuel Feedstock Production--Scaling Biogeochemical Cycles in Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanloocke, A.; Bernacchi, C.

    2008-12-01

    Recently there has been increasing socio-economic and scientific interest in the use of alternative sources of energy to offset the negative effects of current fossil fuel dependence and consequent greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, one of the most popular alternatives is to use ethanol produced from domestically grown crops for use as fuel in the transportation sector. In 2007, over 7.5 billion gallons of ethanol were produced in the U.S. from corn, a traditional food crop. Recent research indicates that it may be logistically impractical, ecologically counterproductive (i.e. a net carbon source), and economically devastating to produce ethanol from crops previously grown to produce food. The EBI (Energy Biosciences Institute, at University of California Berkley and University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign) is now conducting research to assess the ability of traditional crops as well as dedicated biofuel feedstocks (e.g. Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), Miscanthus x Giganteus (Miscanthus), and Saccharum spp (sugar cane)) to provide a productive and sustainable alternative to fossil fuel. This is an important step to take before implementing the large-scale growth necessary to meet U.S. energy needs .A process-based terrestrial ecosystem model, Agro-IBIS (Agricultural Integrated Biosphere Simulator) was adapted to simulate the growth of Miscanthus. The model was calibrated using data collected from sites at the University of Illinois south farms. Simulations indicated significant implications on the regional carbon and water budgets. Next this locally validated method will be extrapolated to simulate the regional scale growth of Miscanthus in the Midwestern U.S. and sugarcane in Brazil and a similar analysis will be conducted for switchgrass. The results should provide insight on optimal land-use decisions and legislation that regard meeting energy demands and mitigating climate change in the near future.

  16. Fermentative hydrogen production from hydrolyzed cellulosic feedstock prepared with a thermophilic anaerobic bacterial isolate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Yung Chung [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1 University Road, Tainan 701 (China); Huang, Chi-Yu.; Fu, Tzu-Ning [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Tunghai University, Taichung 407 (China); Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1 University Road, Tainan 701 (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)

    2009-08-15

    Hydrogen gas was produced via dark fermentation from natural cellulosic materials and {alpha}-cellulose via a two-step process, in which the cellulosic substrates were first hydrolyzed by an isolated cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium strain TCW1, and the resulting hydrolysates were then used as substrate for fermentative H{sub 2} production. The TCW1 strain was able to hydrolyze all the cellulosic materials examined to produce reducing sugars (RS), attaining the best reducing sugar production yield of 0.65 g reducing sugar/g substrate from hydrolysis of {alpha}-cellulose. The hydrolysates of those cellulosic materials were successfully converted to H{sub 2} via dark fermentation using seven H{sub 2}-producing bacterial isolates. The bioH{sub 2} production performance was highly dependent on the type of cellulosic feedstock used, the initial reducing sugar concentration (C{sub RS,o}) (ranging from 0.7 to 4.5 mg/l), as well as the composition of sugar and soluble metabolites present in the cellulosic hydrolysates. It was found that Clostridium butyricum CGS5 displayed the highest H{sub 2}-producing efficiency with a cumulative H{sub 2} production of 270 ml/l from {alpha}-cellulose hydrolysate (C{sub RS,o} = 4.52 mg/l) and a H{sub 2} yield of 7.40 mmol/g RS (or 6.66 mmol/g substrate) from napier grass hydrolysate (C{sub RS,o} = 1.22 g/l). (author)

  17. Anaerobic digestion of different feedstocks: impact on energetic and environmental balances of biogas process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Negri, Marco; Fiala, Marco; González-García, Sara

    2013-10-01

    The possibility of limiting the global warming is strictly linked to the reduction of GHG emissions. Renewable energy both allows reducing emissions and permits to delay fossil fuel depletion. The anaerobic digestion of animal manure and energy crops is a promising way of reducing GHG emissions. In Italy agricultural biogas production was considerably increased; nowadays there are about 520 agricultural biogas plants. The increasing number of biogas plants, especially of those larger than 500 kW(e) (electrical power), involves a high consumption of energy crops, large transport distances of biomass and digestate and difficulties on thermal energy valorization. In this study the energetic (CED) and environmental (GHG emissions) profiles associated with the production of electricity derived from biogas have been identified. Three biogas plants located in Northern Italy have been analyzed. The study has been carried out considering a cradle-to-grave perspective and thus, special attention has been paid on the feedstock production and biogas production process. The influences on the results taking into account different plant sizes and feeding rate has been assessed in detail. Energy analysis was performed using the Cumulative Energy Demand method (CED). The climate change was calculated for a 100-year time frame based on GHG emissions indicated as CO2 equivalents (eq) and defined by the IPCC (2006). In comparison to the fossil reference system, the electricity production using biogas saves GHG emissions from 0.188 to 1.193 kg CO2eq per kWh(e). Electricity supply from biogas can also contribute to a considerable reduction of the use of fossil energy carriers (from -3.97 to 10.08 MJ(fossil) per kWh(e)). The electricity production from biogas has a big potential for energy savings and reduction of GHG emissions. Efficient utilization of the cogenerated heat can substantially improve the GHG balance of electricity production from biogas.

  18. Chemical networks*

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Wing-Fai

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the fundamental ideas of how chemical networks are build, their strengths and limitations. The chemical reactions that occur in disks combine the cold phase reactions used to model cold molecular clouds with the hot chemistry applied to planetary atmosphere models. With a general understanding of the different types of reactions that can occur, one can proceed in building a network of chemical reactions and use it to explain the abundance of species seen in disks. One o...

  19. Energy use and energy intensity of the U.S. chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, E.; Phylipsen, D.; Einstein, D.; Martin, N.

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. chemical industry is the largest in the world, and responsible for about 11% of the U.S. industrial production measured as value added. It consumes approximately 20% of total industrial energy consumption in the U.S. (1994), and contributes in similar proportions to U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Surprisingly, there is not much information on energy use and energy intensity in the chemical industry available in the public domain. This report provides detailed information on energy use and energy intensity for the major groups of energy-intensive chemical products. Ethylene production is the major product in terms of production volume of the petrochemical industry. The petrochemical industry (SIC 2869) produces a wide variety of products. However, most energy is used for a small number of intermediate compounds, of which ethylene is the most important one. Based on a detailed assessment we estimate fuel use for ethylene manufacture at 520 PJ (LHV), excluding feedstock use. Energy intensity is estimated at 26 GJ/tonne ethylene (LHV), excluding feedstocks.The nitrogenous fertilizer production is a very energy intensive industry, producing a variety of fertilizers and other nitrogen-compounds. Ammonia is the most important intermediate chemical compound, used as basis for almost all products. Fuel use is estimated at 268 PJ (excluding feedstocks) while 368 PJ natural gas is used as feedstock. Electricity consumption is estimated at 14 PJ. We estimate the energy intensity of ammonia manufacture at 39.3 GJ/tonne (including feedstocks, HHV) and 140 kWh/tonne, resulting in a specific primary energy consumption of 40.9 GJ/tonne (HHV), equivalent to 37.1 GJ/tonne (LHV). Excluding natural gas use for feedstocks the primary energy consumption is estimated at 16.7 GJ/tonne (LHV). The third most important product from an energy perspective is the production of chlorine and caustic soda. Chlorine is produced through electrolysis of a salt-solution. Chlorine production is

  20. Algae as a Feedstock for Biofuels: An Assessment of the State of Technology and Opportunities. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, K.; McGill, R. [Sentech, Inc. (United States); Van Walwijk, M. [Independent Consultant (France)

    2011-05-15

    The pursuit of a stable, economically-sound, and environmentally-friendly source of transportation fuel has led to extensive research and development (R&D) efforts focused on the conversion of various feedstocks into biofuels. Some feedstocks, such as sugar cane, corn and woody biomass, are targeted because their structures can be broken down into sugars and fermented into alcohols. Other feedstocks, such as vegetable oils, are appealing because they contain considerable amounts of lipids, which can be extracted and converted into biodiesel or other fuels. While significant R&D and commercial strides have been made with each of these feedstocks, technical and market barriers (e.g., cost, scalability, infrastructure requirements, and 'food vs. fuel' debates) currently limit the penetration of the resultant biofuels into the mainstream. Because of algae's ability to potentially address several of these barriers, its use as a feedstock for biofuels has led to much excitement and initiative within the energy industry. Algae are highly diverse, singleor multi-cellular organisms comprised of mostly lipids, protein, and carbohydrates, which may be used to produce a wide variety of biofuels. Algae offer many competitive advantages over other feedstocks, including: 1) Higher potential lipid content than terrestrial plants, sometimes exceeding 50% of the cell's dry biomass (U.S. DOE, May '10; Tornabene et al., 1983) 2) Rapid growth rates that are 20-30 times higher than terrestrial crops (McDill, 2009) and, in some cases, capable of doubling in size with 10 hours 3) Diverse number of species that can collectively thrive in a wide range of environments throughout the world, presenting an overall high overall tolerance for climate, sunlight, nutrient levels, etc. 4) Daily harvesting potential instead of seasonal harvest periods associated with terrestrial crops 5) Potential to redirect CO2 from industry operations to algal cultivation facilities to be

  1. Response of a three-stage process for PHA production by mixed microbial cultures to feedstock shift: impact on polymer composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Anouk F; Oliveira, Catarina S S; Carmo, Inês T D; Gouveia, Ana R; Pardelha, Filipa; Ramos, Ana M; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-06-25

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) can be produced by mixed microbial cultures (MMC) using a three-stage process. An attractive feature of MMC for PHA production is the ability to use waste/surplus feedstocks. In this study, the effect of a feedstock shift, mimicking a seasonal feedstock scenario and/or as a strategy for controlling polymer composition, on a MMC PHA production process was assessed using cheese whey (CW) and sugar cane molasses (SCM) as model feedstocks. The acidogenic stage responded immediately to the feedstock shift by changing the fermented products profile, with acetate and butyrate being the main acids produced from CW, while for SCM propionate and valerate were the dominant products. The fermentation process was then quite stable during long term operation. The PHA culture selection stage also responded quickly to the fermented feestocks shift, generating a polymer whose composition was linearly dependent on the concentration of HV and HB precursors produced in the acidogenic stage. The selected culture reached a maximum PHA content of 56% and 65% with fermented SCM and CW, respectively. Mixing fermented CW and SCM, in equal volume proportions, demonstrated the possibility of using different fermented feedstocks for tailoring polymer composition. PMID:24211366

  2. Metabolic engineering is key to a sustainable chemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Annabel C

    2011-08-01

    The depletion of fossil fuel stocks will prohibit their use as the main feedstock of future industrial processes. Biocatalysis is being increasingly used to reduce fossil fuel reliance and to improve the sustainability, efficiency and cost of chemical production. Even with their current small market share, biocatalyzed processes already generate approximately US$50 billion and it has been estimated that they could be used to produce up to 20% of fine chemicals by 2020. Until the advent of molecular biological technologies, the compounds that were readily accessible from renewable biomass were restricted to naturally-occurring metabolites. However, metabolic engineering has considerably broadened the range of compounds now accessible, providing access to compounds that cannot be otherwise reliably sourced, as well as replacing established chemical processes. This review presents the case for continued efforts to promote the adoption of biocatalyzed processes, highlighting successful examples of industrial chemical production from biomass and/or via biocatalyzed processes. A selection of emerging technologies that may further extend the potential and sustainability of biocatalysis are also presented. As the field matures, metabolic engineering will be increasingly crucial in maintaining our quality of life into a future where our current resources and feedstocks cannot be relied upon. PMID:21666928

  3. Chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1991-07-02

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  4. Chemical Radioprotectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Upadhyay

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Protection of biological systems against radiation damage is of paramount importance during accidental and unavoidable exposure to radiation. Several physico-chemical and biological factors collectively contribute to the damage caused by radiation and are, therefore, targets for developing radioprotectors. Work on the development of chemicals capable of protecting biological systemsfrom radiation damage was initiated nearly six decades ago with cysteine being the first molecule to be reported. Chemicals capable of scavenging free radicals, inducing oxygen depletion,antioxidants and modulators of immune response have been some of the radioprotectors extensively investigated with limited success. Mechanism of action of some chemical radioprotectors and their combinations have been elucidated, while further understanding is required in many instances. The present review elaborates on structure-activity relationship of some of the chemical radioprotectors, their evaluation, and assessment, limitation, and future prospects.

  5. The Chemistry and Technology of Furfural Production in Modern Lignocellulose-Feedstock Biorefineries

    OpenAIRE

    Marcotullio, G.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation deals with biorefinery technology development, i.e. with the development of sustainable industrial methods aimed at the production of chemicals, fuels, heat and power from lignocellulosic biomass. This work is particularly focused on the production of furfural from hemicellulose-derived pentoses. The possibility of producing materials, chemicals, and fuels from biomass has a long history. Unfortunately fossil resources, in particular oil, have dominated last century both in ...

  6. Opportunity for high value-added chemicals from food supply chain wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharu, Avtar S; de Melo, Eduardo M; Houghton, Joseph A

    2016-09-01

    With approximately 1.3 billion tonnes of food wasted per annum, food supply chain wastes (FSCWs) may be viewed as the contemporary Periodic Table of biobased feedstock chemicals (platform molecules) and functional materials. Herein, the global drivers and case for food waste valorisation within the context of global sustainability, sustainable development goals and the bioeconomy are discussed. The emerging potential of high value added chemicals from certain tropical FSCW is considered as these are grown in three major geographical areas: Brazil, India and China, and likely to increase in volume. FSCW in the context of biorefineries is discussed and two case studies are reported, namely: waste potato, and; orange peel waste. Interestingly, both waste feedstocks, like many others, produce proteins and with the global demand for vegetable proteins on the rise then proteins from FSCW may become a dominant area. PMID:26996261

  7. Medium and long-term opportunities and risk of the biotechnological production of bulk chemicals from renewable resources - The potential of white biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, M.; Crank, M.; Dornberg, V.; Hermann, B.; Roes, L.; Hüsing, B.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Terragni, F.; Recchia, E.

    2006-01-01

    This report studies processes which convert biomass-derived feedstocks (e.g. fermentable sugar) into organic bulk chemicals (e.g. lactic acid, acetic acid, butanol and ethanol) by means of white biotechnology (e.g. fermentation or enzymatic conversion), either with or without genetically modified or

  8. Raw material demand and sourcing options for the development for a bio-based chemical industry in Europe : Part 1 : Estimation of maximum demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This perspective presents an estimation of the future demand for biomass of the chemical industry in Europe, provided that naphtha, the present feedstock of the petrochemical industry, is fully replaced by biomass. Data are based on the Eurostat data on manufactured goods for EU27 in 2007. Two diffe

  9. Carbon-rich wastes as feedstocks for biodegradable polymer (polyhydroxyalkanoate) production using bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Guzik, Maciej; Kenny, Shane T; Babu, Ramesh; Werker, Alan; O Connor, Kevin E

    2013-01-01

    Research into the production of biodegradable polymers has been driven by vision for the most part from changes in policy, in Europe and America. These policies have their origins in the Brundtland Report of 1987, which provides a platform for a more sustainable society. Biodegradable polymers are part of the emerging portfolio of renewable raw materials seeking to deliver environmental, social, and economic benefits. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are naturally-occurring biodegradable-polyesters accumulated by bacteria usually in response to inorganic nutrient limitation in the presence of excess carbon. Most of the early research into PHA accumulation and technology development for industrial-scale production was undertaken using virgin starting materials. For example, polyhydroxybutyrate and copolymers such as polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate are produced today at industrial scale from corn-derived glucose. However, in recent years, research has been undertaken to convert domestic and industrial wastes to PHA. These wastes in today's context are residuals seen by a growing body of stakeholders as platform resources for a biobased society. In the present review, we consider residuals from food, plastic, forest and lignocellulosic, and biodiesel manufacturing (glycerol). Thus, this review seeks to gain perspective of opportunities from literature reporting the production of PHA from carbon-rich residuals as feedstocks. A discussion on approaches and context for PHA production with reference to pure- and mixed-culture technologies is provided. Literature reports advocate results of the promise of waste conversion to PHA. However, the vast majority of studies on waste to PHA is at laboratory scale. The questions of surmounting the technical and political hurdles to industrialization are generally left unanswered. There are a limited number of studies that have progressed into fermentors and a dearth of pilot-scale demonstration. A number of fermentation studies show

  10. Investigation in the use of plasma arc welding and alternative feedstock delivery method in additive manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhuzaim, Abdullah F.

    productivity and maintain smaller grain size and therefore higher hardness and strength in the deposit. It was concluded that the use of PAW welding with small shot as feedstock could offer a means to additively manufacture components with reasonably small geometric details.

  11. Regional Impacts of Miscanthus Biofuel Feedstock Production on the Hydrologic Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanloocke, A. D.; Twine, T. E.; Bernacchi, C.

    2009-12-01

    Socio-economic and scientific interest toward the use of renewable energy to offset fossil fuel dependence and greenhouse gas emissions is increasing. Currently, the majority of the US renewable energy production is focused on replacing gasoline with corn ethanol. In 2008, 18% of the US corn yield was used to displace ~5% of US gasoline consumption. This represents progress toward meeting the goals of offsetting 30% of liquid fossil fuel consumption by 2030 as established by the US government in the Advanced Energy Initiative (AEI). However, a growing body of research indicates that it may not be beneficial or even possible for corn ethanol alone to meet the AEI goals. Highly productive bioenergy feedstocks requiring fewer inputs such as Miscanthus x Giganteus (Miscanthus) are ideal candidates, relative to maize, to provide a renewable and sustainable alternative to fossil fuel. It is anticipated that Miscanthus is likely to have minimal environmental impacts and could be potentially beneficial to the environment. In order to meet the AEI goals, Miscanthus production on the scale of 1x10 ha would be needed. Before this level of production occurs, uncertainty over the environmental impacts of large-scale implementation should be addressed particularly with regards to the hydrologic cycle. We calibrated and evaluated a process-based terrestrial ecosystem model, Agro-IBIS (Integrated Biosphere Simulator, agricultural version), to simulate the impacts of land-use-change from current land-use practices to Miscanthus production on the hydrologic cycle. Simulations for the Midwestern US (0.5°grid cell resolution) were generated using the same climate forcing for current land cover and additional scenarios where Miscanthus was planted in varying densities (10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%). Analyses indicate that for most of the Midwestern US, large increases in evapotranspiration (~100 to 250 mm/yr) and decreases in drainage (~ -100 to -250 mm/yr) occur when high densities

  12. Carbon and Water Vapor Fluxes of Dedicated Bioenergy Feedstocks: Switchgrass and High Biomass Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle, P.; Kakani, V. G.; Huhnke, R.

    2015-12-01

    We compared eddy covariance measurements of carbon and water vapor fluxes from co-located two major dedicated lignocellulosic feedstocks, Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and high biomass sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), in Oklahoma during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons. Monthly ensemble averaged net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) reached seasonal peak values of 36-37 μmol m-2 s-1 in both ecosystems. Similar magnitudes (weekly average of daily integrated values) of NEE (10-11 g C m-2 d-1), gross primary production (GPP, 19-20 g C m-2 d-1), ecosystem respiration (ER, 10-12 g C m-2 d-1), and evapotranspiration (ET, 6.2-6.7 mm d-1) were observed in both ecosystems. Carbon and water vapor fluxes of both ecosystems had similar response to air temperature (Ta) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). An optimum Ta was slightly over 30 °C for NEE and approximately 35 °C for ET, and an optimum VPD was approximately 3 kPa for NEE and ET in both ecosystems. The switchgrass field was a larger carbon sink, with a cumulative seasonal carbon uptake of 406-490 g C m-2 compared to 261-330 g C m-2 by the sorghum field. Despite similar water use patterns during the active growing period, seasonal cumulative ET was higher in switchgrass than in sorghum. The ratio of seasonal sums of GPP to ET yielded ecosystem water use efficiency (EWUE) of 9.41-11.32 and 8.98-9.17 g CO2 mm-1 ET in switchgrass and sorghum, respectively. The ratio of seasonal sums of net ecosystem production (NEP) to ET was 2.75-2.81 and 2.06-2.18 g CO2 mm-1 ET in switchgrass and sorghum, respectively. The switchgrass stand was a net carbon sink for four to five months (April/May-August), while sorghum was a net carbon sink only for three months (June-August). Our results imply that the difference in carbon sink strength and water use between two ecosystems was driven mainly by the length of the growing season.

  13. The thin green line: sustainable bioenergy feedstocks or invaders in waiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa L. Smith

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous fast growing and highly competitive exotic crops are being selected for production of renewable bioenergy. Tolerance of poor growing conditions with minimal inputs are ideal characteristics for bioenergy feedstocks, but have attracted concern for their potential to become invasive. Miscanthus × giganteus is one of the most promising bioenergy crops in the US, but grower adoption is hindered by high establishment costs due to sterility. Newly developed fertile tetraploid M. × giganteus may streamline cultivation while reducing establishment costs. However, fertile seed dramatically increases the potential propagule pressure, and thus probability of off-site plant establishment. To empirically evaluate the invasive potential of fertile M. × giganteus in the Southeastern US, we compared fitness and spread potential relative to ten grass species comprising 19 accessions under both high and low levels of competition and disturbance. We chose species known to be invasive in the US (positive controls: Arundo donax, naturalized M. sinensis, M. sacchariflorus, Phalaris arundinacea, Sorghum halepense and non-invasive (negative controls; Andropogon gerardii, ornamental M. sinensis, Panicum virgatum, Sorghum bicolor, Saccharum spp.. This novel design allows us to make relative comparisons of risk among species with varying invasiveness. After three years of establishment and growth in Blacksburg, Virginia, neither aboveground disturbance nor interspecific weed competition influenced fitness for fertile M. × giganteus or our positive and negative control groups. Fertile M. × giganteus produced 346% and 283% greater aboveground biomass than our positive and negative species, respectively. However, fertile M. × giganteus produced 74% fewer inflorescences m-2 than our positive controls and 7% and 51% fewer spikelets inflorescence-1 than the positive and negative control species. After 18 months of growth, we observed the vegetative and seedling

  14. New resources for chemicals. Elaboration of transition path 5. Innovative use of green materials and/in sustainable chemistry; Nieuwe bronnen voor chemie. Uitwerking van transitiepad 5. Innovatief gebruik groene grondstoffen en/in duurzame chemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruggink, A.

    2006-09-15

    In the Netherlands, the chemical industry is the largest industrial user of fossil feedstocks: approximately 20% of the total, of which 60% as feedstock for end products. The chemical industry can save on its current total consumption of fossil feedstocks of approximately 685 PJ up to 200 PJ by means of replacement, avoidance and saving. In the main sector, the organic chemical sector, the use of fossil feedstocks for end products can be reduced with 50% (140 PJ), half of which through replacement by renewable feedstocks from biomass and the other half by recycling of top 10 synthetics. The latter requires an international approach. [mk]. [Dutch] In Nederland is de chemie de grootste industriele gebruiker van fossiele grondstoffen: ruim 20% van het totaal waarvan 60% in de vorm van grondstof voor eindproducten. De chemie kan op haar huidig totaalverbruik aan fossiele grondstoffen van ca. 685 PJ tot 200 PJ besparen door vervanging, vermijding en besparing. In de belangrijkste sector, de organische chemie, kan het verbruik in de vorm van fossiele grondstof voor eindproduct met 50% (140 PJ) terug, waarvan de helft door vervanging door hernieuwbare grondstoffen uit biomassa en de helft door hergebruik van top-10 kunststoffen. Voor het laatste is een internationale aanpak nodig.

  15. Production of Bio-Based Chemicals In vivo and In vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Opgenorth, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Over the last century the petro chemical industry has provided an abundant and cheap source of hydrocarbons that have impacted and transformed many facets of our lives. Petrochemicals not only provide fuel that revolutionized transportation industry but also provided cheap petrochemical feedstock molecules that form a basis of many textiles, plastics, adhesives, detergents, and lubricants that are indispensable in modern life. Our dependence on the petrochemical industry and the sheer quant...

  16. Chemical alternative to the energetic use of biodiesel; Chemische Alternativen zur energetischen Nutzung von Biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwel, S; Ruesch genannt Klaas, M.; Harperscheid, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Getreide-, Kartoffel- und Fettforschung, Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Biochemie und Technologie der Fette - H.P. Kaufmann-Inst.

    1996-12-31

    Biodiesel is environment-friendly, but much more costly to produce than `normal` diesel fuel. Higher economic efficiency can be achieved by using biodiesel as a chemical feedstock instead. Tenside and polymers offer a wide range of applications. (orig) [Deutsch] Biodiesel ist ein umweltfreundlicher Kraftstoff, jedoch in der Herstellung deutlich teurer als Mineraloel-Dieselkraftstoff. Eine signifikant hoehere Wertschoepfung koennte errreicht werden, wenn Biodiesel nicht im Kraftstoffsektor, sondern als chemischer Rohstoff verwendet wird. Tenside und Polymere sind hierbei grossvolumige Einsatzbereiche. (orig)

  17. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  18. Field based measurements of albedo for two candidate perennial cellulosic feedstocks and row crops in Central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. N.; VanLoocke, A.; Bernacchi, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The production of perennial cellulosic feedstocks for bioenergy present the potential to diversify regional economies and the national energy supply, while also serving as a climate 'regulators' due to a number of biogeochemical and biophysical differences relative to row crops. Numerous observationally and modeling based approaches, including life cycle analyses have investigated biogeochemical tradeoffs, such as increased carbon sequestration and biophysical increased water use, associated with growing cellulosic feedstocks. A less understood aspect is the biophysical changes associated with the difference in albedo, which will alter the local energy balance and could cause a local to regional cooling several times larger than that associated with offsetting carbon. To address this factor an experiment consisting of paired fields of Miscanthus and Switchgrass, two of the leading perennial cellulosic feedstock candidates, and traditional row crops was established in central Illinois. Data from the first two growing seasons indicate that this effect is most pronounced during the spring and fall as perennial biofuel crops green up earlier and senesce later than common annual row crops. The albedo of the perennials converges to that of the row crops during the growing season as the canopies develop. During the early winter, before the perennial crops are harvested, the albedo over fallow soybean and maize fields can vary greatly depending on snowfall and, to a lesser extent, soil moisture, whereas perennials show less variation. Thus, perennial biofuel crops also have the potential to buffer the local environment against short-term variations in climate. These factors should be considered when evaluating the tradeoffs and climate-regulation services associated with large-scale planting of bioenergy crops.

  19. Biomass supply chain management in North Carolina (part 1: predictive model for cropland conversion to biomass feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Caffrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in biomass cultivation requires detailed analysis of spatial production potential of possible biorefinery locations, with emphasis on feedstock production cost minimization. Integrated assessment of publicly available spatial data on current crop production, soil type, and yield potential, coupled with techno-economic production cost estimates, can support a functional method for rapid analysis of potential biorefinery sites. A novel predictive model was developed to determine cropland conversion using a probabilistic profit based equation for multiple biomass crops: giant reed, miscanthus, switchgrass, and sorghum (with either canola or barley as a winter crop. The three primary regions of North Carolina (Mountains, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain were used as a case study and with a single parameter uncertainty analysis was completed. According to the model, the county chosen to represent the Coastal Plain (Duplin County had the largest potential acreage that would be converted (15,071 ha, 7.1% total land, 9.3% of cropland primarily to sorghum with canola as a winter crop. Large portions were also predicted to convert to giant reed and switchgrass, depending on the price and yield parameters used. The Piedmont (Granville County, 7697 ha, 5.5% total land, 6.9% cropland and Mountain (Henderson County, 2117 ha, 2.2% total land, 2.3% cropland regions were predicted to convert primarily to switchgrass acreage for biomass production, with much less available biomass overall compared to the Coastal Plain. This model provided meaningful insight into regional cropping systems and feedstock availability, allowing for improved business planning in designated regions. Determination of cropland conversion is imperative to develop realistic biomass logistical operations, which in conjunction can assist with rapid determination of profitable biomass availability. After this rapid analysis method is conducted in-depth on-ground biorefinery

  20. Development of a Low Input and sustainable Switchgrass Feedstock Production System Utilizing Beneficial Bacterial Endophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Chuansheng [IALR; Nowak, Jerzy [VPISU; Seiler, John [VPISU

    2014-10-24

    Switchgrass represents a promising feedstock crop for US energy sustainability. However, its broad utilization for bioenergy requires improvements of biomass yields and stress tolerance. In this DOE funded project, we have been working on harnessing beneficial bacterial endophytes to enhance switchgrass performance and to develop a low input feedstock production system for marginal lands that do not compete with the production of food crops. We have demonstrated that one of most promising plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN, is able to colonize roots and significantly promote growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under in vitro, growth chamber, greenhouse, as well as field conditions. Furthermore, PsJN bacterization improved growth and development of switchgrass seedlings, significantly stimulated plant root and shoot growth, and tiller number in the field, and enhanced biomass accumulation on both poor (p<0.001) and rich (p<0.05) soils, with more effective stimulation of plant growth in low fertility soil. Plant physiology measurements showed that PsJN inoculated Alamo had consistently lower transpiration, lower stomatal conductance, and higher water use efficiency in greenhouse conditions. These physiological changes may significantly contribute to the recorded growth enhancement. PsJN inoculation rapidly results in an increase in photosynthetic rates which contributes to the advanced growth and development. Some evidence suggests that this initial growth advantage decreases with time when resources are not limited such as in greenhouse studies. Additionally, better drought resistance and drought hardening were observed in PsJN inoculated switchgrass. Using the DOE-funded switchgrass EST microarray, in a collaboration with the Genomics Core Facility at the Noble Foundation, we have determined gene expression profile changes in both responsive switchgrass cv. Alamo and non-responsive cv. Cave-in-Rock (CR) following Ps