WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical exposures aries

  1. Health effects assessment of chemical exposures: ARIES methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, L; Montero, M.; Rabago, I.; Vidania, R.

    1995-07-01

    In this work, we present ARIES* update: a system designed in order to facilitate the human health effects assessment produced by accidental release of toxic chemicals. The first version of ARIES was developed in relation to 82/501/EEC Directive about mayor accidents in the chemical industry. So, the first aim was the support of the effects assessment derived for the chemicals included into this directive. From this establishment, it was considered acute exposures for high concentrations. In this report, we present the actual methodology for considering other type of exposures, such as environmental and occupational. Likewise other versions, the methodology comprises two approaches: quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment incorporates the mathematical algorithms useful to evaluate the effects produced by the most important routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, eye contact and skin absorption, in a short, medium and long term. It has been included models that realizes an accurate quantification of doses, effects,... and so on, such as simple approaches when the available information is not enough. Qualitative assessment, designed in order to complement or replace the previous one, is incorporated into an informatics system, developed in Clipper. It executes and displays outstanding and important toxicological information of about 100 chemicals. This information comes from ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) database through a collaboration with JRC-ISPRA working group. (Author) 24 refs.

  2. Physico-chemical and biological studies on water from Aries River (Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butiuc-Keul, A; Momeu, L; Craciunas, C; Dobrota, C; Cuna, S; Balas, G

    2012-03-01

    Our work was focused on physico-chemical and biological characteristics of Aries River, one of the largest rivers from Romania. Water samples were collected from 11 sites along Aries River course. We have measured de (18)O and D isotopic composition of Aries River water in these locations and correlated these data with the isotopic composition of aquatic plants and with the pollution degree. Some ions from Aries River water were also analyzed: NO(3)(-), NO(2)(-), PO(4)(3-) Cu(2+), Fe(3+). Analysis of diatom communities has been performed in order to quantify the level of water pollution of Aries River. All physico-chemical analyses revealed that the most polluted site is Abrud; the source of pollution is most probably the mining enterprise from Rosia Montana. Water isotope content increases from upstream to downstream of the locations analyzed. The structure of diatom communities is strongly influenced by the different pollution sources from this area: mine waters, industrial waters, waste products, land cleaning, tourism etc. The water eutrophication increases from upstream of Campeni to downstream of Campia Turzii. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Personal Chemical Exposure informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical Exposure science is the study of human contact with chemicals (from manufacturing facilities, everyday products, waste) occurring in their environments and advances knowledge of the mechanisms and dynamics of events that cause or prevent adverse health outcomes. (adapted...

  4. ARIES: Further description of its Assessment Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabago, I.; Sierra, I.; Vidania, R. de

    1993-07-01

    ARIES* is an integrated system designed in order to facilitate the effects assessment produced by accidental release of toxic chemicals. ARIES has been developed for inhalation exposures to estimate short term consequences over the exposed population. ARIES works with mathematical algorithms and is complemented with an additional system that executes the selection of relevant information, giving an additional support to the assessment. ARIES Methodology is based, on one side, in the development of a system of mathematical models joint sequentially in order to obtain a quick answer about the severity of the expected human effects as a function of the toxic concentration released to the environment (Quantitative process), and on the other side in the analysis and optimization of the contrasted existing information about chemicals toxicity (Qualitative process). Both processes are sequential and complementary. ARIES methodology is physically supported by an informatics system. ARIES works with relational databases and mathematical algorithms programmed in dbase/SQL language which let relate the above process, and furthermore add or incorporate progressively new models or complementary information. It has been developed a first prototype PC's of ARIES including several products of 82/505/EEC Directive. In a previous report we described the system as a whole, and specially, their qualitative step. This report is directed to describe the quantitative assessment process of the system, specifically those aspects included in the present version of the prototype. Developed parts of quantitative steps are designed for situations in which only basic data like TLV's, DL, etc., are available for the assessment. (Author) 8 refs.

  5. ARIES: System for Health effects Assessment in industrial risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabago, I.; Vidania, R. de; Inmaculada, S.

    1992-07-01

    In this work we present a general description of ARIES*, a tool designed in order to support the assessment of expected health effects derived from an accidental release of toxic compounds. ARIES includes two sequential and complementary steps. The first one (a quantitative phase) is being developed. for inhalation exposures, using numerical models, empirical correlations, physiological parameters and toxicological index, to estimate short term consequences over the exposed population. Next it will be published a new report were It will be described with detail the procedure designed to the quantitative assessment of the exposure. The system starts the assessment process with values of external concentrations which are processed, together with different exposure values (existing for humans and scaled up irom animals), as inputs for different kinds of models. From these, and other physiological values ARIES calculates the inhaled equivalent doses and the expected associated effects as a function of the exposure limes. Once overcome this first step, ARIES is complemented with an additional system that executes the selection of relevant information from toxicological data bases (qualitative phase). The system works , applying a string of filters and searches that displays selected Information, giving an additional support to the assessment. Both steps, just referred, are integrated into a logical informatics support. The informatics code is developed in dbase language even for the design of the procedure as for the mathematical models linked to the system ( extrapolation, dose inhaled models, etc.) to execute the numerical analysis of the assessment. The system has been designed in order to include progressively new chemicals and the improvements obtained in the development of mathematical models related with dose-effect relationships. At this moment, is programmed a first prototype of ARIES that can be executed in PC's and it can run for several products

  6. Rapid Chemical Exposure and Dose Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA evaluates the potential risks of the manufacture and use of thousands of chemicals. To assist with this evaluation, EPA scientists developed a rapid, automated model using off the shelf technology that predicts exposures for thousands of chemicals.

  7. Soft n-Ary Subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Prince Williams

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft set theory plays a vital role in solving many complicated problems with inherited uncertainty. An n-ary algebraic systems is a generalization of algebraic structures and it is the most natural way for the further development, deeper understanding of their properties. In this paper, we apply soft set theory to an n-ary algebraic systems and introduce the notions of soft n-ary groups and soft n-ary subgroups. Further, some operations on soft sets are extended to the former. Finally, we provide the characterization of soft n-ary subgroups over an n-ary group (G,f and study their related properties.

  8. Evaluation of Chemical Quality and Salinity Origin of Groundwater in a Semi Aried Area; Seyed Gholi Region Saveh, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhullah Dehghania

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: In recent years, groundwater resources of Seyed Gholi in Saveh area has been deteriorated because of some factors such as unconventional withdrawal in order to agricultural and industrial uses. This study has been conducted to evaluation of chemical quality and salinity origin of groundwater in this region. Materials & Methods: In order to survey on salinity of water in this region, data from 6 sampling wells (2002-2011 has been used. In first step by collecting valid information about the chemical quality of related aquifer, investigation on fluctuation trends of ions concentrations of Ca, Mg, Na, HCO3, Cl, SO4, from 2002 to 2011 has been conducted. Then, pH and EC has been surveyed for ten years (2002-2011 to determine the general chemical quality of region groundwater. Finally, changes trends of ions and water salinity has been plotted on descriptive diagrams, piper, statistical models and other plans. Results: Results show that the average ion concentrations of sulfate and chloride are 803.52 and 579.72 mg/l, the average amounts of EC and TDS are 3665.70µm/cm & 2152.96 mg/l respectively in the period of 2002-2011. In other words, the average concentrations of sulfate and chloride iones have increased from 750.24 and 619.12 to 890.4 and 635.095 mg/l respectively and also TDS have changed from 2076.69 to 2357 mg/l in the period of 2002-2011. Conclusion: It has been concluded that descending trend of flow rate and increasing of ion concentration of sulfate and chloride indicated that quality of water in this region is not desirable which will lead to the deterioration of chemical quality of water for various uses. If the current conditions continue, the water will be non- potable.

  9. Research on Exposure to Perfluorinated Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain PFCs have been linked to adverse health effects in laboratory animals that may reflect associations between exposure to these chemicals and some health problems in the general human population.

  10. Integrating Exposure into Chemical Alternatives Assessment ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most alternatives assessments (AA) published to date are largely hazard-based rankings, and as such may not represent a fully informed consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives. With an assessment goal of identifying an alternative chemical that is more sustainable, other attributes beyond hazard are also important, including exposure, risk, life-cycle impacts, performance, cost, and social responsibility. Building on the 2014 recommendations by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to improve AA decisions by including comparative exposure assessment, the HESISustainable Chemical Alternatives Technical Committee, which consists of scientists from academia, industry, government, and NGOs, has developed a qualitative comparative exposure approach. Conducting such a comparison can screen for alternatives that are expected to have a higher exposure potential, which could trigger a higher-tiered, more quantitative exposure assessment on the alternatives being considered. This talk will demonstrate an approach for including chemical- and product-related exposure information in a qualitative AA comparison. Starting from existing hazard AAs, a series of four chemical-product application scenarios were examined to test the concept, to understand the effort required, and to determine the value of exposure data in AA decision-making. The group has developed a classification approach for ingredient and product parameters to support compariso

  11. Exposure Assessment of Chemicals from Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poças, Maria De Fátima; Hogg, Timothy

    A variety of chemicals may enter our food supply, by means of intentional or unintentional addition, at different stages of the food chain. These chemicals include food additives, pesticide residues, environmental contaminants, mycotox-ins, flavoring substances, and micronutrients. Packaging systems and other food-contact materials are also a source of chemicals contaminating food products and beverages. Monitoring exposure to these chemicals has become an integral part of ensuring the safety of the food supply. Within the context of the risk analysis approach and more specifically as an integral part of risk assessment procedures, the exercise known as exposure assessment is crucial in providing data to allow sound judgments concerning risks to human health. The exercise of obtaining this data is part of the process of revealing sources of contamination and assessing the effectiveness of strategies for minimizing the risk from chemical contamination in the food supply (Lambe, 2002).

  12. Modelling Human Exposure to Chemicals in Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob W

    1993-01-01

    Exposure to foodborne chemicals is often estimated using the average consumption pattern in the human population. To protect the human population instead of the average individual, however, interindividual variability in consumption behaviour must be taken into account. This report shows how food

  13. Environmental chemical exposures and human epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Dong; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Every year more than 13 million deaths worldwide are due to environmental pollutants, and approximately 24% of diseases are caused by environmental exposures that might be averted through preventive measures. Rapidly growing evidence has linked environmental pollutants with epigenetic variations, including changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs. Environ mental chemicals and epigenetic changes All of these mechanisms are likely to play important roles in disease aetiology, and their modifications due to environmental pollutants might provide further understanding of disease aetiology, as well as biomarkers reflecting exposures to environmental pollutants and/or predicting the risk of future disease. We summarize the findings on epigenetic alterations related to environmental chemical exposures, and propose mechanisms of action by means of which the exposures may cause such epigenetic changes. We discuss opportunities, challenges and future directions for future epidemiology research in environmental epigenomics. Future investigations are needed to solve methodological and practical challenges, including uncertainties about stability over time of epigenomic changes induced by the environment, tissue specificity of epigenetic alterations, validation of laboratory methods, and adaptation of bioinformatic and biostatistical methods to high-throughput epigenomics. In addition, there are numerous reports of epigenetic modifications arising following exposure to environmental toxicants, but most have not been directly linked to disease endpoints. To complete our discussion, we also briefly summarize the diseases that have been linked to environmental chemicals-related epigenetic changes. PMID:22253299

  14. The ARIES tokamak reactor study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-01

    The ARIES study is a community effort to develop several visions of tokamaks as fusion power reactors. The aims are to determine the potential economics, safety, and environmental features of a range of possible tokamak reactors, and to identify physics and technology areas with the highest leverage for achieving the best tokamak reactor. Three ARIES visions are planned, each having a different degree of extrapolation from the present data base in physics and technology. The ARIES-I design assumes a minimum extrapolation from current tokamak physics (e.g., 1st stability) and incorporates technological advances that can be available in the next 20 to 30 years. ARIES-II is a DT-burning tokamak which would operate at a higher beta in the 2nd MHD stability regime. It employs both potential advances in the physics and expected advances in technology and engineering. ARIES-II will examine the potential of the tokamak and the D{sup 3}He fuel cycle. This report is a collection of 14 papers on the results of the ARIES study which were presented at the IEEE 13th Symposium on Fusion Engineering (October 2-6, 1989, Knoxville, TN). This collection describes the ARIES research effort, with emphasis on the ARIES-I design, summarizing the major results, the key technical issues, and the central conclusions.

  15. Environmental chemical exposures and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Stanley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As a hormone-sensitive condition with no single identifiable cause, breast cancer is a major health problem. It is characterized by a wide range of contributing factors and exposures occurring in different combinations and strengths across a lifetime that may be amplified during periods of enhanced developmental susceptibility and impacted by reproductive patterns and behaviours. The vast majority of cases are oestrogen-receptor positive and occur in women with no family history of the disease suggesting that modifiable risk factors are involved. A substantial body of evidence now links oestrogen-positive breast cancer with environmental exposures. Synthetic chemicals capable of oestrogen mimicry are characteristic of industrial development and have been individually and extensively assessed as risk factors for oestrogen-sensitive cancers. Existing breast cancer risk assessment tools do not take such factors into account. In the absence of consensus on causation and in order to better understand the problem of escalating incidence globally, an expanded, integrated approach broadening the inquiry into individual susceptibility breast cancer is proposed. Applying systems thinking to existing data on oestrogen-modulating environmental exposures and other oestrogenic factors characteristic of Westernisation and their interactions in the exposure, encompassing social, behavioural, environmental, hormonal and genetic factors, can assist in understanding cancer risks and the pursuit of prevention strategies. A new conceptual framework based on a broader understanding of the “system” that underlies the development of breast cancer over a period of many years, incorporating the factors known to contribute to breast cancer risk, could provide a new platform from which government and regulators can promulgate enhanced and more effective prevention strategies.

  16. Cumulative Chemical Exposures During Pregnancy and Early Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitro, Susanna D.; Johnson, Tyiesha; Zota, Ami R.

    2015-01-01

    Industrial and consumer product chemicals are widely used, leading to ubiquitous human exposure to the most common classes. Because these chemicals may affect developmental milestones, exposures in pregnant women and developing fetuses are of particular interest. In this review, we discuss the prevalence of chemical exposures in pregnant women, the chemical class-specific relationships between maternal and fetal exposures, and the major sources of exposures for six chemical classes of concern: phthalates, phenols, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCs). Additionally, we describe the current efforts to characterize cumulative exposures to synthetic chemicals during pregnancy. We conclude by highlighting gaps in the literature and discussing possible applications of the findings to reduce the prevalence of cumulative exposures during pregnancy. PMID:26341623

  17. Space Station logistic support by Aries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cougnet, C.; Groepper, P.

    1987-10-01

    The architecture and functions of Aries, a low-cost expendable vehicle, are discussed. The Aries design is based on the Ariane 5 L5 and VEB. The major components of Aries are upgraded L5 and VEB and a payload adaptor; the design and operations of these components are described. The avionics and propulsion system for Aries are examined. Aries is to be employed for logistic support, assembly, and the placement of satellites. An example of a mission scenario and diagrams of Aries are provided.

  18. Retrospective exposure assessment in a chemical research and development facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Alexander, Bruce H; Mandel, Jeffrey H

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this exposure assessment was to reconstruct cumulative historical exposures for workers who have been exposed to multiple chemicals and chemical groups to better understand a cluster of brain cancers within a research and development lab. Chemicals of interest, including acrylates, bis-chloromethyl ether (BCME), chloromethyl methyl ether (CMME), isothiazolones and nitrosoamines, were selected on the basis of the plausibility of penetrating the blood-brain barrier and the uniqueness of the chemical's biological activity. In a complicated exposure setting such as a chemical R&D facility, multiple exposure estimation methods were needed. First, similarly exposure groups (SEGs) were created for these materials based on department group, time period of the department's existence and function associated with job titles. A probabilistic framework for assessing exposures was developed using Bayesian analysis of historical monitoring data, mathematical exposure modeling and professional judgments of current and former industrial hygienists at the facility were used to reconstruct the exposure history for acrylates, BCME and CMME for each SEG over the time period of interest. Since sufficient measurement data for isothiazolones and nitrosoamines were not available, the exposure histories for each SEG for these chemicals were estimated. This was done using objective formaldehyde levels and subjective employee interviews. The interviews assessed workplace determinants of exposure as distinct surrogates for estimating inhalation and dermal exposures. The exposure assessments by these methods were compared against each other to estimate the potential for exposure misclassification. A job exposure matrix (JEM) was constructed that contained the exposures obtained from above multiple approaches for each of these chemical groups for each SEG for each year of interest. The combination of methods used in this work is a unique and potentially helpful framework that

  19. Health risk assessment for chemical exposures of military interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, J.P.; Polhuijs, M.; Sijbranda, T.

    2016-01-01

    Participation in military operations is accompanied by health hazards resulting from exposure to chemical substances from natural and anthropogenic sources. Historically, focus on toxicological risks has been on the health effects of exposure to chemical warfare agents (CW A). In recent years the

  20. Exposure Assessment Tools by Chemical Classes - Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  1. Environmental influences on reproductive health: the importance of chemical exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aolin; Padula, Amy; Sirota, Marina; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2016-09-15

    Chemical exposures during pregnancy can have a profound and life-long impact on human health. Because of the omnipresence of chemicals in our daily life, there is continuous contact with chemicals in food, water, air, and consumer products. Consequently, human biomonitoring studies show that pregnant women around the globe are exposed to a variety of chemicals. In this review we provide a summary of current data on maternal and fetal exposure, as well as health consequences from these exposures. We review several chemical classes, including polychlorinated biphenyls, perfluoroalkyl substances, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phenols, phthalates, pesticides, and metals. Additionally, we discuss environmental disparities and vulnerable populations, and future research directions. We conclude by providing some recommendations for prevention of chemical exposure and its adverse reproductive health consequences. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reducing chemical exposures at home: opportunities for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zota, Ami R; Singla, Veena; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Mitro, Susanna D; Dodson, Robin E

    2017-07-29

    Indoor environments can influence human environmental chemical exposures and, ultimately, public health. Furniture, electronics, personal care and cleaning products, floor coverings and other consumer products contain chemicals that can end up in the indoor air and settled dust. Consumer product chemicals such as phthalates, phenols, flame retardants and per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances are widely detected in the US general population, including vulnerable populations, and are associated with adverse health effects such as reproductive and endocrine toxicity. We discuss the implications of our recent meta-analysis describing the patterns of chemical exposures and the ubiquity of multiple chemicals in indoor environments. To reduce the likelihood of exposures to these toxic chemicals, we then discuss approaches for exposure mitigation: targeting individual behaviour change, household maintenance and purchasing decisions, consumer advocacy and corporate responsibility in consumer markets, and regulatory action via state/federal policies. There is a need to further develop evidence-based strategies for chemical exposure reduction in each of these areas, given the multi-factorial nature of the problem. Further identifying those at greatest risk; understanding the individual, household and community factors that influence indoor chemical exposures; and developing options for mitigation may substantially improve individuals' exposures and health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Mixed chemical-induced oxidative stress in occupational exposure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to single chemicals and associated disorders in occupational environments has received significant attention. Understanding these events holds great promise for risk identification, assessment and chemical induced disease prevention. Fifty (50) fasting male workers, age range 18-50 years exposed to chemical ...

  4. Lipid adjustment for chemical exposures: accounting for concomitant variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daniel; Longnecker, Matthew P; Dunson, David B

    2013-11-01

    Some environmental chemical exposures are lipophilic and need to be adjusted by serum lipid levels before data analyses. There are currently various strategies that attempt to account for this problem, but all have their drawbacks. To address such concerns, we propose a new method that uses Box-Cox transformations and a simple Bayesian hierarchical model to adjust for lipophilic chemical exposures. We compared our Box-Cox method to existing methods. We ran simulation studies in which increasing levels of lipid-adjusted chemical exposure did and did not increase the odds of having a disease, and we looked at both single-exposure and multiple-exposure cases. We also analyzed an epidemiology dataset that examined the effects of various chemical exposure on the risk of birth defects. Compared with existing methods, our Box-Cox method produced unbiased estimates, good coverage, similar power, and lower type I error rates. This was the case in both single- and multiple-exposure simulation studies. Results from analysis of the birth-defect data differed from results using existing methods. Our Box-Cox method is a novel and intuitive way to account for the lipophilic nature of certain chemical exposures. It addresses some of the problems with existing methods, is easily extendable to multiple exposures, and can be used in any analysis that involves concomitant variables.

  5. Association rule mining data for census tract chemical exposure analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Chemical concentration, exposure, and health risk data for U.S. census tracts from National Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). This dataset is associated with the...

  6. Integrating exposure into chemical alternatives assessment using a qualitative approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greggs, Bill; Arnold, Scott; Burns, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Chemical Alternatives Technical Committee, which consists of scientists from academia, industry, government, and NGOs, has developed a qualitative comparative exposure approach. Conducting such a comparison can screen for alternatives that are expected to have a higher exposure potential, which......Most alternatives assessments (AA) published to date are largely hazard-based rankings, and as such may not represent a fully informed consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives. With an assessment goal of identifying an alternative chemical that is more sustainable...... could trigger a higher-tiered, more quantitative exposure assessment on the alternatives being considered. This talk will demonstrate an approach for including chemical- and product-related exposure information in a qualitative AA comparison. Starting from existing hazard AAs, a series of four chemical...

  7. Aris Angelis (1954-2003)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The value of a person is recognized more by what he leaves behind. Aris Angelis has left a plethora of people: teachers, friends, colleagues, associates, acquaintances, all of whom were shocked and devastated by his untimely and "unjust" departure. Some thought of him as their "mentor" during their crucial and difficult first steps in science... Some others as the ever-giving friend, who put the "common good" in front of himself... Others feel an "unpaid debt" to him, who left so soon and so unexpected... Some feel an enormous loss and a huge vacuum left behind where he was... Others had looked forward to working with him in his new scientific environment... But, ALL of us shall remember Aris with love and joy for what he was and what he has given and left to us. Apostolos D. Panagiotou (Teacher, colleague & friend) Aris was very sensitive to the need for science communication. A CERN guide since 1999, he took part in all special events, such as open days and the Oracle de Delphi, always with the same ...

  8. Multi-pathway exposure modelling of chemicals in cosmetics ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present a novel multi-pathway, mass balance based, fate and exposure model compatible with life cycle and high-throughput screening assessments of chemicals in cosmetic products. The exposures through product use as well as post-use emissions and environmental media were quantified based on the chemical mass originally applied via a product, multiplied by the product intake fractions (PiF, the fraction of a chemical in a product that is taken in by exposed persons) to yield intake rates. The average PiFs for the evaluated chemicals in shampoo ranged from 3 × 10− 4 up to 0.3 for rapidly absorbed ingredients. Average intake rates ranged between nano- and micrograms per kilogram bodyweight per day; the order of chemical prioritization was strongly affected by the ingredient concentration in shampoo. Dermal intake and inhalation (for 20% of the evaluated chemicals) during use dominated exposure, while the skin permeation coefficient dominated the estimated uncertainties. The fraction of chemical taken in by a shampoo user often exceeded, by orders of magnitude, the aggregated fraction taken in by the population through post-use environmental emissions. Chemicals with relatively high octanol-water partitioning and/or volatility, and low molecular weight tended to have higher use stage exposure. Chemicals with low intakes during use (< 1%) and subsequent high post-use emissions, however, may yield comparable intake for a member of the general population. The pre

  9. Biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Benschop, H.P.; Black, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this report an overview of the methods currently available for detection of exposure to a number of chemical warfare agents (CWA), i.e., sulfur mustard, lewisite and nerve agents, is presented. Such methods can be applied for various purposes, e.g., diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure of

  10. Ex Priori: Exposure-based Prioritization across Chemical Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Exposure Prioritization (Ex Priori) is a simplified, quantitative visual dashboard that makes use of data from various inputs to provide rank-ordered internalized dose metric. This complements other high throughput screening by viewing exposures within all chemical space si...

  11. Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van; Brouwer, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    The methods for the dermal exposure assessment vary in their complexity and are in some sense complementary to each other. The most easy-to-use methods involve a pseudo-skin-approach, such as gloves and removal by washing. In some cases generic modelling appears to be possible. The experimental

  12. Chemical and traumatic occupational eye exposures in aviation personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karydes, Harry C; Zautcke, John L; Zell-Kanter, Michele

    2011-11-01

    The eye is vulnerable to chemical exposure and foreign body infiltration in the occupational setting. Individuals working in the aviation field are prone to these types of exposures. We conducted a 28-mo retrospective chart review to document the number of airline workers complaining of chemical or foreign body exposure to the eye at an onsite airport medical clinic. The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), code for chemical conjunctivitis (372.5), was used to identify patients' charts. We documented the type of treatment that was initiated and whether there was eye damage. We further investigated the chemical composition of the products and whether there was any associated toxicity. Few instances of chemical exposure and foreign body infiltration were found. Patients were exposed to the following products: lubricants (e.g., naphthenic oils), hydraulic fluid (e.g., petroleum or phosphate ester based), jet fuel (e.g., kerosene), and de-icing agents (e.g., propylene glycol). There was no documentation regarding the use of personal protection equipment in the patients' charts. All patients received eye irrigation with normal saline. No sequelae were documented. Airline personnel are exposed to a variety of chemical agents in the workplace. None of the agents that workers were exposed to in this small study exhibited toxic effects to the eye. Proper use of personal protection equipment in aviation personnel may limit the number of chemical and foreign body eye exposures.

  13. Congenital heart defects and parental occupational exposure to chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijder, Claudia A; Vlot, Ingrid J; Burdorf, Alex; Obermann-Borst, Sylvia A; Helbing, Willem A; Wildhagen, Mark F; Steegers, Eric A P; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M

    2012-05-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common major malformations in newborns. In this study we examined the associations between the occurrence of CHDs in children and periconceptional occupational parental exposures to chemicals. In an age-matched case-control study with standardized data collection at c. 15 months after birth, 424 mothers and 421 fathers of a child with CHD and 480 mothers and 477 fathers of a non-malformed child, filled out questionnaires on periconceptional general and job characteristics. A job exposure matrix, which links the information on job title and a description of work tasks to an expert judgement on exposure to chemicals in the workplace, was used. The overall prevalence of occupational exposure to chemicals was 5.0 in cases and 6.2% in controls for mothers [odds ratio (OR) adjusted = 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26-3.25], while 22.3 and 15.9% for fathers, respectively (OR adjusted = 1.23; 95% CI: 0.39-3.91). No association of maternal occupational exposure to chemicals with risk of CHDs was found. Paternal exposure to phthalates was associated with a higher incidence of CHDs in general (OR adjusted = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.27-3.40). Paternal exposure to phthalates was associated with perimembranous ventricular septal defect (OR adjusted = 2.84; 95% CI: 1.37-5.92), to polychlorinated compounds with atrioventricular septal defect (OR adjusted = 4.22; 95% CI: 1.23-14.42) and to alkylphenolic compounds with coarctation of the aorta (OR adjusted = 3.85; 95% CI: 1.17-12.67). Periconceptional paternal (but not maternal) occupational exposure to certain chemicals is associated with an increased risk of CHDs in children. The results, however, must be interpreted cautiously as exposure probabilities are a crude measure of exposure.

  14. Integrating exposure into chemical alternatives assessment using a qualitative approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greggs, Bill; Arnold, Scott; Burns, T. E.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Chemical Alternatives Technical Committee, which consists of scientists from academia, industry, government, and NGOs, has developed a qualitative comparative exposure approach. Conducting such a comparison can screen for alternatives that are expected to have a higher human or environmental......Most alternatives assessments (AA) published to date are largely hazard-based rankings, and as such may not represent a fully informed consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives. With an assessment goal of identifying an alternative chemical that is more sustainable...... exposure potential, which could trigger a higher-tiered, more quantitative exposure assessment on the alternatives being considered, minimizing the likelihood of regrettable substitution. This talk will demonstrate an approach for including chemical- and product-related exposure information...

  15. Calculation of the disease burden associated with environmental chemical exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Bellanger, Martine

    2017-01-01

    , and is hampered by gaps in environmental exposure data, especially from industrializing countries. For these reasons, a recently calculated environmental BoD of 5.18% of the total DALYs is likely underestimated. We combined and extended cost calculations for exposures to environmental chemicals, including...... neurotoxicants, air pollution, and endocrine disrupting chemicals, where sufficient data were available to determine dose-dependent adverse effects. Environmental exposure information allowed cost estimates for the U.S. and the EU, for OECD countries, though less comprehensive for industrializing countries...... is that they are available for few environmental chemicals and primarily based on mortality and impact and duration of clinical morbidity, while less serious conditions are mostly disregarded. Our economic estimates based on available exposure information and dose-response data on environmental risk factors need to be seen...

  16. Calculation of the disease burden associated with environmental chemical exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Bellanger, Martine

    2017-01-01

    is that they are available for few environmental chemicals and primarily based on mortality and impact and duration of clinical morbidity, while less serious conditions are mostly disregarded. Our economic estimates based on available exposure information and dose-response data on environmental risk factors need to be seen......, and is hampered by gaps in environmental exposure data, especially from industrializing countries. For these reasons, a recently calculated environmental BoD of 5.18% of the total DALYs is likely underestimated. We combined and extended cost calculations for exposures to environmental chemicals, including...... neurotoxicants, air pollution, and endocrine disrupting chemicals, where sufficient data were available to determine dose-dependent adverse effects. Environmental exposure information allowed cost estimates for the U.S. and the EU, for OECD countries, though less comprehensive for industrializing countries...

  17. Sampling strategy for estimating human exposure pathways to consumer chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Papadopoulou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to consumer chemicals has become a worldwide concern. In this work, a comprehensive sampling strategy is presented, to our knowledge being the first to study all relevant exposure pathways in a single cohort using multiple methods for assessment of exposure from each exposure pathway. The selected groups of chemicals to be studied are consumer chemicals whose production and use are currently in a state of transition and are; per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs, traditional and “emerging” brominated flame retardants (BFRs and EBFRs, organophosphate esters (OPEs and phthalate esters (PEs. Information about human exposure to these contaminants is needed due to existing data gaps on human exposure intakes from multiple exposure pathways and relationships between internal and external exposure. Indoor environment, food and biological samples were collected from 61 participants and their households in the Oslo area (Norway on two consecutive days, during winter 2013-14. Air, dust, hand wipes, and duplicate diet (food and drink samples were collected as indicators of external exposure, and blood, urine, blood spots, hair, nails and saliva as indicators of internal exposure. A food diary, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and indoor environment questionnaire were also implemented. Approximately 2000 samples were collected in total and participant views on their experiences of this campaign were collected via questionnaire. While 91% of our participants were positive about future participation in a similar project, some tasks were viewed as problematic. Completing the food diary and collection of duplicate food/drink portions were the tasks most frequent reported as “hard”/”very hard”. Nevertheless, a strong positive correlation between the reported total mass of food/drinks in the food record and the total weight of the food/drinks in the collection bottles was observed, being an indication of accurate performance

  18. Advanced Design Program (ARIES) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillack, Mark [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Progress is reported for the ARIES 3-year research program at UC San Diego, including three main tasks: 1. Completion of ARIES research on PMI/PFC issues. 2. Detailed engineering design and analysis of divertors and first wall/blankets. 3. Mission & requirements of FNSF.

  19. Chemical exposure during pregnancy and oral clefts in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Gonçalves Leite

    Full Text Available This article presents a literature review on the risk factors for oral clefts (lip and/or palate, emphasizing discussion of maternal exposure to endocrine disruptors. Several studies have identified the risk of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, use of anticonvulsivant drugs, and exposure to organic solvents. A protective effect has been shown for supplementation with folic acid. As with other chemicals, the risk associated with exposure to sex hormones is still obscure, although some authors describe a moderate risk level. New studies addressing this hypothesis need to be conducted, while the population exposed to these endocrine disrupters is increasing.

  20. Chemical exposure levels in printing workers with cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kenichi; Kumagai, Shinji; Nagoya, Toshio; Endo, Ginji

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify chemicals used by printing workers with cholangiocarcinoma, as well as the levels of exposure to the chemicals. Information necessary to identify chemicals used by printing workers with cholangiocarcinoma and to estimate chemical exposure concentrations was obtained from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan. Working environment concentrations of the chemicals in the printing rooms were estimated using a well-mixed model, and exposure concentrations during the ink removal operation were estimated using a near-field and far-field model. Shift time- weighted averages (TWA) of exposure concentrations were also calculated. Two workers from each of three small printing plants examined suffered from cholangiocarcinoma, and all six of these workers had been exposed to 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) for 10-16 years. The estimated working environment concentrations of 1,2-DCP in the printing rooms were 17-180 ppm and estimated exposure concentrations during the ink removal operation were 150-620 ppm. Shift TWA values were estimated to be 62-240 ppm. Four of the six workers had also been exposed to dichloromethane (DCM) at estimated working environment concentrations of 0-98 ppm and estimated exposure concentrations during the ink removal operation of 0-560 ppm. Shift TWA values were estimated to be 0-180 ppm. Other chlorinated organic solvents (1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane) and petroleum solvents (gasoline, naphtha, mineral spirit, mineral oil, kerosene) were also used in the ink removal operation. All six printing workers with cholangiocarcinoma were exposed to very high levels of 1,2-DCP for a long term.

  1. Risk management of exposure to chemicals under operational conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    The HFM panel has decided to install an Exploratory Team, ET-078, which should advise whether or not a Technical Group (TG) should be established on the subject of risk management of exposure to chemicals under operational conditions. This paper described the context and approach of ET-078.

  2. Chemosensory perception, symptoms and autonomic responses during chemical exposure in multiple chemical sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Linus; Claeson, Anna Sara; Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a prevalent medically unexplained symptom characterized by symptom reactions to everyday chemical exposure below hygienic thresholds. The aim of this study was to investigate the expressions of hyper-reactivity in MCS during whole-body exposure to low....../m3. Results: MCS participants, compared with controls, reported greater perceived odor intensities, more unpleasantness to the exposure and increasing symptoms over time. MCS participants also expressed higher pulse rate and lower pulse rate variability than controls did. No group differences were...... found for breathing rate or tonic electrodermal activity responses. Conclusions: We conclude that MCS sufferers differ from healthy controls in terms of autonomic responses, symptoms and chemosensory perception during chemical exposure....

  3. Modeling Exposure to Persistent Chemicals in Hazard and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E.; McLachlan, Michael S.; Arnot, Jon A.; MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Wania, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Fate and exposure modeling has not thus far been explicitly used in the risk profile documents prepared to evaluate significant adverse effect of candidate chemicals for either the Stockholm Convention or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. However, we believe models have considerable potential to improve the risk profiles. Fate and exposure models are already used routinely in other similar regulatory applications to inform decisions, and they have been instrumental in building our current understanding of the fate of POP and PBT chemicals in the environment. The goal of this paper is to motivate the use of fate and exposure models in preparing risk profiles in the POP assessment procedure by providing strategies for incorporating and using models. The ways that fate and exposure models can be used to improve and inform the development of risk profiles include: (1) Benchmarking the ratio of exposure and emissions of candidate chemicals to the same ratio for known POPs, thereby opening the possibility of combining this ratio with the relative emissions and relative toxicity to arrive at a measure of relative risk. (2) Directly estimating the exposure of the environment, biota and humans to provide information to complement measurements, or where measurements are not available or are limited. (3) To identify the key processes and chemical and/or environmental parameters that determine the exposure; thereby allowing the effective prioritization of research or measurements to improve the risk profile. (4) Predicting future time trends including how quickly exposure levels in remote areas would respond to reductions in emissions. Currently there is no standardized consensus model for use in the risk profile context. Therefore, to choose the appropriate model the risk profile developer must evaluate how appropriate an existing model is for a specific setting and whether the assumptions and input data are relevant in the context of the application

  4. Major national human biomonitoring programs in chemical exposure assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Choi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human biomonitoring (HBM programs have been established in several countries around the world in order to monitor the levels of chemical exposures in the general population and qualify health risk assessment of national and international interest. Study design, population, sample collection, and chemical analysis must be considered when comparing and interpreting the results. In this review, the objectives and brief descriptions of the major national HBM programs in North America, Europe, and Asia are provided. Similarities and differences observed from a comparative analysis among these programs, including the stratification of data according to age, sex, socioeconomic background, etc. as well as the identification of chemical exposure associated with food intake, are discussed. Overall, although there are some discrepancies in the study designs among the reviewed national HBM programs, results from the programs can provide useful information such as chemical levels found within the general population of a country that can be compared. Furthermore, the results can be used by regulatory authorities or the government to enforce legislations in order to reduce the exposure of chemicals into the human body.

  5. Toxic industrial chemicals and chemical weapons: exposure, identification, and management by syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoni, Anthony J; French, Robert N E; Walter, Frank G

    2015-02-01

    Toxidromes aid emergency care providers in the context of the patient presenting with suspected poisoning, unexplained altered mental status, unknown hazardous materials or chemical weapons exposure, or the unknown overdose. The ability to capture an adequate chemical exposure history and to recognize toxidromes may reduce dependence on laboratory tests, speed time to delivery of specific antidote therapy, and improve selection of supportive care practices tailored to the etiologic agent. This article highlights elements of the exposure history and presents selected toxidromes that may be caused by toxic industrial chemicals and chemical weapons. Specific antidotes for toxidromes and points regarding their use, and special supportive measures, are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Early-life chemical exposures and risk of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Long NE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nicole E De Long, Alison C Holloway Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Abstract: The global prevalence of obesity has been increasing at a staggering pace, with few indications of any decline, and is now one of the major public health challenges worldwide. While obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS have historically thought to be largely driven by increased caloric intake and lack of exercise, this is insufficient to account for the observed changes in disease trends. There is now increasing evidence to suggest that exposure to synthetic chemicals in our environment may also play a key role in the etiology and pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. Importantly, exposures occurring in early life (in utero and early childhood may have a more profound effect on life-long risk of obesity and MetS. This narrative review explores the evidence linking early-life exposure to a suite of chemicals that are common contaminants associated with food production (pesticides; imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, and glyphosate and processing (acrylamide, in addition to chemicals ubiquitously found in our household goods (brominated flame retardants and drinking water (heavy metals and changes in key pathways important for the development of MetS and obesity. Keywords: obesity, pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, heavy metals, acrylamide, endocrine-disrupting chemicals

  7. Chemical agent simulant release from clothing following vapor exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Robert J

    2010-02-01

    Most ambulatory victims of a terrorist chemical attack will have exposure to vapor only. The study objective was to measure the duration of chemical vapor release from various types of clothing. A chemical agent was simulated using methyl salicylate (MeS), which has similar physical properties to sulfur mustard and was the agent used in the U.S. Army's Man-In-Simulant Test (MIST). Vapor concentration was measured with a Smiths Detection Advanced Portable Detector (APD)-2000 unit. The clothing items were exposed to vapor for 1 hour in a sealed cabinet; vapor concentration was measured at the start and end of each exposure. Clothing was then removed and assessed every 5 minutes with the APD-2000, using a uniform sweep pattern, until readings remained 0. Concentration and duration of vapor release from clothing varied with clothing composition and construction. Lightweight cotton shirts and jeans had the least trapped vapor; down outerwear, the most. Vapor concentration near the clothing often increased for several minutes after the clothing was removed from the contaminated environment. Compression of thick outerwear released additional vapor. Mean times to reach 0 ranged from 7 minutes for jeans to 42 minutes for down jackets. This simulation model of chemical vapor release demonstrates persistent presence of simulant vapor over time. This implies that chemical vapor may be released from the victims' clothing after they are evacuated from the site of exposure, resulting in additional exposure of victims and emergency responders. Insulated outerwear can release additional vapor when handled. If a patient has just moved to a vapor screening point, immediate assessment before additional vapor can be released from the clothing can lead to a false-negative assessment of contamination.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of childhood leukemia with emphasis on chemical exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffler, P.A.; Smith, M.T.; Wood, S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Reynolds, P. [California Dept. of Health Services, Emeryville, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Developing markets in the Pacific Basin depend heavily on the production and export of consumer goods. The generation of hazardous waste as a by-product of industrial production can be linked to adverse health outcomes, such as childhood leukemia, in ways that are presently unknown. In California, exposures resulting from hazardous waste disposal are of concern in the etiology of childhood cancer. Approximately 63% of the 57 hazardous waste sites that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) included in the national priority list under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) statute were in the six-county San Francisco Bay area. This area includes California`s Silicon Valley, where a disproportionate majority of these sites are located. Although only one study links hazardous waste disposal to childhood leukemia evidence is accumulating that in utero and maternal pesticide exposures as well as chemical exposures during childhood are important in the etiology of childhood leukemia. This study investigates whether children with leukemia have common genetic changes, whether children with genetic changes experience common chemical exposures, and whether the occurrences of these genetic changes correspond to the same temporal sequence as exposure. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study design and report on the status of research activity. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. Historical Exposures to Chemicals at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant: A Pilot Retrospective Exposure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Janeen Denise [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-02-01

    In a mortality study of white males who had worked at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant between 1952 and 1979, an increased number of deaths from benign and unspecified intracranial neoplasms was found. A case-control study nested within this cohort investigated the hypothesis that an association existed between brain tumor death and exposure to either internally deposited plutonium or external ionizing radiation. There was no statistically significant association found between estimated radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium and the development of brain tumors. Exposure by job or work area showed no significant difference between the cohort and the control groups. An update of the study found elevated risk estimates for (1) all lymphopoietic neoplasms, and (2) all causes of death in employees with body burdens greater than or equal to two nanocuries of plutonium. There was an excess of brain tumors for the entire cohort. Similar cohort studies conducted on worker populations from other plutonium handling facilities have not yet shown any elevated risks for brain tumors. Historically, the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant used large quantities of chemicals in their production operations. The use of solvents, particularly carbon tetrachloride, was unique to Rocky Flats. No investigation of the possible confounding effects of chemical exposures was done in the initial studies. The objectives of the present study are to (1) investigate the history of chemical use at the Rocky Flats facility; (2) locate and analyze chemical monitoring information in order to assess employee exposure to the chemicals that were used in the highest volume; and (3) determine the feasibility of establishing a chemical exposure assessment model that could be used in future epidemiology studies.

  10. High Throughput Exposure Modeling of Semi-Volatile Chemicals in Articles of Commerce (ACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk due to chemical exposure is a function of both chemical hazard and exposure. Near-field exposures to chemicals in consumer products are identified as the main drivers of exposure and yet are not well quantified or understood. The ExpoCast project is developing a model that e...

  11. Gut Dysbiosis in Animals Due to Environmental Chemical Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl S. Rosenfeld

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiome consists of over 103–104 microorganism inhabitants that together possess 150 times more genes that the human genome and thus should be considered an “organ” in of itself. Such communities of bacteria are in dynamic flux and susceptible to changes in host environment and body condition. In turn, gut microbiome disturbances can affect health status of the host. Gut dysbiosis might result in obesity, diabetes, gastrointestinal, immunological, and neurobehavioral disorders. Such host diseases can originate due to shifts in microbiota favoring more pathogenic species that produce various virulence factors, such as lipopolysaccharide. Bacterial virulence factors and metabolites may be transmitted to distal target sites, including the brain. Other potential mechanisms by which gut dysbiosis can affect the host include bacterial-produced metabolites, production of hormones and factors that mimic those produced by the host, and epimutations. All animals, including humans, are exposed daily to various environmental chemicals that can influence the gut microbiome. Exposure to such chemicals might lead to downstream systemic effects that occur secondary to gut microbiome disturbances. Increasing reports have shown that environmental chemical exposures can target both host and the resident gut microbiome. In this review, we will first consider the current knowledge of how endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs, heavy metals, air pollution, and nanoparticles can influence the gut microbiome. The second part of the review will consider how potential environmental chemical-induced gut microbiome changes might subsequently induce pathophysiological responses in the host, although definitive evidence for such effects is still lacking. By understanding how these chemicals result in gut dysbiosis, it may open up new remediation strategies in animals, including humans, exposed to such chemicals.

  12. [Interactions between alcohol and work exposure to chemical substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffoletto, F; Crippa, Michela; Torri, D

    2007-01-01

    The quite diffused habit of a significant assumption of alcohol drinks, can interfere with the professional exposure to chemical substances. The interaction may result in increasing their toxicity and/or modifying the parameters of the biological monitoring. It may also act as a confounding factor, not only in epidemiologic researches but also at individual level when the assessment of the occupational exposure and/or the diagnosis of an occupational diseases, is under consideration. We review available references in the literature summarizing major scientific evidences. The interaction between the alcohol assumption and industrial chemicals may be toxicokinetic or toxicodynamic. Alcohol can interfere in the processes of biotransformation of xenobiotics and modify the doses and the effect indicators used for the biological monitoring, causing wrong interpretations of the results. The metabolism of ethanol can be altered by the exposures to toxic industrial materials, creating some clinical pictures of alcohol intolerance, like an "antabuse syndrome" or an "degreaser flush syndrome". Professional exposure to carbon sulfide or to dimethylformamides, trichloroethylene as well as to nitroglycerin and nitroglycole ethylenic can produce similar syndromes. Interactions are reported between alcohol and solvents: on toxicokinetic bases for methanol, isopropanol, glycol ether, trichloroethylene, methyl ethyl ketone and toluene; and on toxicodynamic bases for CNS. Also between alcohol and metals there can occur toxicokinetic interactions, like in the case of lead and mercury. Alcohol can also interfere with the biological monitoring of solvents, producing an over-estimation of the exposure. For the biological monitoring of reported chemical substances, it is suitable to evaluate the biologic indicators in the days in which there is not assumed alcohol. If this cannot be guaranteed, it is necessary to know at least the quantity of the alcohol consumed or at least if the

  13. Diagnosis of exposure to chemical warfare agents: An essential tool to counteract chemical terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Schans, M.J. van der; Bikker, F.J.; Benschop, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Methods to analyze chemical warfare agents (CW-agents) and their decomposition products in environmental samples were developed over the last decades. In contrast herewith, procedures for analysis in biological samples have only recently been developed. Retrospective detection of exposure to

  14. EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL RELEASES AND WORKER EXPOSURES FROM FILTER PRESS OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exposures (inhalation and dermal) and releases (air, water, solids, and process streams) associated with the filtration of industrial wastewater sludge from an electronics manufacturing plant were characterized. Chemical releases and worker exposures for a target chemical (t...

  15. [Occupational exposure to airborne chemical substances in paintings conservators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezewska, Anna; Szewczyńska, Małgorzata; Woźnica, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the quantitative study of the airborne chemical substances detected in the conservator's work environment. The quantitative tests were carried out in 6 museum easel paintings conservation studios. The air test samples were taken at various stages of restoration works, such as cleaning, doubling, impregnation, varnishing, retouching, just to name a few. The chemical substances in the sampled air were measured by the GC-FID (gas chromatography with flame ionization detector) test method. The study results demonstrated that concentrations of airborne substances, e.g., toluene, 1,4-dioxane, turpentine and white spirit in the work environment of paintings conservators exceeded the values allowed by hygiene standards. It was found that exposure levels to the same chemical agents, released during similar activities, varied for different paintings conservation studios. It is likely that this discrepancy resulted from the indoor air exchange system for a given studio (e.g. type of ventilation and its efficiency), the size of the object under maintenance, and also from the methodology and protection used by individual employees. The levels of organic solvent vapors, present in the workplace air in the course of painting conservation, were found to be well above the occupational exposure limits, thus posing a threat to the worker's health.

  16. Occupational exposure to airborne chemical substances in paintings conservators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jeżewska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the results of the quantitative study of the airborne chemical substances detected in the conservator's work environment. Material and Methods: The quantitative tests were carried out in 6 museum easel paintings conservation studios. The air test samples were taken at various stages of restoration works, such as cleaning, doubling, impregnation, varnishing, retouching, just to name a few. The chemical substances in the sampled air were measured by the GC-FID (gas chromatography with flame ionization detector test method. Results: The study results demonstrated that concentrations of airborne substances, e.g., toluene, 1,4-dioxane, turpentine and white spirit in the work environment of paintings conservators exceeded the values allowed by hygiene standards. It was found that exposure levels to the same chemical agents, released during similar activities, varied for different paintings conservation studios. It is likely that this discrepancy resulted from the indoor air exchange system for a given studio (e.g. type of ventilation and its efficiency, the size of the object under maintenance, and also from the methodology and protection used by individual employees. Conclusions: The levels of organic solvent vapors, present in the workplace air in the course of painting conservation, were found to be well above the occupational exposure limits, thus posing a threat to the worker's health. Med Pr 2014;65(1:33–41

  17. Exposure to flame retardant chemicals on commercial airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; Stapleton, Heather M; Vallarino, Jose; McNeely, Eileen; McClean, Michael D; Harrad, Stuart J; Rauert, Cassandra B; Spengler, John D

    2013-02-16

    Flame retardant chemicals are used in materials on airplanes to slow the propagation of fire. These chemicals migrate from their source products and can be found in the dust of airplanes, creating the potential for exposure. To characterize exposure to flame retardant chemicals in airplane dust, we collected dust samples from locations inside 19 commercial airplanes parked overnight at airport gates. In addition, hand-wipe samples were also collected from 9 flight attendants and 1 passenger who had just taken a cross-country (USA) flight. The samples were analyzed for a suite of flame retardant chemicals. To identify the possible sources for the brominated flame retardants, we used a portable XRF analyzer to quantify bromine concentrations in materials inside the airplanes. A wide range of flame retardant compounds were detected in 100% of the dust samples collected from airplanes, including BDEs 47, 99, 153, 183 and 209, tris(1,3-dichloro-isopropyl)phosphate (TDCPP), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromo-phthalate (TBPH). Airplane dust contained elevated concentrations of BDE 209 (GM: 500 ug/g; range: 2,600 ug/g) relative to other indoor environments, such as residential and commercial buildings, and the hands of participants after a cross-country flight contained elevated BDE 209 concentrations relative to the general population. TDCPP, a known carcinogen that was removed from use in children's pajamas in the 1970's although still used today in other consumer products, was detected on 100% of airplanes in concentrations similar to those found in residential and commercial locations. This study adds to the limited body of knowledge regarding exposure to flame retardants on commercial aircraft, an environment long hypothesized to be at risk for maximum exposures due to strict flame retardant standards for aircraft materials. Our findings indicate that flame retardants are widely used in many airplane components and all airplane types, as

  18. Harmonization of risk management approaches: radiation and chemical exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiation Safety Systems Div., Mumbai (India)

    2006-07-01

    Assessment of occupational and public risk from the environmental pollutants like chemicals, radiation, etc demands that the effects be considered not only from each individual pollutant, but from the combination of all the pollutants. An integrated risk assessment system needs to be in place to have an overall risk perspective for the benefit of policy makers and decision takers to try to achieve risk reduction in totality. The basis for risk-based radiation dose limits is derived from epidemiological studies, which provide a rich source of data largely unavailable to chemical risk assessors. In addition, use of the principle of optimization as expressed in the ALARA concept has resulted in a safety culture, which is much more than just complying with stipulated limits. The conservative hypothesis of no-threshold dose-effect relation (ICRP) is universally assumed. The end-points and the severity of different classes of pollutants and even different pollutants in a same class vary over a wide range. Hence, it is difficult to arrive at a quantitative value for the net detriment that weighs the various types of end-points and various classes of pollutants. Once the risk due to other pollutants is quantified by some acceptable methodology, it can be expressed in terms of the Risk Equivalent Radiation Dose (R.E.R.D.) for easy comparison with options involving radiation exposure. This paper is an effort to use to quantify and present the risk due to exposure to chemicals and radiation in a common scale for the purpose of easy comparison to facilitate decision taking. (authors)

  19. Assessment of predictive dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Jankowska; Sławomir Czerczak; Małgorzata Kupczewska-Dobecka

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment is problematic, mainly as a result of the lack of measurement data on occupational exposure to chemicals. Due to common prevalence of occupational skin exposure and its health consequences it is necessary to look for efficient solutions allowing for reliable exposure assessment. The aim of the study is to present predictive models used to assess non-measured dermal exposure, as well as to acquaint Polish users with the princip...

  20. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista, E-mail: g.sorrenti@unibo.it [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, viale G. Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Masiello, Caroline A., E-mail: masiello@rice.edu [Departments of Earth Science, BioSciences, and Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Dugan, Brandon, E-mail: dugan@rice.edu [Department of Earth Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Toselli, Moreno, E-mail: moreno.toselli@unibo.it [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, viale G. Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30 t ha{sup −1}. We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρ{sub s}) and envelope (ρ{sub e}) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0–5 nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75 nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75 nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110 nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over

  1. A review of models for near-field exposure pathways of chemicals in consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lei; Ernstoff, Alexi; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to chemicals in consumer products has been gaining increasing attention, with multiple studies showing that near-field exposures from products is high compared to far-field exposures. Regarding the numerous chemical-product combinations, there is a need for an overarching review of models...

  2. Association of polyfluoroalkyl chemical exposure with serum lipids in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Qian, Zhengmin; Emo, Brett; Vaughn, Michael; Bao, Jia; Qin, Xiao-Di; Zhu, Yu; Li, Jie; Lee, Yungling Leo; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2015-04-15

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), as well as polymers of PFASs, have been widely used in commercial applications and have been detected in humans and the environment. Previous epidemiological studies have shown associations between particular PFAS chemicals and serum lipid concentrations in adults, particularly perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). There exists, however, limited information concerning the effect of PFASs have on serum lipids among children. In the present cross-sectional study, 225 Taiwanese children (12-15 years of age) were recruited to determine the relationship between serum level PFASs and lipid concentration. Results showed that eight out of ten particular PFASs were detected in the serum of >94% of the participants. Serum PFOS and perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTA) levels were at an order of magnitude higher than the other PFASs, with arithmetical means of 32.4 and 30.7 ng/ml in boys and 34.2 and 27.4 ng/ml in girls, respectively. However, the variation in serum PFTA concentration was quite large. Following covariate adjustment, linear regression models revealed that PFOS, PFOA, and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were positively associated with total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides (TG), particularly for PFOS and PFTA. Quartile analysis, with the lowest exposure quartile as a reference, yielded associations between serum PFTA and elevations in TC (p=0.002) and LDL (p=0.004). Though not statistically significant, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) appeared to decrease linearly across quartiles for PFOS and PFOA exposure. In conclusion, a significant association was observed between serum PFASs and lipid level in Taiwanese children. These findings for PFTA are novel, and emphasize the need to investigate the exposure route and toxicological evidence of PFASs beyond PFOS and PFOA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Model framework for integrating multiple exposure pathways to chemicals in household cleaning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, H-M; McKone, T E; Bennett, D H

    2017-07-01

    We present a screening-level exposure-assessment method which integrates exposure from all plausible exposure pathways as a result of indoor residential use of cleaning products. The exposure pathways we considered are (i) exposure to a user during product use via inhalation and dermal, (ii) exposure to chemical residues left on clothing, (iii) exposure to all occupants from the portion released indoors during use via inhalation and dermal, and (iv) exposure to the general population due to down-the-drain disposal via inhalation and ingestion. We use consumer product volatilization models to account for the chemical fractions volatilized to air (fvolatilized ) and disposed down the drain (fdown-the-drain ) during product use. For each exposure pathway, we use a fate and exposure model to estimate intake rates (iR) in mg/kg/d. Overall, the contribution of the four exposure pathways to the total exposure varies by the type of cleaning activities and with chemical properties. By providing a more comprehensive exposure model and by capturing additional exposures from often-overlooked exposure pathways, our method allows us to compare the relative contribution of various exposure routes and could improve high-throughput exposure assessment for chemicals in cleaning products. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Assessing chemical exposure and ecological impacts of environmental surface waters using cell culture-based metabolomic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waste water treatment plants (WWTPs), as well as industrial and agricultural operations release complex mixtures of anthropogenic chemicals that negatively affect surface water quality. Previous studies have shown that exposure to such complex chemical mixtures can produce adver...

  5. Thermolytic Degradation of Synthetic Cannabinoids: Chemical Exposures and Pharmacological Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian F; Lefever, Timothy W; Cortes, Ricardo A; Grabenauer, Megan; Kovach, Alexander L; Cox, Anderson O; Patel, Purvi R; Pollard, Gerald T; Marusich, Julie A; Kevin, Richard C; Gamage, Thomas F; Wiley, Jenny L

    2017-04-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids are manufactured clandestinely with little quality control and are distributed as herbal "spice" for smoking or as bulk compound for mixing with a solvent and inhalation via electronic vaporizers. Intoxication with synthetic cannabinoids has been associated with seizure, excited delirium, coma, kidney damage, and other disorders. The chemical alterations produced by heating these structurally novel compounds for consumption are largely unknown. Here, we show that heating synthetic cannabinoids containing tetramethylcyclopropyl-ring substituents produced thermal degradants with pharmacological activity that varied considerably from their parent compounds. Moreover, these degradants were formed under conditions simulating smoking. Some products of combustion retained high affinity at the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) and CB2 receptors, were more efficacious than (-)-cis-3-[2-hydroxy-4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)phenyl]-trans-4-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexanol (CP55,940) in stimulating CB1 receptor-mediated guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTPγS) binding, and were potent in producing Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-like effects in laboratory animals, whereas other compounds had low affinity and efficacy and were devoid of cannabimimetic activity. Degradants that retained affinity and efficacy also substituted in drug discrimination tests for the prototypical synthetic cannabinoid 1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-018), and are likely to produce psychotropic effects in humans. Hence, it is important to take into consideration the actual chemical exposures that occur during use of synthetic cannabinoid formulations to better comprehend the relationships between dose and effect. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  6. Exploring consumer exposure pathways and patterns of use for chemicals in the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathie L. Dionisio

    Full Text Available •To assign use-related information to chemicals to help prioritize which will be given more scrutiny relative to human exposure potential.•Categorical chemical use and functional information are presented through the Chemical/Product Categories Database (CPCat.•CPCat contains information on >43,000 unique chemicals mapped to ∼800 terms categorizing their usage or function.•The CPCat database is useful for modeling and prioritizing human chemical exposures.Humans are exposed to thousands of chemicals in the workplace, home, and via air, water, food, and soil. A major challenge in estimating chemical exposures is to understand which chemicals are present in these media and microenvironments. Here we describe the Chemical/Product Categories Database (CPCat, a new, publically available (http://actor.epa.gov/cpcat database of information on chemicals mapped to “use categories” describing the usage or function of the chemical. CPCat was created by combining multiple and diverse sources of data on consumer- and industrial-process based chemical uses from regulatory agencies, manufacturers, and retailers in various countries. The database uses a controlled vocabulary of 833 terms and a novel nomenclature to capture and streamline descriptors of chemical use for 43,596 chemicals from the various sources. Examples of potential applications of CPCat are provided, including identifying chemicals to which children may be exposed and to support prioritization of chemicals for toxicity screening. CPCat is expected to be a valuable resource for regulators, risk assessors, and exposure scientists to identify potential sources of human exposures and exposure pathways, particularly for use in high-throughput chemical exposure assessment. keywords: ACToR,Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource,AICS,Australian Inventory of Chemical Substances,CAS RN,Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number,CDR,Chemical Data Reporting Rule,CPCat,Chemical

  7. Evaluation of ARI Leader Assessment Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Inventory for Managers (AIM) and (2) Owens’ Biographical Questionnaire (BQ). VI In terms of the theory behind the ARI biodata instruments and the...utility of leader assessment procedures and measurement tools in general rather than with an appreciation for the intend d purposes of each. Theory ...post-hoc manner. However, Stratified Systems Theory (SST) is, perhaps, the most widely cited. As outlined earlier, SST suggests that different leader

  8. High-throughput dietary exposure predictions for chemical migrants from food contact substances for use in chemical prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryol, Derya; Nicolas, Chantel I; Wambaugh, John; Phillips, Katherine; Isaacs, Kristin

    2017-11-01

    Under the ExpoCast program, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) researchers have developed a high-throughput (HT) framework for estimating aggregate exposures to chemicals from multiple pathways to support rapid prioritization of chemicals. Here, we present methods to estimate HT exposures to chemicals migrating into food from food contact substances (FCS). These methods consisted of combining an empirical model of chemical migration with estimates of daily population food intakes derived from food diaries from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). A linear regression model for migration at equilibrium was developed by fitting available migration measurements as a function of temperature, food type (i.e., fatty, aqueous, acidic, alcoholic), initial chemical concentration in the FCS (C0) and chemical properties. The most predictive variables in the resulting model were C0, molecular weight, log Kow, and food type (R2=0.71, pchemicals identified via publicly-available data sources as being present in polymer FCSs were predicted for 12 food groups (combinations of 3 storage temperatures and food type). The model was parameterized with screening-level estimates of C0 based on the functional role of chemicals in FCS. By combining these concentrations with daily intakes for food groups derived from NHANES, population ingestion exposures of chemical in mg/kg-bodyweight/day (mg/kg-BW/day) were estimated. Calibrated aggregate exposures were estimated for 1931 chemicals by fitting HT FCS and consumer product exposures to exposures inferred from NHANES biomonitoring (R2=0.61, pchemicals), they can provide critical refinement to aggregate exposure predictions used in risk-based chemical priority-setting. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. HExpoChem: a systems biology resource to explore human exposure to chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Jacobsen, Ulrik Plesner; Kalhauge, Christian; Edsgärd, Daniel; Rigina, Olga; Gupta, Ramneek; Audouze, Karine

    2013-05-01

    Humans are exposed to diverse hazardous chemicals daily. Although an exposure to these chemicals is suspected to have adverse effects on human health, mechanistic insights into how they interact with the human body are still limited. Therefore, acquisition of curated data and development of computational biology approaches are needed to assess the health risks of chemical exposure. Here we present HExpoChem, a tool based on environmental chemicals and their bioactivities on human proteins with the objective of aiding the qualitative exploration of human exposure to chemicals. The chemical-protein interactions have been enriched with a quality-scored human protein-protein interaction network, a protein-protein association network and a chemical-chemical interaction network, thus allowing the study of environmental chemicals through formation of protein complexes and phenotypic outcomes enrichment. HExpoChem is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/HExpoChem-1.0/.

  10. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals perturbs lipid metabolism and circadian rhythms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopp, R.; Ozáez Martínez,; Legradi, Jessica; Legler, Juliette

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that exposure to environmental chemicals can contribute to the etiology of obesity by inappropriately stimulating adipogenesis as well as perturbing lipid metabolism and energy balance. One potential mechanism by which chemical exposure can influence lipid

  11. Exposure Assessment Tools by Chemical Classes - Inorganics and Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  12. HExpoChem: a systems biology resource to explore human exposure to chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Jacobsen, Ulrik Plesner; Kalhauge, Christian Gram

    2013-01-01

    of computational biology approaches are needed to assess the health risks of chemical exposure. Here we present HExpoChem, a tool based on environmental chemicals and their bioactivities on human proteins with the objective of aiding the qualitative exploration of human exposure to chemicals. The chemical......Summary: Humans are exposed to diverse hazardous chemicals daily. Although an exposure to these chemicals is suspected to have adverse effects on human health, mechanistic insights into how they interact with the human body are still limited. Therefore, acquisition of curated data and development......–protein interactions have been enriched with a quality-scored human protein–protein interaction network, a protein–protein association network and a chemical–chemical interaction network, thus allowing the study of environmental chemicals through formation of protein complexes and phenotypic outcomes enrichment...

  13. Poisoning following exposure to chemicals stored in mislabelled or unlabelled containers: a recipe for potential disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Yvette C; Slaughter, Robin J; Shieffelbien, Lucy M; Schep, Leo J

    2014-09-26

    To investigate poisoning exposures to chemicals that were unlabelled, mislabelled or not in their original containers in New Zealand over the last 10 years, based on calls to the New Zealand National Poisons Centre (NZNPC). Call data from the NZNPC between 2003 and 2012 were analysed retrospectively. Parameters reviewed included patient age, route and site of exposure, product classification and recommended intervention. Of the 324,411 calls received between 2003 and 2012, 100,465 calls were associated with acute human exposure to chemicals. There were 757 inquiries related to human exposure to mislabelled or unlabelled chemicals consisting of 0.75% of chemical exposures. Adults were involved in 51% of incidents, children, containers is a problem for all age groups. Although it represents a small proportion of total calls to the NZNPC it remains a potential risk for serious poisoning. It is important that chemicals are stored securely, in their original containers, and never stored in drinking vessels.

  14. Exposure to chemicals in consumer products: The role of the near-field environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Csiszar, S.A.; Huang, L.

    2016-01-01

    F, the fraction of the chemical in a product that is taken in by humans via each exposure pathway, considering specific compartments of entry into the near-field environment (releases of chemicals encapsulated in articles, indoor air spray, etc.). To est imate PiFs, we combined far-field environmental......Humans can be exposed to chemicals in consumer products during product use and environmental releases with inhalation, ingestion, and dermal uptake as typical exposure routes. Nevertheless, chemical exposure modeling has traditionally focused on the far-field with near-field indoor models only...... recently gaining attention. Further, models that are mostly emissions-based, may not necessarily be applicable to all types of chemical release from consumer products. To address this gap, we (1) define a framework to simultaneously account for exposure to chemicals in the near- and far-field, (2...

  15. Development of a consumer product ingredient database for chemical exposure screening and prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, M-R; Grulke, C M; Brooks, R D; Transue, T R; Tan, Y M; Frame, A; Egeghy, P P; Edwards, R; Chang, D T; Tornero-Velez, R; Isaacs, K; Wang, A; Johnson, J; Holm, K; Reich, M; Mitchell, J; Vallero, D A; Phillips, L; Phillips, M; Wambaugh, J F; Judson, R S; Buckley, T J; Dary, C C

    2014-03-01

    Consumer products are a primary source of chemical exposures, yet little structured information is available on the chemical ingredients of these products and the concentrations at which ingredients are present. To address this data gap, we created a database of chemicals in consumer products using product Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) publicly provided by a large retailer. The resulting database represents 1797 unique chemicals mapped to 8921 consumer products and a hierarchy of 353 consumer product "use categories" within a total of 15 top-level categories. We examine the utility of this database and discuss ways in which it will support (i) exposure screening and prioritization, (ii) generic or framework formulations for several indoor/consumer product exposure modeling initiatives, (iii) candidate chemical selection for monitoring near field exposure from proximal sources, and (iv) as activity tracers or ubiquitous exposure sources using "chemical space" map analyses. Chemicals present at high concentrations and across multiple consumer products and use categories that hold high exposure potential are identified. Our database is publicly available to serve regulators, retailers, manufacturers, and the public for predictive screening of chemicals in new and existing consumer products on the basis of exposure and risk. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Assessment of predictive dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Jankowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment is problematic, mainly as a result of the lack of measurement data on occupational exposure to chemicals. Due to common prevalence of occupational skin exposure and its health consequences it is necessary to look for efficient solutions allowing for reliable exposure assessment. The aim of the study is to present predictive models used to assess non-measured dermal exposure, as well as to acquaint Polish users with the principles of the selected model functioning. This paper presents examples of models to assist the employer in the the assessment of occupational exposure associated with the skin contact with chemicals, developed in European Union (EU countries, as well as in countries outside the EU. Based on the literature data dermal exposure models EASE (Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure, COSHH Essentials (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations, DREAM (Dermal Exposure Assessment Method, Stoffenmanager , ECETOC TRA (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals Targeted Risk Assessment, MEASE (Metal’s EASE, PHED (Pesticide Handlers Exposure Database, DERM (Dermal Exposure Ranking Method and RISKOFDERM (Risk Assessment of Occupational Dermal Exposure to Chemicals were briefly described. Moreover the characteristics of RISKOFDERM, guidelines for its use, information on input and output data were further detailed. Problem of full work shift dermal exposure assessment is described. An example of exposure assessment using RISKOFDERM and effectiveness evaluation to date were also presented. When no measurements are available, RISKOFDERM allows dermal exposure assessment and thus can improve the risk assessment quality and effectiveness of dermal risk management. Med Pr 2017;68(4:557–569

  17. [Assessment of predictive dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Agnieszka; Czerczak, Sławomir; Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata

    2017-06-27

    Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment is problematic, mainly as a result of the lack of measurement data on occupational exposure to chemicals. Due to common prevalence of occupational skin exposure and its health consequences it is necessary to look for efficient solutions allowing for reliable exposure assessment. The aim of the study is to present predictive models used to assess non-measured dermal exposure, as well as to acquaint Polish users with the principles of the selected model functioning. This paper presents examples of models to assist the employer in the the assessment of occupational exposure associated with the skin contact with chemicals, developed in European Union (EU) countries, as well as in countries outside the EU. Based on the literature data dermal exposure models EASE (Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure), COSHH Essentials (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations), DREAM (Dermal Exposure Assessment Method), Stoffenmanager , ECETOC TRA (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals Targeted Risk Assessment), MEASE (Metal's EASE), PHED (Pesticide Handlers Exposure Database), DERM (Dermal Exposure Ranking Method) and RISKOFDERM (Risk Assessment of Occupational Dermal Exposure to Chemicals) were briefly described. Moreover the characteristics of RISKOFDERM, guidelines for its use, information on input and output data were further detailed. Problem of full work shift dermal exposure assessment is described. An example of exposure assessment using RISKOFDERM and effectiveness evaluation to date were also presented. When no measurements are available, RISKOFDERM allows dermal exposure assessment and thus can improve the risk assessment quality and effectiveness of dermal risk management. Med Pr 2017;68(4):557-569. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  18. Children and the unborn child, Exposure and susceptibility to chemical substances – an evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elsa; Thorup, I.; Schnipper, Anette

    Children are at risk of exposure to a lot of high-production-volume synthetic chemical substances which have been introduced into the market within the past 50 years; these chemical substances are used widely in consumer products and are dispersed in the environment. Children as well as the unborn...... child have in some cases appeared to be uniquely vulnerable to chemical toxicants because of their biological growth and development. Furthermore, children may be more heavily exposed than adults to certain chemicals and pollutants in the environment. This report summarises and discusses the current...... knowledge about the biological susceptibility and exposure of chemical substances to children during the embryonic, foetal, and postnatal periods....

  19. Gene expression and chemical exposure data for larval Pimephales promelas exposed to one of four pyrethroid pesticides.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Uploaded datasets are detailed exposure information (chemical concentrations and water quality parameters) for exposures conducted in a flow through diluter system...

  20. Perinatal exposure to mixtures of anti-androgenic chemicals causes proliferative lesions in rat prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Hadrup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of endogenous or exogenous estrogens during fetal life can induce permanent disturbances in prostate growth and predispose to precancerous lesions. Recent studies have indicated that also early anti-androgen exposure may affect prostate cancer risk. METHODS: We examine...... disrupters relevant for human exposure was found to elicit persistent effects on the rat prostate following perinatal exposure, suggesting that human perinatal exposure to environmental chemicals may increase the risk of prostate cancer later in life. Prostate....

  1. Ari Vatanen : Eesti ja Soome kisti sõtta ilma nende nõusolekuta / Ari Vatanen ; interv. Indrek Veiserik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vatanen, Ari

    2008-01-01

    Endine rallisõidu maailmameister soomlane Ari Vatanen esindab Euroopa Parlamendis Prantsusmaad. Euroopa Liidu tulevikust, Soome majanduse ees seisvatest väljakutsetest, "soometumise" ilmingutest vabanemisest

  2. Risk factors of Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI in under-fives in a rural hospital of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar M. Taksande

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries in children especially in under-fives. Every year in the world, about 13 million under-5 children dies, 95% from developing countries; one third of total deaths are due to ARI. The aim of this study was to identify the significant risk factors for ARI in children less than five years of age living in rural areas of Central India.Methods: A hospital based case control study was undertaken to determine risk factors associated with respiratory tract infections in children. Children less than 5 years admitted in a pediatric ward with diagnosis of ARI were enrolled in the study as cases (n = 300 while the same number of controls (n = 300 were selected from neighborhood and were matched for age, sex and religion. Details of risk factors in cases and controls were recorded in pre-designed proforma. Results: A significant association was found between ARI and lack of breastfeeding, nutritional status, immunization status, delayed weaning, prelactal feeding, living in overcrowded conditions, mothers’ literacy status, low birth weight and prematurity. Among the environmental variables, inadequate ventilation, improper housing condition, exposure to indoor air pollution in form of combustion from fuel used for cooking were found as significant risk factors for ARI in under-fives.Conclusions: ARIs are affected by socio-demographic and socio-cultural risk factors, which can be modified with simple interventions. The various risk factors identified in this study were lack of breastfeeding, undernutrition, delayed weaning, overcrowding and prelactal feeding.

  3. Preparation and performance features of wristband samplers and considerations for chemical exposure assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kim A; Points, Gary L; Donald, Carey E; Dixon, Holly M; Scott, Richard P; Wilson, Glenn; Tidwell, Lane G; Hoffman, Peter D; Herbstman, Julie B; O'Connell, Steven G

    2017-01-01

    Wristbands are increasingly used for assessing personal chemical exposures. Unlike some exposure assessment tools, guidelines for wristbands, such as preparation, applicable chemicals, and transport and storage logistics, are lacking. We tested the wristband’s capacity to capture and retain 148 chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, flame retardants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). The chemicals span a wide range of physical–chemical properties, with log octanol–air partitioning coefficients from 2.1 to 13.7. All chemicals were quantitatively and precisely recovered from initial exposures, averaging 102% recovery with relative SD ≤21%. In simulated transport conditions at +30 °C, SVOCs were stable up to 1 month (average: 104%) and VOC levels were unchanged (average: 99%) for 7 days. During long-term storage at −20 °C up to 3 (VOCs) or 6 months (SVOCs), all chemical levels were stable from chemical degradation or diffusional losses, averaging 110%. Applying a paired wristband/active sampler study with human participants, the first estimates of wristband–air partitioning coefficients for PAHs are presented to aid in environmental air concentration estimates. Extrapolation of these stability results to other chemicals within the same physical–chemical parameters is expected to yield similar results. As we better define wristband characteristics, wristbands can be better integrated in exposure science and epidemiological studies. PMID:28745305

  4. High Throughput Heuristics for Prioritizing Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The risk posed to human health by any of the thousands of untested anthropogenic chemicals in our environment is a function of both the potential hazard presented by the chemical, and the possibility of being exposed. Without the capacity to make quantitative, albeit uncertain, f...

  5. An evaluation of genotyping by sequencing (GBS) to map the Breviaristatum-e (ari-e) locus in cultivated barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Bayer, Micha; Druka, Arnis; Russell, Joanne R; Hackett, Christine A; Poland, Jesse; Ramsay, Luke; Hedley, Pete E; Waugh, Robbie

    2014-02-06

    We explored the use of genotyping by sequencing (GBS) on a recombinant inbred line population (GPMx) derived from a cross between the two-rowed barley cultivar 'Golden Promise' (ari-e.GP/Vrs1) and the six-rowed cultivar 'Morex' (Ari-e/vrs1) to map plant height. We identified three Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL), the first in a region encompassing the spike architecture gene Vrs1 on chromosome 2H, the second in an uncharacterised centromeric region on chromosome 3H, and the third in a region of chromosome 5H coinciding with the previously described dwarfing gene Breviaristatum-e (Ari-e). Barley cultivars in North-western Europe largely contain either of two dwarfing genes; Denso on chromosome 3H, a presumed ortholog of the rice green revolution gene OsSd1, or Breviaristatum-e (ari-e) on chromosome 5H. A recessive mutant allele of the latter gene, ari-e.GP, was introduced into cultivation via the cv. 'Golden Promise' that was a favourite of the Scottish malt whisky industry for many years and is still used in agriculture today. Using GBS mapping data and phenotypic measurements we show that ari-e.GP maps to a small genetic interval on chromosome 5H and that alternative alleles at a region encompassing Vrs1 on 2H along with a region on chromosome 3H also influence plant height. The location of Ari-e is supported by analysis of near-isogenic lines containing different ari-e alleles. We explored use of the GBS to populate the region with sequence contigs from the recently released physically and genetically integrated barley genome sequence assembly as a step towards Ari-e gene identification. GBS was an effective and relatively low-cost approach to rapidly construct a genetic map of the GPMx population that was suitable for genetic analysis of row type and height traits, allowing us to precisely position ari-e.GP on chromosome 5H. Mapping resolution was lower than we anticipated. We found the GBS data more complex to analyse than other data types but it did directly

  6. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics opinion on reproductive health impacts of exposure to toxic environmental chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Di Renzo, GC; Conry, JA; Blake, J.; Defrancesco, MS; Denicola, N; Martin, JN; McCue, KA; Richmond, D; Shah, A.; Sutton, P; Woodruff, TJ; Van Der Poel, SZ; Giudice, LC

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Authors. Exposure to toxic environmental chemicals during pregnancy and breastfeeding is ubiquitous and is a threat to healthy human reproduction. There are tens of thousands of chemicals in global commerce, and even small exposures to toxic chemicals during pregnancy can trigger adverse health consequences. Exposure to toxic environmental chemicals and related health outcomes are inequitably distributed within and between countries; universally, the consequences of exposure are di...

  7. Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals and Children’s Neurodevelopment: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This review surveys the recent literature on the neurodevelopmental impacts of chemical exposures during pregnancy. The review focuses primarily on chemicals of recent concern, including phthalates, bisphenol-A, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated compounds, but also addresses chemicals with longer histories of investigation, including air pollutants, lead, methylmercury, manganese, arsenic, and organophosphate pesticides. For some chemicals of more recent concern, the available literature does not yet afford strong conclusions about neurodevelopment toxicity. In such cases, points of disagreement among studies are identified and suggestions provided for approaches to resolution of the inconsistencies, including greater standardization of methods for expressing exposure and assessing outcomes.

  8. High-throughput exposure modeling to support prioritization of chemicals in personal care products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csiszar, Susan A.; Ernstoff, Alexi; Fantke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of a high-throughput modeling framework to estimate exposure to chemicals used in personal care products (PCPs). As a basis for estimating exposure, we use the product intake fraction (PiF), defined as the mass of chemical taken by an individual or population per mass...... intakes were associated with body lotion. Bioactive doses derived from high-throughput in vitro toxicity data were combined with the estimated PiFs to demonstrate an approach to estimate bioactive equivalent chemical content and to screen chemicals for risk....

  9. Multi-pathway exposure modelling of chemicals in cosmetics with application to shampoo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi S.; Fantke, Peter; Csiszar, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel multi-pathway, mass balance based, fate and exposure model compatible with life cycle and high-throughput screening assessments of chemicals in cosmetic products. The exposures through product use as well as post-use emissions and environmental media were quantified based...... the skin permeation coefficient dominated the estimated uncertainties. The fraction of chemical taken in by a shampoo user often exceeded, by orders of magnitude, the aggregated fraction taken in by the population through post-use environmental emissions. Chemicals with relatively high octanol...... and critical advancement for life cycle assessments and high-throughput exposure screening of chemicals in cosmetic products demonstrating the importance of consistent consideration of near- and far-field multi-pathway exposures....

  10. Exposure to chemicals in food packaging as a sustainability trade-off in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Muncke, Jane; Trier, Xenia

    2016-01-01

    packaging in a life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) framework. To put exposure during use in a life cycle context we perform a screening-level LCA of several life cycle stages of high impact polystyrene packaging (HIPS), with a functional unit of containing and delivering one kilogram of yogurt......Hazardous chemicals in packaging, including ‘eco-friendly’ and recycled food packaging, can migrate into food and expose humans. LCA has been fundamental to indicate more ‘eco-friendly’ packages, but currently LCA does not consider exposure to chemical migrants and methods have not yet been...... developed. In this study we question if exposure to chemicals in food packaging should be considered as a sustainable design consideration, i.e. if this human health risk is relevant in a life cycle context. To answer this question, we focus on developing methods to quantify exposure to chemicals in food...

  11. Chemical concentrations, exposures, health risks by census tract from National Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Chemical concentrations, exposures, health risks by census tract for the United States from National Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). This dataset is associated...

  12. Use of NHANES data to link chemical exposures to chronic diseases: a cautionary tale

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LaKind, Judy S; Goodman, Michael; Naiman, Daniel Q

    2012-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is one example of cross-sectional datasets that have been used to draw causal inferences regarding environmental chemical exposures and adverse health outcomes...

  13. Use of NHANES Data to Link Chemical Exposures to Chronic Diseases: A Cautionary Tale: e51086

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Judy S LaKind; Michael Goodman; Daniel Q Naiman

    2012-01-01

      Background The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is one example of cross-sectional datasets that have been used to draw causal inferences regarding environmental chemical exposures and adverse health outcomes...

  14. Modelling Dietary Exposure to Chemical Components in Heat-Processed Meats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, Stylianos; Jakobsen, Lea Sletting; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    Several chemical compounds that potentially increase the risk of developing cancer in humans are formed during heat processing of meat. Estimating the overall health impact of these compounds in the population requires accurate estimation of the exposure to the chemicals, as well as the probability.......g. the Poisson-Lognormal approach, are promising tools to address this obstacle. The exposure estimates can then be applied to dose-response models to quantify the cancer risk....

  15. Proposed Occupational Exposure Limits for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poet, Torka S.; Timchalk, Chuck

    2006-03-24

    A large number of volatile chemicals have been identified in the headspaces of tanks used to store mixed chemical and radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, and there is concern that vapor releases from the tanks may be hazardous to workers. Contractually established occupational exposure limits (OELs) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) do not exist for all chemicals of interest. To address the need for worker exposure guidelines for those chemicals that lack OSHA or ACGIH OELs, a procedure for assigning Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for Hanford Site tank farm workers has been developed and applied to a selected group of 57 headspace chemicals.

  16. Advancing Exposure Science through Chemical Data Curation and Integration in the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, Cynthia J; Davis, Allan Peter; Wiegers, Thomas C; King, Benjamin L; Wiegers, Jolene A; Reif, David M; Hoppin, Jane A; Mattingly, Carolyn J

    2016-10-01

    Exposure science studies the interactions and outcomes between environmental stressors and human or ecological receptors. To augment its role in understanding human health and the exposome, we aimed to centralize and integrate exposure science data into the broader biological framework of the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD), a public resource that promotes understanding of environmental chemicals and their effects on human health. We integrated exposure data within the CTD to provide a centralized, freely available resource that facilitates identification of connections between real-world exposures, chemicals, genes/proteins, diseases, biological processes, and molecular pathways. We developed a manual curation paradigm that captures exposure data from the scientific literature using controlled vocabularies and free text within the context of four primary exposure concepts: stressor, receptor, exposure event, and exposure outcome. Using data from the Agricultural Health Study, we have illustrated the benefits of both centralization and integration of exposure information with CTD core data. We have described our curation process, demonstrated how exposure data can be accessed and analyzed in the CTD, and shown how this integration provides a broad biological context for exposure data to promote mechanistic understanding of environmental influences on human health. Curation and integration of exposure data within the CTD provides researchers with new opportunities to correlate exposures with human health outcomes, to identify underlying potential molecular mechanisms, and to improve understanding about the exposome. Grondin CJ, Davis AP, Wiegers TC, King BL, Wiegers JA, Reif DM, Hoppin JA, Mattingly CJ. 2016. Advancing exposure science through chemical data curation and integration in the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database. Environ Health Perspect 124:1592-1599; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP174.

  17. Multi-pathway exposure modeling of chemicals in cosmetics with application to shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstoff, Alexi S; Fantke, Peter; Csiszar, Susan A; Henderson, Andrew D; Chung, Susie; Jolliet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel multi-pathway, mass balance based, fate and exposure model compatible with life cycle and high-throughput screening assessments of chemicals in cosmetic products. The exposures through product use as well as post-use emissions and environmental media were quantified based on the chemical mass originally applied via a product, multiplied by the product intake fractions (PiF, the fraction of a chemical in a product that is taken in by exposed persons) to yield intake rates. The average PiFs for the evaluated chemicals in shampoo ranged from 3×10(-4) up to 0.3 for rapidly absorbed ingredients. Average intake rates ranged between nano- and micrograms per kilogram bodyweight per day; the order of chemical prioritization was strongly affected by the ingredient concentration in shampoo. Dermal intake and inhalation (for 20% of the evaluated chemicals) during use dominated exposure, while the skin permeation coefficient dominated the estimated uncertainties. The fraction of chemical taken in by a shampoo user often exceeded, by orders of magnitude, the aggregated fraction taken in by the population through post-use environmental emissions. Chemicals with relatively high octanol-water partitioning and/or volatility, and low molecular weight tended to have higher use stage exposure. Chemicals with low intakes during use (<1%) and subsequent high post-use emissions, however, may yield comparable intake for a member of the general population. The presented PiF based framework offers a novel and critical advancement for life cycle assessments and high-throughput exposure screening of chemicals in cosmetic products demonstrating the importance of consistent consideration of near- and far-field multi-pathway exposures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuclear recoil measurements with the ARIS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Alden; ARIS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    As direct dark matter searches become increasingly sensitive, it is important to fully characterize the target of the search. The goal of the Argon Recoil Ionization and Scintillation (ARIS) experiment is to quantify information related to the scintillation and ionization energy scale, quenching factor, ion recombination probability, and scintillation time response of nuclear recoils, as expected from WIMPs, in liquid argon. A time projection chamber with an active mass of 0.5 kg of liquid argon and capable of full 3D position reconstruction was exposed to an inverse kinematic neutron beam at the Institut de Physique Nucleaire d'Orsay in France. A scan of nuclear recoil energies was performed through coincidence with a set of neutron detectors to quantify properties of nuclear recoils in liquid argon at various electric fields. The difference in ionization and scintillation response with differing recoil track angle to the electric field was also studied. The preliminary results of the experiment will be presented.

  19. Neurodevelopmental toxicity risks due to occupational exposure to industrial chemicals during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julvez, Jordi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to neurotoxic chemicals is of particular concern when it occurs during early development. The immature brain is highly vulnerable prenatally and is therefore at risk due to occupational exposures incurred by pregnant women. A systematic search of the literature has been performed...

  20. Multi-pathway exposure modelling of chemicals in cosmetics with application to shampoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present a novel multi-pathway, mass balance based, fate and exposure model compatible with life cycle and high-throughput screening assessments of chemicals in cosmetic products. The exposures through product use as well as post-use emissions and environmental media were quant...

  1. Combined effects of prenatal exposures to environmental chemicals on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arse...

  2. Cumulative risk assessment of chemical exposures in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragas, Ad M J; Oldenkamp, R; Preeker, N L; Wernicke, J; Schlink, U

    2011-07-01

    We performed a cumulative risk assessment for people living in a hypothetical urban environment, called Urbania. The main aims of the study were to demonstrate how a cumulative risk assessment for a middle-sized European city can be performed and to identify the bottlenecks in terms of data availability and knowledge gaps. The assessment focused on five air pollutants (i.e., PM₁₀, benzene, toluene, nonane and naphthalene) and six food pesticides (i.e., acetamiprid, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, imidacloprid and permethrin). Exposure predictions showed that PM₁₀, benzene and naphthalene exposure frequently exceeded the standards, and that the indoor environment contributed more than the outdoor environment. Effect predictions showed that mixture and interaction effects were generally limited. However, model calculations indicated potential synergistic effects between naphthalene and benzene and between chlorpyrifos, diazinon and toluene. PM₁₀ dominated the health impact expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We conclude that measures to reduce the health impact of environmental pollution should focus on the improvement of indoor air quality and the reduction of PM₁₀ emissions. Cumulative risk assessment can be improved by (1) the development of person-oriented exposure models that can simulate the cumulative exposure history of individuals, (2) a better mechanistic understanding of the effects of cumulative stressors, and (3) the development of instruments to prioritize stressors for inclusion in cumulative risk assessments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Consumer products as sources of chemical exposures to children: case study of triclosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Gary L; Balk, Sophie J

    2016-04-01

    Consumer products are often overlooked as sources of children's exposures to toxic chemicals. Various regulatory bodies have developed lists of chemicals of concern that can be found in products contacted by children. However, this information has not been summarized for health practitioners. This review organizes such chemicals and products into four categories, with the antibacterial agent triclosan used to illustrate the potential risks to children from a common ingredient in consumer products. Biomonitoring, house dust, indoor air, and product testing document children's exposures to a wide variety of chemicals. An increasing number of epidemiology studies have shown associations between these exposures and health effects in children. Triclosan is an example of a chemical contained in high contact products (e.g., soaps, lotions, and toothpaste) not necessarily designed for children. Triclosan exposure in children has been associated with increased responsiveness to airway allergens, with it also capable of endocrine disruption. However, the utility and necessity of this chemical in consumer products has not been demonstrated in most cases. Triclosan and the other examples provided show that a changing marketplace with little regulatory oversight of chemical uses can lead to unanticipated exposures and potential health risks to children.

  4. Predicting the sensitivity of populations from individual exposure to chemicals: the role of ecological interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabsi, Faten; Schäffer, Andreas; Preuss, Thomas G

    2014-07-01

    Population responses to chemical stress exposure are influenced by nonchemical, environmental processes such as species interactions. A realistic quantification of chemical toxicity to populations calls for the use of methodologies that integrate these multiple stress effects. The authors used an individual-based model for Daphnia magna as a virtual laboratory to determine the influence of ecological interactions on population sensitivity to chemicals with different modes of action on individuals. In the model, hypothetical chemical toxicity targeted different vital individual-level processes: reproduction, survival, feeding rate, or somatic growth rate. As for species interactions, predatory and competition effects on daphnid populations were implemented following a worst-case approach. The population abundance was simulated at different food levels and exposure scenarios, assuming exposure to chemical stress solely or in combination with either competition or predation. The chemical always targeted one vital endpoint. Equal toxicity-inhibition levels differently affected the population abundance with and without species interactions. In addition, population responses to chemicals were highly sensitive to the environmental stressor (predator or competitor) and to the food level. Results show that population resilience cannot be attributed to chemical stress only. Accounting for the relevant ecological interactions would reduce uncertainties when extrapolating effects of chemicals from individuals to the population level. Validated population models should be used for a more realistic risk assessment of chemicals. © 2014 SETAC.

  5. A robotic inspection experimental system (ARIES) and BOA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    ARIES consists of a 6-wheeled K3A mobile platform, a compact subturret, a sonar imaging system, a laser-based light detection and ranging (lidar) navigation beacon system, and a camera positioning system. It has a sonar imaging system used in navigation and collision avoidance and an automatic docking/charging system. Drum-referencing algorithms and camera-positioning algorithms have been included in the primitive instruction set for the robot. The robot`s navigation is based on Synchro-Drive, a patented design that utilizes concentric shafts to distribute drive and steering power to the six wheels simultaneously. ARIES uses a virtual path concept in which only a limited amount of information needs to be provided to the control computer in order to get the vehicle moving. The safety and health evaluation, during the human factors assessment, found several areas of concern including ergonomics, laser hazards, tripping hazards, fall-from-above and struck-by hazards, electrical hazards, and decontamination of the system. BOA is a self-propelled automated mini-enclosure, able to remove insulation from installed pipes, primarily of 4 inch nominal outside diameter. The system is designed for two operators: one oversees the abatement head operation from a distance of 10 or 15 feet using a pendant control and the other bags the debris at a cyclonic bagging station that is attached by a vacuum hose to the cutting head. Since the abatement head is its own enclosure, there may be no need for further enclosures to be built. The system wets and removes asbestos insulation automatically, cutting the debris into consistent chunks and moving the wave under a strong vacuum to a bagging machine. Prior to reaching the bagging operation, the material passes through a water separator which greatly reduces the weight of the debris and allows recirculation of water, after sufficient filtration. The safety and health evaluation, during the human factors assessment, focused on: noise, dust

  6. Chemical Mixtures Health Risk Assessment: Overview of Exposure Assessment, Whole Mixtures Assessments; Basic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    This problems-based, half-day, introductory workshop focuses on methods to assess health risks posed by exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment. Chemical mixtures health risk assessment methods continue to be developed and evolve to address concerns over health risks f...

  7. High Throughput Exposure Modeling of Semi-Volatile Chemicals in Articles of Commerce (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical components of consumer products and articles of commerce such as carpet and clothing are key drivers of exposure in the near-field environment. These chemicals include semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), some of which have been shown to alter endocrine functionality...

  8. Impacts of climate change on indirect human exposure to pathogens and chemicals from agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, Alistair; Hardy, Anthony; Beulke, Sabine; Boucard, Tatiana; Burgin, Laura; Falloon, Peter; Haygarth, Philip; Hutchinson, Thomas; Kovats, Sari; Leonardi, Giovanni; Levy, Leonard; Nichols, Gordon; Parsons, Simon; Potts, Laura; Stone, David; Topp, Edward; Turley, David; Walsh, Kerry; Wellington, Elizabeth; Williams, Richard

    2010-05-01

    Climate change is likely to affect the nature of pathogens/ chemicals in the environment and their fate and transport. We assess the implications of climate change for changes in human exposures to pathogens/chemicals in agricultural systems in the UK and discuss the effects on health impacts, using expert input and literature on climate change; health effects from exposure to pathogens/chemicals arising from agriculture; inputs of chemicals/pathogens to agricultural systems; and human exposure pathways for pathogens/chemicals in agricultural systems. We established the evidence base for health effects of chemicals/pathogens in the agricultural environment; determined the potential implications of climate change on chemical/pathogen inputs in agricultural systems; and explored the effects of climate change on environmental transport and fate of various contaminants. We merged data to assess the implications of climate change in terms of indirect human exposure to pathogens/chemicals in agricultural systems, and defined recommendations on future research and policy changes to manage adverse increases in risks.

  9. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Office of pesticides programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenner-Crisp, P. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Pesticide Programs is trying to develop a complete picture of a chemical`s toxicity and exposure profile. It is also important to share information in the office`s files because of pesticides, particularly as a consequence of agricultural use, find their way into places not necessarily intended.

  10. Assessing our multi-pollutant burden: environmental chemical exposures and reproductive and child health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenters, V.C.

    2017-01-01

    Humans are invariably exposed to a myriad of synthetic chemicals on a daily basis through their diet, consumer products, and via the ambient environment. Exposure also occurs in early life as many chemicals transfer from maternal stores into breast milk and across the placenta. However, the health

  11. Integrating Exposure into Chemical Alternatives Assessment Using a Qualitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most alternatives assessments (AA) published to date are largely hazard-based rankings, and as such may not represent a fully informed consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives. With an assessment goal of identifying an alternative chemical that i...

  12. Preparedness and response to chemical and biological threats: the role of exposure science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioy, Paul J; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Georgopoulos, Panos G

    2016-08-01

    There are multiple components to emergency preparedness and the response to chemical and biological threat agents. The 5Rs framework (rescue, reentry, recovery, restoration, and rehabitation) outlines opportunities to apply exposure science in emergency events. Exposure science provides guidance and refined tools for characterizing, assessing, and reducing risks from catastrophic events, such as the release of hazardous airborne chemicals or biological agents. Important challenges to be met include deployment of assets, including medications, before and after an emergency response situation. Assessment of past studies demonstrates the value of integrating exposure science methods into risk analysis and the management of catastrophic events. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Impacts of climate change on indirect human exposure to pathogens and chemicals from agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, Alistair B A; Hardy, Anthony; Beulke, Sabine; Boucard, Tatiana; Burgin, Laura; Falloon, Peter D; Haygarth, Philip M; Hutchinson, Thomas; Kovats, R Sari; Leonardi, Giovanni; Levy, Leonard S; Nichols, Gordon; Parsons, Simon A; Potts, Laura; Stone, David; Topp, Edward; Turley, David B; Walsh, Kerry; Wellington, Elizabeth M H; Williams, Richard J

    2009-04-01

    Climate change is likely to affect the nature of pathogens and chemicals in the environment and their fate and transport. Future risks of pathogens and chemicals could therefore be very different from those of today. In this review, we assess the implications of climate change for changes in human exposures to pathogens and chemicals in agricultural systems in the United Kingdom and discuss the subsequent effects on health impacts. In this review, we used expert input and considered literature on climate change; health effects resulting from exposure to pathogens and chemicals arising from agriculture; inputs of chemicals and pathogens to agricultural systems; and human exposure pathways for pathogens and chemicals in agricultural systems. We established the current evidence base for health effects of chemicals and pathogens in the agricultural environment; determined the potential implications of climate change on chemical and pathogen inputs in agricultural systems; and explored the effects of climate change on environmental transport and fate of different contaminant types. We combined these data to assess the implications of climate change in terms of indirect human exposure to pathogens and chemicals in agricultural systems. We then developed recommendations on future research and policy changes to manage any adverse increases in risks. Overall, climate change is likely to increase human exposures to agricultural contaminants. The magnitude of the increases will be highly dependent on the contaminant type. Risks from many pathogens and particulate and particle-associated contaminants could increase significantly. These increases in exposure can, however, be managed for the most part through targeted research and policy changes.

  14. Disparities in Environmental Exposures to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Diabetes Risk in Vulnerable Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Daniel; Becerra, Marisol; Jagai, Jyotsna S; Ard, Kerry; Sargis, Robert M

    2017-11-15

    Burgeoning epidemiological, animal, and cellular data link environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to metabolic dysfunction. Disproportionate exposure to diabetes-associated EDCs may be an underappreciated contributor to disparities in metabolic disease risk. The burden of diabetes is not uniformly borne by American society; rather, this disease disproportionately affects certain populations, including African Americans, Latinos, and low-income individuals. The purpose of this study was to review the evidence linking unequal exposures to EDCs with racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic diabetes disparities in the U.S.; discuss social forces promoting these disparities; and explore potential interventions. Articles examining the links between chemical exposures and metabolic disease were extracted from the U.S. National Library of Medicine for the period of 1966 to 3 December 2016. EDCs associated with diabetes in the literature were then searched for evidence of racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic exposure disparities. Among Latinos, African Americans, and low-income individuals, numerous studies have reported significantly higher exposures to diabetogenic EDCs, including polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, multiple chemical constituents of air pollution, bisphenol A, and phthalates. This review reveals that unequal exposure to EDCs may be a novel contributor to diabetes disparities. Efforts to reduce the individual and societal burden of diabetes should include educating clinicians on environmental exposures that may increase disease risk, strategies to reduce those exposures, and social policies to address environmental inequality as a novel source of diabetes disparities. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  15. Chemical stabilization of polymers: Implications for dermal exposure to additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, N; Girard, M; Schneider, L; Weijgert, V Van De; Wilde, A; Kappenstein, O; Vieth, B; Hutzler, C; Luch, A

    2018-01-15

    Technical benefits of additives in polymers stand in marked contrast to their associated health risks. Here, a multi-analyte method based on gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed to quantify polymer additives in complex matrices such as low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and isolated human skin layers after dermal exposure ex vivo. That way both technical aspects and dermal exposure were investigated. The effects of polymer additivation on the material were studied using the example of LDPE. To this end, a tailor-made polymer was applied in aging studies that had been furnished with two different mixtures of phenol- and diarylamine-based antioxidants, plasticizers and processing aids. Upon accelerated thermo-oxidative aging of the material, the formation of LDPE degradation products was monitored with attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Compared to pure LDPE, a protective effect of added antioxidants could be observed on the integrity of the polymer. Further, thermo-oxidative degradation of the additives and its kinetics were investigated using LDPE or squalane as matrix. The half-lives of additives in both matrices revealed significant differences between the tested additives as well as between LDPE and squalane. For instance, 2-tert-butyl-6-[(3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)methyl]-4-methylphenol (Antioxidant 2246) showed a half-life 12 times lower when incorporated in LDPE as compared to squalane. As a model for dermal exposure of consumers, human skin was brought into contact with the tailor-made LDPE containing additives ex vivo in static Franz diffusion cells. The skin was then analyzed for additives and decomposition products. This study proved 10 polymer additives of diverse pysicochemical properties and functionalities to migrate out of the polymer and eventually overcome the intact human skin barrier during contact. Moreover, their individual distribution within

  16. Exposure to multiple chemicals in a cohort of reproductive-aged Danish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosofsky, Anna; Janulewicz, Patricia; Thayer, Kristina A; McClean, Michael; Wise, Lauren A; Calafat, Antonia M; Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Taylor, Kyla W; Hatch, Elizabeth E

    2017-04-01

    Current exposure assessment research does not sufficiently address multi-pollutant exposure and their correlations in human media. Understanding the extent of chemical exposure in reproductive-aged women is of particular concern due to the potential for in utero exposure and fetal susceptibility. The objectives of this study were to characterize concentrations of chemical biomarkers during preconception and examine correlations between and within chemical classes. We examined concentrations of 135 biomarkers from 16 chemical classes in blood and urine from 73 women aged 18-40 enrolled in Snart Foraeldre/Milieu, a prospective cohort study of pregnancy planners in Denmark (2011-2014). We compared biomarker concentrations with United States similarly-aged, non-pregnant women who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Environmental Survey (NHANES) and with other international biomonitoring studies. We performed principal component analysis to examine biomarker correlations. The mean number of biomarkers detected in the population was 92 (range: 60-108). The most commonly detected chemical classes were phthalates, metals, phytoestrogens and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Except blood mercury, urinary barium and enterolactone, geometric means were higher in women from NHANES. Chemical classes measured in urine generally did not load on a single component, suggesting high between-class correlation among urinary biomarkers, while there is high within-class correlation for biomarkers measured in serum and blood. We identified ubiquitous exposure to multiple chemical classes in reproductive-aged Danish women, supporting the need for more research on chemical mixtures during preconception and early pregnancy. Inter- and intra-class correlation between measured biomarkers may reflect common exposure sources, specific lifestyle factors or shared metabolism pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The chemical exposure toxicity space (CETS) model: Displaying exposure time, aqueous and organic concentration, activity, and onset of toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Donald; Celsie, Alena K D; Parnis, J Mark; McCarty, Lynn S; Arnot, Jon A; Powell, David E

    2017-05-01

    A 1-compartment toxicokinetic model is used to characterize the chemical exposure toxicity space (CETS), providing a novel graphic tool that can aid in the design of aquatic toxicity tests for fish and for interpreting their results. The graph depicts the solution to the differential equation describing the uptake kinetics of a chemical by a modeled fish under conventional bioassay conditions. The model relates the exposure concentration in the water to a dimensionless time and the onset of toxicity as determined by an estimated or assumed critical body residue or incipient lethal aqueous concentration. These concentration graphs are specific to each chemical and exposure and organism parameters and clearly demonstrate differences in toxicity between chemicals and how factors such as hydrophobicity influence the toxic endpoint. The CETS plots can also be used to assess bioconcentration test conditions to ensure that concentrations are well below toxic levels. Illustrative applications are presented using a recent set of high-quality toxicity data. Conversion of concentrations to chemical activities in the plots enables results for different baseline toxicants to be superimposed. For chemicals that have different modes of toxic action, the increased toxicity then becomes apparent. Implications for design and interpretation of aquatic toxicity tests are discussed. The model, and pictorial visualization of the time-course of aquatic toxicity tests, may contribute to improvements in test design, implementation, and interpretation, and to reduced animal usage. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1389-1396. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  18. Rules and recent trends for setting health-based occupational exposure limits for chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Skowroń

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The working environment is the special case of the non-natural environment created by man in which the increased production activity brings about the concentration of stimulators particularly aggressive to the human organism, such as chemical hazards, noise, vibration, extreme temperatures, and finally, intensified psychological and emotional stress. Depending on the nature and intensity, working environment factors have been classified into dangerous, harmful and annoying. The workers are more and more frequently exposed to dangerous chemicals in the working environment. The chemicals cause many diseases including, in the 1st place, respiratory insufficiency, inflammatory skin conditions, psychoneurological disorders and neoplastic diseases. Occupational exposure limit values (OELs, the main criteria for occupational exposure assessment, constitute an important factor for the safe use of chemicals in the working environment. In Poland, to date there are 524 chemical substances and 19 dusts for which maximum admissible concentrations (MAC have been established.

  19. Carpet-dust chemicals as measures of exposure: Implications of variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitehead Todd P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in using chemicals measured in carpet dust as indicators of chemical exposures. However, investigators have rarely sampled dust repeatedly from the same households and therefore little is known about the variability of chemical levels that exist within and between households in dust samples. Results We analyzed 9 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 6 polychlorinated biphenyls, and nicotine in 68 carpet-dust samples from 21 households in agricultural communities of Fresno County, California collected from 2003-2005. Chemical concentrations (ng per g dust ranged from Conclusions Our findings suggest that attenuation bias should be relatively modest when using these semi-volatile carpet-dust chemicals as exposure surrogates in epidemiologic studies.

  20. Co-Exposure with Fullerene May Strengthen Health Effects of Organic Industrial Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Róg, Tomasz; Cramariuc, Oana; Vanhala, Esa; Tornaeus, Jarkko; Taberman, Helena; Jänis, Janne; Alenius, Harri; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Laine, Olli

    2014-01-01

    In vitro toxicological studies together with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations show that occupational co-exposure with C60 fullerene may strengthen the health effects of organic industrial chemicals. The chemicals studied are acetophenone, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, m-cresol, and toluene which can be used with fullerene as reagents or solvents in industrial processes. Potential co-exposure scenarios include a fullerene dust and organic chemical vapor, or a fullerene solution aerosolized in workplace air. Unfiltered and filtered mixtures of C60 and organic chemicals represent different co-exposure scenarios in in vitro studies where acute cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of C60 and organic chemicals are tested together and alone by using human THP-1-derived macrophages. Statistically significant co-effects are observed for an unfiltered mixture of benzaldehyde and C60 that is more cytotoxic than benzaldehyde alone, and for a filtered mixture of m-cresol and C60 that is slightly less cytotoxic than m-cresol. Hydrophobicity of chemicals correlates with co-effects when secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α is considered. Complementary atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveal that C60 co-aggregates with all chemicals in aqueous environment. Stable aggregates have a fullerene-rich core and a chemical-rich surface layer, and while essentially all C60 molecules aggregate together, a portion of organic molecules remains in water. PMID:25473947

  1. Co-exposure with fullerene may strengthen health effects of organic industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Maili; Karilainen, Topi; Róg, Tomasz; Cramariuc, Oana; Vanhala, Esa; Tornaeus, Jarkko; Taberman, Helena; Jänis, Janne; Alenius, Harri; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Laine, Olli

    2014-01-01

    In vitro toxicological studies together with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations show that occupational co-exposure with C60 fullerene may strengthen the health effects of organic industrial chemicals. The chemicals studied are acetophenone, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, m-cresol, and toluene which can be used with fullerene as reagents or solvents in industrial processes. Potential co-exposure scenarios include a fullerene dust and organic chemical vapor, or a fullerene solution aerosolized in workplace air. Unfiltered and filtered mixtures of C60 and organic chemicals represent different co-exposure scenarios in in vitro studies where acute cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of C60 and organic chemicals are tested together and alone by using human THP-1-derived macrophages. Statistically significant co-effects are observed for an unfiltered mixture of benzaldehyde and C60 that is more cytotoxic than benzaldehyde alone, and for a filtered mixture of m-cresol and C60 that is slightly less cytotoxic than m-cresol. Hydrophobicity of chemicals correlates with co-effects when secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α is considered. Complementary atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveal that C60 co-aggregates with all chemicals in aqueous environment. Stable aggregates have a fullerene-rich core and a chemical-rich surface layer, and while essentially all C60 molecules aggregate together, a portion of organic molecules remains in water.

  2. Co-exposure with fullerene may strengthen health effects of organic industrial chemicals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maili Lehto

    Full Text Available In vitro toxicological studies together with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations show that occupational co-exposure with C60 fullerene may strengthen the health effects of organic industrial chemicals. The chemicals studied are acetophenone, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, m-cresol, and toluene which can be used with fullerene as reagents or solvents in industrial processes. Potential co-exposure scenarios include a fullerene dust and organic chemical vapor, or a fullerene solution aerosolized in workplace air. Unfiltered and filtered mixtures of C60 and organic chemicals represent different co-exposure scenarios in in vitro studies where acute cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of C60 and organic chemicals are tested together and alone by using human THP-1-derived macrophages. Statistically significant co-effects are observed for an unfiltered mixture of benzaldehyde and C60 that is more cytotoxic than benzaldehyde alone, and for a filtered mixture of m-cresol and C60 that is slightly less cytotoxic than m-cresol. Hydrophobicity of chemicals correlates with co-effects when secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α is considered. Complementary atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveal that C60 co-aggregates with all chemicals in aqueous environment. Stable aggregates have a fullerene-rich core and a chemical-rich surface layer, and while essentially all C60 molecules aggregate together, a portion of organic molecules remains in water.

  3. Knowledge of Occupational Chemical Exposure and Smoking Behavior in Korean Immigrant Drycleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Dal Lae; Duffy, Sonia A; Hong, OiSaeng

    2016-02-01

    To examine the association between knowledge of chemical exposure at work and cigarette smoking among Korean immigrant drycleaners. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a total of 151 Korean immigrant drycleaners (mean age = 49 years, 64 % male) from 96 drycleaning shops in a Midwestern state. The data were collected on demographic and work-related characteristics, knowledge of occupational chemical exposure, health concerns associated with chemical exposure, and smoking status. Approximately 25 % of participants were current smokers. The multivariate regression showed that greater knowledge of occupational chemical exposures was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of current smoking [odds ratio (OR) .63; 95 % confidence interval (CI) .41-.95]. Furthermore, male gender (OR 6.32; 95 % CI 1.66-24.00), shorter-term residence in the US (OR .93; 95 % CI .88-.98), and having multiple duties (OR 2.76; 95 % CI 1.01-7.51) were important covariates associated with current smoking among Korean immigrant drycleaners. Knowledge on occupational chemical exposure was significantly associated with smoking among Korean immigrant drycleaners. Smoking cessation programs for this population should consider integrated approaches that incorporate work environment factors into individual and sociocultural components.

  4. Applicability of concentrations obtained by working environment measurement to assessment of personal exposure concentrations of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinobu; Natsumeda, Shuichiro; Hara, Kunio; Yoshida, Satoru; Sakurai, Haruhiko; Ichiba, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the applicability of Japanese working environment measurements to assessment of personal exposure concentrations of chemicals by comparing both levels of concentrations. The chemicals measured in this study comprised eight kinds of vaporous chemicals as well as two kinds of chemicals in dust. Personal exposure measurements, Japanese working environment measurements and spot sampling measurements were undertaken in 70 companies. Personal exposure concentrations and the arithmetic mean value (EA2) of the working environment measurement concentrations obtained according to the Japanese working environment control system had statistically positive correlations (r=0.732-0.893, pworking environment control system, which is almost the same as the spot measurement concentration in this study, is supposed to be substituted for the EA2 value. Ten times the EA2 of the working environment measurement concentrations, or ten times the B-value, obtained according to the Japanese working environment control system can be used to conservatively estimate the personal exposure concentrations in EU workplaces as well as in occupational exposure scenarios of the Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals.

  5. On exponentiation and multiplication of n-ary hyperalgebras

    OpenAIRE

    Chaisansuk, Nitima

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, a new operation of product of n-ary hyperalgebras is intro- duced and studied which lies between their direct product and the direct product of their idempotent hulls. With respect to the product introduced, we give sufficient conditions for the validity of the first exponential law and a weak form of the second exponential law for a natural exponentiation of n-ary hyperalgebras.

  6. Weak n-Ary Relational Products in Allegories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Zieliński

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Allegories are enriched categories generalizing a category of sets and binary relations. Accordingly, relational products in an allegory can be viewed as a generalization of Cartesian products. There are several definitions of relational products currently in the literature. Interestingly, definitions for binary products do not generalize easily to n-ary ones. In this paper, we provide a new definition of an n-ary relational product, and we examine its properties.

  7. Occupational exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the risk of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Thomas; Lynge, Elsebeth; Cree, Ian

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between occupational exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) and the risk of uveal melanoma using international data of a case-control study from nine European countries. METHODS: After exclusion of proxy interviews, 280 cases and 3084 control......-disrupting agents. We constructed several exposure scores, taking into account intensity of exposure, use of personal protective equipment, and exposure duration. We calculated unconditional logistic regression analyses, adjusting for country, age, sex, eye color and a history of ocular damage due to intense...... ultraviolet (UV) exposure. RESULTS: The overall exposure prevalence to EDC was low reaching a maximum of 11% for heavy metals with endocrine-disrupting properties. Although working in some industries was associated with increased melanoma risk [such as dry cleaning: odds ratio (OR) 6.15, 95% confidence...

  8. Functional status of liverin conditions of radiation and chemical exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Severynovs’ka

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic influences of low-intensity X-rays in doses of 0.15 and 0.25 Gr and mix of heavy metals salts in a dose of 2 EPC (extreme permissible concentrations for each metal, as a single factor or as a combination of factors, on the state of pro-/antioxidative system in a rat liver have been studied. Analysis of the data concerning combined influences allows to conclude that effects under these doses have some differences: a splash of processes of lipid peroxidation are observed in both causes, but under the lower dose an additivity takes place, and under the dose of 0.25 Gr a synergism of the agent effects in relation to the development of peroxidative reactions is registered. The results testify that technogenic contamination of water with heavy metals worsens the action of radiation factor, specifically, eliminates a hormetic splash of antioxidative activity at 0.15 Gr. Biochemical indexes of the liver activity, as a central organ of a general metabolism, and a structure of morbidity have been studied in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident from industrial Prydnieprovie region. Disturbances of liver functions have been shown, especially in persons obtained the exposure dose about 0.25 Gr. A comparison of these results and data of tests with laboratory animals reveals their mutual accordance and supports a relevancy of extrapolation of data of model experiments on a person health state, which undergone a similar influence.

  9. Autoantibodies associated with prenatal and childhood exposure to environmental chemicals in faroese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osuna, Christa E; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pál

    2014-01-01

    been exposed to environmental chemicals. Both prenatal and age-7 exposures to mercury, PCBs, and PFCs were measured in 38 children in the Faroe Islands who were exposed to widely different levels of these chemicals due to their seafood-based diet. Concentrations of IgM and IgG autoantibodies specific...... of autoantibodies. However, it is not known if autoantibodies similarly will be generated and detectable in humans following toxicant exposures. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study to investigate if autoantibodies specific for neural and non-neural antigens could be detected in children at age 7 years who have...... to both neural (neurofilaments, cholineacetyltransferase, astrocyte glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein) and non-neural (actin, desmin, and keratin) antigens were measured and the associations of these autoantibody concentrations with chemical exposures were assessed using linear...

  10. Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Govarts

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced gender specific effects. In girls, the effect estimate was doubled with co-exposure of thallium, PFOS, lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury, while in boys, the mixture of MECPP with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures.

  11. Exposure of Unwounded Plants to Chemical Cues Associated with Herbivores Leads to Exposure-Dependent Changes in Subsequent Herbivore Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrock, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Although chemical predator cues often lead to changes in the anti-predator behavior of animal prey, it is not clear whether non-volatile herbivore kairomones (i.e. incidental chemical cues produced by herbivore movement or metabolism but not produced by an attack) trigger the induction of defense in plants prior to attack. I found that unwounded plants (Brassica nigra) that were regularly exposed to kairomones from snails (mucus and feces produced during movement of Helix aspersa) subsequently experienced reduced rates of attack by snails, unlike unwounded plants that received only one initial early exposure to snail kairomones. A follow-up experiment found that mucus alone did not affect snail feeding on previously harvested B. oleracea leaves, suggesting that changes in herbivory on B. nigra were due to changes in plant quality. The finding that chemicals associated with herbivores leads to changes in palatability of unwounded plants suggests that plants eavesdrop on components of non-volatile kairomones of their snail herbivores. Moreover, this work shows that the nature of plant exposure matters, supporting the conclusion that plants that have not been attacked or wounded nonetheless tailor their use of defenses based on incidental chemical information associated with herbivores and the timing with which cues of potential attack are encountered. PMID:24278210

  12. Exposure of unwounded plants to chemical cues associated with herbivores leads to exposure-dependent changes in subsequent herbivore attack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Orrock

    Full Text Available Although chemical predator cues often lead to changes in the anti-predator behavior of animal prey, it is not clear whether non-volatile herbivore kairomones (i.e. incidental chemical cues produced by herbivore movement or metabolism but not produced by an attack trigger the induction of defense in plants prior to attack. I found that unwounded plants (Brassica nigra that were regularly exposed to kairomones from snails (mucus and feces produced during movement of Helix aspersa subsequently experienced reduced rates of attack by snails, unlike unwounded plants that received only one initial early exposure to snail kairomones. A follow-up experiment found that mucus alone did not affect snail feeding on previously harvested B. oleracea leaves, suggesting that changes in herbivory on B. nigra were due to changes in plant quality. The finding that chemicals associated with herbivores leads to changes in palatability of unwounded plants suggests that plants eavesdrop on components of non-volatile kairomones of their snail herbivores. Moreover, this work shows that the nature of plant exposure matters, supporting the conclusion that plants that have not been attacked or wounded nonetheless tailor their use of defenses based on incidental chemical information associated with herbivores and the timing with which cues of potential attack are encountered.

  13. Prenatal exposures to perfluorinated chemicals and anthropometric measures in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Camilla Schou; Fei, Chunyuan; Gamborg, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are persistent chemicals that may affect growth early in life. The authors estimated the associations between maternal plasma levels of PFOS and PFOA and infants' weight, length, and body mass index development during the first year....... Multiple linear regression models were used for analyses, and maternal PFOS and PFOA concentrations (ng/mL) were inversely related to children's weight in the first year of life: adjusted regression coefficients: -1.1 g (95% confidence interval (CI): -4.6, 2.3) at 5 months and -5.8 g (95% CI: -10.4, -1.......2) at 12 months for PFOS; -10.6 g (95% CI: -30.2, 8.9) at 5 months and -19.7 g (95% CI: -45.9, 6.5) at 12 months for PFOA. A similar pattern was observed for body mass index measurements, and no associations with length were found. After sex stratification, the inverse associations with weight and body...

  14. Aquatic exposures of chemical mixtures in urban environments: Approaches to impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zwart, Dick; Adams, William; Galay Burgos, Malyka; Hollender, Juliane; Junghans, Marion; Merrington, Graham; Muir, Derek; Parkerton, Thomas; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C; Whale, Graham; Williams, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Urban regions of the world are expanding rapidly, placing additional stress on water resources. Urban water bodies serve many purposes, from washing and sources of drinking water to transport and conduits for storm drainage and effluent discharge. These water bodies receive chemical emissions arising from either single or multiple point sources, diffuse sources which can be continuous, intermittent, or seasonal. Thus, aquatic organisms in these water bodies are exposed to temporally and compositionally variable mixtures. We have delineated source-specific signatures of these mixtures for diffuse urban runoff and urban point source exposure scenarios to support risk assessment and management of these mixtures. The first step in a tiered approach to assessing chemical exposure has been developed based on the event mean concentration concept, with chemical concentrations in runoff defined by volumes of water leaving each surface and the chemical exposure mixture profiles for different urban scenarios. Although generalizations can be made about the chemical composition of urban sources and event mean exposure predictions for initial prioritization, such modeling needs to be complemented with biological monitoring data. It is highly unlikely that the current paradigm of routine regulatory chemical monitoring alone will provide a realistic appraisal of urban aquatic chemical mixture exposures. Future consideration is also needed of the role of nonchemical stressors in such highly modified urban water bodies. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;9999:1-12. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  15. Incorporating Health Impacts from Exposure to Chemicals in Food Packaging in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Trier, Xenia; Jolliet, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Life cycle assessments (LCA) on the environmental and public health impacts of food and beverage packaging materials have found some advantages to plastic over glass. Entirely missing from these evaluations are the health impacts of possible chemical, e.g. endocrine dis-ruptor, exposure through...... within the CPCAT database related to food-contact materials; out of these 107 are potential endocrine disruptors according to the TEDX list of endocrine disruptors. We also build a framework in an effort to begin harmonizing LCA to include health impacts of chemical exposure related to food packaging...

  16. Co-Exposure with Fullerene May Strengthen Health Effects of Organic Industrial Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehto, M.; Karilainen, T.; Rog, T.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro toxicological studies together with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations show that occupational co-exposure with C-60 fullerene may strengthen the health effects of organic industrial chemicals. The chemicals studied are acetophenone, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, m-cresol, and toluene...... co-exposure scenarios in in vitro studies where acute cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of C-60 and organic chemicals are tested together and alone by using human THP-1-derived macrophages. Statistically significant co-effects are observed for an unfiltered mixture of benzaldehyde and C-60 that is more...... cytotoxic than benzaldehyde alone, and for a filtered mixture of m-cresol and C-60 that is slightly less cytotoxic than m-cresol. Hydrophobicity of chemicals correlates with co-effects when secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha is considered. Complementary atomistic molecular...

  17. Improved exposure estimation in soil screening and cleanup criteria for volatile organic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVaull, George E

    2017-09-01

    Soil cleanup criteria define acceptable concentrations of organic chemical constituents for exposed humans. These criteria sum the estimated soil exposure over multiple pathways. Assumptions for ingestion, dermal contact, and dust exposure generally presume a chemical persists in surface soils at a constant concentration level for the entire exposure duration. For volatile chemicals, this is an unrealistic assumption. A calculation method is presented for surficial soil criteria that include volatile depletion of chemical for these uptake pathways. The depletion estimates compare favorably with measured concentration profiles and with field measurements of soil concentration. Corresponding volatilization estimates compare favorably with measured data for a wide range of volatile and semivolatile chemicals, including instances with and without the presence of a mixed-chemical residual phase. Selected examples show application of the revised factors in estimating screening levels for benzene in surficial soils. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:861-869. © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  18. Physics Design for ARIES-CS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.P. Ku, P.R. Garabedian, J. Lyon, A. Turnbull, A. Grossman, T.K. Mau, M. Zarnstorff, and the ARIES Team

    2007-10-10

    Novel stellarator configurations have been developed for ARIES-CS. These configurations are optimized to provide good plasma confinement and flux surface integrity at high beta. Modular coils have been designed for them in which the space needed for the breeding blanket and radiation shielding was specifically targeted such that reactors generating GW electrical powers would require only moderate major radii (<10 m). These configurations are quasi-axially symmetric in the magnetic field topology and have small number of field periods (≤3) and low aspect ratios (≤6). The baseline design chosen for detailed systems and power plant studies has 3 field periods, aspect ratio 4.5 and major radius 7.5 m operating at β~6.5% to yield 1 GW electric power. The shaping of the plasma accounts for ≥75% of the rotational transform. The effective helical ripples are very small (< 0.6% everywhere) and the energy loss of alpha particles is calculated to be ≤5% when operating in high density regimes. An interesting feature in this configuration is that instead of minimizing all residues in the magnetic spectrum, we preferentially retained a small amount of the non-axisymmetric mirror field. The presence of this mirror and its associated helical field alters the ripple distribution, resulting in the reduced ripple-trapped loss of alpha particles despite the long connection length in a tokamak-like field structure. Additionally, we discuss two other potentially attractive classes of configurations, both quasi-axisymmetric: one with only two field periods, very low aspect ratios (~2.5), and less complex coils, and the other with the plasma shaping designed to produce low shear rotational transform so as to assure the robustness and integrity of flux surfaces when operating at high β.

  19. Exposures recorded for participants in the UK Chemical Warfare Agent Human Research Programme, 1941-1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, T J; Walker, S A S; Brooks, C; Langdon, T; Linsell, L; Maconochie, N E S; Doyle, P; Fletcher, T; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J; Carpenter, L M; Venables, K M

    2009-01-01

    This study describes exposures to military veterans who participated between 1941 and 1989 in British research at Porton Down on the effects of exposure to chemical warfare agents and to defences against those agents. The study is part of a programme of epidemiological research initiated in response to service veterans' concerns about possible long-term health effects of their participation. All entries in 97 books held in the Porton Down historical experimental archive covering the years 1939-1989 were reviewed. For tests between April 1941 and December 1989, data were abstracted on chemicals used, with additional detail abstracted for tests involving vesicants and nerve agents. For tests recorded during 1939-1941, similar data were abstracted for a representative sample of tests. Historical data were abstracted for 17 303 veterans included in the cohort study of 18,276 servicemen who took part in tests at Porton Down between 1941 and 1989. The median number of days per veteran on which tests were carried out was 2 days. The median difference between the last and first day of testing was 4 days. A large number of chemicals were tested over this period (n = 492). The type of chemical tested varied over time. Exposures were often modified by respirator use or use of protective clothing or protective equipment. It was possible to assign a quantitative measure of cumulative exposure to 73% of veterans exposed to the vesicant sulphur mustard--3491 (34%) of exposed veterans had cumulative exposures > or =10.63 mg and for 70% of veterans exposed to the nerve agent sarin--658 (29%) of exposed veterans had cumulative exposures > or =15.0 mg min m(-3). Ninety-three per cent of veterans exposed to sulphur mustard were classified to a semi-quantitative scale of dermal effect--3771 (37%) had a vesicle or necrosed area, and 69% of veterans exposed to sarin could be categorized by change in blood cholinesterase activity--1033 (31%) had a depression in cholinesterase activity of

  20. [Development of a model diets for consumers with high exposure to food chemicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Ai-dong; Liu, Zhao-ping; Yang, Da-jin

    2013-06-01

    To develop and verify a model diet for consumers with high exposure to food chemicals. Based on the assumption that a person might consume average amounts of several different foods but only two or three at high levels, a model diet were put forward to calculate the high exposures to certain food chemical.Important parameters of this model were selected by comparing the outputs of this model with those of a reference model-semi-probabilistic model that is based on individual data. The concentration data of lead, cadmium and mercury (45 832, 43 862 and 25 243 samples respectively) from the national risk surveillance for chemical contaminations and harmful factors (2011), and the consumption data from the national survey on nutrition and health status in Chinese population (2002) were used in this model optimization process. The final model was verified using concentration data of eight chemical contaminations from national surveillance database of 2010. When 90, 95 and 97.5 percentile exposure being calculated under the conditions that 7, 12, 20 and 30 food categories was used respectively, the model containing two high consumption foods (2+x model) got results lower than the reference values (the relative deviation foods (3+x model) got results higher than the reference values (the relative deviation > 0 ),but the relative deviation of the two models were both within 20%. The verification results showed that the dietary exposure results of 8 food contaminations got from 3+x model were all higher than and(or) close to those got from semi-probabilistic model, and the relative deviations were between -5% and 25%. The 3+x model diet can fulfill the demands of "conservative" and "accurate" on exposure assessment model, and can give reliable estimations of high exposure to food chemicals occurred in various food categories.

  1. Environmental Chemical Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkbrenner, Amy E.; Schmidt, Rebecca J.; Penlesky, Annie C.

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, the number of epidemiological publications addressing environmental chemical exposures and autism has grown tremendously. These studies are important because it is now understood that environmental factors play a larger role in causing autism than previously thought and because they address modifiable risk factors that may open up avenues for the primary prevention of the disability associated with autism. In this review, we covered studies of autism and estimates of exposure to tobacco, air pollutants, volatile organic compounds and solvents, metals (from air, occupation, diet, dental amalgams, and thimerosal-containing vaccines), pesticides, and organic endocrine-disrupting compounds such as flame retardants, non-stick chemicals, phthalates, and bisphenol A. We included studies that had individual-level data on autism, exposure measures pertaining to pregnancy or the 1st year of life, valid comparison groups, control for confounders, and adequate sample sizes. Despite the inherent error in the measurement of many of these environmental exposures, which is likely to attenuate observed associations, some environmental exposures showed associations with autism, especially traffic-related air pollutants, some metals, and several pesticides, with suggestive trends for some volatile organic compounds (e.g., methylene chloride, trichloroethylene, and styrene) and phthalates. Whether any of these play a causal role requires further study. Given the limited scope of these publications, other environmental chemicals cannot be ruled out, but have not yet been adequately studied. Future research that addresses these and additional environmental chemicals, including their most common routes of exposures, with accurate exposure measurement pertaining to several developmental windows, is essential to guide efforts for the prevention of the neurodevelopmental damage that manifests in autism symptoms. PMID:25199954

  2. Identification of Gene Expression Changes in Whole Blood Indicative of Exposure to Chemicals with Different Target Organ Toxicity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chan, Victor; Stapleton, Andrea; Soto, Armando; Yu, Kyung; DelRaso, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    .... Coupled with advanced bioinformatic techniques, it allows for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of chemical toxicity, as well as the identification of novel biomarkers predictive for chemical exposure...

  3. Exposure to chemicals and metals and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutedja, N.A.; Veldink, J.H.; Fischer, K.; Kromhout, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Heederik, D.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542; Huisman, M.H.B.; Wokke, J.H.J.; van den Berg, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental exposure to chemicals and metals may contribute to the risk of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Two systematic reviews of the literature on these topics performed according to the well-established MOOSE guidelines are presented. Literature cited in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL,

  4. Phthalate exposure through food and consumers' risk perception of chemicals in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Spillmann, Maria; Siegrist, Michael; Keller, Carmen; Wormuth, Matthias

    2009-08-01

    Phthalates have been detected in various types of retail foods. Consumers' exposure to phthalates is common. Consumers are concerned about chemicals in food. Our aim was to investigate the relationships between consumers' exposure to phthalates through food, consumers' interest in a natural and healthy diet, risk perception of food chemicals, and consumers' diet patterns. We collected data through a mail survey in the adult Swiss-German population (N = 1,200). We modeled exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) based on a food frequency questionnaire and phthalate concentrations reported from food surveys. Using rating scales, we assessed risk perceptions of chemicals in food and interest in a natural and healthy diet. Higher risk perceptions and higher natural and healthy diet interest were associated with higher daily doses of DEHP, BBP, and DEP. No health risk from phthalates in food was identified for the vast majority of the population. Four consumers' diet clusters were discerned, with differences in phthalate exposure, risk perceptions, and interest in a natural and healthy diet. This study shows that even those consumers who express strong interest in natural food and low acceptance of food chemicals, and who try to make respective food choices, are exposed to contaminants such as phthalates.

  5. Obesity, Diabetes, and Associated Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legler, J.; Fletcher, T.; Govarts, E.; Porta, M.; Blumberg, B.; Heindel, J.J.; Trasande, L.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Obesityanddiabetes are epidemic in the European Union(EU). Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is increasingly recognized as a contributor, independent of diet and physical activity. Objective: The objective was to estimate obesity, diabetes, and associated costs that can be

  6. Developing, Applying, and Evaluating Models for Rapid Screening of Chemical Exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnot, J.; Shin, H.; Ernstoff, Alexi

    2015-01-01

    provides an introduction to underlying principles of some models used for exposure- and risk-based HTS for chemical prioritization for human health, including tools used in the ExpoDat project (USEtox, RAIDAR, CalTox) and other initiatives (SHEDS-HT). Case study examples of HTS include(i) model...

  7. Sacrifice zones: the front lines of toxic chemical exposure in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lerner, Steve

    2010-01-01

    ... States of America. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Lerner, Steve. Sacrifice zones: the front lines of toxic chemical exposure in the United States / Steve Lerner. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-262-01440-3 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Environmental toxicology- United States- Case studies. 2. Che...

  8. 75 FR 4402 - Notice of National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Leadership Council...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Notice of National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Leadership Council Conference Call Time and Date: 1 p.m.-3 p.m., Friday, January 29, 2010. Location: Teleconference. Statu...

  9. Estimating Burden and Disease Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trasande, L.; Zoeller, R.T.; Hass, U.; Kortenkamp, A.; Grandjean, P.; Peterson Myers, J.; Bellanger, M.; Hauser, R.; Legler, J.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Heindel, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Rapidly increasing evidence has documented that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute substantially to disease and disability. Objective: The objective was to quantify a range of health and economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposures in the European Union

  10. Development of the chemical exposure monitor with indoor positioning (CEMWIP) for workplace VOC surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K K; Shaw, P B; Mead, K R; Kovein, R J; Voorhees, R T; Brandes, A R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to research and develop a direct-reading exposure assessment method that combined a real-time location system with a wireless direct-reading personal chemical sensor. The personal chemical sensor was a photoionization device for detecting volatile organic compounds. The combined system was calibrated and tested against the same four standard gas concentrations and calibrated at one standard location and tested at four locations that included the standard locations. Data were wirelessly collected from the chemical sensor every 1.4 sec, for volatile organic compounds concentration, location, temperature, humidity, and time. Regression analysis of the photo-ionization device voltage response against calibration gases showed the chemical sensor had a limit of detection of 0.2 ppm. The real-time location system was accurate to 13 cm ± 6 cm (standard deviation) in an open area and to 57 cm ± 31 cm in a closed room where the radio frequency has to penetrate drywall-finished walls. The streaming data were collected and graphically displayed as a three-dimensional hazard map for assessment of peak exposure with location. A real-time personal exposure assessment device with indoor positioning was practical and provided new knowledge on direct reading exposure assessment methods.

  11. Pollution Comes Home and Gets Personal: Women's Experience of Household Chemical Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Rebecca Gasior; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann; Brown, Phil; Averick, Mara

    2008-01-01

    We report on interviews conducted with participants in a novel study about environmental chemicals in body fluids and household air and dust. Interviews reveal how personal and collective environmental history influence the interpretation of exposure data, and how participants fashion an emergent understanding of environmental health problems from…

  12. High-Throughput Dietary Exposure Predictions for Chemical Migrants from Food Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Environmental Protection Agency researchers have developed a Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation High -Throughput (SHEDS-HT) model for use in prioritization of chemicals under the ExpoCast program. In this research, new methods were implemented in SHEDS-HT...

  13. Influence of chemical inhibitors on cell recovery after exposure to different LET radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evstratova, Ekaterina S.; Petin, Vladislav G. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Kim, Jin Kyu; KIm, Jin Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Chemical radiosensitizers are often used to increase cell radiosensitivity. It is known that the ability of chemical drugs to increase cell radiosensitivity is related with inhibition of cell recovery from damage induced by ionizing radiation. However, there are little comparative investigations of cell sensitivity modification after exposure to radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET). Therefore, we studied the anticancer drugs cisplatin and endoxan and their impact on the ability of yeast cells to recover after cell exposure to radiations with different LET. The ability of cell recovery from radiation damage was less effective after exposure to high-LET radiation, when cells were irradiated without drug, with the increase in cisplatin concentration resulting in the disappearance of this difference. The increase of cisplatin concentration results in progressive increase in the fraction of irreversible damage independently of radiation quality.

  14. The epidemiologic evidence linking prenatal and postnatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals with male reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Rimborg, Susie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More than 20 years ago, it was hypothesized that exposure to prenatal and early postnatal environmental xenobiotics with the potential to disrupt endogenous hormone signaling might be on the causal path to cryptorchidism, hypospadias, low sperm count and testicular cancer. Several...... was to systematically synthesize published data on the risk of cryptorchidism, hypospadias, low sperm counts and testicular cancer following in utero or infant exposure to chemicals that have been included on the European Commission's list of Category 1 endocrine disrupting chemicals defined as having documented...... and exposures documented by biochemical analyses of biospecimens including maternal blood or urine, placenta or fat tissue as well as amnion fluid, cord blood or breast milk; this was followed by meta-analysis of quantitative data. OUTCOMES: The literature search resulted in 1314 references among which we...

  15. From exposure to effect: a comparison of modeling approaches to chemical carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, I M; Zonneveld, C

    2001-10-01

    Standardized long-term carcinogenicity tests aim to reveal the relationship between exposure to a chemical and occurrence of a carcinogenic response. The analysis of such tests may be facilitated by the use of mathematical models. To what extent current models actually achieve this purpose is difficult to evaluate. Various aspects of chemically induced carcinogenesis are treated by different modeling approaches, which proceed very much in isolation of each other. With this paper we aim to provide for the non-mathematician a comprehensive and critical overview of models dealing with processes involved in chemical carcinogenesis. We cover the entire process of carcinogenesis, from exposure to effect. We succinctly summarize the biology underlying the models and emphasize the relationship between model assumptions and model formulations. The use of mathematics is restricted as far as possible with some additional information relegated to boxes.

  16. Uncertainty and variability in the exposure reconstruction of chemical incidents--the case of acrylonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizer, Daan; Ragas, Ad M J; Oldenkamp, Rik; van Rooij, Joost G M; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2014-12-15

    The application of human physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling combined with measured biomonitoring data, has a great potential to backtrack external exposure to chemicals during chemical incidents. So far, an important shortcoming of 'reversed dosimetry' is that uncertainty and variability in the model predictions are often neglected. The aim of this paper is to characterize the variation in predicted environmental air concentrations by means of reversed dosimetry as a result of uncertainty in chemical-specific input data and variability in physiological parameters. Human biomonitoring data (N-2-cyanoethylvaline in blood) from a chemical incident with acrylonitrile (ACN) combined with the BioNormtox PBPK model are used as a case to reconstruct the air concentration and uncertainty thereof at the time of the incident. The influence of uncertainty in chemical-specific properties and exposure duration, and interindividual variability in physiological parameters on the reconstructed air exposure concentrations were quantified via nested Monte Carlo simulation. The range in the reconstructed air concentrations of ACN during the incident was within a factor of 3. Uncertainty in the exact exposure duration directly after the chemical accident was found to have a dominant influence on the model outcomes. It was also shown that uncertainty can be further reduced by collecting human biomonitoring data as soon as possible after the incident. Finally, the collection of specific information about individual physiological parameters from the victims, such as body weight, may further reduce the variation by 5 to 20% in our case study. Future research should include the comparison of reversed dosimetry model outcomes with measured air and biological concentrations to further increase the confidence in the model approach and its implementation in practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Indoor Residential Chemical Exposures as Risk Factors for Asthmaand Allergy in Infants and Children: a Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, M.J.

    2006-03-01

    Most research into effects of residential indoor air exposures on asthma and allergies has focused on exposures to biologic allergens, moisture and mold, endotoxin, or combustion byproducts. This paper briefly reviews reported findings on associations of asthma or allergy in infants or children with risk factors related to indoor chemical emissions from residential materials or surface coatings. Associations, some strong (e.g., odds ratios up to 13), were reported. The most frequently identified risk factors were formaldehyde, aromatic organic compounds such as toluene and benzene, plastic materials and plasticizers, and recent painting. Exposures and consequent effects from indoor sources may be exacerbated by decreased ventilation. Identified risk factors may be proxies for correlated exposures. Findings suggest the frequent occurrence of important but preventable effects on asthma and allergy in infants and children worldwide from modern residential building materials and coatings.

  18. Significant chemical burns associated with dermal exposure to laundry pod detergent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jason L; Wiles, Devin A; Kenney, Brian; Spiller, Henry A

    2014-09-01

    Concentrated laundry pods have been reported to cause significant clinical effects including oropharyngeal burns and respiratory distress requiring intubation. Dermal burns have been reported, but no incidents of serious isolated dermal injury have been published. We report a case of significant, isolated dermal injury as a result of dermal exposure to a concentrated laundry detergent pod. Total body surface area partial thickness burns in this case were estimated at approximately 2 % with an additional 4-5 % of total body surface area (TBSA) displaying superficial burns/chemical dermatitis. Health-care providers should be aware of this complication and should perform thorough dermal decontamination in the event of an exposure. Parents should be educated regarding the dangers associated with dermal exposure to laundry pod compounds and the need to secure these items away from children as well as proper decontamination techniques should an exposure occur.

  19. A quantitative screening-level approach to incorporate chemical exposure and risk into alternative assessment evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Scott M; Greggs, Bill; Goyak, Katy O; Landenberger, Bryce D; Mason, Ann M; Howard, Brett; Zaleski, Rosemary T

    2017-11-01

    As the general public and retailers ask for disclosure of chemical ingredients in the marketplace, a number of hazard screening tools were developed to evaluate the so-called "greenness" of individual chemical ingredients and/or formulations. The majority of these tools focus only on hazard, often using chemical lists, ignoring the other part of the risk equation: exposure. Using a hazard-only focus can result in regrettable substitutions, changing 1 chemical ingredient for another that turns out to be more hazardous or shifts the toxicity burden to others. To minimize the incidents of regrettable substitutions, BizNGO describes "Common Principles" to frame a process for informed substitution. Two of these 6 principles are: "reduce hazard" and "minimize exposure." A number of frameworks have emerged to evaluate and assess alternatives. One framework developed by leading experts under the auspices of the US National Academy of Sciences recommended that hazard and exposure be specifically addressed in the same step when assessing candidate alternatives. For the alternative assessment community, this article serves as an informational resource for considering exposure in an alternatives assessment using elements of problem formulation; product identity, use, and composition; hazard analysis; exposure analysis; and risk characterization. These conceptual elements build on practices from government, academia, and industry and are exemplified through 2 hypothetical case studies demonstrating the questions asked and decisions faced in new product development. These 2 case studies-inhalation exposure to a generic paint product and environmental exposure to a shampoo rinsed down the drain-demonstrate the criteria, considerations, and methods required to combine exposure models addressing human health and environmental impacts to provide a screening level hazard and exposure (risk) analysis. This article informs practices for these elements within a comparative risk context

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of domestic sheep, Ovis aries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-di; Gao, Li-zhi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report a complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of the Texel ewe, Ovis aries. The total genome is 16,615 bp in length and its overall base composition was estimated to be 33.68% for A, 27.36% for T, 25.86% for C, and 13.10% for G indicating an AT-rich (61.04%) feature in the O. aries mtgenome. It contains a total of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a control region (D-loop region). Comparisons with other publicly available sheep mitogenomes revealed a bunch of nucleotide diversity. This complete mitgenome sequence would enlarge useful genomic information for further studies on sheep evolution and domestication that will enhance germplasm conservation and breeding programs of O. aries.

  1. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics opinion on reproductive health impacts of exposure to toxic environmental chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Conry, Jeanne A; Blake, Jennifer; DeFrancesco, Mark S; DeNicola, Nathaniel; Martin, James N; McCue, Kelly A; Richmond, David; Shah, Abid; Sutton, Patrice; Woodruff, Tracey J; van der Poel, Sheryl Ziemin; Giudice, Linda C

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to toxic environmental chemicals during pregnancy and breastfeeding is ubiquitous and is a threat to healthy human reproduction. There are tens of thousands of chemicals in global commerce, and even small exposures to toxic chemicals during pregnancy can trigger adverse health consequences. Exposure to toxic environmental chemicals and related health outcomes are inequitably distributed within and between countries; universally, the consequences of exposure are disproportionately borne by people with low incomes. Discrimination, other social factors, economic factors, and occupation impact risk of exposure and harm. Documented links between prenatal exposure to environmental chemicals and adverse health outcomes span the life course and include impacts on fertility and pregnancy, neurodevelopment, and cancer. The global health and economic burden related to toxic environmental chemicals is in excess of millions of deaths and billions of dollars every year. On the basis of accumulating robust evidence of exposures and adverse health impacts related to toxic environmental chemicals, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) joins other leading reproductive health professional societies in calling for timely action to prevent harm. FIGO recommends that reproductive and other health professionals advocate for policies to prevent exposure to toxic environmental chemicals, work to ensure a healthy food system for all, make environmental health part of health care, and champion environmental justice. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical and anatomical changes in Liquidambar styraciflua L.xylem after long term exposure to elevated CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keonhee Kim; Nicole Labbé; Jeffrey M. Warren; Thomas Elder; Timothy G. Rials

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical and chemical characteristics of sweetgum were studied after 11 years of elevated CO2(544 ppm, ambient at 391 ppm) exposure. Anatomically, branch xylem cells were larger for elevated CO2 trees, and the cell wall thickness was thinner. Chemically, elevated CO2 exposure did not...

  3. Taking Multiple Exposure Into Account Can Improve Assessment of Chemical Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Frédéric; Bertrand, Nicolas Jean Hyacinthe; La Rocca, Bénédicte

    2017-12-15

    During work, operators may be exposed to several chemicals simultaneously. Most exposure assessment approaches only determine exposure levels for each substance individually. However, such individual-substance approaches may not correctly estimate the toxicity of 'cocktails' of chemicals, as the toxicity of a cocktail may differ from the toxicity of substances on their own. This study presents an approach that can better take into account multiple exposure when assessing chemical risks. Almost 30000 work situations, monitored between 2005 and 2014 and recorded in two French databases, were analysed using MiXie software. The algorithms employed in MiXie can identify toxicological classes associated with several substances, based on the additivity of the selected effects of each substance. The results of our retrospective analysis show that MiXie was able to identify almost 20% more potentially hazardous situations than identified using a single-substance approach. It therefore appears essential to review the ways in which multiple exposure is taken into account during risk assessment. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  4. Varied exposure to carcinogenic, mutagenic, and reprotoxic (CMR) chemicals in occupational settings in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havet, Nathalie; Penot, Alexis; Morelle, Magali; Perrier, Lionel; Charbotel, Barbara; Fervers, Béatrice

    2017-02-01

    To explore varied exposure to carcinogenic, mutagenic, and reprotoxic chemicals (CMR) for French employees. Our study assessed data from the French national cross-sectional survey of occupational risks (SUMER) that was conducted in 2010 in a national representative sample of employees. We selected 28 CMR agents that were classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer or European Union as being known or presumed to have CMR potential in humans. The association of individual and job characteristics with exposure prevalence, duration, and intensity of the CMR agents during a 1-week period was examined using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Overall, 10.4% of employees in 2010 were exposed to one or more CMR agents at their workplace, and 3.4% were subjected to multiple CMR exposures. Blue-collar workers, night-shift workers and workers with short-term employment contracts experienced higher exposure prevalence (p agents (p < 0.001). The presence of a Committee for Health, Safety, and Working Conditions, and intervention by Occupational Health and Safety officers were significantly associated with reduced exposure intensities (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05). Establishment of European CMR regulations and the existence of an applicable substitution principle reduced the exposure duration (p < 0.001) and intensity (p < 0.05). Our results point out disparities in CMR exposure and identify high-priority targets for prevention measures to help reducing social health discrepancies.

  5. A single accidental exposure may result in a chemical burn, primary sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, L; Tarvainen, K; Pinola, A; Leino, T; Granlund, H; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Förström, L

    1994-10-01

    It is known from experimental studies that antigenic potency and the concentration of antigen determine whether exposure to an antigen will result in sensitization. A single accidental exposure to concentrated antigen may therefore induce primary sensitization. The purpose of this report was to collect clinical cases in which a single exposure had resulted in contact dermatitis suspected to be allergic. Only patients without previous relevant skin symptoms were included. Patch testing was used to demonstrate sensitization. 6 patients developed occupational allergic contact dermatitis from accidental exposure. Patch testing revealed allergy to diglycidylether of bisphenol A epoxy resin, polyfunctional aziridine hardener, methyl acrylate, phenol-formaldehyde resin, and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (Kathon LX), respectively. Furthermore, 2 patients developed allergic contact dermatitis from their first exposure to tear gas chemicals, namely omega-chloroacetophenone and ortho-chlorobenzylidene malonitrile. A single exposure can therefore induce both sensitization and subsequent allergic contact dermatitis without further exposure. The allergens described must be considered strong allergens. The skin should immediately be cleaned if an accidental splash with such an allergen has taken place.

  6. Can exposure to environmental chemicals increase the risk of diabetes type 1 development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Johanna; Stene, Lars Christian; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease, where destruction of beta-cells causes insulin deficiency. The incidence of T1DM has increased in the last decades and cannot entirely be explained by genetic predisposition. Several environmental factors are suggested to promote T1DM, like early childhood enteroviral infections and nutritional factors, but the evidence is inconclusive. Prenatal and early life exposure to environmental pollutants like phthalates, bisphenol A, perfluorinated compounds, PCBs, dioxins, toxicants, and air pollutants can have negative effects on the developing immune system, resulting in asthma-like symptoms and increased susceptibility to childhood infections. In this review the associations between environmental chemical exposure and T1DM development is summarized. Although information on environmental chemicals as possible triggers for T1DM is sparse, we conclude that it is plausible that environmental chemicals can contribute to T1DM development via impaired pancreatic beta-cell and immune-cell functions and immunomodulation. Several environmental factors and chemicals could act together to trigger T1DM development in genetically susceptible individuals, possibly via hormonal or epigenetic alterations. Further observational T1DM cohort studies and animal exposure experiments are encouraged.

  7. Can Exposure to Environmental Chemicals Increase the Risk of Diabetes Type 1 Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Bodin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is an autoimmune disease, where destruction of beta-cells causes insulin deficiency. The incidence of T1DM has increased in the last decades and cannot entirely be explained by genetic predisposition. Several environmental factors are suggested to promote T1DM, like early childhood enteroviral infections and nutritional factors, but the evidence is inconclusive. Prenatal and early life exposure to environmental pollutants like phthalates, bisphenol A, perfluorinated compounds, PCBs, dioxins, toxicants, and air pollutants can have negative effects on the developing immune system, resulting in asthma-like symptoms and increased susceptibility to childhood infections. In this review the associations between environmental chemical exposure and T1DM development is summarized. Although information on environmental chemicals as possible triggers for T1DM is sparse, we conclude that it is plausible that environmental chemicals can contribute to T1DM development via impaired pancreatic beta-cell and immune-cell functions and immunomodulation. Several environmental factors and chemicals could act together to trigger T1DM development in genetically susceptible individuals, possibly via hormonal or epigenetic alterations. Further observational T1DM cohort studies and animal exposure experiments are encouraged.

  8. Fetal and perinatal exposure to drugs and chemicals: novel biomarkers of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etwel, Fatma; Hutson, Janine R; Madadi, Parvaz; Gareri, Joey; Koren, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women are almost always excluded from randomized controlled clinical trials, as the risks to the fetus posed by most new chemical entities or approved drugs cannot be sufficiently ruled out. Hence, a major scientific challenge in this field is to discover and validate alternative tools that will fill the knowledge gap created by the lack of participation in gold-standard randomized trials. This review focuses on novel tools that allow estimation of fetal risks after exposure to therapeutic agents, such as placental perfusion studies, biomarkers of fetal exposure, and novel epidemiological and pharmacogenetic tools, all of which have been tested successfully in recent years.

  9. Self-reported occupational exposure to chemical and physical factors and risk of skin problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfonso, Jose Hernan; Thyssen, Jacob P; Tynes, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Prospective studies on occupational dermatoses in the general working population are sparse. This study investigated prospectively the impact of self-reported occupational exposure to chemicals and physical factors on the risk of skin problems. The cohort comprised respondents drawn randomly from...... the general population in Norway, who were registered employed in 2006 and 2009 (n = 6,745). Indoor dry air (odds ratio (OR) 1.3; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1-1.6) was a significant baseline predictor of skin problems at follow-up, whereas exposure to cleaning products (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.2-2.5), water...

  10. Rules and recent trends for setting health-based occupational exposure limits for chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowroń, Jolanta; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2015-01-01

    The working environment is the special case of the non-natural environment created by man in which the increased production activity brings about the concentration of stimulators particularly aggressive to the human organism, such as chemical hazards, noise, vibration, extreme temperatures, and finally, intensified psychological and emotional stress. Depending on the nature and intensity, working environment factors have been classified into dangerous, harmful and annoying. The workers are more and more frequently exposed to dangerous chemicals in the working environment. The chemicals cause many diseases including, in the 1st place, respiratory insufficiency, inflammatory skin conditions, psychoneurological disorders and neoplastic diseases. Occupational exposure limit values (OELs), the main criteria for occupational exposure assessment, constitute an important factor for the safe use of chemicals in the working environment. In Poland, to date there are 524 chemical substances and 19 dusts for which maximum admissible concentrations (MAC) have been established. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  11. Environmental influences on ovarian dysgenesis - developmental windows sensitive to chemical exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Svingen, Terje; Fowler, Paul A; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Boberg, Julie

    2017-07-01

    A woman's reproductive health and ability to have children directly affect numerous aspects of her life, from personal well-being and socioeconomic standing, to morbidity and lifespan. In turn, reproductive health depends on the development of correctly functioning ovaries, a process that starts early during fetal life. Early disruption to ovarian programming can have long-lasting consequences, potentially manifesting as disease much later in adulthood. A growing body of evidence suggests that exposure to chemicals early in life, including endocrine-disrupting chemicals, can cause a range of disorders later in life, such as those described in the ovarian dysgenesis syndrome hypothesis. In this Review, we discuss four specific time windows during which the ovary is particularly sensitive to disruption by exogenous insults: gonadal sex determination, meiotic division, follicle assembly and the first wave of follicle recruitment. To date, most evidence points towards the germ cell lineage being the most vulnerable to chemical exposure, particularly meiotic division and follicle assembly. Environmental chemicals and pharmaceuticals, such as bisphenols or mild analgesics (including paracetamol), can also affect the somatic cell lineages. This Review summarizes our current knowledge pertaining to environmental chemicals and pharmaceuticals, and their potential contributions to the development of ovarian dysgenesis syndrome. We also highlight knowledge gaps that need addressing to safeguard female reproductive health.

  12. Methyl Iodide Exposure Presenting as Severe Chemical Burn Injury with Neurological Complications and Prolonged Respiratory Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Manuel; Medved, Fabian; Rothenberger, Jens; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard

    Methyl iodide (iodomethane) is a monohalomethane that is mainly used as an intermediate in the manufacturing of different pharmaceuticals and pesticides. Until now, only 13 cases of methyl iodide poisoning have been described in the literature. The authors present the first case of severe chemical burn injury due to methyl iodide exposure in a 36-year-old Caucasian man who suffered superficial to partial-thickness burn injuries over 75% of his BSA and developed neurological malfunctions and prolonged respiratory insufficiency. Human poisoning with methyl iodide is very rare. In addition to the already described neurological symptoms and respiratory insufficiency, severe chemical burn injury can cause a life-threatening medical emergency.

  13. Regulation and practice of workers' protection from chemical exposures during container handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Fløe Pedersen, Randi; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Ádám, Balázs

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fumigation of freight containers to prevent spread of pests and off-gassing of freight are sources of volatile chemicals that may constitute significant health risks when released. The aim of the study was to investigate the regulation and practice of container handling in Denmark...... with focus on preventive measures to reduce risk of chemical exposure. Methods: A comprehensive systematic search of scientific literature, legislation and recommendations related to safe work with transport containers from international and Danish regulatory bodies was performed. The practice of handling...... on risk management are needed for safe handling of transport containers....

  14. A New Kind of Fuzzy n-ary Hypergroups in the Framework of Soft Set Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Li

    2014-01-01

    making problem. The aim of this paper is to apply the concept of fuzzy soft sets to n-ary hypergroup theory. The concepts of (∈γ,∈γ∨qδ-fuzzy soft (invertible n-ary subhypergroups over a commutative n-ary hypergroup are introduced and some related properties and characterizations are obtained. The homomorphism properties of (∈γ,∈γ∨qδ-fuzzy soft (invertible n-ary subhypergroups are also derived.

  15. Early Life Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Childhood Obesity and Neurodevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may increase the risk of childhood diseases by disrupting hormonally mediated processes critical for growth and development during gestation, infancy, or childhood. The fetus, infant, and child may have enhanced sensitivity to environmental stressors like EDCs due to rapid development and greater exposure to some EDCs that results from their developmentally appropriate behavior, anatomy, and physiology. This review summarizes epidemiological studies examining the relations of early-life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates, triclosan, and perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) with childhood neurobehavioral disorders and obesity. The available epidemiological evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to several of these ubiquitous EDCs is associated with adverse neurobehavior (BPA and phthalates) and excess adiposity or increased risk of obesity/overweight (PFAS). Quantifying the effects of EDC mixtures, improving EDC exposure assessment, reducing bias from confounding, identifying periods of heightened vulnerability, and elucidating the presence and nature of sexually dimorphic EDC effects would result in stronger inferences from epidemiological studies. Ultimately, better estimates of the causal effects of EDC exposures on child health could help identify susceptible sub-populations and lead to public health interventions to reduce these exposures. PMID:27857130

  16. Used tire recycling to produce granulates: evaluation of occupational exposure to chemical agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savary, Barbara; Vincent, Raymond

    2011-10-01

    Exposure was assessed in four facilities where used tires are turned into rubber granulates. Particulate exposure levels were measured using filter samples and gravimetric analysis. In parallel, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) screening was carried out using samples taken on activated carbon supports, followed by an analysis using a gas chromatograph coupled to a spectrometric detector. The exposure level medians are between 0.58 and 3.95 mg m(-3). Clogging of the textile fiber separation systems can lead to worker exposure; in this case, the measured concentrations can reach 41 mg m(-3). However, in contrast to the data in the literature, VOC levels >1 p.p.m. were not detected. The particulate mixtures deposited on the installation surfaces are complex; some of the chemical agents are toxic to humans. The results of this study indicate significant exposure to complex mixtures of rubber dust. Optimizing exhaust ventilation systems inside the shredders, with a cyclone for example, is essential for reducing the exposure of workers in this rapidly developing sector.

  17. Chemical changes in hybrid photoresists before and after exposure by in situ NEXAFS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallica, Roberto; Watts, Benjamin; Della Giustina, Gioia; Brigo, Laura; Brusatin, Giovanna; Ekinci, Yasin

    2017-03-01

    Due to its chemical specificity, the near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy is an interesting technique to study the changes in hybrid organic-inorganic photoresists. In this work, we analyzed the chemical changes occurring in photoresists synthesized from organically modified precursors and transition metal alkoxides by sol-gel route. These systems are nonchemically amplified resists for ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet, and electron beam lithography. They are based on Si, Zr, and Ti oxides or a combination of these. The experiments were conducted at the PolLux beamline of the Swiss Light Source, by a scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, which combines the spatially-resolved microscopy and fine structure spectroscopy at once. The absorption spectra were collected in the energy range of the carbon edge (≍ 290 eV) before and after in situ exposure of the photoresists to 500 eV photons. The variations in peak intensity after exposure reveal the changes in the chemical environment of carbon and the chemical configuration of the organic ligands, regardless of the inorganic part. It was found that the photon exposure induced sizable photodegradation or photopolymerization of organic groups (phenyl or methyl methacrylate, respectively). These mechanisms contribute to the foundation for the exposure reaction in negative-tone hybrid photoresists. Interestingly, it was also found that the detachment of the phenyl ligand occurs in a variety of possible pathways to condensation. We believe that our results and approach can provide a better understanding of photochemistry of resists, in particular for extreme ultraviolet lithography.

  18. Toddler exposure to flame retardant chemicals : Magnitude, health concern and potential risk- or protective factors of exposure: Observational studies summarized in a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugeng, Eva J; de Cock, Marijke; Schoonmade, Linda J; van de Bor, Margot

    2017-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting flame retardant (FR) chemicals form a human health concern, that is investigated mostly from the perspective of adult- and early life exposure. No overview of studies on toddler exposure and health effects exist. However, toddlerhood is a critical developmental period and

  19. ARIES Oxide Production Program Annual Report - FY14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, Evelyn A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dinehart, Steven Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A summary of the major accomplishments (September), milestones, financial summary, project performance and issues facing the ARIES Oxide Production Program at the close of FY14 is presented in this Executive Summary. Annual accomplishments are summarized in the body of the report.

  20. Distributions of key exposure factors controlling the uptake of xenobiotic chemicals in an estuarine food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannuzzi, T.J.; Harrington, N.W.; Shear, N.M.; Curry, C.L.; Carlson-Lynch, H.; Henning, M.H. [ChemRisk, Portland, ME (United States); Su, S.H. [Bailey Research Associates, Inc., New York, NY (United States); Rabbe, D.E. [Chemical Land Holdings, Inc., Kearny, NJ (United States)

    1996-11-01

    A critical evaluation of literature on the behavior, physiology, and ecology of common estuarine organisms was conducted in an attempt to develop probabilistic distributions for those variables that influence the uptake of xenobiotic chemicals from sediments, water, and food sources. The ranges, central tendencies, and distributions of several key parameter values were identified for dominant organisms from various trophic levels, including the polychaete Nereis virens, mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and striped bass (Morone saxatilis). The exposure factors of interest included ingestion rate for various food sources, growth rate, respiration rate, excretion rate, body weight, wet/dry weight ratio, lipid content, chemical assimilation efficiency, and food assimilation efficiency. These exposure factors are critical to the execution of mechanistic food web models, which, when properly calibrated, can be used to estimate tissue concentrations of nonionic chemicals in aquatic organisms based on knowledge of the bioenergetics and feeding interactions within a food web and the sediment and water concentrations of chemicals. In this article the authors describe the use of distributions for various exposure factors in the context of a mechanistic bioaccumulation model that is amenable to probabilistic analyses for multiple organisms within a food web. A case study is provided which compares the estimated versus measured concentrations of five polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in a representative food web from the tidal portion of the Passaic River, New Jersey, USA. The results suggest that the model is accurate within an order of magnitude or less in estimating the bioaccumulation of PCBs in this food web without calibration. The results of a model sensitivity analysis suggest that the input parameters which most influence the output of the model are both chemical and organism specific.

  1. Varied exposure to carcinogenic, mutagenic, and reprotoxic (CMR) chemicals in occupational settings in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havet, Nathalie [Univ. Claude Bernard Lyon 1 (France). Lab. SAF; Penot, Alexis [Lyon Univ. (France). ENS Lyon, GATE-UMR 5824-CNRS; Morelle, Magali; Perrier, Lionel [Lyon Univ. (France). Direction de la Recherche Clinique et de l' Innovation; Charbotel, Barbara [Univ. Claude Bernard Lyon 1 (France). Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud Service des Maladies Professionnelles; Fervers, Beatrice [Lyon Univ. (France). Dept. Cancer and Environment

    2017-02-15

    To explore varied exposure to carcinogenic, mutagenic, and reprotoxic chemicals (CMR) for French employees. Our study assessed data from the French national cross-sectional survey of occupational risks (SUMER) that was conducted in 2010 in a national representative sample of employees. We selected 28 CMR agents that were classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer or European Union as being known or presumed to have CMR potential in humans. The association of individual and job characteristics with exposure prevalence, duration, and intensity of the CMR agents during a 1-week period was examined using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Overall, 10.4% of employees in 2010 were exposed to one or more CMR agents at their workplace, and 3.4% were subjected to multiple CMR exposures. Blue-collar workers, night-shift workers and workers with short-term employment contracts experienced higher exposure prevalence (p < 0.01) and intensity (p < 0.05). Bluecollar workers and shift workers experienced also longer exposure duration (p < 0.001). Conversely, managers, workers of large companies, and women were less exposed to CMR agents (p < 0.001). The presence of a Committee for Health, Safety, and Working Conditions, and intervention by Occupational Health and Safety officers were significantly associated with reduced exposure intensities (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05). Establishment of European CMR regulations and the existence of an applicable substitution principle reduced the exposure duration (p < 0.001) and intensity (p < 0.05). Our results point out disparities in CMR exposure and identify high-priority targets for prevention measures to help reducing social health discrepancies.

  2. Noise and neurotoxic chemical exposure relationship to workplace traumatic injuries: A review☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estill, Cheryl Fairfield; Rice, Carol H.; Morata, Thais; Bhattacharya, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Introduction More than 5,000 fatalities and eight million injuries occurred in the workplace in 2007 at a cost of $6 billion and $186 billion, respectively. Neurotoxic chemicals are known to affect central nervous system functions among workers, which include balance and hearing disorders. However, it is not known if there is an association between exposure to noise and solvents and acute injuries. Method A thorough review was conducted of the literature on the relationship between noise or solvent exposures and hearing loss with various health outcomes. Results The search resulted in 41 studies. Health outcomes included: hearing loss, workplace injuries, absence from work due to sickness, fatalities, hospital admissions due to workplace accidents, traffic accidents, hypertension, balance, slip, trips, or falls, cognitive measures, or disability retirement. Important covariates in these studies were age of employee, type of industry or occupation, or length of employment. Discussion Most authors that evaluated noise exposure concluded that higher exposure to noise resulted in more of the chosen health effect but the relationship is not well understood. Studies that evaluated hearing loss found that hearing loss was related to occupational injury, disability retirement, or traffic accidents. Studies that assessed both noise exposure and hearing loss as risk factors for occupational injuries reported that hearing loss was related to occupational injuries as much or more than noise exposure. Evidence suggests that solvent exposure is likely to be related to accidents or other health consequences such balance disorders. Conclusions Many authors reported that noise exposures and hearing loss, respectively, are likely to be related to occupational accidents. Practical applications The potential significance of the study is that findings could be used by managers to reduce injuries and the costs associated with those injures. PMID:28160812

  3. Noise and neurotoxic chemical exposure relationship to workplace traumatic injuries: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estill, Cheryl Fairfield; Rice, Carol H; Morata, Thais; Bhattacharya, Amit

    2017-02-01

    More than 5,000 fatalities and eight million injuries occurred in the workplace in 2007 at a cost of $6 billion and $186 billion, respectively. Neurotoxic chemicals are known to affect central nervous system functions among workers, which include balance and hearing disorders. However, it is not known if there is an association between exposure to noise and solvents and acute injuries. A thorough review was conducted of the literature on the relationship between noise or solvent exposures and hearing loss with various health outcomes. The search resulted in 41 studies. Health outcomes included: hearing loss, workplace injuries, absence from work due to sickness, fatalities, hospital admissions due to workplace accidents, traffic accidents, hypertension, balance, slip, trips, or falls, cognitive measures, or disability retirement. Important covariates in these studies were age of employee, type of industry or occupation, or length of employment. Most authors that evaluated noise exposure concluded that higher exposure to noise resulted in more of the chosen health effect but the relationship is not well understood. Studies that evaluated hearing loss found that hearing loss was related to occupational injury, disability retirement, or traffic accidents. Studies that assessed both noise exposure and hearing loss as risk factors for occupational injuries reported that hearing loss was related to occupational injuries as much or more than noise exposure. Evidence suggests that solvent exposure is likely to be related to accidents or other health consequences such balance disorders. Many authors reported that noise exposures and hearing loss, respectively, are likely to be related to occupational accidents. Practical applications: The potential significance of the study is that findings could be used by managers to reduce injuries and the costs associated with those injures. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. A thermodynamic approach for assessing the environmental exposure of chemicals absorbed to microplastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Todd; Roche, Nicola; Lohmann, Rainer; Hodges, Geoff

    2011-02-15

    The environmental distribution and fate of microplastic in the marine environment represents a potential cause of concern. One aspect is the influence that microplastic may have on enhancing the transport and bioavailability of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic substances (PBT). In this study we assess these potential risks using a thermodynamic approach, aiming to prioritize the physicochemical properties of chemicals that are most likely absorbed by microplastic and therefore ingested by biota. Using a multimedia modeling approach, we define a chemical space aimed at improving our understanding of how chemicals partition in the marine environment with varying volume ratios of air/water/organic carbon/polyethylene, where polyethylene represents a main group of microplastic. Results suggest that chemicals with log KOW > 5 have the potential to partition >1% to polyethylene. Food-web model results suggest that reductions in body burden concentrations for nonpolar organic chemicals are likely to occur for chemicals with log KOW between 5.5 and 6.5. Thus the relative importance of microplastic as a vector of PBT substances to biological organisms is likely of limited importance, relative to other exposure pathways. Nevertheless, a number of data-gaps are identified, largely associated with improving our understanding of the physical fate of microplastic in the environment.

  5. Testing Dust Control Preparation with Respect to Mine Employee Exposure to Inhalling Chemical Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Orszulik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of tests used in dust hazard prevention for air-water spraying devices in collieries. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate mine employees’ exposure to inhalling chemical agents when the ZWILKOP ZW-10 preparation is used. The paper presents the results of the measurements of concentration, in a mine atmosphere, of the following chemical agents: hazardous substances 2-(2-butoxyethoxyethanol and 2-ethylhexan-1-ol, constituting ingredients of the preparation at mine employees’ workstations. The tests were performed during work related to the mining of coal in inclined drift C31, seam 415/1-2 on the premises of “Borynia-Zofiówka-Jastrzębie” Hard Coal Mine, Jastrzębie-Zdrój, Poland, using the TELESTO mist systems. Using aqueous solutions for the preparation at concentrations of 15 and 20‰ causes no exceedance of the allowable mine air concentrations for the chemical agents tested.

  6. [Carbon disulfide exposure level of workers in a chemical fiber industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kui-rong; Cui, Shou-ming; Wu, Hui; Guo, Li-min; Ma, Jun-ying; Gu, Gui-zhen; Yu, Shan-fa

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the exposure levels of carbon disulfide (CS(2)) for a chemical fiber industry. The concentration of CS(2) was monitored in representative workshops and types of work, and the datas of that over the years were collected. The short-term exposure concentration of CS(2) about 80% of the type of work was less than or equal to 10 mg/m(3), which of more than 90% was less than or equal to 20 mg/m(3). The time weighted average concentration of CS(2) about 70% of the type of work was less than or equal to 5 mg/m(3), which of more than 90% was less than or equal to 10 mg/m(3). The short-term exposure concentration of CS(2) which was more than 15 mg/m(3) or the time weighted average concentration of CS(2) which was more than 30 mg/m(3) was only for little type of work. The concentration of CS(2) for the most type of work was lower, but there were still a number of types of work exposuring the higher concentration, which exceed the national occupational exposure limits.

  7. Screening values for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals that Lack Established Occupational Exposure Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poet, Torka S.; Mast, Terryl J.; Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-06

    Over 1,500 different volatile chemicals have been reported in the headspaces of tanks used to store high-level radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Concern about potential exposure of tank farm workers to these chemicals has prompted efforts to evaluate their toxicity, identify chemicals that pose the greatest risk, and incorporate that information into the tank farms industrial hygiene worker protection program. Established occupation exposure limits for individual chemicals and petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures have been used elsewhere to evaluate about 900 of the chemicals. In this report headspace concentration screening values were established for the remaining 600 chemicals using available industrial hygiene and toxicological data. Screening values were intended to be more than an order of magnitude below concentrations that may cause adverse health effects in workers, assuming a 40-hour/week occupational exposure. Screening values were compared to the maximum reported headspace concentrations.

  8. Assessment of macroinvertebrate health and agricultural chemical exposure on Waterfowl Production Areas in Nebraska’s Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Of the 12 sampled locations, the 6 non-buffered sites appear to be affected by agricultural chemical exposure. Agricultural chemical exposure to these sites include...

  9. Thyroid stimulating hormone levels in newborns and early life exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals - analysis of three European mother-child cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Cock, Marijke; de Boer, Michiel R; Govarts, Eva; Iszatt, Nina; Palkovicova, Lubica; Lamoree, Marja H; Schoeters, Greet; Eggesbø, Merete; Trnovec, Tomas; Legler, Juliette; van de Bor, Margot

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Various studies report interactions between thyroid hormones and early life chemical exposure. Our objective was to analyse associations between markers of endocrine disrupting chemical exposure and thyroid function in newborns, determined in heel prick blood spots. METHODS: Three

  10. Chemical analysis and surface morphology of enamel following ozone application with different concentrations and exposure times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman I. Elsayad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of different ozone concentrations applied with different exposure times on the chemical composition and the surface morphology of enamel. Twenty human mandibular molars were divided into four groups according to ozone concentration and exposure times. Group A received 90 μg of ozone/ml oxygen for 1 min, group B received 90 μg of ozone/ml oxygen for 2 min, group C received 120 μg of ozone/ml oxygen for 1 min and group D received 120 μg of ozone/ml oxygen for 2 min. The ozone source was from a medical ozone generator equipped with a device to adjust the concentration. Buccal surfaces of teeth were tested before and after ozone application so that each tooth served as a control for itself, using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM connected to an Electron Dispersive Analytical X-ray (EDAX. Changes in calcium and phosphorus percentage levels were recorded and the Ca/P ratio was calculated. The values were statistically analyzed using the one-way ANOVA test with a level of significance set at P ⩽ 0.05. No statistical significant difference was found between the control and the tested groups in minerals content or ratio as P > 0.05. ESEM images showed enamel surface roughness with 2 min ozone exposure times. High ozone concentration with prolonged exposure time does not change the chemical composition of enamel. Applying ozone for 2 min alters the surface morphology of enamel causing variable degrees of roughness. Using high ozone concentrations with prolonged exposure times for caries reversal or prevention and for bleaching may be contraindicated if this changes the surface morphology of enamel.

  11. Effects of chemical smokes on flora and fauna under field and laboratory exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, D J; Novak, E W; Lower, W R; Yanders, A; Kapila, S; Wang, R

    1987-06-01

    Various types of obscurant smokes are used routinely in training by the U.S. Army. Because continued routine use of the smokes could be detrimental to the native flora and fauna at training sites, a preliminary biological and chemical field study of fogoil, hexachloroethane, and tank diesel smokes was conducted. Smoke plumes were sampled and chemically analyzed at distances of 15-150 m from the smoke source where Tradescantia clones 4430 and 03 and the native plant Ambrosia dumosa and the native rodent Dipodomys merriami were exposed for 30 min. In addition, Tradescantia clone 4430 was exposed to tank diesel in the laboratory at concentration levels equivalent to exposure at 15 and 50 m. Tradescantia clones were examined for mutagenic effects indicated by micronuclei induction in developing pollen and pink somatic mutations in stamen hairs. Photosynthetic perturbations were measured in Tradescantia and A. dumosa using variable fluorescence induction. Animals were examined for sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations. It was found that all of the smokes tested exerted varying degrees of physiological and mutagenic effects in one or more assay system at one or more exposure distance. The studies reported here indicate that exposed ecological systems, or at least components of these systems, are at a higher risk than are unexposed components (e.g., organisms) for several types of damage attributed to obscurant smoke exposure.

  12. Occupational Health Impacts Due to Exposure to Organic Chemicals over an Entire Product Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijko, Gaël; Jolliet, Olivier; Margni, Manuele

    2016-12-06

    This article presents an innovative approach to include occupational exposures to organic chemicals in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) by building on the characterization factors set out in Kijko et al. (2015) to calculate the potential impact of occupational exposure over the entire supply chain of product or service. Based on an economic input-output model and labor and economic data, the total impacts per dollar of production are provided for 430 commodity categories and range from 0.025 to 6.6 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per million dollar of final economic demand. The approach is applied on a case study assessing human health impacts over the life cycle of a piece of office furniture. It illustrates how to combine monitoring data collected at the manufacturing facility and averaged sector specific data to model the entire supply chain. This paper makes the inclusion of occupational exposure to chemicals fully compatible with the LCA framework by including the supply chain of a given production process and will help industries focus on the leading causes of human health impacts and prevent impact shifting.

  13. Effects of chemical smokes on flora and fauna under field and laboratory exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, D.J.; Novak, E.W.; Lower, W.R.; Yanders, A.; Kapila, S.; Wang, R.

    1987-06-01

    Various types of obscurant smokes are used routinely in training by the U.S. Army. Because continued routine use of the smokes could be detrimental to the native flora and fauna at training sites, a preliminary biological and chemical field study of fogoil, hexachloroethane, and tank diesel smokes was conducted. Smoke plumes were sampled and chemically analyzed at distances of 15-150 m from the smoke source where Tradescantia clones 4430 and 03 and the native plant Ambrosia dumosa and the native rodent Dipodomys merriami were exposed for 30 min. In addition, Tradescantia clone 4430 was exposed to tank diesel in the laboratory at concentration levels equivalent to exposure at 15 and 50 m. Tradescantia clones were examined for mutagenic effects indicated by micronuclei induction in developing pollen and pink somatic mutations in stamen hairs. Photosynthetic perturbations were measured in Tradescantia and A. dumosa using variable fluorescence induction. Animals were examined for sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations. It was found that all of the smokes tested exerted varying degrees of physiological and mutagenic effects in one or more assay system at one or more exposure distance. The studies reported here indicate that exposed ecological systems, or at least components of these systems, are at a higher risk than are unexposed components (e.g., organisms) for several types of damage attributed to obscurant smoke exposure.

  14. Devulcanization of ground tire rubber: Physical and chemical changes after different microwave exposure times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Garcia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Microwave devulcanization is known to be a promising and an efficient rubber recycling method which makes possible for the rubber to regain its fluidity, and makes it capable of being remolded and revulcanized. The focus of this work is to understand the physical and chemical changes that occur in the ground tire rubber after different microwave exposure periods. For this purpose chemical, thermal, rheological and morphological analyses were performed on the tire rubber, which contains natural rubber (NR and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR as polymeric material. The results showed that the microwave treatment promoted the breaking of sulfur cross-links and consequently increased the rubber fluidity. However, long periods of exposure led to degradation and modification of some properties. At nanoscale, the deformation of the devulcanized NR domain under stress was observed, and the morphology obtained appears to be a droplet dispersion morphology. The most exposed samples presented only one glass transition temperature, and from this it was concluded that the treatment may have played an important role in the compatibilization of the elastomeric blend. Based on the results, it is required to control the microwave exposure time and polymeric degradation in order to achieve a regenerated rubber with satisfactory properties.

  15. Preconception care: caffeine, smoking, alcohol, drugs and other environmental chemical/radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Zohra S; Imam, Ayesha M; Dean, Sohni V; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-09-26

    As providing health education, optimizing nutrition, and managing risk factors can be effective for ensuring a healthy outcome for women and her yet un-conceived baby, external influences play a significant role as well. Alcohol, smoking, caffeine use and other similar lifestyle factors, have now become an integral part of the daily life of most men and women, who use/misuse one or more of these harmful substances regularly despite knowledge of their detrimental effects. The adverse health outcomes of these voluntary and involuntary exposures are of even greater concern in women of child bearing age where the exposure has the potential of inflicting harm to two generations. This paper is examining the available literature for the possible effects of caffeine consumption, smoking, alcohol or exposure to chemicals may have on the maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception usage of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol and other illicit drugs; and exposure to environmental chemicals and radiant on MNCH outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Heavy maternal preconception caffeine intake of >300 mg/d significantly increase the risk of a subsequent fetal loss by 31% (95% CI: 8-58%). On the other hand, preconception alcohol consumption leads to non-significant 30% increase in spontaneous abortion (RR 1.30; 95% CI: 0.85-1.97). Preconception counselling can lead to a significant decrease in the consumption of alcohol during the first trimester (OR 1.79; 95% CI: 1.08-2.97). Periconception smoking, on the other hand, was found to be associated with an almost 3 times increased risk of congenital heart defects (OR 2.80; 95% CI 1

  16. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals among residents of a rural vegetarian/vegan community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, Karen; Grinshpan, Laura; Novack, Lena; Göen, Thomas; Segev, Dar; Beacher, Lisa; Stern, Naftali; Berman, Tamar

    2016-12-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are increasingly thought to be involved in the rising prevalence of disorders such as obesity, diabetes, and some hormone-dependent cancers. Several lines of evidence have indicated that vegetarian and vegan diets may offer some protection from such diseases. We hypothesized that exposure to selected EDCs among residents of the unique vegetarian/vegan community of Amirim would be lower than what has recently been reported for the omnivorous population in the first Israel Biomonitoring Study (IBMS). We studied 42 Amirim residents (29 vegetarians/13 vegans; 24 women/18men, aged 50.7±13.7y). Subjects answered detailed lifestyle, and multipass, memory-based 24-hr dietary recall questionnaires. Concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA), 11 phthalate metabolites, and the isoflavone phytoestrogens (genistein and daidzein) were determined by GC or LC tandem mass-spectrometry on a spot urine sample. The results were compared to those obtained following the same methodology in the Jewish subgroup of the IBMS (n=184). While a vegetarian/vegan nutritional pattern had no effect on exposure to BPA, it seemed to confer a modest protection (~21%) from exposure to high molecular weight phthalates. Furthermore, the summed metabolites of the high molecular weight phthalate DiNP were 36% lower in vegans compared to vegetarians (Pvegetarianism and preference for organic food has a modest, but possibly valuable, impact on exposure to phthalates, while it is associated with a very steep increase in the exposure to phytoestrogens. Major reduction in exposure to EDCs will require regulatory actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Work Inside Ocean Freight Containers—Personal Exposure to Off-Gassing Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedberg, Urban

    2013-01-01

    More than 500 million ocean freight container units are shipped annually between countries and continents. Residual levels of fumigants, as well as naturally occurring off-gassing chemicals emanating from the goods, constitute safety risks, which may affect uniformed workers upon entering the container. The aim of this study was to assess workers’ exposure during stripping of containers and is the first study of its kind. First, an experimental tracer gas method was investigated to determine its usefulness to approximate real exposures from gaseous fumigants and off-gassing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Nitrous oxide was injected and left to distribute in the closed containers. The distribution of the tracer gas and initial (arrival) concentrations of off-gassing volatiles were measured prior to opening the containers. Second, personal exposure (breathing zone) and work zone air monitoring of both tracer gas and VOCs were carried out during stripping. Adsorbent tubes, bag samples, and direct-readings instruments (photoionization detector and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry) were used. The distribution studies with nitrous oxide, and the high correlation between the former and VOCs (r 2 ~ 0.8) during stripping, showed that the tracer gas method may well be used to approximate real exposures in containers. The average breathing zone and work zone concentrations during stripping of naturally ventilated 40-foot containers were 1–7% of the arrival concentrations; however, peaks up to 70% were seen during opening. Even if average exposures during stripping are significantly lower than arrival concentrations, they may still represent serious violations of occupational exposure limits in high-risk containers. The results from this and previous studies illustrate the need to establish practices for the safe handling of ocean freight containers. Until comprehensive recommendations are in place, personnel that need to enter such containers should, in addition

  18. Work inside ocean freight containers--personal exposure to off-gassing chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedberg, Urban; Johanson, Gunnar

    2013-11-01

    More than 500 million ocean freight container units are shipped annually between countries and continents. Residual levels of fumigants, as well as naturally occurring off-gassing chemicals emanating from the goods, constitute safety risks, which may affect uniformed workers upon entering the container. The aim of this study was to assess workers' exposure during stripping of containers and is the first study of its kind. First, an experimental tracer gas method was investigated to determine its usefulness to approximate real exposures from gaseous fumigants and off-gassing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Nitrous oxide was injected and left to distribute in the closed containers. The distribution of the tracer gas and initial (arrival) concentrations of off-gassing volatiles were measured prior to opening the containers. Second, personal exposure (breathing zone) and work zone air monitoring of both tracer gas and VOCs were carried out during stripping. Adsorbent tubes, bag samples, and direct-readings instruments (photoionization detector and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry) were used. The distribution studies with nitrous oxide, and the high correlation between the former and VOCs (r(2) ~ 0.8) during stripping, showed that the tracer gas method may well be used to approximate real exposures in containers. The average breathing zone and work zone concentrations during stripping of naturally ventilated 40-foot containers were 1-7% of the arrival concentrations; however, peaks up to 70% were seen during opening. Even if average exposures during stripping are significantly lower than arrival concentrations, they may still represent serious violations of occupational exposure limits in high-risk containers. The results from this and previous studies illustrate the need to establish practices for the safe handling of ocean freight containers. Until comprehensive recommendations are in place, personnel that need to enter such containers should, in addition to

  19. Obesity, diabetes, and associated costs of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, Juliette; Fletcher, Tony; Govarts, Eva; Porta, Miquel; Blumberg, Bruce; Heindel, Jerrold J; Trasande, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    Obesity and diabetes are epidemic in the European Union (EU). Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is increasingly recognized as a contributor, independent of diet and physical activity. The objective was to estimate obesity, diabetes, and associated costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposures in the EU. An expert panel evaluated evidence for probability of causation using weight-of-evidence characterization adapted from that applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated for relevant EDCs, and biomarker data were organized from peer-reviewed studies to represent European exposure and burden of disease. Cost estimation as of 2010 utilized published cost estimates for childhood obesity, adult obesity, and adult diabetes. Setting, Patients and Participants, and Intervention: Cost estimation was performed from the societal perspective. The panel identified a 40% to 69% probability of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene causing 1555 cases of overweight at age 10 (sensitivity analysis: 1555-5463) in 2010 with associated costs of €24.6 million (sensitivity analysis: €24.6-86.4 million). A 20% to 39% probability was identified for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene causing 28 200 cases of adult diabetes (sensitivity analysis: 28 200-56 400) with associated costs of €835 million (sensitivity analysis: €835 million-16.6 billion). The panel also identified a 40% to 69% probability of phthalate exposure causing 53 900 cases of obesity in older women and €15.6 billion in associated costs. Phthalate exposure was also found to have a 40% to 69% probability of causing 20 500 new-onset cases of diabetes in older women with €607 million in associated costs. Prenatal bisphenol A exposure was identified to have a 20% to 69% probability of causing 42 400 cases of childhood obesity, with associated lifetime costs of €1.54 billion. EDC exposures in the EU contribute

  20. Potential for MERLIN-Expo, an advanced tool for higher tier exposure assessment, within the EU chemical legislative frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suciu, Nicoleta, E-mail: nicoleta.suciu@unicatt.it [Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 29122 Piacenza (Italy); Tediosi, Alice [Aeiforia Srl, 29027 Gariga di Podenzano (PC) (Italy); Ciffroy, Philippe [Electricité de France (EDF) R& D, National Hydraulic and Environment Laboratory, 6 quai Watier, 78400 Chatou (France); Altenpohl, Annette [Österreichisches Normungsinstitut/Austrian Standards Institute, Heinestraße 38, 1020 Wien (Austria); Brochot, Céline [INERIS, Parc ALATA, BP2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Verdonck, Frederik [ARCHE cvba, Liefkensstraat 35d, 9032 Gent-Wondelgem (Belgium); Ferrari, Federico [Aeiforia Srl, 29027 Gariga di Podenzano (PC) (Italy); Giubilato, Elisa [University Ca Foscari Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, via Torino 155, 30172 Mestre-Venice (Italy); Capri, Ettore [Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 29122 Piacenza (Italy); Fait, Gabriella [EFSA, via Carlo Magno 1/a, 43126 Parma (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    MERLIN-Expo merges and integrates advanced exposure assessment methodologies, allowing the building of complex scenarios involving several pollution sources and targets. The assessment of exposure and risks to human health from chemicals is of major concern for policy and ultimately benefits all citizens. The development and operational fusion of the advanced exposure assessment methodologies envisaged in the MERLIN-Expo tool will have a significant impact in the long term on several policies dealing with chemical safety management. There are more than 30 agencies in Europe related to exposure and risk evaluation of chemicals, which have an important role in implementing EU policies, having especially tasks of technical, scientific, operational and/or regulatory nature. The main purpose of the present paper is to introduce MERLIN-Expo and to highlight its potential for being effectively integrated within the group of tools available to assess the risk and exposure of chemicals for EU policy. The main results show that the tool is highly suitable for use in site-specific or local impact assessment, with minor modifications it can also be used for Plant Protection Products (PPPs), biocides and REACH, while major additions would be required for a comprehensive application in the field of consumer and worker exposure assessment. - Highlights: • Exposure and risk evaluation of chemicals • Coupling environmental exposure and pharmacokinetic models • MERLIN-expo as a higher tier exposure tool • MERLIN-expo potential application in EU chemical regulations • EU legislations and policies related to risk assessment and management of chemicals.

  1. The epidemiologic evidence linking prenatal and postnatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals with male reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Rimborg, Susie

    2017-01-01

    consensus statements and narrative reviews in recent years have divided the scientific community and have elicited a call for systematic transparent reviews. We aimed to fill this gap in knowledge in the field of male reproductive disorders. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this study...... identified 33 papers(28 study populations) fulfilling the eligibility criteria. These provided 85 risk estimates of links between persistent organic pollutants and rapidly metabolized compounds (phthalates and Bisphenol A) and male reproductive disorders. The overall odds ratio (OR) across all exposures...... that this increased risk was driven by any specific disorder. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: The current epidemiological evidence is compatible with a small increased risk of male reproductive disorders following prenatal and postnatal exposure to some persistent environmental chemicals classified as endocrine disruptors...

  2. Structural, Chemical and Biological Aspects of Antioxidants for Strategies Against Metal and Metalloid Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaran J. S. Flora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress contributes to the pathophysiology of exposure to heavy metals/metalloid. Beneficial renal effects of some medications, such as chelation therapy depend at least partially on the ability to alleviate oxidative stress. The administration of various natural or synthetic antioxidants has been shown to be of benefit in the prevention and attenuation of metal induced biochemical alterations. These include vitamins, N-acetylcysteine, α-lipoic acid, melatonin, dietary flavonoids and many others. Human studies are limited in this regard. Under certain conditions, surprisingly, the antioxidant supplements may exhibit pro-oxidant properties and even worsen metal induced toxic damage. To date, the evidence is insufficient to recommend antioxidant supplements in subject with exposure to metals. Prospective, controlled clinical trials on safety and effectiveness of different therapeutic antioxidant strategies either individually or in combination with chelating agent are indispensable. The present review focuses on structural, chemical and biological aspects of antioxidants particularly related to their chelating properties.

  3. Chemical Weapons Exposures in Iraq: Challenges of a Public Health Response a Decade Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Coleen; Mirza, Raul; Sharkey, Jessica M; Teichman, Ron; Longmire, Romarius; Harkins, Deanna; Llanos, Joseph; Abraham, Joseph; McCannon, Charles; Heller, Jack; Tinklepaugh, Carole; Rice, William

    2016-01-01

    An October 14, 2014 article in The New York Times reported that the US Department of Defense (DoD) concealed, for nearly a decade, circumstances surrounding service members' exposure to chemical warfare agents (CWA) while deployed to Iraq in support of Operations Iraqi Freedom and New Dawn from March 13, 2003, to December 31, 2011, and alleged failure of the DoD to provide expedient and adequate medical care. This report prompted the DoD to devise a public health investigation, with the Army Public Health Center (Provisional) as the lead agency to identify, evaluate, document, and track CWA casualties of the Iraq war. Further, the DoD revisited and revised clinical guidelines and health policies concerning CWA exposure based on current evidence-based guidelines and best practices.

  4. Developmental Toxic Effects of Exposure to Chemical Warfare Nerve Agents in Rats: Effects on Brain and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Yourick D (2009) Analyzing large data sets acquired through telemetry from rats exposed to organophosphorus compounds: an EEG study. J Neurosci Methods...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0082 TITLE: Developmental Toxic Effects of Exposure to Chemical Warfare Nerve Agents in Rats : Effects on Brain and...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Developmental Toxic Effects of Exposure to Chemical Warfare Nerve Agents in Rats : Effects on Brain

  5. Exposure to toxic chemicals in the diet: is the Brazilian population at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Eloisa Dutra; Jardim, Andreia Nunes Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, in the last 20 years, dietary risk assessments have been conducted on pesticides, mycotoxins, food additives, heavy metals (mainly mercury), environmental contaminants (mainly DDT) and acrylamide, a compound formed during food processing. The objectives of this paper were to review these studies, discuss their limitations and uncertainties and identify the most critical chemicals that may pose a health risk to Brazilian consumers. The studies have shown that the cumulative intake of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides by high consumers of fruits and vegetables may represent a health concern (up to 169% of the ARfD), although the benefits of consuming large portions of those foods most probably overcome the risks. High consumers of maize products may also be at risk due to the presence of fumonisin (355% of the PMTDI), a mycotoxin present at high levels in Brazilian maize. The studies conducted in the Brazilian Amazon have shown that riparian fish consumers are exposed to unsafe levels of mercury. However, this is a more complex issue, as mercury levels in the region are naturally high and the health benefits of a fish-based diet are well known. Studies conducted both in Brazil and internationally on acrylamide have shown that the exposure to this genotoxic compound, mainly from the consumption of French fries and potato chips, is of health concern. Reducing the population dietary exposure to toxic chemicals is a challenge for government authorities and food producers in all countries. Management strategies aimed at decreasing exposure to the critical chemicals identified in this review involve limiting the use or eliminating highly toxic pesticides, implementing good agricultural practices to decrease maize contamination by fumonisins, educating local fish-eating communities toward a fish diet less contaminated by mercury, and changing dietary habits concerning the consumption of fried potatoes, the main processed food containing acrylamide.

  6. Occupational exposure assessment of airborne chemical contaminants among professional ski waxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freberg, Baard Ingegerdsson; Olsen, Raymond; Daae, Hanne Line; Hersson, Merete; Thorud, Syvert; Ellingsen, Dag G; Molander, Paal

    2014-06-01

    Ski waxes are applied onto the skis to improve the performance. They contain different chemical substances, e.g. perfluoro-n-alkanes. Due to evaporation and sublimation processes as well as mechanically generated dust, vapours, fumes, and particulates can contaminate the workroom atmosphere. The number of professional ski waxers is increasing, but occupational exposure assessments among professional ski waxers are lacking. The aim was to assess exposure to airborne chemical contaminants among professional ski waxers. It was also a goal to construct a ventilation system designed for ski waxing work operations. Forty-five professional ski waxers were included. Personal measurements of the inhalable and the respirable aerosol mass fractions were executed in 36 different waxing cabins using Conical Inhalable Sampler cassettes equipped with 37-mm PVC filters (5 µm) and Casella respirable cyclones equipped with 37-mm PVC filters (0.8 µm), respectively. Volatile organic components were collected using Anasorb CSC charcoal tubes. To examine time trends in exposure patterns, stationary real-time measurements of the aerosol mass fractions were conducted using a direct-reading Respicon® sampler. Mean aerosol particle mass concentrations of 3.1 mg·m(-3) (range: 0.2-12.0) and 6.2 mg·m(-3) (range: 0.4-26.2) were measured in the respirable and inhalable aerosol mass fractions, respectively. Real-time aerosol sampling showed large variations in particle concentrations, with peak exposures of ~10 and 30 mg·m(-3) in the respirable and the inhalable aerosol particle mass fractions, respectively. The custom-made ventilation system reduced the concentration of all aerosol mass fractions by more than 90%. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  7. Chemical and metabolomic screens identify novel biomarkers and antidotes for cyanide exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Anjali K.; Roberts, Lee D.; Liu, Yan; Mahon, Sari B.; Kim, Sonia; Ryu, Justine H.; Werdich, Andreas; Januzzi, James L.; Boss, Gerry R.; Rockwood, Gary A.; MacRae, Calum A.; Brenner, Matthew; Gerszten, Robert E.; Peterson, Randall T.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to cyanide causes a spectrum of cardiac, neurological, and metabolic dysfunctions that can be fatal. Improved cyanide antidotes are needed, but the ideal biological pathways to target are not known. To understand better the metabolic effects of cyanide and to discover novel cyanide antidotes, we developed a zebrafish model of cyanide exposure and scaled it for high-throughput chemical screening. In a screen of 3120 small molecules, we discovered 4 novel antidotes that block cyanide toxicity. The most potent antidote was riboflavin. Metabolomic profiling of cyanide-treated zebrafish revealed changes in bile acid and purine metabolism, most notably by an increase in inosine levels. Riboflavin normalizes many of the cyanide-induced neurological and metabolic perturbations in zebrafish. The metabolic effects of cyanide observed in zebrafish were conserved in a rabbit model of cyanide toxicity. Further, humans treated with nitroprusside, a drug that releases nitric oxide and cyanide ions, display increased circulating bile acids and inosine. In summary, riboflavin may be a novel treatment for cyanide toxicity and prophylactic measure during nitroprusside treatment, inosine may serve as a biomarker of cyanide exposure, and metabolites in the bile acid and purine metabolism pathways may shed light on the pathways critical to reversing cyanide toxicity.—Nath, A. K., Roberts, L. D., Liu, Y., Mahon, S. B., Kim, S., Ryu, J. H., Werdich, A., Januzzi, J. L., Boss, G. R., Rockwood, G. A., MacRae, C. A., Brenner, M., Gerszten, R. E., Peterson, R. T. Chemical and metabolomic screens identify novel biomarkers and antidotes for cyanide exposure. PMID:23345455

  8. Design, development and validation of software for modelling dietary exposure to food chemicals and nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, C; Naddy, B; Rohan, D; Sexton, J

    2003-10-01

    The Monte Carlo computational system for stochastic modelling of dietary exposure to food chemicals and nutrients is presented. This system was developed through a European Commission-funded research project. It is accessible as a Web-based application service. The system allows and supports very significant complexity in the data sets used as the model input, but provides a simple, general purpose, linear kernel for model evaluation. Specific features of the system include the ability to enter (arbitrarily) complex mathematical or probabilistic expressions at each and every input data field, automatic bootstrapping on subjects and on subject food intake diaries, and custom kernels to apply brand information such as market share and loyalty to the calculation of food and chemical intake.

  9. Estimating Burden and Disease Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trasande, Leonardo; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Hass, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly increasing evidence has documented that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute substantially to disease and disability. Objective: The objective was to quantify a range of health and economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposures in the European Union (EU......). Design: A Steering Committee of scientists adapted the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization for probability of causation based upon levels of available epidemiological and toxicological evidence for one or more chemicals contributing to disease by an endocrine...... disruptor mechanism. To evaluate the epidemiological evidence, the Steering Committee adapted the World Health Organization Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria, whereas the Steering Committee adapted definitions recently promulgated by the Danish...

  10. Effect of pH and dissociation on the fate and exposure of ionizable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Antonio; Trapp, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Ionizable organic chemicals comprise an important fraction of pharmaceuticals, pesticides as well as industrial chemicals. It has been estimated that 33% of the preregistered REACH substances is mostly ionized at pH 7. To extend the appliccability of existing exposure models, a Multimedia Activity...... parameters. The sensitivity analysis showed that the parameters describing ionization, pH and the dissociation constant (pKa), are among the most sensitive model parameters. The uncertainty analysis, however, indicated that these parameters are not the major source of uncertainty, which statistically...... justifies the use of species-specific models for ionics. The water content in air is a sensitive parameter for the PEC in air of molecules with negligible air-water partition coefficient, such as ions. The uncertainty of the QSARs for solid-water sorption significantly affects the PECs in soils...

  11. Perinatal exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals reduces female rat follicle reserves and accelerates reproductive aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Hass, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during development can have negative consequences later in life. In this study we investigated the effect of perinatal exposure to mixtures of human relevant EDCs on the female reproductive system. Rat dams were exposed to a mixture of phthalates...

  12. Characterizing use-phase chemical releases, fate, and disposal for modeling longitudinal human exposures to consumer products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA’s Human Exposure Model (HEM) is an integrated modeling system to estimate human exposure to chemicals in household consumer products. HEM consists of multiple modules, which may be run either together, or independently. The Source-to-Dose (S2D) module in HEM use...

  13. Problem formulation for risk assessment of combined exposures to chemicals and other stressors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R; Wilks, Martin F; Bachman, Ammie; Boobis, Alan; Moretto, Angelo; Pastoor, Timothy P; Phillips, Richard; Embry, Michelle R

    2016-11-01

    When the human health risk assessment/risk management paradigm was developed, it did not explicitly include a "problem formulation" phase. The concept of problem formulation was first introduced in the context of ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the pragmatic reason to constrain and focus ERAs on the key questions. However, this need also exists for human health risk assessment, particularly for cumulative risk assessment (CRA), because of its complexity. CRA encompasses the combined threats to health from exposure via all relevant routes to multiple stressors, including biological, chemical, physical and psychosocial stressors. As part of the HESI Risk Assessment in the 21st Century (RISK21) Project, a framework for CRA was developed in which problem formulation plays a critical role. The focus of this effort is primarily on a chemical CRA (i.e., two or more chemicals) with subsequent consideration of non-chemical stressors, defined as "modulating factors" (ModFs). Problem formulation is a systematic approach that identifies all factors critical to a specific risk assessment and considers the purpose of the assessment, scope and depth of the necessary analysis, analytical approach, available resources and outcomes, and overall risk management goal. There are numerous considerations that are specific to multiple stressors, and proper problem formulation can help to focus a CRA to the key factors in order to optimize resources. As part of the problem formulation, conceptual models for exposures and responses can be developed that address these factors, such as temporal relationships between stressors and consideration of the appropriate ModFs.

  14. Cause-specific stillbirth and exposure to chemical constituents and sources of fine particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisu, Keita; Malig, Brian; Hasheminassab, Sina; Sioutas, Constantinos; Basu, Rupa

    2018-01-01

    The stillbirth rate in the United States is relatively high, but limited evidence is available linking stillbirth with fine particulate matter (PM2.5), its chemical constituents and sources. In this study, we explored associations between cause-specific stillbirth and prenatal exposures to those pollutants with using live birth and stillbirth records from eight California locations during 2002-2009. ICD-10 codes were used to identify cause of stillbirth from stillbirth records. PM2.5 total mass and chemical constituents were collected from ambient monitors and PM2.5 sources were quantified using Positive Matrix Factorization. Conditional logistic regression was applied using a nested case-control study design (N = 32,262). We found that different causes of stillbirth were associated with different PM2.5 sources and/or chemical constituents. For stillbirths due to fetal growth, the odds ratio (OR) per interquartile range increase in gestational age-adjusted exposure to PM2.5 total mass was 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.44). Similar associations were found with resuspended soil (OR=1.25, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.42), and secondary ammonium sulfate (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.78). No associations were found between any pollutants and stillbirths caused by maternal complications. This study highlighted the importance of investigating cause-specific stillbirth and the differential toxicity levels of specific PM2.5 sources and chemical constituents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Global chemical composition of ambient fine particulate matter for exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lo, Jason Wai-Ho; Wang, Yuxuan; Chen, Dan; Zhang, Lin; Kasibhatla, Prasad S; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Bittman, Shabtai; Macdonald, Douglas J

    2014-11-18

    Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004-2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 μg/m(3)), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 μg/m(3)), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 μg/m(3)). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 μg/m(3) over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 μg/m(3)) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 μg/m(3)). These estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5.

  16. Optical spectra of UX Ari with BOOTES-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Garcia, M. D.; Castro-Tirado, A.; Jelinek, M.

    2014-07-01

    Following the detection and subsequent monitoring of the new outburst from the RS CVn UX Ari by SWIFT and MAXI (ATEL#5907, #6315 , #6319 ), the 0.6m TELMA robotic telescope at the BOOTES-2 astronomical station Malaga (Spain), obtained optical 4000-9000 A spectra starting at 2014-07-19, 01:32:24.382 UT and ending at 04:25:55.652 UT.

  17. Sex-Specific Effects of Combined Exposure to Chemical and Non-chemical Stressors on Neuroendocrine Development: a Review of Recent Findings and Putative Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Whitney J; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-12-01

    Environmental toxicants and psychosocial stressors share many biological substrates and influence overlapping physiological pathways. Increasing evidence indicates stress-induced changes to the maternal milieu may prime rapidly developing physiological systems for disruption by concurrent or subsequent exposure to environmental chemicals. In this review, we highlight putative mechanisms underlying sex-specific susceptibility of the developing neuroendocrine system to the joint effects of stress or stress correlates and environmental toxicants (bisphenol A, alcohol, phthalates, lead, chlorpyrifos, and traffic-related air pollution). We provide evidence indicating that concurrent or tandem exposure to chemical and non-chemical stressors during windows of rapid development is associated with sex-specific synergistic, potentiated and reversed effects on several neuroendocrine endpoints related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, sex steroid levels, neurotransmitter circuits, and innate immune function. We additionally identify gaps, such as the role that the endocrine-active placenta plays, in our understanding of these complex interactions. Finally, we discuss future research needs, including the investigation of non-hormonal biomarkers of stress. We demonstrate multiple physiologic systems are impacted by joint exposure to chemical and non-chemical stressors differentially among males and females. Collectively, the results highlight the importance of evaluating sex-specific endpoints when investigating the neuroendocrine system and underscore the need to examine exposure to chemical toxicants within the context of the social environment.

  18. Inventory of the chemicals and the exposure of the workers' skin to these at two leather factories in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Febriana, Sri Awalia; Jungbauer, Frank; Soebono, Hardyanto; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    Tannery workers are exposed to hazardous chemicals. Tannery work is outsourced to newly industrialized countries (NICs) where attention into occupational health hazards is limited. In this study, we investigated the skin exposure to hazardous chemicals in tannery workers and determined the

  19. Mass Spectrometry Applications for the Identification and Quantitation of Biomarkers Resulting from Human Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. Richard; Capacio, Benedict R.

    In recent years, a number of analytical methods using biomedical samples such as blood and urine have been developed for the verification of exposure to chemical warfare agents. The majority of methods utilize gas or liquid chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry. In a small number of cases of suspected human exposure to chemical warfare agents, biomedical specimens have been made available for testing. This chapter provides an overview of biomarkers that have been verified in human biomedical samples, details of the exposure incidents, the methods utilized for analysis, and the biomarker concentration levels determined in the blood and/or urine.

  20. The role of molecular biology in the biomonitoring of human exposure to chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Balam; Albores, Arnulfo

    2010-11-12

    Exposure to different substances in an occupational environment is of utmost concern to global agencies such as the World Health Organization and the International Labour Organization. Interest in improving work health conditions, particularly of those employees exposed to noxious chemicals, has increased considerably and has stimulated the search for new, more specific and selective tests. Recently, the field of molecular biology has been indicated as an alternative technique for monitoring personnel while evaluating work-related pathologies. Originally, occupational exposure to environmental toxicants was assessed using biochemical techniques to determine the presence of higher concentrations of toxic compounds in blood, urine, or other fluids or tissues; results were used to evaluate potential health risk. However, this approach only estimates the presence of a noxious chemical and its effects, but does not prevent or diminish the risk. Molecular biology methods have become very useful in occupational medicine to provide more accurate and opportune diagnostics. In this review, we discuss the role of the following common techniques: (1) Use of cell cultures; (2) evaluation of gene expression; (3) the "omic" sciences (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) and (4) bioinformatics. We suggest that molecular biology has many applications in occupational health where the data can be applied to general environmental conditions.

  1. Importance of environmental and biomass dynamics in predicting chemical exposure in ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Melissa; Semplice, Matteo; De Laender, Frederik; Van den Brink, Paul J; Di Guardo, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    In ecological risk assessment, exposure is generally modelled assuming static conditions, herewith neglecting the potential role of emission, environmental and biomass dynamics in affecting bioavailable concentrations. In order to investigate the influence of such dynamics on predicted bioavailable concentrations, the spatially-resolved dynamic model "ChimERA fate" was developed, incorporating macrophyte and particulate/dissolved organic carbon (POC/DOC) dynamics into a water-sediment system. An evaluation against three case studies revealed a satisfying model performance. Illustrative simulations then highlighted the potential spatio-temporal variability of bioavailable concentrations after a pulsed emission of four chemicals in a system composed of a pond connected to its inflow and outflow streams. Changes in macrophyte biomass and POC/DOC levels caused exposure variations which were up to a factor of 4.5 in time and even more significant (several orders of magnitude) in space, especially for highly hydrophobic chemicals. ChimERA fate thus revealed to be a useful tool to investigate such variations and to identify those environmental and ecological conditions in which risk is expected to be highest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Increasing the understanding of chemical concepts: The effectiveness of multiple exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bius, Janet H.

    Chemistry is difficult because it has multilevels of knowledge with each level presenting challenges in vocabulary, abstract thinking, and symbolic language. Students have to be able to transfer between levels to understand the concepts and the theoretical models of chemistry. The cognitive theories of constructivism and cognitive-load theory are used to explain the difficulties novice learners have with the subject of chemistry and methods to increase success for students. The relationship between external representations, misconceptions and topics on the success of students are addressed. If students do not know the formalisms associated with chemical diagrams and graphs, the representations will decrease student success. Misconceptions can be formed when new information is interpreted based on pre-existing knowledge that is faulty. Topics with large amount of interacting elements that must be processed simultaneously are considered difficult to understand. New variables were created to measure the number of times a student is exposed to a chemical concept. Each variable was coded according to topic and learning environment, which are the lecture and laboratory components of the course, homework assignments and textbook examples. The exposure variables are used to measure the success rate of students on similar exam questions. Question difficulty scales were adapted for this project from those found in the chemical education literature. The exposure variables were tested on each level of the difficulty scales to determine their effect at decreasing the cognitive demand of these questions. The subjects of this study were freshmen science majors at a large Midwest university. The effects of the difficulty scales and exposure variables were measured for those students whose exam scores were in the upper one-fourth percentile, for students whose test scores were in the middle one-half percentile, and the lower one-fourth percentile are those students that scored the

  3. Comprehensive default methodology for the analysis of exposures to mixtures of chemicals accidentally released to the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, D.K. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Baskett, R.L.; Powell, T.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Davis, J.S. [Duke Engineering Services, Hanford, Inc., Charlotte, NC (United States); Dukes, L.L. [Automated Solutions of Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hansen, D.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Petrocchi, A.J. [AlphaTRAC, Inc. (United States); Sutherland, P.J. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Safety analysis of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities requires consideration of potential exposures to mixtures of chemicals released to the atmosphere. Exposure to chemical mixtures may lead to additive, synergistic, or antagonistic health effects. In the past, the consequences of each chemical have been analyzed separately. This approach may not adequately protect the health of persons exposed to mixtures. However, considerable time would be required to evaluate all possible mixtures. The objective of this paper is to present reasonable default methodology developed by the EFCOG Safety Analysis Working Group Nonradiological Hazardous Material Subgroup (NHMS) for use in safety analysis within the DOE Complex.

  4. Treating exposure to chemical warfare agents: Implications for health care providers and community emergency planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munro, N.B.; Watson, A.P.; Ambrose, K.R.; Griffin, G.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Current treatment protocols for exposure to nerve and vesicant agents found in the US stockpile of unitary chemical weapons are summarized, and the toxicities of available antidotes are evaluated. The status of the most promising of the new nerve agent antidotes is reviewed. In the US, atropine and pralidoxime compose the only approved antidote regimen for organophosphate nerve agent poisoning. Diazepam may also be used if necessary to control convulsions. To avoid death, administration must occur within minutes of substantial exposure together with immediate decontamination. Continuous observation and repeated administration of antidotes are necessary as symptoms warrant. Available antidotes do not necessarily prevent respiratory failure or incapacitation. The toxicity of the antidotes themselves and the individualized nature of medical care preclude recommending that autoinjectors be distributed to the general public. In addition, precautionary administration of protective drugs to the general population would not be feasible or desirable. No antidote exists for poisoning by the vesicant sulfur mustard (H, HD, HT); effective intervention can only be accomplished by rapid decontamination followed by palliative treatment of symptoms. British anti-Lewisite (BAL) (2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol) is the antidote of choice for treatment of exposure to Lewisite, another potent vesicant. Experimental water-soluble BAL analogues have been developed that are less toxic than BAL. Treatment protocols for each antidote are summarized in tabular form for use by health care providers.

  5. Misregulated inflammation as an outcome of early-life exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietert, Rodney R

    2012-01-01

    This review introduces a potential unifying concept involving the risk of chronic diseases in which early-life exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can program host responses for misregulated inflammation. Inflammation is a part of host defense against pathogenic challenges and one of the processes necessary for normal tissue homeoregulation and for reproduction (e.g., implantation, labor). Deviations from tightly regulated inflammation present a significant health risk because unresolved inflammation can compromise tissue function and increase the risk for later-life cancer in the affected target tissue. The critical windows of innate immune vulnerability during prenatal and neonatal maturation are when developmental programming and the trajectory for childhood and adult inflammatory responses are largely established. Misregulated inflammation is a common thread that links most significant chronic diseases and conditions across all physiologic systems as well as the associated comorbid conditions. As a result, chronic diseases exist both as a myriad of conditions and as an integrated, dysfunctionally connected unit. Because the hormone microenvironment exerts a significant effect on resident innate immune cell function, endocrine disruption is likely to produce misregulated inflammation in tissues. Among the factors determining specific health risks and disease outcomes across a lifetime are the age of exposure, sex, genetic background, and transgenerational epigenetic experiences. Additional research into early-life EDC exposure and misregulation of inflammation appears to be a useful avenue for reducing environmental health risks.

  6. Chemical exposure among professional ski waxers--characterization of individual work operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freberg, Baard Ingegerdsson; Olsen, Raymond; Thorud, Syvert; Ellingsen, Dag G; Daae, Hanne Line; Hersson, Merete; Molander, Paal

    2013-04-01

    Preparation of skis prior to skiing competitions involves several individual work operations and the use of a wide variety of chemically based ski waxing products to improve the performance of the skis, including products used after skiing for wax removal and ski sole cleaning. Modern ski waxes consist mainly of petroleum-derived straight-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, perfluoro-n-alkanes or polyfluorinated n-alkanes. The wax cleaning products contain solvents such as neat aliphatic hydrocarbons (aliphates) or a mixture with limonene. Different ski waxing work operations can result in contaminated workroom atmospheres. The aim of this study was to assess the chemical exposures related to the individual ski waxing work operations by investigating the specific work operations in controlled model experiments. Four main work operations with potential exposures were identified: (i) application of glider waxes, (ii) scraping and brushing of applied glider waxes, (iii) application of base/grip waxes, and (iv) ski sole cleaning. Aerosol particle masses were sampled using conical samplers equipped with 37-mm PVC, 5-µm pore size filters and cyclones equipped with 37-mm PVC, 0.8-µm pore size filters for the inhalable and the respirable aerosol mass fractions, respectively. For measurements of particle number concentrations, a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer was used. Mean aerosol particle mass concentrations of 18.6 mg m(-3) and 32.2 mg m(-3) were measured during application of glider wax powders in the respirable and in the inhalable aerosol mass fractions, respectively. Particle number concentration of ~900 000 particles cm(-3) was measured during application of glider wax powder products. Ski sole cleaning with products containing aliphates displayed solvent air concentrations up to 62.5 p.p.m. This study shows that the potential exposure to generated particles during ski waxing and ski preparation is considerable, especially during work using glide wax powders.

  7. The environmental injustice of beauty: framing chemical exposures from beauty products as a health disparities concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zota, Ami R; Shamasunder, Bhavna

    2017-10-01

    The obstetrics-gynecology community has issued a call to action to prevent toxic environmental chemical exposures and their threats to healthy human reproduction. Recent committee opinions recognize that vulnerable and underserved women may be impacted disproportionately by environmental chemical exposures and recommend that reproductive health professionals champion policies that secure environmental justice. Beauty product use is an understudied source of environmental chemical exposures. Beauty products can include reproductive and developmental toxicants such as phthalates and heavy metals; however, disclosure requirements are limited and inconsistent. Compared with white women, women of color have higher levels of beauty product-related environmental chemicals in their bodies, independent of socioeconomic status. Even small exposures to toxic chemicals during critical periods of development (such as pregnancy) can trigger adverse health consequences (such as impacts on fertility and pregnancy, neurodevelopment, and cancer). In this commentary, we seek to highlight the connections between environmental justice and beauty product-related chemical exposures. We describe racial/ethnic differences in beauty product use (such as skin lighteners, hair straighteners, and feminine hygiene products) and the potential chemical exposures and health risks that are associated with these products. We also discuss how targeted advertising can take advantage of mainstream beauty norms to influence the use of these products. Reproductive health professionals can use this information to advance environmental justice by being prepared to counsel patients who have questions about toxic environmental exposures from beauty care products and other sources. Researchers and healthcare providers can also promote health-protective policies such as improved ingredient testing and disclosure for the beauty product industry. Future clinical and public health research should consider beauty

  8. Assessing Exposure and Health Consequences of Chemicals in Drinking Water: Current State of Knowledge and Research Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogevinas, Manolis; Cordier, Sylvaine; Templeton, Michael R.; Vermeulen, Roel; Nuckols, John R.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Levallois, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Safe drinking water is essential for well-being. Although microbiological contamination remains the largest cause of water-related morbidity and mortality globally, chemicals in water supplies may also cause disease, and evidence of the human health consequences is limited or lacking for many of them. Objectives: We aimed to summarize the state of knowledge, identify gaps in understanding, and provide recommendations for epidemiological research relating to chemicals occurring in drinking water. Discussion: Assessing exposure and the health consequences of chemicals in drinking water is challenging. Exposures are typically at low concentrations, measurements in water are frequently insufficient, chemicals are present in mixtures, exposure periods are usually long, multiple exposure routes may be involved, and valid biomarkers reflecting the relevant exposure period are scarce. In addition, the magnitude of the relative risks tends to be small. Conclusions: Research should include well-designed epidemiological studies covering regions with contrasting contaminant levels and sufficient sample size; comprehensive evaluation of contaminant occurrence in combination with bioassays integrating the effect of complex mixtures; sufficient numbers of measurements in water to evaluate geographical and temporal variability; detailed information on personal habits resulting in exposure (e.g., ingestion, showering, swimming, diet); collection of biological samples to measure relevant biomarkers; and advanced statistical models to estimate exposure and relative risks, considering methods to address measurement error. Last, the incorporation of molecular markers of early biological effects and genetic susceptibility is essential to understand the mechanisms of action. There is a particular knowledge gap and need to evaluate human exposure and the risks of a wide range of emerging contaminants. Citation: Villanueva CM, Kogevinas M, Cordier S, Templeton MR, Vermeulen R

  9. Reconnaissance study of water quality in the mining-affected Aries River Basin, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.; Tindall, James A.; Sardan, Daniel; Fey, David L.; Poputa, G.L.

    2008-01-01

    The Aries River basin of western Romania has been subject to mining activities as far back as Roman times. Present mining activities are associated with the extraction and processing of various metals including Au, Cu, Pb, and Zn. To understand the effects of these mining activities on the environment, this study focused on three objectives: (1) establish a baseline set of physical parameters, and water- and sediment-associated concentrations of metals in river-valley floors and floodplains; (2) establish a baseline set of physical and chemical measurements of pore water and sediment in tailings; and (3) provide training in sediment and water sampling to personnel in the National Agency for Mineral Resources and the Rosia Poieni Mine. This report summarizes basin findings of physical parameters and chemistry (sediment and water), and ancillary data collected during the low-flow synoptic sampling of May 2006.

  10. Dietary Exposure of Nigerians to Mutagens and Estrogen-Like Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyekhoetin Matthew Omoruyi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Food and drinking water are poorly delineated sources of human exposure to chemical food mutagens and endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In this study, we investigated the presence of mutagens and chemicals exhibiting estrogenic activity in the daily diet of Nigerians, using in vitro assays. Commercially processed foods or snacks and various brands of pure water sachets were extracted by solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction, respectively. Mutagenicity was determined by the conventional Ames test and two complementary assays on two strains of Salmonella (TA 100 and TA 98, while the estrogenic activity was assessed by a yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc. A third of the food varieties investigated (chin-chin, hamburger, suya and bean cake were mutagenic in all three assays, either in the presence or absence of S9 mix. Of the packed water samples, five out of the sixteen investigated (31%, were found to be estrogenic, with estradiol and bisphenol A equivalents ranging from 0.79 to 44.0 ng/L and 124.2 to 1,000.8 ng/L, respectively. Hence, although the current situation in Nigeria does not appear to be substantially worse than, e.g., in Europe, regular monitoring is warranted in the future.

  11. Dietary exposure of Nigerians to mutagens and estrogen-like chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoruyi, Iyekhoetin Matthew; Ahamioje, Derek; Pohjanvirta, Raimo

    2014-08-15

    Food and drinking water are poorly delineated sources of human exposure to chemical food mutagens and endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In this study, we investigated the presence of mutagens and chemicals exhibiting estrogenic activity in the daily diet of Nigerians, using in vitro assays. Commercially processed foods or snacks and various brands of pure water sachets were extracted by solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction, respectively. Mutagenicity was determined by the conventional Ames test and two complementary assays on two strains of Salmonella (TA 100 and TA 98), while the estrogenic activity was assessed by a yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc). A third of the food varieties investigated (chin-chin, hamburger, suya and bean cake) were mutagenic in all three assays, either in the presence or absence of S9 mix. Of the packed water samples, five out of the sixteen investigated (31%), were found to be estrogenic, with estradiol and bisphenol A equivalents ranging from 0.79 to 44.0 ng/L and 124.2 to 1,000.8 ng/L, respectively. Hence, although the current situation in Nigeria does not appear to be substantially worse than, e.g., in Europe, regular monitoring is warranted in the future.

  12. Dietary Exposure of Nigerians to Mutagens and Estrogen-Like Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoruyi, Iyekhoetin Matthew; Ahamioje, Derek; Pohjanvirta, Raimo

    2014-01-01

    Food and drinking water are poorly delineated sources of human exposure to chemical food mutagens and endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In this study, we investigated the presence of mutagens and chemicals exhibiting estrogenic activity in the daily diet of Nigerians, using in vitro assays. Commercially processed foods or snacks and various brands of pure water sachets were extracted by solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction, respectively. Mutagenicity was determined by the conventional Ames test and two complementary assays on two strains of Salmonella (TA 100 and TA 98), while the estrogenic activity was assessed by a yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc). A third of the food varieties investigated (chin-chin, hamburger, suya and bean cake) were mutagenic in all three assays, either in the presence or absence of S9 mix. Of the packed water samples, five out of the sixteen investigated (31%), were found to be estrogenic, with estradiol and bisphenol A equivalents ranging from 0.79 to 44.0 ng/L and 124.2 to 1,000.8 ng/L, respectively. Hence, although the current situation in Nigeria does not appear to be substantially worse than, e.g., in Europe, regular monitoring is warranted in the future. PMID:25153465

  13. Access and use of information resources in assessing health risks from chemical exposure: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    Health risk assessment is based on access to comprehensive information about potentially hazardous agents in question. Relevant information is scattered throughout the literature, and often is not readily accessible. To be useful in assessment efforts, emerging scientific findings, risk assess parameters, and associated data must be compiled and evaluated systemically. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are among the federal agencies heavily involved in this effort. This symposium was a direct response by EPA and ORNL to the expressed needs of individuals involved in assessing risks from chemical exposure. In an effort to examine the state of the risk assessment process, the availability of toxicological information, and the future development and transfer of this information, the symposium provided an excellent cadre of speakers and participants from state and federal agencies, academia and research laboratories to address these topics. This stimulating and productive gathering discussed concerns associated with (1) environmental contamination by chemicals; (2) laws regulating chemicals; (3) information needs and resources; (4) applications; (5) challenges and priorities; and (6)future issues. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  14. Long-term pulmonary complications of chemical weapons exposure in former poison gas factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Yoshifumi; Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Nobuhisa; Hattori, Noboru; Horimasu, Yasushi; Ohshimo, Shinichiro; Fujitaka, Kazunori; Kondo, Keiichi; Hamada, Hironobu; Awai, Kazuo; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2016-07-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) and lewisite are vesicant chemical warfare agents that can cause skin blistering and chronic lung complications. During 1929-1945, a Japanese factory produced poisonous gases, which included SM, lewisite and other chemical weapons. The aim of this study was to investigate the chest computed tomography (CT) findings among long-term survivors who worked at this factory. During 2009-2012, we evaluated chest CT findings from 346 long-term survivors who worked at the poison gas factory. Skin lesions were used as an indicator of significant exposure to vesicant agents. Among the 346 individuals, 53 (15%) individuals experienced skin lesions while working at the factory, and chest CT revealed abnormal findings in 179 individuals (52%). Emphysema was the most common CT finding and was observed in 75 individuals (22%), while honeycombing was observed in 8 individuals (2%). Emphysema and honeycombing were more prevalent among individuals with skin lesions, compared to individuals without skin lesions. Multivariate analyses revealed significant associations between the presence of emphysema and skin lesions (p = 0.008). Among individuals who never smoked, individuals with skin lesions (n = 26) exhibited a significantly higher rate of emphysema, compared to individuals without skin lesions (n = 200) (35% versus 7%, respectively; p chemical warfare agents.

  15. Impact of temporal upscaling and chemical transport model horizontal resolution on reducing ozone exposure misclassification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yadong; Serre, Marc L.; Reyes, Jeanette M.; Vizuete, William

    2017-10-01

    We have developed a Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) framework that integrates observations from a surface monitoring network and predictions from a Chemical Transport Model (CTM) to create improved exposure estimates that can be resolved into any spatial and temporal resolution. The flexibility of the framework allows for input of data in any choice of time scales and CTM predictions of any spatial resolution with varying associated degrees of estimation error and cost in terms of implementation and computation. This study quantifies the impact on exposure estimation error due to these choices by first comparing estimations errors when BME relied on ozone concentration data either as an hourly average, the daily maximum 8-h average (DM8A), or the daily 24-h average (D24A). Our analysis found that the use of DM8A and D24A data, although less computationally intensive, reduced estimation error more when compared to the use of hourly data. This was primarily due to the poorer CTM model performance in the hourly average predicted ozone. Our second analysis compared spatial variability and estimation errors when BME relied on CTM predictions with a grid cell resolution of 12 × 12 km2 versus a coarser resolution of 36 × 36 km2. Our analysis found that integrating the finer grid resolution CTM predictions not only reduced estimation error, but also increased the spatial variability in daily ozone estimates by 5 times. This improvement was due to the improved spatial gradients and model performance found in the finer resolved CTM simulation. The integration of observational and model predictions that is permitted in a BME framework continues to be a powerful approach for improving exposure estimates of ambient air pollution. The results of this analysis demonstrate the importance of also understanding model performance variability and its implications on exposure error.

  16. Assessment of serum biomarkers in rats after exposure to pesticides of different chemical classes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Virginia C., E-mail: Moser.ginger@epa.gov [Neurotoxicology Branch/Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Stewart, Nicholas; Freeborn, Danielle L. [Neurotoxicology Branch/Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Crooks, James; MacMillan, Denise K. [Analytical Chemistry Research Core/Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Hedge, Joan M.; Wood, Charles E. [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); McMahen, Rebecca L. [ORISE fellow, Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Strynar, Mark J. [Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Herr, David W. [Neurotoxicology Branch/Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of biomarkers of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. We evaluated serum biomarkers and targeted metabolite profiles after exposure to pesticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, carbaryl, triadimefon, fipronil) with different neurotoxic actions. Adult male Long–Evans rats were evaluated after single exposure to vehicle or one of two doses of each pesticide at the time of peak effect. The doses were selected to produce similar magnitude of behavioral effects across chemicals. Serum or plasma was analyzed using commercial cytokine/protein panels and targeted metabolomics. Additional studies of fipronil used lower doses (lacking behavioral effects), singly or for 14 days, and included additional markers of exposure and biological activity. Biomarker profiles varied in the number of altered analytes and patterns of change across pesticide classes, and discriminant analysis could separate treatment groups from control. Low doses of fipronil produced greater effects when given for 14 days compared to a single dose. Changes in thyroid hormones and relative amounts of fipronil and its sulfone metabolite also differed between the dosing regimens. Most cytokine changes reflected alterations in inflammatory responses, hormone levels, and products of phospholipid, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism. These findings demonstrate distinct blood-based analyte profiles across pesticide classes, dose levels, and exposure duration. These results show promise for detailed analyses of these biomarkers and their linkages to biological pathways. - Highlights: • Pesticides typical of different classes produced distinct patterns of change in biomarker panels. • Based on the panels used, alterations suggest impacts on immune, metabolism, and homeostasis functions. • Some changes may reflect actions on neurotransmitter systems involved in immune modulation. • Fipronil effects on thyroid and kinetics

  17. Including exposure variability in the life cycle impact assessment of indoor chemical emissions: the case of metal degreasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golsteijn, Laura; Huizer, Daan; Hauck, Mara; van Zelm, Rosalie; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2014-10-01

    The present paper describes a method that accounts for variation in indoor chemical exposure settings and accompanying human toxicity in life cycle assessment (LCA). Metal degreasing with dichloromethane was used as a case study to show method in practice. We compared the human toxicity related to the degreasing of 1m(2) of metal surface in different exposure scenarios for industrial workers, professional users outside industrial settings, and home consumers. The fraction of the chemical emission that is taken in by exposed individuals (i.e. the intake fraction) was estimated on the basis of operational conditions (e.g. exposure duration), and protective measures (e.g. local exhaust ventilation). The introduction of a time-dependency and a correction for protective measures resulted in reductions in the intake fraction of up to 1.5 orders of magnitude, compared to application of existing, less advanced models. In every exposure scenario, the life cycle impacts for human toxicity were mainly caused by indoor exposure to metal degreaser (>60%). Emissions released outdoors contributed up to 22% of the life cycle impacts for human toxicity, and the production of metal degreaser contributed up to 19%. These findings illustrate that human toxicity from indoor chemical exposure should not be disregarded in LCA case studies. Particularly when protective measures are taken or in the case of a short duration (1h or less), we recommend the use of our exposure scenario-specific approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk-based high-throughput chemical screening and prioritization using exposure models and in vitro bioactivity assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Ernstoff, Alexi; Arnot, Jon

    2015-01-01

    relevant use scenarios (e.g., dermal application, indoor emissions). For each chemical and use scenario, exposure models are then used to calculate a chemical intake fraction, or a product intake fraction, accounting for chemical properties and the exposed population. We then combine these intake fractions...... with use scenario-specific estimates of chemical quantity to calculate daily intake rates (iR; mg/kg/day). These intake rates are compared to oral equivalent doses (OED; mg/kg/day), calculated from a suite of ToxCast in vitro bioactivity assays using in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation and reverse dosimetry...

  19. Hypothesis: exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may interfere with timing of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, A; Aksglaede, L; Sørensen, K

    2010-01-01

    A recent decline in onset of puberty - especially among girls - has been observed, first in the US in the mid-1990s and now also in Europe. The development of breast tissue in girls occurs at a much younger age and the incidence of precocious puberty (PP) is increasing. Genetic factors...... of normal puberty are poorly understood. This hampers investigation of the possible role of environmental influences. There are many types of EDCs. One chemical may have more than one mode of action and the effects may depend on dose and duration of the exposure, as well as the developmental stage...... in life. Most known EDCs have oestrogenic and/or anti-androgenic actions and only few have androgenic or anti-oestrogenic effects. Thus, it appears plausible that they interfere with normal onset of puberty. The age at menarche has only declined by a few months whereas the age at breast development has...

  20. The Chemical Nature of Mercury in Human Brain Following Poisoning or Environmental Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Methylmercury is among the most potentially toxic species to which human populations are exposed, both at high levels through poisonings and at lower levels through consumption of fish and other seafood. However, the molecular mechanisms of methylmercury toxicity in humans remain poorly understood. We used synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to study mercury chemical forms in human brain tissue. Individuals poisoned with high levels of methylmercury species showed elevated cortical selenium with significant proportions of nanoparticulate mercuric selenide plus some inorganic mercury and methylmercury bound to organic sulfur. Individuals with a lifetime of high fish consumption showed much lower levels of mercuric selenide and methylmercury cysteineate. Mercury exposure did not perturb organic selenium levels. These results elucidate a key detoxification pathway in the central nervous system and provide new insights into the appropriate methods for biological monitoring. PMID:22826746

  1. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Challenges, priorities, and future issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigel, S. [National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Issues related to developing information resources for assessing the health effects from chemical exposure include the question of how to address the individual political issues relevant to identifying and determining the timeliness, scientific credibility, and completeness of such kinds of information resources. One of the important ways for agencies to share information is through connection tables. This type of software is presently being used to build information products for some DHHS agencies. One of the challenges will be to convince vendors of data of the importance of trying to make data files available to communities that need them. In the future, information processing will be conducted with neural networks, object-oriented database management systems, and fuzzy-set technologies, and meta analysis techniques.

  2. Estimating burden and disease costs of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the European union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasande, Leonardo; Zoeller, R Thomas; Hass, Ulla; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Grandjean, Philippe; Myers, John Peterson; DiGangi, Joseph; Bellanger, Martine; Hauser, Russ; Legler, Juliette; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Heindel, Jerrold J

    2015-04-01

    Rapidly increasing evidence has documented that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute substantially to disease and disability. The objective was to quantify a range of health and economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposures in the European Union (EU). A Steering Committee of scientists adapted the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization for probability of causation based upon levels of available epidemiological and toxicological evidence for one or more chemicals contributing to disease by an endocrine disruptor mechanism. To evaluate the epidemiological evidence, the Steering Committee adapted the World Health Organization Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria, whereas the Steering Committee adapted definitions recently promulgated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency for evaluating laboratory and animal evidence of endocrine disruption. Expert panels used the Delphi method to make decisions on the strength of the data. Expert panels achieved consensus at least for probable (>20%) EDC causation for IQ loss and associated intellectual disability, autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, childhood obesity, adult obesity, adult diabetes, cryptorchidism, male infertility, and mortality associated with reduced testosterone. Accounting for probability of causation and using the midpoint of each range for probability of causation, Monte Carlo simulations produced a median cost of €157 billion (or $209 billion, corresponding to 1.23% of EU gross domestic product) annually across 1000 simulations. Notably, using the lowest end of the probability range for each relationship in the Monte Carlo simulations produced a median range of €109 billion that differed modestly from base case probability inputs. EDC exposures in the EU are likely to contribute substantially to disease and dysfunction across the life course with costs in

  3. Šumski požari i fizikalni modeli

    OpenAIRE

    Španjol, Željko; Biljaković, Katica; Rosavec, Roman; Dominko, Damir; Barčić, Damir; Starešinić, Damir

    2008-01-01

    Hrvatska je zemlja relativno bogata šumama; 36 % od ukupne površine države pokrivaju šumske površine. Međutim, poseban problem na jadranskom području Hrvatske predstavljaju šumski požari, koji uništavaju prirodna bogatstva smanjujući biološku raznolikost, a negativan utjecaj imaju i na krajobraznu raznolikost. Sam problem je višeslojan, kompleksan i zahtijeva uključivanje brojnih grana znanosti, kao što su šumarstvo, geologija, biologija, meteorologija, a u zadnje vrijeme i fizika. Poznato...

  4. Female Reproductive Disorders, Diseases, and Costs of Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Patricia A.; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Fowler, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: A growing body of evidence suggests that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to female reproductive disorders. Objective: To calculate the associated combined health care and economic costs attributable to specific EDC exposures within the European Union (EU). Design: An expert panel evaluated evidence for probability of causation using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated, and biomarker data were organized from carefully identified studies from the peer-reviewed literature to represent European exposure and approximate burden of disease as it occurred in 2010. Cost-of-illness estimation used multiple peer-reviewed sources. Setting, Patients and Participants and Intervention: Cost estimation was carried out from a societal perspective, ie, including direct costs (eg, treatment costs) and indirect costs such as productivity loss. Results: The most robust EDC-related data for female reproductive disorders exist for 1) diphenyldichloroethene-attributable fibroids and 2) phthalate-attributable endometriosis in Europe. In both cases, the strength of epidemiological evidence was rated as low and the toxicological evidence as moderate, with an assigned probability of causation of 20%–39%. Across the EU, attributable cases were estimated to be 56 700 and 145 000 women, respectively, with total combined economic and health care costs potentially reaching €163 million and €1.25 billion. Conclusions: EDCs (diphenyldichloroethene and phthalates) may contribute substantially to the most common reproductive disorders in women, endometriosis and fibroids, costing nearly €1.5 billion annually. These estimates represent only EDCs for which there were sufficient epidemiologic studies and those with the highest probability of causation. These public health costs should be considered as the EU contemplates regulatory action on EDCs. PMID

  5. Joint Exposure to Chemical and Nonchemical Neurodevelopmental Stressors in U.S. Women of Reproductive Age in NHANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M. Evans

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb and methyl mercury (MeHg are well established neurodevelopmental toxicants (NDTs, but joint exposure to chemical and nonchemical (e.g., maternal stress stressors has rarely been considered. We characterized exposure to Pb, MeHg and a measure of physiological dysregulation associated with chronic stress and examined race/ethnicity as a predictor of joint NDT exposure. Using data from the 2003−2004 NHANES, potential chronic stress exposure was estimated using allostatic load (AL, a quantitative measure of physiological dysregulation. A Hazard Index was calculated for joint exposure to Pb and MeHg (HINDT. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between an indicator of elevated joint NDT exposures (HINDT > 1 and race/ethnicity. The multivariate model was stratified by AL groups to examine effect measure modification. African American (adjusted odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval] = 2.2 [1.4, 3.3] and Mexican American (1.4 [0.7, 2.6] women were more likely to have an HINDT > 1 compared to Caucasian women. Chronic stress was identified as an effect measure modifier with the largest ORs among women with high AL scores (African Americans = 4.3 [2.0, 9.5]; Mexican Americans = 4.2 [1.3, 14.1]. Chronic stress was found to modify the association between elevated joint NDT exposure and race/ethnicity, highlighting the importance of evaluating chemical and nonchemical stressor exposures leading to a common endpoint.

  6. Screening and prioritisation of chemical risks from metal mining operations, identifying exposure media of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jilang; Oates, Christopher J; Ihlenfeld, Christian; Plant, Jane A; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2010-04-01

    Metals have been central to the development of human civilisation from the Bronze Age to modern times, although in the past, metal mining and smelting have been the cause of serious environmental pollution with the potential to harm human health. Despite problems from artisanal mining in some developing countries, modern mining to Western standards now uses the best available mining technology combined with environmental monitoring, mitigation and remediation measures to limit emissions to the environment. This paper develops risk screening and prioritisation methods previously used for contaminated land on military and civilian sites and engineering systems for the analysis and prioritisation of chemical risks from modern metal mining operations. It uses hierarchical holographic modelling and multi-criteria decision making to analyse and prioritise the risks from potentially hazardous inorganic chemical substances released by mining operations. A case study of an active platinum group metals mine in South Africa is used to demonstrate the potential of the method. This risk-based methodology for identifying, filtering and ranking mining-related environmental and human health risks can be used to identify exposure media of greatest concern to inform risk management. It also provides a practical decision-making tool for mine acquisition and helps to communicate risk to all members of mining operation teams.

  7. Chemical and biological studies of β-carotene after exposure to Cannabis sativa smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulciana S. do Monte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the increase in consumption of Cannabis sativa and the use of the compound β-carotene (BC as supplement, we investigated potential changes in the chemical and biological proprieties of BC after exposure to C. sativa smoke (CSS. Our results showed that the BC exposed to CSS underwent 98.8% degradation and suffered loss of its antiradical activity. The major degradation products identified were 3-hydroxy-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl2-methylpropanoate and (2-ethyl-3-hydroxyhexyl2-methylpropanoate compounds. These are found in higher levels in the exhalations of colorectal cancer patients and are similar to the toxic products associated with lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In toxicological assays using micro-crustacean Artemia salina the BC was non-toxic, while the BC degraded by CSS had a toxicity of LC50 = 397.35 μg/mL. In Wistar rats, females treated with BC degraded by CSS (BCCSS showed whitish liver spots, alterations in liver weight and in bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase levels, and decrease in the number of leukocytes associated with atypical lymphocytosis. In male rats, there was an increase in the number of leukocytes when compared to the control group. In the histopathological analysis, the cortical region of the kidneys showed the presence of discrete amorphous eosinophilic material (cylinders in the lumen of the proximate and distal convoluted tubules. In general, the BC in contact with CSS undergoes chemical changes and exhibits toxicity to rats and Artemia salina.

  8. Exposure Forecaster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Exposure Forecaster Database (ExpoCastDB) is EPA's database for aggregating chemical exposure information and can be used to help with chemical exposure...

  9. Neurobehavioral and pulmonary impairment in 105 adults with indoor exposure to molds compared to 100 exposed to chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Kaye H

    2009-01-01

    Patients exposed at home to molds and mycotoxins and those exposed to chemicals (CE) have many similar symptoms of eye, nose, and throat irritation and poor memory, concentration, and other neurobehavioral dysfunctions. To compare the neurobehavioral and pulmonary impairments associated with indoor exposures to mold and to chemicals. 105 consecutive adults exposed to molds (ME) indoors at home and 100 patients exposed to other chemicals were compared to 202 community referents without mold or chemical exposure. To assess brain functions, we measured 26 neurobehavioral functions. Medical and exposure histories, mood states score, and symptoms frequencies were obtained. Vital capacity and flows were measured by spirometry. Groups were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA) after adjusting for age, educational attainment, and sex, by calculating predicted values (observed/predicted x 100 = % predicted). And p mold had a total of 6.1 abnormalities and those exposed to chemicals had 7.1 compared to 1.2 abnormalities in referents. Compared to referents, the exposed groups had balance decreased, longer reaction times, and blink reflex latentcies lengthened. Also, color discrimination errors were increased and visual field performances and grip strengths were reduced. The cognitive and memory performance measures were abnormal in both exposed groups. Culture Fair scores, digit symbol substitution, immediate and delayed verbal recall, picture completion, and information were reduced. Times for peg-placement and trail making A and B were increased. One difference was that chemically exposed patients had excess fingertip number writing errors, but the mold-exposed did not. Mood State scores and symptom frequencies were greater in both exposed groups than in referents. Vital capacities were reduced in both groups. Neurobehavioral and pulmonary impairments associated with exposures to indoor molds and mycotoxins were not different from those with various chemical exposures.

  10. Effect of postnatal low-dose exposure to environmental chemicals on the gut microbiome in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianzhong; Raikhel, Vincent; Gopalakrishnan, Kalpana; Fernandez-Hernandez, Heriberto; Lambertini, Luca; Manservisi, Fabiana; Falcioni, Laura; Bua, Luciano; Belpoggi, Fiorella; L Teitelbaum, Susan; Chen, Jia

    2016-06-14

    This proof-of-principle study examines whether postnatal, low-dose exposure to environmental chemicals modifies the composition of gut microbiome. Three chemicals that are widely used in personal care products-diethyl phthalate (DEP), methylparaben (MPB), triclosan (TCS)-and their mixture (MIX) were administered at doses comparable to human exposure to Sprague-Dawley rats from birth through adulthood. Fecal samples were collected at two time points: postnatal day (PND) 62 (adolescence) and PND 181 (adulthood). The gut microbiome was profiled by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, taxonomically assigned and assessed for diversity. Metagenomic profiling revealed that the low-dose chemical exposure resulted in significant changes in the overall bacterial composition, but in adolescent rats only. Specifically, the individual taxon relative abundance for Bacteroidetes (Prevotella) was increased while the relative abundance of Firmicutes (Bacilli) was reduced in all treated rats compared to controls. Increased abundance was observed for Elusimicrobia in DEP and MPB groups, Betaproteobacteria in MPB and MIX groups, and Deltaproteobacteria in TCS group. Surprisingly, these differences diminished by adulthood (PND 181) despite continuous exposure, suggesting that exposure to the environmental chemicals produced a more profound effect on the gut microbiome in adolescents. We also observed a small but consistent reduction in the bodyweight of exposed rats in adolescence, especially with DEP and MPB treatment (p gut microbiota in adolescent rats; whether these changes lead to downstream health effects requires further investigation.

  11. Chemical-induced asthma and the role of clinical, toxicological, exposure and epidemiological research in regulatory and hazard characterization approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Melissa J; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Basketter, David; LaKind, Judy S; Dotson, G Scott; Maier, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Uncertainties in understanding all potential modes-of-action for asthma induction and elicitation hinders design of hazard characterization and risk assessment methods that adequately screen and protect against hazardous chemical exposures. To address this challenge and identify current research needs, the University of Cincinnati and the American Cleaning Institute hosted a webinar series to discuss the current state-of-science regarding chemical-induced asthma. The general consensus is that the available database, comprised of data collected from routine clinical and validated toxicological tests, is inadequate for predicting or determining causal relationships between exposures and asthma induction for most allergens. More research is needed to understand the mechanism of asthma induction and elicitation in the context of specific chemical exposures and exposure patterns, and the impact of population variability and patient phenotypes. Validated tools to predict respiratory sensitization and to translate irritancy assays to asthma potency are needed, in addition to diagnostic biomarkers that assess and differentiate allergy versus irritant-based asthmatic responses. Diagnostic methods that encompass the diverse etiologies of asthmatic responses and incorporate robust exposure measurements capable of capturing different temporal patterns of complex chemical mixtures are needed. In the absence of ideal tools, risk assessors apply hazard-based safety assessment methods, in conjunction with active risk management, to limit potential asthma concerns, proactively identify new concerns, and ensure deployment of approaches to mitigate asthma-related risks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The relevance of the food production chain with regard to the population exposure to chemical substances and its role in contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Francesca Romana; Busani, Luca; Tait, Sabrina; La Rocca, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Food may be contaminated with many chemical substances at any level along the production chain. Chemicals that may be found in food items can simultaneously be present in other matrices, as air, water, soil and dust; therefore, human exposure to chemicals via food has to be summed to the exposure through all the other possible routes. The role played by the food production chain with regard to the population exposure to chemicals assumes amplified proportions when considering contaminated sites. Indeed the link between environment and food production is undeniable and consequently, when population chemical exposure is considered, an integrated approach assessing the contribution of the different routes of exposure, including dietary exposure, is needed. Such integrated approach allows a realistic and comprehensive risk assessment of chemical substances in order to identify and deploy effective prevention and intervention measures to protect human health.

  13. Design of the Advanced Rare Isotope Separator ARIS at FRIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, M., E-mail: hausmann@frib.msu.edu [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Aaron, A.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Amthor, A.M. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837 (United States); Avilov, M.; Bandura, L.; Bennett, R.; Bollen, G.; Borden, T. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Burgess, T.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Chouhan, S.S. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Graves, V.B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Mittig, W. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Morrissey, D.J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Pellemoine, F.; Portillo, M.; Ronningen, R.M.; Schein, M. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Sherrill, B.M. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Zeller, A. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    The Facility for Rare Isotopes Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University will use projectile fragmentation and induced in-flight fission of heavy-ion primary beams at energies of 200 MeV/u and higher and at a beam power of 400 kW to generate rare isotope beams for experiments in nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics, and fundamental symmetries, as well as for societal needs. The Advanced Rare Isotope Separator (ARIS) has been designed as a three-stage fragment separator for the efficient collection and purification of the rare isotope beams of interest. A vertically bending preseparator (first stage) with production target and beam dump is fully integrated into a production target facility hot cell with remote handling. The new separator compresses the accepted momentum width of up to ±5% of the beam by a factor of three in the standard operational mode. Provisions for alternate operational modes for specific cases are included in the design. This preseparator is followed by two, horizontally-bending separator stages (second and third stages) utilizing the magnets from the existing A1900 fragment separator at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). These stages can alternatively be coupled to a single high-resolution separator stage, resulting in the flexibility to optimize the operation for different experiments, including momentum tagging and in-flight particle identification of rare isotope beams. The design of ARIS will be presented with an emphasis on beam physics characteristics, and anticipated operational modes will be described.

  14. Design of the Advanced Rare Isotope Separator ARIS at FRIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, M.; Aaron, A. M.; Amthor, A. M.; Avilov, M.; Bandura, L.; Bennett, R.; Bollen, G.; Borden, T.; Burgess, T. W.; Chouhan, S. S.; Graves, V. B.; Mittig, W.; Morrissey, D. J.; Pellemoine, F.; Portillo, M.; Ronningen, R. M.; Schein, M.; Sherrill, B. M.; Zeller, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotopes Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University will use projectile fragmentation and induced in-flight fission of heavy-ion primary beams at energies of 200 MeV/u and higher and at a beam power of 400 kW to generate rare isotope beams for experiments in nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics, and fundamental symmetries, as well as for societal needs. The Advanced Rare Isotope Separator (ARIS) has been designed as a three-stage fragment separator for the efficient collection and purification of the rare isotope beams of interest. A vertically bending preseparator (first stage) with production target and beam dump is fully integrated into a production target facility hot cell with remote handling. The new separator compresses the accepted momentum width of up to ±5% of the beam by a factor of three in the standard operational mode. Provisions for alternate operational modes for specific cases are included in the design. This preseparator is followed by two, horizontally-bending separator stages (second and third stages) utilizing the magnets from the existing A1900 fragment separator at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). These stages can alternatively be coupled to a single high-resolution separator stage, resulting in the flexibility to optimize the operation for different experiments, including momentum tagging and in-flight particle identification of rare isotope beams. The design of ARIS will be presented with an emphasis on beam physics characteristics, and anticipated operational modes will be described.

  15. Endocrine-Disrupting Activity of Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Adverse Health Outcomes After Prenatal Exposure in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Klemp, Kara C; Vu, Danh C; Lin, Chung-Ho; Meng, Chun-Xia; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L; Pinatti, Lisa; Zoeller, R Thomas; Drobnis, Erma Z; Balise, Victoria D; Isiguzo, Chiamaka J; Williams, Michelle A; Tillitt, Donald E; Nagel, Susan C

    2015-12-01

    Oil and natural gas operations have been shown to contaminate surface and ground water with endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In the current study, we fill several gaps in our understanding of the potential environmental impacts related to this process. We measured the endocrine-disrupting activities of 24 chemicals used and/or produced by oil and gas operations for five nuclear receptors using a reporter gene assay in human endometrial cancer cells. We also quantified the concentration of 16 of these chemicals in oil and gas wastewater samples. Finally, we assessed reproductive and developmental outcomes in male C57BL/6J mice after the prenatal exposure to a mixture of these chemicals. We found that 23 commonly used oil and natural gas operation chemicals can activate or inhibit the estrogen, androgen, glucocorticoid, progesterone, and/or thyroid receptors, and mixtures of these chemicals can behave synergistically, additively, or antagonistically in vitro. Prenatal exposure to a mixture of 23 oil and gas operation chemicals at 3, 30, and 300 μg/kg · d caused decreased sperm counts and increased testes, body, heart, and thymus weights and increased serum testosterone in male mice, suggesting multiple organ system impacts. Our results suggest possible adverse developmental and reproductive health outcomes in humans and animals exposed to potential environmentally relevant levels of oil and gas operation chemicals.

  16. Endocrine-disrupting activity of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and adverse health outcomes after prenatal exposure in male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Klemp, Kara C.; Vu, Danh C.; Lin, Chung-Ho; Meng, Chun-Xia; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L.; Pinatti, Lisa; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Drobnis, Erma Z.; Balise, Victoria D.; Isiguzo, Chiamaka J.; Williams, Michelle A.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Oil and natural gas operations have been shown to contaminate surface and ground water with endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In the current study, we fill several gaps in our understanding of the potential environmental impacts related to this process. We measured the endocrine-disrupting activities of 24 chemicals used and/or produced by oil and gas operations for five nuclear receptors using a reporter gene assay in human endometrial cancer cells. We also quantified the concentration of 16 of these chemicals in oil and gas wastewater samples. Finally, we assessed reproductive and developmental outcomes in male C57BL/6J mice after the prenatal exposure to a mixture of these chemicals. We found that 23 commonly used oil and natural gas operation chemicals can activate or inhibit the estrogen, androgen, glucocorticoid, progesterone, and/or thyroid receptors, and mixtures of these chemicals can behave synergistically, additively, or antagonistically in vitro. Prenatal exposure to a mixture of 23 oil and gas operation chemicals at 3, 30, and 300 μg/kg · d caused decreased sperm counts and increased testes, body, heart, and thymus weights and increased serum testosterone in male mice, suggesting multiple organ system impacts. Our results suggest possible adverse developmental and reproductive health outcomes in humans and animals exposed to potential environmentally relevant levels of oil and gas operation chemicals.

  17. 75 FR 37860 - Aris Industries, Inc., Bene Io, Inc., Commodore Separation Technologies, Inc., Food Integrated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... COMMISSION Aris Industries, Inc., Bene Io, Inc., Commodore Separation Technologies, Inc., Food Integrated Technologies, Inc., Gap Instrument Corp., Skysat Communications Network Corp., and Vicon Fiber Optics Corp... there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Aris Industries, Inc...

  18. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and chemical burns after exposure to chlorine-containing bleach: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hong-Joon; Chang, Jin-Sun; Ahn, Seong; Kim, Tae-Ok; Park, Cheol-Kyu; Lim, Jung-Hwan; Oh, In-Jae; Kim, Yu-Il; Lim, Sung-Chul; Kim, Young-Chul; Kwon, Yong-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Chlorine-containing bleach can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and chemical burns. However, simultaneous occurrence of the two conditions caused by this agent is very rare. We describe the case of a 74-year-old female who presented with shortness of breath and hemoptysis following accidental exposure to chlorine-containing bleach. She had second- to third-degree chemical burns on both buttocks and thighs, and received mechanical ventilation because of the development of ARDS. Mechanical ventilation was discontinued on day 6 of hospitalization because of the rapid improvement of hypoxemia, and the patient was transferred to another hospital for further management of the chemical burns on day 18.

  19. New Analytical Framework for Verification of Biomarkers of Exposure to Chemicals Combining Human Biomonitoring and Water Fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopardo, Luigi; Cummins, Andrew; Rydevik, Axel; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2017-07-05

    Molecular epidemiology approaches in human biomonitoring are powerful tools that allow for verification of public exposure to chemical substances. Unfortunately, due to logistical difficulties and high cost, they tend to evaluate small study groups and as a result might not provide comprehensive large scale community-wide exposure data. Urban water fingerprinting provides a timely alternative to traditional approaches. It can revolutionize the human exposure studies as urban water represents collective community-wide exposure. Knowledge of characteristic biomarkers of exposure to specific chemicals is key to the successful application of water fingerprinting. This study aims to introduce a novel conceptual analytical framework for identification of biomarkers of public exposure to chemicals via combined human metabolism and urban water fingerprinting assay. This framework consists of the following steps: (1) in vitro HLM/S9 assay, (2) in vivo pooled urine assay, (3) in vivo wastewater fingerprinting assay, (4) analysis with HR-MSMS, (5) data processing, and (6) selection of biomarkers. The framework was applied and validated for PCMC (4-chloro-m-cresol), household derived antimicrobial agent with no known exposure and human metabolism data. Four new metabolites of PCMC (hydroxylated, sulfated/hydroxylated, sulfated PCMC, and glucuronidated PCMC) were identified using the in vitro HLM/S9 assay. But only one metabolite, sulfated PCMC, was confirmed in wastewater and in urine. Therefore, our study confirms that water fingerprinting is a promising tool for biomarker selection and that in vitro HLM/S9 studies alone, although informative, do not provide high accuracy results. Our work also confirms, for the first time, human internal exposure to PCMC.

  20. Maternal exposure to perfluorinated chemicals and reduced fecundity: the MIREC study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, M.P.; Arbuckle, T.E.; Fraser, W.D.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What is the effect of maternal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perflurooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) on female fecundity? SUMMARY ANSWER Increasing concentrations of PFOA or PFHxS in maternal plasma were associated with reduced fecundability and infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) are a group of synthetic compounds used in industrial production. There is a concern about the effect of PFCs on fecundity, as measured by time-to-pregnancy (TTP). Although some recent studies suggest that increasing concentrations of PFCs may decrease fecundity, divergence in the methodological approaches used to evaluate this association have prevented firm conclusions being reached. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study is a cohort study of 2,001 women recruited before 14 weeks of gestation in 10 cities across Canada between 2008 and 2011. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS A questionnaire was administered and medical chart data and biospecimens were collected from participants. After excluding women who withdrew, those for whom data were incomplete, those whose pregnancies followed birth control failure, and accounting for male fertility, 1743 participants remained. TTP was defined as the number of months of unprotected intercourse needed to become pregnant in the current pregnancy, as self-reported in the first trimester of pregnancy. Plasma concentrations of PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS measured in the first trimester were considered as a surrogate of preconception exposure. Fecundability odds ratios (FORs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models for discrete time. FOR 1 denote a shorter TTP. The odds of infertility (TTP > 12 months or infertility treatment in the index pregnancy) were estimated using logistic regression. Each chemical concentration (ng/ml) was log-transformed and divided by its SD. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE

  1. Advancing environmental toxicology through chemical dosimetry: External exposures versus tissue residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, L.S.; Landrum, P.F.; Luoma, S.N.; Meador, J.P.; Merten, A.A.; Shephard, B.K.; van Wezelzz, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    The tissue residue dose concept has been used, although in a limited manner, in environmental toxicology for more than 100 y. This review outlines the history of this approach and the technical background for organic chemicals and metals. Although the toxicity of both can be explained in tissue residue terms, the relationship between external exposure concentration, body and/or tissues dose surrogates, and the effective internal dose at the sites of toxic action tends to be more complex for metals. Various issues and current limitations related to research and regulatory applications are also examined. It is clear that the tissue residue approach (TRA) should be an integral component in future efforts to enhance the generation, understanding, and utility of toxicity testing data, both in the laboratory and in the field. To accomplish these goals, several key areas need to be addressed: 1) development of a risk-based interpretive framework linking toxicology and ecology at multiple levels of biological organization and incorporating organism-based dose metrics; 2) a broadly applicable, generally accepted classification scheme for modes/mechanisms of toxic action with explicit consideration of residue information to improve both single chemical and mixture toxicity data interpretation and regulatory risk assessment; 3) toxicity testing protocols updated to ensure collection of adequate residue information, along with toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics information, based on explicitly defined toxicological models accompanied by toxicological model validation; 4) continued development of residueeffect databases is needed ensure their ongoing utility; and 5) regulatory guidance incorporating residue-based testing and interpretation approaches, essential in various jurisdictions. ??:2010 SETAC.

  2. Self-care Decontamination within a Chemical Exposure Mass-casualty Incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Raymond G; Pearce, Laurie D R

    2015-06-01

    Growing awareness and concern for the increasing frequency of incidents involving hazardous materials (HazMat) across a broad spectrum of contaminants from chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) sources indicates a clear need to refine the capability to respond successfully to mass-casualty contamination incidents. Best results for decontamination from a chemical agent will be achieved if done within minutes following exposure, and delays in decontamination will increase the length of time a casualty is in contact with the contaminate. The findings presented in this report indicate that casualties involved in a HazMat/CBRN mass-casualty incident (MCI) in a typical community would not receive sufficient on-scene care because of operational delays that are integral to a standard HazMat/CBRN first response. This delay in response will mean that casualty care will shift away from the incident scene into already over-tasked health care facilities as casualties seek aid on their own. The self-care decontamination protocols recommended here present a viable option to ensure decontamination is completed in the field, at the incident scene, and that casualties are cared for more quickly and less traumatically than they would be otherwise. Introducing self-care decontamination procedures as a standard first response within the response community will improve the level of care significantly and provide essential, self-care decontamination to casualties. The process involves three distinct stages which should not be delayed; these are summarized by the acronym MADE: Move/Assist, Disrobe/Decontaminate, Evaluate/Evacuate.

  3. Occupation and occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in male breast cancer: a case-control study in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villeneuve, Sara; Cyr, Diane; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2010-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease of largely unknown aetiology. In addition to genetic and hormone-related risk factors, a large number of environmental chemicals are suspected of playing a role in breast cancer. The identification of occupations or occupational exposures associated with an in...

  4. Using Alternative Approaches to Prioritize Testing for the Universe of Chemicals with Potential for Human Exposure (WC9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    One use of alternative methods is to target animal use at only those chemicals and tests that are absolutely necessary. We discuss prioritization of testing based on high-throughput screening assays (HTS), QSAR modeling, high-throughput toxicokinetics (HTTK), and exposure modelin...

  5. Modeling the exposure of children and adults via diet to chemicals in the environment with crop-specific models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legind, Charlotte Nielsen; Trapp, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    role. Children take up more than twice the amount than adults per kg bodyweight, due to higher consumption per kg bodyweight. Contrary, the methods for indirect human exposure suggested in the Technical Guidance Document (TGD) for chemical risk assessment in the EU lead to overprediction, due...

  6. Chemical exposures of women workers in the plastics industry with particular reference to breast cancer and reproductive hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMatteo, Robert; Keith, Margaret M; Brophy, James T; Wordsworth, Anne; Watterson, Andrew E; Beck, Matthias; Ford, Anne Rochon; Gilbertson, Michael; Pharityal, Jyoti; Rootham, Magali; Scott, Dayna Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Despite concern about the harmful effects of substances contained in various plastic consumer products, little attention has focused on the more heavily exposed women working in the plastics industry. Through a review of the toxicology, industrial hygiene, and epidemiology literatures in conjunction with qualitative research, this article explores occupational exposures in producing plastics and health risks to workers, particularly women, who make up a large part of the workforce. The review demonstrates that workers are exposed to chemicals that have been identified as mammary carcinogens and endocrine disrupting chemicals, and that the work environment is heavily contaminated with dust and fumes. Consequently, plastics workers have a body burden that far exceeds that found in the general public. The nature of these exposures in the plastics industry places women at disproportionate risk, underlining the importance of gender. Measures for eliminating these exposures and the need for regulatory action are discussed.

  7. Pressure Physiology: Studies of Acute and Chronic Exposures to Increased Pressures of Oxygen and Inert Gases in Diving, Decompression and Therapy of Decompression and Isobaric Gas Lesion Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-31

    Oxygen Exposures. Completion of Design for Human Studies of CNS, Pulmon - ary, and Cardiac Oxygen Tolerance Extension at 2.5 and 3.0 ATA. (Based on prior...intoxication at that pressure. Of all pulmon - ary function-indices that are known to be affected by oxygen to date, repeated post-exposure measurements of

  8. The current status of exposure-driven approaches for chemical safety assessment: A cross-sector perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Fiona; Aggarwal, Manoj; Bachler, Gerald; Broadmeadow, Alan; Gellatly, Nichola; Moore, Emma; Robinson, Sally; Rooseboom, Martijn; Stevens, Alexander; Terry, Claire; Burden, Natalie

    2017-08-15

    For the purposes of chemical safety assessment, the value of using non-animal (in silico and in vitro) approaches and generating mechanistic information on toxic effects is being increasingly recognised. For sectors where in vivo toxicity tests continue to be a regulatory requirement, there has been a parallel focus on how to refine studies (i.e. reduce suffering and improve animal welfare) and increase the value that in vivo data adds to the safety assessment process, as well as where to reduce animal numbers where possible. A key element necessary to ensure the transition towards successfully utilising both non-animal and refined safety testing is the better understanding of chemical exposure. This includes approaches such as measuring chemical concentrations within cell-based assays and during in vivo studies, understanding how predicted human exposures relate to levels tested, and using existing information on human exposures to aid in toxicity study design. Such approaches promise to increase the human relevance of safety assessment, and shift the focus from hazard-driven to risk-driven strategies similar to those used in the pharmaceutical sectors. Human exposure-based safety assessment offers scientific and 3Rs benefits across all sectors marketing chemical or medicinal products. The UK's National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) convened an expert working group of scientists across the agrochemical, industrial chemical and pharmaceutical industries plus a contract research organisation (CRO) to discuss the current status of the utilisation of exposure-driven approaches, and the challenges and potential next steps for wider uptake and acceptance. This paper summarises these discussions, highlights the challenges - particularly those identified by industry - and proposes initial steps for moving the field forward. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical Forms of Mercury in Human Hair Reveal Sources of Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manceau, Alain; Enescu, Mironel; Simionovici, Alexandre; Lanson, Martine; Gonzalez-Rey, Maria; Rovezzi, Mauro; Tucoulou, Rémi; Glatzel, Pieter; Nagy, Kathryn L; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul

    2016-10-04

    Humans are contaminated by mercury in different forms from different sources. In practice, contamination by methylmercury from fish consumption is assessed by measuring hair mercury concentration, whereas exposure to elemental and inorganic mercury from other sources is tested by analysis of blood or urine. Here, we show that diverse sources of hair mercury at concentrations as low as 0.5 ppm can be individually identified by specific coordination to C, N, and S ligands with high energy-resolution X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Methylmercury from seafood, ethylmercury used as a bactericide, inorganic mercury from dental amalgams, and exogenously derived atmospheric mercury bind in distinctive intermolecular configurations to hair proteins, as supported by molecular modeling. A mercury spike located by X-ray nanofluorescence on one hair strand could even be dated to removal of a single dental amalgam. Chemical forms of other known or putative toxic metals in human tissues could be identified by this approach with potential broader applications to forensic, energy, and materials science.

  10. Human exposure to unconventional natural gas development: A public health demonstration of periodic high exposure to chemical mixtures in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David R; Lewis, Celia; Weinberger, Beth I

    2015-01-01

    Directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing of shale gas and oil bring industrial activity into close proximity to residences, schools, daycare centers and places where people spend their time. Multiple gas production sources can be sited near residences. Health care providers evaluating patient health need to know the chemicals present, the emissions from different sites and the intensity and frequency of the exposures. This research describes a hypothetical case study designed to provide a basic model that demonstrates the direct effect of weather on exposure patterns of particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) and volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). Because emissions from unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) sites are variable, a short term exposure profile is proposed that determines 6-hour assessments of emissions estimates, a time scale needed to assist physicians in the evaluation of individual exposures. The hypothetical case is based on observed conditions in shale gas development in Washington County, Pennsylvania, and on estimated emissions from facilities during gas development and production. An air exposure screening model was applied to determine the ambient concentration of VOCs and PM2.5 at different 6-hour periods of the day and night. Hourly wind speed, wind direction and cloud cover data from Pittsburgh International Airport were used to calculate the expected exposures. Fourteen months of daily observations were modeled. Higher than yearly average source terms were used to predict health impacts at periods when emissions are high. The frequency and intensity of exposures to PM2.5 and VOCs at a residence surrounded by three UNGD facilities was determined. The findings show that peak PM2.5 and VOC exposures occurred 83 times over the course of 14 months of well development. Among the stages of well development, the drilling, flaring and finishing, and gas production stages produced higher intensity exposures than the

  11. Parental occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and male genital malformations: A study in the danish national birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaerlev Linda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex hormones closely regulate development of the male genital organs during fetal life. The hypothesis that xenobiotics may disrupt endogenous hormonal signalling has received considerable scientific attention, but human evidence is scarce. Objectives We analyse occurrence of hypospadias and cryptorchidism according to maternal and paternal occupational exposure to possible endocrine disrupting chemicals. Methods We conducted a follow-up study of 45,341 male singleton deliveries in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1997-2009. Information on work during pregnancy was obtained by telephone interviews around gestational week 16. Parents' job titles were classified according to DISCO-88. A job exposure matrix for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs was implemented to assess occupational exposures. The Medical Birth and National Hospital Register provided data on congenital anomalies diagnosed at birth or during follow-up, which ended in 2009. Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HR were obtained from Cox regression models. Results Among all pregnancies, 6.3% were classified as possibly or probably exposed to EDCs. The most prevalent occupations conferring possible exposure were cleaners, laboratory technicians, hairdressers and agricultural workers (58% of all potentially exposed. The final cumulative incidence of cryptorchidism in boys was 2.2% (1002 cases, and of hypospadias 0.6% (262 cases. The occurrence of hypospadias increased when mothers were probably [HRa = 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-2.6] or possibly exposed to one or more EDCs [HRa = 2.6 (95% CI 1.8-3.4. Possible paternal exposure to heavy metals increased the risk of hypospadias [HRa 2.2 (95% CI: 1.0-3.4] and cryptorchidism [HRa 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-2.7]. None of the exposure groups reached statistical significance. Conclusion The study provides some but limited evidence that occupational exposure to possible endocrine disrupting chemicals during pregnancy increases the risk of

  12. Occupational lung disease risk and exposure to butter-flavoring chemicals after implementation of controls at a microwave popcorn plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwal, Richard; Kullman, Greg; Fedan, Kathleen B; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    After an outbreak of severe lung disease among workers exposed to butter-flavoring chemicals at a microwave popcorn plant, we determined whether or not lung disease risk declined after implementation of exposure controls. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health staff performed eight serial cross-sectional medical and industrial hygiene surveys at the plant from November 2000 through August 2003. Medical surveys included standardized questionnaires and spirometry testing. Industrial hygiene surveys measured levels of production-related air contaminants, including butter-flavoring chemicals such as diacetyl. All diacetyl concentrations above detectable limits were corrected for the effects of absolute humidity and days to sample extraction. Ventilation and isolation of the production process resulted in one to three orders of magnitude reductions in diacetyl air concentrations in different areas of the plant. Workers with past high exposures had stable chest symptoms over time; nasal, eye, and skin irritation symptoms declined. New workers had lower symptom prevalences and higher lung function than workers with past high exposures, and they did not worsen over time. In workers who had at least three spirometry tests, those with past high exposures were more likely to experience rapid declines in lung function than new workers. Implemented controls lowered exposures to butter-flavoring chemicals and decreased lung disease risk for much of the plant workforce. Some workers with continuing potential for intermittent, short-term peak and measurable time-weighted exposures remain at risk and should use respiratory protection and have regularly scheduled spirometry to detect rapid lung function declines that may be work-related. Close follow-up of such workers is likely to yield additional information on risks due to peak and time-weighted exposure levels.

  13. EVALUATION OF ARIS AND ZACHMAN FRAMEWORKS AS ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Kozina

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The significance of integral business systems based on closer alignment of information technology to business processes has grown over the last ten years. Comprehensive business frameworks are necessary to capture the entire complexity of such systems. These frameworks called enterprise architectures can provide the conceptual foundation necessary for building and managing the integral business system and all its components. The goal of this paper was to analyze the Architecture of Integrated Information Systems (ARIS and the Zachman frameworks, to define the criteria for comparison and evaluation of these approaches, and determine their level of complement. Furthermore, the contents of the paper define the generic model of business system management supported by said concepts (frameworks and analyzes their orientation towards value.

  14. Swift/BAT detects an outburst from UX Ari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimm, H. A.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Lien, A. Y.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D.; Sakamoto, T.; Stamatikos, M.; Ukwatta, T.

    2014-02-01

    The RS Canum Venaticorum type variable star UX Ari is currently in outburst as detected in the Swift/BAT hard X-ray transient monitor in the 15-50 keV band. The current outburst began on 2014 February 14 (MJD 56702) when it had a count rate of 0.004 +/- 0.002 ct/s/cm^2 (~20 mCrab). It continued to brighten, reaching a rate of 0.013 +/- 0.003 ct/s/cm^2 (~60 mCrab) on 2014 February 17. It has since faded somewhat, with a rate of 0.005 +/- 0.002 ct/s/cm^2 (~20 mCrab) on 2014 February 19.

  15. ARIES: Enabling Visual Exploration and Organization of Art Image Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crissaff, Lhaylla; Wood Ruby, Louisa; Deutch, Samantha; DuBois, R Luke; Fekete, Jean-Daniel; Freire, Juliana; Silva, Claudio

    2017-10-05

    Art historians have traditionally used physical light boxes to prepare exhibits or curate collections. On a light box, they can place slides or printed images, move the images around at will, group them as desired, and visually compare them. The transition to digital images has rendered this workflow obsolete. Now, art historians lack well-designed, unified interactive software tools that effectively support the operations they perform with physical light boxes. To address this problem, we designed ARIES (ARt Image Exploration Space), an interactive image manipulation system that enables the exploration and organization of fine digital art. The system allows images to be compared in multiple ways, offering dynamic overlays analogous to a physical light box, and supporting advanced image comparisons and feature-matching functions, available through computational image processing. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our system to support art historians tasks through real use cases.

  16. Sketsa Karya Ari Nur Utami: Arsitektur Urban dalam Perspektif Ekokritisisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usma Nur Dian Rosyidah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kota adalah ruang kompleks bagi siapa pun yang berada di dalamnya. Saat ini, penghuni ruang kota terancam oleh menurunnya kualitas ekologis kota akibat pembangunan gedung, berbagai fasilitas. dan infrastruktur kota yang masif. Salah satu novel yang memotret eksploitasi ekologi kota tersebut adalah Sketsa karya Ari Nur Utami. Sebagai novel berlatar belakang arsitektur, Sketsa menceritakan pembangunan gedung di Jakarta oleh pengembang bernama PT Semesta Sentosa. Menggunakan teori ekokritisisme, fokus diskusi dalam artikel ini adalah cara penulis memasukkan nilai dan asumsi ekokritik dalam arsitektur urban di novel Sketsa. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menguraikan dominasi pandangan antroposentris individu terhadap alam. Melalui metode kualitatif­deskriptif dengan melakukan close­reading, hasil pembahasan menunjukkan bahwa pembangunan di Jakarta dengan berbagai proyek arsitektur urbannya masih mengabaikan kelestarian lingkungan. Ketidakpedulian terhadap lingkungan ini dapat dilihat dari orientasi etis dan linguistik antroposentris yang dipilih demi mendapatkan keuntungan besar dalam bisnis properti di Jakarta. Abstract: City is a space that contains complexities for anyone being part of it. Nowadays, people are threatened by the ecologically degrading city as the result of the massive development of buildings and other city’s facilities and infrastructures. A novel portraying the issues of ecological exploitation is Ari Nur Utami’s Sketsa. Being claimed as an architectural background novel, Sketsa portrays the development of buildings in Jakarta by a property developer named PT Semesta Sentosa. By applying ecocriticism theory, one point discussed in this article is how the author imputes certain ecocritical values and assumptions in presenting the urban architecture in Sketsa. The objective of this research is to elaborate the domination of anthropocentric perspective over nature. Through the qualitative­descriptive method, it is found that

  17. A TIERED APPROACH TO PERFORMING UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS IN CONDUCTING EXPOSURE ANALYSIS FOR CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The WHO/IPCS draft Guidance Document on Characterizing and Communicating Uncertainty in Exposure Assessment provides guidance on recommended strategies for conducting uncertainty analysis as part of human exposure analysis. Specifically, a tiered approach to uncertainty analysis ...

  18. Default values for assessment of potential dermal exposure of the hands to industrial chemicals in the scope of regulatory risk assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, H.; Warren, N.D.; Laitinen, J.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2006-01-01

    Dermal exposure needs to be addressed in regulatory risk assessment of chemicals. The models used so far are based on very limited data. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a large number of new measurements on dermal exposure to industrial chemicals in various work situations, together with

  19. A decision support framework for characterizing and managing dermal exposures to chemicals during Emergency Management and Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, G Scott; Hudson, Naomi L; Maier, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Emergency Management and Operations (EMO) personnel are in need of resources and tools to assist in understanding the health risks associated with dermal exposures during chemical incidents. This article reviews available resources and presents a conceptual framework for a decision support system (DSS) that assists in characterizing and managing risk during chemical emergencies involving dermal exposures. The framework merges principles of three decision-making techniques: 1) scenario planning, 2) risk analysis, and 3) multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). This DSS facilitates dynamic decision making during each of the distinct life cycle phases of an emergency incident (ie, preparedness, response, or recovery) and identifies EMO needs. A checklist tool provides key questions intended to guide users through the complexities of conducting a dermal risk assessment. The questions define the scope of the framework for resource identification and application to support decision-making needs. The framework consists of three primary modules: 1) resource compilation, 2) prioritization, and 3) decision. The modules systematically identify, organize, and rank relevant information resources relating to the hazards of dermal exposures to chemicals and risk management strategies. Each module is subdivided into critical elements designed to further delineate the resources based on relevant incident phase and type of information. The DSS framework provides a much needed structure based on contemporary decision analysis principles for 1) documenting key questions for EMO problem formulation and 2) a method for systematically organizing, screening, and prioritizing information resources on dermal hazards, exposures, risk characterization, and management.

  20. Conservation efforts of captive golden takin (Budorcas taxicolor bedfordi) are potentially compromised by the elevated chemical elements exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Chen, Yi-Ping; Maltby, Lorraine; Ma, Qing-Yi

    2017-09-01

    Chemical elements exposure of endangered golden takins (Budorcas taxicolor bedfordi) living in the Qinling Mountains and in a captive breeding center was assessed by analyzing fecal samples. Concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Se were significantly higher in the feces of captive golden takins than the wild. There was no significant difference in the fecal concentrations of Cd, Mn, Hg, Pb or Zn for wild and captive animals. The element concentration of fecal samples collected from captive animals varied seasonally, with concentrations being lowest in spring and highest in winter and/or autumn. The food provided to captive animals varied both in the composition and the concentration of element present. Consumptions of feedstuff and additional foods such as D. sanguinalis and A. mangostanus for the captive golden takins were identified as the possible sources of chemical element exposure. The estimations of dietary intake of most elements by captive takins were below the oral reference dose, except for As and Pb, indicating that As and Pb were the key components which contributed to the potential non-carcinogenic risk for captive golden takins. In conclusion, captive golden takins were exposed to higher concentrations of chemical elements compared with the wild, which were likely due to their dietary difference. Conservation efforts of captive golden takin are potentially compromised by the elevated chemical element exposure and effort should focus on providing uncontaminated food for captive animals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Altered Adipogenesis in Zebrafish Larvae Following High Fat Diet and Chemical Exposure Is Visualised by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjo J. den Broeder

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Early life stage exposure to environmental chemicals may play a role in obesity by altering adipogenesis; however, robust in vivo methods to quantify these effects are lacking. The goal of this study was to analyze the effects of developmental exposure to chemicals on adipogenesis in the zebrafish (Danio rerio. We used label-free Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS microscopy for the first time to image zebrafish adipogenesis at 15 days post fertilization (dpf and compared standard feed conditions (StF to a high fat diet (HFD or high glucose diet (HGD. We also exposed zebrafish embryos to a non-toxic concentration of tributyltin (TBT, 1 nM or Tris(1,3-dichloroisopropylphosphate (TDCiPP, 0.5 µM from 0–6 dpf and reared larvae to 15 dpf under StF. Potential molecular mechanisms of altered adipogenesis were examined by qPCR. Diet-dependent modulation of adipogenesis was observed, with HFD resulting in a threefold increase in larvae with adipocytes, compared to StF and HGD. Developmental exposure to TBT but not TDCiPP significantly increased adipocyte differentiation. The expression of adipogenic genes such as pparda, lxr and lepa was altered in response to HFD or chemicals. This study shows that SRS microscopy can be successfully applied to zebrafish to visualize and quantify adipogenesis, and is a powerful approach for identifying obesogenic chemicals in vivo.

  2. Residential and biological exposure assessment of chemicals from a wood treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, James; Takhar, Harpreet; Schecter, Arnold; Schmidt, Reynold; Horsak, Randy; Paepke, Olaf; Warshaw, Raphael; Lee, Alexander; Anderson-Mahoney, Pamela

    2007-04-01

    This paper evaluates the results of contamination of residents and residential homes located in close proximity to a Wood Treatment Plant. The plant has produced treated wood products continuously since 1904. The principle chemicals used to treat the wood, which is primarily used for railroad ties (oblong objects laid perpendicular to the rails to act as a base for the tracks), are creosote and pentachlorophenol. For a number of years, the plant burned treated waste wood products containing creosote and pentachlorophenol. First the plant pressure impregnates the wood with creosote and pentachlorophenol, and then the wood is stacked on open ground to allow it to air dry. Chemicals from recently treated wood ties are allowed to evaporate into the air or drip onto the ground surrounding the stacked wood. Small drainage ditches carry the liquid wastes into larger water channels where eventually the waste streams are discharged into a river adjacent to the plant. The river serves as a source of drinking water for the nearby community. Prevailing wind patterns favor a drift of air emissions from the plant's boiler stack over the nearby community and its residents. Over the past few years, the town's residents have become increasingly concerned about their health status and have voiced concerns regarding multiple health problems (including cancer), possibly associated with plant discharges. The intention of this study is to examine a representative sample of the potentially affected residents and to evaluate their residential environment for the presence of dioxin and/or its congeners. Data obtained from EPA's Toxic Release Information (TRI) database revealed the plant routinely discharged creosote, pentachlorophenol, dioxin and dioxin-like compounds into the ambient air via fugitive air emissions and surface waste waters. Sampling of household dust and water sediment within and outside of residences within a 2-mile radius of the plant revealed the presence of

  3. Effects of slope exposure on soil physico-chemical and microbiological properties along an altitudinal climosequence in the Italian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardelli, Tommaso; Gómez-Brandón, María; Ascher-Jenull, Judith; Fornasier, Flavio; Arfaioli, Paola; Francioli, Davide; Egli, Markus; Sartori, Giacomo; Insam, Heribert; Pietramellara, Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    Due to their sensitivity to changing environmental conditions sub- and alpine soils are often monitored in the context of climate change, usually, however, neglecting slope exposure. Therefore, we set up a climosequence-approach to study the effect of exposure and, in general, climate, on the microbial biomass and microbial diversity and activity, comprising five pairs of north (N)- and south (S)-facing sites along an altitudinal gradient ranging from 1200 to 2400m a.s.l. in the Italian Alps (Trentino Alto Adige, Italy). Soil physico-chemical properties were related to microbiological properties (microbial biomass: double strand DNA yield vs. substrate-induced respiration; diversity of bacterial, fungal and archaeal communities: genetic fingerprinting DGGE vs. real-time PCR; microbial activity: basal respiration vs. multiple hydrolytic enzyme assays) to monitor shifts in the diversity and activity of microbial communities as a function of slope exposure and to evaluate the most determinant chemical parameters shaping the soil microbiota. The exposure-effect on several hydrolytic key-enzymes was enzyme-specific: e.g. acid phosphomonoesterase potential activity was more pronounced at the N-facing slope while the activities of alkaline phosphomonoesterase, pyrophosphate-phosphodiesterase and arylsulfatase were higher at the S-facing slope. Furthermore, this exposure-effect was domain-specific: bacteria (S>N, altitude-independent); fungi (N~S); and archaea (N>S; altitude-dependent). Additionally, the abiotic parameters shaping the community composition were in general depending on soil depth. Our multidisciplinary approach allowed us to survey the exposure and altitudinal effects on soil physico-chemical and microbiological properties and thus unravel the complex multiple edaphic factor-effects on soil microbiota in mountain ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Human toxicology of chemical mixtures toxic consequences beyond the impact of one-component product and environmental exposures

    CERN Document Server

    Zeliger, Harold I

    2011-01-01

    In this important reference work, Zeliger catalogs the known effects of chemical mixtures on the human body and also proposes a framework for understanding and predicting their actions in terms of lipophile (fat soluble)/hydrophile (water soluble) interactions. The author's focus is on illnesses that ensue following exposures to mixtures of chemicals that cannot be attributed to any one component of the mixture. In the first part the mechanisms of chemical absorption at a molecular and macromolecular level are explained, as well as the body's methods of defending itself against xenobiotic intrusion. Part II examines the sources of the chemicals discussed, looking at air and water pollution, food additives, pharmaceuticals, etc. Part III, which includes numerous case studies, examines specific effects of particular mixtures on particular body systems and organs and presents a theoretical framework for predicting what the effects of uncharacterized mixtures might be. Part IV covers regulatory requirements and t...

  5. Determinants of Exposure to Fragranced Product Chemical Mixtures in a Sample of Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew O. Gribble

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragranced product chemical mixtures may be relevant for environmental health, but little is known about exposure. We analyzed results from an olfactory challenge with the synthetic musk fragrance 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopento-γ-2-benzopyran (HHCB, and a questionnaire about attitudes toward chemical safety and use of fragranced products, in a sample of 140 white and 17 black twin pairs attending a festival in Ohio. Data for each product were analyzed using robust ordered logistic regressions with random intercepts for “twin pair” and “sharing address with twin”, and fixed effects for sex, age, education, and “ever being bothered by fragrances”. Due to the small number of black participants, models were restricted to white participants except when examining racial differences. Overall patterns of association were summarized across product-types through random-effects meta-analysis. Principal components analysis was used to summarize clustering of product use. The dominant axis of variability in fragranced product use was “more vs. less”, followed by a distinction between household cleaning products and personal care products. Overall, males used fragranced products less frequently than females (adjusted proportionate odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33, 0.93. This disparity was driven by personal care products (0.42, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.96, rather than household cleaning products (0.79, 95% CI: 0.49, 1.25 and was particularly evident for body lotion (0.12, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.27. Overall usage differed by age (0.64, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.95 but only hand soap and shampoo products differed significantly. “Ever being bothered by fragrance” had no overall association (0.92, 95% CI: 0.65, 1.30 but was associated with laundry detergent use (0.46, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.93. Similarly, black vs. white differences on average were not significant (1.34, 95% CI: 0.55, 3.28 but there were apparent differences in use of

  6. Total Diet Study: For a Closer-to-real Estimate of Dietary Exposure to Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeeyeon; Kwon, Sungok; Yoon, Hae-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Recent amendment on the Food Sanitation Act in Korea mandated the Minister of Food & Drug Safety to secure the scientific basis for management and reevaluation of standards and specifications of foods. Especially because the current food safety control is limited within the scope of ‘Farm to Market’ covering from production to retail in Korea, safety control at the plane of true ‘Farm to Fork’ scope is urgently needed and should include ‘total diet’ of population instead of individual food items. Therefore, ‘Total Diet Study (TDS)’ which provides ‘closer-to-real’ estimates of exposure to hazardous materials through analysis on table-ready (cooked) samples of foods would be the solution to more comprehensive food safety management, as suggested by World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Although the protection of diets from hazards must be considered as one of the most essential public health functions of any country, we may need to revisit the value of foods which has been too much underrated by the meaningless amount of some hazardous materials in Korea. Considering the primary value of foods lies on sustaining life, growth, development, and health promotion of human being, food safety control should be handled not only by the presence or absence of hazardous materials but also by maximizing the value of foods via balancing with the preservation of beneficial components in foods embracing total diet. In this regard, this article aims to provide an overview on TDS by describing procedures involved except chemical analysis which is beyond our scope. Also, details on the ongoing TDS in Korea are provided as an example. Although TDS itself might not be of keen interest for most readers, it is the main user of the safety reference values resulted from toxicological research in the public health perspective. PMID:26483882

  7. Artificial neural networks-based approach to design ARIs using QSAR for diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Jagdish C; Singh, Onkar

    2009-11-30

    In this article, in the first part, we propose an artificial neural network-based intelligent technique to determine the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) among known aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) for diabetes mellitus using two molecular descriptors, i.e., the electronegativity and molar volume of functional groups present in the main ARI lead structure. We have shown that the multilayer perceptron-based model is capable of determining the QSAR quite satisfactorily, with high R-value. Usually, the design of potent ARIs requires the use of complex computer docking and quantum mechanical (QM) steps involving excessive time and human judgement. In the second part of this article, to reduce the design cycle of potent ARIs, we propose a novel ANN technique to eliminate the computer docking and QM steps, to predict the total score. The MLP-based QSAR models obtained in the first part are used to predict the potent ARIs, using the experimental data reported by Hu et al. (J Mol Graph Mod 2006, 24, 244). The proposed ANN-based model can predict the total score with an R-value of 0.88, which indicates that there exists a close match between the predicted and experimental total scores. Using the ANN model, we obtained 71 potent ARIs out of 6.25 million new ARI compounds created by substituting different functional groups at substituting sites of main lead structure of known ARI. Finally, using high bioactivity relationship and total score values, we determined four potential ARIs out of these 71 compounds. Interestingly, these four ARIs include the two potent ARIs reported by Hu et al. (J Mol Graph Mod 2006, 24, 244) who obtained these through the complex computer docking and QM steps. This fact indicates the effectiveness of our proposed ANN-based technique. We suggest these four compounds to be the most promising candidates for ARIs to prevent the diabetic complications and further recommend for wet bench experiments to find their potential against

  8. Chemicals of emerging concern in the Great Lakes Basin: an analysis of environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klecka, Gary; Persoon, Carolyn; Currie, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This review and statistical analysis was conducted to better understand the nature and significance of environmental exposures in the Great Lakes Basin and watershed to a variety of environmental contaminants. These contaminants of interest included current-use pesticides, pharmaceuticals, organic wastewater contaminants, alkylphenol ethoxylates, perfluorinated surfactants, flame retardants, and chlorinated paraffins. The available literature was critically reviewed and used to develop a database containing 19,611 residue values for 326 substances. In many papers, sampling locations were characterized as being downstream from municipal wastewater discharges, receiving waters for industrial facilities, areas susceptible to agricultural or urban contamination, or harbors and ports. To develop an initial assessment of their potential ecological significance, the contamination levels found were compared with currently available regulatory standards, guidelines, or criteria. This review was prepared for the IJC multi-board work group, and served as background material for an expert consultation, held in March, 2009, in which the significance of the contaminants found was discussed. Moreover, the consultation attempted to identify and assess opportunities for strengthening future actions that will protect the Great Lakes. Based on the findings and conclusions of the expert consultation, it is apparent that a wide variety of chemicals of emerging concern have been detected in environmental media (air, water, sediment, biota) from the Great Lakes Basin, although many are present at only trace levels. Although the presence of these contaminants raises concerns in the public and among the scientific community, the findings must be placed in context. Significant scientific interpretation is required to understand the extent to which these chemicals may pose a threat to the ecosystem and to human health. The ability to detect chemicals in environmental media greatly surpasses

  9. Harmonisation of food consumption data format for dietary exposure assessments of chemicals analysed in raw agricultural commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; Ruprich, Jiri; Petersen, Annette

    2009-01-01

    , and the use of the FAO/WHO Codex Classification system of Foods and Animal Feeds to harmonise the classification. We demonstrate that this approach works well for pesticides and glycoalkaloids, and is an essential step forward in the harmonisation of risk assessment procedures within Europe when addressing......In this paper, we present an approach to format national food consumption data at raw agricultural commodity (RAC) level. In this way, the data is both formatted in a harmonised way given the comparability of RACs between countries, and suitable to assess the dietary exposure to chemicals analysed...... chemicals analysed in RACs by all national food control systems....

  10. Chemical process based reconstruction of exposures for an epidemiological study. III. Analysis of industrial hygiene samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Thomas A; Esmen, Nurtan A; Jones, Elizabeth P; Basara, Heather; Phillips, Margaret L; Marsh, Gary M; Youk, Ada O; Buchanich, Jeanine M; Leonard, Robin C

    2007-03-20

    As part of an historical cohort study to investigate the mortality experience of industrial workers exposed to chloroprene (beta-CD) and other substances, all available industrial hygiene exposure monitoring data were collected and summarized. From discussions with on-site industrial hygiene personnel, it was apparent that these data were not collected for epidemiological purposes and, therefore, their use in characterization of exposures was problematic as the data mostly pertained to samples collected to investigate the performance of specific tasks. These data were, however, informative for validating the exposure modeling process used to estimate historical exposures. The data summarized below clearly indicate that exposures to beta-CD were lowered across the time period of this study. Typically, the exposures recorded were less than the occupational exposure limits of the periods in which the exposures were recorded. Additionally, exposure measurements recorded in the recent past do not represent the exposure actually experienced by the worker as a strict personal protective equipment use program has been in place for the facilities studied since the mid-1980s.

  11. Survey on methodologies in the risk assessment of chemical exposures in emergency response situations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinälä, Milla; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Wood, Maureen Heraty

    2013-01-01

    A scientifically sound assessment of the risk to human health resulting from acute chemical releases is the cornerstone for chemical incident prevention, preparedness and response. Although the general methodology to identify acute toxicity of chemicals has not substantially changed in the last...

  12. Human exposure modeling in a life cycle framework for chemicals and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    A chemical enters into commerce to serve a specific function in a product or process. This decision triggers both the manufacture of the chemical and its potential release over the life cycle of the product. Efficiently evaluating chemical safety and sustainability requires combi...

  13. Features of cardiac disorders in children with chronic respiratory diseases associated with aerogenic exposure to chemical environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.А. Maklakova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study has involved 43 children living in areas with poor air quality due to public health indicators. In 24 % of cases during the remission the children (with bronchial asthma and recurrent bronchitis, associated with exposure to anthropogenic chemicals such as suspended solids, aromatic and oxygenated hydrocarbons, formaldehyde demonstrated peripheral signs of obstruction and the presence of functional cardiac disorders. Being under exposure to adverse effects of environmental chemical factors, the children with chronic respiratory diseases suffer from the developing of the cardiac type of vegetative dysfunction, which was manifested in bradycardia and tachycardia, eytonic and/or sympathicotonic baseline autonomic tone, hypersympathicotonic /astimpathicotonic autonomic reactivity. In 17.9 % of the children it was manifested in transient diastolic dysfunction of right ventricle and in excessive systolic blood pressure in pulmonary artery.

  14. Identification of exposure to environmental chemicals in children and older adults using human biomonitoring data sorted by age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Judy; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Mizrak, Seher

    2017-01-01

    vulnerable groups and populations with distinct exposures such as children and older adults. The objective of this review is to demonstrate the use of HBM to identify environmental chemicals that might be of concern for children or older adults due to higher body burden. To do so, an extensive literature....../classes of chemicals with potentially higher body burden in children or older adults. Children appear to have higher body burden of bisphenol A (BPA), some phytoestrogens, perchlorate, and some metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and benzene. On the other hand, older adults appear to have higher body...... burden of heavy metals and organochlorine pesticides. For perfluoroalkyl substances, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, parabens, and phthalates, both children and older adults have higher body burden depending on the specific biomarkers analyzed, and this might be due to the exposure period and/or sources...

  15. Trends in occupational disparities for exposure to carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic chemicals in France 2003-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havet, Nathalie; Penot, Alexis; Morelle, Magali; Perrier, Lionel; Charbotel, Barbara; Fervers, Béatrice

    2017-06-01

    To explore trends in social and occupational inequalities in terms of exposure to carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic chemicals (CMR) for French employees. Our study assessed data from the French national cross-sectional survey of occupational hazards (SUMER) that was conducted in 2003 and 2010. We included all of the 27 CMR agents that were classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer or European Union regulations as being known or presumed to have CMR potential in humans. Trends in prevalence and degree of exposure were examined using multilevel logistic regression analysis. The number of employees exposed to CMR agents decreased by 17.5% between 2003 and 2010. The only CMR entities for which exposure rates increased are not considered to be proven CMRs according to the European Union regulations. With the exception of apprentices, there was an overall decrease in exposure prevalence for all employees. This decrease occurred, however, to different extents. The decrease in the risk of exposure to CMR agents was much greater for those on permanent contracts, managers, and in enterprises with more than 500 employees. Nonetheless, in situations where there was potential for exposure, companies with fewer than 10 employees were in fact able to decrease the degree of risk more than the others. Our results confirm the relevance of reinforcing regulatory restrictions for CMR products, while also indicating that monitoring of trends in disparities will allow public health policy makers to better evaluate progress made toward reducing disparities that affect vulnerable populations.

  16. Pulmonary function in relation to total dust exposure at a bauxite refinery and alumina-based chemical products plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, M C; Enterline, P E; Sussman, N B; Bonney, T B; Rippey, L L

    1985-12-01

    A cross-sectional study of 1,142 male employees at the Arkansas Operations of a large aluminum production company examined the effect on pulmonary function of chronic exposure to total dust produced in the mining and refining of bauxite and the production of alumina chemicals. Never smokers, ex-smokers, and current smokers were analyzed separately. Among never smokers, a pattern of decreasing FEV1 was observed in relation to increasing duration and cumulative total dust exposure. Among never smokers with cumulative total dust exposures of greater than or equal to 100 mg/m3 yr and greater than or equal to 20 yr of exposure, there was a mean reduction from the predicted FEV1 of 0.29 to 0.39 L, in addition to a 3- to 4-fold excess of observed/expected numbers of subjects with FEV1 less than 80% of predicted. These results were observed relative to an external and an internal comparison group. Among current smokers, the deviations from predicted and the excess numbers of subjects with FEV1 less than 80% of predicted were larger in all exposure groups than for the never smokers. However, the quality of the smoking data was inadequate to allow separation of the effects of smoking and dust exposure.

  17. Assessing the carcinogenic potential of low-dose exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment: the challenge ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, William H.; Lowe, Leroy; Carpenter, David O.; Gilbertson, Michael; Manaf Ali, Abdul; Lopez de Cerain Salsamendi, Adela; Lasfar, Ahmed; Carnero, Amancio; Azqueta, Amaya; Amedei, Amedeo; Charles, Amelia K.; Collins, Andrew R.; Ward, Andrew; Salzberg, Anna C.; Colacci, Anna Maria; Olsen, Ann-Karin; Berg, Arthur; Barclay, Barry J.; Zhou, Binhua P.; Blanco-Aparicio, Carmen; Baglole, Carolyn J.; Dong, Chenfang; Mondello, Chiara; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Naus, Christian C.; Yedjou, Clement; Curran, Colleen S.; Laird, Dale W.; Koch, Daniel C.; Carlin, Danielle J.; Felsher, Dean W.; Roy, Debasish; Brown, Dustin G.; Ratovitski, Edward; Ryan, Elizabeth P.; Corsini, Emanuela; Rojas, Emilio; Moon, Eun-Yi; Laconi, Ezio; Marongiu, Fabio; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Chiaradonna, Ferdinando; Darroudi, Firouz; Martin, Francis L.; Van Schooten, Frederik J.; Goldberg, Gary S.; Wagemaker, Gerard; Nangami, Gladys N.; Calaf, Gloria M.; Williams, Graeme P.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Koppen, Gudrun; Brunborg, Gunnar; Lyerly, H. Kim; Krishnan, Harini; Ab Hamid, Hasiah; Yasaei, Hemad; Sone, Hideko; Kondoh, Hiroshi; Salem, Hosni K.; Hsu, Hsue-Yin; Park, Hyun Ho; Koturbash, Igor; Miousse, Isabelle R.; Scovassi, A.Ivana; Klaunig, James E.; Vondráček, Jan; Raju, Jayadev; Roman, Jesse; Wise, John Pierce; Whitfield, Jonathan R.; Woodrick, Jordan; Christopher, Joseph A.; Ochieng, Josiah; Martinez-Leal, Juan Fernando; Weisz, Judith; Kravchenko, Julia; Sun, Jun; Prudhomme, Kalan R.; Narayanan, Kannan Badri; Cohen-Solal, Karine A.; Moorwood, Kim; Gonzalez, Laetitia; Soucek, Laura; Jian, Le; D’Abronzo, Leandro S.; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Li, Lin; Gulliver, Linda; McCawley, Lisa J.; Memeo, Lorenzo; Vermeulen, Louis; Leyns, Luc; Zhang, Luoping; Valverde, Mahara; Khatami, Mahin; Romano, Maria Fiammetta; Chapellier, Marion; Williams, Marc A.; Wade, Mark; Manjili, Masoud H.; Lleonart, Matilde E.; Xia, Menghang; Gonzalez Guzman, Michael J.; Karamouzis, Michalis V.; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Vaccari, Monica; Kuemmerle, Nancy B.; Singh, Neetu; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; van Larebeke, Nik; Ahmed, Nuzhat; Ogunkua, Olugbemiga; Krishnakumar, P.K.; Vadgama, Pankaj; Marignani, Paola A.; Ghosh, Paramita M.; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Thompson, Patricia A.; Dent, Paul; Heneberg, Petr; Darbre, Philippa; Leung, Po Sing; Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Cheng, Qiang (Shawn); Robey, R.Brooks; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Roy, Rabindra; Andrade-Vieira, Rafaela; Sinha, Ranjeet K.; Mehta, Rekha; Vento, Renza; Di Fiore, Riccardo; Ponce-Cusi, Richard; Dornetshuber-Fleiss, Rita; Nahta, Rita; Castellino, Robert C.; Palorini, Roberta; Hamid, Roslida A.; Langie, Sabine A.S.; Eltom, Sakina E.; Brooks, Samira A.; Ryeom, Sandra; Wise, Sandra S.; Bay, Sarah N.; Harris, Shelley A.; Papagerakis, Silvana; Romano, Simona; Pavanello, Sofia; Eriksson, Staffan; Forte, Stefano; Casey, Stephanie C.; Luanpitpong, Sudjit; Lee, Tae-Jin; Otsuki, Takemi; Chen, Tao; Massfelder, Thierry; Sanderson, Thomas; Guarnieri, Tiziana; Hultman, Tove; Dormoy, Valérian; Odero-Marah, Valerie; Sabbisetti, Venkata; Maguer-Satta, Veronique; Rathmell, W.Kimryn; Engström, Wilhelm; Decker, William K.; Bisson, William H.; Rojanasakul, Yon; Luqmani, Yunus; Chen, Zhenbang; Hu, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle factors are responsible for a considerable portion of cancer incidence worldwide, but credible estimates from the World Health Organization and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) suggest that the fraction of cancers attributable to toxic environmental exposures is between 7% and 19%. To explore the hypothesis that low-dose exposures to mixtures of chemicals in the environment may be combining to contribute to environmental carcinogenesis, we reviewed 11 hallmark phenotypes of cancer, multiple priority target sites for disruption in each area and prototypical chemical disruptors for all targets, this included dose-response characterizations, evidence of low-dose effects and cross-hallmark effects for all targets and chemicals. In total, 85 examples of chemicals were reviewed for actions on key pathways/mechanisms related to carcinogenesis. Only 15% (13/85) were found to have evidence of a dose-response threshold, whereas 59% (50/85) exerted low-dose effects. No dose-response information was found for the remaining 26% (22/85). Our analysis suggests that the cumulative effects of individual (non-carcinogenic) chemicals acting on different pathways, and a variety of related systems, organs, tissues and cells could plausibly conspire to produce carcinogenic synergies. Additional basic research on carcinogenesis and research focused on low-dose effects of chemical mixtures needs to be rigorously pursued before the merits of this hypothesis can be further advanced. However, the structure of the World Health Organization International Programme on Chemical Safety ‘Mode of Action’ framework should be revisited as it has inherent weaknesses that are not fully aligned with our current understanding of cancer biology. PMID:26106142

  18. XMM-Newton Observation of the Intermediate Polar XY Ari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin Camurdan, Dicle; Balman, Solen; Burwitz, Vadim

    2016-07-01

    XY Ari is a rare Intermediate Polar which shows deep X-ray eclipses and has no optical counterpart due to the high visual extinction. We present results from a detailed analysis of an unpublished archival observation using XMM-Newton EPIC-pn and MOS data covering to more than five orbital periods in a quiescent state of XY Ari. The X-ray orbital modulation and spin pulse variations were investigated in 0.2-10 keV energy band and also in different energy bands (i.e. 0.3-1.5, 1.6-3.0, 3.1-10 keV). The EPIC light curves folded at the spin phases show a double peak profile as expected from double pole accretion. However, a detailed analysis showed that the relative peak heights of the spin profiles, corresponding to different time intervals, vary during the entire observation which may be a result of small accretion rate differences or variable scattering from the weaker pole. We modeled the time-averaged spectrum with single- and multi-temperature optically thin thermal plasma emission (e.g. MEKAL APEC/VAPEC, CEVMKL, MKCFLOW/VMKCFLOW) in XSPEC to derive spectral parameters. The simultaneously fitted EPIC spectra with a double MEKALs model yield plasma temperatures of kT_{MEKAL}=39-44 keV and kT_{MEKAL}=0.3-2.21 keV with a solar metal abundance of 0.52-71 (for higher MEKAL temperature). We find an intrinsic, partial covering absorption about N _{H}=2.9-5.5x10 ^{22} cm ^{-2}. In addition, Gaussian lines at the Fe line energies 6.4 and 6.7 keV, were also included in the fit. We will discuss different model fits and the accretion geometry of the system. The X-ray luminosity of the source is ˜2x10 ^{32} erg/sec in the 0.2-10.0 keV range assuming a 270 pc distance.

  19. Modeling the exposure of children and adults via diet to chemicals in the environment with crop-specific models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legind, Charlotte N. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Department of Agriculture and Ecology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Hojbakkegard Alle 13, 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Department of Environmental Chemistry and Microbiology, National Environmental Research Institute, University of Aarhus, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark)], E-mail: cnl@env.dtu.dk; Trapp, Stefan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-03-15

    Exposure to chemicals via diet is a major uptake pathway for many compounds but is often estimated in a rather generic way. We use a new model framework (NMF) with crop-specific models to predict the dietary intake by 4-5-year-old children and 14-75-year-old women of three environmental compounds from their background concentrations in soil and air. Calculated daily intakes of benzo(a)pyrene and 2,3,7,8-TCDD are in good agreement with measured results from diet studies. The major source of both compounds in human diet is deposition from air. Inhalation of air and ingestion of soil play a minor role. Children take up more than twice the amount than adults per kg bodyweight, due to higher consumption per kg bodyweight. Contrary, the methods for indirect human exposure suggested in the Technical Guidance Document (TGD) for chemical risk assessment in the EU lead to overprediction, due to unrealistic consumption data and a false root model. - This paper addresses exposure of children and adults to environmental chemicals via the terrestrial food chain using crop-specific plant uptake models.

  20. Chemical pneumonitis and subsequent reactive airways dysfunction syndrome after a single exposure to a household product: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Imran

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Household products are usually safe to use. Adverse events arising from their use are mostly reported in patients with pre-existing atopy or pulmonary problems and usually only after a prolonged exposure to such products. We report the case of a patient with no prior problems who developed significant side effects from a single exposure to a domestic product. Case presentation A 43-year-old Caucasian American man, previously in good health, used a domestic aerosol product called 'Stand N' Seal "Spray-On" Grout Sealer' in an enclosed room in his house. The product contained n-butyl acetate ( Conclusion A household product may still prove unsafe to use even after it has gone through vigorous testing and approval processes. Even healthy individuals are susceptible to adverse outcomes after a brief exposure. Extra precautions should be taken when using any chemical product at home.

  1. Chemical characterization and sources of personal exposure to fine particulate matter in the general population of Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Cui; Jahn, Heiko J.; Engling, Guenter; Ward, Tony J.; Kraemer, Alexander; Ho, Kin-Fai; Hung-Lam Yim, Steve; Chan, Chuen-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Fine particulate matter pollution severely deteriorates the environmental conditions and negatively impacts human health in the Chinese megacity Guangzhou. Concurrent ambient and personal measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were conducted in Guangzhou, China. Personal-to-ambient (P-C) relationships of PM2.5 chemical components were determined and sources of personal PM2.5 exposure were evaluated using principal component analysis along with a mixed-effects model. Water-soluble inorganic ions (mainly secondary inorganic ions) and anhydrosugars exhibited median personal-to-ambient (P/C) ratios indoors, aside from particles of ambient origin, individual's total exposure to PM2.5 includes contributions of non-ambient exposure while indoors and outdoors (e.g., local traffic, indoor sources, personal activities). SO42- displayed very low coefficient of divergence (COD) values coupled with strong P-C correlations, implying a uniform distribution of SO42- in the urban area of Guangzhou. EC, Ca2+, and levoglucosan were otherwise heterogeneously distributed across individuals in different districts. Regional air pollution (50.4 ± 0.9%), traffic-related particles (8.6 ± 0.7%), dust-related particles (5.8 ± 0.7%), and biomass burning emissions (2.0 ± 0.2%) were moderate to high positive sources of personal PM2.5 exposure in Guangzhou. The observed positive and significant contribution of Ca2+ to personal PM2.5 exposure, highlighting indoor sources and/or personal activities, were driving factors determining personal exposure to dust-related particles. Considerable discrepancies (COD values ranging from 0.42 to 0.50) were shown between ambient concentrations and personal exposure, indicating caution should be taken when using ambient concentrations as proxies for personal exposure in epidemiological studies.

  2. Virtual Array Receiver Options for 64-ary Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, A J; Hernandez, V J; Gagliardi, R M; Bennett, C V

    2009-01-12

    NASA is developing technology for 64 64-ary PPM using relatively large PPM time slots (10 ns) an and relatively simple d electronic electronic-based receiver logic. In this paper we describe photonic photonics-based receiver options for the case of much higher data rates and inherently shorter decision times. The receivers take the form of virtual ( array or quadrant) arrays with associated comparison tests. Previously we explored this concept for 4-ary and 16-ary PPM at data rates of up to 10 Gb/s. The lessons learned are applied to the case of 64 64-ary PPM at 1.25 Gb/s s. Various receiver designs are compare, and t the optimum design, based on virtual array he arrays, is s, evaluated using numerical simulations.

  3. Tunne Kelam - kolleeg ja sõber / Christopher Beazley, Elmar Bork, Ari Vatanen ...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Euroopa Parlamendi väliskomisjoni liikmed Christopher Beazley, Elmar Bork, Ari Vatanen, Leedu Vabariigi president Valdas Adamkus, Euroopa Parlamendi asepresident Alejo Vidal-Quadras ja Euroopa Parlamendi president Hans-Gert Pöttering Tunne Kelamist

  4. Updating ARI Educational Benefits Usage Data Bases for Army Regular, Reserve, and Guard: 2005 - 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Winnie

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the updating of ARI's educational benefits usage database with Montgomery GI Bill and Army College Fund data for Army Regular, Reserve, and Guard components over the 2005 and 2006 period...

  5. ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL AND PHASE TRANSITIONS OF MULTICOMPONENT ALLOYS UNDER PULSED LASER EXPOSURE IN THE AIR BY METHODS OF CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Veiko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with computational thermodynamic method for determination of phase chemical composition of metal alloys surface formed under laser action in the atmosphere, depending on its volume components, conditions of laser exposure and atmosphere composition. By giving an example of laser heating of complex alloy (alloyed steel in the air it is demonstrated that from a set of various possible reactions of interaction between iron, nickel or chrome with air components (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, their compounds, atmospheric moisture, etc., only strictly defined reactions are realized. Primarily, these are metal oxidation processes with the formation of an oxide film, whose phase and chemical composition is determined by temperature and heating time. Calculation data are confirmed by the experimental data provided by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  6. Potential exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and selected adverse pregnancy outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Jessica; Thygesen, Pernille Søgaard; Kaerlev, Linda

    2017-01-01

    of being exposed to occupational reproductive hazards were included in the study. A job exposure matrix enabled estimation of potential occupational exposure to EDC on the basis of job title. Births by women potentially exposed to EDC (n = 582) were compared to births by women referred to an OHC...

  7. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to inhaled Plutonium-239 dioxide and a chemical carcinogen (NNK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Carlton, W.W. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States); Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Workers in nuclear weapons facilities have a significant potential for exposure to chemical carcinogens and to radiation from external sources or from internally deposited radionuclides such as {sup 239}Pu. Although the carcinogenic effects of inhaled {sup 239}Pu and many chemicals have been studied individually, very little information is available on their combined effects. One chemical carcinogen that workers could be exposed to via tobacco smoke is the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(N-methyl-n-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a product of tobacco curing and the pyrolysis of nicotine in tobacco. NNK causes lung tumors in rats, regardless of the route of administration and to a lesser extent liver, nasal, and pancreatic tumors. From the results presented, it can be concluded that exposure to a chemical carcinogen (NNK) in combination with {alpha}-particle radiation from inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} acts in, at best, an additive manner in inducing lung cancer in rats.

  8. ARI (Army Research Institute) Research in Basic Skills Education: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    Unclassified_________________________ Wa. SECURITY CLASIFICATION AUTHORITY 3. DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY OF REPORT -. Approved for public release; is, 𔃺=11MII N/DOWNG1RADING...Since 1980, ARI has conducted major research and development to (1) evalliato Army basic skills programs; (2) apply adult basic skills methodology...ioral and Social Sciences (ARI) conducted research and development to 1. evaluate Army basic skills programs, 2. apply adult basic skills methodologies to

  9. Burden of disease and costs of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in the European Union: an updated analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trasande, L.; Zoeller, R. T.; Hass, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    A previous report documented that endocrine disrupting chemicals contribute substantially to certain forms of disease and disability. In the present analysis, our main objective was to update a range of health and economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to endocrine disrupting chemical...... exposures in the European Union, leveraging new burden and disease cost estimates of female reproductive conditions from accompanying report. Expert panels evaluated the epidemiologic evidence, using adapted criteria from the WHO Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working...... disrupting chemical causation for IQ loss and associated intellectual disability; autism; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; endometriosis; fibroids; childhood obesity; adult obesity; adult diabetes; cryptorchidism; male infertility, and mortality associated with reduced testosterone. Accounting...

  10. Alzheimer's disease markers in the aged sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Suzanne J; Mckean, Natasha E; Henty, Kristen; Portelius, Erik; Blennow, Kaj; Rudiger, Skye R; Bawden, C Simon; Handley, Renee R; Verma, Paul J; Faull, Richard L M; Waldvogel, Henry J; Zetterberg, Henrik; Snell, Russell G

    2017-10-01

    This study reports the identification and characterization of markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in aged sheep (Ovis aries) as a preliminary step toward making a genetically modified large animal model of AD. Importantly, the sequences of key proteins involved in AD pathogenesis are highly conserved between sheep and human. The processing of the amyloid-β (Aβ) protein is conserved between sheep and human, and sheep Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 ratios in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are also very similar to human. In addition, total tau and neurofilament light levels in CSF are comparable with those found in human. The presence of neurofibrillary tangles in aged sheep brain has previously been established; here, we report for the first time that plaques, the other pathologic hallmark of AD, are also present in the aged sheep brain. In summary, the biological machinery to generate the key neuropathologic features of AD is conserved between the human and sheep, making the sheep a good candidate for future genetic manipulation to accelerate the condition for use in pathophysiological discovery and therapeutic testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Monitoring of aromatic amine exposures in workers at a chemical plant with a known bladder cancer excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, E M; Sabbioni, G; DeBord, D G; Teass, A W; Brown, K K; Talaska, G G; Roberts, D R; Ruder, A M; Streicher, R P

    1996-08-07

    In April 1991, an excess of bladder cancer cases among workers employed at a chemical manufacturing facility in Niagara Falls, NY, was reported. This excess was primarily confined to 708 workers who had ever been employed in the rubber chemicals manufacturing area of the plant, where the aromatic amines aniline and o-toluidine have historically been used. An environmental and biological monitoring survey was conducted to evaluate current exposures to aniline and o-toluidine in the rubber chemicals department. Personal air sampling for aniline and o-toluidine was conducted with the use of a modified Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 73 method. Urine samples were collected before and after work (i.e., pre-shift and post-shift, respectively) and stored at -70 degrees C. Base hydrolysis was used to convert acetanilide and N-acetyl-o-toluidine, metabolites of aniline and o-toluidine present in the urine, to the parent compounds. The parent compounds were extracted from the alkaline urine into butyl chloride and then back-extracted from the butyl chloride into aqueous hydrochloric acid. An aliquot of each acidic extract was subjected to ion-interaction reversed-phase liquid chromatography with coulometric electrochemical detection. Hemoglobin (Hb) was extracted from blood and stored at -70 degrees C. For the measurement of adducts of aniline, o-toluidine, and 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), precipitated Hb was dissolved in 0.1 M sodium hydroxide in the presence of recovery standards, and the hydrolysate was extracted with hexane, derivatized with pentafluoropropionic anhydride, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with negative chemical ionization. A total of 73 workers, including 46 of 64 exposed workers who were employed in the rubber chemicals department and had the potential for exposure to aniline and o-toluidine and 27 of 52 unexposed workers employed in other departments where aniline and o-toluidine were not used or produced, had data

  12. Dust and chemical exposures, and miscarriage risk among women textile workers in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, E Y; Ray, R M; Gao, D-L; Wernli, K J; Li, W; Fitzgibbons, E D; Camp, J E; Astrakianakis, G; Heagerty, P J; De Roos, A J; Holt, V L; Thomas, D B; Checkoway, H

    2009-03-01

    To investigate possible associations between miscarriage and occupational exposures in the Shanghai textile industry. A retrospective cohort study of miscarriages among 1752 women in the Shanghai textile industry was conducted. Reproductive history was self-reported by women and occupational work histories were collected from factory personnel records. Occupational exposures were assigned by linking work history information to an industry-specific job-exposure matrix informed by factory-specific textile process information and industrial hygiene assessments. Estimates of cotton dust and endotoxin exposure were also assigned. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI were estimated by multivariate logistic regression, with adjustment for age at pregnancy, educational level, smoking status of the woman and her spouse, use of alcohol, and woman's year of birth. An elevation in risk of a spontaneously aborted first pregnancy was associated with exposure to synthetic fibres (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.00) and mixed synthetic and natural fibres (OR 3.31, 95% CI 1.30 to 8.42). No increased risks were observed for women working with solvents, nor were significant associations observed with quantitative cotton dust or endotoxin exposures. Associations were robust and similar when all pregnancies in a woman's reproductive history were considered. Occupational exposure to synthetic fibres may cause miscarriages, and this possibility should be the subject of further investigation.

  13. Human exposure to chemical mixtures: Challenges for the integration of toxicology with epidemiology data in risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Antonio F; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the potential adverse effects from longterm exposure to complex mixtures at low doses, close to health-based reference values. Traditional chemical-specific risk assessment based on animal testing may be insufficient and the lack of toxicological studies on chemical mixtures remains a major regulatory challenge. Hence, new methodologies on cumulative risk assessment are being developed but still present major limitations. Evaluation of chemical mixture effects requires an integrated and systematic approach and close collaboration across different scientific fields, particularly toxicology, epidemiology, exposure science, risk assessment and statistics for a proper integration of data from all these disciplines. Well designed and conducted epidemiological studies can take advantage of this new paradigm and can provide insight to support the correlation between humans low-dose exposures and diseases, thus avoiding the uncertainty associated with extrapolation across species. In this regard, human epidemiology studies may play a significant role in the new vision of toxicity testing. However, this type of information has not been fully considered in risk assessment, mainly due to the inherent limitations of epidemiologic studies. An integrated approach of in vivo, in vitro and in silico data, together with systematic reviews or meta-analysis of high quality epidemiological studies will improve the robustness of risk assessment of chemical mixtures and will provide a stronger basis for regulatory decisions. The ultimate goal is that experimental and mechanistic data can lend support and biological plausibility to the human epidemiological observations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluating Exposures to Complex Mixtures of Chemicals During a New Production Process in the Plastics Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, T.; Burstyn, I.; Wendel de Joode, van B.; Posthumus, M.A.; Kromhout, H.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to monitor emission of chemicals at a factory where plastics products were fabricated by a new robotic (impregnated tape winding) production process. Stationary and personal air measurements were taken to determine which chemicals were released and at what concentrations.

  15. Exploring consumer exposure pathways and patterns of use for chemicals in the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Kathie L.; Frame, Alicia M.; Goldsmith, Michael-Rock

    2015-01-01

    from regulatory agencies, manufacturers, and retailers in various countries. The database uses a controlled vocabulary of 833 terms and a novel nomenclature to capture and streamline descriptors of chemical use for 43,596 chemicals from the various sources. Examples of potential applications of CPCat...

  16. Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the USA: a population-based disease burden and cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attina, Teresa M; Hauser, Russ; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Hunt, Patricia A; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Myers, John Peterson; DiGangi, Joseph; Zoeller, R Thomas; Trasande, Leonardo

    2016-12-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to disease and dysfunction and incur high associated costs (>1% of the gross domestic product [GDP] in the European Union). Exposure to EDCs varies widely between the USA and Europe because of differences in regulations and, therefore, we aimed to quantify disease burdens and related economic costs to allow comparison. We used existing models for assessing epidemiological and toxicological studies to reach consensus on probabilities of causation for 15 exposure-response relations between substances and disorders. We used Monte Carlo methods to produce realistic probability ranges for costs across the exposure-response relation, taking into account uncertainties. Estimates were made based on population and costs in the USA in 2010. Costs for the European Union were converted to US$ (€1=$1·33). The disease costs of EDCs were much higher in the USA than in Europe ($340 billion [2·33% of GDP] vs $217 billion [1·28%]). The difference was driven mainly by intelligence quotient (IQ) points loss and intellectual disability due to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (11 million IQ points lost and 43 000 cases costing $266 billion in the USA vs 873 000 IQ points lost and 3290 cases costing $12·6 billion in the European Union). Accounting for probability of causation, in the European Union, organophosphate pesticides were the largest contributor to costs associated with EDC exposure ($121 billion), whereas in the USA costs due to pesticides were much lower ($42 billion). EDC exposure in the USA contributes to disease and dysfunction, with annual costs taking up more than 2% of the GDP. Differences from the European Union suggest the need for improved screening for chemical disruption to endocrine systems and proactive prevention. Endocrine Society, Ralph S French Charitable Foundation, and Broad Reach Foundation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictive Models and Tools for Screening Chemicals under TSCA: Consumer Exposure Models 1.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    CEM contains a combination of models and default parameters which are used to estimate inhalation, dermal, and oral exposures to consumer products and articles for a wide variety of product and article use categories.

  18. Importance of environmental and biomass dynamics in predicting chemical exposure in ecological risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morselli, M.; Semplice, M.; Leander, de F.; Brink, van den P.J.; Guardo, Di A.

    2015-01-01

    In ecological risk assessment, exposure is generally modelled assuming static conditions, herewith neglecting the potential role of emission, environmental and biomass dynamics in affecting bioavailable concentrations. In order to investigate the influence of such dynamics on predicted bioavailable

  19. Assessment of occupational exposure to chemicals by air sampling for comparison with limit values: the influence of sampling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Frédéric; Vincent, Raymond

    2014-05-01

    decreases when using the standard. Moreover, guidelines for the efficient evaluation of chemical exposure in the workplace can be drawn up to help professional occupational hygienists. Indeed, boundaries can be recommended regarding the number of measurements and sampling duration necessary to obtain a reliable exposure assessment while minimizing effort devoted to sampling and analysis.

  20. Modeling potential occupational inhalation exposures and associated risks of toxic organics from chemical storage tanks used in hydraulic fracturing using AERMOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan; Carter, Kimberly E

    2017-05-01

    Various toxic chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluids may influence the inherent health risks associated with these operations. This study investigated the possible occupational inhalation exposures and potential risks related to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from chemical storage tanks and flowback pits used in hydraulic fracturing. Potential risks were evaluated based on radial distances between 5 m and 180 m from the wells for 23 contaminants with known inhalation reference concentration (RfC) or inhalation unit risks (IUR). Results show that chemicals used in 12.4% of the wells posed a potential acute non-cancer risks for exposure and 0.11% of the wells with may provide chronic non-cancer risks for exposure. Chemicals used in 7.5% of the wells were associated with potential acute cancer risks for exposure. Those chemicals used in 5.8% of the wells may be linked to chronic cancer risks for exposure. While eight organic compounds were associated with acute non-cancer risks for exposure (>1), methanol the major compound in the chemical storage tanks (1.00-45.49) in 7,282 hydraulic fracturing wells. Wells with chemicals additives containing formaldehyde exhibited both acute and chronic cancer risks for exposure with IUR greater than 10-6, suggesting formaldehyde was the dominant contributor to both types of risks for exposure in hydraulic fracturing. This study also found that due to other existing on-site emission sources of VOCs and the geographically compounded air concentrations from other surrounding wells, chemical emissions data from storage tanks and flowback pits used in this study were lower than reported concentrations from field measurements where higher occupational inhalation risks for exposure may be expected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Concurrent fetal exposure to multiple environmental chemicals along the U.S.-Mexico border: an exploratory study in Brownsville, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Ken; Salinas, Jennifer J

    2014-09-29

    There is mounting concern that cumulative exposure to diverse chemicals in the environment may contribute to observed adverse health outcomes in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. To investigate this situation, biomarker concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides/metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in maternal and umbilical cord blood from pregnant Hispanic women in Brownsville, TX. Results show that both mothers and fetuses were exposed concurrently to a variety of relatively low-level, hazardous environmental chemicals. Approximately 10% of the blood specimens had comparatively high concentrations of specific OC pesticides, PCBs and PAHs. Because many pregnant women in Brownsville live in socioeconomically-disadvantaged and environmentally-challenging circumstances, there is appropriate concern that exposure to these exogenous substances, either individually or in combination, may contribute to endemic health problems in this population, including cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. The challenge is to identify individuals at highest comparative risk and then implement effective programs to either prevent or reduce cumulative exposures that pose significant health-related threats.

  2. Circulating Mitochondrial DNA as Biomarker Linking Environmental Chemical Exposure to Early Preclinical Lesions Elevation of mtDNA in Human Serum after Exposure to Carcinogenic Halo-Alkane-Based Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Budnik, Lygia T; Stefan Kloth; Xaver Baur; Preisser, Alexandra M.; Heidi Schwarzenbach

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for a panel of suitable biomarkers for detection of environmental chemical exposure leading to the initiation or progression of degenerative diseases or potentially, to cancer. As the peripheral blood may contain increased levels of circulating cell-free DNA in diseased individuals, we aimed to evaluate this DNA as effect biomarker recognizing vulnerability after exposure to environmental chemicals. We recruited 164 individuals presumably exposed to halo-alkane-based pesticide...

  3. Modelling effects of chemical exposure on birds wintering in agricultural landscapes: The western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Catherine A.; Grant, William E.; Mora, Miguel A.; Woodin, Marc

    2012-01-01

    We describe an ecotoxicological model that simulates the sublethal and lethal effects of chronic, low-level, chemical exposure on birds wintering in agricultural landscapes. Previous models estimating the impact on wildlife of chemicals used in agro-ecosystems typically have not included the variety of pathways, including both dermal and oral, by which individuals are exposed. The present model contains four submodels simulating (1) foraging behavior of individual birds, (2) chemical applications to crops, (3) transfers of chemicals among soil, insects, and small mammals, and (4) transfers of chemicals to birds via ingestion and dermal exposure. We demonstrate use of the model by simulating the impacts of a variety of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, growth regulators, and defoliants on western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) that winter in agricultural landscapes in southern Texas, United States. The model generated reasonable movement patterns for each chemical through soil, water, insects, and rodents, as well as into the owl via consumption and dermal absorption. Sensitivity analysis suggested model predictions were sensitive to uncertainty associated with estimates of chemical half-lives in birds, soil, and prey, sensitive to parameters associated with estimating dermal exposure, and relatively insensitive to uncertainty associated with details of chemical application procedures (timing of application, amount of drift). Nonetheless, the general trends in chemical accumulations and the relative impacts of the various chemicals were robust to these parameter changes. Simulation results suggested that insecticides posed a greater potential risk to owls of both sublethal and lethal effects than do herbicides, defoliants, and growth regulators under crop scenarios typical of southern Texas, and that use of multiple indicators, or endpoints provided a more accurate assessment of risk due to agricultural chemical exposure. The model should prove

  4. Chemical and anatomical changes in Liquidambar styraciflua L. xylem after long term exposure to elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keonhee; Labbé, Nicole; Warren, Jeffrey M; Elder, Thomas; Rials, Timothy G

    2015-03-01

    The anatomical and chemical characteristics of sweetgum were studied after 11 years of elevated CO2 (544 ppm, ambient at 391 ppm) exposure. Anatomically, branch xylem cells were larger for elevated CO2 trees, and the cell wall thickness was thinner. Chemically, elevated CO2 exposure did not impact the structural components of the stem wood, but non-structural components were significantly affected. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to detect differences between the CO2 treatments by considering numerous structural and chemical variables, as well as tree size, and data from previously published sources (i.e., root biomass, production and turnover). The PCA results indicated a clear separation between trees exposed to ambient and elevated CO2 conditions. Correlation loadings plots of the PCA revealed that stem structural components, ash, Ca, Mg, total phenolics, root biomass, production and turnover were the major responses that contribute to the separation between the elevated and ambient CO2 treated trees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Association between chemical pattern in breast milk and congenital cryptorchidism: modelling of complex human exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krysiak-Baltyn, Konrad; Toppari, J.; Skakkebaek, N. E.

    2012-01-01

    , polybrominated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides. Computational analysis of the data was performed using logistic regression and three multivariate machine learning classifiers. Furthermore, we performed systems biology analysis to explore the chemical influence on a molecular level. After correction...

  6. Graphical Arrays of Chemical-Specific Health Effect Reference Values for Inhalation Exposures (2009 Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides graphical arrays and tables of key information on the derivation of human inhalation health effect reference values for specific chemicals, allowing comparisons across durations, populations, and intended use. A number of program offices within the Agency, ...

  7. Ovis aries Papillomavirus 3 in Ovine Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Veronica; Burrai, Giovanni P; Agus, Mariagrazia; Anfossi, Antonio G; Alberti, Alberto; Antuofermo, Elisabetta; Rocca, Stefano; Cubeddu, Tiziana; Pirino, Salvatore

    2017-09-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common malignancy affecting humans and other animals. Papillomaviruses (PVs) are frequently reported as causal agents of cutaneous benign and malignant epithelial lesions in different animal species, but only few studies have investigated their role in ovine SCC. In this study, we explore the possible involvement of the Ovine aries PVs (OaPV1, OaPV2, OaPV3) in cutaneous SCC using an integrated histological and molecular approach. Forty cutaneous SCCs from different anatomical locations of Sardinian sheep and 40 matched non-SCC samples were evaluated histologically and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess the presence of ovine PVs. In addition, DNA in situ hybridization (ISH) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were carried out to evaluate the cellular localization and viral transcriptional activity, respectively. OaPV3 DNA was detected in 26 of 40 (65%) SCCs and in 12 of 40 (30%) non-SCC samples using PCR. OaPV1 and OaPV2 were not detected. OaPV3 viral DNA was observed by ISH in malignant epithelial squamous cells of 18 of 40 (45%) SCCs. In addition, the viral transcriptional activity was identified in 24 of 40 (60%) SCCs by RT-PCR. Notably, a higher viral positivity was observed in SCCs compared with non-SCC samples. The considerable infection rate of OaPV3 in the most common skin tumor of the sheep suggests that PV could represent a key factor in the onset of ovine SCC.

  8. Issues in using epidemiologic data to estimate cancer risks from environmental chemical exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picciotto, I.-H.; Neutra, R.; Alexeeff, G.; Lipsett, M.; Holtzman, D. (California Department of Health Services, Berkeley, CA (USA))

    Quantitative assessment of cancer is an important health policy application of environmental epidemiology. This paper addresses how epidemiology can reduce uncertainty in estimates of cancer risk from environmental exposures. To extrapolate to low levels, epidemiologic studies need well-qualified exposure data, adequate control of confounding, and a positive dose-response trend. In cases such as cadmium and arsenic, a critical issue is the shape of the dose-response curve. The data on arsenic suggest that assumption of linearity may under-estimate risk. Other uncertainties arise in extrapolating from adult males in occupational settings to a heterogeneous population exposed environmentally. Epidemiologic studies with less exposure data or negative findings may be used for a risk assessment based on animal data (e.g., ethylene dibromide, ethylene oxide, and methylene chloride). Then the hypothesized effect level for humans depends on the animal-based potency and estimated human exposures. Therefore, statistical power hinges on study size and on exposure levels (ethylene oxide, methylene chloride, and saccharin). Comparisons of human epidemiologic data and animal bioassays may permit the rejection of models and a narrowing of the range of plausible risks (e.g., ethylene dibromide, cadmium), or suggest that the animal-based assessment is not contradicted by the epidemiologic data (e.g., ethylene oxide, acrylonitrile, methylene chloride).

  9. Asian Implications of Aflatoxin and Dioxin Foodborne Chemical Exposures Based on World Health Organization Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Herman Gibb; Brecht Devleesschauwer; P. Michael Bolger; Felicia Wu; Janine Ezendam; Julie Cliff; Marco Zeilmaker; Philippe Jean-Paul Verger; John Pitt; Janis Baines; Gabriel Adegoke; Reza Afshari; Yan Liu; Bas Bokkers; Henk van Loveren

    2015-01-01

    All people need food. Unsafe foods; however, may cause diseases ranging from diarrhea to cancer. Chemicals in food are a worldwide health concern. In 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) organized a consultation on the global burden of foodborne diseases. Work to estimate this burden began in 2007 and was carried out by the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), which included a Chemical and Toxins Disease Task Force. The results of 8 years of work were release...

  10. Occupational Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Birth Weight and Length of Gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birks, Laura; Casas, Maribel; Garcia, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    across cohorts. Further, the risk increased with increasing number of EDC groups (OR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.10, 4.06 for exposure to four or more EDC groups). There were few associations (p titles classified as exposed to bisphenol A or brominated flame...... matrix was associated with birth weight, term low birth weight (LBW), length of gestation, and preterm delivery.Methods: Using individual participant data from 133,957 mother–child pairs in 13 European cohorts spanning births from 1994 through 2011, we linked maternal job titles with exposure to 10 EDC...... women were classified as exposed to EDCs at work during pregnancy, based on job title. Classification of exposure to one or more EDC group was associated with an increased risk of term LBW [odds ratio (OR) = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.49], as were most specific EDC groups; this association was consistent...

  11. Occupational Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Birth Weight and Length of Gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birks, Laura; Casas, Maribel; Garcia, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    matrix was associated with birth weight, term low birth weight (LBW), length of gestation, and preterm delivery.Methods: Using individual participant data from 133,957 mother–child pairs in 13 European cohorts spanning births from 1994 through 2011, we linked maternal job titles with exposure to 10 EDC...... women were classified as exposed to EDCs at work during pregnancy, based on job title. Classification of exposure to one or more EDC group was associated with an increased risk of term LBW [odds ratio (OR) = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.49], as were most specific EDC groups; this association was consistent...... across cohorts. Further, the risk increased with increasing number of EDC groups (OR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.10, 4.06 for exposure to four or more EDC groups). There were few associations (p titles classified as exposed to bisphenol A or brominated flame...

  12. A TRAINING PROGRAM FOR NURSING STAFF ON HEALTH HAZARDS OF CHEMICAL INSECTICIDES EXPOSURE IN A PRACTICAL FIELD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Mohammad, Amina El-Hosini; Ragab, Ibrahim Fahmy; Morsy, Tosson A

    2015-08-01

    An insecticide is an agent used against insects, ticks, mites and other animals affecting human welfare. Exposure to Insecticides is one of the most important occupational risks among staff worker in Military camp, veterinary medicine, industry and household as well as schools and hospitals. This study Aimed to improve nursing staff knowledge regarding adverse health effects of chemical insecticides exposure in a military field. The study was conducted in one of the Main Military Hospital. was used a quasi-experimental research design to conduct this study. all nursing staff who work in a Military Hospital (n=55) who accept to participate in the research study. A significant improvement in the Nurses' Total knowledge score was found in post-test as compared to that in pre-test. All nurses obtained a satisfactory level of knowledge after the 1st & 2nd post-tests; all of them evaluate the program in relation to trainees' exnectations as "excellent".

  13. Effect of oxidant concentration, exposure time, and seed particles on secondary organic aerosol chemical composition and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Lambe

    2015-03-01

    This similarity in turn suggests that both in the flow reactor and in chambers, SOA chemical composition at low OH exposure is governed primarily by gas-phase OH oxidation of the precursors rather than heterogeneous oxidation of the condensed particles. In general, SOA yields measured in the flow reactor are lower than measured in chambers for the range of equivalent OH exposures that can be measured in both the flow reactor and chambers. The influence of sulfate seed particles on isoprene SOA yield measurements was examined in the flow reactor. The studies show that seed particles increase the yield of SOA produced in flow reactors by a factor of 3 to 5 and may also account in part for higher SOA yields obtained in the chambers, where seed particles are routinely used.

  14. Neurobehavioral deficits, diseases, and associated costs of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the European union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellanger, Martine; Demeneix, Barbara; Grandjean, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    and Participants, and Intervention: Cost estimation was carried out from a societal perspective, ie, including direct costs (eg, treatment costs) and indirect costs such as productivity loss. RESULTS: The panel identified a 70-100% probability that polybrominated diphenyl ether and organophosphate exposures......CONTEXT: Epidemiological studies and animal models demonstrate that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to cognitive deficits and neurodevelopmental disabilities. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to estimate neurodevelopmental disability and associated costs that can be reasonably...... peer-reviewed studies to represent European exposure and approximate burden of disease. Cost estimation as of 2010 utilized lifetime economic productivity estimates, lifetime cost estimates for autism spectrum disorder, and annual costs for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Setting, Patients...

  15. Ars Operatio Gratia Aris Operatio: What We Can Learn about the Operational Art from the British and Boer War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-23

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ars Operatio Gratia Aris Operatio: What We Can Learn About the 5a. CONTRACT...Operatio Gratia Aris Operatio: What We Can Learn about the Operational Art from the British and Boer War By Dominic R. Lovello LCDR / U.S...Department of the Navy. Dominic R. Lovello 23 April 2008 Abstract Ars Operatio Gratia Aris Operatio: What We Can Learn About the

  16. Assessing chronic fish health: An application to a case of an acute exposure to chemically treated crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauduit, F; Domenici, P; Farrell, A P; Lacroix, C; Le Floch, S; Lemaire, P; Nicolas-Kopec, A; Whittington, M; Zambonino-Infante, J L; Claireaux, G

    2016-09-01

    Human alteration of marine ecosystems is substantial and growing. Yet, no adequate methodology exists that provides reliable predictions of how environmental degradation will affect these ecosystems at a relevant level of biological organization. The primary objective of this study was to develop a methodology to evaluate a fish's capacity to face a well-established environmental challenge, an exposure to chemically dispersed oil, and characterize the long-term consequences. Therefore, we applied high-throughput, non-lethal challenge tests to assess hypoxia tolerance, temperature susceptibility and maximal swimming speed as proxies for a fish's functional integrity. These whole animal challenge tests were implemented before (1 month) and after (1 month) juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) had been acutely exposed (48h) to a mixture containing 0.08gL(-1) of weathered Arabian light crude oil plus 4% dispersant (Corexit© EC9500A), a realistic exposure concentration during an oil spill. In addition, experimental populations were then transferred into semi-natural tidal mesocosm ponds and correlates of Darwinian fitness (growth and survival) were monitored over a period of 4 months. Our results revealed that fish acutely exposed to chemically dispersed oil remained impaired in terms of their hypoxia tolerance and swimming performance, but not in temperature susceptibility for 1 month post-exposure. Nevertheless, these functional impairments had no subsequent ecological consequences under mildly selective environmental conditions since growth and survival were not impacted during the mesocosm pond study. Furthermore, the earlier effects on fish performance were presumably temporary because re-testing the fish 10 months post-exposure revealed no significant residual effects on hypoxia tolerance, temperature susceptibility and maximal swimming speed. We propose that the functional proxies and correlates of Darwinian fitness used here provide a useful

  17. Enhanced 2/3 four-ary modulation code using soft-decision Viterbi decoding for four-level holographic data storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Gyuyeol; Choi, Sooyong

    2017-09-01

    An enhanced 2/3 four-ary modulation code using soft-decision Viterbi decoding is proposed for four-level holographic data storage systems. While the previous four-ary modulation codes focus on preventing maximum two-dimensional intersymbol interference patterns, the proposed four-ary modulation code aims at maximizing the coding gains for better bit error rate performances. For achieving significant coding gains from the four-ary modulation codes, we design a new 2/3 four-ary modulation code in order to enlarge the free distance on the trellis through extensive simulation. The free distance of the proposed four-ary modulation code is extended from 1.21 to 2.04 compared with that of the conventional four-ary modulation code. The simulation result shows that the proposed four-ary modulation code has more than 1 dB gains compared with the conventional four-ary modulation code.

  18. [The environmental monitoring of the exposure to chemical contamination in operating rooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desogus, G F

    2007-01-01

    The medical staff which works in an operating room is exposed to danger due to the chemical contamination found in the air. The results of this research depend to hormonal and haematochemical variations. The chemical contamination can be the cause of pathologies of the respiratory organs, the skin, the mucosa and the immune system. After a preventive evaluation of the production processes and the working procedures, some researchers have estimated the environmental risk caused by low concentrations of chemical products. In order to control the levels of the chemical agents, they have used an integrated system set up by a gaschromatography-mass spectrometer that has found some levels of chemical agents peculiar to a low pollution, characterized by the low concentration under the levels of the so-called ACGIH (2006) of hesane, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene and naphthalene. According to the latest studies is very important to develop working methods and scientific knowledges direct to environmental, medical and toxicological problems. They are necessary to guarantee a greater protection of the human health and the safety at work.

  19. Risk assessment for complex chemical exposure in aquatic systems: the problem of estimating interactive effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.S. [Oslo Univ. (Norway). Biological Inst.

    1998-12-31

    The traditional, but little used, way of assessing effects of the interaction between known chemicals is to use factorial experimental designs. Such designs allow one to test for less than additive (antagonistic) and greater than additive (synergistic) effects. Whilst synergism can be demonstrated in such experiments the concentrations at which synergistic effects occur are extremely high and are unlikely to occur in nature. Recently developed techniques allow one to measure directly the effects of combined stressors in the field. These biological effect techniques range from tests on individual organisms to tests on communities. At the biochemical level the tests can indicate that the organism has been exposed to certain groups of chemicals (for example cytochrome P-450 enzymes responding to PAHs or metallothioneins responding to heavy metals). At the community level of organisation there are highly sensitive statistical techniques that indicate clearly the combined effect of stressors. The effects of oil exploration and production on benthic communities in the North Sea can be linked to concentrations of chemicals. However, such relationships are correlative and do not necessarily indicate cause and effect. Experiments are needed to test the hypotheses generated concerning the interactive effects of chemicals on the benthic species. The statistical analyses do, however, show which species have been affected and their relative sensitivity to chemical and physical disturbances. Such species are preferable to the traditional `laboratory weeds` usually utilised. (orig.)

  20. Social disparities in exposures to bisphenol A and polyfluoroalkyl chemicals: a cross-sectional study within NHANES 2003-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Jessica W

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bisphenol A (BPA and polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs are suspected endocrine disrupting compounds known to be ubiquitous in people's bodies. Population disparities in exposure to these chemicals have not been fully characterized. Methods We analyzed data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using multivariable linear regression we examined the association between urinary concentrations of BPA, serum concentrations of four PFCs, and multiple measures of socioeconomic position (SEP: family income, education, occupation, and food security. We also examined associations with race/ethnicity. Results All four PFCs were positively associated with family income, whereas BPA was inversely associated with family income. BPA concentrations were higher in people who reported very low food security and received emergency food assistance than in those who did not. This association was particularly strong in children: 6-11 year-olds whose families received emergency food had BPA levels 54% higher (95% CI, 13 to 112% than children of families who did not. For BPA and PFCs we saw smaller and less consistent associations with education and occupation. Mexican Americans had the lowest concentrations of any racial/ethnic group of both types of chemicals; for PFCs, Mexican Americans not born in the U.S. had much lower levels than those born in the U.S. Conclusions People with lower incomes had higher body burdens of BPA; the reverse was true for PFCs. Family income with adjustment for family size was the strongest predictor of chemical concentrations among the different measures of SEP we studied. Income, education, occupation, and food security appear to capture different aspects of SEP that may be related to exposure to BPA and PFCs and are not necessarily interchangeable as measures of SEP in environmental epidemiology studies. Differences by race/ethnicity were independent of SEP.

  1. Immunological, chemical and clinical aspects of exposure to mixtures of contact allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte M.; Geisler, Carsten; Gimenéz-Arnau, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the most frequent forms of skin inflammation. Very often, we are exposed to mixtures of allergens with varying potencies, doses/areas, and exposure times. Therefore, improved knowledge about immune responses to combinations of contact allergens is highly rele...

  2. Framework to determine the effectiveness of dietary exposure mitigation to chemical contaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.; Edwards, S.; Kennedy, M.; O'Hagan, A.; O'Mahony, C.; Scholz, G.; Steinberg, P.; Tennant, D.; Chiodini, A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to ensure the food safety, risk managers may implement measures to reduce human exposure to contaminants via food consumption. The evaluation of the effect of a measure is often an overlooked step in risk analysis process. The aim of this study was to develop a systematic approach for

  3. Long-Term Effects of Subchronic Exposure to Sarin, Alone and With Stress or Other Chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abou-Donia, Mohamed

    2002-01-01

    ...) and stress on the development of chronic and neurologic deficits. An important finding from our studies is that brain AChE and plasma BChE inhibition might be used as a biomarker for exposure, not for sarin-induced neurologic deficits...

  4. A model for probabilistic health impact assessment of exposure to food chemicals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voet, H.; van der Heijden, G.W.; Bos, P.M.J.; Bosgra, S.; Boon, P.E.; Muri, S.D.; Bruschweiler, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    A statistical model is presented extending the integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model of van der Voet and Slob [van der Voet, H., Slob, W., 2007. Integration of probabilistic exposure assessment and probabilistic hazard characterisation. Risk Analysis, 27, 351-371]. The aim is to

  5. A model for probabilistic health impact assessment of exposure to food chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, van der H.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Bos, P.M.J.; Bosgra, S.; Boon, P.E.; Muri, S.D.; Brüschweiler, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    A statistical model is presented extending the integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model of van der Voet and Slob [van der Voet, H., Slob, W., 2007. Integration of probabilistic exposure assessment and probabilistic hazard characterisation. Risk Analysis, 27, 351–371]. The aim is to

  6. Alteration of pituitary hormone-immunoreactive cell populations in rat offspring after maternal dietary exposure to endocrine-active chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masutomi, Naoya; Shibutani, Makoto; Takagi, Hironori; Uneyama, Chikako; Lee, Kyoung-Youl; Hirose, Masao

    2004-04-01

    We previously performed dose-response studies of genistein, diisononyl phthalate, 4-nonylphenol, methoxychlor (MXC), and bisphenol A to examine the impact of maternal dietary exposure from gestational day 15 to postnatal day 10 on the development of rat reproductive system in later life. Among the chemicals MXC alone showed typical estrogenic effects only at the maternally toxic 1200 ppm. The present study was performed to examine the sensitivity of immunohistochemical analysis of pituitary cells of offspring similarly exposed to each chemical for detection of endocrine-disrupting effects. For this purpose, ratios of pituitary cells expressing luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin (PRL), were measured at 3 and 11 weeks of age. Ethinylestradiol (EE) at 0.5 ppm was used as a reference chemical. At week 3, decrease in the relative proportions of LH, FSH, and PRL cells in males and LH cells in females was evident with MXC at 1200 ppm. At week 11, increase was found for PRL cells from 240 ppm MXC, and FSH cells at 1200 ppm in females. On the other hand, EE increased the PRL cell percentage in females at week 3 but no effects were apparent at week 11. The other chemicals were without influence at either time point. The results suggest that the assessment of the pituitary cell populations might be a more sensitive approach to detect perinatal endocrine-disrupting effects than other methods. The difference in the pituitary effect between MXC and EE is discussed.

  7. High-throughput migration modelling for estimating exposure to chemicals in food packaging in screening and prioritization tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi S; Fantke, Peter; Huang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Specialty software and simplified models are often used to estimate migration of potentially toxic chemicals from packaging into food. Current models, however, are not suitable for emerging applications in decision-support tools, e.g. in Life Cycle Assessment and risk-based screening and prioriti...... to uncertainty and dramatically decreased model performance (R2 = 0.4, Se = 1). In all, this study provides a rapid migration modelling approach to estimate exposure to chemicals in food packaging for emerging screening and prioritization approaches.......Specialty software and simplified models are often used to estimate migration of potentially toxic chemicals from packaging into food. Current models, however, are not suitable for emerging applications in decision-support tools, e.g. in Life Cycle Assessment and risk-based screening...... and prioritization, which require rapid computation of accurate estimates for diverse scenarios. To fulfil this need, we develop an accurate and rapid (high-throughput) model that estimates the fraction of organic chemicals migrating from polymeric packaging materials into foods. Several hundred step...

  8. Neurobehavioral deficits, diseases, and associated costs of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanger, Martine; Demeneix, Barbara; Grandjean, Philippe; Zoeller, R Thomas; Trasande, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies and animal models demonstrate that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to cognitive deficits and neurodevelopmental disabilities. The objective was to estimate neurodevelopmental disability and associated costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposure in the European Union. An expert panel applied a weight-of-evidence characterization adapted from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated for relevant EDCs, and biomarker data were organized from peer-reviewed studies to represent European exposure and approximate burden of disease. Cost estimation as of 2010 utilized lifetime economic productivity estimates, lifetime cost estimates for autism spectrum disorder, and annual costs for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Setting, Patients and Participants, and Intervention: Cost estimation was carried out from a societal perspective, ie, including direct costs (eg, treatment costs) and indirect costs such as productivity loss. The panel identified a 70-100% probability that polybrominated diphenyl ether and organophosphate exposures contribute to IQ loss in the European population. Polybrominated diphenyl ether exposures were associated with 873,000 (sensitivity analysis, 148,000 to 2.02 million) lost IQ points and 3290 (sensitivity analysis, 3290 to 8080) cases of intellectual disability, at costs of €9.59 billion (sensitivity analysis, €1.58 billion to €22.4 billion). Organophosphate exposures were associated with 13.0 million (sensitivity analysis, 4.24 million to 17.1 million) lost IQ points and 59 300 (sensitivity analysis, 16,500 to 84,400) cases of intellectual disability, at costs of €146 billion (sensitivity analysis, €46.8 billion to €194 billion). Autism spectrum disorder causation by multiple EDCs was assigned a 20-39% probability, with 316 (sensitivity analysis, 126-631) attributable cases at a cost of €199 million

  9. Gene expression profiling in persons with multiple chemical sensitivity before and after a controlled n-butanol exposure session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantoft, Thomas M; Skovbjerg, Sine; Andersson, Linus; Claeson, Anna-Sara; Engkilde, Kaare; Lind, Nina; Nordin, Steven; Hellgren, Lars I

    2017-02-22

    To investigate the pathophysiological pathways leading to symptoms elicitation in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) by comparing gene expression in MCS participants and healthy controls before and after a chemical exposure optimised to cause symptoms among MCS participants.The first hypothesis was that unexposed and symptom-free MCS participants have similar gene expression patterns to controls and a second hypothesis that MCS participants can be separated from controls based on differential gene expression upon a controlled n-butanol exposure. Participants were exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol while seated in a windowed exposure chamber for 60 min. A total of 26 genes involved in biochemical pathways found in the literature have been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of MCS and other functional somatic syndromes were selected. Expression levels were compared between MCS and controls before, within 15 min after being exposed to and 4 hours after the exposure. Participants suffering from MCS and healthy controls were recruited through advertisement at public places and in a local newspaper. 36 participants who considered themselves sensitive were prescreened for eligibility. 18 sensitive persons fulfilling the criteria for MCS were enrolled together with 18 healthy controls. 17 genes showed sufficient transcriptional level for analysis. Group comparisons were conducted for each gene at the 3 times points and for the computed area under the curve (AUC) expression levels. MCS participants and controls displayed similar gene expression levels both at baseline and after the exposure and the computed AUC values were likewise comparable between the 2 groups. The intragroup variation in expression levels among MCS participants was noticeably greater than the controls. MCS participants and controls have similar gene expression levels at baseline and it was not possible to separate MCS participants from controls based on gene expression measured after the

  10. Self-reported illness from chemical odors in young adults without clinical syndromes or occupational exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, I.R.; Schwartz, G.E.; Peterson, J.M.; Amend, D. (Univ. of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson (United States))

    The present survey of young adult college students investigated the prevalence of self-reported illness from the smell of five common environmental chemicals (cacosmia): (1) pesticide, (2) automobile exhaust, (3) paint, (4) new carpet, and (5) perfume. Sixty-six percent of 643 students reported feeling ill from one or more of the five chemicals; 15% identified the smell of at least four chemicals as making them ill. Ratings of illness from pesticide correlated weakly but significantly with ratings for the largest number of individual symptoms (9 of 11); daytime tiredness and daytime grogginess both correlated at high levels of significance with illness ratings (on a 5-point scale) for four of the five chemicals. The most cacosmic group (CS) included significantly more women (79%) than the noncacosmic group (NS) (49%); women overall were more cacosmic than men (p < .001), even with the significant covariate of depression. Ratings of cacosmia correlated only weakly with scores for depression (r = 0.16), anxiety (r = 0.08), and trait shyness (r = 0.18) in the total sample. On stepwise multiple regression with cacosmia score as the dependent measure, shyness accounted for 5.8% of the variance, while depression, anxiety, sense of mastery, and repression did not enter the equation. Histories of physician-diagnosed hay fever, but not asthma, were more frequent in the CS (16%) than in the NS group (5%). Without the confounds of chronic illness or specific treatment programs, these data are similar to patterns described clinically for a subset of patients with multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS), including previous data on increased nasal resistance in MCS. The findings also suggest a limited relationship between degree of self-reported cacosmia and trait shyness, possibly on the basis of limbic hyper-reactivity. Psychological variables did not otherwise account for any of the variance in self-rated illness from chemical odors in this sample. 56 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Asian Implications of Aflatoxin and Dioxin Foodborne Chemical Exposures Based on World Health Organization Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Gibb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All people need food. Unsafe foods; however, may cause diseases ranging from diarrhea to cancer. Chemicals in food are a worldwide health concern. In 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO organized a consultation on the global burden of foodborne diseases. Work to estimate this burden began in 2007 and was carried out by the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG, which included a Chemical and Toxins Disease Task Force. The results of 8 years of work were released in December 2015.

  12. Circulating mitochondrial DNA as biomarker linking environmental chemical exposure to early preclinical lesions elevation of mtDNA in human serum after exposure to carcinogenic halo-alkane-based pesticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia T Budnik

    Full Text Available There is a need for a panel of suitable biomarkers for detection of environmental chemical exposure leading to the initiation or progression of degenerative diseases or potentially, to cancer. As the peripheral blood may contain increased levels of circulating cell-free DNA in diseased individuals, we aimed to evaluate this DNA as effect biomarker recognizing vulnerability after exposure to environmental chemicals. We recruited 164 individuals presumably exposed to halo-alkane-based pesticides. Exposure evaluation was based on human biomonitoring analysis; as biomarker of exposure parent halo-methanes, -ethanes and their metabolites, as well as the hemoglobin-adducts methyl valine and hydroxyl ethyl valine in blood were used, complemented by expert evaluation of exposure and clinical intoxication symptoms as well as a questionnaire. Assessment showed exposures to halo alkanes in the concentration range being higher than non-cancer reference doses (RfD but (mostly lower than the occupational exposure limits. We quantified circulating DNA in serum from 86 individuals with confirmed exposure to off-gassing halo-alkane pesticides (in storage facilities or in home environment and 30 non-exposed controls, and found that exposure was significantly associated with elevated serum levels of circulating mitochondrial DNA (in size of 79 bp, mtDNA-79, p = 0.0001. The decreased integrity of mtDNA (mtDNA-230/mtDNA-79 in exposed individuals implicates apoptotic processes (p = 0.015. The relative amounts of mtDNA-79 in serum were positively associated with the lag-time after intoxication to these chemicals (r = 0.99, p<0.0001. Several months of post-exposure the specificity of this biomarker increased from 30% to 97% in patients with intoxication symptoms. Our findings indicate that mitochondrial DNA has a potential to serve as a biomarker recognizing vulnerable risk groups after exposure to toxic/carcinogenic chemicals.

  13. The Conditional Fault-Diameter of the K-ary n-Cube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Day

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We obtain the conditional fault diameter of the k-ary n-cube interconnection network. It has been previously shown that under the condition of forbidden faulty sets (i.e. assuming each non-faulty node has at least one non-faulty neighbor, the k-ary n-cube, whose connectivity is 2n, can tolerate up to 4n-3 faulty nodes without becoming disconnected. We extend this result by showing that the conditional fault-diameter of the k-ary n-cube is equal to the fault-free diameter plus two. This means that if there are at most 4n-3 faulty nodes in the k-ary n-cube and if every non-faulty node has at least one non-faulty neighbor, then there exists a fault-free path of length at most the diameter plus two between any two non faulty nodes. We also show how to construct these fault-free paths. With this result the k-ary n-cube joins a group of interconnection networks (including the hypercube and the star-graph whose conditional fault diameter has been shown to be only two units over the fault-free diameter.

  14. Altered resistance to Trichinella spiralis infection following subchronic exposure of adult mice to chemicals of environmental concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebke, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of subchronic chemical exposure on expulsion of adult Trichinella spiralis from the small intestine of mice and encystment of newborn larvae in the host's musculature were investigated. Exposure to diethylstilbestrol, benzo(a)pyrene, tris-(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, cyclophosphamide, phorbol myristate acetate, and dimethylvinylchloride prior to infection of mice with 200 infective larvae resulted in larger worm burdens in treated animals than in controls 14 days after infection. Worm expulsion was not affected by exposure to tris-(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate, orthophenylphenol, and indomethacin. Increased burdens of muscle-phase larvae were found in animals that maintained significant numbers of adult worms in the gut at 14 days, except in mice administered diethylstilbestrol and dimethylvinylchloride. Exposure to diethylstilbestrol and cyclophosphamide resulted in decreased inflammatory reactions in the tissues of the small intestine and development of bone marrow eosinophilia in infected mice. Marrow eosinophilia was likewise decreased in mice given tris-(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate before infection. Additional studies with diethylstilbestrol administered either before, at the time of, or after infection showed inhibition of worm expulsion. Drug exposure during a primary infection inhibited the expulsion of a second T. spiralis infection, but did not affect worm elimination when given during a second infection. Treatment with diethylstilbestrol after artificial sensitization of mice with Trichinella antigens decreased delayed hypersensitivity responses to the sensitizing antigen. Immune functions, assessed by lymphoproliferative responses to mitogens and antibody responses to sheep red blood cells, generally correlated with altered host resistance to T. spiralis infection.

  15. The Role of Epigenetics in the Latent Effects of Early Life Exposure to Obesogenic Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stel, Jente; Legler, Juliette

    2015-10-01

    Recent research supports a role for exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the global obesity epidemic. Obesogenic EDCs have the potential to inappropriately stimulate adipogenesis and fat storage, influence metabolism and energy balance and increase susceptibility to obesity. Developmental exposure to obesogenic EDCs is proposed to interfere with epigenetic programming of gene regulation, partly by activation of nuclear receptors, thereby influencing the risk of obesity later in life. The goal of this minireview is to briefly describe the epigenetic mechanisms underlying developmental plasticity and to evaluate the evidence of a mechanistic link between altered epigenetic gene regulation by early life EDC exposure and latent onset of obesity. We summarize the results of recent in vitro, in vivo, and transgenerational studies, which clearly show that the obesogenic effects of EDCs such as tributyltin, brominated diphenyl ether 47, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are mediated by the activation and associated altered methylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, the master regulator of adipogenesis, or its target genes. Importantly, studies are emerging that assess the effects of EDCs on the interplay between DNA methylation and histone modifications in altered chromatin structure. These types of studies coupled with genome-wide rather than gene-specific analyses are needed to improve mechanistic understanding of epigenetic changes by EDC exposure. Current advances in the field of epigenomics have led to the first potential epigenetic markers for obesity that can be detected at birth, providing an important basis to determine the effects of developmental exposure to obesogenic EDCs in humans.

  16. DSSTox chemical-index files for exposure-related experiments in ArrayExpress and Gene Expression Omnibus: enabling toxico-chemogenomics data linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) ARYEXP and GEOGSE files are newly published, structure-annotated files of the chemical-associated and chemical exposure-related summary experimental content contained in the ArrayExpress Repository and Gene Expression Omnibus...

  17. Influence of pH during chemical weathering of bricks: Long term exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge; Charola, A. Elena

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of environmental weathering of bricks in historical structures, this study focuses on new bricks currently employed for restoration projects. The bricks were subjected to an accelerated chemical weathering test by immersion in solutions with pH ranging from 3 to 13...

  18. 29 CFR 1910.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the Chemical Hygiene Plan (22, 24). Do not discharge to the sewer concentrated acids or bases (231... interpreted by comparing the color reaction to a color chart supplied by the manufacturer of the test strip.... Laboratory scale means work with substances in which the containers used for reactions, transfers, and other...

  19. ESC resistance of commercial grade polycarbonates during exposure to butter and related chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellander, Carina Koch; Nielsen, Tenna B; Ghanbari-Siahkali, Afshin

    2008-01-01

    Three commercial grades of polycarbonates (Lexan (R) 144, Lexan (R) 104 and Makrolon Rx1805) were studied with respect to resistance to environmental stress cracking (ESC) when exposed to butter and related chemicals. The polycarbonates (PCs) were extensively characterised to determine whether...

  20. Prenatal Exposures to Perfluorinated Chemicals and Anthropometry at 7 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Camilla Schou; Fei, Chunyuan; Gamborg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Fetal exposure to the perfluoroalkyl acids, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), has been associated with lower birth weight and lower weight and body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) in early infancy. It is, however, unclear if exposure to prenatal PFOS and PFOA has...... a lasting influence on growth. We estimated the associations between the maternal plasma level of PFOS or PFOA and the children's body mass index, waist circumference, and risk of overweight at 7 years of age. A total of 1,400 women were randomly selected from the Danish National Birth Cohort among those...... who provided blood samples early in pregnancy and gave birth to liveborn singletons in 1996-2002. Weight and height information at 7 years was available for 811 children. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used for analyses. Maternal PFOS and PFOA concentrations were overall inversely...

  1. Effects of pulmonary exposure to chemically-distinct welding fumes on neuroendocrine markers of toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnak, K; Sriram, K; Johnson, C; Roberts, J R; Mercer, R; Miller, G R; Wirth, O; Antonini, J M

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to welding fumes may result in disorders of the pulmonary, cardiovascular, and reproductive systems. Welders are also at a greater risk of developing symptoms similar to those seen in individuals with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. In welders, there are studies that suggest that alterations in circulating prolactin concentrations may be indicative of injury to the dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. The goal of these studies was to use an established model of welding particulate exposure to mimic the effects of welding fume inhalation on reproductive functions. Since previous investigators suggested that changes in circulating prolactin may be an early marker of DA neuron injury, movement disorders, and reproductive dysfunction, prolactin, hypothalamic tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels (a marker of DA synthesis), and other measures of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function were measured after repetitive instillation of welding fume particulates generated by flux core arc-hard surfacing (FCA-HS), manual metal arc-hard surfacing (MMA-HS) or gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) welding, or manganese chloride (MnCl2). Exposure to welding fume particulate resulted in the accumulation of various metals in the pituitary and testes of rats, along with changes in hypothalamic TH and serum prolactin levels. Exposure to particulates with high concentrations of soluble manganese (Mn) appeared to exert the greatest influence on TH activity levels and serum prolactin concentrations. Thus, circulating prolactin levels may serve as a biomarker for welding fume/Mn-induced neurotoxicity. Other reproductive measures were collected, and these data were consistent with epidemiological findings that prolactin and testosterone may serve as biomarkers of welding particulate induced DA neuron and reproductive dysfunction.

  2. Assessment of the deoxyribonucleic acid damage caused by occupational exposure to chemical compounds in Isfahan Polyacryl Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etebari, Mahmoud; Jafarian-Dehkordi, Abbas; Kahookar, Ahmad; Moradi, Shahla

    2014-06-01

    Chemical pollutants found in industrial environments can cause chronic genotoxicity in vulnerable individuals during the long-term exposure. The primary purpose of the present study was to assess the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage caused by occupational exposure to industrial chemicals and secondary purpose is to investigate the effect of possible risk factors of genotoxicity. The blood samples of the workers of Isfahan Polyacryl Company were evaluated in terms of genotoxicity using the comet assay method. The percentage of DNA in the tail and tail moment were measured and DNA damage was evaluated. Furthermore, the effect of age, smoking, duration of working in the company and working in two parts of the company on the degree of vulnerability to genotoxicity was assessed. The amount of DNA damage in the target group (the production line workers) was significantly higher than the control group (the staffs), 3.87 versus 1.52 as tail moment, (P company compared to those work in one part and control group, 4.63 versus 3.74 and 1.52 respectively as tail moment, (P company may have a significant role in DNA damage.

  3. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  4. Chemical exposures, medical history, and risk of squamous and basal cell carcinoma of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R P; Bajdik, C D; Fincham, S; Hill, G B; Keefe, A R; Coldman, A; McLean, D I

    1996-06-01

    The role of non-sunlight-related risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin was investigated in a population-based, case-control study conducted among males in Alberta, Canada. In total, 180 SCC and 226 BCC cases and 406 randomly selected male controls, frequency matched by 5-year age groups to the cases, were interviewed by trained personnel using a standardized etiological questionnaire. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression techniques. After adjustment for age, skin and hair color, mother's ethnic origin, and sunlight exposure, elevated risks for SCC were seen in subjects exposed to insecticides [odds ratio (OR), highest tertile, 2.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4-5.6], herbicides (OR, highest tertile, 3.9; 95% CI, 2.2-6.9), and fungicides and seed treatments (OR, highest tertile, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4-4.0), as well petroleum products, grease, and several other exposures. Elevated risks of BCC were seen in subjects exposed to fiberglass dust (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-3.9) and dry cleaning agents (OR, 4.6 95% CI, 1.1-19.7). Prior nondiagnostic X-ray treatment for skin conditions increased risk of both cancers. Although solar UV radiation is known to be the major environmental exposure causing nonmelanocytic skin cancer, results of this study suggest that nonsolar factors may also be important.

  5. Chemical changes exhibited by latent fingerprints after exposure to vacuum conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Nicholas J; Willson, Terry R; Driscoll, Daniel J; Reddy, Subrayal M; Webb, Roger P; Bleay, Stephen; Ward, Neil I; Kirkby, Karen J; Bailey, Melanie J

    2013-07-10

    The effect of vacuum exposure on latent fingerprint chemistry has been evaluated. Fingerprints were analysed using a quartz crystal microbalance to measure changes in mass, gas chromatography mass spectrometry to measure changes in lipid composition and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to determine changes in the content of water, fatty acids and their esters after exposure to vacuum. The results are compared with samples aged under ambient conditions. It was found that fingerprints lose around 26% of their mass when exposed to vacuum conditions, equivalent to around 5 weeks ageing under ambient conditions. Further exposure to vacuum causes a significant reduction in the lipid composition of a fingerprint, in particular with the loss of tetradecanoic and pentadecanoic acid, that was not observed in ambient aged samples. There are therefore implications for sequence in which fingerprint development procedures (for example vacuum metal deposition) are carried out, as well as the use of vacuum based methods such as secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation (MALDI) in the study of fingerprint chemistry. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Case–control study of breast cancer and exposure to synthetic environmental chemicals among Alaska Native women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianne K. Holmes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to environmental chemicals may impair endocrine system function. Alaska Native (AN women may be at higher risk of exposure to these endocrine disrupting chemicals, which may contribute to breast cancer in this population. Objective: To measure the association between exposure to select environmental chemicals and breast cancer among AN women. Design: A case–control study of 170 women (75 cases, 95 controls recruited from the AN Medical Center from 1999 to 2002. Participants provided urine and serum samples. Serum was analyzed for 9 persistent pesticides, 34 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners, and 8 polybrominated diethyl ether (PBDE congeners. Urine was analyzed for 10 phthalate metabolites. We calculated geometric means (GM and compared cases and controls using logistic regression. Results: Serum concentrations of most pesticides and 3 indicator PCB congeners (PCB-138/158; PCB-153, PCB-180 were lower in case women than controls. BDE-47 was significantly higher in case women (GM=38.8 ng/g lipid than controls (GM=25.1 ng/g lipid (p=0.04. Persistent pesticides, PCBs, and most phthalate metabolites were not associated with case status in univariate logistic regression. The odds of being a case were higher for those with urinary mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP concentrations that were above the median; this relationship was seen in both univariate (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.16–4.05, p=0.02 and multivariable (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.13–5.25, p=0.02 logistic regression. Women with oestrogen receptor (ER–/progesterone receptor (PR-tumour types tended to have higher concentrations of persistent pesticides than did ER+/PR+ women, although these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Exposure to the parent compound of the phthalate metabolite MEHP may be associated with breast cancer. However, our study is limited by small sample size and an inability to control for the confounding effects of body mass index

  7. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  8. A Workflow to Investigate Exposure and Pharmacokinetic Influences on High-Throughput in Vitro Chemical Screening Based on Adverse Outcome Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Martin B; Leonard, Jeremy A; Grulke, Christopher M; Chang, Daniel T; Edwards, Stephen W; Brooks, Raina; Goldsmith, Michael-Rock; El-Masri, Hisham; Tan, Yu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) link adverse effects in individuals or populations to a molecular initiating event (MIE) that can be quantified using in vitro methods. Practical application of AOPs in chemical-specific risk assessment requires incorporation of knowledge on exposure, along with absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties of chemicals. We developed a conceptual workflow to examine exposure and ADME properties in relation to an MIE. The utility of this workflow was evaluated using a previously established AOP, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. Thirty chemicals found to inhibit human AChE in the ToxCast™ assay were examined with respect to their exposure, absorption potential, and ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Structures of active chemicals were compared against structures of 1,029 inactive chemicals to detect possible parent compounds that might have active metabolites. Application of the workflow screened 10 "low-priority" chemicals of 30 active chemicals. Fifty-two of the 1,029 inactive chemicals exhibited a similarity threshold of ≥ 75% with their nearest active neighbors. Of these 52 compounds, 30 were excluded due to poor absorption or distribution. The remaining 22 compounds may inhibit AChE in vivo either directly or as a result of metabolic activation. The incorporation of exposure and ADME properties into the conceptual workflow eliminated 10 "low-priority" chemicals that may otherwise have undergone additional, resource-consuming analyses. Our workflow also increased confidence in interpretation of in vitro results by identifying possible "false negatives." Phillips MB, Leonard JA, Grulke CM, Chang DT, Edwards SW, Brooks R, Goldsmith MR, El-Masri H, Tan YM. 2016. A workflow to investigate exposure and pharmacokinetic influences on high-throughput in vitro chemical screening based on adverse outcome pathways. Environ Health Perspect 124:53-60; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409450.

  9. Evaluating Occupational Exposure to Carcinogenic Volatile Organic Compounds in an Oil-Dependent Chemical Industry: a Case Study on Benzen and Epichlorohydrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Negahban

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Exposure of workers to carcinogenic compounds in chemical industries during a long period might cause irreversible health effects. This study evaluated workers exposure to benzene and epichlorohydrin in breathing air in one of the oil-dependent chemical industries of Iran. Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was performed in one of the oil-dependent chemical industries of south of Iran, winter, 2012. A total of 173 workers were examined in this study. NIOSH 1501 and 1010 methods were used to assess personal exposure to benzene and epichlorohydrin, correspondingly. Collected samples were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry method. Results: Among 346 collected samples, benzene was identified in all cases (100% and epichlorohydrin in 156 samples (45%. A significant difference was found in the mean of exposure to benzene and epichlorohydrin in various workshops (Pvalue 0.05. Conclusion: It seems that work nature of employees in chemical industry affects their exposure to volatile organic compounds in workplace. According to the results, due to the proximity of compounds concentration to the action level, especially benzene and also the workers exposure to less than the maximum limit in the long-term, reducing exposure through appropriate control measures are necessary.

  10. Agricultural chemical exposures and birth defects in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa A case – control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Joanne

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is one of the major users of pesticides on the African continent. The Eastern Cape is the second largest province in South Africa. There has been growing concern about the occurrence of certain birth defects which seemed to have increased in the past few years. In this paper we investigate associations between exposure to agricultural chemicals and certain birth defects. Few such studies have been undertaken in the developing world previously. Methods Between September 2000 and March 2001 a case – control study was conducted among rural women in the area of the Eastern cape to investigate the association between women's exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of birth defects. Information on birth defects was obtained from the register of the Paediatrics Department at the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital in Mdantsane, one of the largest referral hospitals in the province. The cases were children who were diagnosed with selected birth defects. The controls were children born in the same areas as the cases. Exposure information on the mothers was obtained by interview concerning from their activities in gardens and fields. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 89 case mothers and 178 control mothers was interviewed. Babies with birth defects were seven times more likely to be born to women exposed to chemicals used in gardens and fields compared to no reported exposure (Odds Ratio 7.18, 95% CI 3.99, 13.25; and were almost twice as likely to be born to women who were involved in dipping livestock used to prevent ticks (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15, 3.14. They were also 6.5 times more likely to be born to women who were using plastic containers for fetching water (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.2, 27.9. Some of these containers had previously contained pesticides (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.06, 3.31. Conclusions These findings suggest a link between exposure to pesticides and certain birth defects among the

  11. Assessment of the deoxyribonucleic acid damage caused by occupational exposure to chemical compounds in Isfahan Polyacryl Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Etebari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical pollutants found in industrial environments can cause chronic genotoxicity in vulnerable individuals during the long-term exposure. The primary purpose of the present study was to assess the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA damage caused by occupational exposure to industrial chemicals and secondary purpose is to investigate the effect of possible risk factors of genotoxicity. Materials and Methods: The blood samples of the workers of Isfahan Polyacryl Company were evaluated in terms of genotoxicity using the comet assay method. The percentage of DNA in the tail and tail moment were measured and DNA damage was evaluated. Furthermore, the effect of age, smoking, duration of working in the company and working in two parts of the company on the degree of vulnerability to genotoxicity was assessed. Results: The amount of DNA damage in the target group (the production line workers was significantly higher than the control group (the staffs, 3.87 versus 1.52 as tail moment, (P < 0.0001. DNA damage was significantly higher in smoker groups compared with non-smoker target group and control group, 4.18 versus 3.07 and 1.52 respectively as tail moment, (P < 0.0001. Furthermore, it was higher in person working in two different parts of the company compared to those work in one part and control group, 4.63 versus 3.74 and 1.52 respectively as tail moment, (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Occupational exposure to Polyacryl caused DNA damage. Smoking and working in two parts of the company may have a significant role in DNA damage.

  12. Circulating mitochondrial DNA as biomarker linking environmental chemical exposure to early preclinical lesions elevation of mtDNA in human serum after exposure to carcinogenic halo-alkane-based pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnik, Lygia T; Kloth, Stefan; Baur, Xaver; Preisser, Alexandra M; Schwarzenbach, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for a panel of suitable biomarkers for detection of environmental chemical exposure leading to the initiation or progression of degenerative diseases or potentially, to cancer. As the peripheral blood may contain increased levels of circulating cell-free DNA in diseased individuals, we aimed to evaluate this DNA as effect biomarker recognizing vulnerability after exposure to environmental chemicals. We recruited 164 individuals presumably exposed to halo-alkane-based pesticides. Exposure evaluation was based on human biomonitoring analysis; as biomarker of exposure parent halo-methanes, -ethanes and their metabolites, as well as the hemoglobin-adducts methyl valine and hydroxyl ethyl valine in blood were used, complemented by expert evaluation of exposure and clinical intoxication symptoms as well as a questionnaire. Assessment showed exposures to halo alkanes in the concentration range being higher than non-cancer reference doses (RfD) but (mostly) lower than the occupational exposure limits. We quantified circulating DNA in serum from 86 individuals with confirmed exposure to off-gassing halo-alkane pesticides (in storage facilities or in home environment) and 30 non-exposed controls, and found that exposure was significantly associated with elevated serum levels of circulating mitochondrial DNA (in size of 79 bp, mtDNA-79, p = 0.0001). The decreased integrity of mtDNA (mtDNA-230/mtDNA-79) in exposed individuals implicates apoptotic processes (p = 0.015). The relative amounts of mtDNA-79 in serum were positively associated with the lag-time after intoxication to these chemicals (r = 0.99, pvulnerable risk groups after exposure to toxic/carcinogenic chemicals.

  13. Childhood exposure to DEHP, DBP and BBP under existing chemical management systems: A comparative study of sources of childhood exposure in Korea and in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Chan-Kook

    2014-01-01

    an exposure scenario approach. Then, the scenario based exposure level was compared with back-calculated exposure levels based on biomonitored urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations. The result verifies the existence of varying territorial human background exposure levels and the gap between exposure...... such as the EU REACH need to be strengthened. Moreover, based on the contributions from different exposure sources, national specific risk management tools need to be developed and strengthened, applying a systemic approach to promote sustainable material flows....

  14. Initial sediment transport model of the mining-affected Aries River Basin, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.; Linard, Joshua I.

    2008-01-01

    The Romanian government is interested in understanding the effects of existing and future mining activities on long-term dispersal, storage, and remobilization of sediment-associated metals. An initial Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was prepared using available data to evaluate hypothetical failure of the Valea Sesei tailings dam at the Rosia Poieni mine in the Aries River basin. Using the available data, the initial Aries River Basin SWAT model could not be manually calibrated to accurately reproduce monthly streamflow values observed at the Turda gage station. The poor simulation of the monthly streamflow is attributed to spatially limited soil and precipitation data, limited constraint information due to spatially and temporally limited streamflow measurements, and in ability to obtain optimal parameter values when using a manual calibration process. Suggestions to improve the Aries River basin sediment transport model include accounting for heterogeneity in model input, a two-tier nonlinear calibration strategy, and analysis of uncertainty in predictions.

  15. The ARIES-RS power core -- Recent development in Li/V designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sze, D.K.; Billone, M.C.; Hua, T.Q. [and others

    1997-04-01

    The ARIES-RS fusion power plant design study is based on reversed-shear (RS) physics with a Li/V (lithium breeder and vanadium structure) blanket. The reversed-shear discharge has been documented in many large tokamak experiments. The plasma in the RS mode has a high beta, low current, and low current drive requirements. Therefore, it is an attractive physics regime for a fusion power plant. The blanket system based on a Li/V has high temperature operating capability, good tritium breeding, excellent high heat flux removal capability, long structural life time, low activation, low after heat and good safety characteristics. For these reasons, the ARIES-RS reactor study selected Li/V as the reference blanket. The combination of attractive physics and attractive blanket engineering is expected to result in a superior power plant design. This paper summarizes the power core design of the ARIES-RS power plant study.

  16. Transient Taylor-Aris dispersion for time-dependent flows in straight channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Søren; Bruus, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Taylor–Aris dispersion, the shear-induced enhancement of solute diffusion in the flow direction of the solvent, has been studied intensely in the past half century for the case of steady flow and single-frequency pulsating flows. Here, combining Aris’s method of moments with Dirac’s bra–ket forma......Taylor–Aris dispersion, the shear-induced enhancement of solute diffusion in the flow direction of the solvent, has been studied intensely in the past half century for the case of steady flow and single-frequency pulsating flows. Here, combining Aris’s method of moments with Dirac’s bra......–ket formalism, we derive an expression for the effective solute diffusivity valid for transient Taylor–Aris dispersion in any given time-dependent, multi-frequency solvent flow through straight channels. Our theory shows that the solute dispersion may be greatly enhanced by the time-dependent parts of the flow...

  17. Aging of printing and writing paper upon exposure to light. Part 2, Mechanical and chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Hunt; Xiaochun Yu; James Bond; Umesh Agarwal; Raj Atalla

    2003-01-01

    Data is presented on chemical and physical changes observed on a series of 15 specially made writing papers as part of the development of the new ASTM standard D6789-02. Papers were exposed to north window, fluorescent, and halogen illumination for several years. Furnish covered the span from stone groundwood to textile cotton, pH 5 to 8.1, with and without alkaline...

  18. Risk assessment for complex chemical exposure in aquatic systems: the problem of estimating interactive effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J S

    1998-01-01

    The traditional, but little used, way of assessing effects of the interaction between known chemicals is to use factorial experimental designs. Such designs allow one to test for less than additive (antagonistic) and greater than additive (synergistic) effects. Whilst synergism can be demonstrated in such experiments the concentrations at which synergistic effects occur are extremely high and are unlikely to occur in nature. Recently developed techniques allow one to measure directly the effects of combined stressors in the field. These biological effect techniques range from tests on individual organisms to tests on communities. At the biochemical level the tests can indicate that the organism has been exposed to certain groups of chemicals (for example cytochrome P-450 enzymes responding to PAHs or metallothioneins responding to heavy metals). At the community level of organisation there are highly sensitive statistical techniques that indicate clearly the combined effect of stressors. The effects of oil exploration and production on benthic communities in the North Sea can be linked to concentrations of chemicals. However, such relationships are correlative and do not necessarily indicate cause and effect. Experiments are needed to test the hypotheses generated concerning the interactive effects of chemicals on the benthic species. The statistical analyses do, however, show which species have been affected and their relative sensitivity to chemical and physical disturbances. Such species are preferable to the traditional "laboratory weeds" usually utilised. A strategy for risk assessment is needed that combines an experimental protocol for making predictions, from laboratory experiments, of likely effects to be found in the field. This should be combined with field monitoring that allows one to detect changes that were not predicted. At present most monitoring designs cannot adequately detect trends. This is due to concentration on Type-I statistical errors

  19. Alterations in the infrared spectral signature of avian feathers reflect potential chemical exposure: a pilot study comparing two sites in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llabjani, Valon; Malik, Riffat N; Trevisan, Júlio; Hoti, Valmira; Ukpebor, Justina; Shinwari, Zabta K; Moeckel, Claudia; Jones, Kevin C; Shore, Richard F; Martin, Francis L

    2012-11-01

    Chemical contamination of ecosystems is a global issue with evidence that pollutants impact on living organisms in a harmful fashion. Developing sensor approaches that would allow the derivation of biomarkers or signatures of effect in target sentinel organisms and monitor environmental chemical contamination in a high throughput manner is of utmost importance. As biomolecules absorb infrared (IR), signature vibrational spectra related to structure and function can be derived. In light of this, we tested the notion that IR spectra of bird feathers might reflect environmental chemical contaminant exposure patterns. Feathers were collected from monospecific heronries of cattle egret based in two independent locations (Trimu vs. Mailsi) in the Punjab province of Pakistan; these sites were found to differ in their chemical contamination patterns. Feather samples were chemically analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, organochlorines and heavy metals. Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform IR (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to derive a spectral signature of individual feathers. Resultant IR spectra were then subjected to canonical correspondence analysis (CAA) to determine whether feather spectral signatures correlate to chemical exposure. Additionally, we explored if principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) could be applied to distinguish site-specific differences; linear discriminant function (LDF) was also applied to classify sites. The sampled feathers varied in their chemical exposure patterns depending on whether they were sourced from one site associated with heavy metal exposure or the other which suggested high organic pollutant exposures. CCA of chemical and spectral data showed a correlation between spectral signatures and chemical exposure. PCA-LDA readily distinguished feathers from the two different sites. Discriminating alterations were identified and these were associated with

  20. Ultra-low cost coil fabrication approach for ARIES-ST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waganer, L.M.; Deuser, D.A.; Slattery, K.T.; Wille, G.W.; Arcella, F.; Cleveland, B

    2003-02-01

    The extremely large capital expense of fusion power core components has severely diminished the overall attractive features of fusion-generated electrical power. A fresh examination of possible new manufacturing techniques yielded two ultra-low cost methods to fabricate the massive toroidal field (TF) coils of the ARIES-Spherical Torus (ARIES-ST) conceptual power plant. These innovative fabrication approaches are estimated to reduce the capital costs of the TF centerpost and return leg shell by an order of magnitude from conventional fabrication processes. This capital cost reduction will, in turn, reduce the cost of electricity by approximately 10%.

  1. M-ary suprathreshold stochastic resonance in multilevel threshold systems with signal-dependent noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chaojun; Zhou, Bingchang; Gao, Xiao; McDonnell, Mark D.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate multilevel threshold systems with signal-dependent noise that transmit a common random input signal. We demonstrate the occurrence of M-ary suprathreshold stochastic resonance caused by the signal-dependent noise, and quantify the information enhancement that results relative to the absence of noise. We also find that in the case of M-ary threshold systems, the values of mutual information and signal-to-quantization-noise ratio are larger than the corresponding values in the case of binary threshold systems. These results are potentially useful for understanding the encoding mechanism of inner-ear hair cells and other biological sensory systems.

  2. Time-dependent Taylor–Aris dispersion of an initial point concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Søren; Hovad, Emil; Bruus, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    -specific theoretical results, and furthermore predict new phenomena. In particular, for the transient phase before the well-described steady Taylor–Aris limit is reached, we find anomalous diffusion with a dependence of the temporal scaling exponent on the initial release point, generalizing this finding in specific...... cases. During this transient we furthermore identify maxima in the values of the dispersion coefficient which exceed the Taylor–Aris value by amounts that depend on channel geometry, initial point release position, velocity profile and Péclet number. We show that these effects are caused by a difference...

  3. Male reproductive disorders, diseases, and costs of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Russ; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Hass, Ulla; Toppari, Jorma; Juul, Anders; Andersson, Anna Maria; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Heindel, Jerrold J; Trasande, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to male reproductive diseases and disorders. To estimate the incidence/prevalence of selected male reproductive disorders/diseases and associated economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to specific EDC exposures in the European Union (EU). An expert panel evaluated evidence for probability of causation using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated, and biomarker data were organized from carefully identified studies from the peer-reviewed literature to represent European exposure and approximate burden of disease as it occurred in 2010. The cost-of-illness estimation utilized multiple peer-reviewed sources. The expert panel identified low epidemiological and strong toxicological evidence for male infertility attributable to phthalate exposure, with a 40-69% probability of causing 618,000 additional assisted reproductive technology procedures, costing €4.71 billion annually. Low epidemiological and strong toxicological evidence was also identified for cryptorchidism due to prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure, resulting in a 40-69% probability that 4615 cases result, at a cost of €130 million (sensitivity analysis, €117-130 million). A much more modest (0-19%) probability of causation in testicular cancer by polybrominated diphenyl ethers was identified due to very low epidemiological and weak toxicological evidence, with 6830 potential cases annually and costs of €848 million annually (sensitivity analysis, €313-848 million). The panel assigned 40-69% probability of lower T concentrations in 55- to 64-year-old men due to phthalate exposure, with 24 800 associated deaths annually and lost economic productivity of €7.96 billion. EDCs may contribute substantially to male reproductive disorders and diseases, with nearly €15 billion annual

  4. Childhood exposure to DEHP, DBP and BBP under the existing chemical management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Chan-Kook

    , DBP and BBP such as REACH and directives on cosmetics, building materials, toys and childcare articles. Furthermore, the need for a system approach (Lee et al., 2013) which links existing chemical regulations with environmental management tools such as waste management systems and environmental impact......Since early 20th century, phthalates have been widely used as plasticizers. Due to the potential for adverse health effects - particularly reproductive effects - for vulnerable population such as children, phthalates like Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and Benzyl...

  5. Future Treaties: Chemical Weapons Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Rnmrvn ia ALL;t rai EK upi Kepv i Sri Lanka he: giu Fra ’nce mexic 1-r Brazi G Moi7Y𔄁lia A.S.S.R. Bulgz’ari "RG Morocco At.41 Or< n Surma7; Hjnqar: Wh...Carpenter, W., Government Regulation of Chemical Manufacturing in the USA as a Basis for Surveillance of Compliance With the Projected Chemical Weapons

  6. DNA fragile site breakage as a measure of chemical exposure and predictor of individual susceptibility to form oncogenic rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Christine E; Dillon, Laura W; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Wang, Yuh-Hwa

    2017-03-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements induced by non-radiation causes contribution to the majority of oncogenic fusions found in cancer. Treatment of human thyroid cells with fragile site-inducing laboratory chemicals can cause preferential DNA breakage at the RET gene and generate the RET/PTC1 rearrangement, a common driver mutation in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC). Here, we demonstrate that treatment with non-cytotoxic levels of environmental chemicals (benzene and diethylnitrosamine) or chemotherapeutic agents (etoposide and doxorubicin) generates significant DNA breakage within RET at levels similar to those generated by fragile site-inducing laboratory chemicals. This suggests that chronic exposure to these chemicals plays a role in the formation of non-radiation associated RET/PTC rearrangements. We also investigated whether the sensitivity of the fragile RET region could predict the likelihood of rearrangement formation using normal thyroid tissues from patients with and without RET/PTC rearrangements. We found that normal cells of patients with thyroid cancer driven by RET/PTC rearrangements have significantly higher blunt-ended, double-stranded DNA breaks at RET than those of patients without RET/PTC rearrangements. This sensitivity of a cancer driver gene suggests for the first time that a DNA breakage test at the RET region could be utilized to evaluate susceptibility to RET/PTC formation. Further, the significant increase of blunt-ended, double-stranded DNA breaks, but not other types of DNA breaks, in normal cells from patients with RET/PTC-driven tumors suggests that blunt-ended double-stranded DNA breaks are a preferred substrate for rearrangement formation, and implicate involvement of the non-homologous end joining pathway in the formation of RET/PTC rearrangements. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Paternal exposures to environmental chemicals and time-to-pregnancy: overview of results from the LIFE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck Louis, G M; Barr, D B; Kannan, K; Chen, Z; Kim, S; Sundaram, R

    2016-07-01

    Published findings from the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment (LIFE) Study regarding the relation between environmental chemicals and couple fecundity, as measured by time-to-pregnancy (TTP), are reviewed with a particular focus on role of the male partner. The LIFE Study recruited 501 couples from 16 counties in two U.S. states upon discontinuing contraception for purposes of becoming pregnant. Upon enrollment, couples provided a blood and urine sample for the quantification of persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals, respectively, and then completed daily journals until pregnant or up to one year of trying. Female partners used fertility monitors to aid the timing of intercourse relative to ovulation, and digital home pregnancy test kits on the day of expected menses. Chemical classes included: metals, persistent organic pollutants, environmental phenols, and phthalates that were quantified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or isotope dilution high-resolution or tandem mass spectrometry. Time-to-pregnancy (TTP) was defined as the number of prospectively observed menstrual cycles required for pregnancy. Fecundability odds ratios (FORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for each chemical and partner after adjusting for potential confounders and accounting for right censoring and time off contraception. FORs men's serum were associated with a 17-29% reduction in couple fecundity. Our findings underscore the importance of a couple-based exposure design, inclusive of the male partner, when assessing couple-dependent outcomes such as TTP to avoid misinterpretation of results based only upon the female partner. Published [2016]. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Chemical instability of graphene oxide following exposure to highly reactive radicals in advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Sun, Linyan; Lou, Xiaoyi; Yang, Fei; Feng, Min; Liu, Jianshe

    2017-12-01

    The rapidly increasing and widespread use of graphene oxide (GO) as catalyst supports, requires further understanding of its chemical stability in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In this study, UV/H2O2 and UV/persulfate (UV/PS) processes were selected to test the chemical instability of GO in terms of their performance in producing highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH) and sulfate radicals (SO4(-)), respectively. The degradation intermediates were characterized using UV-visible absorption spectra (UV-vis), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, and matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Experimental data indicate that UV/PS process was more effective in enhancing GO degradation than the UV/H2O2 system. The overall oxygen-containing functionalities (e.g. CO, CO and OCO groups) dramatically declined. After radical attack, sheet-like GO was destructed into lots of flakes and some low-molecular-weight molecules were detected. The results suggest GO is most vulnerable against SO4(-) radical attack, which deserves special attention while GO acts as a catalyst support or even as a catalyst itself. Therefore, stability of GO and its derivatives should be carefully assessed before they are applied to SO4(-)-based AOPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Exposure Assessment to Environmental Chemicals in Children from Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Martinez, Angeles C; Orta-Garcia, Sandra T; Rico-Escobar, Edna M; Carrizales-Yañez, Leticia; Del Campo, Jorge D Martin; Pruneda-Alvarez, Lucia G; Ruiz-Vera, Tania; Gonzalez-Palomo, Ana K; Piña-Lopez, Iris G; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Pérez-Maldonado, Ivan N

    2016-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that the human biomonitoring of susceptible populations is a valuable method for the identification of critical contaminants. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the exposure profile for arsenic (As), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in children living in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico (a major manufacturing center in Mexico). In 2012, we evaluated a total of 135 healthy children living in Ciudad Juarez since birth. The total PBDEs levels ranged from nondetectable (Ciudad Juarez is necessary.

  10. Evaluating the influence of half-life, milk:plasma partition coefficient, and volume of distribution on lactational exposure to chemicals in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verner, Marc-André; Plouffe, Laurence; Kieskamp, Kyra K; Rodríguez-Leal, Inés; Marchitti, Satori A

    2017-05-01

    Women are exposed to multiple environmental chemicals, many of which are known to transfer to breast milk during lactation. However, little is known about the influence of the different chemical-specific pharmacokinetic parameters on children's lactational dose. Our objective was to develop a generic pharmacokinetic model and subsequently quantify the influence of three chemical-specific parameters (biological half-life, milk:plasma partition coefficient, and volume of distribution) on lactational exposure to chemicals and resulting plasma levels in children. We developed a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model to simulate lifetime maternal exposure, placental transfer, and lactational exposure to the child. We performed 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations where half-life, milk:plasma partition coefficient, and volume of distribution were varied. Children's dose and plasma levels were compared to their mother's by calculating child:mother dose ratios and plasma level ratios. We then evaluated the association between the three chemical-specific pharmacokinetic parameters and child:mother dose and level ratios through linear regression and decision trees. Our analyses revealed that half-life was the most influential parameter on children's lactational dose and plasma concentrations, followed by milk:plasma partition coefficient and volume of distribution. In bivariate regression analyses, half-life explained 72% of child:mother dose ratios and 53% of child:mother level ratios. Decision trees aiming to identify chemicals with high potential for lactational exposure (ratio>1) had an accuracy of 89% for child:mother dose ratios and 84% for child:mother level ratios. Our study showed the relative importance of half-life, milk:plasma partition coefficient, and volume of distribution on children's lactational exposure. Developed equations and decision trees will enable the rapid identification of chemicals with a high potential for lactational exposure. Copyright © 2017

  11. Chemical modification of coating of Pinus halepensis pollen by ozone exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naas, Oumsaad; Mendez, Maxence; Quijada, Melesio; Gosselin, Sylvie; Farah, Jinane; Choukri, Ali; Visez, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Pollen coating, located on the exine, includes an extractible lipid fraction. The modification of the pollen coating by air pollutants may have implications on the interactions of pollen with plant stigmas and human cells. Pinus halepensis pollen was exposed to ozone in vitro and the pollen coating was extracted with organic solvent and analyzed by GC-MS. Ozone has induced chemical changes in the coating as observed with an increase in dicarboxylic acids, short-chain fatty acids and aldehydes. 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde was identified as the main reaction product and its formation was shown to occur both on native pollen and on defatted pollen. 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde is very likely formed via the ozonolysis of acid coumaric-like monomers constitutive of the sporopollenin. Modification of pollen coating by air pollutants should be accounted for in further studies on effect of pollution on germination and on allergenicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. One and Two-individual Movements of Fish after Chemical Exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Quach, Quang Kha; Van Nguyen, Tuyen; Chon, Tae-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Movement behavior of an indicator species, zebrafish (Danio rerio), was analyzed with one- and two-individual groups before and after treatment with a toxic chemical, formaldehyde, at a low concentration (1 ppm). After the boundary area had been determined based on experimental data, intermittency was defined as the probability distributions of the shadowing time during which data were above a pre-determined threshold and were obtained from experimental time-series data on forces and the inter-distances for one and two individuals. Overall intermittencies were similar in the boundary and central areas. However, the intermittencies were remarkably different between the one- and the two-individual groups: the single line was used to fit the data for the one-individual group whereas two phases were observed with breakpoints (approximately 10 seconds in logarithm) in the exponential fitting curves for the two-individual group. A difference in the probability distributions of shadowing time was observed "before" a...

  13. Pilot study testing a European human biomonitoring framework for biomarkers of chemical exposure in children and their mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exley, Karen; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to a number of environmental chemicals in UK mothers and children has been assessed as part of the European biomonitoring pilot study, Demonstration of a Study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES). For the European-funded project, 17 countries...... tested the biomonitoring guidelines and protocols developed by COPHES. The results from the pilot study in the UK are presented; 21 school children aged 6-11 years old and their mothers provided hair samples to measure mercury and urine samples, to measure cadmium, cotinine and several phthalate...... on environment, health and lifestyle. Mercury in hair was higher in children who reported frequent consumption of fish (geometric mean 0.35 μg/g) compared to those that ate fish less frequently (0.13 μg/g, p = 0.002). Cadmium accumulates with age as demonstrated by higher levels of urinary cadmium in the mothers...

  14. Occupational hazards in hospitals: accidents, radiation, exposure to noxious chemicals, drug addiction and psychic problems, and assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestal, J J

    1987-01-01

    Except for infectious diseases all the main occupational hazards affecting health workers are reviewed: accidents (explosions, fires, electrical accidents, and other sources of injury); radiation (stochastic and non-stochastic effects, protective measures, and personnel most at risk); exposure to noxious chemicals, whose effects may be either local (allergic eczema) or generalised (cancer, mutations), particular attention being paid to the hazards presented by formol, ethylene oxide, cytostatics, and anaesthetic gases; drug addiction (which is more common among health workers than the general population) and psychic problems associated with promotion, shift work, and emotional stress; and assault (various types of assault suffered by health workers, its causes, and the characterisation of the most aggressive patients). PMID:3307896

  15. Ten-Year Trend of Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI and Diarrheal Diseases Based on Healthy Houses in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Hapsari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Housing is a basic human need that can affect health. To achieve a decent standard of living, peopleshould live in an adequate housing, so that its occupants have a safe and healthy environment. Condition of the houseis part of the quality of the environment. One of the environment-related diseases is ARI and diarrhea. Objectives: Thisstudy determines trends of ARI and diarrheal diseases and their relation to healthy houses in Indonesia in the last tenyears. Methods: This analysis combines two data sources that are Riskesdas 2007–2010 and Susenas 2001–2010. Thedesign of Riskesdas and Susenas is descriptive cross sectional. Research area for this analysis covers the entire provincein Indonesia. The limitation of this analysis is only eight variables that can be used from data sources every year, beside 14 indicators of healthy houses. Results: This study indicates that: 1. Trends of ARI and diarrheal disease against healthy houses are similar. If percentage of healthy houses are high then the percentage of ARI and diarrheal disease are low, andvice versa. Therefore, there is a correlation among healthy houses with ARI and diarrhea; 2. In low-income groups with similar healthy houses conditions, the percentage of ARI and diarrheal disease is higher than high-income groups. The role of economic status is an important point to reduce the percentage of ARI and diarrheal diseases; 3. During 2007, it shows a rise in ARI and diarrhea rate along with a decrease percentage of healthy houses. Conclusion: This study concludes that if the percentage of healthy houses is low then the percentage of ARI and diarrhea will increase, and vice versa. Socioeconomic factors have a role in the rise of healthy houses and a reduction in the percentage of ARI and diarrhealdiseases. Recommendation: the population needs to increase awareness of the environmental and healthy behaviors toform a Healthy Household.

  16. Do Nanoparticle Physico-Chemical Properties and Developmental Exposure Window Influence Nano ZnO Embryotoxicity in Xenopus laevis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Bonfanti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The growing global production of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs suggests a realistic increase in the environmental exposure to such a nanomaterial, making the knowledge of its biological reactivity and its safe-by-design synthesis mandatory. In this study, the embryotoxicity of ZnONPs (1–100 mg/L specifically synthesized for industrial purposes with different sizes, shapes (round, rod and surface coatings (PEG, PVP was tested using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX to identify potential target tissues and the most sensitive developmental stages. The ZnONPs did not cause embryolethality, but induced a high incidence of malformations, in particular misfolded gut and abdominal edema. Smaller, round NPs were more effective than the bigger, rod ones, and PEGylation determined a reduction in embryotoxicity. Ingestion appeared to be the most relevant exposure route. Only the embryos exposed from the stomodeum opening showed anatomical and histological lesions to the intestine, mainly referable to a swelling of paracellular spaces among enterocytes. In conclusion, ZnONPs differing in shape and surface coating displayed similar toxicity in X. laevis embryos and shared the same target organ. Nevertheless, we cannot exclude that the physico-chemical characteristics may influence the severity of such effects. Further research efforts are mandatory to ensure the synthesis of safer nano-ZnO-containing products.

  17. Do Nanoparticle Physico-Chemical Properties and Developmental Exposure Window Influence Nano ZnO Embryotoxicity in Xenopus laevis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, Patrizia; Moschini, Elisa; Saibene, Melissa; Bacchetta, Renato; Rettighieri, Leonardo; Calabri, Lorenzo; Colombo, Anita; Mantecca, Paride

    2015-01-01

    The growing global production of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) suggests a realistic increase in the environmental exposure to such a nanomaterial, making the knowledge of its biological reactivity and its safe-by-design synthesis mandatory. In this study, the embryotoxicity of ZnONPs (1–100 mg/L) specifically synthesized for industrial purposes with different sizes, shapes (round, rod) and surface coatings (PEG, PVP) was tested using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX) to identify potential target tissues and the most sensitive developmental stages. The ZnONPs did not cause embryolethality, but induced a high incidence of malformations, in particular misfolded gut and abdominal edema. Smaller, round NPs were more effective than the bigger, rod ones, and PEGylation determined a reduction in embryotoxicity. Ingestion appeared to be the most relevant exposure route. Only the embryos exposed from the stomodeum opening showed anatomical and histological lesions to the intestine, mainly referable to a swelling of paracellular spaces among enterocytes. In conclusion, ZnONPs differing in shape and surface coating displayed similar toxicity in X. laevis embryos and shared the same target organ. Nevertheless, we cannot exclude that the physico-chemical characteristics may influence the severity of such effects. Further research efforts are mandatory to ensure the synthesis of safer nano-ZnO-containing products. PMID:26225989

  18. Exposure of wood in floodplains affects its chemical quality and its subsequent breakdown in streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, Rubén; Gómez, Rosa

    2016-02-01

    In stream ecosystems, coarse organic matter from the riparian vegetation, a key food resource, is often retained in the floodplains before reaching the channel. During floodplain exposure, organic matter can be affected by abiotic and biotic processes ("preconditioning"), which alter its quality and affect its subsequent decomposition in streams. We analyzed the effect of floodplain preconditioning on wood quality (lignin, C, N, P, K, among others), and its subsequent aquatic breakdown, paying special attention to microbial activity. We simulated preconditioned standard wooden sticks on one arid stream floodplain for 3 and 4 months, and then monitored their breakdown in three different streams, together with control (non-preconditioned) sticks. Preconditioning reduced lignin mass and C:N and lignin:N ratios, caused the leaching of soluble nutrients such as P and K, as well as N immobilization by microbes. These changes enhanced the breakdown of wood in the first week of immersion, but had no effect on breakdown rates after 4 months of incubation in the streams, although N immobilization was diminished. Our results suggest that terrestrial preconditioning could alter the role of wood as a long-lasting nutrients and energy source for freshwater ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Exposure to the Endocrine-Disrupting Chemical Bisphenol A During Critical Windows of Murine Pituitary Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstrum, Kirsten S; Edwards, Whitney; Banerjee, Annesha; Wang, Wei; Flaws, Jodi A; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Kim, Sung Hoon; Raetzman, Lori T

    2018-01-01

    Critical windows of development are often more sensitive to endocrine disruption. The murine pituitary gland has two critical windows of development: embryonic gland establishment and neonatal hormone cell expansion. During embryonic development, one environmentally ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemical, bisphenol A (BPA), has been shown to alter pituitary development by increasing proliferation and gonadotrope number in females but not males. However, the effects of exposure during the neonatal period have not been examined. Therefore, we dosed pups from postnatal day (PND)0 to PND7 with 0.05, 0.5, and 50 μg/kg/d BPA, environmentally relevant doses, or 50 μg/kg/d estradiol (E2). Mice were collected after dosing at PND7 and at 5 weeks. Dosing mice neonatally with BPA caused sex-specific gene expression changes distinct from those observed with embryonic exposure. At PND7, pituitary Pit1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was decreased with BPA 0.05 and 0.5 μg/kg/d in males only. Expression of Pomc mRNA was decreased at 0.5 μg/kg/d BPA in males and at 0.5 and 50 μg/kg/d BPA in females. Similarly, E2 decreased Pomc mRNA in both males and females. However, no noticeable corresponding changes were found in protein expression. Both E2 and BPA suppressed Pomc mRNA in pituitary organ cultures; this repression appeared to be mediated by estrogen receptor-α and estrogen receptor-β in females and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor in males, as determined by estrogen receptor subtype-selective agonists. These data demonstrated that BPA exposure during neonatal pituitary development has unique sex-specific effects on gene expression and that Pomc repression in males and females can occur through different mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  20. The effect of chemical warfare on respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and their reversibility 23-25 years after exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskabady, Mrteza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Zabihi, Narges Amel; Boskabady, Marzie

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary complications due to mustard gas exposure range from no effect to severe bronchial stenosis. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and respiratory symptoms in chemical war victims were studied 23-25 years after exposure to sulfur mustard (SM). Respiratory symptoms were evaluated in a sample of 142 chemical war victims and 120 control subjects with similar age from the general population using a questionnaire including questions on respiratory symptoms in the past year. PFT values were also measured in chemical war victims before and 15 min after the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol and baseline PFT in controls. All chemical war victims (100%) reported respiratory symptoms. Wheezing (66.19%), cough (64.78%), and chest tightness (54.4%) were the most common symptoms and only 15.5% of chemical war victims reported sputum (p war victims had wheeze in chest examination, which were significantly higher than control group (p war victims than that in control subjects (p war victims, 23-25 years after exposure to chemical warfare have higher frequencies and severity of respiratory symptoms. PFT values were also significantly reduced among chemical war victims, which showed reversibility due to the inhalation of 200 µg salbutamol. © The Author(s) 2012.

  1. Micropropagation of caçari under different nutritive culture media ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-08-17

    Aug 17, 2016 ... tubes containing 30 mL culture medium, according to each experiment and their respective treatments. After 90 days ... Author(s) agree that this article remains permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution .... plants of caçari with good phytosanitary health were used; these.

  2. Operation ARIES!: Methods, Mystery, and Mixed Models: Discourse Features Predict Affect in a Serious Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Carol M.; Graesser, Arthur C.; Pavlik, Philip, Jr.; Cai, Zhiqiang; Butler, Heather; Halpern, Diane; Millis, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Operation ARIES! is an Intelligent Tutoring System that is designed to teach scientific methodology in a game-like atmosphere. A fundamental goal of this serious game is to engage students during learning through natural language tutorial conversations. A tight integration of cognition, discourse, motivation, and affect is desired to meet this…

  3. Evaluating methamphetamine use and risks of injection initiation among street youth: the ARYS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montaner Julio SG

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many Canadian cities are experiencing ongoing infectious disease and overdose epidemics among injection drug users (IDU. These health concerns have recently been exacerbated by the increasing availability and use of methamphetamine. The challenges of reducing health-related harms among IDU have led to an increased recognition that strategies to prevent initiation into injection drug use must receive renewed focus. In an effort to better explore the factors that may protect against or facilitate entry into injection drug use, the At Risk Youth Study (ARYS has recently been initiated in Vancouver, Canada. The local setting is unique due to the significant infrastructure that has been put in place to reduce HIV transmission among active IDU. The ARYS study will seek to examine the impact of these programs, if any, on non-injection drug users. In addition, Vancouver has been the site of widespread use of methamphetamine in general and has seen a substantial increase in the use of crystal methamphetamine among street youth. Hence, the ARYS cohort is well positioned to examine the harms associated with methamphetamine use, including its potential role in facilitating initiation into injection drug use. This paper provides some background on the epidemiology of illicit drug use among street youth in North America and outlines the methodology of ARYS, a prospective cohort study of street youth in Vancouver, Canada.

  4. Digital Collaboration and Classroom Practice Educator Use of ARIS Connect. Technical Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siman, Nina; Goldenberg, Shifra M.; Gold, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A major focus of the booming education technology sector is on products that aim to help teachers improve classroom practice. For their part, districts must figure out which of these resources will be most useful to schools. In New York City, the Department of Education developed its own Achievement Reporting and Innovation System (ARIS), which…

  5. Digital Collaboration and Classroom Practice: Educator Use of ARIS Connect. Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siman, Nina; Goldenberg, Shifra M.; Gold, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A major focus of the booming education technology sector is on products that aim to help teachers improve classroom practice. For their part, districts must figure out which of these resources will be most useful to schools. In New York City, the Department of Education developed its own Achievement Reporting and Innovation System (ARIS), which…

  6. The Performance of a Mobile Phone Respiratory Rate Counter Compared to the WHO ARI Timer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Gan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy and efficiency of the respiratory rate (RR RRate mobile application to the WHO ARI Timer. METHODS: Volunteers used both devices to measure RR from reference videos of infants and children. Measurements were compared using correlation, Bland-Altman analysis, error metrics and time taken. RESULTS: Measurements with either device were highly correlated to the reference (r = 0.991 and r = 0.982, and to each other (r = 0.973. RRate had a larger bias than the ARI Timer (0.6 vs. 0.04 br/min, but tighter limits of agreement (−4.5 to 3.3 br/min vs. −5.5 to 5.5 br/min. RRate was more accurate than the ARI Timer (percentage error 10.6% vs. 14.8%, root mean square error 2.1 vs. 2.8 br/min and normalized root mean square error 5.6% vs. 7.5%. RRate measurements were 52.7 seconds (95% CI 50.4 s to 54.9 s faster. CONCLUSION: During video observations, RRate measured RR quicker with a similar accuracy compared to the ARI Timer.

  7. The design and research of anti-color-noise chaos M-ary communication system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yongqing, E-mail: fuyongqing@hrbeu.edu.cn; Li, Xingyuan; Li, Yanan [College of information and Communication Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang, Lin [College of Underwater Acoustic Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Previously a novel chaos M-ary digital communication method based on spatiotemporal chaos Hamilton oscillator has been proposed. Without chaos synchronization circumstance, it has performance improvement in bandwidth efficiency, transmission efficiency and anti-white-noise performance compared with traditional communication method. In this paper, the channel noise influence on chaotic modulation signals and the construction problem of anti-color-noise chaotic M-ary communication system are studied. The formula of zone partition demodulator’s boundary in additive white Gaussian noise is derived, besides, the problem about how to determine the boundary of zone partition demodulator in additive color noise is deeply studied; Then an approach on constructing anti-color-noise chaos M-ary communication system is proposed, in which a pre-distortion filter is added after the chaos baseband modulator in the transmitter and whitening filter is added before zone partition demodulator in the receiver. Finally, the chaos M-ary communication system based on Hamilton oscillator is constructed and simulated in different channel noise. The result shows that the proposed method in this paper can improve the anti-color-noise performance of the whole communication system compared with the former system, and it has better anti-fading and resisting disturbance performance than Quadrature Phase Shift Keying system.

  8. Vegetation map and plant checklist of Ol Ari Nyiro ranch and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ol Ari Nyiro is a 360 km2 ranch of the Laikipia Plateau, in a semi-arid part of Kenya. The vegetation of the ranch and nearby Mukutan Gorge was mapped, and a preliminary check-list of fungi and vascular plants compiled. The vegetation was classified in 16 different types. A total of 708 species and subspecies were ...

  9. Consensus at the Heart of Division: Commentary on Norton and Ariely (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Elizabeth W; Buchtel, Emma E; Aknin, Lara B

    2011-01-01

    We argue that seemingly deep-seated partisan divisions may be built on a foundation of surprising consensus, not only in terms of the wealth distributions that people prefer (Norton & Ariely, 2011, this issue), but also in the gut-level moral reactions and beliefs about money and happiness that may underlie those preferences. © The Author(s) 2011.

  10. Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) Fiscal Year 1996 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Dennison; Pamela W. Massey; Timothy O. Nelson

    1998-10-01

    President Clinton issued Nonprolferation and Export Control Policy in September 1993 in response to the growing threat of nuclear proliferation. Four months later, in January 1994, President Clinton and Russia's President Yeltsin issued a Joint Statement Between the United States and Russia on Nonprollfieration of Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Means of Their Delivery. President Clinton announced on 1 March 1995, that approximately 200 metric tons of US- origin weapons-usable fissile materials had been declared surplus to US defense needs. The Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) Demonstration Project is one part of the scientific response to President Clinton's promise to reduce the nuclear weapons stockpile. The work accomplished on the ARIES Demonstration Project during fiscal year 1996, 10ctober 1995 through 30 September 1996, is described in this report. The Department of Energy (DOE), by forming the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD), has initiated a Fissile Materials Disposition Program. The first step is the disassembly and conversion of weapons pits. Of the 200 metric tons of US surplus fissile material, approximately 50 tons are weapons plutonium, and of these 50 tons, 2/3 is contained in pits. Weapons plutonium wili be extracted from pits, rendered to an unclassified form, and converted to oxide. The plutonium oxide will then be dispositioned either by immobilization in a ceramic matrix or blended with uranium oxide, fabricated into ceramic pellets of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, and "burned" in a commercial light water reactor. The purpose of ARIES is to demonstrate two major activities: (1) dismantlement of nuclear weapons, and (2) conversion of weapons-grade plutonium into a form required for long-term storage or in preparation for the disposition (immobilization m MOX fuel) that allows for international inspection and verification, and in accordance with safeguards regimes. Plutonium does not have to be

  11. Cumulative effects of prenatal-exposure to exogenous chemicals and psychosocial stress on fetal growth: Systematic-review of the human and animal evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna M Vesterinen

    Full Text Available Adverse effects of prenatal stress or environmental chemical exposures on fetal growth are well described, yet their combined effect remains unclear.To conduct a systematic review on the combined impact and interaction of prenatal exposure to stress and chemicals on developmental outcomes.We used the first three steps of the Navigation Guide systematic review. We wrote a protocol, performed a robust literature search to identify relevant animal and human studies and extracted data on developmental outcomes. For the most common outcome (fetal growth, we evaluated risk of bias, calculated effect sizes for main effects of individual and combined exposures, and performed a random effects meta-analysis of those studies reporting on odds of low birthweight (LBW by smoking and socioeconomic status (SES.We identified 17 human- and 22 animal-studies of combined chemical and stress exposures and fetal growth. Human studies tended to have a lower risk of bias across nine domains. Generally, we found stronger effects for chemicals than stress, and these exposures were associated with reduced fetal growth in the low-stress group and the association was often greater in high stress groups, with limited evidence of effect modification. We found smoking associated with significantly increased odds of LBW, with a greater effect for high stress (low SES; OR 4.75 (2.46-9.16 compared to low stress (high SES; OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.53-2.48. Animal studies generally had a high risk of bias with no significant combined effect or effect modification.We found that despite concern for the combined effects of environmental chemicals and stress, this is still an under-studied topic, though limited available human studies indicate chemical exposures exert stronger effects than stress, and this effect is generally larger in the presence of stress.

  12. Antimicrobial Exposure Assessment Task Force II (AEATF II) Volume 5: Governing Document for a Multi-Year Antimicrobial Chemical Exposure Monitoring Program (interim draft document with changes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the overall scope of the AEATF II program, demonstrates the need for additional human exposure monitoring data and explains the proposed methodology for the exposure monitoring studies proposed for conduct by the AEATF II.

  13. Antimicrobial Exposure Assessment Task Force II (AEATF II) Volume 5: Governing Document for a Multi-Year Antimicrobial Chemical Exposure Monitoring Program (interim draft document)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the overall scope of the AEATF II program, demonstrates the need for additional human exposure monitoring data and explains the proposed methodology for the exposure monitoring studies proposed for conduct by the AEATF II.

  14. Chemical exposure-response relationship between air pollutants and reactive oxygen species in the human respiratory tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, P. S. J.; Berkemeier, T.; Tong, H.; Arangio, A. M.; Lucas, K.; Poeschl, U.; Shiraiwa, M.

    2016-12-01

    The inhalation of air pollutants such as O3 and particulate matter can lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can cause damage to biosurfaces such as the lung epithelium unless they are effectively scavenged. Although the chemical processes that lead to ROS formation within the ELF upon inhalation of pollutants are well understood qualitatively, ROS concentrations within the ELF have hardly been quantified so far. The kinetic multi-layer model of surface and bulk chemistry in the epithelial lining fluid (KM-SUB-ELF) has been developed to describe chemical reactions and mass transport and to quantify ROS production rates and concentrations within the epithelial lining fluid. KM-SUB-ELF simulations suggest that O3 will rapidly saturate the ELF whereas antioxidants and surfactant species are effective scavengers of OH. High ambient concentrations of O3 can lead to the depletion of surfactants and antioxidants within the ELF, potentially leading to oxidative stress. KM-SUB-ELF reproduced measurements for the formation of H2O2 and OH due to the presence of iron, copper and quinones in surrogate lung lining fluid. This enabled ROS production rates and concentrations in the ELF to be quantified. We found that in polluted megacities the ROS concentration in the ELF due to inhalation of pollutants was at least as high as the concentrations in the ELF of patients suffering from respiratory diseases. Cu and Fe are found to be the most important redox-active aerosol components for ROS production upon inhalation of PM2.5 in polluted regions. Therefore, a reduction in the emission of Cu and Fe should be major targets of air pollution control. Chemical exposure-response relations provide a quantitative basis for assessing the relative importance of specific air pollutants in different regions of the world, showing that aerosol-induced epithelial ROS levels in polluted megacity air can be several orders of magnitude higher than in pristine rainforest air.

  15. Dose and Time Dependencies in Stress Pathway Responses during Chemical Exposure: Novel Insights from Gene Regulatory Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha M. Souza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Perturbation of biological networks is often observed during exposure to xenobiotics, and the identification of disturbed processes, their dynamic traits, and dose–response relationships are some of the current challenges for elucidating the mechanisms determining adverse outcomes. In this scenario, reverse engineering of gene regulatory networks (GRNs from expression data may provide a system-level snapshot embedded within accurate molecular events. Here, we investigate the composition of GRNs inferred from groups of chemicals with two distinct outcomes, namely carcinogenicity [azathioprine (AZA and cyclophosphamide (CYC] and drug-induced liver injury (DILI; diclofenac, nitrofurantoin, and propylthiouracil, and a non-carcinogenic/non-DILI group (aspirin, diazepam, and omeprazole. For this, we analyzed publicly available exposed in vitro human data, taking into account dose and time dependencies. Dose–Time Network Identification (DTNI was applied to gene sets from exposed primary human hepatocytes using four stress pathways, namely endoplasmic reticulum (ER, NF-κB, NRF2, and TP53. Inferred GRNs suggested case specificity, varying in interactions, starting nodes, and target genes across groups. DILI and carcinogenic compounds were shown to directly affect all pathway-based GRNs, while non-DILI/non-carcinogenic chemicals only affected NF-κB. NF-κB-based GRNs clearly illustrated group-specific disturbances, with the cancer-related casein kinase CSNK2A1 being a target gene only in the carcinogenic group, and opposite regulation of NF-κB subunits being observed in DILI and non-DILI/non-carcinogenic groups. Target genes in NRF2-based GRNs shared by DILI and carcinogenic compounds suggested markers of hepatotoxicity. Finally, we indicate several of these group-specific interactions as potentially novel. In summary, our reversed-engineered GRNs are capable of revealing dose dependent, chemical-specific mechanisms of action in stress

  16. Contaminant mixtures and repoductive health: Developmental toxicity effects in rats after mixed exposure to environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals, with focus on effects in females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Christiansen, Sofie; Hass, Ulla

    disorders or later onset adult diseases. However, experimental evidence on the effects of developmental exposure to environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals in females has been missing attention. Since chemical exposure can affect female reproductive development it is important to investigate...... offspring including anogenital distance (AGD), number of nipples, onset of puberty, measurements of Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and estrous cyclicity at several time point during the animals life span. Results and discussion: Prolonged gestational length was observed in the Pestimix studies at mixture...

  17. Community trials on case management of acute respiratory infections (ARI in rural villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cissy B. Kartasasmita

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A community trial was conducted in two rural subdistricts in Subang, West Java, Indonesia, i.e., Cisalak as the intervention area and Sagalaherang as reference area. The study aimed to evaluate the usefulness new version of case management on acute respiratory tract infections (ARI. All babies born between January and December 1994 were enrolled in the study, and followed for 6 to 12 months. The field workers visited the babies every 2 weeks. They examined the babies and interviewed mothers about ARI symptoms, by using a pretested questionnaire. During that period 969 babies were born, 53.3% in Cisalak and 46.7% in Sagalaherang; 548 of them were followed for 12 months; however, only 263 among them had complete data. The morbidity of ARI increased with increasing age; there was no difference between those two study areas. The prevalence of ARI at the age of less than 3 months was 35.1% and 32.7%; between 4 to 6 months 49.9% and 45.3%; between 7 to 9 months 47.0% and 45.9% ; and between 10 to 12 months 53.7% and 50%, for Cisalak and Sagalaherang, respectively. Nevertheless, the mortality in Sagalaherang was higher than in Cisalak  (118 per 1000 and 78 per 1000, respectively, and the pneumonia-related deaths were 64.8% and 52.5%, respectively. The age specific death rate for pneumonia was high among babies of less than 3 months of age, i.e., 68.5% and 57.2%, respectively. We conclude that mothers and primary health care workers in rural areas should be taught and encouraged to use case management of ARI, and monitoring and evaluation of the application is needed.

  18. Facilities at ARIES for the Nainital–Cape Survey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... A collaborative programme searching for mmag pulsations in chemically peculiar stars in the northern hemisphere was initiated in 1997 between Nainital, India, and Cape Town, South Africa. It was therefore named as the Nainital–Cape Survey programme. The detection limits imposed by the observing ...

  19. USEtox human exposure and toxicity factors for comparative assessment of toxic emissions in life cycle analysis: sensitivity to key chemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Huijbregts, Mark; Henderson, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    pathway considered (i.e. inhalation through air, ingestion through i) drinking water, ii) agricultural produce, iii) meat and milk, and iv) fish). The calculation of human health effect factors for cancer and non-cancer effects via ingestion and inhalation exposure respectively is described. This section...... also includes discussions regarding parameterisation and estimation of input data needed, including route-to-route and acute-to-chronic extrapolations. Results and discussion For most chemicals in USEtoxTM, inhalation, above-ground agricultural produce, and fish are the important exposure pathways...... in USEtoxTM, primarily by extrapolating from an oral route to exposure in air (and optionally acute-to-chronic). Some exposure pathways (e.g. indoor inhalation, pesticide residues, dermal exposure) will be included in a later stage. USEtoxTM is applicable in various comparative toxicity impact assessments...

  20. Exposure to modern, widespread environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals and their effect on the reproductive potential of women: an overview of current epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwacka, Anetta; Zamkowska, Dorota; Radwan, Michał; Jurewicz, Joanna

    2017-07-31

    Growing evidence indicates that exposure to widespread, environmental contaminants called endocrine disruptors (EDCs) negatively affects animal and human reproductive health and has been linked to several diseases including infertility. This review aims to evaluate the impact of environmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals [phthalates, parabens, triclosan, bisphenol A (BPA), organochlorine (PCBs) and perfluorinated (PFCs) compounds] on the reproductive potential among women, by reviewing most recently published literature. Epidemiological studies focusing on EDCs exposure and reproductive potential among women for the last 16 years were identified by a search of the PUBMED, MEDLINE, EBSCO and TOXNET literature databases. The results of the presented studies show that exposure to EDCs impacts the reproductive potential in women, measured by ovarian reserve and by assisted reproductive technology outcomes. Exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals decrease: (i) oestradiol levels (BPA); (ii) anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations (PCBs); (iii) antral follicle count (BPA, parabens, phthalates); (iv) oocyte quality (BPA, triclosan, phthalates, PCBs); (v) fertilization rate (PFCs, PCBs); (vi) implantation (BPA, phthalates, PCBs); (vii) embryo quality (triclosan, PCBs, BPA); (viii) rate of clinical pregnancy and live births (parabens, phthalates). The studies were mostly well-designed and used prospective cohorts with the exposure assessment based on the biomarker of exposure. Considering the suggested health effects, more epidemiological data is urgently needed to confirm the presented findings.

  1. INTEROCC case-control study: lack of association between glioma tumors and occupational exposure to selected combustion products, dusts and other chemical agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourt, Aude; Cardis, Elisabeth; Pintos, Javier; Richardson, Lesley; Kincl, Laurel; Benke, Geza; Fleming, Sarah; Hours, Martine; Krewski, Daniel; McLean, Dave; Parent, Marie-Elise; Sadetzki, Siegal; Schlaefer, Klaus; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Lavoue, Jerome; van Tongeren, Martie; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2013-04-12

    The aim was to investigate possible associations between glioma (an aggressive type of brain cancer) and occupational exposure to selected agents: combustion products (diesel and gasoline exhaust emissions, benzo(a)pyrene), dusts (animal dust, asbestos, crystalline silica, wood dust) and some other chemical agents (formaldehyde, oil mist, sulphur dioxide). The INTEROCC study included cases diagnosed with glioma during 2000-2004 in sub-regions of seven countries. Population controls, selected from various sampling frames in different centers, were frequency or individually matched to cases by sex, age and center. Face-to-face interviews with the subject or a proxy respondent were conducted by trained interviewers. Detailed information was collected on socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics, medical history and work history. Occupational exposure to the 10 selected agents was assessed by a job exposure matrix (JEM) which provides estimates of the probability and level of exposure for different occupations. Using a 25% probability of exposure in a given occupation in the JEM as the threshold for considering a worker exposed, the lifetime prevalence of exposure varied from about 1% to about 15% for the different agents. Associations between glioma and each of the 10 agents were estimated by conditional logistic regression, and using three separate exposure indices: i) ever vs. never; ii) lifetime cumulative exposure; iii) total duration of exposure. The study sample consisted of 1,800 glioma cases and 5,160 controls. Most odds ratio estimates were close to the null value. None of the ten agents displayed a significantly increased odds ratio nor any indication of dose-response relationships with cumulative exposure or with duration of exposure. Thus, there was no evidence that these exposures influence risk of glioma.

  2. USE OF THE FUNGICIDE CARBENDAZIM AS A MODEL COMPOUND TO DETERMINE THE IMPACT OF ACUTE CHEMICAL EXPOSURE DURING OOCYTE MATURATION AND FERTILIZATION ON PREGNANCY OUTCOME IN THE HAMSTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we use a hamster animal model to identify early pregnancy loss due to an acute chemical exposure to the female during the perifertilization interval. The fungicide carbendazim (methyl 1H-benzimidazole-2-carbamate), a microtubule poison with antimitotic activity, was selected...

  3. Methods for retrospective detection of exposure to toxic scheduled chemicals. Part B: Mass spectrometric and immunochemical analysis of covalent adducts to proteins and DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Black, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, an overview of themethods that are currently available for retrospective detection of exposure to a number of chemical warfare agents (CWA), based on adducts formed with macromolecules such as proteins, is presented. These methods can be applied for various purposes, e.g. diagnosis

  4. Introduction to the Monte Carlo project and the approach to the validation of probabilistic models of dietary exposure to selected food chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibney, M.J.; Voet, van der H.

    2003-01-01

    The Monte Carlo project was established to allow an international collaborative effort to define conceptual models for food chemical and nutrient exposure, to define and validate the software code to govern these models, to provide new or reconstructed databases for validation studies, and to use

  5. A workflow to investigate exposure and pharmacokinetic influences on high-throughput in vitro chemical screening based on adverse outcome pathways, OpenTox USA 2015 Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOP) link known population outcomes to a molecular initiating event (MIE) that can be quantified using high-throughput in vitro methods. Practical application of AOPs in chemical-specific risk assessment requires consideration of exposure and absorption,...

  6. Assessment of health risks resulting from early-life exposures: Are current chemical toxicity testing protocols and risk assessment methods adequate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felter, Susan P; Daston, George P; Euling, Susan Y; Piersma, Aldert H; Tassinari, Melissa S

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Over the last couple of decades, the awareness of the potential health impacts associated with early-life exposures has increased. Global regulatory approaches to chemical risk assessment are intended to be protective for the diverse human population including all life stages. However, questions persist as to whether the current testing approaches and risk assessment methodologies are adequately protective for infants and children. Here, we review physiological and developmental differences that may result in differential sensitivity associated with early-life exposures. It is clear that sensitivity to chemical exposures during early-life can be similar, higher, or lower than that of adults, and can change quickly within a short developmental timeframe. Moreover, age-related exposure differences provide an important consideration for overall susceptibility. Differential sensitivity associated with a life stage can reflect the toxicokinetic handling of a xenobiotic exposure, the toxicodynamic response, or both. Each of these is illustrated with chemical-specific examples. The adequacy of current testing protocols, proposed new tools, and risk assessment methods for systemic noncancer endpoints are reviewed in light of the potential for differential risk to infants and young children.

  7. [Analysis of workers' exposure to dust in various chemical industry plants based on measurements conducted by work environment reseach laboratories in Poland in 2001-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk, Urszula; Bujak-Pietrek, Stella; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to present the results of a detailed analysis of dust exposure in the production and processing of chemical substances, including the kind of produced materials, workposts and type of emitted dusts. Data on dust exposure were based on measurements of dust concentrations performed by industrial hygiene laboratories. Their results were obtained from sanitary and epidemiological stations operating throughout Poland. Average concentrations ofinhalable and respirable dust at specific workposts in the chemical industry (including 7 groups) were calculated and the percentage of surveys exceeding hygiene standards was estimated. The analysis included 2800 results of dust concentration measurements. The highest concentrations of inhalable and respirable dust (containing a few percent of silica) and the highest percentage of the results above hygiene standards were observed in the manufacture of basic chemicals The concentration of inhalable dust in this group was 2.83 mg/m3, and the percentage of measurements above hygiene standards--16.57%, while for respirable dust, these values were respectively 0.75 mg/m3 and 27.32%. Exposure to dust in the chemical industry differs, depending on the type of production. Particularly high concentrations, very often above hygiene standards, were observed in factories manufacturing basic chemicals.

  8. Effects of mining chemicals on fish: exposure to tailings containing Lilaflot D817M induces CYP1A transcription in Atlantic salmon smolt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsvik, Pål A; Urke, Henning A; Nilsen, Tom O; Ulvund, John B; Kristensen, Torstein

    2015-08-29

    Mine tailings, containing metals and production chemicals such as flotation chemicals and flocculants, may pose an environmental threat to aquatic organisms living in downstream ecosystems. The aim of this work was to study to which degree Lilaflot D817M, a flotation chemical extensively used by the mining industry, represents a hazard for migrating salmon in rivers affected by mining activity. Smoltifying Atlantic salmon were exposed to four concentrations of iron-ore mine tailings containing residual Lilaflot D817M [water versus tailing volumes of 0.002 (Low), 0.004 (Medium), 0.013 (High) and 0.04 (Max)]. After 96 h of exposure, gill and liver tissues were harvested for transcriptional responses. Target genes included markers for oxidative stress, detoxification, apoptosis and DNA repair, cell signaling and growth. Of the 16 evaluated markers, significant transcriptional responses of exposure to tailings enriched with Lilaflot D817M were observed for CYP1A, HSP70 and HMOX1 in liver tissue and CYP1A in gill tissue. The significant induction of CYP1A in both liver and gills suggest that the flotation chemical is taken up by the fish and activates cytochrome P450 detoxification via phase I biotransformation in the cells. The overall weak transcriptional responses to short-term exposure to Lilaflot D817M-containing iron-ore tailings suggest that the mining chemical has relatively low toxic effect on fish. The underlying mechanisms behind the observed CYP1A induction should be studied further.

  9. Implementation of the basic hazard index screening for health risks associated with simultaneous exposure to multiple chemicals using a standardized target organ and systems framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Valerie H; McAtee, Matthew J; Johnson, Mark S

    2017-09-01

    Environmental health risk assessments often involve assessing the potential health effects of exposure to multiple chemicals at once (i.e., complex mixtures). Because the possible number of chemical combinations is very large, few controlled in vivo toxicological studies with chemical mixtures are relevant or practical. In lieu of specific mixture toxicity data, the segregated hazard index (HI) approach has been used to determine whether simultaneous exposures may warrant further investigation due to their combined adverse effects. Each chemical is assigned to one or more target organs based on critical effects; HIs for each target organ are generated by summing the individual hazard quotients for each of the chemicals assigned to that organ or organ system. To conduct this phased risk assessment approach in a consistent manner, a comprehensive, systematized list of toxicity targets for implementing this approach is needed. We present a comprehensive and standardized list of toxicity target organs and systems (TTOS), with example data sets, for consistent implementation of the segregated HI method. This method is designed to facilitate the standardization of the widespread use of the basic segregated HI approach. The basic hazard index mixtures screening (BHIMS) tool allows for rapid identification of exposure concerns that may warrant further and more sophisticated assessment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:852-860. Published 2017. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Paternal Occupational Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals as a Risk Factor for Leukaemia in Children: A Case-Control Study from the North of England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Pearce

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupations with exposures to a variety of chemicals, including those thought to be potential endocrine disruptors, have been associated with an increased risk of leukaemia in offspring. We investigated whether an association exists between paternal occupations at birth involving such exposures and risk of leukaemia in offspring. Cases (n=958 were matched, on sex and year of birth, to controls from two independent sources, one other cancers, one cancer-free live births. Paternal occupations at birth were classified, using an occupational exposure matrix, as having “very unlikely,” “possible,” or “likely” exposure to six groups of potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals. There was a significantly increased risk of acute nonlymphocytic leukaemia (ANLL for polychlorinated organic compounds (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.08–3.54 only in comparison with cancer-free controls, and for phthalates (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.00–2.61 only with registry controls. A number of other, including inverse, associations were seen, but limited to one control group only. No associations were seen with likely paternal exposure to heavy metals. The associations identified in this study require further investigation, with better exposure and potential confounding (for example maternal variables information, to evaluate the likelihood of true associations to assess whether they are real or due to chance.

  11. Assessing the carcinogenic potential of low-dose exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment: focus on the cancer hallmark of tumor angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiwei; Brooks, Samira A.; Dormoy, Valérian; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Hsu, Hsue-Yin; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Massfelder, Thierry; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Xia, Menghang; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Amedei, Amedeo; Brown, Dustin G.; Prudhomme, Kalan R.; Colacci, Annamaria; Hamid, Roslida A.; Mondello, Chiara; Raju, Jayadev; Ryan, Elizabeth P.; Woodrick, Jordan; Scovassi, A. Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Vaccari, Monica; Roy, Rabindra; Forte, Stefano; Memeo, Lorenzo; Salem, Hosni K.; Lowe, Leroy; Jensen, Lasse; Bisson, William H.; Kleinstreuer, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    One of the important ‘hallmarks’ of cancer is angiogenesis, which is the process of formation of new blood vessels that are necessary for tumor expansion, invasion and metastasis. Under normal physiological conditions, angiogenesis is well balanced and controlled by endogenous proangiogenic factors and antiangiogenic factors. However, factors produced by cancer cells, cancer stem cells and other cell types in the tumor stroma can disrupt the balance so that the tumor microenvironment favors tumor angiogenesis. These factors include vascular endothelial growth factor, endothelial tissue factor and other membrane bound receptors that mediate multiple intracellular signaling pathways that contribute to tumor angiogenesis. Though environmental exposures to certain chemicals have been found to initiate and promote tumor development, the role of these exposures (particularly to low doses of multiple substances), is largely unknown in relation to tumor angiogenesis. This review summarizes the evidence of the role of environmental chemical bioactivity and exposure in tumor angiogenesis and carcinogenesis. We identify a number of ubiquitous (prototypical) chemicals with disruptive potential that may warrant further investigation given their selectivity for high-throughput screening assay targets associated with proangiogenic pathways. We also consider the cross-hallmark relationships of a number of important angiogenic pathway targets with other cancer hallmarks and we make recommendations for future research. Understanding of the role of low-dose exposure of chemicals with disruptive potential could help us refine our approach to cancer risk assessment, and may ultimately aid in preventing cancer by reducing or eliminating exposures to synergistic mixtures of chemicals with carcinogenic potential. PMID:26106137

  12. Effect of light exposure on the quality of extra virgin olive oils according to their chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposto, Sonia; Taticchi, Agnese; Urbani, Stefania; Selvaggini, Roberto; Veneziani, Gianluca; Di Maio, Ilona; Sordini, Beatrice; Servili, Maurizio

    2017-08-15

    The influence of light exposure on the quality of commercially available extra-virgin olive oils (EVOOs) of different chemical composition was studied as a function of storage (11weeks) under conditions simulating market storage. By mildly stripping the polyphenols from oil 'A', with high levels of polyphenols and oleic acid, and oil 'B', exhibiting a medium level of polyphenols and a low level of oleic acid, 'C' and 'D' EVOOs were obtained. Ten EVOOs were produced as mixtures of these four oils. The initial concentrations of oleic acid and polyphenols in the 14 oils ranged from 64.5 to 77.7% and 18.1 to 1476.7mg/kg, respectively. The extinction coefficient K270 well reflected the EVOO product quality. EVOOs richer in oleuropein derivatives showed superior oxidative stability, which resulted in lower off-flavour volatile compound production and α-tocopherol and polyphenols losses, and thus, higher EVOO sensory and health benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The applied indicators of water quality may underestimate the risk of chemical exposure to human population in reservoirs utilized for human supply-Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Debora Regina; Yamamoto, Flávia Yoshie; Filipak Neto, Francisco; Randi, Marco Antônio Ferreira; Garcia, Juan Esquivel; Costa, Daniele Dietrich Moura; Liebel, Samuel; Campos, Sandro Xavier; Voigt, Carmen Lúcia; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto

    2016-05-01

    The knowledge concerning associations between chronic chemical exposure and many disorders with complex etiology involving gene-environment interactions is increasing, and new methods must be developed to improve water quality monitoring. The complexity of chemical mixtures in polluted aquatic environments makes the evaluation of toxic potential in those sites difficult, but the use of biomarkers and bioindicators has been recognized as a reliable tool to assess risk of exposure to biota and also the human population. In order to evaluate the use of fish and biomarkers to assess toxic potential and bioavailability of chemicals in human-related hydric resources, an in situ experiment was accomplished in two water reservoirs designated for human supply, which were previously evaluated by the local environmental regulatory agency through a set of physical, chemical, and classical biological parameters. Molecular, biochemical, and morphological biomarkers were performed in caged Oreochromis niloticus kept for 6 months in the studied reservoirs to assess potentially useful biomarkers to evaluate the quality of water for human supply. Chemical analysis of toxic metals in liver and muscle and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bile was considered to assess the bioavailability of pollutants and highlight human activity impact. The reservoir previously classified by a governmental agency as less impacted presented more risk of exposure to biota. These results were supported by chemical analysis, vitellogenin expression, histopathological findings (gonads, liver, and gills), as well as indicators of neurotoxic effects and oxidative stress in liver. The inclusion of some biomarkers as parameters in regulatory monitoring programs in reservoirs designated for human supply is strongly suggested to evaluate the risks of exposure to the human population. Thus, a revision of the traditional biological and physicochemical analysis utilized to establish the conditions of

  14. Childhood exposure to DEHP, DBP and BBP under existing chemical management systems: a comparative study of sources of childhood exposure in Korea and in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Chan-Kook; Thomsen, Marianne

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, the cumulative risks of Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and Benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP) to 2-year-old children in two countries: one European (Denmark) and one Asian (South Korea) were compared. Denmark does not produce phthalates as a raw material, while Korea produces more than 0.4milliontons of the three above-mentioned phthalates each year. First, a comparative review of the existing phthalate regulations in the two countries was performed. Next, the level of childhood phthalate exposure from environmental and food sources was estimated using an exposure scenario approach. Then, the scenario based exposure level was compared with back-calculated exposure levels based on biomonitored urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations. The result verifies the existence of varying territorial human background exposure levels and the gap between exposure estimations based on exposure modeling and biomonitoring data. Cumulative childhood risk levels in Denmark were lower than in Korea. For both countries, risk levels from back calculation were higher than those from scenario estimation. The median cumulative risk levels from scenario estimation and back calculation respectively were 0.24 and up to 0.5 in Denmark while 0.52 and up to 0.95 in Korea. Food and indoor dust were the main exposure sources for all three phthalates. In order to protect human health from cumulative risks of these phthalates, the exposure scenarios in existing regulations such as the EU REACH need to be strengthened. Moreover, based on the contributions from different exposure sources, national specific risk management tools need to be developed and strengthened, applying a systemic approach to promote sustainable material flows. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Transmitter and Translating Receiver Design For 64-ary Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, A J; Hernandez, V J; Gagliardi, R M; Bennett, C V

    2010-01-20

    This paper explores the architecture and design of an optically-implemented 64-ary PPM transmitter and direct-translating receiver that effectively translates incoming electrically-generated bit streams into optical PPM symbols (and vice-versa) at > 1 Gb/s data rates. The PPM transmitter is a cascade of optical switches operating at the frame rate. A corresponding receiver design is more difficult to architect and implement, since increasing data rates lead to correspondingly shorter decision times (slot times and frame times). We describe a solution in the form of a time-to-space mapping arrayed receiver that performs a translating algorithm represented as a code map. The technique for generating the code map is described, and the implementation of the receiver as a planar lightwave circuit is given. The techniques for implementing the transmitter and receiver can be generalized for any case of M-ary PPM.

  16. Detection Performance of M-ary Relay Trees with Non-binary Message Alphabets

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhenliang; Pezeshki, Ali; Moran, William; Howard, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    We study the detection performance of $M$-ary relay trees, where only the leaves of the tree represent sensors making measurements. The root of the tree represents the fusion center which makes an overall detection decision. Each of the other nodes is a relay node which aggregates $M$ messages sent by its child nodes into a new compressed message and sends the message to its parent node. Building on previous work on the detection performance of $M$-ary relay trees with binary messages, in this paper we study the case of non-binary relay message alphabets. We characterize the exponent of the error probability with respect to the message alphabet size $\\mathcal D$, showing how the detection performance increases with $\\mathcal D$. Our method involves reducing a tree with non-binary relay messages into an equivalent higher-degree tree with only binary messages.

  17. 3D Neutronic Analysis in MHD Calculations at ARIES-ST Fusion Reactors Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hançerliogulları, Aybaba; Cini, Mesut

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we developed new models for liquid wall (FW) state at ARIES-ST fusion reactor systems. ARIES-ST is a 1,000 MWe fusion reactor system based on a low aspect ratio ST plasma. In this article, we analyzed the characteristic properties of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and heat transfer conditions by using Monte-Carlo simulation methods (ARIES Team et al. in Fusion Eng Des 49-50:689-695, 2000; Tillack et al. in Fusion Eng Des 65:215-261, 2003) . In fusion applications, liquid metals are traditionally considered to be the best working fluids. The working liquid must be a lithium-containing medium in order to provide adequate tritium that the plasma is self-sustained and that the fusion is a renewable energy source. As for Flibe free surface flows, the MHD effects caused by interaction with the mean flow is negligible, while a fairly uniform flow of thick can be maintained throughout the reactor based on 3-D MHD calculations. In this study, neutronic parameters, that is to say, energy multiplication factor radiation, heat flux and fissile fuel breeding were researched for fusion reactor with various thorium and uranium molten salts. Sufficient tritium amount is needed for the reactor to work itself. In the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) >1.05 ARIES-ST fusion model TBR is >1.1 so that tritium self-sufficiency is maintained for DT fusion systems (Starke et al. in Fusion Energ Des 84:1794-1798, 2009; Najmabadi et al. in Fusion Energ Des 80:3-23, 2006).

  18. Synchronization techniques for all digital 16-ary QAM receivers operating over land mobile satellite links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fines, P.; Aghvami, A. H.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of a low bit rate (64 Kb/s) all digital 16-ary Differentially Encoded Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16-DEQAM) demodulator operating over a mobile satellite channel, is considered. The synchronization and detection techniques employed to overcome the Rician channel impairments, are described. The acquisition and steady state performance of this modem, are evaluated by computer simulation over AWGN and RICIAN channels. The results verify the suitability of the 16-DEQAM transmission over slowly faded and/or mildly faded channels.

  19. Comments concerning the real risk of sexual adverse events secondary to the use of 5-ARIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furio Pirozzi Farina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment-induced sexual dysfunctions (SD are a recurrent and controversial topic in recent literature on the adverse events related to the use of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs (1, 2. In order to deal adequately with the various aspects of this topic, it is necessary to first cover some of the steps that allow a better definition and understanding of the subject.

  20. Childhood as cognition, or taking Ariès at his word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Stanbridge

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects on how Philippe Ariès’s work, Centuries of Childhood (1962[1960], and its (infamous conclusion, “[i]n medieval society the idea of childhood did not exist,” can inform a cognitive approach to childhood. Drawing upon recent research in cognitive sociology, I elucidate a conception of childhood as cognition, childhood as one of the many mental frames or cognitive “schemes” that individuals evoke as they respond to culture. From this perspective, I argue Ariès’s contentious conclusion can be taken to suggest that the “childhood scheme,” the cognitive frame by which modern westerners “think” people within a certain chronological age range, was not available to individuals in medieval society, nor were the cultural cues – personal and structural – that would sustain such a conception of childhood. I reread Ariès’s text in this new light and find he presents evidence that key cultural tools required to enact modern childhood – specifically the notions that age, like time, is linear, limited and quantifiable; that development is tantamount to the “counting down” of chronological age from birth to death; and that childhood is the most significant, developmentally-speaking, stage of the life course – were unavailable to medieval society. I conclude that taking Ariès “at his word” – in other words, accepting that medieval society did not hold the idea of childhood – can help advance a conception of childhood as cognition, an approach that holds some interesting possibilities for childhood studies more generally.

  1. Being Irrationally Funny as a Cognitive Psychologist: Interview With Dan Ariely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariely, Dan; Popescu, Beatrice

    2015-11-01

    The idea of interviewing Dan Ariely was somehow latent on my mind since I started being interested in cognitive psychology and cognitive behavior psychotherapy, but actually got more ardent ever since irrationality became a research topic for his team at Duke University. I picked him as an interviewee thinking not only at his exceptional skills as a researcher and as Kahnemann 'disciple', but mainly for his fantastic wit, true modesty and utmost interest in making people's lives easier and more comfortable, by creating awareness on a lot of topics otherwise neglected. Dan Ariely's very agreeable personality and humor would not let you think of him as a burnt casualty who, in his youth struggled to survive a personal drama, so well-documented in his paper "Painful lessons" posted on the MIT website (http://web.mit.edu/ariely/www/MIT/Papers/mypain.pdf). I think reading his paper and also this transcribed interview with him would be also comforting for people who found out about Bucharest fire incident that rocked our society and also for people who are personally related to this tragedy.

  2. Shared Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Agents in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis, Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries, and Goats (Capra hircus in Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries and domestic goat (Capra hircus and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents.

  3. Shared bacterial and viral respiratory agents in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), domestic sheep (Ovis aries), and goats (Capra hircus) in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David S.; Weiser, Glen C.; Aune, Keith; Roeder, Brent; Atkinson, Mark; Anderson, Neil; Roffe, Thomas J.; Keating, Kim A.; Chapman, Phillip L.; Kimberling, Cleon; Rhyan, Jack C.; Clarke, P. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries) and domestic goat (Capra hircus) and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents.

  4. Shared Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Agents in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis), Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries), and Goats (Capra hircus) in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David S; Weiser, Glen C; Aune, Keith; Roeder, Brent; Atkinson, Mark; Anderson, Neil; Roffe, Thomas J; Keating, Kim A; Chapman, Phillip L; Kimberling, Cleon; Rhyan, Jack; Clarke, P Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries) and domestic goat (Capra hircus) and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents.

  5. Semi-Quantitative Assessment of the Health Risk of Occupational Exposure to Chemicals and Evaluation of Spirometry Indices on the Staff of Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Dazi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Petrochemical industry is an important industry in the economic development of the country that causes employees have exposure with several kinds of contamination. The aim of this study was Semi-quantitative assessment of the health risk of occupational exposure to chemical materials and investigation of spirometry indices between employees of petrochemical industry. Material & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in one of the petrochemical industry complex in a special area of Assaluyeh in Iran in 2016. Health risk assessment of exposure to harmful chemical agents was performed in all of units and during three stages (identification of harmful material, determination of hazard rate of the chemical material, exposure rate and estimate of risk rate. Spirometry indices were measured using spirometry. Results: The results of chemical materials risk assessment showed that Raffinate in Butadiene unit has identified the highest amount of risk rank among 27 chemical materials in investigated units. In comparison with spirometry indices in Olefine unit between age with FVC parameter and history work with FVC and FEV1 parameters has observed a significant and negative correlation (P<0.05. Conclusion: The results of risk assessment in all of the petrochemical units showed that 48.14% of materials were at low risk level, 29.62% medium risk, 18.51% high risk and 3.7% had very high risk level. The variables affecting on spirometry employees such as age and work experience play an important role in reducing the pulmonary function tests in exposed subjects.

  6. The role of the chemical burns caused by hydroxide ion in the toxicity of dermal exposure to tetramethylammonium ion in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Long; Su, Shih-Bin; Lien, Hsiao-Yin; Guo, How-Ran

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the role of the chemical burns caused by hydroxide ion in the fatal effects of tetramethylammonium ion (TMA) in dermal exposure to tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), we conducted a rat study consisting of two-step treatments with dermal exposure to NaOH and tetramethylammonium chloride (TMACl). In the first step, NaOH or saline was administered in the gauze on the shaved skin for 5 min, and in the second step, TMAH, TMACl, or saline was administered in the same way. The mean blood pressure (MBP), heart rate (HR), and survival in rats were compared among seven groups. Dermal exposure to saline and then 2.75 M TMACl introduced limited and temporary non-fatal effects. Exposure to 2.75 M NaOH and then saline had almost no effects and caused no deaths. Treatments with more concentrated NaOH or TMACl resulted in suppressions of MBP and HR, and deaths were observed after the dosing of TMACl. The toxicity of dermal exposure to TMA alone is limited, but fatal effects can be introduced by pre-treatment with hydroxide ion. Therefore, the chemical burn caused by hydroxide ion plays an essential role in the toxicity, implicating that effective neutralizing may help decreasing the fatality rate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of exposure to poultry chemical decontaminants on the membrane fluidity of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Hernando, Alicia; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos; Capita, Rosa

    2010-02-28

    There is a lack of work comparing the influence of various poultry chemical decontaminants on the membrane fluidity of pathogenic bacteria. In order to assess the possible role of physical membrane changes on bacterial adaptation to decontaminants, fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) was measured in Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica strains before and after growth in the presence of increasing sub-lethal concentrations of decontaminants (trisodium phosphate - TSP, acidified sodium chlorite - ASC, citric acid - CA and peroxyacids - PA). Higher (P<0.05) anisotropy values (lower membrane fluidity) were observed, both before and after exposure to decontaminants, in strains of L. monocytogenes (average 0.206+/-0.008) than in those of S. enterica (0.188+/-0.013). Cells exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of acid decontaminants (CA or PA) showed higher (P<0.05) anisotropy values and percentages of survival to acid stress than unexposed cells, suggesting that adaptation to these compounds is related to changes in membrane fluidity. Minimal changes in anisotropy values were observed after growth in presence of TSP or ASC. After treatment with strong concentrations of acid decontaminants (0.05 and 1% ASC, 5% and 10% CA, and 0.1 and 0.25% PA) the highest anisotropy values (highest membrane rigidity) were shown by cells previously grown with sub-inhibitory concentrations of CA or PA, suggesting that the synergistic effects of successive applications of various acids should be minimized. Because of the relationship between high membrane rigidity and high resistance to different stresses, the fact that it is essential to ensure adequate, inhibitory, CA or PA concentrations during poultry decontamination treatments is underlined. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. EPA Awards $400K to University of North Carolina Wilmington for Chemical Exposure Research in Estuaries and Marine Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLANTA - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced almost $4 million in funding to six universities to study the ecological impacts of manufactured chemicals, leading to better chemical risk assessments and decisions for prote

  9. Systematic Proteomic Approach to Characterize the Impacts of Chemical Interactions on Protein and Cytotoxicity Responses to Metal Mixture Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical interactions have posed a big challenge in toxicity characterization and human health risk assessment of environmental mixtures. To characterize the impacts of chemical interactions on protein and cytotoxicity responses to environmental mixtures, we established a systems...

  10. The Identification and Role of Non-Chemical Stressors as Modifiers of Chemical Exposures that Lead to Changes in Health and Well-Being in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describe the Sustainable and Health Communities (SHC) Research Program at the U.S. EPA Discuss non-chemical stressors found in the social environment, What are they? Why are they important? Summarize current and planned work

  11. Chemical characterization of size-segregated PM from different public transport modes and implications of source specific contribution to public exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sabrina Yanan; Gali, Nirmal Kumar; Yang, Fenhuan; Zhang, Junke; Ning, Zhi

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the chemical properties of particulate matter (PM) in different public transport microenvironments in Hong Kong, the coarse (2.5-10 μm) and fine (fossil fuel burning. The concentrations of hopanes and steranes were higher in PM 2.5 than in coarse PM due to diesel and coal burning. These results may provide a unique opportunity to investigate source specific contribution of the PM pollutants to the commuter exposure in public transport.

  12. Concurrent Fetal Exposure to Multiple Environmental Chemicals along the U.S.—Mexico Border: An Exploratory Study in Brownsville, Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Sexton; Salinas, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    There is mounting concern that cumulative exposure to diverse chemicals in the environment may contribute to observed adverse health outcomes in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. To investigate this situation, biomarker concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides/metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in maternal and umbilical cord blood from pregnant Hispanic women in Brownsville, TX. Results show that both mothers an...

  13. Foetal Hypothalamic and Pituitary Expression of Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone and Galanin Systems is Disturbed by Exposure to Sewage Sludge Chemicals via Maternal Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Bellingham, Michelle; Fowler, Paul A; Amezaga, Maria R.; Whitelaw, Christine M.; Rhind, Stewart M; Cotinot, Corinne; Mandon-Pepin, Beatrice; Richard M Sharpe; Evans, Neil P.

    2010-01-01

    Animals and humans are chronically exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which are ubiquitous in the environment. There are strong circumstantial links between environmental EDC exposure and both declining human/wildlife reproductive health and the increasing incidence of reproductive system abnormalities. Verification of such links, however, is difficult and requires animal models exposed to 'real life', environmentally relevant concentrations/mixtures of environmental contaminant...

  14. Energy absorption and exposure buildup factors for some polymers and tissue substitute materials: photon energy, penetration depth and chemical composition dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurudirek, Murat; Özdemir, Yüksel

    2011-03-01

    The gamma ray energy absorption and exposure buildup factors have been calculated by using the five parameter geometric progression (GP) fitting formula for some polymers and tissue substitute materials in the energy region 0.015-15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mean free paths. From the results, it is worth noting that significant variations occur in gamma ray buildup factors for the given polymers and tissue substitute materials depending on photon energy, penetration depth and chemical composition of the materials. Also, it was observed that there are significant variations between energy absorption (EABF) and exposure (EBF) buildup factors which may be due to the variations in chemical composition of the materials used. Finally, it is expected that the presented buildup factor data may be helpful in (a) estimating the effective dose to be given to patients in radiation therapy and diagnostics, hence allowing corrections to be made to the intensity of radiation, as it is somewhat problematic to evaluate the real absorbed dose in critical organs due to the probability of photon buildup somewhere inside the medium; (b) estimating the health hazards arising from the exposure of the human body to radiation, thus it will be helpful in controlling the exposure of the human body to radiation.

  15. Cardiovascular risk from water arsenic exposure in Vietnam: Application of systematic review and meta-regression analysis in chemical health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Dung; Connell, Des; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2017-06-01

    A systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis cannot provide the endpoint answer for a chemical risk assessment (CRA). The objective of this study was to apply SR and meta-regression (MR) analysis to address this limitation using a case study in cardiovascular risk from arsenic exposure in Vietnam. Published studies were searched from PubMed using the keywords of arsenic exposure and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Random-effects meta-regression was applied to model the linear relationship between arsenic concentration in water and risk of CVD, and then the no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) were identified from the regression function. The probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) technique was applied to characterize risk of CVD due to arsenic exposure by estimating the overlapping coefficient between dose-response and exposure distribution curves. The risks were evaluated for groundwater, treated and drinking water. A total of 8 high quality studies for dose-response and 12 studies for exposure data were included for final analyses. The results of MR suggested a NOAEL of 50 μg/L and a guideline of 5 μg/L for arsenic in water which valued as a half of NOAEL and guidelines recommended from previous studies and authorities. The results of PRA indicated that the observed exposure level with exceeding CVD risk was 52% for groundwater, 24% for treated water, and 10% for drinking water in Vietnam, respectively. The study found that systematic review and meta-regression can be considered as an ideal method to chemical risk assessment due to its advantages to bring the answer for the endpoint question of a CRA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A New Blind Adaptive Array Antenna Based on CMA Criteria for M-Ary/SS Signals Suitable for Software Defined Radio Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuma, Miho; Sasaki, Atsushi; Kamiya, Yukihiro; Fujii, Takeo; Umebayashi, Kenta; Suzuki, Yasuo

    M-ary/SS is a version of Direct Sequence/Spread Spectrum (DS/SS) aiming to improve the spectral efficiency employing orthogonal codes. However, due to the auto-correlation property of the orthogonal codes, it is impossible to detect the symbol timing by observing correlator outputs. Therefore, conventionally, a preamble has been inserted in M-ary/SS, signals. In this paper, we propose a new blind adaptive array antenna for M-ary/SS systems that combines signals over the space axis without any preambles. It is surely an innovative approach for M-ary/SS. The performance is investigated through computer simulations.

  17. HELLE: Health Effects of Low Level Exposures/ Gezondheidseffecten van lage blootstellingniveaus [International workshop: Influence of low level exposures to chemicals and radiation on human and ecological health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoten, Eert

    1998-11-26

    The Health Council is closely involved in establishing the scientific foundation of exposure limits for substances and radiation in order to protect public health. Through the years, the Council has contributed to the formulation of principles and procedures, both for carcinogenic and for noncarcinogenic agents. As a rule, the discussion with regard to the derivation of health-based recommended exposure limits centers around the appropriateness of extrapolation methods (What can be inferred from data on high exposure levels and on experimental animals?). Generally speaking, there is a lack of direct information on the health effects of low levels of exposure. Effects at these levels cannot usually be detected by means of traditional animal experiments or epidemiological research. The capacity of these analytical instruments to distinguish between ''signal'' and ''noise'' is inadequate in most cases. Annex B of this report contains a brief outline of the difficulties and the established methods for tackling this problem. In spite of this, the hope exists that the posited weak signals, if they are indeed present, can be detected by other means. The search will have to take place on a deeper level. In other words, effort must be made to discover what occurs at underlying levels of biological organization when organisms are exposed to low doses of radiation or substances. Molecular and cell biology provide various methods and techniques which give an insight into the processes within the cell. This results in an increase in the knowledge about the molecular and cellular effects of exposure to agents, or stated differently, the working mechanisms which form the basis of the health effects. Last year, the Health Council considered that the time was ripe to take stock of the state of knowledge in this field. To this end, an international working conference was held from 19 to 21 October 1997, entitled ''Health Effects of

  18. Review of the state of the art of human biomonitoring for chemical substances and its application to human exposure assessment for food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Judy; Mørck, Thit Aarøe; Polcher, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    , and for the implementation of a systematic Post Market Monitoring (PMM) approach for regulated chemical substances was evaluated. An inventory of HBM programmes provides detailed information about study design, analytical methods, reference values (RV) and biomarkers used. Environmental monitoring and associations between...... HBM values and food, as well as coverage of substances and remaining deficits are highlighted. The review of study results provides information on emerging chemicals, higher exposed and particularly vulnerable populations. Conclusions: HBM can bring added value for chemical risk assessment in food...... safety areas (namely exposure assessment), and for the implementation of a systematic PMM approach. But further work needs to be done to improve usability. Major deficits are the lack of HBM guidance values on a considerable number of substance groups, for which health based guidance values (HBGVs) have...

  19. An in vivo animal study assessing long-term changes in hypothalamic cytokines following perinatal exposure to a chemical mixture based on Arctic maternal body burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Nanqin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The geographic distribution of environmental toxins is generally not uniform, with certain northern regions showing a particularly high concentration of pesticides, heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants. For instance, Northern Canadians are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB, organochlorine pesticides (OCs and methylmercury (MeHg, primarily through country foods. Previous studies have reported associations between neuronal pathology and exposure to such toxins. The present investigation assessed whether perinatal exposure (gestation and lactation of rats to a chemical mixture (27 constituents comprised of PCBs, OCs and MeHg based on Arctic maternal exposure profiles at concentrations near human exposure levels, would affect brain levels of several inflammatory cytokines Methods Rats were dosed during gestation and lactation and cytokine levels were measured in the brains of offspring at five months of age. Hypothalamic cytokine protein levels were measured with a suspension-based array system and differences were determined using ANOVA and post hoc statistical tests. Results The early life PCB treatment alone significantly elevated hypothalamic interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels in rats at five months of age to a degree comparable to that of the entire chemical mixture. Similarly, the full mixture (and to a lesser degree PCBs alone elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1b, as well as the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. The full mixture of chemicals also moderately increased (in an additive fashion hypothalamic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. Challenge with bacterial endotoxin at adulthood generally increased hypothalamic levels to such a degree that differences between the perinatally treated chemical groups were no longer detectable. Conclusions These data suggest that exposure at critical

  20. LInking EDCs in maternal Nutrition to Child health (LINC study) - protocol for prospective cohort to study early life exposure to environmental chemicals and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cock, Marijke; Quaak, Ilona; Sugeng, Eva J; Legler, Juliette; van de Bor, Margot

    2016-02-13

    The presence of chemicals in the environment is ubiquitous. Human biomonitoring studies have shown that various chemicals can be detected in the majority of the population, including pregnant women. These compounds may pass the placenta, and reach the fetus. This early life exposure in particular may be detrimental as some chemicals may disrupt the endocrine system, which is involved in various processes during development. The LINC study is a prospective birth cohort designed to study associations between early life environmental exposures and child health, including growth and neurodevelopment. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of this cohort. Recruitment for this cohort has started in 2011 in three Dutch areas and is still ongoing. To date over 300 mother-child pairs have been included. Women are preferably included during the first trimester of pregnancy. Major congenital anomalies and twin births are reasons for exclusion. To assess exposure to environmental chemicals, cord blood, placenta, meconium and vernix are collected. Parents collect urine of the child shortly after birth and breast milk in the second month of life. Exposure to a broad range of environmental chemicals are determined in cord plasma and breast milk. Furthermore various hormones, including leptin and cortisone, are determined in cord plasma, and in heel prick blood spots (thyroxine). Data on anthropometry of the child is collected through midwives and youth health care centres on various time points until the child is 18 months of age. Furthermore cognitive development is monitored by means of the van Wiechen scheme, and information on behavioral development is collected by means of the infant behavior questionnaire and the child behavior checklist. When the child is 12 months of age, a house visit is scheduled to assess various housing characteristics, as well as hand-to-mouth behavior of the child. At this visit exposure of the child to flame retardants (with endocrine

  1. LInking EDCs in maternal Nutrition to Child health (LINC study – protocol for prospective cohort to study early life exposure to environmental chemicals and child health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke de Cock

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of chemicals in the environment is ubiquitous. Human biomonitoring studies have shown that various chemicals can be detected in the majority of the population, including pregnant women. These compounds may pass the placenta, and reach the fetus. This early life exposure in particular may be detrimental as some chemicals may disrupt the endocrine system, which is involved in various processes during development. The LINC study is a prospective birth cohort designed to study associations between early life environmental exposures and child health, including growth and neurodevelopment. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of this cohort. Methods and design Recruitment for this cohort has started in 2011 in three Dutch areas and is still ongoing. To date over 300 mother-child pairs have been included. Women are preferably included during the first trimester of pregnancy. Major congenital anomalies and twin births are reasons for exclusion. To assess exposure to environmental chemicals, cord blood, placenta, meconium and vernix are collected. Parents collect urine of the child shortly after birth and breast milk in the second month of life. Exposure to a broad range of environmental chemicals are determined in cord plasma and breast milk. Furthermore various hormones, including leptin and cortisone, are determined in cord plasma, and in heel prick blood spots (thyroxine. Data on anthropometry of the child is collected through midwives and youth health care centres on various time points until the child is 18 months of age. Furthermore cognitive development is monitored by means of the van Wiechen scheme, and information on behavioral development is collected by means of the infant behavior questionnaire and the child behavior checklist. When the child is 12 months of age, a house visit is scheduled to assess various housing characteristics, as well as hand-to-mouth behavior of the child. At this visit

  2. Trusses Of Tensegrity Type In A Concept Of Train Station Renovation In Żary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lechocka Paulina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The first railway station in Żary was built in 1843 in Germany. After the Second World War and years of socialism in Poland the meaning of railway decreased and its technical condition deteriorated. Now the building needs renovation and change of function. Tensegrity structures may be useful in renovation of platforms shelter. They are strut and tie construction, in which there is self-stabilization between compressed and tensioned elements. Conception of new platform shelter is based on exemplary tensegrity module consist of three struts and nine cables (called „Simplex”. Tensegrity would make railway station more modern, but not cover its original elevation.

  3. ARIES Oxide Production Program Assessment of Risk to Long-term Sustainable Production Rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitworth, Julia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lloyd, Jane Alexandria [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Majors, Harry W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-04

    This report describes an assessment of risks and the development of a risk watch list for the ARIES Oxide Production Program conducted in the Plutonium Facility at LANL. The watch list is an active list of potential risks and opportunities that the management team periodically considers to maximize the likelihood of program success. The initial assessments were made in FY 16. The initial watch list was reviewed in September 2016. The initial report was not issued. Revision 1 has been developed based on management review of the original watch list and includes changes that occurred during FY-16.

  4. Vulnerability assessment and risk perception: the case of the Arieş River Middle Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozunu, Al.; Botezan, C.

    2012-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment is influenced by a number of factors, including risk perception. This paper investigates the vulnerability of people living in the middle basin of the Aries river region, a former mining area, to natural and technologic hazards. The mining industry lead to significant environmental changes, which combined with the social problems caused by its decline (high unemployment rate, low income and old age) raised the level of the vulnerability in the area. This case study is unique, as it includes an evaluation of risk perception and its influence on the social vulnerability and resilience of local communities to disasters. Key words: vulnerability assessment, natural hazards, social vulnerability, risk perception

  5. Producción fotográfica sobre el pueblo Cañari

    OpenAIRE

    Herráez Panamá, Miriam Silvana; Orozco Tupacyupanqui, Carlos Felipe

    2011-01-01

    El propósito de esta tesis es poder rescatar todo aquello que comprende a la cultura Cañari, como son sus tradiciones, los modelos de sus viviendas y de los materiales que han sido construidos, las diferentes prendas de vestir de cada sexo tanto la vestimenta de la mujer como la vestimenta del hombre, otro rasgo que hace característico a esta cultura milenaria es la agricultura, la ganadería, la alfarería las cuales han hecho de esta pueblo algo único en todos estos aspectos,… además sus ritu...

  6. Low-sampling-rate M-ary multiple access UWB communications in multipath channels

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhodary, Mohammad T.

    2015-08-31

    The desirable characteristics of ultra-wideband (UWB) technology are challenged by formidable sampling frequency, performance degradation in the presence of multi-user interference, and complexity of the receiver due to the channel estimation process. In this paper, a low-rate-sampling technique is used to implement M-ary multiple access UWB communications, in both the detection and channel estimation stages. A novel approach is used for multiple-access-interference (MAI) cancelation for the purpose of channel estimation. Results show reasonable performance of the proposed receiver for different number of users operating many times below Nyquist rate.

  7. Trusses Of Tensegrity Type In A Concept Of Train Station Renovation In Żary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechocka, Paulina

    2015-09-01

    The first railway station in Żary was built in 1843 in Germany. After the Second World War and years of socialism in Poland the meaning of railway decreased and its technical condition deteriorated. Now the building needs renovation and change of function. Tensegrity structures may be useful in renovation of platforms shelter. They are strut and tie construction, in which there is self-stabilization between compressed and tensioned elements. Conception of new platform shelter is based on exemplary tensegrity module consist of three struts and nine cables (called "Simplex"). Tensegrity would make railway station more modern, but not cover its original elevation.

  8. Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: Detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Stevenson, Mitchel R. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Skirrow, Rachel C. [Pacific and Yukon Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC V7H 1B1 (Canada); Rieberger, Kevin J. [Environmental Sustainability and Strategic Policy Division, Water Protection and Sustainability Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 9362 Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2 (Canada); Aggelen, Graham van [Pacific and Yukon Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC V7H 1B1 (Canada); Meays, Cynthia L. [Environmental Sustainability and Strategic Policy Division, Water Protection and Sustainability Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 9362 Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2 (Canada); Helbing, Caren C., E-mail: chelbing@uvic.ca [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •A minimally-invasive tail fin biopsy assay was developed for use in fish. •Quantitative real time polymerase reaction provided gene expression readout. •Results were comparable to classical liver tissue responses. •The approach was used on two salmonid species and can be coupled with genomic sex determination using an additional biopsy for maximal information. -- Abstract: An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17α-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor α and β isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein γ, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in

  9. Chemical characterization and sources of personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the megacity of Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Cui; Jahn, Heiko J; Engling, Guenter; Ward, Tony J; Kraemer, Alexander; Ho, Kin-Fai; Yim, S H L; Chan, Chuen-Yu

    2017-12-01

    Concurrent ambient and personal measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were conducted in eight districts of Guangzhou during the winter of 2011. Personal-to-ambient (P-C) relationships of PM2.5 chemical components were determined and sources of personal PM2.5 exposures were evaluated using principal component analysis and a mixed-effects model. Water-soluble inorganic ions (e.g., SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, C2O42-) and anhydrosugars (e.g., levoglucosan, mannosan) exhibited median personal-to-ambient (P/C) ratios sources. Conversely, elemental carbon (EC) and calcium (Ca2+) showed median P/C ratios greater than unity, illustrating significant impact of local traffic, indoor sources, and/or personal activities on individual's exposure. SO42- displayed very low coefficient of divergence (COD) values coupled with strong P-C correlations, implying a uniform distribution of SO42- in the urban area of Guangzhou. EC, Ca2+, and levoglucosan were otherwise heterogeneously distributed across individuals in different districts. Regional air pollution (50.4 ± 0.9%), traffic-related particles (8.6 ± 0.7%), dust-related particles (5.8 ± 0.7%), and biomass burning emissions (2.0 ± 0.2%) were moderate to high positive sources of personal PM2.5 exposure in Guangzhou. The observed positive and significant contribution of Ca2+ to personal PM2.5 exposure, highlighting indoor sources and/or personal activities, were driving factors determining personal exposure to dust-related particles. Considerable discrepancies (COD values ranging from 0.42 to 0.50) were shown between ambient concentrations and personal exposures, indicating caution should be taken when using ambient concentrations as proxies for personal exposures in epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing human variability in kinetics for exposures to multiple environmental chemicals: a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling case study with dichloromethane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcke, Mathieu; Haddad, Sami

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the magnitude of interindividual variability in internal dose for inhalation exposure to single versus multiple chemicals. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for adults (AD), neonates (NEO), toddlers (TODD), and pregnant women (PW) were used to simulate inhalation exposure to "low" (RfC-like) or "high" (AEGL-like) air concentrations of benzene (Bz) or dichloromethane (DCM), along with various levels of toluene alone or toluene with ethylbenzene and xylene. Monte Carlo simulations were performed and distributions of relevant internal dose metrics of either Bz or DCM were computed. Area under the blood concentration of parent compound versus time curve (AUC)-based variability in AD, TODD, and PW rose for Bz when concomitant "low" exposure to mixtures of increasing complexities occurred (coefficient of variation (CV) = 16-24%, vs. 12-15% for Bz alone), but remained unchanged considering DCM. Conversely, AUC-based CV in NEO fell (15 to 5% for Bz; 12 to 6% for DCM). Comparable trends were observed considering production of metabolites (AMET), except for NEO's CYP2E1-mediated metabolites of Bz, where an increased CV was observed (20 to 71%). For "high" exposure scenarios, Cmax-based variability of Bz and DCM remained unchanged in AD and PW, but decreased in NEO (CV= 11-16% to 2-6%) and TODD (CV= 12-13% to 7-9%). Conversely, AMET-based variability for both substrates rose in every subpopulation. This study analyzed for the first time the impact of multiple exposures on interindividual variability in toxicokinetics. Evidence indicates that this impact depends upon chemical concentrations and biochemical properties, as well as the subpopulation and internal dose metrics considered.

  11. Medical countermeasure against respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Gordon, Richard K; Rezk, Peter E; Katos, Alexander M; Wajda, Nikolai A; Moran, Theodore S; Steele, Keith E; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Sciuto, Alfred M

    2007-03-01

    To develop therapeutics against lung injury and respiratory toxicity following nerve agent VX exposure, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a number of potential pulmonary therapeutics. Guinea pigs were exposed to 27.03 mg/m(3) of VX or saline using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min and then the toxicity was assessed. Exposure to this dose of VX resulted in a 24-h survival rate of 52%. There was a significant increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein, total cell number, and cell death. Surprisingly, direct pulmonary treatment with surfactant, liquivent, N-acetylcysteine, dexamethasone, or anti-sense syk oligonucleotides 2 min post-exposure did not significantly increase the survival rate of VX-exposed guinea pigs. Further blocking the nostrils, airway, and bronchioles, VX-induced viscous mucous secretions were exacerbated by these aerosolized treatments. To overcome these events, we developed a strategy to protect the animals by treatment with atropine. Atropine inhibits muscarinic stimulation and markedly reduces the copious airway secretion following nerve agent exposure. Indeed, post-exposure treatment with atropine methyl bromide, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, resulted in 100% survival of VX-exposed animals. Bronchoalveolar lavage from VX-exposed and atropine-treated animals exhibited lower protein levels, cell number, and cell death compared to VX-exposed controls, indicating less lung injury. When pulmonary therapeutics were combined with atropine, significant protection to VX-exposure was observed. These results indicate that combinations of pulmonary therapeutics with atropine or drugs that inhibit mucous secretion are important for the treatment of respiratory toxicity and lung injury following VX exposure.

  12. Radiographic abnormalities in relation to total dust exposure at a bauxite refinery and alumina-based chemical products plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, M C; Sussman, N B; Enterline, P E; Morgan, W K; Belk, H D; Dinman, B D

    1988-07-01

    A cross-sectional study of 788 male employees of an aluminum production company examined the relationship of radiographic abnormalities to smoking and dust exposure from the mining and refining of bauxite to alumina. Among the aluminas produced were low temperature range transitional forms. The present analyses were limited to nonsmokers and current smokers. Two National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-certified "B" readers interpreted the radiographs. The predominant radiographic abnormalities noted were scanty, small, irregular opacities in the lower zones of profusion 0/1 to 1/1. Rounded opacities were rare. Among nonsmokers with low dust exposures, the prevalence of opacities greater than or equal to 1/0 showed no trend with increasing age and duration of exposure, suggesting no relationship between age and prevalence of opacities of Category 1 or more in this cohort (p greater than 0.10). Nonsmokers who had accumulated higher dust exposures showed a trend of increasing prevalence of opacities with increasing duration, suggesting an effect of occupational exposure at higher cumulative exposure levels (p less than 0.05). In most exposure categories, smokers exceeded nonsmokers in their prevalence of opacities greater than or equal to 1/0; the overall prevalence among smokers being 12 and 11% according to Readers A and B, respectively, compared with 4% in nonsmokers (p less than 0.01). In conclusion, 7 to 8% of aluminum workers in this cohort had radiographic findings of scanty, small, irregular opacities, the prevalence of which was increased among smokers (p less than 0.01). There was a moderate increase in the prevalence of opacities with increasing tenure in nonsmokers with high cumulative exposures (p less than 0.05).

  13. Adverse Reproductive and Developmental Health Outcomes Following Prenatal Exposure to a Hydraulic Fracturing Chemical Mixture in Female C57Bl/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Bromfield, John J; Klemp, Kara C; Meng, Chun-Xia; Wolfe, Andrew; Zoeller, R Thomas; Balise, Victoria D; Isiguzo, Chiamaka J; Tillitt, Donald E; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-09-01

    Unconventional oil and gas operations using hydraulic fracturing can contaminate surface and groundwater with endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We have previously shown that 23 of 24 commonly used hydraulic fracturing chemicals can activate or inhibit the estrogen, androgen, glucocorticoid, progesterone, and/or thyroid receptors in a human endometrial cancer cell reporter gene assay and that mixtures can behave synergistically, additively, or antagonistically on these receptors. In the current study, pregnant female C57Bl/6 dams were exposed to a mixture of 23 commonly used unconventional oil and gas chemicals at approximately 3, 30, 300, and 3000 μg/kg·d, flutamide at 50 mg/kg·d, or a 0.2% ethanol control vehicle via their drinking water from gestational day 11 through birth. This prenatal exposure to oil and gas operation chemicals suppressed pituitary hormone concentrations across experimental groups (prolactin, LH, FSH, and others), increased body weights, altered uterine and ovary weights, increased heart weights and collagen deposition, disrupted folliculogenesis, and other adverse health effects. This work suggests potential adverse developmental and reproductive health outcomes in humans and animals exposed to these oil and gas operation chemicals, with adverse outcomes observed even in the lowest dose group tested, equivalent to concentrations reported in drinking water sources. These endpoints suggest potential impacts on fertility, as previously observed in the male siblings, which require careful assessment in future studies.

  14. Concurrent Fetal Exposure to Multiple Environmental Chemicals along the U.S.—Mexico Border: An Exploratory Study in Brownsville, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Sexton

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is mounting concern that cumulative exposure to diverse chemicals in the environment may contribute to observed adverse health outcomes in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. To investigate this situation, biomarker concentrations of organochlorine (OC pesticides/metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were measured in maternal and umbilical cord blood from pregnant Hispanic women in Brownsville, TX. Results show that both mothers and fetuses were exposed concurrently to a variety of relatively low-level, hazardous environmental chemicals. Approximately 10% of the blood specimens had comparatively high concentrations of specific OC pesticides, PCBs and PAHs. Because many pregnant women in Brownsville live in socioeconomically-disadvantaged and environmentally-challenging circumstances, there is appropriate concern that exposure to these exogenous substances, either individually or in combination, may contribute to endemic health problems in this population, including cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes.  The challenge is to identify individuals at highest comparative risk and then implement effective programs to either prevent or reduce cumulative exposures that pose significant health-related threats.

  15. Whale shark economics: a valuation of wildlife tourism in South Ari Atoll, Maldives

    KAUST Repository

    Cagua, Edgar F.

    2014-08-12

    Whale sharks attract large numbers of tourists, divers and snorkelers each year to South Ari Atoll in the Republic of Maldives. Yet without information regarding the use and economic extent of the attraction, it is difficult to prioritize conservation or implement effective management plans. We used empirical recreational data and generalized mixed statistical models to conduct the first economic valuation (with direct spend as the primary proxy) of whale shark tourism in Maldives. We estimated that direct expenditures for whale shark focused tourism in the South Ari Marine Protected Area for 2012 and 2013 accounted for US$7.6 and $9.4 million respectively. These expenditures are based on an estimate of 72,000-78,000 tourists who are involved in whale shark excursions annually. That substantial amount of income to resort owners and operators, and tourism businesses in a relatively small area highlights the need to implement regulations and management that safeguard the sustainability of the industry through ensuring guest satisfaction and whale shark conservation. © 2014 Cagua et al.

  16. Whale shark economics: a valuation of wildlife tourism in South Ari Atoll, Maldives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagua, Edgar Fernando; Collins, Neal; Hancock, James; Rees, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Whale sharks attract large numbers of tourists, divers and snorkelers each year to South Ari Atoll in the Republic of Maldives. Yet without information regarding the use and economic extent of the attraction, it is difficult to prioritize conservation or implement effective management plans. We used empirical recreational data and generalized mixed statistical models to conduct the first economic valuation (with direct spend as the primary proxy) of whale shark tourism in Maldives. We estimated that direct expenditures for whale shark focused tourism in the South Ari Marine Protected Area for 2012 and 2013 accounted for US$7.6 and $9.4 million respectively. These expenditures are based on an estimate of 72,000-78,000 tourists who are involved in whale shark excursions annually. That substantial amount of income to resort owners and operators, and tourism businesses in a relatively small area highlights the need to implement regulations and management that safeguard the sustainability of the industry through ensuring guest satisfaction and whale shark conservation.

  17. Utilization of Heavy Metal Molten Salts in the ARIES-RS Fusion Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Übeyli, Mustafa; Yapıcı, Hüseyin

    2008-09-01

    ARIES-RS is one of the major magnetic fusion energy reactor designs that uses a blanket having vanadium alloy structure cooled by lithium [1, 2]. It is a deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion driven reactor, having a fusion power of 2170 MW [1, 2]. This study presents the neutronic analysis of the ARIES-RS fusion reactor using heavy metal molten salts in which Li2BeF4 as the main constituent was mixed with increased mole fractions of heavy metal salt (ThF4 or UF4) starting by 2 mol.% up to 12 mol.%. Neutron transport calculations were carried out with the help of the SCALE 4.3 system by solving the Boltzmann transport equation with the XSDRNPM code in 238 neutron groups and a S 8- P 3 approximation. According to the numerical results, tritium self-sufficiency was attained for the coolants, Flibe with 2% UF4 or ThF4 and 4% UF4. In addition, higher energy multiplication values were found for the salt with UF4 compared to that with ThF4. Furthermore, significant amount of high quality nuclear fuel was produced to be used in external reactors.

  18. Implementasi Modulasi dan Demodulasi M-ary QAM pada DSK TMS320C6416T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angga Yuda Prasetya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu jenis modulasi digital yang sering digunakan adalah QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation. Modulator dan demodulator M-ary QAM dapat diprogram dengan menggunakan DSP processor. DSK TMS320C6416T adalah suatu board/hardware untuk memproses sinyal yang termasuk dalam keluarga besar processor TMS320 produksi Texas Instrument, bekerja pada frekuensi 0-96 kHz yang merupakan standar dalam sistem telekomunikasi. Tujuannya yaitu melakukan implementasi modulasi dan demodulasi M-ary QAM secara real ke dalam DSP Starter Kit TMS320C6416T. Terdapat empat implementasi sistem yaitu sistem dengan input bernoulli binary generator, input pulse generator, sinyal input dari function generator melalui port Line-In dan input suara melalui port Mic-In. Pengujian dilakukan untuk mengetahui kinerja DSK TMS320C6416T yang ditampilkan dalam bentuk grafik Bit Error Rate terhadap variasi nilai Eb/N0 dilakukan dengan mengirimkan 100.000 bit. Kinerja terbaik terdapat pada implementasi menggunakan sistem QAM dengan nilai BER mencapai 1.00E-05 pada nilai Eb/N0≥11dB. Sedangkan kinerja terburuk pada semua sistem dengan input dari function generator dengan nilai BER yang tidak mencapai 1.00E-05 dibandingkan dengan sistem yang telah dirancang.

  19. Canine toys and training devices as sources of exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A: quantitation of chemicals in leachate and in vitro screening for endocrine activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Kimberly J; Smith, Philip N

    2013-11-01

    Chewing and mouthing behaviors exhibited by pet dogs are likely to lead to oral exposures to a variety of environmental chemicals. Products intended for chewing and mouthing uses include toys and training devices that are often made of plastics. The goal of the current study was to determine if a subset of phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA), endocrine disrupting chemicals commonly found in plastics, leach out of dog toys and training devices (bumpers) into synthetic canine saliva. In vitro assays were used to screen leachates for endocrine activity. Bumper leachates were dominated by di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and BPA, with concentrations reaching low μg mL(-1) following short immersions in synthetic saliva. Simulated chewing of bumpers during immersion in synthetic saliva increased concentrations of phthalates and BPA as compared to new bumpers, while outdoor storage had variable effects on concentrations (increased DEHP; decreased BPA). Toys leached substantially lower concentrations of phthalates and BPA, with the exception of one toy which leached considerable amounts of diethyl phthalate. In vitro assays indicated anti-androgenic activity of bumper leachates, and estrogenic activity of both bumper and toy leachates. These results confirm that toys and training devices are potential sources of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in pet dogs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Occupational Exposure to Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Groups and Active Ingredients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Schinasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes results from a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses of nearly three decades worth of epidemiologic research on the relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide active ingredients and chemical groups. Estimates of associations of NHL with 21 pesticide chemical groups and 80 active ingredients were extracted from 44 papers, all of which reported results from analyses of studies conducted in high-income countries. Random effects meta-analyses showed that phenoxy herbicides, carbamate insecticides, organophosphorus insecticides and the active ingredient lindane, an organochlorine insecticide, were positively associated with NHL. In a handful of papers, associations between pesticides and NHL subtypes were reported; B cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicides and the organophosphorus herbicide glyphosate. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicide exposure. Despite compelling evidence that NHL is associated with certain chemicals, this review indicates the need for investigations of a larger variety of pesticides in more geographic areas, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, despite producing a large portion of the world’s agriculture, were missing in the literature that were reviewed.

  1. Inflammatory and Oxidative Responses Induced by Exposure to Commonly Used e-Cigarette Flavoring Chemicals and Flavored e-Liquids without Nicotine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thivanka Muthumalage

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The respiratory health effects of inhalation exposure to e-cigarette flavoring chemicals are not well understood. We focused our study on the immuno-toxicological and the oxidative stress effects by these e-cigarette flavoring chemicals on two types of human monocytic cell lines, Mono Mac 6 (MM6 and U937. The potential to cause oxidative stress by these flavoring chemicals was assessed by measuring the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. We hypothesized that the flavoring chemicals used in e-juices/e-liquids induce an inflammatory response, cellular toxicity, and ROS production.Methods: Two monocytic cell types, MM6 and U937 were exposed to commonly used e-cigarette flavoring chemicals; diacetyl, cinnamaldehyde, acetoin, pentanedione, o-vanillin, maltol and coumarin at different doses between 10 and 1,000 μM. Cell viability and the concentrations of the secreted inflammatory cytokine interleukin 8 (IL-8 were measured in the conditioned media. Cell-free ROS produced by these commonly used flavoring chemicals were also measured using a 2′,7′dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. These DCF fluorescence data were expressed as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 equivalents. Cytotoxicity due to the exposure to selected e-liquids was assessed by cell viability and the IL-8 inflammatory cytokine response in the conditioned media.Results: Treatment of the cells with flavoring chemicals and flavored e-liquid without nicotine caused cytotoxicity dose-dependently. The exposed monocytic cells secreted interleukin 8 (IL-8 chemokine in a dose-dependent manner compared to the unexposed cell groups depicting a biologically significant inflammatory response. The measurement of cell-free ROS by the flavoring chemicals and e-liquids showed significantly increased levels of H2O2 equivalents in a dose-dependent manner compared to the control reagents. Mixing a variety of flavors resulted in greater cytotoxicity and cell-free ROS levels compared to the

  2. Endocrine-Disrupting Activity of Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Adverse Health Outcomes After Prenatal Exposure in Male Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Klemp, Kara C; Vu, Danh C; Lin, Chung-Ho; Meng, Chun-Xia; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L; Pinatti, Lisa; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Drobnis, Erma Z; Balise, Victoria D; Isiguzo, Chiamaka J; Williams, Michelle A; Tillitt, Donald E; Nagel, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    .... We measured the endocrine-disrupting activities of 24 chemicals used and/or produced by oil and gas operations for five nuclear receptors using a reporter gene assay in human endometrial cancer cells...