WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical exposure proceedings

  1. Access and use of information resources in assessing health risks from chemical exposure: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health risk assessment is based on access to comprehensive information about potentially hazardous agents in question. Relevant information is scattered throughout the literature, and often is not readily accessible. To be useful in assessment efforts, emerging scientific findings, risk assess parameters, and associated data must be compiled and evaluated systemically. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are among the federal agencies heavily involved in this effort. This symposium was a direct response by EPA and ORNL to the expressed needs of individuals involved in assessing risks from chemical exposure. In an effort to examine the state of the risk assessment process, the availability of toxicological information, and the future development and transfer of this information, the symposium provided an excellent cadre of speakers and participants from state and federal agencies, academia and research laboratories to address these topics. This stimulating and productive gathering discussed concerns associated with (1) environmental contamination by chemicals; (2) laws regulating chemicals; (3) information needs and resources; (4) applications; (5) challenges and priorities; and (6)future issues. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases

  2. Access and use of information resources in assessing health risks from chemical exposure: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    Health risk assessment is based on access to comprehensive information about potentially hazardous agents in question. Relevant information is scattered throughout the literature, and often is not readily accessible. To be useful in assessment efforts, emerging scientific findings, risk assess parameters, and associated data must be compiled and evaluated systemically. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are among the federal agencies heavily involved in this effort. This symposium was a direct response by EPA and ORNL to the expressed needs of individuals involved in assessing risks from chemical exposure. In an effort to examine the state of the risk assessment process, the availability of toxicological information, and the future development and transfer of this information, the symposium provided an excellent cadre of speakers and participants from state and federal agencies, academia and research laboratories to address these topics. This stimulating and productive gathering discussed concerns associated with (1) environmental contamination by chemicals; (2) laws regulating chemicals; (3) information needs and resources; (4) applications; (5) challenges and priorities; and (6)future issues. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  3. Personal Chemical Exposure informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical Exposure science is the study of human contact with chemicals (from manufacturing facilities, everyday products, waste) occurring in their environments and advances knowledge of the mechanisms and dynamics of events that cause or prevent adverse health outcomes. (adapted...

  4. Current chemical exposures among Ontario construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dave K; Kurtz, Lawrence A; Sahai, Dru; Finkelstein, Murray M

    2003-12-01

    Current occupational exposures to chemical agents were assessed as part of an epidemiological study pertaining to the cancer and mortality patterns of Ontario construction workers. The task-based exposure assessment involved members from nine construction trade unions. Air samples were taken using personal sampling pumps and collection media. A DustTrak direct-reading particulate monitor was also employed. Exposure assessments included measurements of airborne respirable, inhalable, total, and silica dust; solvents; metals; asbestos; diesel exhaust and man-made mineral fibers (MMMF). In total, 396 single- or multi-component (filter/tube), 798 direct-reading, and 71 bulk samples were collected. The results showed that Ontario construction workers are exposed to potentially hazardous levels of chemical agents. The findings are similar to those reported by other researchers, except for silica exposure. In our study, silica exposure is much lower than reported elsewhere. The difficulty associated with assessing construction workers' exposures is highlighted. PMID:14612300

  5. Chemical exposure and leukemia clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper draws attention to the heterogeneous distribution of leukemia in childhood and in adults. The topic of cluster reports and generalized clustering is addressed. These issues are applied to what is known of the risk factor for both adult and childhood leukemia. Finally, the significance of parental occupational exposure and childhood leukemia is covered. (author). 23 refs

  6. Health and environmental effects of complex chemical mixtures: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the Department of Energy supports a broad long-term research program on human health and environmental effects from potential exposure to energy-related complex chemical mixtures. The program seeks basic mechanistic data on the effects of complex mixtures at the cellular, molecular, and whole animal levels to aid in predicting human health effects and seeks ecological data on biological and physical transformations in the mixtures, concentrations of the mixtures in various compartments of the environment, and potential routes for human exposure to these mixtures (e.g., food chain). On June 17-18, 1985, OHER held its First Annual Technical Meeting on the Complex Chemical Mixtures Program in Chicago, IL. The primary purpose of the meeting was to enable principal investigators to report the research status and accomplishments of ongoing complex chemical mixture studies supported by OHER. To help focus future research directions round table discussions were conducted.

  7. Modelling Human Exposure to Chemicals in Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob W

    1993-01-01

    Exposure to foodborne chemicals is often estimated using the average consumption pattern in the human population. To protect the human population instead of the average individual, however, interindividual variability in consumption behaviour must be taken into account. This report shows how food

  8. HANFORD CHEMICAL VAPORS WORKER CONCERNS & EXPOSURE EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDERSON, T.J.

    2006-12-20

    Chemical vapor emissions from underground hazardous waste storage tanks on the Hanford site in eastern Washington State are a potential concern because workers enter the tank farms on a regular basis for waste retrievals, equipment maintenance, and surveillance. Tank farm contractors are in the process of retrieving all remaining waste from aging single-shell tanks, some of which date to World War II, and transferring it to newer double-shell tanks. During the waste retrieval process, tank farm workers are potentially exposed to fugitive chemical vapors that can escape from tank headspaces and other emission points. The tanks are known to hold more than 1,500 different species of chemicals, in addition to radionuclides. Exposure assessments have fully characterized the hazards from chemical vapors in half of the tank farms. Extensive sampling and analysis has been done to characterize the chemical properties of hazardous waste and to evaluate potential health hazards of vapors at the ground surface, where workers perform maintenance and waste transfer activities. Worker concerns. risk communication, and exposure assessment are discussed, including evaluation of the potential hazards of complex mixtures of chemical vapors. Concentrations of vapors above occupational exposure limits-(OEL) were detected only at exhaust stacks and passive breather filter outlets. Beyond five feet from the sources, vapors disperse rapidly. No vapors have been measured above 50% of their OELs more than five feet from the source. Vapor controls are focused on limited hazard zones around sources. Further evaluations of vapors include analysis of routes of exposure and thorough analysis of nuisance odors.

  9. Controlling exposure to chemicals: a simple guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Alastair

    2006-09-01

    Controlling exposure to chemicals in the workplace has been made easier by the use of a guide published by the U.K. Health and Safety Executive (HSE). Known as COSHH (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations) Essentials, the guide is a simple five-step procedure to devise appropriate control strategies to reduce exposures to various substances under different conditions. U.K. health and safety law requires risk assessments prior to use of hazardous substances and installation of appropriate control strategies before work commences. A 1996 survey of 1500 safety managers and trade union safety representatives revealed that the majority had little understanding of occupational safety limits for chemicals. Small- and medium-sized companies had little understanding of limits, and most could not develop control strategies. A new approach was required. COSHH Essentials is it. Developed over 3 years by a working group of hygienists and toxicologists representing HSE, industry, trade unions, and independent experts, the guide is now available in both paper-based and internet versions. It applies a hazard banding approach validated by data for 111 substances that have well-founded U.K. occupational exposure limits. New users select an appropriate hazard band for chemicals based on risk phrases. Details about dustiness for powders or volatility for liquids are inserted, and the guide allocates substances to one of four exposure bands linked, in turn, to specific control strategies. Now accessible through the HSE web site, COSHH Essentials will offer control strategies for both single chemicals and whole processes. To date over 300,000 risk assessments have been carried out using the internet version of COSHH Essentials. PMID:17119256

  10. Environmental chemical exposures and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Stanley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As a hormone-sensitive condition with no single identifiable cause, breast cancer is a major health problem. It is characterized by a wide range of contributing factors and exposures occurring in different combinations and strengths across a lifetime that may be amplified during periods of enhanced developmental susceptibility and impacted by reproductive patterns and behaviours. The vast majority of cases are oestrogen-receptor positive and occur in women with no family history of the disease suggesting that modifiable risk factors are involved. A substantial body of evidence now links oestrogen-positive breast cancer with environmental exposures. Synthetic chemicals capable of oestrogen mimicry are characteristic of industrial development and have been individually and extensively assessed as risk factors for oestrogen-sensitive cancers. Existing breast cancer risk assessment tools do not take such factors into account. In the absence of consensus on causation and in order to better understand the problem of escalating incidence globally, an expanded, integrated approach broadening the inquiry into individual susceptibility breast cancer is proposed. Applying systems thinking to existing data on oestrogen-modulating environmental exposures and other oestrogenic factors characteristic of Westernisation and their interactions in the exposure, encompassing social, behavioural, environmental, hormonal and genetic factors, can assist in understanding cancer risks and the pursuit of prevention strategies. A new conceptual framework based on a broader understanding of the “system” that underlies the development of breast cancer over a period of many years, incorporating the factors known to contribute to breast cancer risk, could provide a new platform from which government and regulators can promulgate enhanced and more effective prevention strategies.

  11. From exposure to effect: a comparison of modeling approaches to chemical carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, I M; Zonneveld, C

    2001-10-01

    Standardized long-term carcinogenicity tests aim to reveal the relationship between exposure to a chemical and occurrence of a carcinogenic response. The analysis of such tests may be facilitated by the use of mathematical models. To what extent current models actually achieve this purpose is difficult to evaluate. Various aspects of chemically induced carcinogenesis are treated by different modeling approaches, which proceed very much in isolation of each other. With this paper we aim to provide for the non-mathematician a comprehensive and critical overview of models dealing with processes involved in chemical carcinogenesis. We cover the entire process of carcinogenesis, from exposure to effect. We succinctly summarize the biology underlying the models and emphasize the relationship between model assumptions and model formulations. The use of mathematics is restricted as far as possible with some additional information relegated to boxes. PMID:11673088

  12. A Chemical Properties Simulator to Support Integrated Environmental Modeling (proceeding)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Users of Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) systems are responsible for defining individual chemicals and their properties, a process that is time-consuming at best and overwhelming at worst, especially for new chemicals with new structures. A software tool is needed to allo...

  13. Environmental influences on reproductive health: the importance of chemical exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aolin; Padula, Amy; Sirota, Marina; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2016-09-15

    Chemical exposures during pregnancy can have a profound and life-long impact on human health. Because of the omnipresence of chemicals in our daily life, there is continuous contact with chemicals in food, water, air, and consumer products. Consequently, human biomonitoring studies show that pregnant women around the globe are exposed to a variety of chemicals. In this review we provide a summary of current data on maternal and fetal exposure, as well as health consequences from these exposures. We review several chemical classes, including polychlorinated biphenyls, perfluoroalkyl substances, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phenols, phthalates, pesticides, and metals. Additionally, we discuss environmental disparities and vulnerable populations, and future research directions. We conclude by providing some recommendations for prevention of chemical exposure and its adverse reproductive health consequences. PMID:27513554

  14. Proceedings of national symposium on innovative strategies for cost competitiveness in Indian chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings are structured in such a manner to cover all the facets of the chemical industry and the cost competitiveness. The topics covered also include membrane technology, nuclear desalination, heavy water production and other topics connected with nuclear industry. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  15. Developmental Exposure to Environmental Chemicals and Metabolic Changes in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Karin; Howard, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other forms of metabolic disease have been rising over the past several decades. Although diet and physical activity play important roles in these trends, other environmental factors also may contribute to this significant public health issue. In this article, we discuss the possibility that widespread exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may contribute to the development of metabolic diseases in children. We summarize the epidemiological evidence on exposure to environmental chemicals during early development and metabolic outcomes in infants and children. Prenatal exposure to EDCs, particularly the persistent organic pollutant DDT and its metabolite DDE, may influence growth patterns during infancy and childhood. The altered growth patterns associated with EDCs vary according to exposure level, sex, exposure timing, pubertal status, and age at which growth is measured. Early exposure to air pollutants also is linked to impaired metabolism in infants and children. As a result of these and other studies, professional health provider societies have called for a reduction in environmental chemical exposures. We summarize the resources available to health care providers to counsel patients on how to reduce chemical exposures. We conclude with a discussion of environmental policies that address chemical exposures and ultimately aim to improve public health. PMID:27401018

  16. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These 1974 Proceedings of the European Society of Nuclear Methods in Agriculture contain reports in the form of minutes of the meetings of various working groups of the Society, the programme and official addresses of the fifth annual meeting including annual reports of the chairman and the secretary of the Society, and the reports of each of the eleven working groups as well as the four following surveys entitled: 1) some aspects of research in plant breeding, conservation of genetic resources in connection with irradiation processes (by A. Jacques from FAO), 2) our responsibility for the environment (by D. Zeeuw from ITAL), 3) pilot plant for the irradiation of sewage sludge (by A. Suesz from Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Bodenkultur und Pflanzenbau, Munich), 4) nuclear agronomy in France (by P. Guerin de Montgareuil from CEN, Cadarache). Summaries and provisional papers on presented topics will be published in ''ESNA Newsletter''

  17. Proceedings:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidhu, S.S. (comp.)

    1987-12-01

    With increasingly stringent requirements on the performance of accelerators and storage rings, there is a wide interest in modeling-based control. The organizers recognized the need to have an overview and discussion on the current status of modeling-based accelerator control and how advances in computer technology, software engineering, and expert systems can impact control and diagnosis. As a result, a workshop was organized at the Brookhaven National Laboratory on August 17-18, 1987. It was made possible by the joint support of the AGS, NSLS and Applied Mathematics Departments of BNL. The talks and discussions were divided into three main topics: elements of modeling, knowledge representation, and integration of modeling-based control systems with AI and workstations. This volume is the unedited collection of papers, presented at the Workshop. Separate abstracts were prepared for 10 papers in these proceedings.

  18. Chemical exposure and lung function in fragrance industry employees

    OpenAIRE

    Dix, Garry R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Production employees within the UK fragrance industry are exposed to large quantities of chemical substances and mixtures over working shifts. Occupational respiratory exposure within this industry is managed in line with relevant legislation and guidelines. There is a lack, however, of published literature studying the effects of respiratory exposure to chemicals on fragrance production employees. A multi-site cross-sectional study was conducted using employees from the ...

  19. Chemosensory perception, symptoms and autonomic responses during chemical exposure in multiple chemical sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Linus; Claeson, Anna Sara; Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a prevalent medically unexplained symptom characterized by symptom reactions to everyday chemical exposure below hygienic thresholds. The aim of this study was to investigate the expressions of hyper-reactivity in MCS during whole-body exposure to l...

  20. A decision analytic approach to exposure-based chemical prioritization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Mitchell

    Full Text Available The manufacture of novel synthetic chemicals has increased in volume and variety, but often the environmental and health risks are not fully understood in terms of toxicity and, in particular, exposure. While efforts to assess risks have generally been effective when sufficient data are available, the hazard and exposure data necessary to assess risks adequately are unavailable for the vast majority of chemicals in commerce. The US Environmental Protection Agency has initiated the ExpoCast Program to develop tools for rapid chemical evaluation based on potential for exposure. In this context, a model is presented in which chemicals are evaluated based on inherent chemical properties and behaviorally-based usage characteristics over the chemical's life cycle. These criteria are assessed and integrated within a decision analytic framework, facilitating rapid assessment and prioritization for future targeted testing and systems modeling. A case study outlines the prioritization process using 51 chemicals. The results show a preliminary relative ranking of chemicals based on exposure potential. The strength of this approach is the ability to integrate relevant statistical and mechanistic data with expert judgment, allowing for an initial tier assessment that can further inform targeted testing and risk management strategies.

  1. Steam chemistry - interaction of chemical species with water, steam, and materials during evaporation, superheating, and condensation. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Topics of this proceedings are: steam chemistry, supercritical water, effects of chemicals in steam (acetic acid, formic acid, phosphoric acid or other impurities); solubility and deposition, condensation processes and effect of impurities; nucleation; gas-liquid interfaces; steam treatment. (SR)

  2. Chemical exposure during pregnancy and oral clefts in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite Isabel Cristina Gonçalves

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a literature review on the risk factors for oral clefts (lip and/or palate, emphasizing discussion of maternal exposure to endocrine disruptors. Several studies have identified the risk of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, use of anticonvulsivant drugs, and exposure to organic solvents. A protective effect has been shown for supplementation with folic acid. As with other chemicals, the risk associated with exposure to sex hormones is still obscure, although some authors describe a moderate risk level. New studies addressing this hypothesis need to be conducted, while the population exposed to these endocrine disrupters is increasing.

  3. Chemical exposure during pregnancy and oral clefts in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Gonçalves Leite

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a literature review on the risk factors for oral clefts (lip and/or palate, emphasizing discussion of maternal exposure to endocrine disruptors. Several studies have identified the risk of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, use of anticonvulsivant drugs, and exposure to organic solvents. A protective effect has been shown for supplementation with folic acid. As with other chemicals, the risk associated with exposure to sex hormones is still obscure, although some authors describe a moderate risk level. New studies addressing this hypothesis need to be conducted, while the population exposed to these endocrine disrupters is increasing.

  4. Risk management of exposure to chemicals under operational conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    The HFM panel has decided to install an Exploratory Team, ET-078, which should advise whether or not a Technical Group (TG) should be established on the subject of risk management of exposure to chemicals under operational conditions. This paper described the context and approach of ET-078.

  5. Modeling Exposure to Persistent Chemicals in Hazard and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E.; McLachlan, Michael S.; Arnot, Jon A.; MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Wania, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Fate and exposure modeling has not thus far been explicitly used in the risk profile documents prepared to evaluate significant adverse effect of candidate chemicals for either the Stockholm Convention or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. However, we believe models have considerable potential to improve the risk profiles. Fate and exposure models are already used routinely in other similar regulatory applications to inform decisions, and they have been instrumental in building our current understanding of the fate of POP and PBT chemicals in the environment. The goal of this paper is to motivate the use of fate and exposure models in preparing risk profiles in the POP assessment procedure by providing strategies for incorporating and using models. The ways that fate and exposure models can be used to improve and inform the development of risk profiles include: (1) Benchmarking the ratio of exposure and emissions of candidate chemicals to the same ratio for known POPs, thereby opening the possibility of combining this ratio with the relative emissions and relative toxicity to arrive at a measure of relative risk. (2) Directly estimating the exposure of the environment, biota and humans to provide information to complement measurements, or where measurements are not available or are limited. (3) To identify the key processes and chemical and/or environmental parameters that determine the exposure; thereby allowing the effective prioritization of research or measurements to improve the risk profile. (4) Predicting future time trends including how quickly exposure levels in remote areas would respond to reductions in emissions. Currently there is no standardized consensus model for use in the risk profile context. Therefore, to choose the appropriate model the risk profile developer must evaluate how appropriate an existing model is for a specific setting and whether the assumptions and input data are relevant in the context of the application

  6. Developing a Semi-Quantitative Occupational Risk Prediction Model for Chemical Exposures and Its Application to a National Chemical Exposure Databank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Ying Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a semi-quantitative occupational chemical exposure risk prediction model, based on the calculation of exposure hazard indexes, was proposed, corrected, and applied to a national chemical exposure databank. The model comprises one factor used to describe toxicity (i.e., the toxicity index, and two factors used to reflect the exposure potential (i.e., the exposure index and protection deficiency index of workers exposed to chemicals. An expert system was used to correct the above proposed model. By applying the corrected model to data obtained from a national occupational chemical hazard survey program, chemical exposure risks of various manufacturing industries were determined and a national control strategy for the abatement of occupational chemical exposures was proposed. The results of the present study would provide useful information for governmental agencies to allocate their limited resources effectively for reducing chemical exposures of workers.

  7. Solid State and Chemical Radiation Dosimetry in Medicine and Biology. Proceedings of a Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of a Symposium organized by the IAEA and held in Vienna, 3-7 October 1966. The meeting was attended by 104 participants from 21 countries and three international organizations. Contents: Solid state dosimetry (17 papers); Chemical dosimetry (10 papers); Invited lectures (2 papers); General aspects and other methods of dosimetry (6 papers); Panel discussion on research and development needed in dosimetry. Each paper is in its original language (32 English, 2 French and 1 Spanish) and is preceded by an abstract in English and one in the original language, if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  8. Health effects assessment of chemical exposures: ARIES methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, L; Montero, M.; Rabago, I.; Vidania, R.

    1995-07-01

    In this work, we present ARIES* update: a system designed in order to facilitate the human health effects assessment produced by accidental release of toxic chemicals. The first version of ARIES was developed in relation to 82/501/EEC Directive about mayor accidents in the chemical industry. So, the first aim was the support of the effects assessment derived for the chemicals included into this directive. From this establishment, it was considered acute exposures for high concentrations. In this report, we present the actual methodology for considering other type of exposures, such as environmental and occupational. Likewise other versions, the methodology comprises two approaches: quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment incorporates the mathematical algorithms useful to evaluate the effects produced by the most important routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, eye contact and skin absorption, in a short, medium and long term. It has been included models that realizes an accurate quantification of doses, effects,... and so on, such as simple approaches when the available information is not enough. Qualitative assessment, designed in order to complement or replace the previous one, is incorporated into an informatics system, developed in Clipper. It executes and displays outstanding and important toxicological information of about 100 chemicals. This information comes from ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) database through a collaboration with JRC-ISPRA working group. (Author) 24 refs.

  9. Health effects assessment of chemical exposures: ARIES methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we present ARIES* update: a system designed in order to facilitate the human health effects assessment produced by accidental release of toxic chemicals. The first version of ARIES was developed in relation to 82/501/EEC Directive about mayor accidents in the chemical industry. So, the first aim was the support of the effects assessment derived for the chemicals included into this directive. From this establishment, it was considered acute exposures for high concentrations. In this report, we present the actual methodology for considering other type of exposures, such as environmental and occupational. Likewise other versions, the methodology comprises two approaches: quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment incorporates the mathematical algorithms useful to evaluate the effects produced by the most important routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, eye contact and skin absorption, in a short, medium and long term. It has been included models that realizes an accurate quantification of doses, effects,... and so on, such as simple approaches when the available information is not enough. Qualitative assessment, designed in order to complement or replace the previous one, is incorporated into an informatics system, developed in Clipper. It executes and displays outstanding and important toxicological information of about 100 chemicals. This information comes from ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) database through a collaboration with JRC-ISPRA working group. (Author) 24 refs

  10. Historical Exposures to Chemicals at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant: A Pilot Retrospective Exposure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janeen Denise Robertson

    1999-02-01

    In a mortality study of white males who had worked at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant between 1952 and 1979, an increased number of deaths from benign and unspecified intracranial neoplasms was found. A case-control study nested within this cohort investigated the hypothesis that an association existed between brain tumor death and exposure to either internally deposited plutonium or external ionizing radiation. There was no statistically significant association found between estimated radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium and the development of brain tumors. Exposure by job or work area showed no significant difference between the cohort and the control groups. An update of the study found elevated risk estimates for (1) all lymphopoietic neoplasms, and (2) all causes of death in employees with body burdens greater than or equal to two nanocuries of plutonium. There was an excess of brain tumors for the entire cohort. Similar cohort studies conducted on worker populations from other plutonium handling facilities have not yet shown any elevated risks for brain tumors. Historically, the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant used large quantities of chemicals in their production operations. The use of solvents, particularly carbon tetrachloride, was unique to Rocky Flats. No investigation of the possible confounding effects of chemical exposures was done in the initial studies. The objectives of the present study are to (1) investigate the history of chemical use at the Rocky Flats facility; (2) locate and analyze chemical monitoring information in order to assess employee exposure to the chemicals that were used in the highest volume; and (3) determine the feasibility of establishing a chemical exposure assessment model that could be used in future epidemiology studies.

  11. Occupational radiation protection: Protecting workers against exposure to ionizing radiation. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    artificial radiation sources. The majority of occupationally exposed workers are exposed to elevated levels of natural radionuclides. Notably, those workers comprising this latter group receive a higher average annual dose than do those workers exposed to artificial sources. The principal natural sources of radiation exposure, other than the mining and processing of uranium ores, are radon in buildings, non-uranium or thorium ores that contain significant traces of natural radionuclides, other underground workplaces and cosmic rays at aircraft altitudes. The BSS provide for the exclusion of exposures, the magnitude or likelihood of which is essentially unamenable to control. In order to address these issues the first International Conference on Occupational Radiation Protection, hosted by the Government of Switzerland, was organized by the IAEA and convened jointly with the ILO. It was co-sponsored by the European Commission (EC) and held in co-operation with the WHO and the OECD/NEA and also with UNSCEAR, the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, the International Electrotechnical Commission, the International Radiation Protection Association and the International Society of Radiology. It was held at the Headquarters of the ILO, Geneva, from 26 to 30 August 2002, and attended by 328 participants from 72 countries and 12 organizations. Through the strong support of the IAEA's Technical Co-operation Department, and also from the EC, almost half of the participants were representing developing countries. The Conference is the first international conference to cover the whole area of occupational radiation protection, including infrastructure development, radiation monitoring, stakeholder involvement, and the probability of causation of occupational harm attributable to radiation exposure. The Proceedings contain all the presentations and discussions as well as summaries of each session and the

  12. Molecular epidemiology of childhood leukemia with emphasis on chemical exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffler, P.A.; Smith, M.T.; Wood, S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Reynolds, P. [California Dept. of Health Services, Emeryville, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Developing markets in the Pacific Basin depend heavily on the production and export of consumer goods. The generation of hazardous waste as a by-product of industrial production can be linked to adverse health outcomes, such as childhood leukemia, in ways that are presently unknown. In California, exposures resulting from hazardous waste disposal are of concern in the etiology of childhood cancer. Approximately 63% of the 57 hazardous waste sites that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) included in the national priority list under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) statute were in the six-county San Francisco Bay area. This area includes California`s Silicon Valley, where a disproportionate majority of these sites are located. Although only one study links hazardous waste disposal to childhood leukemia evidence is accumulating that in utero and maternal pesticide exposures as well as chemical exposures during childhood are important in the etiology of childhood leukemia. This study investigates whether children with leukemia have common genetic changes, whether children with genetic changes experience common chemical exposures, and whether the occurrences of these genetic changes correspond to the same temporal sequence as exposure. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study design and report on the status of research activity. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Male Reproductive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueiwang Anna Jeng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs can interfere with normal hormonal balance and may exert adverse consequences on humans. The male reproductive system may be susceptible to the effects of such environmental toxicants. This review discusses the recent progress in scientific data mainly from epidemiology studies on the associations between EDCs and male reproductive health and our understanding of possible mechanisms associated with the effects of EDCs on male reproductive health. Finally, the review provides recommendations on future research to enhance our understanding of EDCs and male reproductive health. The review highlights the need for 1 well-defined longitudinal epidemiology studies, with appropriately designed exposure assessment to determine potential causal relationships; 2 chemical and biochemical approaches aimed at a better understanding of the mechanism of action of xenoestrogens with regard to low-dose effects, and assessment of identify genetic susceptibility factors associated with the risk of adverse effects following exposure to EDCs.

  14. Low level exposure to chemicals and immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrialized countries are facing an increase of diseases attributable to an alteration of the immune system function, and concern is growing that this trend could be at least partially attributable to new and modified patterns of exposure to chemicals. Among chemicals matter of concern, pesticides can be included. The Authors have reviewed the existing evidence of pesticide immunotoxicity in humans, showing that existing data are inadequate to raise conclusions on the immunotoxic risk related to these compounds. The limits of existing studies are: poor knowledge on exposure levels, heterogeneity of the approach, and difficulty in giving a prognostic significance to the slight changes often observed. To overcome these limits, the Authors have proposed a tier approach, based on three steps: the first, addressed at pointing out a possible immunomodulation; the second, at refining the results and the third one, when needed, to finalize the study and to point out concordance with previous results. Studies should preferably be carried out through comparison of pre- and post-exposure findings in the same groups of subjects to be examined immediately after the end of the exposure. A simplification of the first step approach can be used by the occupational health physician and the occupational toxicologist. Conclusions on the prognostic significance of the slight changes often observed will be reached only by validating the hypothesis generated by field studies with an epidemiological approach. In this field, the most useful option is represented by longitudinal perspective studies

  15. Biological effects of low level exposures to chemicals and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 1990 a group of scientists representing several federal agencies, the International Society of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, the private sector, and academia met to develop a strategy to encourage the study of the biological effects of low level exposures (BELLE) to chemical agents and radioactivity. A workshop was held in 1991 with seven invited speakers focusing on the toxicological implications of biological adaptations. The selection of topics and speakers was designed to consider critically the concept of hormesis, not only in a broad, conceptual manner, but also at the molecular and biochemical levels. These presentations offered a complementary perspective on the diverse range of molecular mechanisms that can become activated at low levels of toxicant exposure. In addition to chemical toxicology research, an overview of current research on 'Effects of low-dose radiation on the immune response' was presented as well as 'Cellular adaptation as an important response during chemical carcinogenesis'. The final presentation was devoted to biostatistical considerations when designing studies that address issues associated with the biological responses to low doses of chemicals and radiation, as well as issues in interpretation of the findings from such studies

  16. Diagnosis of exposure to chemical warfare agents: An essential tool to counteract chemical terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Schans, M.J. van der; Bikker, F.J.; Benschop, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Methods to analyze chemical warfare agents (CW-agents) and their decomposition products in environmental samples were developed over the last decades. In contrast herewith, procedures for analysis in biological samples have only recently been developed. Retrospective detection of exposure to CW-agen

  17. Occupational exposure to airborne chemical substances in paintings conservators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jeżewska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the results of the quantitative study of the airborne chemical substances detected in the conservator's work environment. Material and Methods: The quantitative tests were carried out in 6 museum easel paintings conservation studios. The air test samples were taken at various stages of restoration works, such as cleaning, doubling, impregnation, varnishing, retouching, just to name a few. The chemical substances in the sampled air were measured by the GC-FID (gas chromatography with flame ionization detector test method. Results: The study results demonstrated that concentrations of airborne substances, e.g., toluene, 1,4-dioxane, turpentine and white spirit in the work environment of paintings conservators exceeded the values allowed by hygiene standards. It was found that exposure levels to the same chemical agents, released during similar activities, varied for different paintings conservation studios. It is likely that this discrepancy resulted from the indoor air exchange system for a given studio (e.g. type of ventilation and its efficiency, the size of the object under maintenance, and also from the methodology and protection used by individual employees. Conclusions: The levels of organic solvent vapors, present in the workplace air in the course of painting conservation, were found to be well above the occupational exposure limits, thus posing a threat to the worker's health. Med Pr 2014;65(1:33–41

  18. 75 FR 4402 - Notice of National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Leadership Council...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... Health and Chemical Exposures Leadership Council Conference Call Time and Date: 1 p.m.-3 p.m., Friday... National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Leadership Council. The National Conversation... protecting the public's health from harmful chemical exposures. The Leadership Council provides...

  19. Proceedings of the frst joint american chemical society agricultural and food chemistry division – american chemical society international chemical sciences chapter in Thailand symposium on agricultural and food chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Proceedings is a compilation of papers from contributed oral and poster presentations presented at the first joint symposium organized by the American Chemical Society Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division and the American Chemical Society International Chemical Sciences Chapter in Thailand ...

  20. 76 FR 72216 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... hazardous chemicals in accordance with the Standard's definitions for ``laboratory use of hazardous chemicals'' and ``laboratory scale.'' The Standard requires that these laboratories maintain worker... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in...

  1. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista; Masiello, Caroline A; Dugan, Brandon; Toselli, Moreno

    2016-09-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30tha(-1). We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρs) and envelope (ρe) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0-5nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over short (~years) timescales.

  2. Harmonization of risk management approaches: radiation and chemical exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of occupational and public risk from the environmental pollutants like chemicals, radiation, etc demands that the effects be considered not only from each individual pollutant, but from the combination of all the pollutants. An integrated risk assessment system needs to be in place to have an overall risk perspective for the benefit of policy makers and decision takers to try to achieve risk reduction in totality. The basis for risk-based radiation dose limits is derived from epidemiological studies, which provide a rich source of data largely unavailable to chemical risk assessors. In addition, use of the principle of optimization as expressed in the ALARA concept has resulted in a safety culture, which is much more than just complying with stipulated limits. The conservative hypothesis of no-threshold dose-effect relation (ICRP) is universally assumed. The end-points and the severity of different classes of pollutants and even different pollutants in a same class vary over a wide range. Hence, it is difficult to arrive at a quantitative value for the net detriment that weighs the various types of end-points and various classes of pollutants. Once the risk due to other pollutants is quantified by some acceptable methodology, it can be expressed in terms of the Risk Equivalent Radiation Dose (R.E.R.D.) for easy comparison with options involving radiation exposure. This paper is an effort to use to quantify and present the risk due to exposure to chemicals and radiation in a common scale for the purpose of easy comparison to facilitate decision taking. (authors)

  3. Harmonization of risk management approaches: radiation and chemical exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiation Safety Systems Div., Mumbai (India)

    2006-07-01

    Assessment of occupational and public risk from the environmental pollutants like chemicals, radiation, etc demands that the effects be considered not only from each individual pollutant, but from the combination of all the pollutants. An integrated risk assessment system needs to be in place to have an overall risk perspective for the benefit of policy makers and decision takers to try to achieve risk reduction in totality. The basis for risk-based radiation dose limits is derived from epidemiological studies, which provide a rich source of data largely unavailable to chemical risk assessors. In addition, use of the principle of optimization as expressed in the ALARA concept has resulted in a safety culture, which is much more than just complying with stipulated limits. The conservative hypothesis of no-threshold dose-effect relation (ICRP) is universally assumed. The end-points and the severity of different classes of pollutants and even different pollutants in a same class vary over a wide range. Hence, it is difficult to arrive at a quantitative value for the net detriment that weighs the various types of end-points and various classes of pollutants. Once the risk due to other pollutants is quantified by some acceptable methodology, it can be expressed in terms of the Risk Equivalent Radiation Dose (R.E.R.D.) for easy comparison with options involving radiation exposure. This paper is an effort to use to quantify and present the risk due to exposure to chemicals and radiation in a common scale for the purpose of easy comparison to facilitate decision taking. (authors)

  4. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista; Masiello, Caroline A; Dugan, Brandon; Toselli, Moreno

    2016-09-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30tha(-1). We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρs) and envelope (ρe) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0-5nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over short (~years) timescales. PMID

  5. Setting Occupational Exposure Limits for Chemical Allergens—Understanding the Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Dotson, G. S.; Maier, A.; Siegel, P. D.; Anderson, S E; Green, B.J.; Stefaniak, A. B.; Codispoti, C. D.; Kimber, I.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical allergens represent a significant health burden in the workplace. Exposures to such chemicals can cause the onset of a diverse group of adverse health effects triggered by immune-mediated responses. Common responses associated with workplace exposures to low molecular weight (LMW) chemical allergens range from allergic contact dermatitis to life-threatening cases of asthma. Establishing occupational exposure limits (OELs) for chemical allergens presents numerous difficulties for occu...

  6. Abnormalities in eelpout Zoarces viviparus upon chemical exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Korsgaard, Bodil; Dahllöf, Ingela; Strand, Jakob; Tairova, Zhanna; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2013-12-01

    Elevated frequencies of abnormal embryos in female eelpout Zoarces viviparus have been demonstrated in Danish, Swedish and German monitoring programmes at certain geographic locations with high levels of anthropogenic input. Pollutants present in areas with high malformation frequencies were selected and tested in a controlled laboratory experiment for their potential to induce abnormalities among eelpout embryos upon injection into pregnant eelpout. Tributyltin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, pyrene, nonylphenol, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromophenylether and heptadecafluorooctanesulfonic acid were tested, either individually or combined. Generally, the chemicals were transferred to eggs and/or embryos. Some of the exposures increased the proportion of broods with more than 10% abnormal or 5% malformed embryos, although the average percentages of abnormal development were not affected. Spinal, cranial and eye deformities were evident, similarly to what is seen in nature. Some of the exposures resulted in increased percentages of females with as well a low reproductive capacity as embryos with a low condition index.

  7. Exploring consumer exposure pathways and patterns of use for chemicals in the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Kathie L.; Frame, Alicia M.; Goldsmith, Michael-Rock;

    2015-01-01

    are provided, including identifying chemicals to which children may be exposed and to support prioritization of chemicals for toxicity screening. CPCat is expected to be a valuable resource for regulators, risk assessors, and exposure scientists to identify potential sources of human exposures and exposure......Humans are exposed to thousands of chemicals in the workplace, home, and via air, water, food, and soil. A major challenge in estimating chemical exposures is to understand which chemicals are present in these media and microenvironments. Here we describe the Chemical/Product Categories Database...... (CPCat), a new, publically available (http://actor.epa.gov/cpcat) database of information on chemicals mapped to “use categories” describing the usage or function of the chemical. CPCat was created by combining multiple and diverse sources of data on consumer- and industrial-process based chemical uses...

  8. The Relationship between Vibrotactile Perception and Chemical Exposure among Vehicle Service Technicians in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsul Bahri MOHD TAMRIN; Nurul Ain ZALI; Karmegam KARUPPIAH

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hazardous chemicals, which give detrimental effect to the central nervous system, are widely used in the vehicle services industry. The use of Vibrotactile Perception Threshold (VPT) as a screening tool for chemical exposure is new in developing country such as Malaysia. Therefore, this study determined the relationship between VPT and chemical exposure among vehicle service technicians in Klang Valley.Methods: Chemical Health Risk Assessment (CHRA) was conducted in 2014 at Klang ...

  9. Epigenome: A Biomarker or Screening Tool to Evaluate Health Impact of Cumulative Exposure to Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Kenneth; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Bussard, David

    2016-06-01

    Current risk assessment practices and toxicity information are hard to utilize for assessing the health impact of combined or cumulative exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors encountered in the "real world" environment. Non-chemical stressors such as heat, radiation, noise, humidity, bacterial and viral agents, and social factors, like stress related to violence and socioeconomic position generally cannot be currently incorporated into the risk assessment paradigm. The Science and Decisions report released by the National Research Council (NRC) in 2009 emphasized the need to characterize the effects of multiple stressors, both chemical and non-chemical exposures. One impediment to developing information relating such non-chemical stressors to health effects and incorporating them into cumulative assessment has been the lack of analytical tools to easily and quantitatively monitor the cumulative exposure to combined effects of stressors over the life course.

  10. Epigenome: A Biomarker or Screening Tool to Evaluate Health Impact of Cumulative Exposure to Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Kenneth; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Bussard, David

    2016-06-01

    Current risk assessment practices and toxicity information are hard to utilize for assessing the health impact of combined or cumulative exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors encountered in the "real world" environment. Non-chemical stressors such as heat, radiation, noise, humidity, bacterial and viral agents, and social factors, like stress related to violence and socioeconomic position generally cannot be currently incorporated into the risk assessment paradigm. The Science and Decisions report released by the National Research Council (NRC) in 2009 emphasized the need to characterize the effects of multiple stressors, both chemical and non-chemical exposures. One impediment to developing information relating such non-chemical stressors to health effects and incorporating them into cumulative assessment has been the lack of analytical tools to easily and quantitatively monitor the cumulative exposure to combined effects of stressors over the life course. PMID:27534725

  11. Exploring consumer exposure pathways and patterns of use for chemicals in the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dionisio, Kathie L; Frame, Alicia M; Goldsmith, Michael-Rock; Wambaugh, John F; Liddell, Alan; Cathey, Tommy; Smith, Doris; Vail, James; Ernstoff, Alexi; Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier; Judson, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are exposed to thousands of chemicals in the workplace, home, and via air, water, food, and soil. A major challenge in estimating chemical exposures is to understand which chemicals are present in these media and microenvironments. Here we describe the Chemical/Product Categories Database (CPCat), a new, publically available (http://actor.epa.gov/cpcat) database of information on chemicals mapped to “use categories” describing the usage or function of the chemical. CPCat was created by...

  12. Developing, Applying, and Evaluating Models for Rapid Screening of Chemical Exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnot, J.; Shin, H.; Ernstoff, Alexi;

    2015-01-01

    to limited exposure data there is limited information on chemical use patterns and production and emission quantities. These data gaps require the application of mass balance, statistical and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models to predict exposure and exposure potential for humans...

  13. Occupational Chemical Exposures Among Cosmetologists: Risk of Reproductive Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Victoria M; Powers, Martha; Liu, Jianghong

    2013-01-01

    More research is needed to understand possible occupational reproductive risks for cosmetologists, specifically hairdressers and nail technicians, two occupations that often share workspace and exposure to hair dyes and nail polish. Cosmetologists are predominantly females of reproductive age; thus, they may be at higher risk for the effects of exposure to reproductive toxins. The purpose of this article is to inform nurses and public health professionals about occupational exposures for cosm...

  14. Sources of toxicity and exposure information for identifying chemicals of high concern to children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the large number of chemicals in commerce without adequate toxicity characterization data, coupled with an ineffective federal policy for chemical management in the United States, many states are grappling with the challenge to identify toxic chemicals that may pose a risk to human health and the environment. Specific populations (e.g., children, elderly) are particularly sensitive to these toxic chemicals. In 2008, the Children's Safe Product Act (CSPA) was passed in Washington State. The CSPA included specific requirements to identify High Priority Chemicals (HPCs) and Chemicals of High Concern to Children (CHCCs). To implement this legislation, a methodology was developed to identify HPCs from authoritative scientific and regulatory sources on the basis of toxicity criteria. Another set of chemicals of concern was then identified from authoritative sources, based on their potential exposure to children. Exposure potential was evaluated by identifying chemicals detected in biomonitoring studies (i.e., human tissues), as well as those present in residential exposure media (e.g., indoor air, house dust, drinking water, consumer products). Accordingly, CHCCs were defined as HPCs that also appear in biomonitoring studies or relevant exposure media. For chemicals with unique Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) numbers, we identified 2044 HPCs and 2219 chemicals with potential exposure to children, resulting in 476 CHCCs. The process of chemical identification is dynamic, so that chemicals may be added or subtracted as new information becomes available. Although beyond the scope of this paper, the 476 CHCCs will be prioritized in a more detailed assessment, based on the strength and weight of evidence of toxicity and exposure data. Our approach was developed to be flexible which allows the addition or removal of specific sources of toxicity or exposure information, as well as transparent to allow clear identification of inputs. Although the methodology was

  15. Immune effects of respiratory exposure to fragrance chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Ezendam J; de Klerk A; Cassee FR; Fokkens PHB; van der Zee Park M; van Loveren H; Jong WH de; GBO

    2007-01-01

    Inhalation of the fragrance chemicals, isoeugenol and cinnamal, by mice resulted in immune reactions in the respiratory tract. This was observed in experiments performed by the RIVM (National Institute for Public Health and the Enviroment) of which results indicate that inhalation of some fragrance chemicals could induce unwanted effects on the immune system. Fragrance chemicals are common ingredients in such consumer products as cosmetics and scented products. Several fragrance chemicals are...

  16. Protecting Children from Chemical Exposure: Social Work and U.S. Social Welfare Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Mary E.; Combs-Orme, Terri

    2003-01-01

    Defines chemical contamination and reviews data regarding the ubiquity of toxic chemicals. Describes major risk pathways to fetuses and children at different developmental stages and discusses evidence regarding exposure and harm to children from chemical contamination. Reviews the roles for social workers in protecting current and future…

  17. Proceedings of the 1. Arabic conference on chemical applications (Chemia 2). Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference of chemical application was held on 1-5 Nov 1997 in Cairo, This vol.2 contains of chemical application on nuclear materials. Studies on these vol.This second volume covers papers presented on the subjects

  18. High-throughput exposure modeling to support prioritization of chemicals in personal care products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csiszar, Susan A.; Ernstoff, Alexi; Fantke, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of a high-throughput modeling framework to estimate exposure to chemicals used in personal care products (PCPs). As a basis for estimating exposure, we use the product intake fraction (PiF), defined as the mass of chemical taken by an individual or population per mass...... intakes were associated with body lotion. Bioactive doses derived from high-throughput in vitro toxicity data were combined with the estimated PiFs to demonstrate an approach to estimate bioactive equivalent chemical content and to screen chemicals for risk....

  19. Autoantibodies associated with prenatal and childhood exposure to environmental chemicals in faroese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osuna, Christa E; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pál;

    2014-01-01

    to both neural (neurofilaments, cholineacetyltransferase, astrocyte glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein) and non-neural (actin, desmin, and keratin) antigens were measured and the associations of these autoantibody concentrations with chemical exposures were assessed using linear...

  20. Advancing Exposure Science through Chemical Data Curation and Integration in the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, Cynthia J.; Davis, Allan Peter; Wiegers, Thomas C.; King, Benjamin L.; Wiegers, Jolene A.; Reif, David M.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Mattingly, Carolyn J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure science studies the interactions and outcomes between environmental stressors and human or ecological receptors. To augment its role in understanding human health and the exposome, we aimed to centralize and integrate exposure science data into the broader biological framework of the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD), a public resource that promotes understanding of environmental chemicals and their effects on human health. Objectives: We integrated exposure data within the CTD to provide a centralized, freely available resource that facilitates identification of connections between real-world exposures, chemicals, genes/proteins, diseases, biological processes, and molecular pathways. Methods: We developed a manual curation paradigm that captures exposure data from the scientific literature using controlled vocabularies and free text within the context of four primary exposure concepts: stressor, receptor, exposure event, and exposure outcome. Using data from the Agricultural Health Study, we have illustrated the benefits of both centralization and integration of exposure information with CTD core data. Results: We have described our curation process, demonstrated how exposure data can be accessed and analyzed in the CTD, and shown how this integration provides a broad biological context for exposure data to promote mechanistic understanding of environmental influences on human health. Conclusions: Curation and integration of exposure data within the CTD provides researchers with new opportunities to correlate exposures with human health outcomes, to identify underlying potential molecular mechanisms, and to improve understanding about the exposome. Citation: Grondin CJ, Davis AP, Wiegers TC, King BL, Wiegers JA, Reif DM, Hoppin JA, Mattingly CJ. 2016. Advancing exposure science through chemical data curation and integration in the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database. Environ Health Perspect 124:1592–1599; http://dx.doi.org/10

  1. Neurodevelopmental toxicity risks due to occupational exposure to industrial chemicals during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julvez, Jordi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to neurotoxic chemicals is of particular concern when it occurs during early development. The immature brain is highly vulnerable prenatally and is therefore at risk due to occupational exposures incurred by pregnant women. A systematic search of the literature has been performed with em...

  2. A narrative review of secondary hazards in hospitals from cases of chemical self-poisoning and chemical exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Evans, James L; Sharman, Andrew; Isaac, James

    2013-10-01

    Secondary hazards are an important consideration when dealing with both self-poisoned and chemically contaminated patients. Secondary exposure of hospital staff following the admission of a poisoned patient is relatively rare but potentially serious. Risks usually arise from chemical conversion of a deliberately ingested toxic substance and subsequent offgassing, but there may be toxic substances on the victim or their clothing. Surface contamination is a more common concern in cases where patients have been exposed to chemical releases. This paper presents a narrative review that considers some of the more commonly encountered toxic chemicals and situations that may present secondary hazards in hospitals. Risks to staff can be lowered by reducing the potential for, and duration of, exposure wherever possible. Good communication with the first responders at the scene, consultation with experts, decontamination and use of personal protective equipment, together with regular training, can minimize risks in the hospital environment.

  3. Proposed Occupational Exposure Limits for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poet, Torka S.; Timchalk, Chuck

    2006-03-24

    A large number of volatile chemicals have been identified in the headspaces of tanks used to store mixed chemical and radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, and there is concern that vapor releases from the tanks may be hazardous to workers. Contractually established occupational exposure limits (OELs) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) do not exist for all chemicals of interest. To address the need for worker exposure guidelines for those chemicals that lack OSHA or ACGIH OELs, a procedure for assigning Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for Hanford Site tank farm workers has been developed and applied to a selected group of 57 headspace chemicals.

  4. Multi-pathway exposure modeling of chemicals in cosmetics with application to shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstoff, Alexi S; Fantke, Peter; Csiszar, Susan A; Henderson, Andrew D; Chung, Susie; Jolliet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel multi-pathway, mass balance based, fate and exposure model compatible with life cycle and high-throughput screening assessments of chemicals in cosmetic products. The exposures through product use as well as post-use emissions and environmental media were quantified based on the chemical mass originally applied via a product, multiplied by the product intake fractions (PiF, the fraction of a chemical in a product that is taken in by exposed persons) to yield intake rates. The average PiFs for the evaluated chemicals in shampoo ranged from 3×10(-4) up to 0.3 for rapidly absorbed ingredients. Average intake rates ranged between nano- and micrograms per kilogram bodyweight per day; the order of chemical prioritization was strongly affected by the ingredient concentration in shampoo. Dermal intake and inhalation (for 20% of the evaluated chemicals) during use dominated exposure, while the skin permeation coefficient dominated the estimated uncertainties. The fraction of chemical taken in by a shampoo user often exceeded, by orders of magnitude, the aggregated fraction taken in by the population through post-use environmental emissions. Chemicals with relatively high octanol-water partitioning and/or volatility, and low molecular weight tended to have higher use stage exposure. Chemicals with low intakes during use (<1%) and subsequent high post-use emissions, however, may yield comparable intake for a member of the general population. The presented PiF based framework offers a novel and critical advancement for life cycle assessments and high-throughput exposure screening of chemicals in cosmetic products demonstrating the importance of consistent consideration of near- and far-field multi-pathway exposures. PMID:27062422

  5. Multi-pathway exposure modeling of chemicals in cosmetics with application to shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstoff, Alexi S; Fantke, Peter; Csiszar, Susan A; Henderson, Andrew D; Chung, Susie; Jolliet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel multi-pathway, mass balance based, fate and exposure model compatible with life cycle and high-throughput screening assessments of chemicals in cosmetic products. The exposures through product use as well as post-use emissions and environmental media were quantified based on the chemical mass originally applied via a product, multiplied by the product intake fractions (PiF, the fraction of a chemical in a product that is taken in by exposed persons) to yield intake rates. The average PiFs for the evaluated chemicals in shampoo ranged from 3×10(-4) up to 0.3 for rapidly absorbed ingredients. Average intake rates ranged between nano- and micrograms per kilogram bodyweight per day; the order of chemical prioritization was strongly affected by the ingredient concentration in shampoo. Dermal intake and inhalation (for 20% of the evaluated chemicals) during use dominated exposure, while the skin permeation coefficient dominated the estimated uncertainties. The fraction of chemical taken in by a shampoo user often exceeded, by orders of magnitude, the aggregated fraction taken in by the population through post-use environmental emissions. Chemicals with relatively high octanol-water partitioning and/or volatility, and low molecular weight tended to have higher use stage exposure. Chemicals with low intakes during use (<1%) and subsequent high post-use emissions, however, may yield comparable intake for a member of the general population. The presented PiF based framework offers a novel and critical advancement for life cycle assessments and high-throughput exposure screening of chemicals in cosmetic products demonstrating the importance of consistent consideration of near- and far-field multi-pathway exposures.

  6. Identification of a chemical marker of environmental exposure to formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carraro, E.; Gasparini, S.; Gilli, G. [Univ. of Turin, (Italy). Dept. of Public Health and Microbiology

    1999-02-01

    Formaldehyde (F) binds human serum albumin (HSA) covalently, giving rise to a molecular adduct F-HSA having the F as hapten. The humoral immune response to the adduct provides a biological marker of F exposure. In order to titrate serum anti-F-HSA antibodies, a new indirect competitive enzyme immunoassay was developed. Two groups of about 90 heterogeneous healthy subjects were examined using two in vitro conjugated F-HSA. Contingency table analysis showed a greater sensitivity and specificity of the test with the 10:1 F-HSA adduct than with the 5:1. Data examination using multivariate analysis of variance revealed that in both groups the smoking variable significantly explains the values of the F exposure marker. A significant association with immunological response was obtained only in male smokers, using 5:1 F-HSA adduct, while with 10:1 ratio, a good association in male and female smokers was found. Results confirm that the immunological assay developed could be a useful method for evaluating F exposure, especially for public health monitoring on a large scale.

  7. Prenatal exposures to perfluorinated chemicals and anthropometric measures in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Camilla Schou; Fei, Chunyuan; Gamborg, Michael;

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are persistent chemicals that may affect growth early in life. The authors estimated the associations between maternal plasma levels of PFOS and PFOA and infants' weight, length, and body mass index development during the first year of...

  8. Proceedings of the DOE chemical energy storage and hydrogen energy systems contracts review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    Sessions were held on electrolysis-based hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen production, hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen storage materials, end-use applications and system studies, chemical heat pump/chemical energy storage systems, systems studies and assessment, thermochemical hydrogen production cycles, advanced production concepts, and containment materials. (LHK)

  9. Proceedings of the 1. Arabic conference on chemical applications (Chemia 2). Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1. Arabic conference on chemical applications was held on 1-5 Nov 1997 in Cairo. The specialists discussed the chemical applications for environmental service. This first volume covers papers presented on the subjects environmental protection of pollution, nuclear materials and environment, nuclear materials and industry

  10. 76 FR 25376 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... Laboratories'' (29 CFR 1910.1450; the ``Standard'') applies to laboratories that use hazardous chemicals in accordance with the Standard's definitions for ``laboratory use of hazardous chemicals'' and ``laboratory scale.'' The Standard requires these laboratories to maintain worker exposures at or below...

  11. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Office of pesticides programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenner-Crisp, P. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Pesticide Programs is trying to develop a complete picture of a chemical`s toxicity and exposure profile. It is also important to share information in the office`s files because of pesticides, particularly as a consequence of agricultural use, find their way into places not necessarily intended.

  12. Proceedings of the 4. European Workshop on Occupational Exposure Management at NPPs (ISOE '04)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European ISOE Technical Centre co-organised with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Fourth European ISOE Workshop on Occupational Exposure at Nuclear Power Plants in March 2004, at Lyon, France. 190 participants from 26 countries, European (all countries from western and central Europe with nuclear power plants), American (Canada and United States) and Asian (China, Japan, Korea) attended the meeting with a good balance between utilities, regulatory bodies and contractors. The IAEA supported participants from Central and Eastern European countries as well as from Eastern Asia. The workshop allowed 35 oral presentations and 28 posters presentations to be provided. A very informative exhibition was held by vendors and allowed participants to know more about their products during the coffee-breaks. All participants were split into small groups devoted to 10 pre-selected themes. Each group met twice and reached recommendations. Three papers were awarded during the workshop: - 'ALARA versus reactor safety concern - a practical case' by S. Hennigor and B. Oegren; - 'Recent international developments on contamination limits on packages' by J. Hesse and B. Lorenz; - 'Advantages of combining gamma scanning techniques and 3D dose simulation in dose optimisation problems; by F. Vermeersch. Five main recommendations were agreed on by the participants: 1. There is a need for harmonizing regulations in order to maintain a high status of radiological protection at an international level in a deregulated context; 2. The regulatory bodies should also harmonize the contents of training, particularly in the context of workforce ageing; 3. The international organisations and regulatory bodies should take the lead to harmonize at the international level a dose passport for itinerant workers; 4. Radiological protection indicators should be selected to help in optimising doses, provide indication for continuous improvement, estimate the effectiveness of radiological

  13. Proceedings of the 4. European Workshop on Occupational Exposure Management at NPPs (ISOE '04)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ascenzo, Lucie [ISOE ETC - CEPN, BP 48, 92263 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France)

    2004-07-01

    The European ISOE Technical Centre co-organised with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Fourth European ISOE Workshop on Occupational Exposure at Nuclear Power Plants in March 2004, at Lyon, France. 190 participants from 26 countries, European (all countries from western and central Europe with nuclear power plants), American (Canada and United States) and Asian (China, Japan, Korea) attended the meeting with a good balance between utilities, regulatory bodies and contractors. The IAEA supported participants from Central and Eastern European countries as well as from Eastern Asia. The workshop allowed 35 oral presentations and 28 posters presentations to be provided. A very informative exhibition was held by vendors and allowed participants to know more about their products during the coffee-breaks. All participants were split into small groups devoted to 10 pre-selected themes. Each group met twice and reached recommendations. Three papers were awarded during the workshop: - 'ALARA versus reactor safety concern - a practical case' by S. Hennigor and B. Oegren; - 'Recent international developments on contamination limits on packages' by J. Hesse and B. Lorenz; - 'Advantages of combining gamma scanning techniques and 3D dose simulation in dose optimisation problems; by F. Vermeersch. Five main recommendations were agreed on by the participants: 1. There is a need for harmonizing regulations in order to maintain a high status of radiological protection at an international level in a deregulated context; 2. The regulatory bodies should also harmonize the contents of training, particularly in the context of workforce ageing; 3. The international organisations and regulatory bodies should take the lead to harmonize at the international level a dose passport for itinerant workers; 4. Radiological protection indicators should be selected to help in optimising doses, provide indication for continuous improvement, estimate the effectiveness

  14. Chemical exposure as etiology in developmental origin of adult onset human cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Vähäkangas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical exposures are in principle preventable causes of cancer. People are exposed to chemicals already during fetal period and the possibility of disturbances in human development by chemical compounds leading to cancer later in life has been proven by diethylstilbestrol. Involved mechanisms most probably include epigenetic modifications of promoter regions of key genes. The world-wide increases in cancer incidence and concurrent increase in the number and quantity of chemicals in the environment raises concerns about a link between these two. Developmental origin and related mechanisms in chemically-induced human cancer are worth pursuing.

  15. International Frameworks Dealing with Human Risk Assessment of Combined Exposure to Multiple Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of harmonised terminology and frameworks for the human risk assessment of combined exposure to multiple chemicals (“chemical mixtures” is an important area for EFSA and a number of activities have already been undertaken, i.e. in the fields of pesticides and contaminants. The first step prior to a risk assessment of combined exposure to multiple chemicals is problem formulation defining the relevant exposure, hazard and population to be considered. In practice, risk assessment of multiple chemicals is conducted using a tiered approach for exposure assessment, hazard assessment and risk characterisation. Higher tiers require increasing knowledge about the group of chemicals under assessment and the tiers can range from tier 0 (default values, data poor situation to tier 3 (full probabilistic models. This scientific report reviews the terminology, methodologies and frameworks developed by national and international agencies for the human risk assessment of combined exposure to multiple chemicals and provides recommendations for future activities at EFSA in this area.

  16. Perinatal exposure to mixtures of anti-androgenic chemicals causes proliferative lesions in rat prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Hadrup, Niels;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of endogenous or exogenous estrogens during fetal life can induce permanent disturbances in prostate growth and predispose to precancerous lesions. Recent studies have indicated that also early anti-androgen exposure may affect prostate cancer risk. METHODS: We examined...... disrupters relevant for human exposure was found to elicit persistent effects on the rat prostate following perinatal exposure, suggesting that human perinatal exposure to environmental chemicals may increase the risk of prostate cancer later in life. Prostate....... the influence of perinatal exposure to mixtures of anti-androgenic and estrogenic chemicals on prostate development. Wistar rats were exposed from gestation day 7 to postnatal day 22 to a mixture of 8 anti-androgenic compounds (AAMix), a mixture of four estrogenic compounds (EMix), or paracetamol or a mixture...

  17. Coupled near-field and far-field exposure assessment framework for chemicals in consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Ernstoff, Alexi; Huang, Lei;

    2016-01-01

    Humans can be exposed to chemicals in consumer products through product use and environmental emissions over the product life cycle. Exposure pathways are often complex, where chemicals can transfer directly from products to humans during use or exchange between various indoor and outdoor...... and efficient way to rapidly compare exposure pathways for adult and child users and for the general population. This framework constitutes a user-friendly approach to develop, compare and interpret multiple human exposure scenarios in a coupled system of near-field ('user' environment), far-field and human...... intake compartments, and helps understand the contribution of individual pathways to overall human exposure in various product application contexts to inform decisions in different science-policy fields for which exposure quantification is relevant....

  18. Quantitative Exposure Assessment of Various Chemical Substances in a Wafer Fabrication Industry Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyunhee; Jang, Jae-Kil; Shin, Jung-Ah

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to evaluate exposure levels of various chemicals used in wafer fabrication product lines in the semiconductor industry where work-related leukemia has occurred. Methods The research focused on 9 representative wafer fabrication bays among a total of 25 bays in a semiconductor product line. We monitored the chemical substances categorized as human carcinogens with respect to leukemia as well as harmful chemicals used in the bays and substances with hematologi...

  19. Association between chemical pattern in breast milk and congenital cryptorchidism: modelling of complex human exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krysiak-Baltyn, Konrad; Toppari, J.; Skakkebaek, N. E.;

    2012-01-01

    in 130 breast milk samples from Danish and Finnish mothers. Half the newborns were healthy controls, whereas the other half was boys with congenital cryptorchidism. The measured chemicals included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl‐ethers, dioxins (OCDD/PCDFs), phthalates...... been too rapid to be explained by genetics alone. To study the association between complex chemical exposures of humans and congenital cryptorchidism, the most common malformation of the male genitalia, we measured 121 environmental chemicals with suspected or known endocrine disrupting properties...

  20. Human exposures to volatile halogenated organic chemicals in indoor and outdoor air.

    OpenAIRE

    Andelman, J B

    1985-01-01

    Volatile halogenated organic chemicals are found in indoor and outdoor air, often at concentrations substantially above those in remote, unpopulated areas. The outdoor ambient concentrations vary considerably among sampling stations throughout the United States, as well as diurnally and daily. The vapor pressures and air-water equilibrium (Henry's Law) constants of these chemicals influence considerably the likely relative human exposures for the air and water routes. Volatilization of chemic...

  1. Incorporating Health Impacts from Exposure to Chemicals in Food Packaging in LCA

    OpenAIRE

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Trier, Xenia; Jolliet, Oliver; Fantke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Life cycle assessments (LCA) on the environmental and public health impacts of food and beverage packaging materials have found some advantages to plastic over glass. Entirely missing from these evaluations are the health impacts of possible chemical, e.g. endocrine dis-ruptor, exposure through migration of chemicals from the packaging into the food product. We build a framework based on a life cycle perspective to predict which chemicals may be in a package that are not intentionally added i...

  2. Chemical Effects of Nuclear Transformations. Vol. II. Proceedings of the Symposium on Chemical Effects Associated with Nuclear Reactions and Radioactive Transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the chemical changes consequent upon the nuclear transformation of an atom that is linked with other atoms in a molecule and surrounded by other similar or dissimilar molecules has intrigued chemists for a number of years. This interest is certainly not static but if anything is increasing. The main theme of this meeting was a discussion of the suggestions and theories that have been advanced to explain the wealth of experimental observations on the behaviour of atoms at energies and in situations not normally accessible in the laboratory. Though the subject has some practical implications in the preparation of radioisotopes, this was not an important consideration at this Symposium. The first Symposium on hot-atom chemistry organized by the Agency was held in Prague in October 1960. Comparison of the past and the present state of the subject shows that a greater variety and sophistication of techniques are now being applied as the simpler approaches used in the past have been shown to be inadequate. Progress has been made in the understanding of the simpler gas system, but in liquids and solids there is still much to clarify. It is also of interest that for the majority of the work reported in these Proceedings a reactor was the radiation source, and in this field much experimental work still remains to be done. The Symposium on Chemical Effects Associated with Nuclear Reactions and Radioactive Transformations was held from 7 to 11 December 1964 in Vienna, and was attended by 136 participants from 29 countries and 4 international organizations. It was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency in co-operation with the Joint Commission on Applied Radioactivity. The publication of these Proceedings makes the content of the papers and discussion available to a wider audience than was possible at the meeting in Vienna

  3. Chemical Effects of Nuclear Transformations Vol. I. Proceedings of the Symposium on Chemical Effects Associated with Nuclear Reactions and Radioactive Transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the chemical changes consequent upon the nuclear transformation of an atom that is linked with other atoms in a molecule and surrounded by other similar or dissimilar molecules has intrigued chemists for a number of years. This interest is certainly not static but if anything is increasing. The main theme of this meeting was a discussion of the suggestions and theories that have been advanced to explain the wealth of experimental observations on the behaviour of atoms at energies and in situations not normally accessible in the laboratory. Though the subject has some practical implications in the preparation of radioisotopes, this was not an important consideration at this Symposium. The first Symposium on hot-atom chemistry organized by the Agency was held in Prague in October 1960. Comparison of the past and the present state of the subject shows that a greater variety and sophistication of techniques are now being applied as the simpler approaches used in the past have been shown to be inadequate. Progress has been made in the understanding of the simpler gas system, but in liquids and solids there is still much to clarify. It is also of interest that for the majority of the work reported in these Proceedings a reactor was the radiation source, and in this field much experimental work still remains to be done. The Symposium on Chemical Effects Associated with Nuclear Reactions and Radioactive Transformations was held from 7 to 11 December 1964 in Vienna, and was attended by 136 participants from 29 countries and 4 international organizations. It was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency in co-operation with the Joint Commission on Applied Radioactivity. The publication of these Proceedings makes the content of the papers and discussion available to a wider audience than was possible at the meeting in Vienna

  4. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and neurodevelopmental alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, A; Bourguignon, J P; Parent, A S

    2016-07-01

    The developing brain is remarkably malleable as neural circuits are formed and these circuits are strongly dependent on hormones for their development. For those reasons, the brain is very vulnerable to the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during critical periods of development. This review focuses on three ubiquitous endocrine disruptors that are known to disrupt the thyroid function and are associated with neurobehavioral deficits: polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and bisphenol A. The human and rodent data suggesting effects of those EDCs on memory, cognition, and social behavior are discussed. Their mechanisms of action go beyond relative hypothyroidism with effects on neurotransmitter release and calcium signaling. PMID:27285165

  5. Knowledge of Occupational Chemical Exposure and Smoking Behavior in Korean Immigrant Drycleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Dal Lae; Duffy, Sonia A; Hong, OiSaeng

    2016-02-01

    To examine the association between knowledge of chemical exposure at work and cigarette smoking among Korean immigrant drycleaners. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a total of 151 Korean immigrant drycleaners (mean age = 49 years, 64 % male) from 96 drycleaning shops in a Midwestern state. The data were collected on demographic and work-related characteristics, knowledge of occupational chemical exposure, health concerns associated with chemical exposure, and smoking status. Approximately 25 % of participants were current smokers. The multivariate regression showed that greater knowledge of occupational chemical exposures was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of current smoking [odds ratio (OR) .63; 95 % confidence interval (CI) .41-.95]. Furthermore, male gender (OR 6.32; 95 % CI 1.66-24.00), shorter-term residence in the US (OR .93; 95 % CI .88-.98), and having multiple duties (OR 2.76; 95 % CI 1.01-7.51) were important covariates associated with current smoking among Korean immigrant drycleaners. Knowledge on occupational chemical exposure was significantly associated with smoking among Korean immigrant drycleaners. Smoking cessation programs for this population should consider integrated approaches that incorporate work environment factors into individual and sociocultural components.

  6. Incorporating Health Impacts from Exposure to Chemicals in Food Packaging in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Trier, Xenia; Jolliet, Oliver;

    2014-01-01

    Life cycle assessments (LCA) on the environmental and public health impacts of food and beverage packaging materials have found some advantages to plastic over glass. Entirely missing from these evaluations are the health impacts of possible chemical, e.g. endocrine dis-ruptor, exposure through...... migration of chemicals from the packaging into the food product. We build a framework based on a life cycle perspective to predict which chemicals may be in a package that are not intentionally added ingredients, and we apply this approach to the US EPA’s CPCAT database. In total we find 1,154 chemicals...... within the CPCAT database related to food-contact materials; out of these 107 are potential endocrine disruptors according to the TEDX list of endocrine disruptors. We also build a framework in an effort to begin harmonizing LCA to include health impacts of chemical exposure related to food packaging...

  7. Co-exposure with fullerene may strengthen health effects of organic industrial chemicals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maili Lehto

    Full Text Available In vitro toxicological studies together with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations show that occupational co-exposure with C60 fullerene may strengthen the health effects of organic industrial chemicals. The chemicals studied are acetophenone, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, m-cresol, and toluene which can be used with fullerene as reagents or solvents in industrial processes. Potential co-exposure scenarios include a fullerene dust and organic chemical vapor, or a fullerene solution aerosolized in workplace air. Unfiltered and filtered mixtures of C60 and organic chemicals represent different co-exposure scenarios in in vitro studies where acute cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of C60 and organic chemicals are tested together and alone by using human THP-1-derived macrophages. Statistically significant co-effects are observed for an unfiltered mixture of benzaldehyde and C60 that is more cytotoxic than benzaldehyde alone, and for a filtered mixture of m-cresol and C60 that is slightly less cytotoxic than m-cresol. Hydrophobicity of chemicals correlates with co-effects when secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α is considered. Complementary atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveal that C60 co-aggregates with all chemicals in aqueous environment. Stable aggregates have a fullerene-rich core and a chemical-rich surface layer, and while essentially all C60 molecules aggregate together, a portion of organic molecules remains in water.

  8. The Relationship between Vibrotactile Perception and Chemical Exposure among Vehicle Service Technicians in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsul Bahri MOHD TAMRIN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hazardous chemicals, which give detrimental effect to the central nervous system, are widely used in the vehicle services industry. The use of Vibrotactile Perception Threshold (VPT as a screening tool for chemical exposure is new in developing country such as Malaysia. Therefore, this study determined the relationship between VPT and chemical exposure among vehicle service technicians in Klang Valley.Methods: Chemical Health Risk Assessment (CHRA was conducted in 2014 at Klang Valley Vehicle Service Centers among the technicians using the method from Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH Malaysia. HavLab Tactile Vibrometer, UK was used to determine the VPT at the fingertip for the assessment peripheral nerve impairment. Questionnaires were used to obtain the respondents’ background.Results: Results showed the Log VPT 31.5Hz & 125Hz for workers exposed to chemicals was significantly higher compared to the non-exposed workers (31.5Hz: T=4.776 (P<0.001, 125Hz: T=4.775(P<0.001. There was significant relationship between VPT at Log 31.5Hz, Log 125Hz and overall VPT with diesel, mixture of gasoline and benzene, gasoline only, and the use of personal protective equipment.Conclusion: The overall VPT model demonstrated that the exposure to an organic solvent and the usage of PPE contributed to vibro tactile threshold among vehicle service technicians in Malaysia. Keywords: Chemical exposure, VPT, Vehicle service technicians

  9. Functional status of liverin conditions of radiation and chemical exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Severynovs’ka

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic influences of low-intensity X-rays in doses of 0.15 and 0.25 Gr and mix of heavy metals salts in a dose of 2 EPC (extreme permissible concentrations for each metal, as a single factor or as a combination of factors, on the state of pro-/antioxidative system in a rat liver have been studied. Analysis of the data concerning combined influences allows to conclude that effects under these doses have some differences: a splash of processes of lipid peroxidation are observed in both causes, but under the lower dose an additivity takes place, and under the dose of 0.25 Gr a synergism of the agent effects in relation to the development of peroxidative reactions is registered. The results testify that technogenic contamination of water with heavy metals worsens the action of radiation factor, specifically, eliminates a hormetic splash of antioxidative activity at 0.15 Gr. Biochemical indexes of the liver activity, as a central organ of a general metabolism, and a structure of morbidity have been studied in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident from industrial Prydnieprovie region. Disturbances of liver functions have been shown, especially in persons obtained the exposure dose about 0.25 Gr. A comparison of these results and data of tests with laboratory animals reveals their mutual accordance and supports a relevancy of extrapolation of data of model experiments on a person health state, which undergone a similar influence.

  10. Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Govarts

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced gender specific effects. In girls, the effect estimate was doubled with co-exposure of thallium, PFOS, lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury, while in boys, the mixture of MECPP with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures.

  11. Determinants of exposure to chemical pollutants in wet X-ray film processing in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakooei, Hossein; Ardakani, Mehdi B; Sadighi, Alireza

    2007-07-15

    The aim of the current study was to measure glutaraldehyde, acetic acid and sulfur dioxide and levels inside wet x-ray processing areas in a developing country and comparing data with those in developed countries. Forty-five radiographers from 10 educational hospitals affiliated to the Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) in Tehran, Iran participated in this descriptive-analytical study. Exposure to glutaraldehyde (a constituent of developer chemistry), acetic acid (a constituent of fixer chemistry) and sulfur dioxide (a byproduct of sulfites present in both developer and fixer solutions) was measured in all participants as well as area exposure. Average full-shift exposure to glutaraldehyde, acetic acid and sulfur dioxide were 0.0018, 2.65 and 1.64 mg m(-1), respectively. The results showed that the TUMS radiographers full-shift exposures are generally lower than the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) recommended levels. The concentration of glutaraldehyde collected by area sampling (darkroom) was almost five times (0.0104 mg m(-3)) greater than taken by personal sampling. Exposure to the chemical pollutants in the currents study were generally higher than in developed countries. Identification of these key exposure determinants is useful in targeting exposure evaluation and controls to reduce developer and fixer chemicals exposures in the radiology departments. Employing of a digital imaging system that do not involve wet x-ray processing of photographic film would be a useful device for radiographers protection. PMID:19070154

  12. 49. Meeting of the Chemical Societies: Proceedings of the contributions. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication has been set up as a abstracts of the meeting dealing with chemical problems. The book (Vol. 2) consists of the sections: (C) Physical chemistry; (D) History of the chemistry; (E) Food chemistry and technology; (D) Environmental chemistry; (E) Nuclear chemistry and radioecology; (H) Synthetic polymers

  13. Multi-pathway exposure modelling of chemicals in cosmetics with application to shampoo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi S.; Fantke, Peter; Csiszar, Susan A.;

    2016-01-01

    on the chemical mass originally applied via a product, multiplied by the product intake fractions (PiF, the fraction of a chemical in a product that is taken in by exposed persons) to yield intake rates. The average PiFs for the evaluated chemicals in shampoo ranged from 3 × 10− 4 up to 0.3 for rapidly absorbed...... ingredients. Average intake rates ranged between nano- and micrograms per kilogram bodyweight per day; the order of chemical prioritization was strongly affected by the ingredient concentration in shampoo. Dermal intake and inhalation (for 20% of the evaluated chemicals) during use dominated exposure, while...... the skin permeation coefficient dominated the estimated uncertainties. The fraction of chemical taken in by a shampoo user often exceeded, by orders of magnitude, the aggregated fraction taken in by the population through post-use environmental emissions. Chemicals with relatively high octanol...

  14. Prenatal exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and asthma and eczema in school-age children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, L A M; Lenters, V; Høyer, B B;

    2015-01-01

    components (PCs) explaining 70% of the variance were included in multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: In a meta-analysis that included both populations, the PC2 score, reflecting exposure to DiNP, was negatively associated with current eczema (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.96). Other associations were......BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that prenatal or early-life exposures to environmental contaminants may contribute to an increased risk of asthma and allergies in children. We aimed to the explore associations of prenatal exposures to a large set of environmental chemical contaminants.......41-0.99). In Greenlandic children, a negative association of PC4 (organochlorines) with ever eczema (OR 0.78, 0.61-0.99) was found. CONCLUSIONS: We found limited evidence to support a link between prenatal exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and childhood asthma and eczema....

  15. Intakes of Radionuclides: Occupational and Public Exposure. Proceedings of a Workshop, Avignon, France, 15-18 September 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Workshop was held at Le Palais des Papes, Avignon, and drew about 200 participants from 28 countries. It was the latest in a series of workshops to address this rapidly developing topic. Previous meetings had been held at Angers, France in 1986; Versailles, France in 1988; Elmau, Germany in 1991; and Bath, England in 1993. This Workshop was co-organised by the Institut de Protection and Surete Nucleaire, France; the National Radiological Protection Board, UK; the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Germany; the National Institute for Radiological Sciences, Japan; the European Commission; and the Department of Energy, USA. Introductory invited papers are by Genet (France) on the discovery of radium by Marie Curie and its subsequent use as a 'miracle cure' and Bo Lindell (Sweden), who sets the scene for the workshop by describing the development of approaches to setting limits on radionuclide intakes. The first main session deals with occupational exposure, and experience is described in a number of papers of application of the new ICRP respiratory tract model. This is extended to all occupational intakes in the next session, again with particular case studies. Intakes by the public are then addressed, with a wide range of examples including reviews in relation to 137Cs after the Goiania accident and Pu and Am after the Palomares accident. Sessions follow on the development of biokinetic models, first on inhalation with invited papers by Boecker (USA) giving a history of the ICRP models and Hofmann (Austria) on radon lung dosimetry. In the session on ingestion, Metivier (France) describes the work of ICRP Committee 2 on a new model for the alimentary tract. A separate session is devoted to developments in modelling of doses to the embryo and fetus, again with an invited paper (by Stather and Phipps, UK) describing relevant work by ICRP Committee 2. A long session on model developments entitled 'systemic activity' includes papers on reliability of models, gender

  16. Assessment of Occupational Symptoms and Chemical Exposures for Nail Salon Technicians in Daegu City, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung-Ae; Gwak, Sugyeong; Choi, Sangjun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate occupational symptoms and chemical exposures of nail salon technicians. Methods Work-related symptoms of nail salon technicians in Daegu City were surveyed using a researcher-administered questionnaire, and responses were compared to those of non-exposed office workers as controls. Personal exposure level of airborne volatile organic compounds was also monitored using passive samplers. Results A total of 159 subjects in 120 salons were interviewed. Aver...

  17. Consumer exposure to chemicals in indoor environment : A specific focus on chemicals from textile products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven SWP; Kooi MW; te Biesebeek JD; SIR; vgc

    2010-01-01

    Textile products in indoor environment contain a variety of chemicals. Well-known examples are flame retardants, phthalates, formaldehyde and dimethylfumarate. Consumers are potentially exposed to these chemicals since a lot of textile products are present in indoor environment (clothing, curtains,

  18. Occupational cancers with chemical exposure and their prevention in Korea: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Kyung-Taek

    2013-01-01

    The usage and types of chemicals being developed, with diversified new exposure of workers, are of natural concern to occupational disease. In Korea, with industrialization, application of many chemicals has increased. A large proportion of mortality and disease is due to cancer, and the causal hazardous agents include chemical agents, like heavy metals and so on. Due to the long latency period with malignancies and the fact they are usually found after workers' retirement, it is suggested that management policies must be established to prevent occupational cancers occurring among workers in Korea. To give a general description about the efforts to prevent the occupational cancer with exposure to chemicals, articles on the trends of occupational cancers were reviewed and summarized with related research and efforts for prevention in Korea. It is important to improve the understanding of occupational cancer and help to maintain sustainable and appropriate measures to guarantee workers safety and health. PMID:23886117

  19. Co-Exposure with Fullerene May Strengthen Health Effects of Organic Industrial Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehto, M.; Karilainen, T.; Rog, T.;

    2014-01-01

    In vitro toxicological studies together with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations show that occupational co-exposure with C-60 fullerene may strengthen the health effects of organic industrial chemicals. The chemicals studied are acetophenone, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, m-cresol, and toluene...... co-exposure scenarios in in vitro studies where acute cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of C-60 and organic chemicals are tested together and alone by using human THP-1-derived macrophages. Statistically significant co-effects are observed for an unfiltered mixture of benzaldehyde and C-60 that is more...... cytotoxic than benzaldehyde alone, and for a filtered mixture of m-cresol and C-60 that is slightly less cytotoxic than m-cresol. Hydrophobicity of chemicals correlates with co-effects when secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha is considered. Complementary atomistic molecular...

  20. HExpoChem: a systems biology resource to explore human exposure to chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Jacobsen, Ulrik Plesner; Kalhauge, Christian Gram;

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Humans are exposed to diverse hazardous chemicals daily. Although an exposure to these chemicals is suspected to have adverse effects on human health, mechanistic insights into how they interact with the human body are still limited. Therefore, acquisition of curated data and development....... Availability: HExpoChem is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/HExpoChem-1.0/. Contact: karine@cbs.dtu.dk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online....

  1. Proceedings of the sixty third annual session of Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers: souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biotechnology is on a wide range of industrial agenda covering fine chemicals, bulk chemicals, pharmaceuticals food, textiles, pulps, paper, mineral and energy areas paving the way of an industrial revolution in the 21st century. Broadly, industrial applications face different economic pressures as 'green', 'red' and 'white'. While 'green' biotechnology's agricultural applications emerge from millennia of human selective breeding of animals and plants, 'red' applications draw their lineage back to the healing arts 'white' include new and emerging non-medical and non-agricultural applications. Fuels produced using bio-technology such as bioethanol and bio-diesel are all potential oil replacement. Thus bio-technology is proving its worth as a technology that can contribute to sustainable industrial development. Many bio-catalytic tools are rapidly becoming available for industrial applications because of the recent advances in this technique. The present conference will enable the researchers and industrialists to exchange their ideas and rejuvenate their bio-technological skills aiming towards industrial sustainability. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  2. Occupational exposure to chemicals and sensory organs: a neglected research field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2003-08-01

    The effect of industrial chemicals on the sensory perception of exposed workers has received scant attention from the medical community to date, and the scientific literature is mainly limited to some case-reports or isolated studies. Possible explanations for this include the complexity of sensory perception, and the lack of agreement among researchers on methods for testing large groups of subjects. Nevertheless, some published studies showed that vision, hearing and olfactory function can be affected by various industrial metals and solvents, and some data exist also for touch and taste. This review discusses the main industrial chemicals involved. The pathogenesis of the toxicity of chemicals to sensory perception may be related to an action on receptors, nerve fibers, and/or the brain; probably, different pathogenetic mechanisms are involved. One of the main problems in this research field is that most of the studies to date evaluated the effect of a single industrial chemical on a single sense: as an example, we know that styrene exposure can impair smell and also hearing and vision but we have little idea whether different senses are impaired in the same worker, or whether each impairment is independent. In addition, workers are frequently exposed to different chemicals: co-exposure may have no effect, or result in both an increase or a decrease of the effect, as was observed for hearing loss, but studies on this aspect are largely insufficient. Research shows that both occupational and environmental exposure to industrial chemicals can affect sense organs, and suggests that the decline of perception with age may be, at least partly, related to this exposure. Nevertheless, available evidence is incomplete, and is largely inadequate for an estimation of a "safe" threshold of exposure. Good quality further research in this field is needed. This is certainly complex and demands adequate resources, but is justified by the ultimate result: the possibility to

  3. High-Throughput Dietary Exposure Predictions for Chemical Migrants from Food Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Environmental Protection Agency researchers have developed a Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation High -Throughput (SHEDS-HT) model for use in prioritization of chemicals under the ExpoCast program. In this research, new methods were implemented in SHEDS-HT...

  4. Patterns of chemical use and exposure control in the Semiconductor Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, M F; Hammond, S K; Hines, C J; Woskie, S R; Schenker, M B

    1995-12-01

    Information on chemical use and exposure control between 1986 and 1990 was collected from 14 companies participating in the Semiconductor Health Study. Questionnaires and site visits provided data used to develop exposure categories for three epidemiological studies: prospective, historical, and cross-sectional. Patterns of use of target chemicals were compiled for 82 silicon-wafer fabrication rooms (fabs), including 47 from which subjects were selected for study. Chemical use was examined by operation, year, and epidemiological component. Target agents for epidemiological analyses were present in more than 50% of fabs. Use of these agents was fairly constant from 1986 to 1990, except for a moderate increase in use of propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, a solvent being substituted for ethylene-based glycol ethers (EGE) in photoresists. The distribution of personal protective equipment, engineering controls, and other factors potentially affecting employee exposure was also examined. Controls designed to manage processes or high acute toxicity were present in most fabs; their prevalence remained unchanged from 1986 through 1990. Controls designed to reduce exposures to chemicals with low acute toxicity were less widely distributed; their prevalence increased moderately from 1986 to 1990. PMID:8588557

  5. The interaction of human endothelial cells with chemical gradient surfaces during exposure to flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruardy, TG; Moorlag, HE; Schakenraad, JM; Van der Meer, J; Van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Olij, WJV; Anderson, HR

    1998-01-01

    In this study, the position bound shape, spreading, detachment and migration of adhering HUVEC endothelial cells on dichlorodimethylsilane (DDS) chemical gradient surfaces was investigated during exposure to flow in a parallel plate flow chamber in the presence of` serum proteins. Gradient surfaces

  6. 75 FR 52355 - Draft National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Work Group Reports...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... and Chemical Exposures Work Group Reports; Opportunity for Public Comment AGENCY: Centers for Disease... draft National Conversation work group reports for public review and comment. CDC/ATSDR has partnered... facilitating the work group process. DATES: Draft work group reports will be available on or about September...

  7. Cellular RNA is chemically modified by exposure to air pollution mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Kevin C; Zavala, Jose; Surratt, Jason; Sexton, Kenneth G; Contreras, Lydia M

    2015-01-01

    RNAs are more susceptible to modifications than DNA, and chemical modifications in RNA have an effect on their structure and function. This study aimed to characterize chemical effects on total RNA in human A549 lung cells after exposure to elevated levels of major secondary air pollutants commonly found in urban locations, including ozone (O3), acrolein (ACR) and methacrolein (MACR). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to measure levels of interleukin (IL)-8 in the growth media and 8-oxoguanine (8OG) levels in total cellular RNA, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the growth media was measured by a coupled enzymatic assay. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to measure levels of microRNA 10b (miR-10b). The study found that 1-h exposure to all tested pollutant mixtures consistently caused significant increases in the levels of 8OG in total RNA. In the case of 4 ppm O3 exposures, measured levels of IL-8, LDH and miR-10b each showed consistent trends between two independent trials, but varied among these three targets. After 1-h exposures to an ACR+MACR mixture, measured levels of IL-8, LDH and miR-10b showed variable results. For mixtures of O3+ACR+MACR, IL-8 measurements showed no change; miR-10b and LDH showed variable results. The results indicate that short-term high-concentration exposures to air pollution can cause RNA chemical modifications. Chemical modifications in RNAs could represent more consistent markers of cellular stress relative to other inflammation markers, such as IL-8 and LDH, and provide a new biomarker endpoint for mechanistic studies in toxicity of air pollution exposure.

  8. Advancing the Selection of Neurodevelopmental Measures in Epidemiological Studies of Environmental Chemical Exposure and Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gutermuth Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With research suggesting increasing incidence of pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders, questions regarding etiology continue to be raised. Neurodevelopmental function tests have been used in epidemiology studies to evaluate relationships between environmental chemical exposures and neurodevelopmental deficits. Limitations of currently used tests and difficulties with their interpretation have been described, but a comprehensive critical examination of tests commonly used in studies of environmental chemicals and pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders has not been conducted. We provide here a listing and critical evaluation of commonly used neurodevelopmental tests in studies exploring effects from chemical exposures and recommend measures that are not often used, but should be considered. We also discuss important considerations in selecting appropriate tests and provide a case study by reviewing the literature on polychlorinated biphenyls.

  9. Indoor Residential Chemical Exposures as Risk Factors for Asthmaand Allergy in Infants and Children: a Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, M.J.

    2006-03-01

    Most research into effects of residential indoor air exposures on asthma and allergies has focused on exposures to biologic allergens, moisture and mold, endotoxin, or combustion byproducts. This paper briefly reviews reported findings on associations of asthma or allergy in infants or children with risk factors related to indoor chemical emissions from residential materials or surface coatings. Associations, some strong (e.g., odds ratios up to 13), were reported. The most frequently identified risk factors were formaldehyde, aromatic organic compounds such as toluene and benzene, plastic materials and plasticizers, and recent painting. Exposures and consequent effects from indoor sources may be exacerbated by decreased ventilation. Identified risk factors may be proxies for correlated exposures. Findings suggest the frequent occurrence of important but preventable effects on asthma and allergy in infants and children worldwide from modern residential building materials and coatings.

  10. Significant chemical burns associated with dermal exposure to laundry pod detergent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jason L; Wiles, Devin A; Kenney, Brian; Spiller, Henry A

    2014-09-01

    Concentrated laundry pods have been reported to cause significant clinical effects including oropharyngeal burns and respiratory distress requiring intubation. Dermal burns have been reported, but no incidents of serious isolated dermal injury have been published. We report a case of significant, isolated dermal injury as a result of dermal exposure to a concentrated laundry detergent pod. Total body surface area partial thickness burns in this case were estimated at approximately 2 % with an additional 4-5 % of total body surface area (TBSA) displaying superficial burns/chemical dermatitis. Health-care providers should be aware of this complication and should perform thorough dermal decontamination in the event of an exposure. Parents should be educated regarding the dangers associated with dermal exposure to laundry pod compounds and the need to secure these items away from children as well as proper decontamination techniques should an exposure occur.

  11. Occupational exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the risk of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Thomas; Lynge, Elsebeth; Cree, Ian;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between occupational exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) and the risk of uveal melanoma using international data of a case-control study from nine European countries. METHODS: After exclusion of proxy interviews, 280 cases and 3084 control...... subjects were included in the final analysis. Information on possible exposure to EDC was derived from 27 job-specific questionnaires (JSQ), which solicited detailed questions on occupational tasks. Relative risk estimates were based on the JSQ and potential exposure to a group of endocrine...... interval (95% CI) 2.0-18.96 and working in the glass manufacturing industry: OR 3.49, 95% CI 1.10-11.10], agent-specific risks were not elevated. The strongest possible risk increase was observed for organic solvents with endocrine-disrupting properties (OR 1.31, 95% CI 0.78-2.21). Calculation of exposure...

  12. Personnel Dosimetry for Radiation Accidents. Proceedings of a Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidents involving the exposure of persons to high levels of radiation have been few in number and meticulous precautions are taken in an effort to maintain this good record. When, however, such an accident does occur, a timely estimate of the dose received can be of considerable help to the physician in deciding whether a particular person requires medical treatment, and in selecting the most appropriate treatment. Individual dosimetry provides the physical basis for relating the observed effects to those in other accident cases, to other human data, and to data from animal experiments, thus providing an important aid to rational treatment and to the accumulation of a meaningful body of knowledge on the subject. It is most important therefore that, where there is a possibility of receiving high-level exposure, methods of personnel dosimetry should be available that would provide the dosimetric information most useful to the physician. Provision of good personnel dosimetry for accidental high-level exposure is in many cases an essential part of emergency planning because the information provided may influence emergency and rescue operations, and can lead to improved accident preparedness. Accordingly, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization jointly organized the Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation for the discussion of such methods and for a critical review of the procedures adopted in some of the radiation accidents that have already occurred. The meeting was attended by 179 participants from 34 countries and from five other international organizations. The papers presented and the ensuing discussions are published in these Proceedings. It is hoped that the Proceedings will be of help to those concerned with the organization and development of wide-range personnel monitoring systems, and with the interpretation of the results provided

  13. Predictive models for the assessment of occupational exposure to chemicals: A new challenge for employers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Piotr Gromiec

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Employers are obliged to carry out and document the risk associated with the use of chemical substances. The best but the most expensive method is to measure workplace concentrations of chemicals. At present no "measureless" method for risk assessment is available in Poland, but predictive models for such assessments have been developed in some countries. The purpose of this work is to review and evaluate the applicability of selected predictive methods for assessing occupational inhalation exposure and related risk to check the compliance with Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs, as well as the compliance with REACH obligations. Based on the literature data HSE COSHH Essentials, EASE, ECETOC TRA, Stoffenmanager, and EMKG-Expo-Tool were evaluated. The data on validation of predictive models were also examined. It seems that predictive models may be used as a useful method for Tier 1 assessment of occupational exposure by inhalation. Since the levels of exposure are frequently overestimated, they should be considered as "rational worst cases" for selection of proper control measures. Bearing in mind that the number of available exposure scenarios and PROC categories is limited, further validation by field surveys is highly recommended. Predictive models may serve as a good tool for preliminary risk assessment and selection of the most appropriate risk control measures in Polish small and medium size enterprises (SMEs providing that they are available in the Polish language. This also requires an extensive training of their future users. Med Pr 2013;64(5:699–716

  14. Can Exposure to Environmental Chemicals Increase the Risk of Diabetes Type 1 Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Bodin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is an autoimmune disease, where destruction of beta-cells causes insulin deficiency. The incidence of T1DM has increased in the last decades and cannot entirely be explained by genetic predisposition. Several environmental factors are suggested to promote T1DM, like early childhood enteroviral infections and nutritional factors, but the evidence is inconclusive. Prenatal and early life exposure to environmental pollutants like phthalates, bisphenol A, perfluorinated compounds, PCBs, dioxins, toxicants, and air pollutants can have negative effects on the developing immune system, resulting in asthma-like symptoms and increased susceptibility to childhood infections. In this review the associations between environmental chemical exposure and T1DM development is summarized. Although information on environmental chemicals as possible triggers for T1DM is sparse, we conclude that it is plausible that environmental chemicals can contribute to T1DM development via impaired pancreatic beta-cell and immune-cell functions and immunomodulation. Several environmental factors and chemicals could act together to trigger T1DM development in genetically susceptible individuals, possibly via hormonal or epigenetic alterations. Further observational T1DM cohort studies and animal exposure experiments are encouraged.

  15. Soft-tissue sarcomas and exposure to chemical substances: a case-referent study.

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, M.; Hardell, L; Berg, N O; T. Möller; Axelson, O

    1981-01-01

    In 1977 several patients were seen with soft-tissue sarcomas and previous exposure to phenoxy acids. This clinical observation resulted in a cases-referent (case-control) study being undertaken which showed that exposure to phenoxy acids or chlorophenols, which are chemically related, gave a roughly six-fold increase in the risk for this type of tumour. A further case-referent study of soft-tissue sarcomas has now been performed to confirm these earlier findings and also to obtain further inf...

  16. Human health issues for combined exposures to plutonium and chemicals - an experimental toxicology approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workers throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex may be exposed to combinations of various agents. The possibility that chemicals and/or radiation may interact in producing deleterious effects in exposed individuals has been recognized for some time. Although there is a substantial body of knowledge on how specific interactions influence various biological endpoints, no comprehensive framework exists that allows one to reliably predict health effect outcomes from combined exposures. As a result, regulators have relied on simple additive models for setting exposure standards

  17. Self-reported occupational exposure to chemical and physical factors and risk of skin problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfonso, Jose Hernan; Thyssen, Jacob P; Tynes, Tore;

    2015-01-01

    Prospective studies on occupational dermatoses in the general working population are sparse. This study investigated prospectively the impact of self-reported occupational exposure to chemicals and physical factors on the risk of skin problems. The cohort comprised respondents drawn randomly from...... the general population in Norway, who were registered employed in 2006 and 2009 (n = 6,745). Indoor dry air (odds ratio (OR) 1.3; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1-1.6) was a significant baseline predictor of skin problems at follow-up, whereas exposure to cleaning products (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.2-2.5), water...

  18. Proceedings of the 8th workshop on plant mutation breeding. Effective use of physical/chemical mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Tano, Shigemitsu (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The Workshop on Plant Mutation Breeding of FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia), was held on 9-13 October 2000 in Hanoi, Vietnam. The Workshop was co-sponsored by the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MOSTE of Vietnam) and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD of Vietnam) in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF), National Institute of Agrobiological Resources (NIAR of Vietnam), the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Two Scientists, a Project Leader and an expert on methodology for plant/crop mutation breeding, participated from each of the member countries, i.e. China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam and Japan. Also attending the Workshop were, one participant from Korea, seven participants from both Japan and Vietnam. The number of the participants in the Workshop totalled about sixty people including guests and observers. Sixteen papers including eight invited papers on the current status of methodology for plant/crop mutation breeding in the participating countries were presented. Discussions were focused on the subject concerning 'Effective Use of Physical/Chemical Mutagens', as well as a detailed report on the current status of research in each participating country. In addition, the topics of developing a mutant breeding database, an information exchange for plant/crop mutation breeding, and more tightly bound international co-operative research in the near future were also high on the agenda. This proceeding compiles the invited and contributed papers that were submitted from the speakers. (author)

  19. Proceedings of the 8th workshop on plant mutation breeding. Effective use of physical/chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Workshop on Plant Mutation Breeding of FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia), was held on 9-13 October 2000 in Hanoi, Vietnam. The Workshop was co-sponsored by the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MOSTE of Vietnam) and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD of Vietnam) in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF), National Institute of Agrobiological Resources (NIAR of Vietnam), the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Two Scientists, a Project Leader and an expert on methodology for plant/crop mutation breeding, participated from each of the member countries, i.e. China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam and Japan. Also attending the Workshop were, one participant from Korea, seven participants from both Japan and Vietnam. The number of the participants in the Workshop totalled about sixty people including guests and observers. Sixteen papers including eight invited papers on the current status of methodology for plant/crop mutation breeding in the participating countries were presented. Discussions were focused on the subject concerning 'Effective Use of Physical/Chemical Mutagens', as well as a detailed report on the current status of research in each participating country. In addition, the topics of developing a mutant breeding database, an information exchange for plant/crop mutation breeding, and more tightly bound international co-operative research in the near future were also high on the agenda. This proceeding compiles the invited and contributed papers that were submitted from the speakers. (author)

  20. Using Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Models to Incorporate Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors into Cumulative Risk Assessment: A Case Study of Pesticide Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan I. Levy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative risk assessment has been proposed as an approach to evaluate the health risks associated with simultaneous exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD models can allow for the inclusion and evaluation of multiple stressors, including non-chemical stressors, but studies have not leveraged PBPK/PD models to jointly consider these disparate exposures in a cumulative risk context. In this study, we focused on exposures to organophosphate (OP pesticides for children in urban low-income environments, where these children would be simultaneously exposed to other pesticides (including pyrethroids and non-chemical stressors that may modify the effects of these exposures (including diet. We developed a methodological framework to evaluate chemical and non-chemical stressor impacts on OPs, utilizing an existing PBPK/PD model for chlorpyrifos. We evaluated population-specific stressors that would influence OP doses or acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, the relevant PD outcome. We incorporated the impact of simultaneous exposure to pyrethroids and dietary factors on OP dose through the compartments of metabolism and PD outcome within the PBPK model, and simulated combinations of stressors across multiple exposure ranges and potential body weights. Our analyses demonstrated that both chemical and non-chemical stressors can influence the health implications of OP exposures, with up to 5-fold variability in AChE inhibition across combinations of stressor values for a given OP dose. We demonstrate an approach for modeling OP risks in the presence of other population-specific environmental stressors, providing insight about co-exposures and variability factors that most impact OP health risks and contribute to children’s cumulative health risk from pesticides. More generally, this framework can be used to inform cumulative risk assessment for any compound impacted by

  1. Development of short, acute exposure hazard estimates: a tool for assessing the effects of chemical spills in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Adriana C; Farr, James K

    2013-08-01

    Management decisions aimed at protecting aquatic resources following accidental chemical spills into rivers and coastal estuaries require estimates of toxic thresholds derived from realistic spill conditions: acute pulse exposures of short duration (h), information which often is unavailable. Most existing toxicity data (median lethal concentration or median effective concentration) come from tests performed under constant exposure concentrations and exposure durations in the 24-h to 96-h range, conditions not typical of most chemical spills. Short-exposure hazard concentration estimates were derived for selected chemicals using empirical toxicity data. Chemical-specific 5th percentile hazard concentrations (HC5) of species sensitivity distributions (SSD) from individual exposure durations (6-96 h) were derived via bootstrap resampling and were plotted against their original exposure durations to estimate HC5s and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) at shorter exposures (1, 2, and 4 h). This approach allowed the development of short-exposure HC5s for 12 chemicals. Model verification showed agreement between observed and estimated short-exposure HC5s (r(2) adjusted = 0.95, p overprotective, these were derived from environmentally realistic exposure durations, providing risk-assessors with a tool to manage field decisions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:1918-1927. © 2013 SETAC. PMID:23625642

  2. Effect of pH and dissociation on the fate and exposure of ionizable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Antonio; Trapp, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Ionizable organic chemicals comprise an important fraction of pharmaceuticals, pesticides as well as industrial chemicals. It has been estimated that 33% of the preregistered REACH substances is mostly ionized at pH 7. To extend the appliccability of existing exposure models, a Multimedia Activity...... and sediments. In most cases, the uncertainty of PECs and of persistance is largely explained by the uncertainty of (bio)degradation rates, which may be caused by model assumptions, experimental or estimation errors or by the environmental variability, including the effect of pH....

  3. The Relationship between Drug-and Chemical-exposure and Birth Defects during Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈启芳; 张忠恕; 方可娟; 丁亦诺; 顾江; 王仁礼; 杨跃英; 李海放; 蒋秀蓉; 薛寿征

    1994-01-01

    A case-control study was conductedin 36 hospitals of the urban and suburban areas of Shanghai about the relationships between birth defects and drug use and chemieal exposures during pregnancy in the period of July 1987-December 1990. The case group was composed of 1.609 subjects, and the control group 3,218 cases. On statistical analysis, it was found that a correlation existed between birth defects and the intake of APC and diazepam, and the exposure to pesticides, organic soh, ents, benzene, synthetic resin and physical factors (noises) on the part of the mother, and the exposure to harmful chemicals and physical factors and the smoking of 20 or more cigarettes a day on the part of the father. It is also found that the familial hereditary history of the parents and muhigravidio,, malnutrition, common colds, hepatitis and diarrhea during pregnancy may also be related to the birth defects.

  4. Other Perspectives for Developing Exposure Estimates: “SHEDS-Lite: Rapid Scenario-Based ExposurePredictions for Chemicals with Near-Field and Dietary Pathways”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creative advances in exposure science are needed to support efficient and effective evaluation and management of chemical risks, particularly for chemicals in consumer products. This presentation will describe the development of EPA’s screening-level, probabilistic SHEDS-Li...

  5. The use of food consumption data in assessments of exposure to food chemicals including the application of probabilistic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Joyce

    2002-02-01

    Emphasis on public health and consumer protection, in combination with globalisation of the food market, has created a strong demand for exposure assessments of food chemicals. The food chemicals for which exposure assessments are required include food additives, pesticide residues, environmental contaminants, mycotoxins, novel food ingredients, packaging-material migrants, flavouring substances and nutrients. A wide range of methodologies exists for estimating exposure to food chemicals, and the method chosen for a particular exposure assessment is influenced by the nature of the chemical, the purpose of the assessment and the resources available. Sources of food consumption data currently used in exposure assessments range from food balance sheets to detailed food consumption surveys of individuals and duplicate-diet studies. The fitness-for-purpose of the data must be evaluated in the context of data quality and relevance to the assessment objective. Methods to combine the food consumption data with chemical concentration data may be deterministic or probabilistic. Deterministic methods estimate intakes of food chemicals that may occur in a population, but probabilistic methods provide the advantage of estimating the probability with which different levels of intake will occur. Probabilistic analysis permits the exposure assessor to model the variability (true heterogeneity) and uncertainty (lack of knowledge) that may exist in the exposure variables, including food consumption data, and thus to examine the full distribution of possible resulting exposures. Challenges for probabilistic modelling include the selection of appropriate modes of inputting food consumption data into the models. PMID:12002785

  6. Chemical mixtures and environmental effects: a pilot study to assess ecological exposure and effects in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Bradley, Paul M.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Mills, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and management of the risks of exposure to complex chemical mixtures in streams are priorities for human and environmental health organizations around the world. The current lack of information on the composition and variability of environmental mixtures and a limited understanding of their combined effects are fundamental obstacles to timely identification and prevention of adverse human and ecological effects of exposure. This report describes the design of a field-based study of the composition and biological activity of chemical mixtures in U.S. stream waters affected by a wide range of human activities and contaminant sources. The study is a collaborative effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Scientists sampled 38 streams spanning 24 States and Puerto Rico. Thirty-four of the sites were located in watersheds impacted by multiple contaminant sources, including industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, crop and animal agricultural runoff, urban runoff, and other point and nonpoint contaminant sources. The remaining four sites were minimally development reference watersheds. All samples underwent comprehensive chemical and biological characterization, including sensitive and specific direct analysis for over 700 dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals and field parameters, identification of unknown contaminants (environmental diagnostics), and a variety of bioassays to evaluate biological activity and toxicity.

  7. Bystander effects, genomic instability, adaptive response, and cancer risk assessment for radiation and chemical exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increased interest in utilizing mechanistic data in support of the cancer risk assessment process for ionizing radiation and environmental chemical exposures. In this regard, the use of biologically based dose-response models is particularly advocated. The aim is to provide an enhanced basis for describing the nature of the dose-response curve for induced tumors at low levels of exposure. Cellular responses that might influence the nature of the dose-response curve at low exposures are understandably receiving attention. These responses (bystander effects, genomic instability, and adaptive responses) have been studied most extensively for radiation exposures. The former two could result in an enhancement of the tumor response at low doses and the latter could lead to a reduced response compared to that predicted by a linear extrapolation from high dose responses. Bystander responses, whereby cells other than those directly traversed by radiation tracks are damaged, can alter the concept of target cell population per unit dose. Similarly, induced genomic instability can alter the concept of total response to an exposure. There appears to be a role for oxidative damage and cellular signaling in the etiology of these cellular responses. The adaptive response appears to be inducible at very low doses of radiation or of some chemicals and reduces the cellular response to a larger challenge dose. It is currently unclear how these cellular toxic responses might be involved in tumor formation, if indeed they are. In addition, it is not known how widespread they are as regards inducing agents. Thus, their impact on low dose cancer risk remains to be established

  8. Assessment of macroinvertebrate health and agricultural chemical exposure on Waterfowl Production Areas in Nebraska’s Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Of the 12 sampled locations, the 6 non-buffered sites appear to be affected by agricultural chemical exposure. Agricultural chemical exposure to these sites include...

  9. [Development of Chemical Exposure Prediction Model for Aerobic Sewage Treatment Plant for Biochemical Wastewaters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin-jun; Liu, Ji-ning; Shi, Li-li; Feng, Jie; Xu, Yan-hua

    2016-01-15

    Sewage treatment plant (STP) is a key transfer station for chemicals distributed into different environment compartment, and hence models of exposure prediction play a crucial role in the environmental risk assessment and pollution prevention of chemicals. A mass balance model namely Chinese Sewage treatment plant (C-STP(O)) was developed to predict the fate and exposure of chemicals in a conventional sewage treatment plant. The model was expressed as 9 mixed boxes by compartment of air, water, suspended solids, and settled solids. It was based on the minimum input data required on the notification in new chemicals, such as molecular weight, absorption coefficient, vapor pressure, water solubility, ready or inherent biodegradability. The environment conditions ( Temperature = 283 K, wind speed = 2 m x s(-1)) and the classic STP scenario parameters of China, especially the scenario parameters of water quality and sludge properties were adopted in C-STP( 0) model to reflect Chinese characteristics, these parameters were sewage flow of 35 000 m3 x d(-1), influent BOD5 of 0.15 g x L(-1), influent SS of 0.2 kg x m(-3), effluent SS of 0.02 kg x m(-3), BOD5 removal in aerator of 90% sludge density of 1.6 kg x L(3) and organic carbon content of 0.18-0.19. It adopted the fugacity express for mechanism of linear absorption, first-order degradation, Whitman two resistances. An overall interphase transfer constant which was the sum of surface volatilization and stripping was used to assess the volatilization in aerator. The most important and uncertain input value was the biodegradation rate constant, and determination of which required a tier test strategy from ready or inherent biodegradability data to simulate test in STP. An extrapolated criterion of US EPA to derive biodegradation rate constant using the results of ready and inherent biodegradability was compared with that of EU and was recommended. C-STP ( 0 ) was valid to predict the relative emission of volatilization

  10. Screening values for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals that Lack Established Occupational Exposure Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poet, Torka S.; Mast, Terryl J.; Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-06

    Over 1,500 different volatile chemicals have been reported in the headspaces of tanks used to store high-level radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Concern about potential exposure of tank farm workers to these chemicals has prompted efforts to evaluate their toxicity, identify chemicals that pose the greatest risk, and incorporate that information into the tank farms industrial hygiene worker protection program. Established occupation exposure limits for individual chemicals and petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures have been used elsewhere to evaluate about 900 of the chemicals. In this report headspace concentration screening values were established for the remaining 600 chemicals using available industrial hygiene and toxicological data. Screening values were intended to be more than an order of magnitude below concentrations that may cause adverse health effects in workers, assuming a 40-hour/week occupational exposure. Screening values were compared to the maximum reported headspace concentrations.

  11. Devulcanization of ground tire rubber: Physical and chemical changes after different microwave exposure times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Garcia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Microwave devulcanization is known to be a promising and an efficient rubber recycling method which makes possible for the rubber to regain its fluidity, and makes it capable of being remolded and revulcanized. The focus of this work is to understand the physical and chemical changes that occur in the ground tire rubber after different microwave exposure periods. For this purpose chemical, thermal, rheological and morphological analyses were performed on the tire rubber, which contains natural rubber (NR and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR as polymeric material. The results showed that the microwave treatment promoted the breaking of sulfur cross-links and consequently increased the rubber fluidity. However, long periods of exposure led to degradation and modification of some properties. At nanoscale, the deformation of the devulcanized NR domain under stress was observed, and the morphology obtained appears to be a droplet dispersion morphology. The most exposed samples presented only one glass transition temperature, and from this it was concluded that the treatment may have played an important role in the compatibilization of the elastomeric blend. Based on the results, it is required to control the microwave exposure time and polymeric degradation in order to achieve a regenerated rubber with satisfactory properties.

  12. Neurotoxic exposure and impairment of the chemical senses of taste and smell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    The chemical senses of taste and smell determine the flavor of foods and beverages, guide appropriate food intake, and warn of such environmental hazards as spoiled or poisonous food, leaking natural gas, smoke, and airborne pollutants. This chapter addresses the influences of neurotoxic exposures on human chemoreception and provides basic information on the adverse influences of such exposures on rodent epithelia. The focus of the chapter is in olfaction, given dearth of empiric research on the effects of neurotoxic chemical exposures on the sense of taste, i.e., sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and savory sensations. As will be apparent from the chapter, numerous neurotoxins--many of which are encountered in industrial workplaces--alter the ability to smell, including solvents, metals, and particulate matter. The olfactory system is particularly vulnerable to such agents since its receptors are more or less directly exposed to the outside environment. Importantly, some such agents can enter the brain via the olfactory nerve or surrounding perineural spaces, bypassing the blood-brain barrier and damaging central nervous system structures and inducing pathologic processes that appear to be similar to those seen in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. PMID:26563795

  13. Comparison of Chest HRCT in Inspiration and Expiration of patients with Chemical Gas Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Bakhtavar

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Chemical weapon agents (CWA including Sulfur Mustard (SM, were com-monly used in the Iran-Iraq war and pulmonary complications are known to occur in over half of the exposed patients. Previous studies showed that HRCT in inspiration was normal in most of the patients. In this study comparison between the HRCT findings in deep inspiration and full expiration was carried out. Materials and Method: HRCT in deep inspiration and full expiration in 473 patients with history of chemi-cal gas exposure during the war was performed and the results were compared. The study was prospective during one year since 1382 to 1383. Results: In our study, 366 patients (77% showed normal HRCT in deep inspiration, however in corre-sponding expiration cuts, 54% showed abnormal findings, from which, patchy air trapping was the most common (78%. Other findings in our study were pulmonary fibrotic changes (30%, emphysema (19%, and bronchiectasis (10%. Conclusion: Exposure to SM has pulmonary compli-cations and results in disability in the affected pa-tients. HRCT is normal only in inspiration in most of the affected patients; expiratory HRCT showed patchy air trapping as the most common finding which is suggestive of bronchiolitis obliterans. There-fore, HRCT should be advised to be done both in deep inspiration and full expiration in patients with history of CWA exposure.

  14. Assessment of infant exposure to food chemicals: the French Total Diet Study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulin, M; Bemrah, N; Nougadère, A; Volatier, J L; Sirot, V; Leblanc, J C

    2014-01-01

    As part of the previous French Total Diet Studies (TDS) focusing on exposure to food chemicals in the population aged 3 years and older, the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES) launched a specific TDS on infants to complete its overall chemical food safety programme for the general population. More than 500 chemical substances were analysed in food products consumed by children under 3 years old, including nutrients, several endocrine disruptors resulting from human activities (polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and furans, brominated flame retardants, perfluoroalkyl acids, pesticide residues, etc.) or migrating from food contact materials such as bisphenol A or phthalates, but also natural substances such as mycotoxins, phytoestrogens and steroids. To obtain a representative and general view of infant food consumption, food items were selected based on results of a national consumption survey conducted specifically on this population. Moreover, a specific study on food was conducted on 429 households to determine which home-cooking practices are employed to prepare food consumed by infants. Overall, the targeted chemical substances were analysed in more than 450 food samples, representing the purchase and home-cooking practices of over 5500 food products. Foods included common foods such as vegetables, fruit or cakes as well as specific infant foods such as infant formula or jarred baby food. The sampling plan covered over 80% of the total diet. Specificities in infant food consumption and habits were therefore considered to define this first infant TDS. This study, conducted on a large scale and focusing on a particularly sensitive population, will provide accurate information on the dietary exposure of children under 3 years to food chemicals, especially endocrine disruptors, and will be particularly useful for risk assessment analysis under the remit of ANSES' expert committees. PMID:24827474

  15. Assessment of infant exposure to food chemicals: the French Total Diet Study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulin, M; Bemrah, N; Nougadère, A; Volatier, J L; Sirot, V; Leblanc, J C

    2014-01-01

    As part of the previous French Total Diet Studies (TDS) focusing on exposure to food chemicals in the population aged 3 years and older, the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES) launched a specific TDS on infants to complete its overall chemical food safety programme for the general population. More than 500 chemical substances were analysed in food products consumed by children under 3 years old, including nutrients, several endocrine disruptors resulting from human activities (polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and furans, brominated flame retardants, perfluoroalkyl acids, pesticide residues, etc.) or migrating from food contact materials such as bisphenol A or phthalates, but also natural substances such as mycotoxins, phytoestrogens and steroids. To obtain a representative and general view of infant food consumption, food items were selected based on results of a national consumption survey conducted specifically on this population. Moreover, a specific study on food was conducted on 429 households to determine which home-cooking practices are employed to prepare food consumed by infants. Overall, the targeted chemical substances were analysed in more than 450 food samples, representing the purchase and home-cooking practices of over 5500 food products. Foods included common foods such as vegetables, fruit or cakes as well as specific infant foods such as infant formula or jarred baby food. The sampling plan covered over 80% of the total diet. Specificities in infant food consumption and habits were therefore considered to define this first infant TDS. This study, conducted on a large scale and focusing on a particularly sensitive population, will provide accurate information on the dietary exposure of children under 3 years to food chemicals, especially endocrine disruptors, and will be particularly useful for risk assessment analysis under the remit of ANSES' expert committees.

  16. Spatial variability versus parameter uncertainty in freshwater fate and exposure factors of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Carl O P; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Golsteijn, Laura; van Zelm, Rosalie

    2016-04-01

    We compared the influence of spatial variability in environmental characteristics and the uncertainty in measured substance properties of seven chemicals on freshwater fate factors (FFs), representing the residence time in the freshwater environment, and on exposure factors (XFs), representing the dissolved fraction of a chemical. The influence of spatial variability was quantified using the SimpleBox model in which Europe was divided in 100 × 100 km regions, nested in a regional (300 × 300 km) and supra-regional (500 × 500 km) scale. Uncertainty in substance properties was quantified by means of probabilistic modelling. Spatial variability and parameter uncertainty were expressed by the ratio k of the 95%ile and 5%ile of the FF and XF. Our analysis shows that spatial variability ranges in FFs of persistent chemicals that partition predominantly into one environmental compartment was up to 2 orders of magnitude larger compared to uncertainty. For the other (less persistent) chemicals, uncertainty in the FF was up to 1 order of magnitude larger than spatial variability. Variability and uncertainty in freshwater XFs of the seven chemicals was negligible (k accounting for region-specific environmental characteristics in multimedia fate modelling, as well as accounting for parameter uncertainty, can have a significant influence on freshwater fate factor predictions. Therefore, we conclude that it is important that fate factors should not only account for parameter uncertainty, but for spatial variability as well, as this further increases the reliability of ecotoxicological impacts in LCA. PMID:26855212

  17. Evaluating Systemic Toxicity in Rabbits after Acute Ocular Exposure to Irritant Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshma Sebastian Cherian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute systemic toxicity via ocular exposure route is not a well understood aspect. Any material/drug/chemical that comes in contact with the eye can evade the first pass metabolism and enter the systemic circulation through the conjunctival blood vessels or via the nasolacrimal route. In this study, the effect of ocular irritant chemicals on the systemic toxicity was assessed in rabbit. Eyes of rabbits were exposed to known ocular irritant (cetyl pyridinium chloride, sodium salicylate, imidazole, acetaminophen, and nicotinamide for 24 h and scored. After a period of 72 h, blood was collected from the animals for examining the hematological and biochemical parameters. The animals were then sacrificed and the eyes were collected for histopathology and cytokine analysis by ELISA. Splenocyte proliferation was assessed by tritiated thymidine incorporation assay. The liver and brain of the treated animals were retrieved for evaluating oxidative damage. The chemicals showed moderate to severe eye irritation. Inflammation was not evident in the histopathology but proinflammatory markers were significantly high. The splenocyte proliferation capacity was undeterred. And there was minimal oxidative stress in the brain and liver. In conclusion, acute exposure of ocular irritants was incapable of producing a prominent systemic side effect in the current scenario.

  18. Chemical Weapons Exposures in Iraq: Challenges of a Public Health Response a Decade Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Coleen; Mirza, Raul; Sharkey, Jessica M; Teichman, Ron; Longmire, Romarius; Harkins, Deanna; Llanos, Joseph; Abraham, Joseph; McCannon, Charles; Heller, Jack; Tinklepaugh, Carole; Rice, William

    2016-01-01

    An October 14, 2014 article in The New York Times reported that the US Department of Defense (DoD) concealed, for nearly a decade, circumstances surrounding service members' exposure to chemical warfare agents (CWA) while deployed to Iraq in support of Operations Iraqi Freedom and New Dawn from March 13, 2003, to December 31, 2011, and alleged failure of the DoD to provide expedient and adequate medical care. This report prompted the DoD to devise a public health investigation, with the Army Public Health Center (Provisional) as the lead agency to identify, evaluate, document, and track CWA casualties of the Iraq war. Further, the DoD revisited and revised clinical guidelines and health policies concerning CWA exposure based on current evidence-based guidelines and best practices. PMID:27613213

  19. Structural, Chemical and Biological Aspects of Antioxidants for Strategies Against Metal and Metalloid Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaran J. S. Flora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress contributes to the pathophysiology of exposure to heavy metals/metalloid. Beneficial renal effects of some medications, such as chelation therapy depend at least partially on the ability to alleviate oxidative stress. The administration of various natural or synthetic antioxidants has been shown to be of benefit in the prevention and attenuation of metal induced biochemical alterations. These include vitamins, N-acetylcysteine, α-lipoic acid, melatonin, dietary flavonoids and many others. Human studies are limited in this regard. Under certain conditions, surprisingly, the antioxidant supplements may exhibit pro-oxidant properties and even worsen metal induced toxic damage. To date, the evidence is insufficient to recommend antioxidant supplements in subject with exposure to metals. Prospective, controlled clinical trials on safety and effectiveness of different therapeutic antioxidant strategies either individually or in combination with chelating agent are indispensable. The present review focuses on structural, chemical and biological aspects of antioxidants particularly related to their chelating properties.

  20. Proceedings of the Frontis Workshop on Chemical Ecology: from Gene to Ecosystem Wageningen, The Netherlands 19-23 March 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Dicke, M.; Takken, W

    2006-01-01

    Chemical ecology is the ecology of body odour. Every organism uses chemical information in intra- and interspecific interactions. Animals emit chemicals to attract a mate or to prevent a competitor from mating with the partner they just mated with. Plants emit chemicals to recruit other organisms to take care of their sex life or to attract bodyguards to defend them against their enemies. Chemical cues mediate a whole gamut of interactions in plant and animal communities. Chemical cues are us...

  1. A simple procedure for estimating pseudo risk ratios from exposure to non-carcinogenic chemical mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scinicariello, Franco; Portier, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Non-cancer risk assessment traditionally assumes a threshold of effect, below which there is a negligible risk of an adverse effect. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry derives health-based guidance values known as Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) as estimates of the toxicity threshold for non-carcinogens. Although the definition of an MRL, as well as EPA reference dose values (RfD and RfC), is a level that corresponds to "negligible risk," they represent daily exposure doses or concentrations, not risks. We present a new approach to calculate the risk at exposure to specific doses for chemical mixtures, the assumption in this approach is to assign de minimis risk at the MRL. The assigned risk enables the estimation of parameters in an exponential model, providing a complete dose-response curve for each compound from the chosen point of departure to zero. We estimated parameters for 27 chemicals. The value of k, which determines the shape of the dose-response curve, was moderately insensitive to the choice of the risk at the MRL. The approach presented here allows for the calculation of a risk from a single substance or the combined risk from multiple chemical exposures in a community. The methodology is applicable from point of departure data derived from quantal data, such as data from benchmark dose analyses or from data that can be transformed into probabilities, such as lowest-observed-adverse-effect level. The individual risks are used to calculate risk ratios that can facilitate comparison and cost-benefit analyses of environmental contamination control strategies.

  2. A decision support framework for characterizing and managing dermal exposures to chemicals during Emergency Management and Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Dotson, G. Scott; Hudson, Naomi L.; Maier, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Emergency Management and Operations (EMO) personnel are in need of resources and tools to assist in understanding the health risks associated with dermal exposures during chemical incidents. This article reviews available resources and presents a conceptual framework for a decision support system (DSS) that assists in characterizing and managing risk during chemical emergencies involving dermal exposures. The framework merges principles of three decision-making techniques: 1...

  3. Subtleties of human exposure and response to chemical mixtures from spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phetxumphou, Katherine; Dietrich, Andrea M; Shanaiah, Narasimhamurthy; Smiley, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Daniel L

    2016-07-01

    Worldwide, chemical spills degrade drinking water quality and threaten human health through ingestion and inhalation. Spills are often mixtures of chemicals; thus, understanding the interaction of chemical and biological properties of the major and minor components is critical to assessing human exposure. The crude (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol (MCHM) spill provides an opportunity to assess such subtleties. This research determined the relative amounts, volatilization, and biological odor properties of minor components cis- and trans-methyl-4-methylcyclohexanecarboxylate (MMCHC) isomers and major components cis- and trans-4-MCHM, then compared properties and human exposure differences among them. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and chromatography revealed that the minor MMCHC isomers were about 1% of the major MCHM isomers. At typical showering temperature of 40 °C, Henry's law constants were 1.50 × 10(-2) and 2.23 × 10(-2) for cis- and trans-MMCHC, respectively, which is 20-50 fold higher than for 4-MCHM isomers. The odor thresholds were 1.83 and 0.02 ppb-v air for cis- and trans-MMCHC, which were both described as predominantly sweet. These data are compared to the higher 120 ppb-v air and 0.06 ppb-v odor thresholds for cis- and trans-4-MCHM, for which the trans-isomer had a dominant licorice descriptor. Application of a shower model demonstrated that while MMCHC isomers are only about 1% of the MCHM isomers, during showering, the MMCHC isomers are 13.8% by volume (16.3% by mass) because of their higher volatility. Trans-4-MCHM contributed about 82% of the odor because of higher volatility and lower odor threshold, trans-MMCHC, which represents 0.3% of the mass, contributed 18% of the odor. This study, with its unique human sensory component to assess exposure, reaffirmed that hazard assessment must not be based solely on relative concentration, but also consider the chemical fate, transport, and biological properties to determine the actual levels of

  4. [Analysis of exposure to pepper spray as a part of preparing hospital to help victims of mass chemical incidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwaluk, Paweł; Topczewska, Elzbieta; Barwina, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed an incident of exposure to pepper spray 35 persons, including 29 children. Medical procedures were difficult because of the lack of reliable information about the nature of exposure, lack of hospital action plan for chemical accidents and established principles of cooperation with poison control center, as well as the need of extensive medical documentation for each patient. PMID:23243951

  5. Perinatal exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals reduces female rat follicle reserves and accelerates reproductive aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Hass, Ulla;

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during development can have negative consequences later in life. In this study we investigated the effect of perinatal exposure to mixtures of human relevant EDCs on the female reproductive system. Rat dams were exposed to a mixture of phthalates...

  6. Risk-based high-throughput chemical screening and prioritization using exposure models and in vitro bioactivity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a risk-based high-throughput screening (HTS) method to identify chemicals for potential health concerns or for which additional information is needed. The method is applied to 180 organic chemicals as a case study. We first obtain information on how the chemical is used and identify relevant use scenarios (e.g., dermal application, indoor emissions). For each chemical and use scenario, exposure models are then used to calculate a chemical intake fraction, or a product intake fraction, accounting for chemical properties and the exposed population. We then combine these intake fractions with use scenario-specific estimates of chemical quantity to calculate daily intake rates (iR; mg/kg/day). These intake rates are compared to oral equivalent doses (OED; mg/kg/day), calculated from a suite of ToxCast in vitro bioactivity assays using in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation and reverse dosimetry. Bioactivity quotients (BQs) are calculated as iR/OED to obtain estimates of potential impact associated with each relevant use scenario. Of the 180 chemicals considered, 38 had maximum iRs exceeding minimum OEDs (i.e., BQs > 1). For most of these compounds, exposures are associated with direct intake, food/oral contact, or dermal exposure. The method provides high-throughput estimates of exposure and important input for decision makers to identify chemicals of concern for further evaluation with additional information or more refined models

  7. Proceedings of the Frontis Workshop on Chemical Ecology: from Gene to Ecosystem Wageningen, The Netherlands 19-23 March 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.; Takken, W.

    2006-01-01

    Chemical ecology is the ecology of body odour. Every organism uses chemical information in intra- and interspecific interactions. Animals emit chemicals to attract a mate or to prevent a competitor from mating with the partner they just mated with. Plants emit chemicals to recruit other organisms to

  8. Chemical and biological risk assessment of chronic exposure to PAH contaminated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Means, J.; McMillin, D.; Kondapi, N. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Chronically contaminated sediments represent a long-term source of mixtures of contaminants, exposing aquatic ecosystems to PAH through desorption and bioaccumulation. Chronic toxicity assessments must address potential of these bond contaminants. Environmental impacts and ecological health hazards of sediment-bound normal, alkylated and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are functions of their entry into aquatic food webs and are controlled by both abiotic and biotic factors. Laboratory and field microcosm exposures of fish and invertebrates were conducted followed by assessments of effects using chemical analysis and biomarkers of potential genotoxic effects. Chemical analysis of accumulated residues of 62 individual PAH were conducted in oysters, Crassostrea virginica exposed to PAH contaminated sediments in the field. The rates and equilibrium bioaccumulation constants for each were determined. Fish were exposed to the same contaminated sediments in laboratory and field exposures. Measurements of ethoxy-resorufin-o-deethylase activity induction as well as alterations in the expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene were performed on exposed fish liver samples. EROD activities were increased significantly relative to unexposed and laboratory/field control sediment-exposed fish, however, the responses of individuals were highly variable. Fundulus grandis or Gambusia affinis, exposed to contaminated sediments in the laboratory, revealed changes in the expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. The degree to which mutations within the gene occurred was assessed using PCR followed by measurement of single stranded DNA polymorphisms using gel electrophoresis chromatography.

  9. The Role of Molecular Biology in the Biomonitoring of Human Exposure to Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balam Muñoz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to different substances in an occupational environment is of utmost concern to global agencies such as the World Health Organization and the International Labour Organization. Interest in improving work health conditions, particularly of those employees exposed to noxious chemicals, has increased considerably and has stimulated the search for new, more specific and selective tests. Recently, the field of molecular biology has been indicated as an alternative technique for monitoring personnel while evaluating work-related pathologies. Originally, occupational exposure to environmental toxicants was assessed using biochemical techniques to determine the presence of higher concentrations of toxic compounds in blood, urine, or other fluids or tissues; results were used to evaluate potential health risk. However, this approach only estimates the presence of a noxious chemical and its effects, but does not prevent or diminish the risk. Molecular biology methods have become very useful in occupational medicine to provide more accurate and opportune diagnostics. In this review, we discuss the role of the following common techniques: (1 Use of cell cultures; (2 evaluation of gene expression; (3 the “omic” sciences (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics and (4 bioinformatics. We suggest that molecular biology has many applications in occupational health where the data can be applied to general environmental conditions.

  10. [Technology upgrades and exposure to chemical agents: results of the PPTP study in the footwear industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoli, Enrica; Brusoni, Daniela; Cornaggia, Nicoletta; Saretto, Gianni

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the chemical compositions of the products used in shoes manufacturing are reported. The data were collected over the period 2004-2007 in 156 shoe factories in Vigevano area during a study aiming the evaluation of safety conditions and occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals of the employees. The study was part of a regional project for "Occupational cancer prevention in the footwear industry". In the first phase of the study an information form on production cycle, products used and their composition was filled during preliminary audit. In the second phase of the study an in depth qualitative/quantitative evaluation of professional exposure was conducted in 13 selected shoe factories. Data analysis showed the increase in use of water-based adhesives at expense of solvent-based adhesives, the reduction to less than 3.5 weight %, and up to 1 weight %, of n-hexane concentration in solvent mixtures, the increase in use of products containing less hazardous ketones, esters, cyclohexane and heptane. Only in very few cases, products containing from 4 to 12 weight% of toluene were used. These data attest a positive trend in workers risks prevention in shoes industry. PMID:22697030

  11. The commuters' exposure to volatile chemicals and carcinogenic risk in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohara, Naohide; Fernández-Bremauntz, Adrián A.; Blanco Jiménez, Salvador; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    The commuters' exposure levels to volatile organic compounds were investigated in the following public transport modes: private car, microbus, bus, and metro along three commuting routes in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City. The target chemicals were benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/ p-xylene, and formaldehyde. Integrated samples were taken while traveling during the morning rush hour (weekdays 7:00-9:00 a.m.) for six consecutive weeks in June and July, 2002. Scheffe test showed that the average concentrations of all chemicals inside cars and microbuses were statistically higher than in metro trains ( Pautomobiles were significantly higher than in metro trains and buses ( Pcar, bus, and metro ( Pcar and microbus passengers are exposed to higher levels of volatile organic compounds than bus and metro commuters. These findings are consistent with previous studies looking at exposure of commuters to carbon monoxide. The lifetime carcinogenic risk from commuting by car was 2.0×10 -5-3.1×10 -5, that by microbus was 3.1×10 -5-4.0×10 -5, that by bus was 2.0×10 -5-2.7×10 -5, and that by metro was 1.3×10 -5-1.7×10 -5 in Mexico City.

  12. Increasing the understanding of chemical concepts: The effectiveness of multiple exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bius, Janet H.

    Chemistry is difficult because it has multilevels of knowledge with each level presenting challenges in vocabulary, abstract thinking, and symbolic language. Students have to be able to transfer between levels to understand the concepts and the theoretical models of chemistry. The cognitive theories of constructivism and cognitive-load theory are used to explain the difficulties novice learners have with the subject of chemistry and methods to increase success for students. The relationship between external representations, misconceptions and topics on the success of students are addressed. If students do not know the formalisms associated with chemical diagrams and graphs, the representations will decrease student success. Misconceptions can be formed when new information is interpreted based on pre-existing knowledge that is faulty. Topics with large amount of interacting elements that must be processed simultaneously are considered difficult to understand. New variables were created to measure the number of times a student is exposed to a chemical concept. Each variable was coded according to topic and learning environment, which are the lecture and laboratory components of the course, homework assignments and textbook examples. The exposure variables are used to measure the success rate of students on similar exam questions. Question difficulty scales were adapted for this project from those found in the chemical education literature. The exposure variables were tested on each level of the difficulty scales to determine their effect at decreasing the cognitive demand of these questions. The subjects of this study were freshmen science majors at a large Midwest university. The effects of the difficulty scales and exposure variables were measured for those students whose exam scores were in the upper one-fourth percentile, for students whose test scores were in the middle one-half percentile, and the lower one-fourth percentile are those students that scored the

  13. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers for pesticides monitoring: impacts of field exposure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissalde, Sophie; Mazzella, Nicolas; Mazellier, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    This study focuses on how Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) work in real environmental conditions. A selection of 23 polar pesticides and 8 metabolites were investigated by exposure of triplicates of integrative samplers in two rivers in France for successive 14-day periods. The pesticides and metabolites were trapped not only in Oasis HLB sorbent but also in the polyethersulfone (PES) membrane of the POCIS. The distribution of pesticides depended on the molecular structure. The use of the Performance Reference Compound (PRC) is also discussed here. The impact of some environmental parameters and exposure setup on the transfer of pesticides in POCIS sorbent was studied: river flow rate, biofouling on membranes, sampler holding design and position in the stream. Results show a significant impact of river flow velocity on PRC desorption, especially for values higher than 4 cm·s(-1). Some fouling was observed on the PES membrane which could potentially have an impact on molecule accumulation in the POCIS. Finally, the positioning of the sampler in the river did not have significant effects on pesticide accumulation, when perpendicular exposures were used (sampler positioning in front of the water flow). The POCIS with PRC correction seems to be a suitable tool for estimating time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations, for all the molecules except for one of the nine pesticides analyzed in these two French rivers.

  14. Implications of pulsed chemical exposures for aquatic life criteria and wastewater permit limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Jerome M; Klaine, Stephen J; Butcher, Jonathan B

    2006-08-15

    Subacute effects of pulsed copper, zinc, or ammonia exposures were examined, including a range of pulse concentrations, durations, frequencies, and recovery times between pulses, using short-term chronic Pimephales promelas and 21-d Daphnia magna tests. Sublethal effects were rarely observed independent of mortality. Effects were observed only at concentrations near the species continuous exposure 48 h LC50 for each chemical. Daphnia often rebounded from temporary reproduction effects, meeting or exceeding control responses by the end of the test. Effects of 24 h ammonia or copper pulses were diminished soon after the pulse was removed, while 24 h zinc pulses caused continued effects for several days following removal of the pulse, indicating a slower uptake and/or depuration rate for zinc. D. magna exhibited less mortality as copper pulses were spaced further apart, while fish were equally or more affected with longer recovery times between copper pulses, indicative of different adaptation mechanisms between the two species. Responses were not predictable based on either average concentration or a combination of duration and concentration. Chronic water quality criteria and effluent permit limits, expressed as a 4- or 30-d average concentration, respectively, may not be appropriate for protecting against effects of pulsed exposures, depending on the frequency, magnitude, and duration of pulses, as well as the recovery period between events. PMID:16955918

  15. The Effect of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate, Exposure Time, and Chemical Mixtures on Methanogenic Community Structure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Patrick J; LaPara, Timothy M; Novak, Paige J

    2015-01-01

    A plethora of organic micropollutant mixtures are found in untreated municipal wastewater. Anaerobic digesters receive large loadings of hydrophobic micropollutants that sorb to wastewater biosolids. Despite micropollutants being pervasive as mixtures, little research is available to explain the impact that mixtures of compounds, as well as exposure time, have on microbial communities in anaerobic digesters. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was added to anaerobic enrichment cultures in both short-term (14 days) and long-term (140 days) studies to determine the impact of exposure time. Additionally, triclosan was added during the experiments to investigate the impact of mixtures on community structure and function. PFOS did not alter methane production in short-term studies, but in long-term studies, methane production increased, consistent with our hypothesis that PFOS may act as a metabolic uncoupler. The impact of triclosan on methane production was exacerbated when PFOS was already present in the anaerobic enrichment cultures. Triclosan also had greater impacts on microbial community structures in the bottles that had been exposed to PFOS long-term. These results demonstrate that both chemical mixtures and exposure time are important parameters to address when trying to define the impacts of micropollutants on anaerobic microbial communities. PMID:26462249

  16. The Effect of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate, Exposure Time, and Chemical Mixtures on Methanogenic Community Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Patrick J; LaPara, Timothy M; Novak, Paige J

    2015-01-01

    A plethora of organic micropollutant mixtures are found in untreated municipal wastewater. Anaerobic digesters receive large loadings of hydrophobic micropollutants that sorb to wastewater biosolids. Despite micropollutants being pervasive as mixtures, little research is available to explain the impact that mixtures of compounds, as well as exposure time, have on microbial communities in anaerobic digesters. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was added to anaerobic enrichment cultures in both short-term (14 days) and long-term (140 days) studies to determine the impact of exposure time. Additionally, triclosan was added during the experiments to investigate the impact of mixtures on community structure and function. PFOS did not alter methane production in short-term studies, but in long-term studies, methane production increased, consistent with our hypothesis that PFOS may act as a metabolic uncoupler. The impact of triclosan on methane production was exacerbated when PFOS was already present in the anaerobic enrichment cultures. Triclosan also had greater impacts on microbial community structures in the bottles that had been exposed to PFOS long-term. These results demonstrate that both chemical mixtures and exposure time are important parameters to address when trying to define the impacts of micropollutants on anaerobic microbial communities. PMID:26462249

  17. History of the occupational exposure to chemical substances in workers with laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case-control study was realized to 400 patients, 200 of them histologically confirmed as incident cases of larynx cancer by the National Institute for Oncology and Radiobiology of Havana, and the others 200 as controls, coming from another hospitals. A survey was applied to both groups, collecting every theirs worker histories with emphasis on occupational exposure, that were codified by an expert group taking into account the carcinogens present according to the guided code of the Epidemiological Units of Environmental Cancer and the Fields Studies and Intervention of International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). According to the results obtained, all the patients, cases and controls, presented 1 526 tasks in their labour histories, that represented an average greater than 3 tasks for each one of them. They main activities were in the agriculture, the defence and the sugar cane industry. The most predominant exposures were to the abrasive dusts, motor emissions, mists of mineral oils, gasoline/petroleum/diesel/kerosene and pesticides. In general, the valuation of the chemical risk was considered of low intensity, 1-5% of the real time to the exposure and all had the certain probability of the agent's aggressor presence.

  18. The influence of the "cage" effect on the mechanism of reversible bimolecular multistage chemical reactions proceeding from different sites in solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doktorov, Alexander B

    2016-08-28

    Manifestations of the "cage" effect at the encounters of reactants have been theoretically treated on the example of multistage reactions (including bimolecular exchange reactions as elementary stages) proceeding from different active sites in liquid solutions. It is shown that for reactions occurring near the contact of reactants, consistent consideration of quasi-stationary kinetics of such multistage reactions (possible in the framework of the encounter theory only) can be made on the basis of chemical concepts of the "cage complex," just as in the case of one-site model described in the literature. Exactly as in the one-site model, the presence of the "cage" effect gives rise to new channels of reactant transformation that cannot result from elementary event of chemical conversion for the given reaction mechanism. Besides, the multisite model demonstrates new (as compared to one-site model) features of multistage reaction course. PMID:27586911

  19. Exposure Forecaster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Exposure Forecaster Database (ExpoCastDB) is EPA's database for aggregating chemical exposure information and can be used to help with chemical exposure...

  20. Assessment of serum biomarkers in rats after exposure to pesticides of different chemical classes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Virginia C., E-mail: Moser.ginger@epa.gov [Neurotoxicology Branch/Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Stewart, Nicholas; Freeborn, Danielle L. [Neurotoxicology Branch/Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Crooks, James; MacMillan, Denise K. [Analytical Chemistry Research Core/Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Hedge, Joan M.; Wood, Charles E. [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); McMahen, Rebecca L. [ORISE fellow, Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Strynar, Mark J. [Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Herr, David W. [Neurotoxicology Branch/Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of biomarkers of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. We evaluated serum biomarkers and targeted metabolite profiles after exposure to pesticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, carbaryl, triadimefon, fipronil) with different neurotoxic actions. Adult male Long–Evans rats were evaluated after single exposure to vehicle or one of two doses of each pesticide at the time of peak effect. The doses were selected to produce similar magnitude of behavioral effects across chemicals. Serum or plasma was analyzed using commercial cytokine/protein panels and targeted metabolomics. Additional studies of fipronil used lower doses (lacking behavioral effects), singly or for 14 days, and included additional markers of exposure and biological activity. Biomarker profiles varied in the number of altered analytes and patterns of change across pesticide classes, and discriminant analysis could separate treatment groups from control. Low doses of fipronil produced greater effects when given for 14 days compared to a single dose. Changes in thyroid hormones and relative amounts of fipronil and its sulfone metabolite also differed between the dosing regimens. Most cytokine changes reflected alterations in inflammatory responses, hormone levels, and products of phospholipid, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism. These findings demonstrate distinct blood-based analyte profiles across pesticide classes, dose levels, and exposure duration. These results show promise for detailed analyses of these biomarkers and their linkages to biological pathways. - Highlights: • Pesticides typical of different classes produced distinct patterns of change in biomarker panels. • Based on the panels used, alterations suggest impacts on immune, metabolism, and homeostasis functions. • Some changes may reflect actions on neurotransmitter systems involved in immune modulation. • Fipronil effects on thyroid and kinetics

  1. Assessment of serum biomarkers in rats after exposure to pesticides of different chemical classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of biomarkers of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. We evaluated serum biomarkers and targeted metabolite profiles after exposure to pesticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, carbaryl, triadimefon, fipronil) with different neurotoxic actions. Adult male Long–Evans rats were evaluated after single exposure to vehicle or one of two doses of each pesticide at the time of peak effect. The doses were selected to produce similar magnitude of behavioral effects across chemicals. Serum or plasma was analyzed using commercial cytokine/protein panels and targeted metabolomics. Additional studies of fipronil used lower doses (lacking behavioral effects), singly or for 14 days, and included additional markers of exposure and biological activity. Biomarker profiles varied in the number of altered analytes and patterns of change across pesticide classes, and discriminant analysis could separate treatment groups from control. Low doses of fipronil produced greater effects when given for 14 days compared to a single dose. Changes in thyroid hormones and relative amounts of fipronil and its sulfone metabolite also differed between the dosing regimens. Most cytokine changes reflected alterations in inflammatory responses, hormone levels, and products of phospholipid, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism. These findings demonstrate distinct blood-based analyte profiles across pesticide classes, dose levels, and exposure duration. These results show promise for detailed analyses of these biomarkers and their linkages to biological pathways. - Highlights: • Pesticides typical of different classes produced distinct patterns of change in biomarker panels. • Based on the panels used, alterations suggest impacts on immune, metabolism, and homeostasis functions. • Some changes may reflect actions on neurotransmitter systems involved in immune modulation. • Fipronil effects on thyroid and kinetics

  2. Dietary Exposure of Nigerians to Mutagens and Estrogen-Like Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyekhoetin Matthew Omoruyi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Food and drinking water are poorly delineated sources of human exposure to chemical food mutagens and endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In this study, we investigated the presence of mutagens and chemicals exhibiting estrogenic activity in the daily diet of Nigerians, using in vitro assays. Commercially processed foods or snacks and various brands of pure water sachets were extracted by solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction, respectively. Mutagenicity was determined by the conventional Ames test and two complementary assays on two strains of Salmonella (TA 100 and TA 98, while the estrogenic activity was assessed by a yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc. A third of the food varieties investigated (chin-chin, hamburger, suya and bean cake were mutagenic in all three assays, either in the presence or absence of S9 mix. Of the packed water samples, five out of the sixteen investigated (31%, were found to be estrogenic, with estradiol and bisphenol A equivalents ranging from 0.79 to 44.0 ng/L and 124.2 to 1,000.8 ng/L, respectively. Hence, although the current situation in Nigeria does not appear to be substantially worse than, e.g., in Europe, regular monitoring is warranted in the future.

  3. Potential for MERLIN-Expo, an advanced tool for higher tier exposure assessment, within the EU chemical legislative frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Nicoleta; Tediosi, Alice; Ciffroy, Philippe; Altenpohl, Annette; Brochot, Céline; Verdonck, Frederik; Ferrari, Federico; Giubilato, Elisa; Capri, Ettore; Fait, Gabriella

    2016-08-15

    MERLIN-Expo merges and integrates advanced exposure assessment methodologies, allowing the building of complex scenarios involving several pollution sources and targets. The assessment of exposure and risks to human health from chemicals is of major concern for policy and ultimately benefits all citizens. The development and operational fusion of the advanced exposure assessment methodologies envisaged in the MERLIN-Expo tool will have a significant impact in the long term on several policies dealing with chemical safety management. There are more than 30 agencies in Europe related to exposure and risk evaluation of chemicals, which have an important role in implementing EU policies, having especially tasks of technical, scientific, operational and/or regulatory nature. The main purpose of the present paper is to introduce MERLIN-Expo and to highlight its potential for being effectively integrated within the group of tools available to assess the risk and exposure of chemicals for EU policy. The main results show that the tool is highly suitable for use in site-specific or local impact assessment, with minor modifications it can also be used for Plant Protection Products (PPPs), biocides and REACH, while major additions would be required for a comprehensive application in the field of consumer and worker exposure assessment. PMID:27107646

  4. Chemical analysis of fish bile extracts for monitoring endocrine disrupting chemical exposure in water: Bisphenol A, alkylphenols, and norethindrone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minghong; Pan, Chenyuan; Yang, Ming; Xu, Bentuo; Lei, Xiangjie; Ma, Jing; Cai, Ling; Chen, Jingsi

    2016-01-01

    The present study determined concentrations of estrogenic bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol, octylphenol (4-tert-octylphenol), butylphenol (4-tert-butylphenol), and progestogenic norethindrone by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in bile extracts from field fish from the Xin'an River and market fish in Shanghai, China. Compared with the field fish, endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) concentrations in market fish bile were at relatively high levels with high detectable rates. The average concentrations of BPA, nonylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-tert-butylphenol, and norethindrone in field fish bile were 30.1 µg/L, 203 µg/L, 4.69 µg/L, 7.84 µg/L, and 0.514 µg/L, respectively; in market fish bile they were 240 µg/L, 528 µg/L, 76.5 µg/L, 12.8 µg/L, and 5.26 µg/L, respectively; and in the surface water of Xin'an River they were 38.8 ng/L, 7.91 ng/L, 1.98 ng/L, 2.66 ng/L, and 0.116 ng/L, respectively. The average of total estrogenic activity of river water was 3.32 ng/L estradiol equivalents. High bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were discovered for all 5 EDCs (≧998-fold) in field fish bile. Furthermore, the authors analyzed the BCF value of BPA in fish bile after 30-d exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA in the laboratory, and the analysis revealed that BCF in fish bile (BCF(Fish bile)) changed in an inverse concentration-dependent manner based on the log10-transformed BPA concentration in water. Strikingly, the data from the field study were well fitted within this trend. The data together suggested that analysis of fish bile extracts could be an efficient method for assessing waterborne EDCs exposure for aquatic biota.

  5. Estimating Burden and Disease Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trasande, Leonardo; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Hass, Ulla;

    2015-01-01

    ). Design: A Steering Committee of scientists adapted the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization for probability of causation based upon levels of available epidemiological and toxicological evidence for one or more chemicals contributing to disease by an endocrine...... Environmental Protection Agency for evaluating laboratory and animal evidence of endocrine disruption. Expert panels used the Delphi method to make decisions on the strength of the data. Results: Expert panels achieved consensus at least for probable (>20%) EDC causation for IQ loss and associated intellectual...... of (sic)109 billion that differed modestly from base case probability inputs. Conclusions: EDC exposures in the EU are likely to contribute substantially to disease and dysfunction across the life course with costs in the hundreds of billions of Euros per year. These estimates represent only those EDCs...

  6. Hypothesis: exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may interfere with timing of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, A; Aksglaede, L; Sørensen, K;

    2010-01-01

    A recent decline in onset of puberty - especially among girls - has been observed, first in the US in the mid-1990s and now also in Europe. The development of breast tissue in girls occurs at a much younger age and the incidence of precocious puberty (PP) is increasing. Genetic factors...... of normal puberty are poorly understood. This hampers investigation of the possible role of environmental influences. There are many types of EDCs. One chemical may have more than one mode of action and the effects may depend on dose and duration of the exposure, as well as the developmental stage...... in life. Most known EDCs have oestrogenic and/or anti-androgenic actions and only few have androgenic or anti-oestrogenic effects. Thus, it appears plausible that they interfere with normal onset of puberty. The age at menarche has only declined by a few months whereas the age at breast development has...

  7. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Challenges, priorities, and future issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigel, S. [National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Issues related to developing information resources for assessing the health effects from chemical exposure include the question of how to address the individual political issues relevant to identifying and determining the timeliness, scientific credibility, and completeness of such kinds of information resources. One of the important ways for agencies to share information is through connection tables. This type of software is presently being used to build information products for some DHHS agencies. One of the challenges will be to convince vendors of data of the importance of trying to make data files available to communities that need them. In the future, information processing will be conducted with neural networks, object-oriented database management systems, and fuzzy-set technologies, and meta analysis techniques.

  8. Does chemically dispersing crude oil increase the exposure of fish to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, S.D.; Khan, C.W.; Hodson, P.V. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

    2002-07-01

    Dispersants or surfactants are often used to clean up oil spills on water to minimize the impact of oil pollution. Their use as an oil spill countermeasure, however, is controversial because the risk of ecological effects depends on whether the dispersant increases or decreases the exposure of aquatic species to the toxic components of oil. This study involved the measurement of CYP1A induction and bile metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in trout exposed to Corexit 9500 dispersant, water accommodated fractions, and chemically enhanced water accommodated fractions of 3 crude oils. The objective was to see if fish are exposed to more PAH in dispersed oil compared to equivalent amounts of water accommodated fraction. Preliminary results indicated 10 times higher induction in fish exposed to chemically enhanced water accommodated fraction compared to water accommodated fractions. The dispersed oil in water had higher concentrations of alkylated PAH compared to the water accommodated fraction. As hydrocarbon concentrations increased, the trend for medaka embryos was first to hatch earlier, then have mild edema, followed by severe edema and finally mortality.

  9. A survey of airborne and skin exposures to chemicals in footwear and equipment factories in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Lori A; Mottus, Kathleen; Mihlan, Gary J

    2008-03-01

    This research reports on a pilot industrial hygiene study that was performed at four footwear factories and two equipment factories in Thailand. Workers in these factories were exposed through inhalation and dermal contact to a large number of organic vapors from solvents and cements that were hand applied. In addition, these workers were exposed to highly toxic isocyanates primarily through the dermal route. A total of 286 personal air samples were obtained at the four footwear factories using organic vapor monitors; individual job tasks were monitored using a real-time MIRAN Spectrometer. A total of 64 surface, tool, or hand samples were monitored for isocyanates using surface contamination detectors. Real-time measurements were also obtained for organic vapors in two equipment factories. From 8% to 21% of the workers sampled in each footwear factory were overexposed to mixtures of chemicals from solvents and cements. Up to 100% of the workers performing specific job tasks were overexposed to mixtures of chemicals. From 39% to 69% of the surface samples were positive for unreacted isocyanates. Many of the real-time measurements obtained in the equipment factories exceeded occupational exposure limits. Personal protective equipment and engineering controls were inadequate in all of the factories. PMID:18213531

  10. Occupation and occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in male breast cancer: a case-control study in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villeneuve, Sara; Cyr, Diane; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2010-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease of largely unknown aetiology. In addition to genetic and hormone-related risk factors, a large number of environmental chemicals are suspected of playing a role in breast cancer. The identification of occupations or occupational exposures associated with an in......Male breast cancer is a rare disease of largely unknown aetiology. In addition to genetic and hormone-related risk factors, a large number of environmental chemicals are suspected of playing a role in breast cancer. The identification of occupations or occupational exposures associated...

  11. Dermal permeation data and models for the prioritization and screening-level exposure assessment of organic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Trevor N; Armitage, James M; Egeghy, Peter; Kircanski, Ida; Arnot, Jon A

    2016-09-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) models are being developed and applied to prioritize chemicals for more comprehensive exposure and risk assessment. Dermal pathways are possible exposure routes to humans for thousands of chemicals found in personal care products and the indoor environment. HTS exposure models rely on skin permeability coefficient (KP; cm/h) models for exposure predictions. An initial database of approximately 1000 entries for empirically-based KP data was compiled from the literature and a subset of 480 data points for 245 organic chemicals derived from testing with human skin only and using only water as a vehicle was selected. The selected dataset includes chemicals with log octanol-water partition coefficients (KOW) ranging from -6.8 to 7.6 (median=1.8; 95% of the data range from -2.5 to 4.6) and molecular weight (MW) ranging from 18 to 765g/mol (median=180); only 3% >500g/mol. Approximately 53% of the chemicals in the database have functional groups which are ionizable in the pH range of 6 to 7.4, with 31% being appreciably ionized. The compiled log KP values ranged from -5.8 to 0.1cm/h (median=-2.6). The selected subset of the KP data was then used to evaluate eight representative KP models that can be readily applied for HTS assessments, i.e., parameterized with KOW and MW. The analysis indicates that a version of the SKINPERM model performs the best against the selected dataset. Comparisons of representative KP models against model input parameter property ranges (sensitivity analysis) and against chemical datasets requiring human health assessment were conducted to identify regions of chemical properties that should be tested to address uncertainty in KP models and HTS exposure assessments. PMID:27282209

  12. Comparison of the rationale used in setting occupational exposure standards for ionizing radiation and hazardous chemical substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten chemicals which create significant occupational hazard are reviewed. They are toluene diisocyanate, hydrogen fluoride, n-hexane, carbon disulphide, cadmium, inorganic mercury, cobalt, nitroglycerol, silica and vinyl chloride. Each is discussed under the headings of physiological intake and elimination in humans, characteristics of acute and chronic toxicity, sites of occupational exposure and rationale for limits of such exposure. Since radioactive substances yield ionizing radiation as the common hazard the treatment of the current permissible levels of exposure is somewhat simpler. Having set out industrial standards for exposure to hazardous substances and radionuclides, a detailed comparison is made. Exposure limits to ioninzing radiation are sufficiently low to remove the appearance of directly related injury. It is expected however that low level exposure may have a stochastic effect, that is, there is the possibility of a slightly increased incidence of neoplasms in a large exposed population, but numbers will be too small to be able to attribute any particular case to the exposure. TLVs on the other hand, depending on the particular chemical, may be high enough in the workplace to permit some directly related signs or symptoms in the exposed individual. 244 refs

  13. Modelling the impact of the environmental scenario on population recovery from chemical stress exposure: a case study using Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabsi, Faten; Preuss, Thomas G

    2014-11-01

    Recovery of organisms is an important attribute for evaluating the acceptability of chemicals' effects in ecological risk assessment in Europe. Recovery in the field does not depend on the chemical's properties and type of exposure only, but it is strongly linked to important environmental variables and biological interactions as well. Yet, these remain only marginally considered in the European risk assessment of chemicals. Here, we use individual-based modelling to investigate how the environmental scenario affects Daphnia magna population recovery from chemical exposure. Simulation experiments were performed for chemicals with lethality levels ranging from 40% to 90% at different food and temperature conditions. The same toxicity levels were then tested in combination with biological interactions including predation or competition. Results show that for the same chemical effect strength, populations often exhibited different recovery times in a different environmental context. The interactions between the chemical and the environmental variables were the strongest determinants of population recovery. Most important, biotic interactions even induced opposite effects on recovery at low and at high mortality levels. Results of this study infer that no specific role can be attributed to any abiotic or biotic variable in isolation. We conclude that unless the complex interactive mechanisms between the different factors constituting the full environmental scenario are taken into account in risk assessment, we cannot achieve a complete understanding of recovery processes from chemical effects. PMID:25261821

  14. Endocrine-Disrupting Activity of Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Adverse Health Outcomes After Prenatal Exposure in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Klemp, Kara C; Vu, Danh C; Lin, Chung-Ho; Meng, Chun-Xia; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L; Pinatti, Lisa; Zoeller, R Thomas; Drobnis, Erma Z; Balise, Victoria D; Isiguzo, Chiamaka J; Williams, Michelle A; Tillitt, Donald E; Nagel, Susan C

    2015-12-01

    Oil and natural gas operations have been shown to contaminate surface and ground water with endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In the current study, we fill several gaps in our understanding of the potential environmental impacts related to this process. We measured the endocrine-disrupting activities of 24 chemicals used and/or produced by oil and gas operations for five nuclear receptors using a reporter gene assay in human endometrial cancer cells. We also quantified the concentration of 16 of these chemicals in oil and gas wastewater samples. Finally, we assessed reproductive and developmental outcomes in male C57BL/6J mice after the prenatal exposure to a mixture of these chemicals. We found that 23 commonly used oil and natural gas operation chemicals can activate or inhibit the estrogen, androgen, glucocorticoid, progesterone, and/or thyroid receptors, and mixtures of these chemicals can behave synergistically, additively, or antagonistically in vitro. Prenatal exposure to a mixture of 23 oil and gas operation chemicals at 3, 30, and 300 μg/kg · d caused decreased sperm counts and increased testes, body, heart, and thymus weights and increased serum testosterone in male mice, suggesting multiple organ system impacts. Our results suggest possible adverse developmental and reproductive health outcomes in humans and animals exposed to potential environmentally relevant levels of oil and gas operation chemicals. PMID:26465197

  15. Endocrine-Disrupting Activity of Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Adverse Health Outcomes After Prenatal Exposure in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Klemp, Kara C; Vu, Danh C; Lin, Chung-Ho; Meng, Chun-Xia; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L; Pinatti, Lisa; Zoeller, R Thomas; Drobnis, Erma Z; Balise, Victoria D; Isiguzo, Chiamaka J; Williams, Michelle A; Tillitt, Donald E; Nagel, Susan C

    2015-12-01

    Oil and natural gas operations have been shown to contaminate surface and ground water with endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In the current study, we fill several gaps in our understanding of the potential environmental impacts related to this process. We measured the endocrine-disrupting activities of 24 chemicals used and/or produced by oil and gas operations for five nuclear receptors using a reporter gene assay in human endometrial cancer cells. We also quantified the concentration of 16 of these chemicals in oil and gas wastewater samples. Finally, we assessed reproductive and developmental outcomes in male C57BL/6J mice after the prenatal exposure to a mixture of these chemicals. We found that 23 commonly used oil and natural gas operation chemicals can activate or inhibit the estrogen, androgen, glucocorticoid, progesterone, and/or thyroid receptors, and mixtures of these chemicals can behave synergistically, additively, or antagonistically in vitro. Prenatal exposure to a mixture of 23 oil and gas operation chemicals at 3, 30, and 300 μg/kg · d caused decreased sperm counts and increased testes, body, heart, and thymus weights and increased serum testosterone in male mice, suggesting multiple organ system impacts. Our results suggest possible adverse developmental and reproductive health outcomes in humans and animals exposed to potential environmentally relevant levels of oil and gas operation chemicals.

  16. Environmental chemicals in human milk: a review of levels, infant exposures and health, and guidance for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this review is to introduce the reader to various science and policy aspects of the topic of environmental chemicals in human milk. Although information on environmental chemicals in human milk has been available since the 1950s, it is only relatively recently that public awareness of the issue has grown. This review on environmental chemicals in human milk provides a resource summarizing what is currently known about levels and trends of environmental chemicals in human milk, potential infant exposures, and benefits of breast-feeding relative to the risks of exposures to environmental chemicals. The term 'environmental chemicals', as it pertains to human milk, refers to many classes of exogenous chemicals that may be detected in human milk. For example, pharmaceutical agents and alcohol are environmental chemicals that have been found in human milk. Other chemicals, such as heavy metals and volatile organic compounds, have also been detected in human milk. Most research on environmental chemicals in human milk has concentrated on persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals. In this review, a description of human milk is provided, including a brief review of endogenous substances in human milk. Determinants of levels of PBTs are discussed, as are models that have been developed to predict levels of PBTs in human milk and associated body burdens in breast-feeding infants. Methodologies for human milk sampling and analysis, and concepts for consideration in interpretation and communication of study results, as developed by the Technical Workshop on Human Milk Surveillance and Research for Environmental Chemicals in the United States are described. Studies which have compared the health risks and benefits associated with breast-feeding and formula-feeding are discussed

  17. Self-care Decontamination within a Chemical Exposure Mass-casualty Incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Raymond G; Pearce, Laurie D R

    2015-06-01

    Growing awareness and concern for the increasing frequency of incidents involving hazardous materials (HazMat) across a broad spectrum of contaminants from chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) sources indicates a clear need to refine the capability to respond successfully to mass-casualty contamination incidents. Best results for decontamination from a chemical agent will be achieved if done within minutes following exposure, and delays in decontamination will increase the length of time a casualty is in contact with the contaminate. The findings presented in this report indicate that casualties involved in a HazMat/CBRN mass-casualty incident (MCI) in a typical community would not receive sufficient on-scene care because of operational delays that are integral to a standard HazMat/CBRN first response. This delay in response will mean that casualty care will shift away from the incident scene into already over-tasked health care facilities as casualties seek aid on their own. The self-care decontamination protocols recommended here present a viable option to ensure decontamination is completed in the field, at the incident scene, and that casualties are cared for more quickly and less traumatically than they would be otherwise. Introducing self-care decontamination procedures as a standard first response within the response community will improve the level of care significantly and provide essential, self-care decontamination to casualties. The process involves three distinct stages which should not be delayed; these are summarized by the acronym MADE: Move/Assist, Disrobe/Decontaminate, Evaluate/Evacuate.

  18. Advancing environmental toxicology through chemical dosimetry: External exposures versus tissue residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, L.S.; Landrum, P.F.; Luoma, S.N.; Meador, J.P.; Merten, A.A.; Shephard, B.K.; van Wezelzz, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    The tissue residue dose concept has been used, although in a limited manner, in environmental toxicology for more than 100 y. This review outlines the history of this approach and the technical background for organic chemicals and metals. Although the toxicity of both can be explained in tissue residue terms, the relationship between external exposure concentration, body and/or tissues dose surrogates, and the effective internal dose at the sites of toxic action tends to be more complex for metals. Various issues and current limitations related to research and regulatory applications are also examined. It is clear that the tissue residue approach (TRA) should be an integral component in future efforts to enhance the generation, understanding, and utility of toxicity testing data, both in the laboratory and in the field. To accomplish these goals, several key areas need to be addressed: 1) development of a risk-based interpretive framework linking toxicology and ecology at multiple levels of biological organization and incorporating organism-based dose metrics; 2) a broadly applicable, generally accepted classification scheme for modes/mechanisms of toxic action with explicit consideration of residue information to improve both single chemical and mixture toxicity data interpretation and regulatory risk assessment; 3) toxicity testing protocols updated to ensure collection of adequate residue information, along with toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics information, based on explicitly defined toxicological models accompanied by toxicological model validation; 4) continued development of residueeffect databases is needed ensure their ongoing utility; and 5) regulatory guidance incorporating residue-based testing and interpretation approaches, essential in various jurisdictions. ??:2010 SETAC.

  19. Evaluation of semi-generic PBTK modeling for emergency risk assessment after acute inhalation exposure to volatile hazardous chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olie, J. Daniël N; Bessems, Jos G.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency risk assessment after chemical incidents with inhalation exposure, but they are rarely used due to their relative complexity and skill requirements. We aimed to tackle this problem by evaluating a semi-generic PBT

  20. Using Alternative Approaches to Prioritize Testing for the Universe of Chemicals with Potential for Human Exposure (WC9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    One use of alternative methods is to target animal use at only those chemicals and tests that are absolutely necessary. We discuss prioritization of testing based on high-throughput screening assays (HTS), QSAR modeling, high-throughput toxicokinetics (HTTK), and exposure modelin...

  1. GENE ARRAYS FOR ELUCIDATING MECHANISTIC DATA FROM MODELS OF MALE INFERTILITY AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURE IN MICE, RATS AND HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene arrays for elucidating mechanistic data from models of male infertility and chemical exposure in mice, rats and humansJohn C. Rockett and David J. Dix Gamete and Early Embryo Biology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects ...

  2. Evaluating the Impact of Uncertainties in Clearance and Exposure When Prioritizing Chemicals Screened in High-Throughput Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The toxicity-testing paradigm has evolved to include high-throughput (HT) methods for addressing the increasing need to screen hundreds to thousands of chemicals rapidly. Approaches that involve in vitro screening assays, in silico predictions of exposure concentrations, and phar...

  3. Harmonisation of food consumption data format for dietary exposure assessments of chemicals analysed in raw agricultural commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; Ruprich, Jiri; Petersen, Annette;

    2009-01-01

    in RACs at a European level. In this approach, consumption data needs to be converted to edible part of RAC (e-RAC) level using a RAC conversion database. To subsequently use this data in exposure assessments, both e-RACs and RACs analysed in chemical control programmes should be classified via a uniform...... system. Furthermore, chemical concentrations in RACs may need to be converted to e-RAC level using processing factors. To illustrate the use of this approach, we describe how the Dutch RAC conversion database was used to convert consumption data of four national consumption surveys to e-RAC level......In this paper, we present an approach to format national food consumption data at raw agricultural commodity (RAC) level. In this way, the data is both formatted in a harmonised way given the comparability of RACs between countries, and suitable to assess the dietary exposure to chemicals analysed...

  4. Chemical exposure-response relationship between air pollutants and reactive oxygen species in the human respiratory tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Pascale S. J.; Berkemeier, Thomas; Tong, Haijie; Arangio, Andrea M.; Lucas, Kurt; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    2016-09-01

    Air pollution can cause oxidative stress and adverse health effects such as asthma and other respiratory diseases, but the underlying chemical processes are not well characterized. Here we present chemical exposure-response relations between ambient concentrations of air pollutants and the production rates and concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the human respiratory tract. In highly polluted environments, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) containing redox-active transition metals, quinones, and secondary organic aerosols can increase ROS concentrations in the ELF to levels characteristic for respiratory diseases. Ambient ozone readily saturates the ELF and can enhance oxidative stress by depleting antioxidants and surfactants. Chemical exposure-response relations provide a quantitative basis for assessing the relative importance of specific air pollutants in different regions of the world, showing that aerosol-induced epithelial ROS levels in polluted megacity air can be several orders of magnitude higher than in pristine rainforest air.

  5. Chemical exposure-response relationship between air pollutants and reactive oxygen species in the human respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Pascale S J; Berkemeier, Thomas; Tong, Haijie; Arangio, Andrea M; Lucas, Kurt; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution can cause oxidative stress and adverse health effects such as asthma and other respiratory diseases, but the underlying chemical processes are not well characterized. Here we present chemical exposure-response relations between ambient concentrations of air pollutants and the production rates and concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the human respiratory tract. In highly polluted environments, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) containing redox-active transition metals, quinones, and secondary organic aerosols can increase ROS concentrations in the ELF to levels characteristic for respiratory diseases. Ambient ozone readily saturates the ELF and can enhance oxidative stress by depleting antioxidants and surfactants. Chemical exposure-response relations provide a quantitative basis for assessing the relative importance of specific air pollutants in different regions of the world, showing that aerosol-induced epithelial ROS levels in polluted megacity air can be several orders of magnitude higher than in pristine rainforest air. PMID:27605301

  6. Chemical exposure-response relationship between air pollutants and reactive oxygen species in the human respiratory tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Pascale S. J.; Berkemeier, Thomas; Tong, Haijie; Arangio, Andrea M.; Lucas, Kurt; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution can cause oxidative stress and adverse health effects such as asthma and other respiratory diseases, but the underlying chemical processes are not well characterized. Here we present chemical exposure-response relations between ambient concentrations of air pollutants and the production rates and concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the human respiratory tract. In highly polluted environments, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) containing redox-active transition metals, quinones, and secondary organic aerosols can increase ROS concentrations in the ELF to levels characteristic for respiratory diseases. Ambient ozone readily saturates the ELF and can enhance oxidative stress by depleting antioxidants and surfactants. Chemical exposure-response relations provide a quantitative basis for assessing the relative importance of specific air pollutants in different regions of the world, showing that aerosol-induced epithelial ROS levels in polluted megacity air can be several orders of magnitude higher than in pristine rainforest air. PMID:27605301

  7. Supersymmetry: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some lectures in these proceedings examine the theoretical basis for supersymmetry, recent developments in theories with compact dimensions, and experimental searches for supersymmetric signatures. Technologies are explored for obtaining very high energy electron-positron colliding beams. Separate abstracts were prepared for 35 papers in these conference proceedings

  8. Supersymmetry: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, E.C. (ed.)

    1985-07-01

    Some lectures in these proceedings examine the theoretical basis for supersymmetry, recent developments in theories with compact dimensions, and experimental searches for supersymmetric signatures. Technologies are explored for obtaining very high energy electron-positron colliding beams. Separate abstracts were prepared for 35 papers in these conference proceedings. (LEW)

  9. Proceedings of the 3. International conference on waste management in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Volume 1 and 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Francisco F.; Pereira Filho, Francisco A.; Almeida, Sergio A.S. [eds.

    1993-12-31

    To produce without pollution is today a mandate for the preservation of our society. To produce cleaner means to conserve energy and natural resources, to reduce the use of toxic substances, to invest in the evolution of products and production processes towards a minimum of residues. The Third International Conference on Waste Minimization in the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries addresses these challenging questions regarding waste minimization

  10. NUMERICAL ALGORITHMS AT NON-ZERO CHEMICAL POTENTIAL. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, VOLUME 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLUM,T.

    1999-09-14

    The RIKEN BNL Research Center hosted its 19th workshop April 27th through May 1, 1999. The topic was Numerical Algorithms at Non-Zero Chemical Potential. QCD at a non-zero chemical potential (non-zero density) poses a long-standing unsolved challenge for lattice gauge theory. Indeed, it is the primary unresolved issue in the fundamental formulation of lattice gauge theory. The chemical potential renders conventional lattice actions complex, practically excluding the usual Monte Carlo techniques which rely on a positive definite measure for the partition function. This ''sign'' problem appears in a wide range of physical systems, ranging from strongly coupled electronic systems to QCD. The lack of a viable numerical technique at non-zero density is particularly acute since new exotic ''color superconducting'' phases of quark matter have recently been predicted in model calculations. A first principles confirmation of the phase diagram is desirable since experimental verification is not expected soon. At the workshop several proposals for new algorithms were made: cluster algorithms, direct simulation of Grassman variables, and a bosonization of the fermion determinant. All generated considerable discussion and seem worthy of continued investigation. Several interesting results using conventional algorithms were also presented: condensates in four fermion models, SU(2) gauge theory in fundamental and adjoint representations, and lessons learned from strong; coupling, non-zero temperature and heavy quarks applied to non-zero density simulations.

  11. A decision support framework for characterizing and managing dermal exposures to chemicals during Emergency Management and Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, G Scott; Hudson, Naomi L; Maier, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Emergency Management and Operations (EMO) personnel are in need of resources and tools to assist in understanding the health risks associated with dermal exposures during chemical incidents. This article reviews available resources and presents a conceptual framework for a decision support system (DSS) that assists in characterizing and managing risk during chemical emergencies involving dermal exposures. The framework merges principles of three decision-making techniques: 1) scenario planning, 2) risk analysis, and 3) multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). This DSS facilitates dynamic decision making during each of the distinct life cycle phases of an emergency incident (ie, preparedness, response, or recovery) and identifies EMO needs. A checklist tool provides key questions intended to guide users through the complexities of conducting a dermal risk assessment. The questions define the scope of the framework for resource identification and application to support decision-making needs. The framework consists of three primary modules: 1) resource compilation, 2) prioritization, and 3) decision. The modules systematically identify, organize, and rank relevant information resources relating to the hazards of dermal exposures to chemicals and risk management strategies. Each module is subdivided into critical elements designed to further delineate the resources based on relevant incident phase and type of information. The DSS framework provides a much needed structure based on contemporary decision analysis principles for 1) documenting key questions for EMO problem formulation and 2) a method for systematically organizing, screening, and prioritizing information resources on dermal hazards, exposures, risk characterization, and management.

  12. RISKOFDERM: Risk Assessment of Occupational Dermal Exposure to Chemicals. An Introduction to a Series of Papers on the Development of a Toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van; Auffarth, J.; Evans, P.G.; Rajan-Sithamparanadarajah, B.; Marquart, H.; Oppl, R.

    2003-01-01

    Dermal exposure to industrial chemicals during work is of major concern in the risk assessment of chemicals. Current approaches in procedures for European legislation are not based on experimental data on dermal exposures in workplaces because these are lacking. A large project, with four interrelat

  13. NMR analysis of male fathead minnow urinary metabolites: A potential approach for studying impacts of chemical exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekman, D.R. [Ecosystems Research Division, U.S. EPA, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States)], E-mail: ekman.drew@epa.gov; Teng, Q. [Ecosystems Research Division, U.S. EPA, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Jensen, K.M.; Martinovic, D.; Villeneuve, D.L.; Ankley, G.T. [Mid-Continent Ecology Division, U.S. EPA, 6201 Congdon Boulevard, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Collette, T.W. [Ecosystems Research Division, U.S. EPA, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States)

    2007-11-30

    The potential for profiling metabolites in urine from male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to assess chemical exposures was explored using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy was used for the assignment of metabolites in urine from unexposed fish. Because fathead minnow urine is dilute, we lyophilized these samples prior to analysis. Furthermore, 1D {sup 1}H NMR spectra of unlyophilized urine from unexposed male fathead minnow and Sprague-Dawley rat were acquired to qualitatively compare rat and fish metabolite profiles and to provide an estimate of the total urinary metabolite pool concentration difference. As a small proof-of-concept study, lyophilized urine samples from male fathead minnows exposed to three different concentrations of the antiandrogen vinclozolin were analyzed by 1D {sup 1}H NMR to assess exposure-induced changes. Through a combination of principal components analysis (PCA) and measurements of {sup 1}H NMR peak intensities, several metabolites were identified as changing with statistical significance in response to exposure. Among those changes occurring in response to exposure to the highest concentration (450 {mu}g/L) of vinclozolin were large increases in taurine, lactate, acetate, and formate. These increases coincided with a marked decrease in hippurate, a combination potentially indicative of hepatotoxicity. The results of these investigations clearly demonstrate the potential utility of an NMR-based approach for assessing chemical exposures in male fathead minnow, using urine collected from individual fish.

  14. Residential and biological exposure assessment of chemicals from a wood treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, James; Takhar, Harpreet; Schecter, Arnold; Schmidt, Reynold; Horsak, Randy; Paepke, Olaf; Warshaw, Raphael; Lee, Alexander; Anderson-Mahoney, Pamela

    2007-04-01

    This paper evaluates the results of contamination of residents and residential homes located in close proximity to a Wood Treatment Plant. The plant has produced treated wood products continuously since 1904. The principle chemicals used to treat the wood, which is primarily used for railroad ties (oblong objects laid perpendicular to the rails to act as a base for the tracks), are creosote and pentachlorophenol. For a number of years, the plant burned treated waste wood products containing creosote and pentachlorophenol. First the plant pressure impregnates the wood with creosote and pentachlorophenol, and then the wood is stacked on open ground to allow it to air dry. Chemicals from recently treated wood ties are allowed to evaporate into the air or drip onto the ground surrounding the stacked wood. Small drainage ditches carry the liquid wastes into larger water channels where eventually the waste streams are discharged into a river adjacent to the plant. The river serves as a source of drinking water for the nearby community. Prevailing wind patterns favor a drift of air emissions from the plant's boiler stack over the nearby community and its residents. Over the past few years, the town's residents have become increasingly concerned about their health status and have voiced concerns regarding multiple health problems (including cancer), possibly associated with plant discharges. The intention of this study is to examine a representative sample of the potentially affected residents and to evaluate their residential environment for the presence of dioxin and/or its congeners. Data obtained from EPA's Toxic Release Information (TRI) database revealed the plant routinely discharged creosote, pentachlorophenol, dioxin and dioxin-like compounds into the ambient air via fugitive air emissions and surface waste waters. Sampling of household dust and water sediment within and outside of residences within a 2-mile radius of the plant revealed the presence of

  15. Determinants of Exposure to Fragranced Product Chemical Mixtures in a Sample of Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew O. Gribble

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragranced product chemical mixtures may be relevant for environmental health, but little is known about exposure. We analyzed results from an olfactory challenge with the synthetic musk fragrance 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopento-γ-2-benzopyran (HHCB, and a questionnaire about attitudes toward chemical safety and use of fragranced products, in a sample of 140 white and 17 black twin pairs attending a festival in Ohio. Data for each product were analyzed using robust ordered logistic regressions with random intercepts for “twin pair” and “sharing address with twin”, and fixed effects for sex, age, education, and “ever being bothered by fragrances”. Due to the small number of black participants, models were restricted to white participants except when examining racial differences. Overall patterns of association were summarized across product-types through random-effects meta-analysis. Principal components analysis was used to summarize clustering of product use. The dominant axis of variability in fragranced product use was “more vs. less”, followed by a distinction between household cleaning products and personal care products. Overall, males used fragranced products less frequently than females (adjusted proportionate odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33, 0.93. This disparity was driven by personal care products (0.42, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.96, rather than household cleaning products (0.79, 95% CI: 0.49, 1.25 and was particularly evident for body lotion (0.12, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.27. Overall usage differed by age (0.64, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.95 but only hand soap and shampoo products differed significantly. “Ever being bothered by fragrance” had no overall association (0.92, 95% CI: 0.65, 1.30 but was associated with laundry detergent use (0.46, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.93. Similarly, black vs. white differences on average were not significant (1.34, 95% CI: 0.55, 3.28 but there were apparent differences in use of

  16. Challenge toward breakage of RLS trade-off for EUV lithography by Photosensitized Chemically Amplified Resist (PSCAR) with flood exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Seiji; Carcasi, Michael; Nakagawa, Hisashi; Buitrago, Elizabeth; Yildirim, Oktay; Shiraishi, Gosuke; Terashita, Yuichi; Minekawa, Yukie; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Tomono, Masaru; Mizoguchi, Hironori; Estrella, Joel; Nagai, Tomoki; Naruoka, Takehiko; Dei, Satoshi; Hori, Masafumi; Oshima, Akihiro; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Ekinci, Yasin; Meeuwissen, Marieke; Verspaget, Coen; Hoefnagels, Rik; Rispens, Gijsbert; Maas, Raymond; Nakashima, Hideo; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a promising approach to break the resolution (R), line-edge-roughness (LER), and sensitivity (S) trade-off (RLS trade-off) relationships that limit the ultimate lithographic performance of standard chemically amplified resists (CAR). This is accomplished in a process that uses a Photosensitized Chemically Amplified Resist (PSCAR) in combination with a flood-exposure in an in-line track connected to a pattern exposure tool. PSCAR is a modified CAR which contains a photosensitizer precursor (PP) in addition to other standard CAR components such as a protected polymer, a photo acid generator (PAG) and a quencher. In this paper, the PSCAR concept and the required conditions in resist formulation are carefully explained. In the PSCAR process, the sensitivity improvement is accomplished by PAG decomposition to selectively generate more acid at the pattern exposed areas during the flood exposure. The selective photosensitization happens through the excitation of the photosensitizer (PS) generated by the deprotection of the PP at the pattern exposed areas. A higher resist chemical gradient which leads to an improved resolution and lower LER values is also predicted using the PSCAR simulator. In the PSCAR process, the improved chemical gradient can be realized by dual acid quenching steps with the help of increased quencher concentration. Acid quenching first happens simultaneously with acid catalytic PP to PS reactions. As a result, a sharpened PS latent image is created in the PSCAR. This image is subsequently excited by the flood exposure creating additional acid products at the pattern exposed areas only. Much the same as in the standard CAR system, unnecessary acid present in the non-pattern exposed areas can be neutralized by the remaining quencher to therefore produce sharper acid latent images. EUV exposure results down to 15 nm half pitch (HP) line/space (L/S) patterns using a PSCAR resist indicate that the use of PSCAR has the potential to

  17. Study of Gamma Ray Exposure Buildup Factor for Some Ceramics with Photon Energy, Penetration Depth and Chemical Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejbir Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma ray exposure buildup factor for some ceramics such as boron nitride (BN, magnesium diboride (MgB2, silicon carbide (SiC, titanium carbide (TiC and ferrite (Fe3O4 has been computed using five parametric geometric progression (G.P. fitting method in the energy range of 0.015 to 15.0 MeV, up to the penetration of 40 mean free path (mfp. The variation of exposure buildup factors for all the selected ceramics with incident photon energy, penetration depth, and chemical composition has been studied.

  18. Influence of glutathione chemical effectors in the response of maize to arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, Raquel; Tena, Manuel

    2012-05-01

    To support the key role of glutathione (GSH) in the mechanisms of tolerance and accumulation of arsenic in plants, this work examines the impact of several effectors of GSH synthesis or action in the response of maize (Zea mays L.) to arsenic. Maize was exposed in hydroponics to iso-toxic rates of 150 μM arsenate or 75 μM arsenite for 9 days and GSH effectors, flurazole (an herbicide safener), l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO, a known inhibitor of GSH biosynthesis), and dimercaptosuccinate (DMS) and dimercaptopropanesulfonate (DMPS) (two thiols able to displace GSH from arsenite-GSH complexes) were assayed. The main responses of plants to arsenic exposure consisted of a biomass reduction (fresh weight basis) of about 50%, an increase of non-protein thiol (NPTs) levels (especially in the GSH precursor γ-glutamylcysteine and the phytochelatins PC₂ and PC₃) in roots, with little effect in shoots, and an accumulation of between 600 and 1000 ppm of As (dry weight basis) in roots with very little translocation to shoots. Growth inhibition caused by arsenic was partially or completely reversed in plants co-treated with flurazole and arsenate or arsenite, respectively, highly exacerbated in plants co-treated with BSO, and not modified in plants co-treated with DMS or DMPS. These responses correlated well with an increase of both NPTs levels in roots and glutathione transferase activity in roots and shoots due to flurazole treatment, the decrease of NPTs levels in roots caused by BSO and the lack of effect on NPT levels caused by both DMS and DMPS. Regarding to arsenic accumulation in roots, it was not modified by flurazole, highly reduced by BSO, and increased between 2.5- and 4.0-fold by DMS and DMPS. Therefore, tolerance and accumulation of arsenic by maize could be manipulated pharmacologically by chemical effectors of GSH.

  19. Human toxicology of chemical mixtures toxic consequences beyond the impact of one-component product and environmental exposures

    CERN Document Server

    Zeliger, Harold I

    2011-01-01

    In this important reference work, Zeliger catalogs the known effects of chemical mixtures on the human body and also proposes a framework for understanding and predicting their actions in terms of lipophile (fat soluble)/hydrophile (water soluble) interactions. The author's focus is on illnesses that ensue following exposures to mixtures of chemicals that cannot be attributed to any one component of the mixture. In the first part the mechanisms of chemical absorption at a molecular and macromolecular level are explained, as well as the body's methods of defending itself against xenobiotic intrusion. Part II examines the sources of the chemicals discussed, looking at air and water pollution, food additives, pharmaceuticals, etc. Part III, which includes numerous case studies, examines specific effects of particular mixtures on particular body systems and organs and presents a theoretical framework for predicting what the effects of uncharacterized mixtures might be. Part IV covers regulatory requirements and t...

  20. Survey on methodologies in the risk assessment of chemical exposures in emergency response situations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinälä, Milla; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Wood, Maureen Heraty;

    2013-01-01

    A scientifically sound assessment of the risk to human health resulting from acute chemical releases is the cornerstone for chemical incident prevention, preparedness and response. Although the general methodology to identify acute toxicity of chemicals has not substantially changed in the last...... decades, there is ongoing debate on the current approaches for human health risk assessment in scenarios involving acute chemical releases.A survey was conducted to identify: (1) the most important present and potential future chemical incident scenarios and anticipated changes in chemical incidents...

  1. Association between airborne PM2.5 chemical constituents and birth weight—implication of buffer exposure assignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several papers reported associations between airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and birth weight, though findings are inconsistent across studies. Conflicting results might be due to (1) different PM2.5 chemical structure across locations, and (2) various exposure assignment methods across studies even among the studies that use ambient monitors to assess exposure. We investigated associations between birth weight and PM2.5 chemical constituents, considering issues arising from choice of buffer size (i.e. distance between residence and pollution monitor). We estimated the association between each pollutant and term birth weight applying buffers of 5 to 30 km in Connecticut (2000–2006), in the New England region of the USA. We also investigated the implication of the choice of buffer size in relation to population characteristics, such as socioeconomic status. Results indicate that some PM2.5 chemical constituents, such as nitrate, are associated with lower birth weight and appear more harmful than other constituents. However, associations vary with buffer size and the implications of different buffer sizes may differ by pollutant. A homogeneous pollutant level within a certain distance is a common assumption in many environmental epidemiology studies, but the validity of this assumption may vary by pollutant. Furthermore, we found that areas close to monitors reflect more minority and lower socio-economic populations, which implies that different exposure approaches may result in different types of study populations. Our findings demonstrate that choosing an exposure method involves key tradeoffs of the impacts of exposure misclassification, sample size, and population characteristics. (letter)

  2. Development of aquarium fish models for environmental carcinogenesis: an intermittent-flow exposure system for volatile, hydrophobic chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, W.W.; Manning, C.S.; Overstreet, R.M.; Hawkins, W.E.

    1985-08-01

    An intermittent-flow exposure system was designed to provide stable and manipulative concentrations of volatile and hydrophobic compounds to small aquatic animals for uninterrupted long periods. Test species for 28-day experiments included two aquarium fishes, the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and the king cobra guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Test chemicals included trichloroethylene, vinylidene chloride, bis(2-chloroethyl)ether, ethylene dichloride, and a mixture of carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, chlorodibromomethane and bromoform. These compounds are drinking water biorefractories and are potentially carcinogenic. Concentrated aqueous toxicant solutions, delivered from a remote triple carboy dispensing system, were mixed with diluent water within an isolated chamber containing exposure aquaria and test fish. Toxicant concentrations measured throughout each exposure period proved to be stable within acceptable variability ranges as indicated by coefficients of variation generally less than 15%.

  3. Human exposure modeling in a life cycle framework for chemicals and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    A chemical enters into commerce to serve a specific function in a product or process. This decision triggers both the manufacture of the chemical and its potential release over the life cycle of the product. Efficiently evaluating chemical safety and sustainability requires combi...

  4. Safeguarding Our Children at Home: Reducing Exposures to Toxic Chemicals and Heavy Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elise; Snow, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Emerging research suggests that exposure to environmental pollutants, prenatally and in early childhood, may contribute significantly to diseases and disabilities. For example, exposures to mercury or lead early in life can impact the nervous system and brain, potentially contributing to learning, behavioral, and developmental disabilities. The…

  5. Noninvasive Biomonitoring Approaches to Determine Dosimetry and Risk Following Acute Chemical Exposure: Analysis of Lead or Organophosphate Insecticide in Saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a need to develop approaches for assessing risk associated with acute exposures to a broad-range of chemical agents and to rapidly determine the potential implications to human health. Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantitate dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. Saliva has been used to evaluate a broad range of biomarkers, drugs, and environmental contaminants including heavy metals and pesticides. To advance the application of non-invasive biomonitoring a microfluidic/ electrochemical device has also been developed for the analysis of lead (Pb), using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The system demonstrates a linear response over a broad concentration range (1 2000 ppb) and is capable of quantitating saliva Pb in rats orally administered acute doses of Pb-acetate. Appropriate pharmacokinetic analyses have been used to quantitate systemic dosimetry based on determination of saliva Pb concentrations. In addition, saliva has recently been used to quantitate dosimetry following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos in a rodent model system by measuring the major metabolite, trichloropyridinol, and saliva cholinesterase inhibition following acute exposures. These results suggest that technology developed for non-invasive biomonitoring can provide a sensitive, and portable analytical tool capable of assessing exposure and risk in real-time. By coupling these non-invasive technologies with pharmacokinetic modeling it is feasible to rapidly quantitate acute exposure to a broad range of chemical agents. In summary, it is envisioned that once fully developed, these monitoring and modeling approaches will be useful for accessing acute exposure and health risk

  6. Proceedings of biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the proceedings of Biodegradation. Topics include:biodegradation using the tools of biotechnology, basic science aspects of biodegradation, the physiological characteristics of microorganisms, the use of selective techniques that enhance the process of microbial evolution of biodegradative genes in nature, the genetic characteristics of microorganisms allowing them to biodegrade both natural and synthetic toxic chemicals, the molecular techniques that allow selective assembly of genetic segments form a variety of bacterial strains to a single strain, and methods needed to advance biodegradation research as well as the high-priority chemical problems important to the Department of Defense or to the chemical industry

  7. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to inhaled Plutonium-239 dioxide and a chemical carcinogen (NNK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Carlton, W.W. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States); Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Workers in nuclear weapons facilities have a significant potential for exposure to chemical carcinogens and to radiation from external sources or from internally deposited radionuclides such as {sup 239}Pu. Although the carcinogenic effects of inhaled {sup 239}Pu and many chemicals have been studied individually, very little information is available on their combined effects. One chemical carcinogen that workers could be exposed to via tobacco smoke is the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(N-methyl-n-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a product of tobacco curing and the pyrolysis of nicotine in tobacco. NNK causes lung tumors in rats, regardless of the route of administration and to a lesser extent liver, nasal, and pancreatic tumors. From the results presented, it can be concluded that exposure to a chemical carcinogen (NNK) in combination with {alpha}-particle radiation from inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} acts in, at best, an additive manner in inducing lung cancer in rats.

  8. Health Outcomes of Exposure to Biological and Chemical Components of Inhalable and Respirable Particulate Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Oyewale Mayowa Morakinyo; Matlou Ingrid Mokgobu; Murembiwa Stanley Mukhola; Raymond Paul Hunter

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a key indicator of air pollution and a significant risk factor for adverse health outcomes in humans. PM is not a self-contained pollutant but a mixture of different compounds including chemical and biological fractions. While several reviews have focused on the chemical components of PM and associated health effects, there is a dearth of review studies that holistically examine the role of biological and chemical components of inhalable and respirable PM in disease...

  9. Highly time-variable exposure to chemicals--toward an assessment strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashauer, Roman; Brown, Colin D

    2013-07-01

    Organisms in the environment experience fluctuating, pulsed, or intermittent exposure to pollutants. Accounting for effects of such exposures is an important challenge for environmental risk assessment, particularly given the simplified design of standard ecotoxicity tests. Dynamic simulation using toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TK-TD) models describes the processes that link exposure with effects in an organism and provides a basis for extrapolation to a range of exposure scenarios. In so doing, TK-TD modeling makes the risk assessment more robust and aids use and interpretation of experimental data. Toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models are well-developed for predicting survival of individual organisms and are increasingly applied to sublethal endpoints. In the latter case particularly, linkage to individual-based models (IBMs) allows extrapolation to population level as well as accounting for differences in effects of toxicant exposure at different stages in the life cycle. Extrapolation between species remains an important constraint because there is currently no systematic understanding of species traits that cause differences in the relevant processes. Toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models allow interrogation of exposure profiles to determine intrinsic toxicity potential rather than using absolute maximum concentrations or time-weighted averages as surrogates. A decision scheme is proposed to guide selection of risk assessment approaches using dose extrapolation based on Haber's Law, TK-TD models, and/or IBMs depending on the nature of toxic effect and timing in relation to life history. PMID:23564608

  10. Evaluating exposures to complex mixtures of chemicals during a new production process in the plastics industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, T.; Burstyn, I.; Wendel de Joode, B. van; Posthumus, M.A.; Kromhout, H.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to monitor emission of chemicals at a factory where plastics products were fabricated by a new robotic (impregnated tape winding) production process. Stationary and personal air measurements were taken to determine which chemicals were released and at what concentrations.

  11. Burden of disease and costs of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in the European Union: an updated analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasande, L; Zoeller, R T; Hass, U; Kortenkamp, A; Grandjean, P; Myers, J P; DiGangi, J; Hunt, P M; Rudel, R; Sathyanarayana, S; Bellanger, M; Hauser, R; Legler, J; Skakkebaek, N E; Heindel, J J

    2016-07-01

    A previous report documented that endocrine disrupting chemicals contribute substantially to certain forms of disease and disability. In the present analysis, our main objective was to update a range of health and economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to endocrine disrupting chemical exposures in the European Union, leveraging new burden and disease cost estimates of female reproductive conditions from accompanying report. Expert panels evaluated the epidemiologic evidence, using adapted criteria from the WHO Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group, and evaluated laboratory and animal evidence of endocrine disruption using definitions recently promulgated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The Delphi method was used to make decisions on the strength of the data. Expert panels consensus was achieved for probable (>20%) endocrine disrupting chemical causation for IQ loss and associated intellectual disability; autism; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; endometriosis; fibroids; childhood obesity; adult obesity; adult diabetes; cryptorchidism; male infertility, and mortality associated with reduced testosterone. Accounting for probability of causation, and using the midpoint of each range for probability of causation, Monte Carlo simulations produced a median annual cost of €163 billion (1.28% of EU Gross Domestic Product) across 1000 simulations. We conclude that endocrine disrupting chemical exposures in the EU are likely to contribute substantially to disease and dysfunction across the life course with costs in the hundreds of billions of Euros per year. These estimates represent only those endocrine disrupting chemicals with the highest probability of causation; a broader analysis would have produced greater estimates of burden of disease and costs. PMID:27003928

  12. Environmental monitoring and assessment of short-term exposures to hazardous chemicals of a sterilization process in hospital working environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koda S

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess short-term exposures to ethylene oxide, formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde in a sterilization process, the authors conducted continuous environmental monitoring of these chemicals in the breathing zone of workers in 2 hospitals. The arithmetic mean of ethylene oxide was 1.2 ppm near unventilated cabinets housing sterilizing materials, and environmental concentrations of ethylene oxide could not be reduced under threshold limit values time weighted average by only managing general ventilation. Environmental concentration of formaldehyde was lower in a properly ventilated pathology division in which no large specimens were stored (0.3 ppm than in the pathology division where large specimens were stored (2.3 ppm. Although environmental concentrations of glutaraldehyde in an endoscopy unit with proper general ventilation were not detectable, environmental concentration levels in an endoscopy unit without general ventilation system were 0.2 and 0.5 ppm. According to the results of environmental monitoring in the breathing zone of workers, extremely high concentrations were observed in some work practices (ethylene oxide, 300 ppm; formaldehyde, 8.6 ppm; glutaraldehyde, 2.6 ppm. In order to avoid occupational exposures to these chemicals and prevent potential chronic and acute health hazards, good communications with these chemicals, good work practices, appropriate personal protective equipment, and engineering controls should be required.

  13. Estimating the human exposure to chemical substances and radiation. Definition report; De schatting van de blootstelling van de mens aan stoffen en straling. Definitierapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeire, T.G.; Van Veen, M.P.

    1995-06-01

    This report aims at boosting the human exposure assessment activities of the RIVM with regard to chemical substances and radiation. It is the result of thorough discussions with RIVM-experts. The report starts with an overview of past developments in the area of human exposure assessment at the RIVM and continues describing recent projects. Major developments outside the Institute are also discussed. An attempt is made to harmonize definitions which are relevant for exposure assessment, i.e. definitions on exposure, intake, uptake and dose. Important gaps in the human exposure assessment work at the RIVM are identified, leading to proposals for future work. 2 figs., 31 refs., 3 appendices.

  14. ESC resistance of commercial grade polycarbonates during exposure to butter and related chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellander, Carina Koch; Nielsen, Tenna B; Ghanbari-Siahkali, Afshin;

    2008-01-01

    Three commercial grades of polycarbonates (Lexan (R) 144, Lexan (R) 104 and Makrolon Rx1805) were studied with respect to resistance to environmental stress cracking (ESC) when exposed to butter and related chemicals. The polycarbonates (PCs) were extensively characterised to determine whether...... differences in ESC resistance could be related to their structural or chemical properties. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry revealed that Makrolon Rx:1805 contains a low molar mass material characterised as poly(propylene glycol)p, which was confirmed by ATR-FTIR and H-1 NMR. Some "non-absorbing" chemicals...

  15. Modelling effects of chemical exposure on birds wintering in agricultural landscapes: The western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, C.A.; Grant, W.E.; Mora, M.A.; Woodin, M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe an ecotoxicological model that simulates the sublethal and lethal effects of chronic, low-level, chemical exposure on birds wintering in agricultural landscapes. Previous models estimating the impact on wildlife of chemicals used in agro-ecosystems typically have not included the variety of pathways, including both dermal and oral, by which individuals are exposed. The present model contains four submodels simulating (1) foraging behavior of individual birds, (2) chemical applications to crops, (3) transfers of chemicals among soil, insects, and small mammals, and (4) transfers of chemicals to birds via ingestion and dermal exposure. We demonstrate use of the model by simulating the impacts of a variety of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, growth regulators, and defoliants on western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) that winter in agricultural landscapes in southern Texas, United States. The model generated reasonable movement patterns for each chemical through soil, water, insects, and rodents, as well as into the owl via consumption and dermal absorption. Sensitivity analysis suggested model predictions were sensitive to uncertainty associated with estimates of chemical half-lives in birds, soil, and prey, sensitive to parameters associated with estimating dermal exposure, and relatively insensitive to uncertainty associated with details of chemical application procedures (timing of application, amount of drift). Nonetheless, the general trends in chemical accumulations and the relative impacts of the various chemicals were robust to these parameter changes. Simulation results suggested that insecticides posed a greater potential risk to owls of both sublethal and lethal effects than do herbicides, defoliants, and growth regulators under crop scenarios typical of southern Texas, and that use of multiple indicators, or endpoints provided a more accurate assessment of risk due to agricultural chemical exposure. The model should prove

  16. Assessing chronic fish health: An application to a case of an acute exposure to chemically treated crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauduit, F; Domenici, P; Farrell, A P; Lacroix, C; Le Floch, S; Lemaire, P; Nicolas-Kopec, A; Whittington, M; Zambonino-Infante, J L; Claireaux, G

    2016-09-01

    Human alteration of marine ecosystems is substantial and growing. Yet, no adequate methodology exists that provides reliable predictions of how environmental degradation will affect these ecosystems at a relevant level of biological organization. The primary objective of this study was to develop a methodology to evaluate a fish's capacity to face a well-established environmental challenge, an exposure to chemically dispersed oil, and characterize the long-term consequences. Therefore, we applied high-throughput, non-lethal challenge tests to assess hypoxia tolerance, temperature susceptibility and maximal swimming speed as proxies for a fish's functional integrity. These whole animal challenge tests were implemented before (1 month) and after (1 month) juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) had been acutely exposed (48h) to a mixture containing 0.08gL(-1) of weathered Arabian light crude oil plus 4% dispersant (Corexit© EC9500A), a realistic exposure concentration during an oil spill. In addition, experimental populations were then transferred into semi-natural tidal mesocosm ponds and correlates of Darwinian fitness (growth and survival) were monitored over a period of 4 months. Our results revealed that fish acutely exposed to chemically dispersed oil remained impaired in terms of their hypoxia tolerance and swimming performance, but not in temperature susceptibility for 1 month post-exposure. Nevertheless, these functional impairments had no subsequent ecological consequences under mildly selective environmental conditions since growth and survival were not impacted during the mesocosm pond study. Furthermore, the earlier effects on fish performance were presumably temporary because re-testing the fish 10 months post-exposure revealed no significant residual effects on hypoxia tolerance, temperature susceptibility and maximal swimming speed. We propose that the functional proxies and correlates of Darwinian fitness used here provide a useful

  17. Evaluating chemical exposure and effect models for aquatic species with a focus on crude oil constituents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoop, L. de

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this PhD thesis is to evaluate a suite of exposure and effect models on their applicability in ecological risk assessment for aquatic species and ecosystems. The focus is on oil constituents, as it is largely unknown whether current ecological models are applicable to crude oil and its co

  18. Exposure to chemicals in food packaging as a sustainability trade-off in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Muncke, Jane; Trier, Xenia;

    2016-01-01

    packaging in a life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) framework. To put exposure during use in a life cycle context we perform a screening-level LCA of several life cycle stages of high impact polystyrene packaging (HIPS), with a functional unit of containing and delivering one kilogram of yogurt...

  19. A model for probabilistic health impact assessment of exposure to food chemicals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voet, H.; van der Heijden, G.W.; Bos, P.M.J.; Bosgra, S.; Boon, P.E.; Muri, S.D.; Bruschweiler, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    A statistical model is presented extending the integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model of van der Voet and Slob [van der Voet, H., Slob, W., 2007. Integration of probabilistic exposure assessment and probabilistic hazard characterisation. Risk Analysis, 27, 351-371]. The aim is to char

  20. A model for probabilistic health impact assessment of exposure to food chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, van der H.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Bos, P.M.J.; Bosgra, S.; Boon, P.E.; Muri, S.D.; Brüschweiler, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    A statistical model is presented extending the integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model of van der Voet and Slob [van der Voet, H., Slob, W., 2007. Integration of probabilistic exposure assessment and probabilistic hazard characterisation. Risk Analysis, 27, 351–371]. The aim is to char

  1. Framework to determine the effectiveness of dietary exposure mitigation to chemical contaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.; Edwards, S.; Kennedy, M.; O'Hagan, A.; O'Mahony, C.; Scholz, G.; Steinberg, P.; Tennant, D.; Chiodini, A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to ensure the food safety, risk managers may implement measures to reduce human exposure to contaminants via food consumption. The evaluation of the effect of a measure is often an overlooked step in risk analysis process. The aim of this study was to develop a systematic approach for deter

  2. CNA proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings comprise keynote addresses, biographies, and 22 papers organized under the following headings: international CANDU operations, challenges in the uranium industry, public acceptance - gaining support, strategies for success in the nuclear business, nuclear power and the environment, initiatives in nuclear regulation, other opportunities. Individual papers published which come within the scope of INIS have been abstracted separately

  3. Effects of Long Term Thermal Exposure on Chemically Pure (CP) Titanium Grade 2 Room Temperature Tensile Properties and Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Room temperature tensile testing of Chemically Pure (CP) Titanium Grade 2 was conducted for as-received commercially produced sheet and following thermal exposure at 550 and 650 K for times up to 5,000 h. No significant changes in microstructure or failure mechanism were observed. A statistical analysis of the data was performed. Small statistical differences were found, but all properties were well above minimum values for CP Ti Grade 2 as defined by ASTM standards and likely would fall within normal variation of the material.

  4. Human health risk assessment of exposure to environmental pollutants in the chemical / petrochemical industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Nadal Lomas, Martí

    2005-01-01

    Tesi: Human health risk assessment of exposure to environmental pollutants in the chemical/petrochemical industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain).Autor: Martí NadalResum:Un dels complexos químics/ petroquímics més importants del sud d'Europa està ubicat a Tarragona. En els darrers anys, ha augmentat la preocupació pública envers els possibles efectes adversos que el complex industrial podria tenir per a la salut de la població resident a Tarragona. En resposta, el 2002 s'inicià un estu...

  5. The Findings of HRCT of the Lung in Chemical Warfare Veterans with Previous Sulfur Mustard (SM Gas Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Naghibi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: To identify the findings of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT of the lung in chemical warfare veterans with previous sulfur mustard (SM gas exposure. "nMaterials and Methods: 93 patients were studied prospectively 22 years after exposure. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. HRCT of the lung was performed during expiration and was reported double blinded by two radiologists. HRCT findings include air trapping, mosaic attenuation, ground glass attenuation, nodules, signet ring, fibrosis, bronchial wall thickening, bronchodilation, tree in bud, interlobular wall thickening, bulla, cavity, air consolidation, honey comb and mediastinal and pleural abnormalities that were analyzed. Final diagnosis was identified according to HRCT findings. The relation between HRCT findings, final diagnosis and the distribution of the abnormalities with duration after exposure were evaluated. Distribution of each finding was also evaluated. "nb The most frequent HRCT finding was air trapping (56.7%. Other common findings were mosaic attenuation (35.1%, ground glass attenuation (20.6%, nodules (17.5%, signet ring (15.5% and fibrosis(12.4%. Distribution of the abnormalities were mostly local (79.4% and bilateral (73%. Abnormalities were mostly in the lower lobe (61.3%. No significant correlation was found between the HRCT findings and the duration after exposure or distribution of the abnormalities. The respiratory complications diagnosed according to HRCT included bronchiolitis obliterans (43%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (27.9%, asthma (23.6%, bronchiectasis (13.9%, interstitial lung disease (ILD (9.6%. All abnormalities were seen more frequently in patients with lesser duration of exposure.( P-value < 0.05. "nConclusion: Focal bilateral air trapping was the most common finding seen in expiratory HRCT in this study, and it is highly suggestive of bronchiolitis obliterance (BO. BO can be a late complication of SM

  6. Social disparities in exposures to bisphenol A and polyfluoroalkyl chemicals: a cross-sectional study within NHANES 2003-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Jessica W

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bisphenol A (BPA and polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs are suspected endocrine disrupting compounds known to be ubiquitous in people's bodies. Population disparities in exposure to these chemicals have not been fully characterized. Methods We analyzed data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using multivariable linear regression we examined the association between urinary concentrations of BPA, serum concentrations of four PFCs, and multiple measures of socioeconomic position (SEP: family income, education, occupation, and food security. We also examined associations with race/ethnicity. Results All four PFCs were positively associated with family income, whereas BPA was inversely associated with family income. BPA concentrations were higher in people who reported very low food security and received emergency food assistance than in those who did not. This association was particularly strong in children: 6-11 year-olds whose families received emergency food had BPA levels 54% higher (95% CI, 13 to 112% than children of families who did not. For BPA and PFCs we saw smaller and less consistent associations with education and occupation. Mexican Americans had the lowest concentrations of any racial/ethnic group of both types of chemicals; for PFCs, Mexican Americans not born in the U.S. had much lower levels than those born in the U.S. Conclusions People with lower incomes had higher body burdens of BPA; the reverse was true for PFCs. Family income with adjustment for family size was the strongest predictor of chemical concentrations among the different measures of SEP we studied. Income, education, occupation, and food security appear to capture different aspects of SEP that may be related to exposure to BPA and PFCs and are not necessarily interchangeable as measures of SEP in environmental epidemiology studies. Differences by race/ethnicity were independent of SEP.

  7. Can Exposure to Environmental Chemicals Increase the Risk of Diabetes Type 1 Development?

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Bodin; Lars Christian Stene; Unni Cecilie Nygaard

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease, where destruction of beta-cells causes insulin deficiency. The incidence of T1DM has increased in the last decades and cannot entirely be explained by genetic predisposition. Several environmental factors are suggested to promote T1DM, like early childhood enteroviral infections and nutritional factors, but the evidence is inconclusive. Prenatal and early life exposure to environmental pollutants like phthalates, bisphenol A, perfluori...

  8. The Effect of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate, Exposure Time, and Chemical Mixtures on Methanogenic Community Structure and Function

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Patrick J.; LaPara, Timothy M.; Novak, Paige J

    2015-01-01

    A plethora of organic micropollutant mixtures are found in untreated municipal wastewater. Anaerobic digesters receive large loadings of hydrophobic micropollutants that sorb to wastewater biosolids. Despite micropollutants being pervasive as mixtures, little research is available to explain the impact that mixtures of compounds, as well as exposure time, have on microbial communities in anaerobic digesters. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was added to anaerobic enrichment cultures in both s...

  9. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  10. Gloves and dermal exposure to chemicals: Proposals for evaluating workplace effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherrie, J.W.; Semple, S.; Brouwer, D.

    2004-01-01

    There are standardized laboratory tests for chemical protective gloves that provide estimates of breakthrough time and steady-state permeation flux. However, there is evidence to suggest that these tests may not be completely relevant to glove usage in the workplace. There is no consensus about how

  11. Correlation of chromosome patterns in human leukemic cells with exposure to chemicals and/or radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project seeks to defining the chromosome segments associated with radiation induced leukemogenesis (treatment-related acute myeloid leukemia, or t-AML). Towards these goals genetic analysis of human chromosomes 5 and 7 continues to investigate correlation of treatment with balanced and unbalanced chromosomal translocations. Progress is being made in cloning the breakpoints in balanced translocations in t-AML, that is to clone the t(9;11) and t(11;19) breakpoints, to clone the t(3;21)(q26;q22) breakpoints and to determine the relationship of these translocations to prior exposure to topoisomerase II inhibitors. 11 figs. 3 figs

  12. International issues on human health effects of exposure to chemical mixtures.

    OpenAIRE

    Feron, Victor J; Cassee, Flemming R; Groten, John P.; van Vliet, Petronella W; van Zorge, Job A

    2002-01-01

    In this article, we highlight new developments and recent studies concerning adverse human health effects related to chemical mixtures. One group of activities comprises the development of a new computer program for analyzing mixture studies and a mathematical model as a basis for combination rules that predict the toxicity of mixtures. Other new activities in the area of experimental studies are the application of gene expression technologies in mixture research, and pattern recognition as a...

  13. Comparison of Chest HRCT in Inspiration and Expiration of patients with Chemical Gas Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Kh. Bakhtavar

    2005-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Chemical weapon agents (CWA) including Sulfur Mustard (SM), were com-monly used in the Iran-Iraq war and pulmonary complications are known to occur in over half of the exposed patients. Previous studies showed that HRCT in inspiration was normal in most of the patients. In this study comparison between the HRCT findings in deep inspiration and full expiration was carried out. Materials and Method: HRCT in deep inspiration and full expiration in 473 patients with history...

  14. Space Weathering Effects in Lunar Soils: The Roles of Surface Exposure Time and Bulk Chemical Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shouliang; Keller, Lindsay P.

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering effects on lunar soil grains result from both radiation-damaged and deposited layers on grain surfaces. Typically, solar wind irradiation forms an amorphous layer on regolith silicate grains, and induces the formation of surficial metallic Fe in Fe-bearing minerals [1,2]. Impacts into the lunar regolith generate high temperature melts and vapor. The vapor component is largely deposited on the surfaces of lunar soil grains [3] as is a fraction of the melt [4, this work]. Both the vapor-deposits and the deposited melt typically contain nanophase Fe metal particles (npFe0) as abundant inclusions. The development of these rims and the abundance of the npFe0 in lunar regolith, and thus the optical properties, vary with the soil mineralogy and the length of time the soil grains have been exposed to space weathering effects [5]. In this study, we used the density of solar flare particle tracks in soil grains to estimate exposure times for individual grains and then perform nanometer-scale characterization of the rims using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The work involved study of lunar soil samples with different mineralogy (mare vs. highland) and different exposure times (mature vs. immature).

  15. Alterations in the infrared spectral signature of avian feathers reflect potential chemical exposure: a pilot study comparing two sites in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llabjani, Valon; Malik, Riffat N; Trevisan, Júlio; Hoti, Valmira; Ukpebor, Justina; Shinwari, Zabta K; Moeckel, Claudia; Jones, Kevin C; Shore, Richard F; Martin, Francis L

    2012-11-01

    Chemical contamination of ecosystems is a global issue with evidence that pollutants impact on living organisms in a harmful fashion. Developing sensor approaches that would allow the derivation of biomarkers or signatures of effect in target sentinel organisms and monitor environmental chemical contamination in a high throughput manner is of utmost importance. As biomolecules absorb infrared (IR), signature vibrational spectra related to structure and function can be derived. In light of this, we tested the notion that IR spectra of bird feathers might reflect environmental chemical contaminant exposure patterns. Feathers were collected from monospecific heronries of cattle egret based in two independent locations (Trimu vs. Mailsi) in the Punjab province of Pakistan; these sites were found to differ in their chemical contamination patterns. Feather samples were chemically analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, organochlorines and heavy metals. Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform IR (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to derive a spectral signature of individual feathers. Resultant IR spectra were then subjected to canonical correspondence analysis (CAA) to determine whether feather spectral signatures correlate to chemical exposure. Additionally, we explored if principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) could be applied to distinguish site-specific differences; linear discriminant function (LDF) was also applied to classify sites. The sampled feathers varied in their chemical exposure patterns depending on whether they were sourced from one site associated with heavy metal exposure or the other which suggested high organic pollutant exposures. CCA of chemical and spectral data showed a correlation between spectral signatures and chemical exposure. PCA-LDA readily distinguished feathers from the two different sites. Discriminating alterations were identified and these were associated with

  16. Exposure Assessment to Environmental Chemicals in Children from Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Martinez, Angeles C; Orta-Garcia, Sandra T; Rico-Escobar, Edna M; Carrizales-Yañez, Leticia; Del Campo, Jorge D Martin; Pruneda-Alvarez, Lucia G; Ruiz-Vera, Tania; Gonzalez-Palomo, Ana K; Piña-Lopez, Iris G; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Pérez-Maldonado, Ivan N

    2016-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that the human biomonitoring of susceptible populations is a valuable method for the identification of critical contaminants. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the exposure profile for arsenic (As), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in children living in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico (a major manufacturing center in Mexico). In 2012, we evaluated a total of 135 healthy children living in Ciudad Juarez since birth. The total PBDEs levels ranged from nondetectable (Ciudad Juarez is necessary. PMID:26987540

  17. Childhood exposure to DEHP, DBP and BBP under the existing chemical management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Chan-Kook;

    -butyl phthalate (BBP) have been gradually under regulations. Despite the similar adverse health effects, no harmonized regulations exist for these substances. Varying regulations are focused on single/multiple substances in separate product categories, e.g. toys, childcare articles, cosmetics and food packaging......Since early 20th century, phthalates have been widely used as plasticizers. Due to the potential for adverse health effects - particularly reproductive effects - for vulnerable population such as children, phthalates like Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and Benzyl...... materials. Cumulative risks of DEHP, DBP and BBP to children in Korea and Denmark were estimated based on exposure via the environment and food. While the estimated risk was higher in Korea with a median RCR of 0.32 (KR) vs. 0.16 (DK), the back calculated risk from urinary metabolites was higher in Denmark...

  18. Exposure Assessment to Environmental Chemicals in Children from Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Martinez, Angeles C; Orta-Garcia, Sandra T; Rico-Escobar, Edna M; Carrizales-Yañez, Leticia; Del Campo, Jorge D Martin; Pruneda-Alvarez, Lucia G; Ruiz-Vera, Tania; Gonzalez-Palomo, Ana K; Piña-Lopez, Iris G; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Pérez-Maldonado, Ivan N

    2016-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that the human biomonitoring of susceptible populations is a valuable method for the identification of critical contaminants. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the exposure profile for arsenic (As), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in children living in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico (a major manufacturing center in Mexico). In 2012, we evaluated a total of 135 healthy children living in Ciudad Juarez since birth. The total PBDEs levels ranged from nondetectable (Juarez is necessary.

  19. Regulation and practice of workers' protection from chemical exposures during container handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Fløe Pedersen, Randi; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Ádám, Balázs

    2014-01-01

    containers was investigated in a qualitative study based on a series of semi-structured interviews with key informants, including managers and health and safety representatives of organizations that handle containers. Results: Although several international and national regulations and local safety...... in practice, but their use is not consistent and does not necessarily ensure adequate protection. Conclusions: Managers, workers, even occupational health professionals have limited knowledge about the hazardous chemicals that can be released from containers. Detailed risk assessment and specific instructions...... on risk management are needed for safe handling of transport containers....

  20. Reproductive and carcinogenic health risks to hospital personnel from chemical exposure--a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babich, H

    1985-01-01

    Hospital personnel, both those involved directly (surgeons, anesthesiologists, operating room nurses) and indirectly (pharmacists, laboratory technicians) with promoting the well-being of patients, and those involved in maintaining the proper functioning of the hospital (housekeeping personnel, painters, machinists), may be exposed to chemicals that are potential reproductive and carcinogenic hazards. Waste anesthetic gases, sterilants, such as ethylene oxide and formaldehyde, antineoplastic drugs, methylmethacrylate, asbestos, and various organic reagents and solvents may induce genetic damage, cancer, congenital malformation, still-birth, and spontaneous abortion. PMID:10274220

  1. Chemical Form Matters: Differential Accumulation of Mercury Following Inorganic and Organic Mercury Exposures in Zebrafish Larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korbas, Malgorzata; MacDonald, Tracy C.; Pickering, Ingrid J.; George, Graham N.; Krone, Patrick H. (Saskatchewan)

    2013-04-08

    Mercury, one of the most toxic elements, exists in various chemical forms each with different toxicities and health implications. Some methylated mercury forms, one of which exists in fish and other seafood products, pose a potential threat, especially during embryonic and early postnatal development. Despite global concerns, little is known about the mechanisms underlying transport and toxicity of different mercury species. To investigate the impact of different mercury chemical forms on vertebrate development, we have successfully combined the zebrafish, a well-established developmental biology model system, with synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging. Our work revealed substantial differences in tissue-specific accumulation patterns of mercury in zebrafish larvae exposed to four different mercury formulations in water. Methylmercury species not only resulted in overall higher mercury burdens but also targeted different cells and tissues than their inorganic counterparts, thus revealing a significant role of speciation in cellular and molecular targeting and mercury sequestration. For methylmercury species, the highest mercury concentrations were in the eye lens epithelial cells, independent of the formulation ligand (chloride versus L-cysteine). For inorganic mercury species, in absence of L-cysteine, the olfactory epithelium and kidney accumulated the greatest amounts of mercury. However, with L-cysteine present in the treatment solution, mercuric bis-L-cysteineate species dominated the treatment, significantly decreasing uptake. Our results clearly demonstrate that the common differentiation between organic and inorganic mercury is not sufficient to determine the toxicity of various mercury species.

  2. Terminology of gonadal anomalies in fish and amphibians resulting from chemical exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Markus; Murphy, Margaret B; Coady, Katherine K; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Jones, Paul D; Carr, James A; Solomon, Keith R; Smith, Ernest E; Van Der Kraak, Glen; Gross, Timothy; Du Preez, Louis; Kendall, Ronald J; Giesy, John P

    2006-01-01

    Given the recent increase in the number of studies describing the ability of chemicals to exert endocrine-disrupting effects, not only in fish but in a variety of other oviparous groups such as amphibians and reptiles, there is an urgent need to harmonize the terminology currently used in describing pathological changes of the gonads. In addition to difficulties in comparing results from different studies, there is also the risk of miscommunication by using terms that imply a certain clinical relevance which may not be true for the species examined. Especially in the case of the recent and controversial issue about potential effects of the triazine herbicide atrazine on amphibians, clinical terminology has been utilized beyond its true meaning by using terms such as "chemical castration" to describe occurrence of TOs or ovarian tissue in the testis of male frogs exposed to environmental chemicals (Hayes 2004). In clinical terminology, castration is defined as the removal of the gonads or their destruction by an external influence, resulting in a nonfertile organism. However, Hayes (2004) did not investigate any possible effects on the fertility of the test animals and thus did not know if these animals were truly castrated. Similarly, terms such as intersex, hermaphrodite, and sex reversal have been used in ways that appear inappropriate with regard to their clinical meaning in a series of different studies with fish or frogs (see previous sections for a detailed discussion). To ensure the appropriate use of certain terminology in a field as controversial and complex as the study of endocrine disruption, we have attempted, in this chapter, to harmonize the terminology used to describe changes in gonadal development of vertebrates such as fish and amphibians, especially frogs (see Table 3). Where appropriate, the terminology suggested was adopted directly from the clinical terminology. However, as outlined here there are substantial differences between the

  3. Influence of UF4 physico-chemical properties on the assessment of the chronic exposure to this compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method was developed in order to assess uranium exposure hazards at work stations based on the industrial experience acquired by Comurhex Malvesi at Narbonne. Applied to uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) the method involves 4 steps: 1. characterization of the industrial compound, including its physico-chemical properties (density, surface area, X-ray spectrum and uranium enrichment); 2. assessment of work station concentrations and particle size distribution (AMAD); 3. In vitro biological solubility with different synthetic fluids such as Gamble solutions with different gases or compounds added (oxygen or superoxide ions O2-) in order to determine the solubility class D, W or Y; 4. workers' monitoring by routine measurements of urinary excretion completed, if necessary, by fecal excretion and γ-spectrometry. Results and present data on UF4 are presented. 3 tabs., 4 figs

  4. Occupational hazards in hospitals: accidents, radiation, exposure to noxious chemicals, drug addiction and psychic problems, and assault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Except for infectious diseases all the main occupational hazards affecting health workers are reviewed: accidents (explosions, fires, electrical accidents, and other sources of injury); radiation (stochastic and non-stochastic effects, protective measures, and personnel most at risk); exposure to noxious chemicals, whose effects may be either local (allergic eczema) or generalised (cancer, mutations), particular attention being paid to the hazards presented by formol, ethylene oxide, cytostatics, and anaesthetic gases; drug addiction (which is more common among health workers than the general population) and psychic problems associated with promotion, shift work, and emotional stress; and assault (various types of assault suffered by health workers, its causes, and the characterisation of the most aggressive patients). (author)

  5. One and Two-individual Movements of Fish after Chemical Exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Quach, Quang Kha; Van Nguyen, Tuyen; Chon, Tae-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Movement behavior of an indicator species, zebrafish (Danio rerio), was analyzed with one- and two-individual groups before and after treatment with a toxic chemical, formaldehyde, at a low concentration (1 ppm). After the boundary area had been determined based on experimental data, intermittency was defined as the probability distributions of the shadowing time during which data were above a pre-determined threshold and were obtained from experimental time-series data on forces and the inter-distances for one and two individuals. Overall intermittencies were similar in the boundary and central areas. However, the intermittencies were remarkably different between the one- and the two-individual groups: the single line was used to fit the data for the one-individual group whereas two phases were observed with breakpoints (approximately 10 seconds in logarithm) in the exponential fitting curves for the two-individual group. A difference in the probability distributions of shadowing time was observed "before" a...

  6. Impact of Occupational Exposure to Chemicals in Life Cycle Assessment: A Novel Characterization Model Based on Measured Concentrations and Labor Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijko, Gaël; Margni, Manuele; Partovi-Nia, Vahid; Doudrich, Greg; Jolliet, Olivier

    2015-07-21

    According to Lim et al., based on World Health Organization (WHO) data, hazardous chemicals in the workplace are responsible for over 370,000 premature deaths annually. Despite these high figures, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) does not yet include a fully operational method to consider occupational impacts in its scope over the entire supply chain. This paper describes a novel approach to account for occupational exposure to chemicals by inhalation in LCA. It combines labor statistics and measured occupational concentrations of chemicals from the OSHA database to calculate operational LCIA characterization factors (i.e., intakes per hour worked and impact intensities for 19,069 organic chemical/sector combinations with confidence intervals across the entire U.S. manufacturing industry). For the seven chemicals that most contribute to the global impact, measured workplace concentrations range between 5 × 10(-4) and 3 × 10(3) mg/m(3). Carcinogenic impacts range over 4 orders of magnitude, from 1.3 × 10(-8) and up to 3.4 × 10(-4) DALY per blue-collar worker labor hour. The innovative approach set out in this paper assesses health impacts from occupational exposure to chemicals with population exposure to outdoor emissions, making it possible to integrate occupational exposure within LCIA. It broadens the LCIA scope to analyze hotspots and avoid impact shifting. PMID:26079305

  7. Exposure scenarios for workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, H.; Northage, C.; Money, C.

    2007-01-01

    The new European chemicals legislation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals) requires the development of Exposure Scenarios describing the conditions and risk management measures needed for the safe use of chemicals. Such Exposure Scenarios should integrate con

  8. Do Nanoparticle Physico-Chemical Properties and Developmental Exposure Window Influence Nano ZnO Embryotoxicity in Xenopus laevis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Bonfanti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The growing global production of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs suggests a realistic increase in the environmental exposure to such a nanomaterial, making the knowledge of its biological reactivity and its safe-by-design synthesis mandatory. In this study, the embryotoxicity of ZnONPs (1–100 mg/L specifically synthesized for industrial purposes with different sizes, shapes (round, rod and surface coatings (PEG, PVP was tested using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX to identify potential target tissues and the most sensitive developmental stages. The ZnONPs did not cause embryolethality, but induced a high incidence of malformations, in particular misfolded gut and abdominal edema. Smaller, round NPs were more effective than the bigger, rod ones, and PEGylation determined a reduction in embryotoxicity. Ingestion appeared to be the most relevant exposure route. Only the embryos exposed from the stomodeum opening showed anatomical and histological lesions to the intestine, mainly referable to a swelling of paracellular spaces among enterocytes. In conclusion, ZnONPs differing in shape and surface coating displayed similar toxicity in X. laevis embryos and shared the same target organ. Nevertheless, we cannot exclude that the physico-chemical characteristics may influence the severity of such effects. Further research efforts are mandatory to ensure the synthesis of safer nano-ZnO-containing products.

  9. Prevention of unnecessary pregnancy terminations by counselling women on drug, chemical, and radiation exposure during the first trimester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a new approach to counselling pregnant women concerned about antenatal exposure to drugs, chemicals, or radiation, we measured their tendency to terminate their pregnancy by using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Analysis of 78 cases where women had less than 50% tendency to continue pregnancy before they were advised by us reveals that 61 decided to continue their pregnancy after the consultation (57 normal, healthy infants, four miscarriages) and 17 terminated. Women who continued their pregnancy significantly changed their tendency after we discussed relevant information with them (from 34.3 +/- 2.5% to 84.5 +/- 3.3%, P less than 0.00001), whereas most of those who eventually terminated pregnancy did not change their tendency to continue pregnancy beyond the 50% mark (from 24.8 +/- 5.4% to 45.1 +/- 9.8%) (P greater than 0.1). Only two of the women who terminated their pregnancy were exposed to teratogenic drugs; however, in most other cases, other obvious reasons, unrelated to the exposure in question, were identified by the women as leading reasons for termination. An appropriate intervention in early pregnancy can prevent unnecessary pregnancy terminations by correcting misinformation and thereby decreasing the unrealistically high perception of risk by women exposed to nonteratogens

  10. Effects of Exposure to Four Endocrine Disrupting-Chemicals on Fertilization and Embryonic Development of Barbel Chub (Squaliobarbus curriculus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Cuijuan; WANG Wei; GAO Ying; LI Li

    2013-01-01

    The toxicities of 4 common endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs),17β-estradiol (E2),p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloro-ethylene (DDE),4-nonylphenol (NP) and tributyltin (TBT),to sperm motility,fertilization rate,hatching rate and embryonic development of Barbel chub (Squaliobarbus curriculus) were investigated in this study.The duration of sperm motility was significantly shortened by exposure to the EDCs at the threshold concentrations of 10ngL-1 for E2 and TBT,1 μgL-1 for NP and 100μgL-1 for DDE,respectively.The fertilization rate was substantially reduced by the EDCs at the lowest observable effect concentrations (LOECs) of 10ng L-1 for E2 and TBT and 10 lg L-1 for DDE and NP,respectively.Of the tested properties of S.curriculus,larval deformity rate was most sensitive to EDC exposure and was significantly increased by DDE at the lowest experimental level of 0.1 μgL-1.Other EDCs increased the larval deformity rate at the LOECs of 1 ngL-1 for E2,10ngL-1 for TBT and 1 μgL-1 for NP,respectively.Despite their decreases with the increasing EDC concentrations,the hatching rate and larval survival rate ofS.curriculus were not significantly affected by the exposure to EDCs.The results indicated that all the 4 EDCs affected significantly and negatively the early life stages of the freshwater fish S.curriculus.Overall,E2 and TBT were more toxic than NP and DDE,while DDE might be more toxic to larval deformity rate than to other measured parameters.Thus,the 4 EDCs showed potential negative influences on natural population dynamics of S.curriculus.Our findings provided valuable basic data for the ecological risk assessment of E2,DDE,NP and TBT.

  11. Effects of exposure to four endocrine disrupting-chemicals on fertilization and embryonic development of Barbel chub ( Squaliobarbus curriculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Cuijuan; Wang, Wei; Gao, Ying; Li, Li

    2013-09-01

    The toxicities of 4 common endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), 17β-estradiol (E2), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloro-ethylene (DDE), 4-nonylphenol (NP) and tributyltin (TBT), to sperm motility, fertilization rate, hatching rate and embryonic development of Barbel chub ( Squaliobarbus curriculus) were investigated in this study. The duration of sperm motility was significantly shortened by exposure to the EDCs at the threshold concentrations of 10 ng L-1 for E2 and TBT, 1 μg L-1 for NP and 100 μg L-1 for DDE, respectively. The fertilization rate was substantially reduced by the EDCs at the lowest observable effect concentrations (LOECs) of 10 ng L-1 for E2 and TBT and 10 μg L-1 for DDE and NP, respectively. Of the tested properties of S. curriculus, larval deformity rate was most sensitive to EDC exposure and was significantly increased by DDE at the lowest experimental level of 0.1 μg L-1. Other EDCs increased the larval deformity rate at the LOECs of 1 ng L-1 for E2, 10 ng L-1 for TBT and 1 μg L-1 for NP, respectively. Despite their decreases with the increasing EDC concentrations, the hatching rate and larval survival rate of S. curriculus were not significantly affected by the exposure to EDCs. The results indicated that all the 4 EDCs affected significantly and negatively the early life stages of the freshwater fish S. curriculus. Overall, E2 and TBT were more toxic than NP and DDE, while DDE might be more toxic to larval deformity rate than to other measured parameters. Thus, the 4 EDCs showed potential negative influences on natural population dynamics of S. curriculus. Our findings provided valuable basic data for the ecological risk assessment of E2, DDE, NP and TBT.

  12. An in vivo model fish system to test chemical effects on sexual differentiation and development: exposure to ethinyl estradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, D.M.; Noltie, D.B.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    A model system was characterized which may be used as an in vivo screen for effects of chemicals or environmental mixtures on sexual differentiation and development of reproductive organs and gametes. We evaluated the effects of a model environmental estrogen, ethinyl estradiol (EE2), on the d-rR strain of medaka, Oryzias latipes, using a nano-injection exposure. Gonad histopathology indicated that a single injection of 0.5-2.5 ng EE2/egg can cause phenotypic sex-reversal of genetic males to females. Sex-reversals could be detected as early as 7 days post-hatch. Sex-reversed males had female-typical duct development and the secondary sex characteristics we measured were generally consistent with phenotype, with the exception of a few EE2-exposed XX and XY females which possessed ambiguous anal fins. Using discriminant analysis, we determined that the presence or absence of the secondary sex characteristic, a dorsal fin notch, was a very reliable indicator of gonadal sex. No instances of gonadal intersexes were observed. Ethinyl estradiol also appeared to reduce growth but not condition (weight-at-length) and exposed XX females appeared to have a higher incidence of atretic follicles relative to controls. Our results suggest that estrogenic chemicals may influence sexual differentiation and development and that the medaka model is well suited to assessing these effects. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  13. Analytical methods for the assessment of endocrine disrupting chemical exposure during human fetal and lactation stages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Díaz, I; Vela-Soria, F; Rodríguez-Gómez, R; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A

    2015-09-10

    In the present work, a review of the analytical methods developed in the last 15 years for the determination of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in human samples related with children, including placenta, cord blood, amniotic fluid, maternal blood, maternal urine and breast milk, is proposed. Children are highly vulnerable to toxic chemicals in the environment. Among these environmental contaminants to which children are at risk of exposure are EDCs -substances able to alter the normal hormone function of wildlife and humans-. The work focuses mainly on sample preparation and instrumental techniques used for the detection and quantification of the analytes. The sample preparation techniques include, not only liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE), but also modern microextraction techniques such as extraction with molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs), stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME), dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) or ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), which are becoming alternatives in the analysis of human samples. Most studies focus on minimizing the number of steps and using the lowest solvent amounts in the sample treatment. The usual instrumental techniques employed include liquid chromatography (LC), gas chromatography (GC) mainly coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Multiresidue methods are being developed for the determination of several families of EDCs with one extraction step and limited sample preparation. PMID:26388473

  14. Using Biologic Markers in Blood to Assess Exposure to Multiple Environmental Chemicals for Inner-City Children 3–6 Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Sexton, Ken; Adgate, John L.; Fredrickson, Ann L; Ryan, Andrew D.; Needham, Larry L.; Ashley, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Biomarkers of exposure & early effects: field studiesBiomarker: 50 environmental chemicalsExposure/effect represented:detection of 11 VOCs, 2 heavy metals, 11organochlorine pesticides, 30 PCB congenersStudy design: cross-sectionalStudy size: 43 ethnically diverse childrenAnalytical technique: GC/MSTissue/biological material/sample size: bloodIntra-individual variation: for 6 VOCs (1,4 dichlorobenzene, ethylbenzene, m-l-p-xylene, o-xylene, styrene, tetrachloroethylene) and PCB 66, 105, 110, 18...

  15. Chemical contaminants in water and sediment near fish nesting sites in the Potomac River basin: determining potential exposures to smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpin, Dana W.; Blazer, Vicki; Gray, James L.; Focazio, Michael J.; Young, John A.; Alvarez, David A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Speiran, Gary K.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Barber, Larry B.

    2013-01-01

    The Potomac River basin is an area where a high prevalence of abnormalities such as testicular oocytes (TO), skin lesions, and mortality has been observed in smallmouth bass (SMB, Micropterus dolomieu). Previous research documented a variety of chemicals in regional streams, implicating chemical exposure as one plausible explanation for these biological effects. Six stream sites in the Potomac basin (and one out-of-basin reference site) were sampled to provide an assessment of chemicals in these streams. Potential early life-stage exposure to chemicals detected was assessed by collecting samples in and around SMB nesting areas. Target chemicals included those known to be associated with important agricultural and municipal wastewater sources in the Potomac basin. The prevalence and severity of TO in SMB were also measured to determine potential relations between chemistry and biological effects. A total of 39 chemicals were detected at least once in the discrete-water samples, with atrazine, caffeine, deethylatrazine, simazine, and iso-chlorotetracycline being most frequently detected. Of the most frequently detected chemicals, only caffeine was detected in water from the reference site. No biogenic hormones/sterols were detected in the discrete-water samples. In contrast, 100 chemicals (including six biogenic hormones/sterols) were found in a least one passive-water sample, with 25 being detected at all such samples. In addition, 46 chemicals (including seven biogenic hormones/sterols) were found in the bed-sediment samples, with caffeine, cholesterol, indole, para-cresol, and sitosterol detected in all such samples. The number of herbicides detected in discrete-water samples per site had a significant positive relation to TOrank (a nonparametric indicator of TO), with significant positive relations between TOrank and atrazine concentrations in discrete-water samples and to total hormone/sterol concentration in bed-sediment samples. Such significant correlations

  16. Second-phase validation study of short time exposure test for assessment of eye irritation potency of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hajime; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Omori, Takashi; Otoizumi, Takuya; Sozu, Takashi; Kuwahara, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Takumi; Sakaguchi, Mayumi; Toyoda, Akemi; Goto, Haruka; Watanabe, Shinichi; Ahiko, Kyoko; Nakamura, Tsuneaki; Morimoto, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    A Short Time Exposure (STE) test is a cytotoxicity test that uses SIRC cells (rabbit corneal cell line) to assess eye irritation potency following a 5-min chemical exposure. This second-phase validation study assessed the predictive capacity of the STE test using 40 coded test substances at three laboratories. A Validation Management Team (VMT) then evaluated the predictivity of the STE test for United Nation (UN) Globally Harmonized System (GHS) categories using 63 test substances including the results of the first-phase validation study. The STE test can assess not only the severe or corrosive ocular irritants (corresponding to the UN GHS Category 1) but also non-irritant (corresponding to UN GHS Non Category) from other toxicity classes, especially for limited types of test substances. The predictivity by STE test, however, was insufficient for identification of UN GHS categories (Category 1, Category 2, or Non Category). These results suggest that the STE test can be recommended as an initial step in a top-down approach to identification of severe irritants and test substances that require classification for eye irritation (UN GHS Category 1) as well as an initial step in a bottom-up approach to identification of test substances that do not require classification for eye irritation (UN GHS Non Category) from other toxicity classes, especially for limited types of test substances. On the other hand, the STE test is not considered adequate for the identification of mild or moderate irritants (i.e., UN GHS Categories 2A and 2B) and severe irritants (UN GHS Category 1).

  17. Developmental endpoints of chronic exposure to suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals on benthic and hyporheic freshwater copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marzio, W D; Castaldo, D; Di Lorenzo, T; Di Cioccio, A; Sáenz, M E; Galassi, D M P

    2013-10-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to assess if carbamate pesticides and ammonium, widely detected in European freshwater bodies, can be considered ecologically relevant endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) for benthic and interstitial freshwater copepods; and (ii) to evaluate the potential of copepods as sentinels for monitoring ecosystem health. In order to achieve these objectives, four species belonging to the harpacticoid copepod genus Bryocamptus, namely B. (E.) echinatus, B. (R.) zschokkei, B. (R.) pygmaeus and B. (B.) minutus, were subjected to chronic exposures to Aldicarb and ammonium. A significant deviation from the developmental time of unexposed control cultures was observed for all the species in test cultures. Aldicarb caused an increase in generation time over 80% in both B. minutus and B. zschokkei, but less than 35% in B. pygmaeus and B. echinatus. Ammonium increased generation time over 33% in B. minutus, and 14, 12 and 3.5% for B. pygmaeus, B. zschokkei and B. echinatus, respectively. On the basis of these results it can be concluded that chronic exposure to carbamate pesticides and ammonium alters the post-naupliar development of the test-species and propose their potential role as EDCs, leaving open the basis to search what are the mechanism underlying. A prolonged developmental time would probably produce a detrimental effect on population attributes, such as age structure and population size. These deviations from a pristine population condition may be considered suitable biological indicators of ecosystem stress, particularly useful to compare polluted to unpolluted reference sites. Due to their dominance in both benthic and interstitial habitats, and their sensitivity as test organisms, freshwater benthic and hyporheic copepods can fully be used as sentinel species for assessing health condition of aquatic ecosystems as required by world-wide water legislation. PMID:23890366

  18. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  19. In Situ Field-Based Metabolomics for Evaluating the Impacts of Exposure to Chemicals of Emerging Concern Relative to Other Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant attention is being devoted to the potential impacts on ecosystems from exposure to chemicals of emerging concern (CECs; including pharmaceuticals, personal-care products, etc.). Many of these are persistent, distributed globally, and have been shown to cause adverse i...

  20. A workflow to investigate exposure and pharmacokinetic influences on high-throughput in vitro chemical screening based on adverse outcome pathways, OpenTox USA 2015 Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOP) link known population outcomes to a molecular initiating event (MIE) that can be quantified using high-throughput in vitro methods. Practical application of AOPs in chemical-specific risk assessment requires consideration of exposure and absorption,...

  1. Paternal Occupational Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals as a Risk Factor for Leukaemia in Children: A Case-Control Study from the North of England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Pearce

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupations with exposures to a variety of chemicals, including those thought to be potential endocrine disruptors, have been associated with an increased risk of leukaemia in offspring. We investigated whether an association exists between paternal occupations at birth involving such exposures and risk of leukaemia in offspring. Cases (n=958 were matched, on sex and year of birth, to controls from two independent sources, one other cancers, one cancer-free live births. Paternal occupations at birth were classified, using an occupational exposure matrix, as having “very unlikely,” “possible,” or “likely” exposure to six groups of potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals. There was a significantly increased risk of acute nonlymphocytic leukaemia (ANLL for polychlorinated organic compounds (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.08–3.54 only in comparison with cancer-free controls, and for phthalates (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.00–2.61 only with registry controls. A number of other, including inverse, associations were seen, but limited to one control group only. No associations were seen with likely paternal exposure to heavy metals. The associations identified in this study require further investigation, with better exposure and potential confounding (for example maternal variables information, to evaluate the likelihood of true associations to assess whether they are real or due to chance.

  2. Assessment of Semi-Quantitative Health Risks of Exposure to Harmful Chemical Agents in the Context of Carcinogenesis in the Latex Glove Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, Saeed; Fallah Asadi, Ayda; Varmazyar, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    Excessive exposure to chemicals in the workplace can cause poisoning and various diseases. Thus, for the protection of labor, it is necessary to examine the exposure of people to chemicals and risks from these materials. The purpose of this study is to evaluate semi-quantitative health risks of exposure to harmful chemical agents in the context of carcinogenesis in a latex glove manufacturing industry. In this cross-sectional study, semi-quantitative risk assessment methods provided by the Department of Occupational Health of Singapore were used and index of LD50, carcinogenesis (ACGIH and IARC) and corrosion capacity were applied to calculate the hazard rate and the biggest index was placed as the basis of risk. To calculate the exposure rate, two exposure index methods and the actual level of exposure were employed. After identifying risks, group H (high) and E (very high) classified as high-risk were considered. Of the total of 271 only 39 (15%) were at a high risk level and 3% were very high (E). These risks only was relevant to 7 materials with only sulfuric acid placed in group E and 6 other materials in group H, including nitric acid (48.3%), chromic acid (6.9%), hydrochloric acid (10.3%), ammonia (3.4%), potassium hydroxide (20.7%) and chlorine (10.3%). Overall, the average hazard rate level was estimated to be 4 and average exposure rate to be 3.5. Health risks identified in this study showed that the manufacturing industry for latex gloves has a high level of risk because of carcinogens, acids and strong alkalisand dangerous drugs. Also according to the average level of risk impact, it is better that the safety design strategy for latex gloves production industry be placed on the agenda. PMID:27165227

  3. USEtox human exposure and toxicity factors for comparative assessment of toxic emissions in life cycle analysis: sensitivity to key chemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Huijbregts, Mark; Henderson, Andrew D.;

    2011-01-01

    with key driving factors being the compartment and place of emission, partitioning, degradation, bioaccumulation and bioconcentration, and dietary habits of the population. For inhalation, the population density is the key factor driving the intake, thus the importance to differentiate emissions in urban...... modelling practice, ii) identifying key mechanisms influencing human exposure and toxicity effects of chemical emissions, iii) extending substance coverage. Methods The methods section of this paper contains a detailed documentation of both the human exposure and toxic effects models of USEtox...... areas, except for very persistent and mobile chemicals that are taken in by the global population independently from their place of emission. The analysis of carcinogenic potency (TD50) when volatile chemicals are administrated to rats and mice by both inhalation and an oral route suggests that results...

  4. The applied indicators of water quality may underestimate the risk of chemical exposure to human population in reservoirs utilized for human supply-Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Debora Regina; Yamamoto, Flávia Yoshie; Filipak Neto, Francisco; Randi, Marco Antônio Ferreira; Garcia, Juan Esquivel; Costa, Daniele Dietrich Moura; Liebel, Samuel; Campos, Sandro Xavier; Voigt, Carmen Lúcia; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto

    2016-05-01

    The knowledge concerning associations between chronic chemical exposure and many disorders with complex etiology involving gene-environment interactions is increasing, and new methods must be developed to improve water quality monitoring. The complexity of chemical mixtures in polluted aquatic environments makes the evaluation of toxic potential in those sites difficult, but the use of biomarkers and bioindicators has been recognized as a reliable tool to assess risk of exposure to biota and also the human population. In order to evaluate the use of fish and biomarkers to assess toxic potential and bioavailability of chemicals in human-related hydric resources, an in situ experiment was accomplished in two water reservoirs designated for human supply, which were previously evaluated by the local environmental regulatory agency through a set of physical, chemical, and classical biological parameters. Molecular, biochemical, and morphological biomarkers were performed in caged Oreochromis niloticus kept for 6 months in the studied reservoirs to assess potentially useful biomarkers to evaluate the quality of water for human supply. Chemical analysis of toxic metals in liver and muscle and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bile was considered to assess the bioavailability of pollutants and highlight human activity impact. The reservoir previously classified by a governmental agency as less impacted presented more risk of exposure to biota. These results were supported by chemical analysis, vitellogenin expression, histopathological findings (gonads, liver, and gills), as well as indicators of neurotoxic effects and oxidative stress in liver. The inclusion of some biomarkers as parameters in regulatory monitoring programs in reservoirs designated for human supply is strongly suggested to evaluate the risks of exposure to the human population. Thus, a revision of the traditional biological and physicochemical analysis utilized to establish the conditions of

  5. A framework incorporating the impact of exposure scenarios and application conditions on risk assessment of chemicals applied to skin

    OpenAIRE

    Dancik, Yuri; Troutman, John A; Jaworska, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose 1. To develop a framework for exposure calculation via the dermal route to meet the needs of 21st century toxicity testing and refine current approaches; 2. To demonstrate the impact of exposure scenario and application conditions on the plasma concentration following dermal exposure. Method A workflow connecting a dynamic skin penetration model with a generic whole-body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed. The impact of modifying exposure scenarios and ap...

  6. Neurobehavioral deficits, diseases, and associated costs of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the European union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellanger, Martine; Demeneix, Barbara; Grandjean, Philippe;

    2015-01-01

    attributed to EDC exposure in the European Union. DESIGN: An expert panel applied a weight-of-evidence characterization adapted from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated for relevant EDCs, and biomarker data were organized from...... emphasize the advantages of controlling EDC exposure....

  7. Subchronic Arsenic Exposure Induces Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Normal Mice and Enhances Depression-Like Behaviors in the Chemically Induced Mouse Model of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yu Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence implicates that subchronic arsenic exposure causes cerebral neurodegeneration leading to behavioral disturbances relevant to psychiatric disorders. However, there is still little information regarding the influence of subchronic exposure to arsenic-contaminated drinking water on mood disorders and its underlying mechanisms in the cerebral prefrontal cortex. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of subchronic arsenic exposure (10 mg/LAs2O3 in drinking water on the anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in normal mice and in the chemically induced mouse model of depression by reserpine pretreatment. Our findings demonstrated that 4 weeks of arsenic exposure enhance anxiety-like behaviors on elevated plus maze (EPM and open field test (OFT in normal mice, and 8 weeks of arsenic exposure augment depression-like behaviors on tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST in the reserpine pretreated mice. In summary, in this present study, we demonstrated that subchronic arsenic exposure induces only the anxiety-like behaviors in normal mice and enhances the depression-like behaviors in the reserpine induced mouse model of depression, in which the cerebral prefrontal cortex BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway is involved. We also found that eight weeks of subchronic arsenic exposure are needed to enhance the depression-like behaviors in the mouse model of depression. These findings imply that arsenic could be an enhancer of depressive symptoms for those patients who already had the attribute of depression.

  8. Childhood exposure to DEHP, DBP and BBP under existing chemical management systems: A comparative study of sources of childhood exposure in Korea and in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Chan-Kook;

    2014-01-01

    , while Korea produces more than 0.4 million tons of the three above-mentioned phthalates each year. First, a comparative review of the existing phthalate regulations in the two countries was performed. Next, the level of childhood phthalate exposure from environmental and food sources was estimated using...... calculation respectively were 0.24 and up to 0.5 in Denmark while 0.52 and up to 0.95 in Korea. Food and indoor dust were the main exposure sources for all three phthalates. In order to protect human health from cumulative risks of these phthalates, the exposure scenarios in existing regulations......In this paper, the cumulative risks of Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and Benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) to 2-year-old children in two countries: one European (Denmark) and one Asian (South Korea) were compared. Denmark does not produce phthalates as a raw material...

  9. Chemical networks*

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Wing-Fai

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the fundamental ideas of how chemical networks are build, their strengths and limitations. The chemical reactions that occur in disks combine the cold phase reactions used to model cold molecular clouds with the hot chemistry applied to planetary atmosphere models. With a general understanding of the different types of reactions that can occur, one can proceed in building a network of chemical reactions and use it to explain the abundance of species seen in disks. One o...

  10. Effects of physico-chemical properties of actinide oxides on tumour induction after inhalation exposure in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, P.; Dudoignon, N.; Ramounet, B.; Guezingar-Liebard, F.; Matton, S.; Lizon, C.; Massiot, P. [CEA, DSV/DRR/SRCA/LRT, Bruyeres le Chatel (France). Laboratoire de Radiotoxicologie

    2000-07-01

    This review described results obtained with new methods in authors' laboratory to measure dissolution parameters of inhaled actinide oxides and the distribution of {alpha}-delivered dose within lungs in relation to their tumor induction in rats. The oxides were industrial PuO{sub 2} (>50% of {alpha}, due to {sup 238}Pu), {sup 237}NpO{sub 2} and 2 different (U, Pu)O{sub 2} containing about 5% industrial Pu. The aerodynamic median activity diameter of their aerosols with authors' specific device measured with a cascade impactor were similar to each other (1.7-3.6 {mu}m {sigma}g). Their chemical composition was characterized using scanning transmission electron microscopy by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry on alveolar macrophages which had phagocytosed them. Measurements of dissolution parameters after inhalation exposure in the rat and after in vitro incubation respectively revealed that the f{sub r} values were in the range of 2 x 10{sup -2}-1 x 10{sup -4}, indicating oxides behaved as a type S compound, and that the values were quite different from those above, suggesting S{sub s} should be considered as a variable for dose calculation, depending on time after inhalation. An autoradiographic method using solid tract detector and lung frozen sections revealed that aggeregations involving interstitial macrophages were often associated with fibrosis and/or preneoplastic lesions, which was explainable of a threshold in the dose-effect relationship for lung cancer occurrence. Results showed that, on inhalation of the oxides, risk assessment for lung tumor induction at low doses can not be extrapolated from that at high doses. (K.H.)

  11. Malignant lymphoma and exposure to chemicals, especially organic solvents, chlorophenols and phenoxy acids: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Hardell, L; Eriksson, M.; Lenner, P; Lundgren, E.

    1981-01-01

    A number of men with malignant lymphoma of the histiocytic type and previous exposure to phenoxy acids or chlorophenols were observed and reported in 1979. A matched case-control study has therefore been performed with cases of malignant lymphoma (Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma). This study included 169 cases and 338 controls. The results indicate that exposure to phenoxy acids, chlorophenols, and organic solvents may be a causative factor in malignant lymphoma. Combined exposure ...

  12. HELLE: Health Effects of Low Level Exposures/ Gezondheidseffecten van lage blootstellingniveaus [International workshop: Influence of low level exposures to chemicals and radiation on human and ecological health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoten, Eert

    1998-11-26

    The Health Council is closely involved in establishing the scientific foundation of exposure limits for substances and radiation in order to protect public health. Through the years, the Council has contributed to the formulation of principles and procedures, both for carcinogenic and for noncarcinogenic agents. As a rule, the discussion with regard to the derivation of health-based recommended exposure limits centers around the appropriateness of extrapolation methods (What can be inferred from data on high exposure levels and on experimental animals?). Generally speaking, there is a lack of direct information on the health effects of low levels of exposure. Effects at these levels cannot usually be detected by means of traditional animal experiments or epidemiological research. The capacity of these analytical instruments to distinguish between ''signal'' and ''noise'' is inadequate in most cases. Annex B of this report contains a brief outline of the difficulties and the established methods for tackling this problem. In spite of this, the hope exists that the posited weak signals, if they are indeed present, can be detected by other means. The search will have to take place on a deeper level. In other words, effort must be made to discover what occurs at underlying levels of biological organization when organisms are exposed to low doses of radiation or substances. Molecular and cell biology provide various methods and techniques which give an insight into the processes within the cell. This results in an increase in the knowledge about the molecular and cellular effects of exposure to agents, or stated differently, the working mechanisms which form the basis of the health effects. Last year, the Health Council considered that the time was ripe to take stock of the state of knowledge in this field. To this end, an international working conference was held from 19 to 21 October 1997, entitled ''Health Effects of

  13. Too many chemicals, too little time: Rapid in silico methods to characterize and predict ADME properties for chemical toxicity and exposure potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating proposed alternative chemical structures to support the design of safer chemicals and products is an important component of EPA's Green Chemistry and Design for the Environment (DfE) Programs. As such, science-based alternatives assessment is essential to support EPA's...

  14. Modelling the exposure to chemicals for risk assessment: a comprehensive library of multimedia and PBPK models for integration, prediction, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis - the MERLIN-Expo tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciffroy, P; Alfonso, B; Altenpohl, A; Banjac, Z; Bierkens, J; Brochot, C; Critto, A; De Wilde, T; Fait, G; Fierens, T; Garratt, J; Giubilato, E; Grange, E; Johansson, E; Radomyski, A; Reschwann, K; Suciu, N; Tanaka, T; Tediosi, A; Van Holderbeke, M; Verdonck, F

    2016-10-15

    MERLIN-Expo is a library of models that was developed in the frame of the FP7 EU project 4FUN in order to provide an integrated assessment tool for state-of-the-art exposure assessment for environment, biota and humans, allowing the detection of scientific uncertainties at each step of the exposure process. This paper describes the main features of the MERLIN-Expo tool. The main challenges in exposure modelling that MERLIN-Expo has tackled are: (i) the integration of multimedia (MM) models simulating the fate of chemicals in environmental media, and of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models simulating the fate of chemicals in human body. MERLIN-Expo thus allows the determination of internal effective chemical concentrations; (ii) the incorporation of a set of functionalities for uncertainty/sensitivity analysis, from screening to variance-based approaches. The availability of such tools for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis aimed to facilitate the incorporation of such issues in future decision making; (iii) the integration of human and wildlife biota targets with common fate modelling in the environment. MERLIN-Expo is composed of a library of fate models dedicated to non biological receptor media (surface waters, soils, outdoor air), biological media of concern for humans (several cultivated crops, mammals, milk, fish), as well as wildlife biota (primary producers in rivers, invertebrates, fish) and humans. These models can be linked together to create flexible scenarios relevant for both human and wildlife biota exposure. Standardized documentation for each model and training material were prepared to support an accurate use of the tool by end-users. One of the objectives of the 4FUN project was also to increase the confidence in the applicability of the MERLIN-Expo tool through targeted realistic case studies. In particular, we aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of building complex realistic exposure scenarios and the accuracy of the

  15. Evaluation of the co-genotoxic effects of 1800 MHz GSM radiofrequency exposure and a chemical mutagen in cultured human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Anne; Freire, Maëlle; Bachelet, Christine; Collin, Alice; Levêque, Philippe; Pla, Simon; Debouzy, Jean-Claude

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the effect of a 1800 MHz radiofrequency GSM signal combined with a known chemical mutagen (4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide: 4NQO) on human THP1 cells. Comet and γ-H2AX assays were used to assess DNA damage. No heating of the cell cultures was noted during exposure (2 h). The exposure of cells to electromagnetic fields with SARs of 2 to 16 W/kg did not increase the DNA damage induced by 4NQO, whereas the number of DNA strand breaks increased with a temperature increase of at least 4 °C. In conclusion, no co-genotoxic effect of radiofrequency was found at levels of exposure that did not induce heating.

  16. Risk-based high-throughput chemical screening and prioritization using exposure models and in vitro bioactivity assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Ernstoff, Alexi; Arnot, Jon;

    2015-01-01

    We present a risk-based high-throughput screening (HTS) method to identify chemicals for potential health concerns or for which additional information is needed. The method is applied to 180 organic chemicals as a case study. We first obtain information on how the chemical is used and identify...

  17. Proceedings with confidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.

    1992-01-01

    Nobody loves published conference proceedings. I certainly don't, as readers of this magazine may remember (Forum, 14 December 1991). Proceedings are too big and unwieldy, and waste authors' time by insisting that they write papers to a rigid format. Publications in proceedings are unrefereed, add l

  18. Energy absorption and exposure buildup factors for some polymers and tissue substitute materials: photon energy, penetration depth and chemical composition dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurudirek, Murat; Oezdemir, Yueksel, E-mail: mkurudirek@gmail.com [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ataturk University, 25240, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2011-03-01

    The gamma ray energy absorption and exposure buildup factors have been calculated by using the five parameter geometric progression (GP) fitting formula for some polymers and tissue substitute materials in the energy region 0.015-15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mean free paths. From the results, it is worth noting that significant variations occur in gamma ray buildup factors for the given polymers and tissue substitute materials depending on photon energy, penetration depth and chemical composition of the materials. Also, it was observed that there are significant variations between energy absorption (EABF) and exposure (EBF) buildup factors which may be due to the variations in chemical composition of the materials used. Finally, it is expected that the presented buildup factor data may be helpful in (a) estimating the effective dose to be given to patients in radiation therapy and diagnostics, hence allowing corrections to be made to the intensity of radiation, as it is somewhat problematic to evaluate the real absorbed dose in critical organs due to the probability of photon buildup somewhere inside the medium; (b) estimating the health hazards arising from the exposure of the human body to radiation, thus it will be helpful in controlling the exposure of the human body to radiation.

  19. Epigenetic regulation of neurodevelopmental genes in response to in utero exposure to phthalate plastic chemicals: How can we delineate causal effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Symeonides, Christos; Vuillermin, Peter; Mueller, Jochen; Sly, Peter D; Saffery, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Accumulating evidence, from animal models and human observational studies, implicates the in utero (and early postnatal) environment in the 'programming' of risk for a variety of adverse outcomes and health trajectories. The modern environment is replete with man-made compounds such as plastic product chemicals (PPC), including phenols and phthalates. Evidence from several human cohorts implicates exposure to these chemicals in adverse offspring neurodevelopment, though a direct causal relationship has not been firmly established. In this review we consider a potential causal pathway that encompasses epigenetic human variation, and how we might test this mechanistic hypothesis in human studies. In the first part of this report we outline how PPCs induce epigenetic change, focusing on the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, a key regulator of neurodevelopment. Further, we discuss the role of the epigenetics of BDNF and other genes in neurodevelopment and the emerging human evidence of an association between phthalate exposure and adverse offspring neurodevelopment. We discuss aspects of epidemiological and molecular study design and analysis that could be employed to strengthen the level of human evidence to infer causality. We undertake this using an exemplar recent research example: maternal prenatal smoking, linked to methylation change at the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) gene at birth, now shown to mediate some of the effects of maternal smoking on birth weight. Characterizing the relationship between the modern environment and the human molecular pathways underpinning its impact on early development is paramount to understanding the public health significance of modern day chemical exposures. PMID:27208563

  20. Using PBPK guided “Body-on-a-Chip” Systems to Predict Mammalian Response to Drug and Chemical Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Jong Hwan; Srinivasan, Balaji; Esch, Mandy Brigitte; McLamb, William T.; Bernabini, Catia; Shuler, Michael L.; Hickman, James J.

    2014-01-01

    The continued development of in vitro systems that accurately emulate human response to drugs or chemical agents will impact drug development, our understanding of chemical toxicity, and enhance our ability to respond to threats from chemical or biological agents. A promising technology is to build microscale replicas of humans that capture essential elements of physiology, pharmacology and/or toxicology (microphysiological systems). Here, we review progress on systems for microscale models o...

  1. Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: Detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Stevenson, Mitchel R. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Skirrow, Rachel C. [Pacific and Yukon Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC V7H 1B1 (Canada); Rieberger, Kevin J. [Environmental Sustainability and Strategic Policy Division, Water Protection and Sustainability Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 9362 Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2 (Canada); Aggelen, Graham van [Pacific and Yukon Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC V7H 1B1 (Canada); Meays, Cynthia L. [Environmental Sustainability and Strategic Policy Division, Water Protection and Sustainability Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 9362 Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2 (Canada); Helbing, Caren C., E-mail: chelbing@uvic.ca [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •A minimally-invasive tail fin biopsy assay was developed for use in fish. •Quantitative real time polymerase reaction provided gene expression readout. •Results were comparable to classical liver tissue responses. •The approach was used on two salmonid species and can be coupled with genomic sex determination using an additional biopsy for maximal information. -- Abstract: An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17α-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor α and β isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein γ, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in

  2. Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: Detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •A minimally-invasive tail fin biopsy assay was developed for use in fish. •Quantitative real time polymerase reaction provided gene expression readout. •Results were comparable to classical liver tissue responses. •The approach was used on two salmonid species and can be coupled with genomic sex determination using an additional biopsy for maximal information. -- Abstract: An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17α-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor α and β isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein γ, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in

  3. Medical countermeasure against respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent VX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop therapeutics against lung injury and respiratory toxicity following nerve agent VX exposure, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a number of potential pulmonary therapeutics. Guinea pigs were exposed to 27.03 mg/m3 of VX or saline using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min and then the toxicity was assessed. Exposure to this dose of VX resulted in a 24-h survival rate of 52%. There was a significant increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein, total cell number, and cell death. Surprisingly, direct pulmonary treatment with surfactant, liquivent, N-acetylcysteine, dexamethasone, or anti-sense syk oligonucleotides 2 min post-exposure did not significantly increase the survival rate of VX-exposed guinea pigs. Further blocking the nostrils, airway, and bronchioles, VX-induced viscous mucous secretions were exacerbated by these aerosolized treatments. To overcome these events, we developed a strategy to protect the animals by treatment with atropine. Atropine inhibits muscarinic stimulation and markedly reduces the copious airway secretion following nerve agent exposure. Indeed, post-exposure treatment with atropine methyl bromide, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, resulted in 100% survival of VX-exposed animals. Bronchoalveolar lavage from VX-exposed and atropine-treated animals exhibited lower protein levels, cell number, and cell death compared to VX-exposed controls, indicating less lung injury. When pulmonary therapeutics were combined with atropine, significant protection to VX-exposure was observed. These results indicate that combinations of pulmonary therapeutics with atropine or drugs that inhibit mucous secretion are important for the treatment of respiratory toxicity and lung injury following VX exposure

  4. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and other substances of concern in food contact materials: an updated review of exposure, effect and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muncke, Jane

    2011-10-01

    Food contact materials (FCM) are an underestimated source of chemical food contaminants and a potentially relevant route of human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Quantifying the exposure of the general population to substances from FCM relies on estimates of food consumption and leaching into food. Recent studies using polycarbonate plastics show that food simulants do not always predict worst-case leaching of bisphenol A, a common FCM substance. Also, exposure of children to FCM substances is not always realistically predicted using the common conventions and thus possibly misjudged. Further, the exposure of the whole population to substances leaching into dry foods is underestimated. Consumers are exposed to low levels of substances from FCM across their entire lives. Effects of these compounds currently are assessed with a focus on mutagenicity and genotoxicity. This approach however neglects integrating recent new toxicological findings, like endocrine disruption, mixture toxicity, and developmental toxicity. According to these new toxicology paradigms women of childbearing age and during pregnancy are a new sensitive population group requiring more attention. Furthermore, in overweight and obese persons a change in the metabolism of xenobiotics is observed, possibly implying that this group of consumers is insufficiently protected by current risk assessment practice. Innovations in FCM risk assessment should therefore include routine testing for EDCs and an assessment of the whole migrate toxicity of a food packaging, taking into account all sensitive population groups. In this article I focus on recent issues of interest concerning either exposure to or effects of FCM-related substances. Further, I review the use of benzophenones and organotins, two groups of known or suspected EDCs, in FCM authorized in the US and EU. PMID:21073950

  5. Investigation of the relation between self-reported food consumption and household chemical exposures with urinary levels of selected nonpersistent pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieszak, Stephanie M; Naeher, Luke P; Rubin, Carol S; Needham, Larry L; Backer, Lorraine; Barr, Dana; McGeehin, Michael

    2002-11-01

    Concerns about pesticide exposure through food consumption have increased during the past several years. The main objective of our study was to determine whether we could use data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) to detect a relation between self-reported food consumption--particularly consumption of fruits, vegetables, and bread products--and urinary levels of pesticides or their metabolites in a population of 978 adults living in the US. A secondary objective was to investigate whether these urine levels differed for people who reported exposure to selected common household chemicals including bug or insect spray, weed killer, and mothballs or crystals. We used monthly food frequency data from the NHANES III, 1988-1994. Urinary pesticide/metabolite levels and information about chemical exposures were taken from the Priority Toxicant Reference Range Study (a component of the NHANES III). Six pesticides or their metabolites were detected in at least 50% of the sample, three of which--1-naphthol (86.4%), pentachlorophenol (62.5%), and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (82.0%)--were possibly related to food consumption. We were unable to detect a relation between self-reported food consumption and their urinary levels. This may be due more to the limitations of the datasets than to a lack of a relation between food consumption and urine pesticide/metabolite levels. We did find that people who reported recently using selected common chemicals had higher geometric mean urine pesticide/metabolite levels than did people who reported not recently using these chemicals. PMID:12415488

  6. Chemical protection against long-term effects of whole-body exposure of mice to ionizing radiation. III. The effects of fractionated exposure to C57Bl mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mice of the C57Bl/Cnb strain were exposed to four fractionated doses delivered at weekly intervals (total doses from 4 x 50 to 4 x 375 R). One group of mice received a mixture of radioprotectors. The animals were followed to their natural death and investigated for histopathology. Life-shortening showed a sigmoid dependency on the dose in nonprotected and protected mice with a dose reduction factor of 2.1 at 50% life-shorteining. Thymic lymphoma was the most predominant cause of death in irradiated C57Bl mice. Radioprotectors diminished significantly the incidence of this disease but apparently did not reduce other causes of death. Reticulum cell sarcoma B also increased at the same low doses as thymic lymphoma. Both thymic lymphoma and reticulum cell sarcoma B increased in frequency after a fractionated dose compared to a single exposure with doses of 600 to 700 R and 300 to 400 R, respectively

  7. Evaluating the Value of Augmenting In Vitro Hazard Assessment with Exposure and Pharmacokinetics Considerations for Chemical Prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over time, toxicity-testing paradigms have progressed from low-throughput in vivo animal studies for limited numbers of chemicals to high-throughput (HT) in vitro screening assays for thousands of chemicals. Such HT in vitro methods, along with HT in silico predictions of popula...

  8. Concurrent Fetal Exposure to Multiple Environmental Chemicals along the U.S.—Mexico Border: An Exploratory Study in Brownsville, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Sexton

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is mounting concern that cumulative exposure to diverse chemicals in the environment may contribute to observed adverse health outcomes in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. To investigate this situation, biomarker concentrations of organochlorine (OC pesticides/metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were measured in maternal and umbilical cord blood from pregnant Hispanic women in Brownsville, TX. Results show that both mothers and fetuses were exposed concurrently to a variety of relatively low-level, hazardous environmental chemicals. Approximately 10% of the blood specimens had comparatively high concentrations of specific OC pesticides, PCBs and PAHs. Because many pregnant women in Brownsville live in socioeconomically-disadvantaged and environmentally-challenging circumstances, there is appropriate concern that exposure to these exogenous substances, either individually or in combination, may contribute to endemic health problems in this population, including cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes.  The challenge is to identify individuals at highest comparative risk and then implement effective programs to either prevent or reduce cumulative exposures that pose significant health-related threats.

  9. The LINA Study: Higher Sensitivity of Infant Compared to Maternal Eosinophil/Basophil Progenitors to Indoor Chemical Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Hörnig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Enhanced eosinophil/basophil (Eo/B progenitor cell levels are known to be associated with allergic inflammation and atopy risk. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of different indoor exposures on the recruitment and differentiation of Eo/B progenitors in mother-child pairs. Methods. In 68 mother-child pairs of the LINA study peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used to assess Eo/B colony forming units (CFUs. Information about disease outcomes and indoor exposures was obtained from questionnaires. Indoor concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs were measured by passive sampling. Results. Infant’s Eo/B CFUs were positively associated with exposure to tobacco smoke, disinfectants, or VOCs. In contrast, for maternal Eo/B CFUs, only a few associations were seen. Higher numbers of infant Eo/B CFUs were observed in children with wheezing symptoms within the second year of life. Conclusions. We demonstrate that infant’s hematopoietic cells seem to respond with more sensitivity to environmental exposure compared to maternal cells. At least in infants, an activation of these hematopoietic cells by environmental exposure could contribute to an enhanced risk for the development of respiratory outcomes.

  10. Adverse Reproductive and Developmental Health Outcomes Following Prenatal Exposure to a Hydraulic Fracturing Chemical Mixture in Female C57Bl/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Bromfield, John J; Klemp, Kara C; Meng, Chun-Xia; Wolfe, Andrew; Zoeller, R Thomas; Balise, Victoria D; Isiguzo, Chiamaka J; Tillitt, Donald E; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-09-01

    Unconventional oil and gas operations using hydraulic fracturing can contaminate surface and groundwater with endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We have previously shown that 23 of 24 commonly used hydraulic fracturing chemicals can activate or inhibit the estrogen, androgen, glucocorticoid, progesterone, and/or thyroid receptors in a human endometrial cancer cell reporter gene assay and that mixtures can behave synergistically, additively, or antagonistically on these receptors. In the current study, pregnant female C57Bl/6 dams were exposed to a mixture of 23 commonly used unconventional oil and gas chemicals at approximately 3, 30, 300, and 3000 μg/kg·d, flutamide at 50 mg/kg·d, or a 0.2% ethanol control vehicle via their drinking water from gestational day 11 through birth. This prenatal exposure to oil and gas operation chemicals suppressed pituitary hormone concentrations across experimental groups (prolactin, LH, FSH, and others), increased body weights, altered uterine and ovary weights, increased heart weights and collagen deposition, disrupted folliculogenesis, and other adverse health effects. This work suggests potential adverse developmental and reproductive health outcomes in humans and animals exposed to these oil and gas operation chemicals, with adverse outcomes observed even in the lowest dose group tested, equivalent to concentrations reported in drinking water sources. These endpoints suggest potential impacts on fertility, as previously observed in the male siblings, which require careful assessment in future studies. PMID:27560547

  11. Canine toys and training devices as sources of exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A: quantitation of chemicals in leachate and in vitro screening for endocrine activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Kimberly J; Smith, Philip N

    2013-11-01

    Chewing and mouthing behaviors exhibited by pet dogs are likely to lead to oral exposures to a variety of environmental chemicals. Products intended for chewing and mouthing uses include toys and training devices that are often made of plastics. The goal of the current study was to determine if a subset of phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA), endocrine disrupting chemicals commonly found in plastics, leach out of dog toys and training devices (bumpers) into synthetic canine saliva. In vitro assays were used to screen leachates for endocrine activity. Bumper leachates were dominated by di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and BPA, with concentrations reaching low μg mL(-1) following short immersions in synthetic saliva. Simulated chewing of bumpers during immersion in synthetic saliva increased concentrations of phthalates and BPA as compared to new bumpers, while outdoor storage had variable effects on concentrations (increased DEHP; decreased BPA). Toys leached substantially lower concentrations of phthalates and BPA, with the exception of one toy which leached considerable amounts of diethyl phthalate. In vitro assays indicated anti-androgenic activity of bumper leachates, and estrogenic activity of both bumper and toy leachates. These results confirm that toys and training devices are potential sources of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in pet dogs. PMID:24007620

  12. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Occupational Exposure to Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Groups and Active Ingredients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Schinasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes results from a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses of nearly three decades worth of epidemiologic research on the relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide active ingredients and chemical groups. Estimates of associations of NHL with 21 pesticide chemical groups and 80 active ingredients were extracted from 44 papers, all of which reported results from analyses of studies conducted in high-income countries. Random effects meta-analyses showed that phenoxy herbicides, carbamate insecticides, organophosphorus insecticides and the active ingredient lindane, an organochlorine insecticide, were positively associated with NHL. In a handful of papers, associations between pesticides and NHL subtypes were reported; B cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicides and the organophosphorus herbicide glyphosate. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicide exposure. Despite compelling evidence that NHL is associated with certain chemicals, this review indicates the need for investigations of a larger variety of pesticides in more geographic areas, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, despite producing a large portion of the world’s agriculture, were missing in the literature that were reviewed.

  13. Male Reproductive Disorders, Diseases, and Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Russ; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Hass, Ulla;

    2015-01-01

    epidemiological and strong toxicological evidence for male infertility attributable to phthalate exposure, with a 40-69% probability of causing 618 000 additional assisted reproductive technology procedures, costing (sic)4.71 billion annually. Low epidemiological and strong toxicological evidence was also......-old men due to phthalate exposure, with 24 800 associated deaths annually and lost economic productivity of (sic)7.96 billion. Conclusions: EDCs may contribute substantially to male reproductive disorders and diseases, with nearly (sic)15 billion annual associated costs in the EU. These estimates...

  14. Experimental Investigation Of Microbially Induced Corrosion Of Test Samples And Effect Of Self-assembled Hydrophobic Monolayers. Exposure Of Test Samples To Continuous Microbial Cultures, Chemical Analysis, And Biochemical Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Laurinavichius, K S

    1998-01-01

    Experimental Investigation Of Microbially Induced Corrosion Of Test Samples And Effect Of Self-assembled Hydrophobic Monolayers. Exposure Of Test Samples To Continuous Microbial Cultures, Chemical Analysis, And Biochemical Studies

  15. Disentangling the developmental and neurobehavioural effects of perinatal exposure to a chemical mixture found in blood of Arctic populations: differential toxicity of mixture components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, W.; Nakai, J.; Yagminas, A.; Chu, I.; Moir, D. [Health Canada (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    The current study was designed to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of perinatal exposure to a chemical mixture that is based on relative concentrations of persistent organic pollutants found in the blood of Canadian Arctic populations and contains 14 PCB congeners, 12 organochlorine pesticides and methyl mercury. This study compared the effects of the complete mixture with the effects of three major components of the mixture (the PCB component, the organochlorine pesticide component, and the methyl mercury component). By examining a range of neurobehavioural functions over development we also determine if specific neurobehavioural disturbances produced by the mixture can be attributed to components of the mixture and if neurobehavioural effects produced by components of the mixture are altered by concurrent exposure to other components in the mixture. Ninety-two nulliparious female Sprague-Dawley rats served as subjects.

  16. Burden of disease and costs of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in the European Union: an updated analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trasande, L.; Zoeller, R. T.; Hass, Ulla;

    2016-01-01

    disrupting chemical causation for IQ loss and associated intellectual disability; autism; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; endometriosis; fibroids; childhood obesity; adult obesity; adult diabetes; cryptorchidism; male infertility, and mortality associated with reduced testosterone. Accounting...

  17. Spaces of Uneventful Disaster Tracking Emergency Housing and Domestic Chemical Exposures from New Orleans to National Crises

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Nicholas E; Hsu, Elisabeth; Lezaun, Javier

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, I examine the politics, poetics, and logics of uneventful human harm in the United States by tracking the life and afterlife of a chemically contaminated emergency housing unit. In 2005, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) deployed 120,000 trailers to the US Gulf Coast to house those displaced by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Chemical testing, spurred by reports of inhabitant illness, revealed elevated levels of formaldehyde emanating from the plywood walls of the tr...

  18. Foetal Hypothalamic and Pituitary Expression of Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone and Galanin Systems is Disturbed by Exposure to Sewage Sludge Chemicals via Maternal Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingham, Michelle; Fowler, Paul A.; Amezaga, Maria R.; Whitelaw, Christine M.; Rhind, Stewart M.; Cotinot, Corinne; Mandon-Pepin, Beatrice; Sharpe, Richard M.; Evans, Neil P.

    2016-01-01

    Animals and humans are chronically exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which are ubiquitous in the environment. There are strong circumstantial links between environmental EDC exposure and both declining human/wildlife reproductive health and the increasing incidence of reproductive system abnormalities. Verification of such links, however, is difficult and requires animal models exposed to 'real life', environmentally relevant concentrations/mixtures of environmental contaminants (ECs), particularly in- utero, when sensitivity to EC exposure is high. The aim of this study was to determine whether the fetal sheep reproductive neuroendocrine axis, particularly GnRH and galaninergic systems were affected by maternal exposure to a complex mixture of chemicals, applied to pasture, in the form of sewage sludge. Sewage sludge contains high concentrations of a spectrum of EDCs and other pollutants, relative to environmental concentrations but is frequently recycled to land as a fertiliser. We found that foetuses exposed, to the EDC mixture in-utero through their mothers, had lower GnRH mRNA expression in the hypothalamus and lower GnRHR and galanin receptor (GALR) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Strikingly, this, treatment had no significant effect on maternal GnRH or GnRHR mRNA expression although GALR mRNA expression within the maternal hypothalamus and pituitary gland was reduced. This study clearly demonstrates that the developing foetal neuroendocrine axis is sensitive to real-world mixtures of environmental chemicals. Given the important role of GnRH and GnRHR in the regulation of reproductive function, its known in-utero programming role, and the role of galanin in the regulation of many physiological/neuroendocrine systems, in-utero changes in the activity of these systems are likely to have long term consequences in adulthood and represent a novel pathway through which EC mixtures could perturb normal reproductive function

  19. Calibration of nylon organic chemical integrative samplers and sentinel samplers for quantitative measurement of pulsed aquatic exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shane A; Belden, Jason B

    2016-06-01

    Environmental exposures often occur through short, pulsed events; therefore, the ability to accurately measure these toxicologically-relevant concentrations is important. Three different integrative passive sampler configurations were evaluated under different flow and pulsed exposure conditions for the measurement of current-use pesticides (n=19), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (n=10), and personal care products (n=5) spanning a broad range of hydrophobicities (log Kow 1.5-7.6). Two modified POCIS-style samplers were investigated using macroporous nylon mesh membranes (35μm pores) and two different sorbent materials (i.e. Oasis HLB and Dowex Optipore L-493). A recently developed design, the Sentinel Sampler (ABS Materials), utilizing Osorb media enclosed within stainless steel mesh (145μm pores), was also investigated. Relatively high sampling rates (Rs) were achieved for all sampler configurations during the short eight-day exposure (4300-27mL/d). Under flow conditions, median Rs were approximately 5-10 times higher for POCIS-style samplers and 27 times higher for Sentinel Samplers, as compared to static conditions. The ability of samplers to rapidly measure hydrophobic contaminants may be a trade off with increased flow dependence. Analyte accumulation was integrative under pulsed and continuous exposures for POCIS-style samplers with mean difference between treatments of 11% and 33%; however, accumulation into Sentinel Samplers was more variable. Collectively, results show that reducing membrane limitations allows for rapid, integrative accumulation of a broad range of analytes even under pulsed exposures. As such, these sampler designs may be suitable for monitoring environmental substances that have short aquatic half-lives. PMID:27139214

  20. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Formation of Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters Both in Real Edible Oils during Laboratory-Scale Refining and in Chemical Model during High Temperature Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weiwei; Liu, Guoqin; Liu, Xinqi

    2016-07-27

    In the present study, the formation mechanisms of glycidyl fatty acid esters (GEs) were investigated both in real edible oils (soybean oil, camellia oil, and palm oil) during laboratory-scale preparation and refining and in chemical model (1,2-dipalmitin (DPG) and 1-monopalmitin (MPG)) during high temperature exposure (160-260 °C under nitrogen). The formation process of GEs in the chemical model was monitored using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the roasting and pressing process could produce certain amounts of GEs that were much lower than that produced in the deodorization process. GE contents in edible oils increased continuously and significantly with increasing deodorization time below 200 °C. However, when the temperature exceeded 200 °C, GE contents sharply increased in 1-2 h followed by a gradual decrease, which could verify a simultaneous formation and degradation of GEs at high temperature. In addition, it was also found that the presence of acylglycerol (DAGs and MAGs) could significantly increase the formation yield of GEs both in real edible oils and in chemical model. Compared with DAGs, moreover, MAGs displayed a higher formation capacity but substantially lower contribution to GE formation due to their low contents in edible oils. In situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopic evidence showed that cyclic acyloxonium ion intermediate was formed during GE formation derived from DPG and MPG in chemical model heated at 200 °C. PMID:27319409

  2. Chemical characterization of exhaled breath to differentiate between patients with malignant plueral mesothelioma from subjects with similar professional asbestos exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennaro, G. de; Longobardi, F.; Stallone, G.; Trizio, L.; Tutino, M. [University of Bari Aldo Moro, Department of Chemistry, Bari (Italy); Dragonieri, S. [University of Bari Aldo Moro, Department of Pulmonology, Bari (Italy); Musti, M. [University of Bari Aldo Moro, Department of Occupational Medicine, Bari (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumour whose main aetiology is the long-term exposure to asbestos fibres. The diagnostic procedure of MPM is difficult and often requires invasive approaches; therefore, it is clinically important to find accurate markers for MPM by new noninvasive methods that may facilitate the diagnostic process and identify patients at an earlier stage. In the present study, the exhaled breath of 13 patients with histology-established diagnosis of MPM, 13 subjects with long-term certified professional exposure to asbestos (EXP) and 13 healthy subjects without exposure to asbestos (healthy controls, HC) were analysed. An analytical procedure to determine volatile organic compounds by sampling of air on a bed of solid sorbent and thermal desorption GC-MS analysis was developed in order to identify the compounds capable of discriminating among the three groups. The application of univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate statistical treatments (PCA, DFA and CP-ANN) showed that cyclopentane and cyclohexane were the dominant variables able to discriminate among the three groups. In particular, it was found that cyclohexane is the only compound able to differentiate the MPM group from the other two; therefore, it can be a possible marker of MPM. Cyclopentane is the dominant compound in the discrimination between EXP and the other groups (MPM and HC); then, it can be considered a good indicator for long-term asbestos exposure. This result suggests the need to perform frequent and thorough investigations on people exposed to asbestos in order to constantly monitor their state of health or possibly to study the evolution of disease over time. (orig.)

  3. Chemical Leukoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Vestita, Michelangelo; Romita, Paolo; Filoni, Angela; Foti, Caterina; Angelini, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Chemical leukoderma, often clinically mimicking idiopathic vitiligo and other congenital and acquired hypopigmentation, is an acquired form of cutaneous pigment loss caused by exposure to a variety of chemicals that act through selective melanocytotoxicity. Most of these chemicals are phenols and aromatic or aliphatic catechols derivatives. These chemicals, however, are harmful for melanocytes in individuals with an individual susceptibility. Nowadays, chemical leukoderma is fairly common, caused by common domestic products. The presence of numerous acquired confetti- or pea-sized macules is clinically characteristic of chemical leukoderma, albeit not diagnostic. Other relevant diagnostic elements are a history of repeated exposure to a known or suspected depigmenting agent at the sites of onset and a macules distribution corresponding to sites of chemical exposure. Spontaneous repigmentation has been reported when the causative agent is avoided; the repigmentation process is perifollicular and gradual, taking place for a variable period of weeks to months. PMID:27172302

  4. A First Exploration of Health Impact Assessment of Chemical Exposure: Assigning Weights to Subclinical Effects Based on Animal Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, W. ter; Bokkers, B.G.H.; Kroese, E.D.; Schuur, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Health impact assessments (HIA) have become an important tool for applying evidence-based policy. Recently, the concept of HIA has been introduced in the field of chemical substances. Two main issues are encountered, i.e., the focus of risk assessment is deriving safe levels and on first s

  5. Development of databases for use in validation studies of probabilistic models of dietary exposure to food chemicals and nutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclerq, C.; Arcella, D.; Armentia, A.; Boon, P.E.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Gilsenan, M.B.; Thompson, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    The data currently available in the European Union in terms of food consumption and of food chemical and nutrient concentration data present many limitations when used for estimating intake. The most refined techniques currently available were used within the European Union FP5 Monte Carlo project t

  6. Experimental paradigm for in-lab proxy aquatic studies under conditions of static, non flow through chemical exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as 17α ethynylestradiol (EE2), 17β estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and para-nonylphenol (NP) have been measured in wastewater treatment plant effluents, surface waters, sediments and sludge, and have been shown to induce liver-sp...

  7. Analysis of determination modalities concerning the exposure and emission limits values of chemical and radioactive substances; Analyse des modalites de fixation des valeurs limites d'exposition et d'emission pour les substances chimiques et radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, C.; Schneider, T

    2002-08-01

    This document presents the generic approach adopted by various organizations for the determination of the public exposure limits values to chemical and radioactive substances and for the determination of limits values of chemical products emissions by some installations. (A.L.B.)

  8. Risks assessment of environmental exposure to certain organo chemicals in male rats: the possible modulatory effect of micro nutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely volatile organic compound, because of its widespread commercial use. So, TCE become a major environmental pollutant. It is the most frequently reported organic contaminant in ground water, so a considerable numbers of people are exposed to TCE via inhalation, through the skin or through drinking water and rarely through food. The main symptoms of exposure are headache, dizziness, and confusion, beyond the effects on the central nervous system, work place exposure to TCE has been associated with toxic effects in many organs including liver, kidney and testes in addition to attenuation to the immune system. The present study aims to investigate the possible modulatory effect of certain micro nutrients such as vitamin C and zinc alone and in combination on the damage of liver, kidney and testes of male rats intoxicated with trichloroethylene for 20 and 105 days. The results showed significant decrease in body and testes weight and increase in liver and kidney weights after long period of treatment with TCE. Some of the selected hematological and biochemical parameters of the rats intoxicated by TCE for short and long period significantly changed. The results revealed significant decrease in free tetraiodothyronine (thyroxine) (FT4) and significant increase in free triiodothyronine (FT3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (Thyrotropin) (TSH) in TCE-intoxicated rat groups for the two periods of treatment. Also results revealed significant decrease of total testosterone in TCE-intoxicated rat groups as compared to that of normal control. Also significant changes were detected in the level of immunoglobulins IgG and IgM.Histopathological examination of liver, kidney and testicular tissues showed significant alteration. The DNA damage was observed in both period of treatment and increased DNA damage with apoptosis was recorded after 105 days of the treatment. Withdrawal group recorded mild improvement in all changed parameters and the

  9. Chronic uranium exposure and growth toxicity for phytoplankton. Dose-effect relationship: first comparison of chemical and radiological toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioavailability of uranium for freshwater organisms, as for other dissolved metals, is closely linked to chemical speciation in solution (U aqueous speciation undergoes tremendous changes in the presence of ligands commonly found in natural waters e.g. carbonate, phosphate, hydroxide and natural organic matter). For the studied chemical domain, short-term uranium uptake experiments have already shown that the free uranyl ion concentration [UO22+] is a good predictor of uranium uptake by the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, as predicted by the Free Ion Activity Model. In agreement with these results, acidic pH and low ligands concentrations in water enhance uranium bioavailability and consequently its potential chronic effects on phytoplankton. Moreover, uranium is known to be both radio-toxic and chemo-toxic. The use of different isotopes of uranium allows to expose organisms to different radiological doses for the same molar concentration: e.g. for a given element concentration (chemical dose), replacing depleted U by U-233 obviously leads to an enhanced radiological delivered dose to organisms (x104). In this work we established relationships between uranium doses (depleted uranium and 233-U ) and effect on the growth rate of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Uranium bioaccumulation was also monitored. Growth rate was measured both in classical batch (0-72 hrs) and continuous (turbidostat) cultures, the latter protocol allowing medium renewal to diminish exudates accumulation and speciation changes in the medium. The differences in effects will be, if possible, related to the development of defence mechanisms against the formation of reactive oxygen species (forms of glutathione) and the production of phyto-chelatins (small peptides rich in cystein that play an important role in the homeostasis and the detoxication of metals in cells). (author)

  10. Chronic uranium exposure and growth toxicity for phytoplankton. Dose-effect relationship: first comparison of chemical and radiological toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbin, R.; Pradines, C.; Garnier-Laplace, J. [CEA Cadarache (DEI/SECRE/LRE), Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2004-07-01

    The bioavailability of uranium for freshwater organisms, as for other dissolved metals, is closely linked to chemical speciation in solution (U aqueous speciation undergoes tremendous changes in the presence of ligands commonly found in natural waters e.g. carbonate, phosphate, hydroxide and natural organic matter). For the studied chemical domain, short-term uranium uptake experiments have already shown that the free uranyl ion concentration [UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}] is a good predictor of uranium uptake by the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, as predicted by the Free Ion Activity Model. In agreement with these results, acidic pH and low ligands concentrations in water enhance uranium bioavailability and consequently its potential chronic effects on phytoplankton. Moreover, uranium is known to be both radio-toxic and chemo-toxic. The use of different isotopes of uranium allows to expose organisms to different radiological doses for the same molar concentration: e.g. for a given element concentration (chemical dose), replacing depleted U by U-233 obviously leads to an enhanced radiological delivered dose to organisms (x10{sup 4}). In this work we established relationships between uranium doses (depleted uranium and 233-U ) and effect on the growth rate of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Uranium bioaccumulation was also monitored. Growth rate was measured both in classical batch (0-72 hrs) and continuous (turbidostat) cultures, the latter protocol allowing medium renewal to diminish exudates accumulation and speciation changes in the medium. The differences in effects will be, if possible, related to the development of defence mechanisms against the formation of reactive oxygen species (forms of glutathione) and the production of phyto-chelatins (small peptides rich in cystein that play an important role in the homeostasis and the detoxication of metals in cells). (author)

  11. Chemical synthesis, characterisation, analytical method development and control to promote exposure assessments and toxicological testing. Highlights from COMPARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, Aa.; Malmberg, T.; Weiss, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    The issue of endocrine disruptor effects in wildlife and humans grow increasingly important during the 1990s'. As part of the focus on endocrine disruptors new contaminants and their metabolites were put forward for studies with endpoints related to hormone disruption. One such large group of chemicals and/or metabolites of neutral semi-persistent or persistent compounds was the substituted phenols, particularly the halogenated phenolic compounds (HPCs). Polychlorobiphenylols (OHPCBs) were reported to be strongly retained in human blood plasma in 1995 and this article was the first study to point out the general retention of several OH-PCBs in the plasma. The metabolic formation of OH-PCBs was well known and the specific blood retention had been reported for at least one PCB congener, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (CB-77) in some previous studies. The identification of OH-PCBs being retained in blood and their specific binding to transthyretin (TTR) has formed much of the basis for two EU R and D programs, first RENCO and now COMPARE. The present report is aimed to highlight some of the results obtained within the COMPARE program mainly dealing with the chemical synthesis, characterisation and analytical aspects of HPCs.

  12. Ecotoxicological assessments and the setting of limit values for chemicals in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Committee on the Setting of Limit Values for Chemicals held its first open conference in Denmark in March 1992 at Mogenstrup Kro, Zealand. The conference proceedings were entitled `Risk Management and Risk Assessment in Different Sectors in Denmark`. The conference focused on risk assessment and the setting of limit values for chemicals in connection with human exposure to chemicals. The conference held in January 1996, which is covered by the present proceedings, dealt with the exposure of the environment to chemicals and the state-of-the-art as well as perspectives of ecotoxicological research. Special emphasis was placed on the illustration and discussion of the problems that have to be solved in order to secure satisfactory levels of protection of soil and aquatic environments in connection with exposure to chemicals. Also, problems connected with exposure through the atmosphere were discussed and exemplified by the work on the setting of limit values for tropospheric ozone. Furthermore, the global problems pertaining to what is believed to be the greenhouse effect and the degradation of the stratospheric ozone layer as well as the damage to crops caused by ozone were mentioned. (au)

  13. IPHE Infrastructure Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-02-01

    This proceedings contains information from the IPHE Infrastructure Workshop, a two-day interactive workshop held on February 25-26, 2010, to explore the market implementation needs for hydrogen fueling station development.

  14. Radiofrequency plasma heating: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference proceedings include sessions on Alfven Wave Heating, ICRF Heating and Current Drive, Lower Hybrid Heating and Current Drive, and ECRF Heating. Questions of confinement, diagnostics, instabilities and technology are considered. Individual papers are cataloged separately

  15. Exposición ocupacional a agentes químicos en la construcción de edificios Occupational exposure to chemicals in the construction of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Hernández Gómez

    2012-11-01

    /03. Occupational exposure levels to the chemical agents were compared to the threshold limit values of the national standard INTE 31-08-04-01. Influence of some possible determinants of exposure by statistical association tests was calculated. Results: Mean for occupational exposure levels of inhalable wood dust was 3.55 mg/m3; relationship was found between sampling time and the concentrations. Chromium was not detected in collected samples. Mean for iron was 0.78 mg/m3; no relationship was found between concentration values and possible exposure determinants. Mean for manganese concentration was 0.04 mg/m3; temperature was the most influential factor. Conclusions: Occupational exposure levels for iron, manganese and inhalable wood dust were different among projects and companies. Dust concentrations were associated with sampling time and no statistical significance was found for metal exposure determinants.

  16. Co-exposure of ELF-magnetic fields and chemical mutagens: An investigation of genotoxicity with the SOS-based VITOTOX test in Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschaeve, Luc; Wambacq, Sheleen; Anthonissen, Roel; Maes, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    It is believed that extreme low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) are not mutagenic, at least at exposure levels below 100 μT. Synergistic or co-operative effects with environmental mutagens remain possible yet. We therefore investigated the effects of ELF-MF in conjunction with 4 different well known chemical mutagens having different modes of action. For this purpose the bacterial Vitotox test was used. Our study confirmed previous results which showed that a 100 μT magnetic field (50 Hz) does not damage DNA and hence is not mutagenic in this assay and that there was also no influence on the DNA damaging capacity of the used mutagens.

  17. Chronic exposure to uranium compounds: medical surveillance problems related to their physico-chemical properties and their solubility: actual data and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method was developped to assess uranium exposure hazards at work stations based on industrial experience acquired in Comurhex Malvesi at Narbonne. Applied to uranium tetrafluoride (UF4), the method involves five steps: 1/ Characterization of the industrial compound, including physico-chemical properties (density, surface area, X-ray spectrum and uranium enrichment). 2/ In vitro biological solubility with different synthetic fluids like Gamble solution added with differents gaz or compounds (Oxygen or hydrogen peroxyde), in order to determine the solubility class D, W or Y. 3/ Assessment of work station concentration in Bq m-3 and particle size distribution (AMAD). 4/ Monitoring workers by routine urinary excretion completed, if necessary, by fecal excretion and γ spectrometry. 5/ Use of individual protection filters or masks. Results and actual data on UF4 are presented and future prospects of studies on calcinated uranates are dealed with

  18. Cellular and molecular level responses after radiofrequency radiation exposure, alone or in combination with x-rays or chemicals. Final report, 1 April 1991-30 September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meltz, M.L.; Natarajan, M.; Prasad, A.V.

    1995-02-21

    This project was initiated to explore the potential bioeffects of microwave radiation, alone or in combination with ionizing radiation and chemicals. Over the time period of the project, an automated thermal control system, to be used for maintaining the temperature in tissue culture medium during microwave exposures, was designed, constructed, and software was created. While this was underway during the project period, numerous positive control biological experiments were performed on two different cell types, the Epstein Barr Virus transformed 244B human lymphoblastoid cell, and the freshly isolated peripheral human lymphocyte. The 244B cells were used to address the question of whether a physical agent, ionizing radiation, at low doses where cells would predominantly remain viable, would induce the DNA binding protein NF-kB, and/or four immediate early genes (IEG) (protooncogenes).

  19. Chemical degradation of fluoroelastomer in an alkaline environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, S.; Ghanbari-Siahkali, A.; Kingshott, P.;

    2004-01-01

    bond formation on the rubber backbone which accelerates the degradation even further with longer exposure. Furthermore, the cross-link sites of the exposed rubber samples are also found to be vulnerable to hydrolytic attack under the studied chemical environment as evidenced by the decrease in cross......We have investigated the time-dependent chemical degradation of a fluoroelastomer, FKM (Viton((R)) A), in an alkaline environment (10% NaOH, 80 degreesC). Optical microscopy and SEM analysis reveal that degradation starts with surface roughness right from the earliest stage of exposure (e.g., 1...... of this surface degradation is found to be strong enough to affect the bulk mechanical properties. The molecular mechanisms of the surface chemical degradation were determined using surface analysis (XPS and ATR-FTIR) where the initial degradation was found to proceed via dehydrofluorination. This leads to double...

  20. Sub-micron period grating structures in Ta2O5 thin oxide films patterned using UV laser post-exposure chemically assisted selective etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-resolution and low-damage method for patterning relief structures in thin Ta2O5 films by chemically assisted UV laser selective etching is presented. The method is based on the initial exposure of the Ta2O5 films to pulsed UV radiation (quadrupled Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm) at fluences below the ablation threshold, for the creation of volume damage in the exposed areas. Subsequent immersion of the exposed sample in a KOH solution results in selective etching of the UV-exposed areas, developing relief structures of high quality. Interferometric exposure was used for the patterning of such gratings with periods of the order of 500 nm in films with a thickness of 100 and 500 nm. The behaviour of the patterning process is studied using diffraction efficiency measurements and AFM scans. Diffraction efficiency increases by a factor of ∼63, compared to the undeveloped structure, were obtained for gratings exposed with 1000 pulses of 30 mJ/cm2 energy density, which were developed in a KOH solution. The etching method presented is being applied to the fabrication of gratings in optical waveguides

  1. Indoor-Biofilter Growth and Exposure to Airborne Chemicals Drive Similar Changes in Plant Root Bacterial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Chau, Linh; Pauliushchyk, Margarita; Anastopoulos, Ioannis; Anandan, Shivanthi; Waring, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the long durations spent inside by many humans, indoor air quality has become a growing concern. Biofiltration has emerged as a potential mechanism to clean indoor air of harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are typically found at concentrations higher indoors than outdoors. Root-associated microbes are thought to drive the functioning of plant-based biofilters, or biowalls, converting VOCs into biomass, energy, and carbon dioxide, but little is known about the root microbial communities of such artificially grown plants, how or whether they differ from those of plants grown in soil, and whether any changes in composition are driven by VOCs. In this study, we investigated how bacterial communities on biofilter plant roots change over time and in response to VOC exposure. Through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, we compared root bacterial communities from soil-grown plants with those from two biowalls, while also comparing communities from roots exposed to clean versus VOC-laden air in a laboratory biofiltration system. The results showed differences in bacterial communities between soil-grown and biowall-grown plants and between bacterial communities from plant roots exposed to clean air and those from VOC-exposed plant roots. Both biowall-grown and VOC-exposed roots harbored enriched levels of bacteria from the genus Hyphomicrobium. Given their known capacities to break down aromatic and halogenated compounds, we hypothesize that these bacteria are important VOC degraders. While different strains of Hyphomicrobium proliferated in the two studied biowalls and our lab experiment, strains were shared across plant species, suggesting that a wide range of ornamental houseplants harbor similar microbes of potential use in living biofilters. PMID:24878602

  2. Indoor-biofilter growth and exposure to airborne chemicals drive similar changes in plant root bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jacob A; Hu, Yi; Chau, Linh; Pauliushchyk, Margarita; Anastopoulos, Ioannis; Anandan, Shivanthi; Waring, Michael S

    2014-08-01

    Due to the long durations spent inside by many humans, indoor air quality has become a growing concern. Biofiltration has emerged as a potential mechanism to clean indoor air of harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are typically found at concentrations higher indoors than outdoors. Root-associated microbes are thought to drive the functioning of plant-based biofilters, or biowalls, converting VOCs into biomass, energy, and carbon dioxide, but little is known about the root microbial communities of such artificially grown plants, how or whether they differ from those of plants grown in soil, and whether any changes in composition are driven by VOCs. In this study, we investigated how bacterial communities on biofilter plant roots change over time and in response to VOC exposure. Through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, we compared root bacterial communities from soil-grown plants with those from two biowalls, while also comparing communities from roots exposed to clean versus VOC-laden air in a laboratory biofiltration system. The results showed differences in bacterial communities between soil-grown and biowall-grown plants and between bacterial communities from plant roots exposed to clean air and those from VOC-exposed plant roots. Both biowall-grown and VOC-exposed roots harbored enriched levels of bacteria from the genus Hyphomicrobium. Given their known capacities to break down aromatic and halogenated compounds, we hypothesize that these bacteria are important VOC degraders. While different strains of Hyphomicrobium proliferated in the two studied biowalls and our lab experiment, strains were shared across plant species, suggesting that a wide range of ornamental houseplants harbor similar microbes of potential use in living biofilters.

  3. Exploratory Study on Occupational Health Exposure to Chemical Agents, in a Public Hospital in Valencia, Venezuela. Preliminar Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Rojas

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Descriptive study that identified chemicalagents (AQ use and training on risk managementand waste disposal techniques in a publicHospital in Valencia. A questionnaire wasanswered by 48 workers. Information obtainedwas: personal data, occupational history, AQused; knowledge of risk management and wastedisposal. There were 16 occupations from 12“High Risk” areas. “Adult emergency” was theone with more workers (11 individuals, followedby “sterilization” and “clinical laboratory”(7 each and oncology (5. The remained areashad less than 8.3% workers. The most usedanesthetic agents were: Halothane, Enfluoraneand Isofluorane 4.17% each and main antineoplasticsused were: Doxorubicin 16.67% andPaclitaxel, 5-Fluoracil and Etoposide, 8.33%each. The most mentioned substances were:alcohol (70.8% and Chlorine (64.6%. None ofthe answers regarding knowledge of AQ’ riskmanagement and waste disposal was satisfactory.Statistical associations between trainingand several variables such as age, time in theirjob and being or not a professional, resultednon-significant. The correlation between trainingand the knowledge of AQ’s managementwas significant (p < 0.001. Participants showedthat their knowledge about chemical occupationalrisk factors they are exposed to is stillinsufficient. Therefore, this theme should beincluded in graduate course curricula. Theseresults provide important data and will serveas a pilot research for the follow up Phase IIstudy that will include clinical aspects and environmentaland biological monitoring.

  4. Gravimetrical and chemical characterization of SiO{sub x} structures deposited on fine powders by short plasma exposure in a plasma down stream reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spillmann, Adrian; Sonnenfeld, Axel [Institute of Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8092 (Switzerland); Rohr, Philipp Rudolf von [Institute of Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8092 (Switzerland)], E-mail: vonrohr@ipe.mavt.ethz.ch

    2008-12-30

    The surface of lactose particles was modified by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process to improve the flow behavior of the powder. For this, the particulates were treated in a plasma down stream reactor which provides a short (50 ms) and homogeneous exposure to the capacitively coupled RF discharge. The organosilicon monomer hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) was used as a precursor for the formation of SiO{sub x} which is deposited on the substrate particle surface. For varying process gas mixtures (O{sub 2}/Ar/HMDSO) and RF power applied, the amount of the deposited material was determined gravimetrically after dissolution of the lactose substrate particles and the chemical composition of the accumulated deposition material was investigated by means of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The concentration of the deposited SiO{sub x} relating to the substrate material was found to be in the range of 0.1 wt.%. Based on the ATR-FTIR analysis, the inorganic, i.e. oxidic SiO{sub x} fraction of the obtained deposits was shown to be controllable by varying the process parameters, whilst a relatively large amount of organic structures must be considered.

  5. Prevalence of symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and of fluorescent antinuclear antibodies associated with chronic exposure to trichloroethylene and other chemicals in well water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilburn, K.H.; Warshaw, R.H. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Criteria for the recognition of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were applied to 362 subjects exposed to trichloroethylene, trichloroethane, inorganic chromium, and other chemicals in water obtained from wells in an industrially contaminated aquifer in Tucson, Arizona. Their antinuclear autoantibodies were measured by fluorescence (FANA) in serum. Ten patients with clinical SLE and/or other collagen-vascular diseases were considered separately. Results were compared to an Arizona control group, to published series, and to laboratory controls. Frequencies of each of 10 ARA symptoms were higher in exposed subjects than in any comparison group except those with clinical SLE. The number of subjects with 4 or more symptoms was 2.3 times higher compared to referent women and men. FANA titers > 1:80 was approximately 2.3 times higher in women but equally frequent in men as in laboratory controls. ARA score and FANA rank were correlated with a coefficient (cc) of .1251, r{sup 2} = .0205 in women and this correlation was almost statistically significant in men cc = .1282, r{sup 2} = .0253. In control men and women neither correlation was significant. Long-term low-dose exposure to TCE and other chemicals in contaminated well water significantly increased symptoms of lupus erthematosus as perceived by the ARA score and the increased FANA titers.

  6. Hershey Medical Center Technical Workshop Report: optimizing the design and interpretation of epidemiologic studies for assessing neurodevelopmental effects from in utero chemical exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amler, Robert W; Barone, Stanley; Belger, Aysenil; Berlin, Cheston M; Cox, Christopher; Frank, Harry; Goodman, Michael; Harry, Jean; Hooper, Stephen R; Ladda, Roger; LaKind, Judy S; Lipkin, Paul H; Lipsitt, Lewis P; Lorber, Matthew N; Myers, Gary; Mason, Ann M; Needham, Larry L; Sonawane, Babasaheb; Wachs, Theodore D; Yager, Janice W

    2006-09-01

    Neurodevelopmental disabilities affect 3-8% of the 4 million babies born each year in the U.S. alone, with known etiology for less than 25% of those disabilities. Numerous investigations have sought to determine the role of environmental exposures in the etiology of a variety of human neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., learning disabilities, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, intellectual disabilities) that are manifested in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. A comprehensive critical examination and discussion of the various methodologies commonly used in investigations is needed. The Hershey Medical Center Technical Workshop: Optimizing the design and interpretation of epidemiologic studies for assessing neurodevelopmental effects from in utero chemical exposure provided such a forum for examining these methodologies. The objective of the Workshop was to develop scientific consensus on the key principles and considerations for optimizing the design and interpretation of epidemiologic studies of in utero exposure to environmental chemicals and subsequent neurodevelopmental effects. (The Panel recognized that the nervous system develops post-natally and that critical periods of exposure can span several developmental life stages.) Discussions from the Workshop Panel generated 17 summary points representing key tenets of work in this field. These points stressed the importance of: a well-defined, biologically plausible hypothesis as the foundation of in utero studies for assessing neurodevelopmental outcomes; understanding of the exposure to the environmental chemical(s) of interest, underlying mechanisms of toxicity, and anticipated outcomes; the use of a prospective, longitudinal cohort design that, when possible, runs for periods of 2-5 years, and possibly even longer, in an effort to assess functions at key developmental epochs; measuring potentially confounding variables at regular, fixed time intervals; including measures of specific cognitive

  7. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  8. Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudel Ruthann A

    2010-07-01

    that chemicals and pollutants contribute to breast cancer. Alternatively, the influence of experience on beliefs is another explanation, illustrated by the protective odds ratio for family history among women who do not believe heredity contributes "a lot." Because exposure to chemicals from household cleaning products is a biologically plausible cause of breast cancer and avoidable, associations reported here should be further examined prospectively.

  9. In situ biomonitoring of juvenile Chinook salmon (Onchorhynchus tshawytscha) using biomarkers of chemical exposures and effects in a partially remediated urbanized waterway of the Puget Sound, WA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, Eva [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way Northeast, Suite 100, Seattle, WA 98105-6099 (United States); Kelley, Matthew; Zhou, Guo-Dong; He, Ling Yu; McDonald, Thomas; Wang, Shirley [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Texas A and M Health Science Center, College Station, TX 77843-1266 (United States); Duncan, Bruce [US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, 1200 Sixth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Meador, James [Ecotoxicology Division, National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Donnelly, Kirby [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Texas A and M Health Science Center, College Station, TX 77843-1266 (United States); Gallagher, Evan, E-mail: evang3@u.washington.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way Northeast, Suite 100, Seattle, WA 98105-6099 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    In situ biomonitoring has been used to assess the effects of pollution on aquatic species in heavily polluted waterways. In the current study, we used in situ biomonitoring in conjunction with molecular biomarker analysis to determine the effects of pollutant exposure in salmon caged in the Duwamish waterway, a Pacific Northwest Superfund site that has been subject to remediation. The Duwamish waterway is an important migratory route for Pacific salmon and has received historic inputs of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Juvenile pre-smolt Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) caged for 8 days in the three contaminated sites in close proximity within the Duwamish were analyzed for steady state hepatic mRNA expression of 7 exposure biomarker genes encompassing several gene families and known to be responsive to pollutants, including cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and CYP2K1, glutathione S-transferase {pi} class (GST-{pi}), microsomal GST (mGST), glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), UDP-glucuronyltransferase family 1 (UDPGT), and type 2 deiodinase (type 2 DI, or D2). Quantitation of gene expression was accomplished by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in assays developed specifically for Chinook salmon genes. Gill PAH-DNA adducts were assessed as a chemical effects biomarker using {sup 32}P-postlabeling. The biomarkers in the field-caged fish were analyzed with respect to caged animals maintained at the hatchery receiving flow-through water. Chemical analysis of sediment samples from three field sampling sites revealed relatively high concentrations of total PAHs in one site (site B2, 6711 ng/g dry weight) and somewhat lower concentrations of PAHs in two adjacent sites (sites B3 and B4, 1482 and 1987 ng/g, respectively). In contrast, waterborne PAHs at all of the sampling sites were relatively low (<1 ng/L). Sediment PCBs at the sites ranged from a low of 421 ng/g at site B3

  10. Assessment of the neurotoxic potential of exposure to 50Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) in naïve and chemically stressed PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Martje W G D M; Kock, Marjolijn D M; Westerink, Remco H S

    2014-09-01

    Increasing exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF), generated by power lines and electric appliances, raises concern about potential adverse health effects of ELF-EMF. The central nervous system is expected to be particularly vulnerable to ELF-EMF as its function strongly depends on electrical excitability. We therefore investigated effects of acute (30min) and sub-chronic (48h) exposure to 50Hz ELF-EMF on naïve and chemically stressed pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. The latter have higher levels of iron and/or reactive oxygen species (ROS) and display increased vulnerability to environmental insults. Effects of ELF-EMF on Ca(2+)-homeostasis, ROS production and membrane integrity were assessed using Fura-2 single cell fluorescence microscopy, H2-DCFDA and CFDA assays, respectively. Our data demonstrate that acute exposure of naïve PC12 cells to 50Hz ELF-EMF up to 1000μT fails to affect basal or depolarization-evoked [Ca(2+)]i. Moreover, sub-chronic ELF-EMF exposure up to 1000μT has no consistent effects on Ca(2+)-homeostasis in naïve PC12 cells and does not affect ROS production and membrane integrity. Notably, in chemically stressed PC12 cells both acute and sub-chronic ELF-EMF exposure also failed to exert consistent effects on Ca(2+)-homeostasis, ROS production and membrane integrity. Our combined findings thus indicate that exposure to 50Hz ELF-EMF up to 1000μT, i.e. 10,000 times above background exposure, does not induce neurotoxic effects in vitro, neither in naïve nor in chemically stressed PC12 cells. Though our data require confirmation, e.g. in developing neuronal cells in vitro or (developing) animals, it appears that the neurotoxic risk of ELF-EMF exposure is limited.

  11. HUGS at CEBAF: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the proceedings of the 6th consecutive Hampton University Graduate Studies (HUGS) at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). These proceedings are composed of articles produced by graduate students. The participants were divided into smaller groups. Each group chose a lecturer's presentation to focus on and write up for these proceedings. There were some cross over students; that is there were students who participated in more am one group. In addition, there were participants who pursued topics considerably further than being confined to the scope of a given lecture; these participants contributed additional articles which can also be found here. All of the HUGS at CEBAF participants worked very hard and had a good time doing it. The students lived on the Hampton University campus and attended lecture sessions at CEBAF. The atmosphere of the river front campus of Hampton and the stimulation readily available at CEBAF made for a wonderful mix. These proceedings are divided into two sections: Section 1 contain articles that were generated by the HUGS participants from lecturers' notes and discussions among the student groups and lecturers, and Section 2 contains original work generated by the HUGS participants. Section 3 contains the contributions from the lecturers. Some of the articles were reviewed by the lecturer more closely connected to the particular subject matter. The appendices contain a list of the HUGS enrollment, lecturers, schedule, and lecture assignment

  12. FINPIE/97. Workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This publication contains the proceedings of 1997 Finnish Workshop on Power and Industrial Electronics, held in Espoo, Finland, on 26 August, 1997. The programme consisted of technical sessions on Advanced AC Motor Control, Electric Machines and Drives, Advanced Control and Measurement, Power Electronics Systems, Modelling and Simulation, and Power Converters

  13. Correlation of chromosome patterns in human leukemic cells with exposure to chemicals and/or radiation. Comprehensive progress report, July 1991--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, J.D.

    1994-06-01

    This comprehensive progress report provides a synopsis of major research accomplishments during the years of 1991-1994, including the technical aspects of the project. The objectives and accomplishments are as follows: 1. Defining the chromosome segments associated with radiation and chemically-induced leukemogenesis (treatment-related acute myeloid leukemia, t-AML); A. Continued genetic analysis of chromosomes 5 and 7, B. Correlation of treatment with balanced and unbalanced translocations. 2. Cloning the breakpoints in balanced translocations in t-AML; A. Clone the t(9;11) and t(11;19) breakpoints, B. Clone the t(3,21)(q26,q22) breakpoint, C. Determine the relationship of these translocations to prior exposure to topoisomerase II inhibitors. 3. Compare the breakpoint junctions in patients who have the same translocations in t-AML and AML de novo. 4. Map the scaffold attachment regions in the genes that are involved in balanced translocations in t-AML. Plans for the continuation of present objectives and possible new objectives in consideration of past results are also provided.

  14. Quantum interaction. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruza, Peter [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane (Australia). Faculty of Science and Technology; Sofge, Donald [Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Washington, DC (United States). Naval Research Lab.; Lawless, William [Paine Coll., Augusta, GA (United States); Rijsbergen, Keith van [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Computing Science; Klusch, Matthias (eds.) [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2009, held in Saarbruecken, Germany, in March 2009. The 21 revised full papers presented together with the 3 position papers were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, decision theory, information retrieval, information systems, social interaction, computational linguistics and finance. (orig.)

  15. Subchronic Arsenic Exposure Induces Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Normal Mice and Enhances Depression-Like Behaviors in the Chemically Induced Mouse Model of Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Yu Chang; How-Ran Guo; Wan-Chen Tsai; Kai-Lin Yang; Li-Chuan Lin; Tain-Junn Cheng; Jiunn-Jye Chuu

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates that subchronic arsenic exposure causes cerebral neurodegeneration leading to behavioral disturbances relevant to psychiatric disorders. However, there is still little information regarding the influence of subchronic exposure to arsenic-contaminated drinking water on mood disorders and its underlying mechanisms in the cerebral prefrontal cortex. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of subchronic arsenic exposure (10 mg/LAs2O3 in drinking water) on t...

  16. ITER council proceedings: 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume of the ITER EDA Documentation Series presents records of the 12th ITER Council Meeting, IC-12, which took place on 23-24 July, 1997 in Tampere, Finland. The Council received from the Parties (EU, Japan, Russia, US) positive responses on the Detailed Design Report. The Parties stated their willingness to contribute to fulfil their obligations in contributing to the ITER EDA. The summary discussions among the Parties led to the consensus that in July 1998 the ITER activities should proceed for additional three years with a general intent to enable an efficient start of possible, future ITER construction

  17. Radon thematic days - Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the Radon thematic days organized by the French society of radiation protection (SFRP). Twenty five presentations (slides) are compiled in the document and deal with: 1 - General introduction about radon (Sebastien Baechler, IRA); 2 - Survey of epidemiological studies (Dominique Laurier, IRSN); 3 - Dosimetric model (Eric Blanchardon, Estelle Davesne, IRSN); 4 - Radon issue in Franche-Comte: measurement of the domestic exposure and evaluation of the associated health impact (Francois Clinard, InVS); 5 - WHO's (World Health Organization) viewpoint in limiting radon exposure in homes (Ferid Shannoun, OMS); 6 - Radon measurement techniques (Roselyne Ameon, IRSN); 7 - Quality of radon measurements (Francois Bochud, IRA); 8 - International recommendations (Jean-Francois Lecomte, IRSN); 9 - Radon management strategy in Switzerland - 1994-2014 (Christophe Murith, OFSP); 10 - 2011-2015 action plan for radon risk management (Jean-Luc Godet, Eric Dechaux, ASN); 11 - Radon at work place in Switzerland (Lisa Pedrazzi, SUVA); 12 - Strategies of radiation protection optimization in radon exposure situations (Cynthia Reaud, CEPN); 13 - Mapping of the radon potential of geologic formations in France (Geraldine Ielsch, IRSN); 14 - Radon database in Switzerland (Martha Gruson, OFSP); 15 - Radon 222 in taps water (Jeanne Loyen, IRSN); 16 - Buildings protection methods (Bernard Collignan, CSTB, Roselyne Ameon, IRSN); 17 - Preventive and sanitation measures in Switzerland (Claudio Valsangiacomo, SUPSI); 18 - Training and support approach for building specialists (Joelle Goyette-Pernot, Fribourg engineers and architects' school); 19 - Status of radon bulk activity measurements performed between 2005-2010 in public areas (Cyril Pineau, ASN); 20 - Neuchatel Canton experiments (Didier Racine, SENE); 21 - Montbeliard region experience in the radon risk management (Isabelle Netillard, Pays de Montbeliard Agglomeration); 22

  18. Room-temperature X-ray diffraction studies of cisplatin and carboplatin binding to His15 of HEWL after prolonged chemical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binding of cisplatin to His15 in hen egg-white lysozyme in aqueous media is observed after prolonged chemical exposure for 15 months, in contrast to the lack of binding that was observed after 4 d in a previous study. Binding of carboplatin is seen in greater detail in the case of room-temperature data collection compared with cryo data collection. The anticancer complexes cisplatin and carboplatin are known to bind to both the Nδ and the N∊ atoms of His15 of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). However, neither binds in aqueous media after 4 d of crystallization and crystal growth, suggesting that DMSO facilitates cisplatin/carboplatin binding to the N atoms of His15 by an unknown mechanism. Crystals of HEWL cocrystallized with cisplatin in both aqueous and DMSO media, of HEWL cocrystallized with carboplatin in DMSO medium and of HEWL cocrystallized with cisplatin and N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) in DMSO medium were stored for between seven and 15 months. X-ray diffraction studies of these crystals were carried out on a Bruker APEX II home-source diffractometer at room temperature. Room-temperature X-ray diffraction data collection removed the need for cryoprotectants to be used, ruling out any effect that the cryoprotectants might have had on binding to the protein. Both cisplatin and carboplatin still bind to both the Nδ and N∊ atoms of His15 in DMSO media as expected, but more detail for the cyclobutanedicarboxylate (CBDC) moiety of carboplatin was observed at the N∊ binding site. However, two molecules of cisplatin were now observed to be bound to His15 in aqueous conditions. The platinum peak positions were identified using anomalous difference electron-density maps as a cross-check with Fo − Fc OMIT electron-density maps. The occupancies of each binding site were calculated using SHELXTL. These results show that over time cisplatin binds to both N atoms of His15 of HEWL in aqueous media, whereas this binding is

  19. Auroral Tomography Workshop, Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In ionospheric and atmospheric physics the importance of multi-station imaging has grown as a consequence of the availability of scientific grade CCD cameras with digital output and affordable massive computing power. Tomographic inversion techniques are used in many different areas, e.g. medicine, plasma research and space physics. The tomography workshop was announced to gather a limited group of people interested in auroral tomography or tomographic inversion methods in general. ALIS (Auroral Large Imaging System) is a multi-station ground-based system developed primarily for three-dimensional auroral imaging, however other non-auroral objects can be studied with ALIS, e.g. stratospheric clouds. Several of the contributions in the workshop dealt with problems related to geometries similar to the ALIS-configuration. The Proceedings contain written contributions received either in abstract form or as full papers. The Proceedings also contain contributions intended for the Workshop but not presented due to the absence of the speaker. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 15 of the 17 papers

  20. Chemical Radioprotectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Upadhyay

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Protection of biological systems against radiation damage is of paramount importance during accidental and unavoidable exposure to radiation. Several physico-chemical and biological factors collectively contribute to the damage caused by radiation and are, therefore, targets for developing radioprotectors. Work on the development of chemicals capable of protecting biological systemsfrom radiation damage was initiated nearly six decades ago with cysteine being the first molecule to be reported. Chemicals capable of scavenging free radicals, inducing oxygen depletion,antioxidants and modulators of immune response have been some of the radioprotectors extensively investigated with limited success. Mechanism of action of some chemical radioprotectors and their combinations have been elucidated, while further understanding is required in many instances. The present review elaborates on structure-activity relationship of some of the chemical radioprotectors, their evaluation, and assessment, limitation, and future prospects.

  1. Chemical Inhibition of Nitrification: Evaluating Methods to Detect and Characterize Inhibition and the Role of Selected Stress Responses Upon Exposure to Oxidative and Hydrophobic Toxins

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly II, Richard Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This research first examined nitrification inhibition caused by different classes of industrially relevant chemicals on activated sludge and found that conventional aerobic nitrification was inhibited by single pulse inputs of every chemical tested, with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (oxidant) having the most severe impact, followed by alkaline pH 11, cadmium (heavy metal), cyanide, octanol (hydrophobic) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (respiratory uncoupler). Of the different chemicals tested, the oxid...

  2. Biologic Monitoring of Exposure to Environmental Chemicals throughout the Life Stages: Requirements and Issues for Consideration for the National Children’s Study

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, Dana B.; Wang, Richard Y.; Needham, Larry L.

    2005-01-01

    Biomonitoring of exposure is a useful tool for assessing environmental exposures. The matrices available for analyses include blood, urine, breast milk, adipose tissue, and saliva, among others. The sampling can be staged to represent the particular time period of concern: preconceptionally from both parents, from a pregnant woman during each of the three trimesters, during and immediately after childbirth, from the mother postnatally, and from the child as it develops to 21 years of age. The...

  3. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base

  4. Feedwater heater workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The March 13-14, 1979 EPRI sponsored workshop on design, operation and maintenance problems with nuclear feedwater heaters identified a large number of significant technical areas of concern. The reported problems relate to nearly all facets of feedwater heater technology. In particular, hydrometallurgical problems such as stress corrosion of stainless tubing, erosion/corrosion wear of tube-tubesheet joints, and flashing related tube erosion at the entrance to the drain cooler region were reviewed in depth. Shortcomings in current design standards and design specifications were also discussed. Solutions to specific technical problems such as mechanics of flow induced vibration failures, improved synthesis of feedwater heater orientation with plant layout, and drain outlet piping design were presented. A list of important technical problems requiring additional research and development for improved design guidelines was developed. The proceedings contain all edited material of archival quality developed in this workshop

  5. Imaging Sciences Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J.V.

    1996-11-21

    This report contains the proceedings of the Imaging Sciences Workshop sponsored by C.A.S.LS., the Center for Advanced Signal & Image Sciences. The Center, established primarily to provide a forum where researchers can freely exchange ideas on the signal and image sciences in a comfortable intellectual environment, has grown over the last two years with the opening of a Reference Library (located in Building 272). The Technical Program for the 1996 Workshop include a variety of efforts in the Imaging Sciences including applications in the Microwave Imaging, highlighted by the Micro-Impulse Radar (MIR) system invented at LLNL, as well as other applications in this area. Special sessions organized by various individuals in Speech, Acoustic Ocean Imaging, Radar Ocean Imaging, Ultrasonic Imaging, and Optical Imaging discuss various applica- tions of real world problems. For the more theoretical, sessions on Imaging Algorithms and Computed Tomography were organized as well as for the more pragmatic featuring a session on Imaging Systems.

  6. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E. [eds.] [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Safety and Health

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  7. Eighteenth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This volume provides the proceedings for the Eighteenth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals held May 5-9, 1996 in Gatlinburg, Tennessee. The proceedings contains abstracts for oral and poster presentations.

  8. CAirTOX: A compartment model for assessing the fate of and human exposure to toxic-chemical emissions to air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.

    1993-10-01

    CAirTOX has been developed as a spreadsheet model to assist in making a risk assessment of toxic air emissions. With CAirTOX, one can address how contaminants released to an air basin can lead to contamination of soil, food, surface water, and sediments. The modeling effort includes a multimedia transport and transformation model, exposure scenario models, and efforts to quantify uncertainty in multimedia, multiple-pathway exposure assessments. The multimedia transport and transformation model is a steady-state, but non-equilibrium model that can be used to assess concentrations of contaminants released continuously to air. In Part 1, the authors describe the multimedia transport and transformation model used to determine the fate of air emissions. In Part 2, they describe inputs and data needs for CAirTOX and the development of a set of landscape factors, which can be used to represent regional air basin/water-shed systems in California. In Part 3, they describe the multiple-pathway exposure scenarios and exposure algorithms. In Part 4, they compare the HRA approach and results and the CAirTOX exposure equations. In Part 5, they consider model sensitivity and uncertainty to determine how variability and uncertainty in model inputs affects the precision, accuracy, and credibility of the model output.

  9. Correlation of chromosome patterns in human leukemic cells with exposure to chemicals and/or radiation. Progress report, January 1, 1981-December 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall aim is to determine whether there is a relationship between exposure to radiation, environmental pollutants, and/or genetic background and the development of ANLL or other hematologic malignancies. I will try to define the factors that influence the development of ANLL as a second malignancy in patients who have been exposed to large doses of radiotherapy and/or chemotherapeutic agents. Two long-term goals are (1) to identify the genes that are located at the sites of consistent translocations, and then to determine the alterations in gene function that are associated with these translocations and (2) to establish the baseline frequency of various chromosome changes (mutations) in myeloid cells and then to analyze the influence of various types of environmental exposure or medical treatment on this baseline mutation rate. Ultimately, it may be possible to determine the extent of mutagenic exposure in various populations through an analysis of the leukemic cells of that populations

  10. Effect of sunlight exposure on the release of intentionally and/or non-intentionally added substances from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water: chemical analysis and in vitro toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Severin, Isabelle; Munoz, Jean-François; Etienne, Serge; Chagnon, Marie-Christine

    2014-11-01

    The effect of sunlight exposure on chemical migration into PET-bottled waters was investigated. Bottled waters were exposed to natural sunlight for 2, 6 and 10 days. Migration was dependent on the type of water. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and Sb migration increased with sunlight exposure in ultrapure water. In carbonated waters, carbon dioxide promoted migration and only formaldehyde increased slightly due to sunlight. Since no aldehydes were detected in non-carbonated waters, we conclude that sunlight exposure has no effect. Concerning Sb, its migration levels were higher in carbonated waters. No unpredictable NIAS were identified in PET-bottled water extracts. Cyto-genotoxicity (Ames and micronucleus assays) and potential endocrine disruption effects (transcriptional-reporter gene assays) were checked in bottled water extracts using bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium) and human cell lines (HepG2 and MDA-MB453-kb2). PET-bottled water extracts did not induce any toxic effects (cyto-genotoxicity, estrogenic or anti-androgenic activity) in vitro at relevant consumer-exposure levels. PMID:24874358

  11. Effect of sunlight exposure on the release of intentionally and/or non-intentionally added substances from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water: chemical analysis and in vitro toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Severin, Isabelle; Munoz, Jean-François; Etienne, Serge; Chagnon, Marie-Christine

    2014-11-01

    The effect of sunlight exposure on chemical migration into PET-bottled waters was investigated. Bottled waters were exposed to natural sunlight for 2, 6 and 10 days. Migration was dependent on the type of water. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and Sb migration increased with sunlight exposure in ultrapure water. In carbonated waters, carbon dioxide promoted migration and only formaldehyde increased slightly due to sunlight. Since no aldehydes were detected in non-carbonated waters, we conclude that sunlight exposure has no effect. Concerning Sb, its migration levels were higher in carbonated waters. No unpredictable NIAS were identified in PET-bottled water extracts. Cyto-genotoxicity (Ames and micronucleus assays) and potential endocrine disruption effects (transcriptional-reporter gene assays) were checked in bottled water extracts using bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium) and human cell lines (HepG2 and MDA-MB453-kb2). PET-bottled water extracts did not induce any toxic effects (cyto-genotoxicity, estrogenic or anti-androgenic activity) in vitro at relevant consumer-exposure levels.

  12. A Workflow to Investigate Exposure and Pharmacokinetic Influences on High-Throughput in Vitro Chemical Screening Based on Adverse Outcome Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) link adverse effects in individuals or populations to a molecular initiating event (MIE) that can be quantified using in vitro methods. Practical application of AOPs in chemical-specific risk assessment requires incorporation of knowled...

  13. A Comparison of RIA and LC-MS/MS Methods to Quantify Steroids in Rat Serum and Urine Following Exposure to an Endocrine Disrupting Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercially available radio immunoassays (RIM) are frequently used in toxicological studies to evaluate effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on steroidogenesis in rats. Currently there are limited data comparing steroid concentrations in rats as measured by RIM to th...

  14. A screening method for ranking chemicals by their fate and behaviour in the environment and potential toxic effects in humans following non-occupational exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Troisi, G.; Duarte-Davidson, R.; Capelton, A

    2004-01-01

    A large number of chemicals are released intentionally or unintentionally into the environment each year. These include thousands of substances that are currently listed worldwide and several hundred new substances added annually (Mücke et al., 1986). When these compounds are used, they can reach microorganisms, plants, animals and man either in their original state or in the form of reaction and degradation products via air, water, soil or foodstuffs. Hence environmental chemicals can occur ...

  15. Comparison of secondary organic aerosol formed with an aerosol flow reactor and environmental reaction chambers: effect of oxidant concentration, exposure time and seed particles on chemical composition and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Lambe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We performed a systematic intercomparison study of the chemistry and yields of SOA generated from OH oxidation of a common set of gas-phase precursors in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM continuous flow reactor and several environmental chambers. In the flow reactor, SOA precursors were oxidized using OH concentrations ranging from 2.0×108 to 2.2×1010 molec cm−3 over exposure times of 100 s. In the environmental chambers, precursors were oxidized using OH concentrations ranging from 2×106 to 2×107 molec cm−3 over exposure times of several hours. The OH concentration in the chamber experiments is close to that found in the atmosphere, but the integrated OH exposure in the flow reactor can simulate atmospheric exposure times of multiple days compared to chamber exposure times of only a day or so. A linear correlation analysis of the mass spectra (m=0.91–0.92, r2=0.93–0.94 and carbon oxidation state (m=1.1, r2=0.58 of SOA produced in the flow reactor and environmental chambers for OH exposures of approximately 1011 molec cm−3 s suggests that the composition of SOA produced in the flow reactor and chambers is the same within experimental accuracy as measured with an aerosol mass spectrometer. This similarity in turn suggests that both in the flow reactor and in chambers, SOA chemical composition at low OH exposure is governed primarily by gas-phase OH oxidation of the precursors, rather than heterogeneous oxidation of the condensed particles. In general, SOA yields measured in the flow reactor are lower than measured in chambers for the range of equivalent OH exposures that can be measured in both the flow reactor and chambers. The influence of sulfate seed particles on isoprene SOA yield measurements was examined in the flow reactor. The studies show that seed particles increase the yield of SOA produced in flow reactors by a factor of 3 to 5 and may also account in part for higher SOA yields obtained in the chambers, where seed

  16. Theory of elementary particles. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain most of the invited talks ans short communications presented at the named symposium. These concern developments in field theory in connection with string models, grand unification, and quantum gravity. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  17. ECMDA Traceability Workshop Proceedings 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Oldevik, Jon; Olsen, Gøran Klepp; Neple, Tor

    2007-01-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the Third ECMDA Traceability Workshop, arrangedin Haifa, Israel 2007 together with ECMDA 2007 conference. The papers within targetvarious aspects of traceability in model-driven development.  Oppdragsgiver: ECMDA Traceability Workshop

  18. NIC symposium 2010. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenster, Gernot [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik 1; Wolf, Dietrich [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Duisburg (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Kremer, Manfred (eds.) [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (DE). Juelich Supercomputing Centre (JSC)

    2012-06-21

    The fifth NIC-Symposium gave an overview of the activities of the John von Neumann Institute for Computing (NIC) and of the results obtained in the last two years by research groups supported by the NIC. The large recent progress in supercomputing is highlighted by the fact that the newly installed Blue Gene/P system in Juelich - with a peak performance of 1 Petaflop/s - currently ranks number four in the TOP500 list. This development opens new dimensions in simulation science for researchers in Germany and Europe. NIC - a joint foundation of Forschungszentrum Juelich, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) and Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) - supports with its members' supercomputer facilities about 130 research groups at universities and national labs working on computer simulations in various fields of science. Fifteen invited lectures covered selected topics in the following fields: Astrophysics Biophysics Chemistry Elementary Particle Physics Condensed Matter Materials Science Soft Matter Science Environmental Research Hydrodynamics and turbulence Plasma Physics Computer Science The talks are intended to inform a broad audience of scientists and the interested public about the research activities at NIC. The proceedings of the symposium cover projects that have been supported by the IBM supercomputers JUMP and IBM Blue Gene/P in Juelich and the APE topical computer at DESY-Zeuthen in an even wider range than the lectures.

  19. LHC Nobel Symposium Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelöf, Tord

    2013-12-01

    puzzlement. The apparent absence of hints in the LHC experimental data of new phenomena that could relate to dark matter, dark energy, the dominance of matter over antimatter in the Universe, the unification of the strong and the electroweak interactions and their further unification with gravity left the Symposium with no guidance as to how to answer the question: what next? And in experimental fundamental science it is not the confirmation of already established theories that thrills the most; it is the appearance of the unexpected that creates the greatest excitement. However, the LHC is only at the beginning of its voyage into the uncharted territories of higher energies and smaller dimensions that it was built for, so the possibilities for unexpected discoveries are only starting to be explored. The LHC will start up again in 2015 with nearly twice its previous energy and with increased luminosity—new discoveries might then appear sooner than we even dare hope for! The LHC Nobel Symposium was attended by about 60 invited participants and lasted four days. The program was divided into seven sessions; QCD and Heavy Ion Physics, B Physics, Electroweak Physics, The Higgs Boson, Connections to Neutrino Physics and Astroparticle Physics, Beyond the Standard Model and Forward Look. There were 27 plenary invited talks given by participants, each followed by lively discussions. All but one of the speakers have submitted write-ups of their talks for these proceedings. We are hopeful that the remaining talk will be published in a forthcoming issue of Physica Scripta . I am gratified that Professor Roland Allen has agreed to write a paper on the essence of the Higgs boson discovery to be published in Physica Scripta , intended for undergraduate students and educated physicists, regardless of their field of research. I wish to express my deep gratitude to all Speakers and Participants in the Symposium, to the Members of the Local and International Organizing Committees, to the

  20. NIC symposium 2010. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fifth NIC-Symposium gave an overview of the activities of the John von Neumann Institute for Computing (NIC) and of the results obtained in the last two years by research groups supported by the NIC. The large recent progress in supercomputing is highlighted by the fact that the newly installed Blue Gene/P system in Juelich - with a peak performance of 1 Petaflop/s - currently ranks number four in the TOP500 list. This development opens new dimensions in simulation science for researchers in Germany and Europe. NIC - a joint foundation of Forschungszentrum Juelich, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) and Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) - supports with its members' supercomputer facilities about 130 research groups at universities and national labs working on computer simulations in various fields of science. Fifteen invited lectures covered selected topics in the following fields: Astrophysics Biophysics Chemistry Elementary Particle Physics Condensed Matter Materials Science Soft Matter Science Environmental Research Hydrodynamics and turbulence Plasma Physics Computer Science The talks are intended to inform a broad audience of scientists and the interested public about the research activities at NIC. The proceedings of the symposium cover projects that have been supported by the IBM supercomputers JUMP and IBM Blue Gene/P in Juelich and the APE topical computer at DESY-Zeuthen in an even wider range than the lectures.

  1. Regulating the introduction of new chemicals under section 5 of TSCA: improving the efficiency of the process and reducing potential injury in the workplace through the use of operational MSDS and exposure limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, I; Jayjock, M A; Keener, R L; Plamondon, J E

    1991-10-01

    The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) authorizes the EPA to take appropriate actions to ensure that new and existing chemicals do not pose "unreasonable risk" to health or the environment. Section 2(b)(3) of the Act directs the Agency to accomplish this objective in a manner that does "not impede unduly or create unnecessary economic barriers to technological innovation." In recent years, critics have felt that the EPA has failed to achieve these primary goals of TSCA. This paper considers some of the reasons for this criticism and advocates an alternate approach of exposure limits and operationally sufficient controls to assist in achieving these goals. An illustration of how this alternate approach might work under practical conditions is presented, using as an example a new chemical substance from the class of acrylate monomers. These concepts and risk assessments provide data for a better design of future studies according to good laboratory practice and quality assurance. PMID:1669965

  2. Radiation protection in neighbouring countries in Central Europe. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proceeding is published in 3 volumes. Volume 1 covers the topics: (1) Environmental protection, and (2) Radiation Dosimetry. Volume 2 covers the topics: (3) Radiation Protection in Medical Exposures, (4) Radiation Protection in Applications of Radioisotopes and Nuclear Technology, (5) Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning, (6) Radiation Monitoring, and (7) Emergency Planning and Preparedness. Volume 3 covers the topics: (8) Operational Radiation Protection, (9) Non Ionising Radiation, (10) Radiation Protection Principles and Policies, (11) Natural Radiation, (12) Radiation Exposure Control: Methods and Means, and (13) Public Education and Information. (blahsl)

  3. Eurocorr 2001. Congress proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    papers are presented under the following session headings: corrosion and scale inhibitors; corrosion by hot gases and combustion products; nuclear corrosion; corrosion education; physical-chemical methods of testing; marine corrosion and cathodic protection; microbial corrosion; corrosion of reinforcement in concrete; corrosion in oil and gas production and corrosion in the refinery industry.

  4. Assessment of exposure to chemical agents in in fill material for artificial turf soccer pitches: development and implementation of a survey protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health concerns over the composition of the in fill material used to construct artificial turf pitches (e.g., for soccer and rugby), raised the need to develop a specific procedure to assess the risks of human exposure to pollutants that may be released by these materials. The aim of this paper was to develop and implement a survey protocol to assess exposure of artificial turf pitches users (e.g., coaches and maintenance personnel) through environmental and biological monitoring of toxic and carcinogenic substances contained in some types of in fill materials for artificial turf pitches. The exposure was assessed by personal and environmental sampling of hazardous substances - particularly of benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, tin and zinc) - for comparison with the occupational exposure limit values as per the Italian regulations and the lists of the American Conference of Industrial Governmental Hygienists (ACGIH). In addition, biological monitoring was performed for the quantitative and qualitative determination of the exposure bio markers of the substances of interest in potentially exposed individuals and in control group. Environmental sampling was performed on an outdoor, artificial turf soccer pitch in a sports facility in Rome characterized by recycled in fill material (rubber granules from recycled tyres, without any further processing); suction pumps were used as environmental samplers to collect the samples (located in areas of the soccer pitch deemed representative of exposure conditions) and personal samplers (in this latter case exclusively for monitoring PAHs) worn by the coaches during training sessions. For the various substances the following sampling systems were used: vials for BTX (benzene, toluene, and xylene), filters for metals and combined systems (filter plus vial) for the PAHs. The extracts were then analyzed by various instrumental techniques such as gas

  5. Contaminant mixtures and repoductive health: Developmental toxicity effects in rats after mixed exposure to environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals, with focus on effects in females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Christiansen, Sofie; Hass, Ulla

    and not at a younger age indicating early reproductive aging, a late effect of early exposure. The results indicate endocrine disrupters may be a contributing factor to effects of the reproductive system in women.AMH needs to be investigated more before it can be determined whether it is a marker useful in assessing......Background: In toxicological testing, effects of endocrine disrupters are in most cases more thoroughly investigated in males than in females. In males the hypothesis of testicu lar dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) proposes that there is a common origin in fetal life of the increase in frequency observed...... in later years of for example incidence of boys born with hypospadias and young men with low semen quality in the human male population. Furthermore, it has been observed in animal studies that exposure during fetal life to endocrine disrupters may lead to similar adverse reproductive effects. It has been...

  6. Tox21Challenge to build predictive models of nuclear receptor and stress response pathways as mediated by exposure to environmental chemicals and drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruili eHuang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tens of thousands of chemicals with poorly understood biological properties are released into the environment each day. High-throughput screening (HTS is potentially a more efficient and cost-effective alternative to traditional toxicity tests. Using HTS, one can profile chemicals for potential adverse effects and prioritize a manageable number for more in-depth testing. Importantly, it can provide clues to mechanism of toxicity. The Tox21 program has generated >50 million quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS data points. A library of several thousands of compounds, including environmental chemicals and drugs, is screened against a panel of nuclear receptor and stress response pathway assays. The National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS has organized an International data challenge in order to crowd-source data and build predictive toxicity models. This Challenge asks a crowd of researchers to use these data to elucidate the extent to which the interference of biochemical and cellular pathways by compounds can be inferred from chemical structure data. The data generated against the Tox21 library served as the training set for this modeling Challenge. The competition attracted participants from 18 different countries to develop computational models aimed at better predicting chemical toxicity. The winning models from nearly 400 model submissions all achieved >80% accuracy. Several models exceeded 90% accuracy, which was measured by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC. Combining the winning models with the knowledge already gained from Tox21 screening data are expected to improve the community’s ability to prioritize novel chemicals with respect to potential human health concern.

  7. Use and impact of usual intake models on dietary exposure estimate and risk assessment of chemical substances: a practical example for cadmium, acrylamide and sulphites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Francesca Romana; Sirot, Véronique; Busani, Luca; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Hulin, Marion

    2015-01-01

    To estimate of food and nutrient intakes, 24-h recalls are frequently used in dietary assessment. However intake data collected for a short period are a limited estimator of long-term usual intake. An important limitation of such data is that the within-person variability tends to inflate the intake distribution leading to a biased estimation of extreme percentiles. Statistical models, named usual-intake models, that separate the within-person variability from the between-persons variability, have lately been implemented. The main objectives of this study were to highlight the potential impact that usual-intake models can have on exposure estimate and risk assessment and to point out which are the key aspects to be considered in order to run these models properly and be sure to interpret the output correctly. To achieve the goal we used the consumption data obtained by the French dietary survey INCA2 and the concentration data collected during the French TDS2, using Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) software, release 8.0. For the three substances included in this study (cadmium, acrylamide and sulphites), the exposure of the upper percentiles was significantly reduced when using usual-intake models in comparison with the results obtained in the observed individual mean models, even if in terms of risk assessment the impact of using usual-intake models was limited. From the results it appears that the key aspects to consider when using usual-intake models are: (1) the normality of the log-transformed intake distribution, (2) the contribution per single food group to the total exposure, and (3) the independency of food consumption data on multiple days. In conclusion, usual-intake models may have an impact on exposure estimates although, referring to the results, it did not bring any changes in terms of risk assessment, but further investigations are needed.

  8. Risk assessment of low-level chemical exposures from consumer products under the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission chronic hazard guidelines.

    OpenAIRE

    Babich, M A

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is an independent regulatory agency that was created in 1973. The CPSC has jurisdiction over more the 15,000 types of consumer products used in and around the home or by children, except items such as food, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, pesticides, certain radioactive materials, products that emit radiation (e.g., microwave ovens), and automobiles. The CPSC has investigated many low-level exposures from consumer products, including forma...

  9. Chemical-mechanical coupling observed for depleted oil reservoirs subjected to long-term CO2-exposure - A case study of the Werkendam natural CO2 analogue field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangx, Suzanne; Bakker, Elisenda; Bertier, Pieter; Nover, Georg; Busch, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Geological storage of CO2 is one of the most promising technologies to rapidly reduce anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide. In order to ensure storage integrity, it is important to understand the effect of long-term CO2/brine/rock interactions on the mechanical behaviour of a storage complex. As most of these reactions are too slow to reproduce on laboratory timescales, we studied a natural CO2 analogue reservoir (the Röt Fringe Sandstone, Werkendam field, the Netherlands; 125-135 Ma of CO2-exposure) and its unreacted counterpart. We focused on CO2-induced mineralogical and porosity-permeability changes, and their effect on mechanical behaviour of both intact rock and simulated fault gouge. Overall, CO2-exposure did not lead to drastic mineralogical changes. The CO2-exposed material shows a stronger dependence of permeability on porosity, which is attributed to differences in diagenesis (closed-system diagenesis and hydrocarbon emplacement) taking place before CO2 charging. The limited extent of reaction was in part the result of bitumen coatings protecting specific mineral phases from reaction. In local, mm-sized zones displaying significant anhydrite cement dissolution, enhanced porosity was observed. For most of the reservoir the long-term mechanical behaviour after CO2-exposure could be described by the behaviour of the unreacted sandstone, while these more 'porous' zones had a lower rock strength. In addition, CO2-exposure did not affect the fault friction behaviour, and slip is expected to result in stable sliding. Simple stress path calculations predict that reservoir failure due to depletion and injection is unlikely, even for the 'porous' zones, nor will fault reactivation occur for realistic injection scenarios.

  10. Ionic liquid assisted chemical strategy to TiO2 hollow nanocube assemblies with surface-fluorination and nitridation and high energy crystal facet exposure for enhanced photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengli; Liu, Baocang; Wang, Qin; Gao, Yuxi; Shi, Ying; Feng, Xue; An, Xiaoting; Liu, Lixia; Zhang, Jun

    2014-07-01

    Realization of anionic nonmetal doping and high energy crystal facet exposure in TiO2 photocatalysts has been proven to be an effective approach for significantly improving their photocatalytic performance. A facile strategy of ionic liquid assisted etching chemistry by simply hydrothermally etching hollow TiO2 spheres composed of TiO2 nanoparticles with an ionic liquid of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate without any other additives is developed to create highly active anatase TiO2 nanocubes and TiO2 nanocube assemblies. With this one-pot ionic liquid assisted etching process, the surface-fluorination and nitridation and high energy {001} crystal facets exposure can be readily realized simultaneously. Compared with the benchmark materials of P25 and TiO2 nanostructures with other hierarchical architectures of hollow spheres, flaky spheres, and spindles synthesized by hydrothermally etching hollow TiO2 spheres with nonionic liquid of NH4F, the TiO2 nanocubes and TiO2 nanocube assemblies used as efficient photocatalysts show super high photocatalytic activity for degradation of methylene blue, methyl orange, and rhodamine B, due to their surface-fluorination and nitridation and high energy crystal facet exposure. The ionic liquid assisted etching chemistry is facile and robust and may be a general strategy for synthesizing other metal oxides with high energy crystal facets and surface doping for improving photocatalytic activity. PMID:24881462

  11. Village Power `97. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardinal, J.; Flowers, L.; Taylor, R.; Weingart, J. [eds.

    1997-09-01

    It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services. In addition, there is a sizable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel gen-sets or partial electrification (local school or community center and several nearby houses). For many villages connected to the grid, power is often sporadically available and of poor quality. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has initiated a program to address these potential electricity opportunities in rural villages through the application of renewable energy (RE) technologies. The objective of this program is to develop and implement applications that demonstrate the technical performance, economic competitiveness, operational viability, and environmental benefits of renewable rural electric solutions, compared to the conventional options of line extension and isolated diesel mini-grids. These four attributes foster sustainability; therefore, the program is entitled Renewables for Sustainable Village Power (RSVP). The RSVP program is a multi-disciplinary, multi-technology, multi-application program composed of six key activities, including village application development, computer model development, systems analysis, pilot project development, technical assistance, and an Internet-based village power project database. The current program emphasizes wind, photovoltaics (PV), and their hybrids with diesel gen-sets. NREL`s RSVP team is currently involved in rural electricity projects in thirteen countries, with U.S., foreign, and internationally based agencies and institutions. This document contains reports presented at the Proceedings of Village Power, 1997. Individual projects have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  12. 77 FR 26430 - Unfair Labor Practice Proceedings; Negotiability Proceedings; Review of Arbitration Awards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... requests for Federal Service Impasses Panel assistance in the resolution of negotiation impasses. See 77 FR... Proceedings; Review of Arbitration Awards; Miscellaneous and General Requirements AGENCY: Federal Labor... Practice Proceedings, part 2424, Negotiability Proceedings, part 2425, Review of Arbitration Awards,...

  13. The exposure of fetuses and children to endocrine disrupting chemicals: a European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE) and Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) call to action statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebæk, Niels E; Toppari, Jorma; Söder, Olle;

    2011-01-01

    During recent years, evidence has accumulated that both wildlife species and humans are exposed to ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Some are persistent in our bodies; others are nonpersistent but are produced in large quantities. Hitherto, the bulk of research in this area has been carr...

  14. 24. ATSR congress - Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document brings together the available abstracts and presentations given at the 24. congress of the French association for radiation protection techniques and sciences (ATSR) on the topic of the radiation protection actors, and the change in activity and practices: 1 - the new CIPR general recommendations (J-F. Lecomte); 2 - November 2007 legal changes in the public health law (M. Ammerich); 3 - November 2007 legal changes in the labour law (T. Lahaye, M. Ammerich); 4 - events and culture in radiation protection: 2008 situation at EDF (Y. Garcier, H. Delabre); 5 - TSN (nuclear transparency and safety) law and the new nuclear safety authority (M. Bourguignon); 6 - industrial radiography charter in Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur region (PACA): presentation, participants, works in progress, stakes (S. Mocaer, N. Grolleau); 7 - Dosimetric study of an industrial gamma-graphy workplace (D. Paul, M. Pizzorno); 8 - experience feedback of controls and inspections at a gamma-graphy workplace in PACA region (G. Veyret et N. Grolleau); 9 - experience feedback from the industrialist's viewpoint, respect of the charter, evaluation questionnaire (S. Mocaer, D. Guillet); 10 - new regulation, CAMARI by-law, national monitoring committee (T. Lahaye); 11 - patient's radiation protection in medical imaging service: actions and regulations (G. Dandis, S. Simon); 12 - patients radiation protection principles in medical imaging (H. Leclet, M. Madoux); 13 - the exposure sheet, its implementation challenges in an operating room with image intensifiers (A. Bourdeloie); 14 - building up of a radiation protection control approach for patients in radiotherapy (L. Kueny); 15 - impact of recent advances in scintiscanning on patients and personnel exposure (S. Balduyck); 16 - Dose rates evaluation during scintiscanning for dependent patients (G. Fagot); 17 - dealing with patients dosimetry: from the regulatory obligation to the daily practice of a medical imaging service (J-G. Mozziconacci); 18

  15. Self-reported occupational exposure to chemical and physical factors and risk of skin problems: a 3-year follow-up study of the general working population of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Jose Hernan; Thyssen, Jacob P; Tynes, Tore; Mehlum, Ingrid Sivesind; Johannessen, Håkon A

    2015-11-01

    Prospective studies on occupational dermatoses in the general working population are sparse. This study investigated prospectively the impact of self-reported occupational exposure to chemicals and physical factors on the risk of skin problems. The cohort comprised respondents drawn randomly from the general population in Norway, who were registered employed in 2006 and 2009 (n = 6,745). Indoor dry air (odds ratio (OR) 1.3; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1-1.6) was a significant baseline predictor of skin problems at follow-up, whereas exposure to cleaning products (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.2-2.5), water (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.9) and indoor dry air (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.1) at both measurement time-points was significantly associated with skin problems. The population risk attributable to these factors was 16%. This study quantified the contribution of occupational exposure factors to skin problems in the general working population of Norway. PMID:25941012

  16. Expression of biomarker genes of differentiation in D3 mouse embryonic stem cells after exposure to different embryotoxicant and non-embryotoxicant model chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Romero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a necessity to develop in vitro methods for testing embryotoxicity (Romero et al., 2015 [1]. We studied the progress of D3 mouse embryonic stem cells differentiation exposed to model embryotoxicants and non-embryotoxicants chemicals through the expression of biomarker genes. We studied a set of 16 different genes biomarkers of general cellular processes (Cdk1, Myc, Jun, Mixl, Cer and Wnt3, ectoderm formation (Nrcam, Nes, Shh and Pnpla6, mesoderm formation (Mesp1, Vegfa, Myo1e and Hdac7 and endoderm formation (Flk1 and Afp. We offer dose response in order to derive the concentration causing either 50% or 200% of expression of the biomarker gene. These records revealed to be a valuable end-point to predict in vitro the embryotoxicity of chemicals (Romero et al., 2015 [1].

  17. Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Rudel Ruthann A; Aschengrau Ann; Zota Ami R; Brody Julia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Household cleaning and pesticide products may contribute to breast cancer because many contain endocrine disrupting chemicals or mammary gland carcinogens. This population-based case-control study investigated whether use of household cleaners and pesticides increases breast cancer risk. Methods Participants were 787 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1988 and 1995 and 721 controls. Telephone interviews asked about product use, beliefs abou...

  18. Expression of stress response HSP70 gene in Asian paddle crabs, Charybdis japonica, exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2013-06-01

    The Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, is a potential bio-indicator reflecting marine sediment toxicity as well as a commercially important species living along coastal areas in Korea. This study investigated its stress response by looking at the heat shock protein (HSP70) gene of C. japonica when the organism is exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP). We characterized partial sequence of HSP70 as the stressresponse gene of C. japonica. The nucleotide sequence of C. japonica HSP70 is over 90% homologous with the corresponding gene of other crabs. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed a close relationship between C. japonica HSP70 and HSP70 in other species of lobster and shrimps. HSP70 mRNA transcripts were detected in all the examined tissues of C. japonica, with the highest level in gills, the organ that most frequently came into contact with the external BPA or NP-laden water. As no reference data were available for C. japonica crab exposure, the BPA and NP 24-h LC50 values have not been previously determined. The expression of the C. japonica HSP70 gene to various BPA or NP concentrations during short and longer times was assessed. Gene expression was significantly induced in concentration- and time-dependent manners after BPA or NP exposures. These results support the postulation that crab C. japonica HSP70 could be a potential stress response molecular marker to monitor marine ecosystems.

  19. ISMB Conference Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teresa, Gaasterand [UCSD; Martin, Vingron

    2011-07-01

    This special issue comprises the papers accepted for presentation at the 19th Annual International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology, joint with the 10th European Conference on Computational Biology, an official conference of the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB; http://www.iscb.org). ISMB/ECCB 2011 (http://www.iscb.org/ismb2011/) will take place in Vienna, Austria, from July 17 through July 19, 2011; preceded during July 14–16 by eight 1- or 2- day Special Interest Group (SIG) meetings, three satellite meetings and nine half-day tutorials; and followed by two additional satellite meetings. The 48 papers in this volume were selected from 258 submitted papers. Submitted papers were assigned to 13 areas. Area Chairs led each topic area by selecting their area's program committee and overseeing the reviewing process. Many Area Chairs were new compared to 2010, and two completely new areas were added in 2011, ‘Data Visualization’ and ‘Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics’. Six papers for which Area Chairs were in conflict were reviewed under a ‘Conflicts Management’ section headed by the Proceedings Chairs; one such paper was accepted in ‘Bioimaging’. Areas, co-chairs and acceptance information are listed in Table 1. Compared to prior years, five mature topic areas had steady submissions, ‘Evolution and Comparative Genomics’, ‘Gene Regulation and Transcriptomics’, ‘Protein Structure and Function’, ‘Sequence Analysis’, ‘Text Mining’. Two areas newer to ISMB were underrepresented this year, ‘Bioimaging’ and ‘Disease Models and Epidemiology’. One area doubled, ‘Applied Bioinformatics’, renamed from last year's ‘Other Bioinformatics Applications’; and one tripled, ‘Protein Interactions and Molecular Networks’. Across the areas, 326 members of the bioinformatics community provided reviews. Most papers received three reviews and several received four or more. There was

  20. Proceedings of the 11. conference of Czech and Slovak physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of 146 papers presented at the conference, the proceedings contain full texts of 10 papers and 17 short communications. All these contributions have been inputted to INIS. The topics covered by the conference are subnuclear physics, nuclear physics, plasma physics, detectors, physics of metals, low-temperature physics, physics of superconductors and dielectrics, optics and quantum electronics, magnetism, thin layers, chemical physics and biophysics, acoustics and physics of molecular and macromolecular systems. (Z.S.)

  1. Lunar Science Conference, 5th, Houston, Tex., March 18-22, 1974, Proceedings. Volume 1 - Mineralogy and petrology. Volume 2 Chemical and isotope analyses. Organic chemistry. Volume 3 - Physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    Numerous studies on the properties of the moon based on Apollo findings and samples are presented. Topics treated include ages of the lunar nearside light plains and maria, orange material in the Sulpicius Gallus formation at the southwestern edge of Mare Serenitatis, impact-induced fractionation in the lunar highlands, igneous rocks from Apollo 16 rake samples, experimental liquid line of descent and liquid immiscibility for basalt 70017, ion microprobe mass analysis of plagioclase from 'non-mare' lunar samples, grain size and the evolution of lunar soils, chemical composition of rocks and soils at Taurus-Littrow, the geochemical evolution of the moon, U-Th-Pb systematics of some Apollo 17 lunar samples and implications for a lunar basin excavation chronology, volatile-element systematics and green glass in Apollo 15 lunar soils, solar wind nitrogen and indigenous nitrogen in Apollo 17 lunar samples, lunar trapped xenon, solar flare and lunar surface process characterization at the Apollo 17 site, and the permanent and induced magnetic dipole moment of the moon. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  2. National benthic surveillance project: Pacific coast. Fish histopathology and relationships between toxicopathic lesions and exposure to chemical contaminants for cycles 1 to 5 (1984-88). Technical memo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, M.S.; Stehr, C.M.; Olson, O.P.; Johnson, L.L.; McCain, B.B.

    1993-02-01

    The report presents and interprets the results of histopathology studies conducted on 17 species of bottomfish captured at 45 sites between 1984 and 1988 as part of the Pacific Coast portion of the National Benthic Surveillance Program (NBSP) in conjunction with NOAA's National Status and Trends Program (NS T). The location of sampling sites ranged from Prudhoe Bay in Alaska to San Diego Bay in California, and incorporated sites. Twenty-three were located in or near urban embayments, and the 22 remaining sites were in nonurban embayments, five of which served as comparison or reference sites on the basis of minimal levels of sediment contaminants detected (Kamishak Bay, AK; Nisqually Reach, WA; and Bodega Bay, Dana Point, and outer Mission Bay, CA). These comparison sites were selected so that the same fish species could be collected from minimally contaminated environments as opposed to those obtained at urban or more contaminated sites. Six primary target species were identified for statistical analyses that examined the relationships between occurrence of particular toxicopathic diseases or lesions in the liver and kidney and levels of potential or actual exposure to contaminants. These species were selected because they were broadly distributed geographically and were abundant among the sampling sites, they had previously documented significant prevalences of contaminant-associated diseases, or the geographic distribution of similar diseases among the sites suggested an association with contaminant exposure. These primary target species were flathead sole, English sole, starry flounder, hornyhead turbot, white croaker, and black croaker. All specimens were examined for the presence of necrotic, sclerotic and proliferative lesions in the kidney, as well as lesions.

  3. [Changes in physico-chemical parameters of homeopathic remedies ferrum metallicum CH6 and ferrum metallicum CH30 after exposure to high frequency electromagnetic radiation of low intensity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, N M

    2005-01-01

    It is considered the microwaves electromagnetic radiation do not affect the materials, alive or not, when used in low power. In high power, the interaction effects would be the material warming (thermal effect). However, in the last years, the studies about electromagnetic radiation with low power (non thermal effect) in the human being have been increasing. It was found out the electromagnetic radiation, even with low power, can affect the living organisms and biosubstratum. In the present work the influence of electromagnetic radiation (2.45 GHz 500 W/cm2), on physical and chemical parameters of the homeopathic pharmaceutics products in shown.

  4. A New Type of Multielements—Dpoed.Carbon—based Materials Characterized by High—Thermoconductivity,Low Chemical Syputtering.Low RES Yield and Exposure to Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许增裕; 宋进仁; 等

    2002-01-01

    Low-Z materials,such as carbon-based materials and Be,are major plasma-facing material (PFM) for current,even in future fusion devices.In this paper,new type of multielement-doped carbon-based materials developed are presented along with experimental results of their properties,The results indicate a decrease in chemical sputtering yield by one order of magnitude.a decrease in both thermal shock resistance and radiation-enhanced sublimation,an evidently lower temperature desorption spectrum ,and combined properties of exposing to plasma.

  5. Risks and Chemical Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Avrom A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines exposure to chemicals within the home and three important ways in which hazardous substances can be identified and evaluated. Suggests a rational picture of human health risks and contains an introductory discussion of reasons for exposure, epidemiology, cancer causes and patterns, animal testing, toxins, and risk. (LZ)

  6. Workshop 97. Part IV. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume of the Proceedings cover the following branches of science and technology: preservation and creation of the environment, architecture, town planning and visual arts, reliability, production systems and technology, nuclear engineering, transport engineering, and economics and business activities. Out of the contributions, 19 have been input to INIS. (P.A.)

  7. Water in mining 2009. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Subjects covered include treatment technologies and treatment practices, water efficiency and quality, water accounting and auditing, as well AS probabilistic forecasting and systems modelling, and a number of papers from operating mines. Management of ground water was an important theme at the conference. The proceedings are also available on CD-ROM (ISBN 978-1-921522-05-5).

  8. Advanced materials and technologies. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindroos, V.K.; Alander, T.K.R. [eds.] [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science

    1995-12-31

    The contents of the proceedings consist of three chapters, of which, the first discusses common megatrends, both nationally and globally, in different fields of materials technology. The second chapter is dealing with novel production and processing of base metals and, finally, the third chapter is related with current achievements and future goals of electronic, magnetic, optical and coating materials and their processing

  9. Correlation of chromosome patterns in human leukemic cells with exposure to chemicals and/or radiation. Comprehensive progress report, January 1, 1980-December 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The observations that two particular translocations are consistently associated with specific differentiation stages of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia were confirmed. These are the translocation between chromosomes 8 and 21 in acute myeloblastic leukemia with maturation and the translocation between chromosomes 15 and 17 in acute promyelocytic leukemia. The observation of others that structural rearrangements involving the long arm of No. 11 are frequently seen in acute monoblastic leukemia was also confirmed. The chromosome aberrations that are observed in the great majority of patients with acute leukemia secondary to cytotoxic therapy were defined. Thus of 47 patients with secondary acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, an aneuploid clone was seen in 44, and 39 of the 44 had a loss of part or all of No. 5 and/or No. 7. I have been able to localize the region of chromosome No. 7, loss of which is important for the development of leukemia was localized. Patients with ANLL de novo whose occupational histories suggest exposure to potentially mutagenic agents have a higher frequency of aberrations involving Nos. 5 and/or 7, than do patients not so exposed. Thus 50% of exposed versus 10% of nonexposed patients had aberrations of Nos. 5 or 7

  10. Chemical exposure during pregnancy and oral clefts in newborns Exposição a agentes químicos na gravidez e fendas lábio-palatinas no recém-nascido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Gonçalves Leite

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a literature review on the risk factors for oral clefts (lip and/or palate, emphasizing discussion of maternal exposure to endocrine disruptors. Several studies have identified the risk of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, use of anticonvulsivant drugs, and exposure to organic solvents. A protective effect has been shown for supplementation with folic acid. As with other chemicals, the risk associated with exposure to sex hormones is still obscure, although some authors describe a moderate risk level. New studies addressing this hypothesis need to be conducted, while the population exposed to these endocrine disrupters is increasing.O presente artigo apresenta uma revisão bibliográfica sobre os fatores de risco para a ocorrência de fendas lábio-palatinas descritos na literatura, destacando a discussão sobre a exposição hormonal materna durante a gravidez. Os trabalhos analisados apontam como fatores de risco o tabagismo e a ingestão de álcool, uso de anticonvulsivantes e exposições a solventes orgânicos, e como fator de proteção, a administração de ácido fólico. O risco associado à exposição hormonal, bem como a outros fatores, ainda é obscuro, embora alguns autores descrevam moderadas magnitudes de risco. Novos estudos, especificamente elaborados para testar esta hipótese, devem ser realizados à medida em que aumenta a população exposta a drogas de ação endócrina.

  11. 16 CFR 3.2 - Nature of adjudicative proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nature of adjudicative proceedings. 3.2... RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Scope of Rules; Nature of Adjudicative Proceedings § 3.2 Nature of adjudicative proceedings. Adjudicative proceedings are those formal proceedings conducted...

  12. 23. ATSR congress - Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (IAEA): the workers' decree in perspective with IAEA recommendations; 20 - J. Champlong (SFRP): training of the radiation protection skilled person; 21 - B. Marc (Alpha Dir): mission, role and interface of the radiation protection skilled person; 22 - C. Roy (veterinarian): decree impact on a veterinary clinic; 23 - J-L. Rehel (IRSN): methodology for a workplace study, application in interventional radiology; 24 - A. Rannou (IRSN): assessment of workers' exposure to ionising radiations, lessons learnt and perspectives

  13. Uncertainty in environmental health risk assessment: a framework for analysis and an application to a chronic exposure situation involving a chemical carcinogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K.T.

    1986-01-01

    The impact of uncertainty and inter-individual variability is not rigorously addressed in current environmental health risk assessments performed for regulatory purposes. The availability of such information on a systematic basis would not only serve to clarify technical assumptions underlying risk assessment, but would also greatly facilitate the application of more-sophisticated quantitative approaches to risk management decision making. Here, focusing on the particular context of regulatory risk assessment for chemical carcinogens, a taxonomy of uncertainty and variability in the elements of risk assessment is developed, potential generic sources are reviewed and a critical overview of some current approaches to incorporating uncertainty and variability into risk assessment is offered. The general problems of compounded uncertainty and creeping safety - regarding the degree to which uncertainty or safety assumed in each component of a risk assessment may be compounded or magnified in a final risk prediction - are described. A formal methodology is developed for qualitative uncertainty analysis, i.e., the quantitative analysis of the impact that modeled uncertainty and/or variability in each component of a risk assessment has on uncertainty and variability in final predicted risk.

  14. Identification and mRNA expression of two 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase genes in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis following exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Qing; Ji, Yinglu; Zhang, Qian; Wu, Huifeng; Xie, Jia; Zhao, Jianmin

    2014-05-01

    17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSDs) are multifunctional enzymes involved in the metabolism of steroids, fatty acids, retinoids and bile acid. In this study, two novel types of 17β-HSDs (named as MgHsd17b10 and MgHsd17b12) were cloned from Mytilus galloprovincialis by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. Sequence analysis showed that MgHsd17b10 and MgHsd17b12 encoded a polypeptide of 259 and 325 amino acids, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MgHsd17b10 and MgHsd17b12 were evolutionarily clustered with other invertebrate 17β-HSD type 10 and 17β-HSD type 12 homologues. The MgHsd17b10 and MgHsd17b12 transcripts could be detected in all examined tissues with higher expression levels in digestive glands and gonad. After exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (Bisphenol A or 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether), the expression of MgHsd17b10 and MgHsd17b12 transcripts was both down-regulated in digestive glands. These findings suggest that MgHsd17b10 and MgHsd17b12 perhaps play an important role in the endocrine regulation of M. galloprovincialis.

  15. Multiple chemical sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Marie Thi Dao; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Kupers, Ron;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition characterized by recurrent, non-specific symptoms in response to chemically unrelated exposures in non-toxic concentrations. Although the pathophysiology of MCS remains unknown, central sensitization may be an important factor...

  16. Proceedings of the 10th annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management 2011 Kanagawa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the entitled program and proceedings held from November 30th through December 2nd of 2011. Focusing on the issues of Fukushima Accident, the sessions including poster, invited/special speeches etc. are exposure reduction and dose level evaluation, radiation contamination, radiation exposure and its measures, risk communication, accident management, biological radiation effects, radioactive waste handling, effective use of radioisotopes, radiation measurement, education on radiation, radioactivity in environment. (J.P.N)

  17. World Bioenergy 2012. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    -stock use. Sustainability and economy are critical factors for market development, but also the adaptability to the current transport systems. The biofuels need efficient vehicles and motors, to be competitive with current transport solutions. How will the transport sector evolve within the coming years? E) World biorefinery 2012: Biorefineries with co-production of liquid, gaseous and solid biofuels with power, heat and chemicals for efficient and optimal use of biomass is the way forward. But strategies, business models, and technological choices are numerous - torrefaction, pyrolysis, enzymatic evolution, thermal gasification, biogas, syngas production, etc. All major biobased industries are today considering biorefinery concepts. The sessions aim to showcase the current state-of-the-art: the projects, and the technological developments. F) Sustainable bioenergy day: Can we achieve a sustainable market growth for modern bioenergy? This is a common theme for all actors in the bioenergy business sector. The last day of World Bioenergy is dedicated to sustainability. It includes the first ever public dialog forum regarding the coming ISO 13065 standard - Sustainability criteria for bioenergy. Asking all bioenergy stakeholders - how can we guarantee sustainable bioenergy and what could the role of a standard be? Sustainability Bioenergy day is arranged by the Swedish Energy Agency with the support of ISO, SIS and Svebio.

  18. Reconstructing Exposures from Biomarkers using Exposure-Pharmacokinetic Modeling - A Case Study with Carbaryl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sources of uncertainty involved in exposure reconstruction for a short half-life chemical, carbaryl, were characterized using the Cumulative and Aggregate Risk Evaluation System (CARES), an exposure model, and a human physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. CARES was...

  19. 34. MPA seminar 2008. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings include two introductory lectures: The renaissance of nuclear power - causes and challenges; on the way to the coal fired power plant with 50% efficiency. The other contributions concern the following topics: MPA-IfW-NIMS-Workshop: microstructural evolution (7 contributions), advanced materials (6 contributions), material and damage behaviour (6 contributions), integrity of nuclear plants and components (13 contributions), monitoring and inspection (6 contributions), creep and lifetime analysis (4 contributions), applications to HT components (4 contributions), fracture mechanics (7 components)

  20. Workshop 97. Part I. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complete Proceedings, in 4 volumes, contain contributions by staff members of the Czech Technical University in Prague, the Technical University in Brno, and the Technical University (former University of Mining) in Ostrava, covering all branches of science and technology dealt with by the 3 universities. Part I includes contributions in mathematics, physics, engineering informatics and cybernetics, and computers. Out of these, 13 have been input to INIS. (P.A.)

  1. National Hydrogen Roadmap Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-04-01

    This document summarizes the presentations and suggestions put forth by officials, industry experts and policymakers in their efforts to come together to develop a roadmap for America''s clean energy future and outline the key barriers and needs to achieve the hydrogen vision. The National Hydrogen Roadmap Workshop was held April 2-3, 2002. These proceedings were compiled into a formal report, The National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap, which is also available online.

  2. Proceedings: International conference Reforestation Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Vladan Ivetić; Dragica Stanković

    2015-01-01

    This book of Proceedings compiles 35 papers presented by researchers and scientists at The International Conference on Reforestation Challenges. Topics included various aspects of reforestation: 1) Planning and management of reforestation programs; 2) Stocktypes and seedlings quality; 3) Monitoring reforestation successes; 4) Planting and seedling-site interaction; 5) Species, intra-species and seed source selection and 6) Plant health in nurseries and plantations. In addition to country repo...

  3. 父母亲化学物质暴露与儿童急性白血病发病关系的探讨%Relationship between parental exposure to chemicals and risk of childhood acute leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施蓉; 高宇; 张妍; 高怡瑾; 朱莎; 王筱金; 金萍; 田英

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨父母亲化学物质暴露与儿童急性白血病发病的关系.方法 选取2009年1月1日至2010年12月31日所有就诊于上海地区3家儿童医院年龄小于15周岁的201例新发急性白血病的儿童,在病例所在医院的儿童保健门诊或骨科选取同性别同年龄的对照儿童201例,对其母亲进行面对面的访谈式调查.结果 母亲孕前3个月至孕期总化学物质(柴油、汽油、油漆、杀虫剂、农药、除草剂、化肥)接触史(OR=2.9,95%CI=1.1~7.8)及父亲在母亲孕前3个月接触杀虫剂(OR=10.1,95%CI=1.2~82.9)、化肥(OR=9.5,95%CI=1.1~79.6);母亲孕前从事农业、林业工作(OR=8.4,95%CI=1.4~50.2);孕前及孕期从事纺织、皮革、装潢、汽修(孕前:OR =3.0,95%CI=1.2~7.9;孕期:OR=3.2,95%CI=1.1~9.6);父亲从事农业、林业(OR =9.6,95%CI=2.1~44.8)及纺织、皮革、装潢、汽修工作(OR=2.3,95%CI=1.1~5.0)等因素可能是儿童急性白血病发病的危险因素.结论 父母亲化学物质暴露可能会增加后代患急性白血病的风险.%Objective To investigate the relationship between parental exposure to chemicals and the risk of childhood acute leukemia.Methods An exploratory case-control study was conducted among 201 new cases of childhood acute leukemia under 15 years old who went to 3 children's hospitals in Shanghai,China from January 1,2009 to December 31,2010,as well as 201 sex-and age-matched children (as controls) who went to the child health care clinic or department of orthopedics in the above hospitals.A survey was performed by face-to-face interviews with children's mothers.Results The risk factors for childhood acute leukemia might include maternal exposure to total chemicals (diesel oil,gasoline,paints,insecticides,pesticides,herbicides,and chemical fertilizers) from 3 months before pregnancy to the end of pregnancy (OR=2.9,95%CI=1.1~7.8),paternal exposure to insecticides (OR=10.1,95%CI=1.2~82

  4. National Hydrogen Vision Meeting Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-11-01

    This document provides presentations and summaries of the notes from the National Hydrogen Vision Meeting''s facilitated breakout sessions. The Vision Meeting, which took place November 15-16, 2001, kicked off the public-private partnership that will pave the way to a more secure and cleaner energy future for America. These proceedings were compiled into a formal report, A National Vision of America''s Transition to a Hydrogen Economy - To 2030 and Beyond, which is also available online.

  5. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-four papers were presented at this conference attended by representatives from 16 countries. The papers discussed the design and implementation of control and instrumentation systems in nuclear power plants, the licensing of software by regulatory agencies, and life-cycle issues. (L.L.)

  6. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These fifteen papers were presented by students in nuclear engineering from the Universities of Toronto and Manitoba, the Royal Military College, Ecole Polytechnique, McMaster University, and Trent University. They cover the areas of CANDU, SLOWPOKE and MAPLE reactor systems and fuel, applied nucleonics, and simulation theory and thermalhydraulics. (L.L.)

  7. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invited talks presented at a two-week workshop on pion-nucleon interactions are briefly presented and a summary of the discussions that took place is added. Topics covered include quantum chromodynamics and the weak NNπ vertex, pionic effects in the weak decays of nuclei, the isobar-doorway approach to the pion-nucleus interaction, multiple scattering approaches, the phenomenology of non-elastic reactions within the isobar-doorway picture, a field theory of pion-nucleus interaction, and the quark structure of the nucleon in nuclei. (LL)

  8. [Lectures from the tutorial courses at NATO--Advanced Study Institute pt. "Human biomonitoring after environmental and occupational exposure to chemical and physical agents" (Turkey, 9/23-10/3/1999)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzyńska, M M

    2000-01-01

    The NATO Science Programme joining in the celebration of 50th Anniversary of Founding of the NATO by organisation of NATO Advanced Study Institute "Human Monitoring after Environmental and Occupational Exposure to Chemical and Physical Agents", which was held in Tekirova-Antalya (Turkey), September 23-October 3, 1999. The director of ASI was dr Diana Anderson from TNO-BIBRA (UK). The members of Scientific Organizing Committee were also dr R. Sram (Czech Republik), dr A. Karakaya (Turkey), Dr P. O'Neill (USA), dr R. Bos (Netherlands), dr M. Lotti (Italy). It was a high-level tutorial course for scientists at the post-doctoral level from NATO countries and from NATO Cooperation Partner countries. NATO-ASI attended about 100 scientists from about 30 countries. There were 40 lectures, 20 oral presentations and 43 posters presented, 19 authors of posters were invited to additional short oral presentations. Subject of course concerned undesirable effects of chemical and physical agents on human health. The aim of NATO-Advanced Study Institute was the meeting of scientists working in different fields of science to present and discuss the knowledge and recent developments in the field of human monitoring. The majority of lectures concerned about biomonitoring of people exposed to genotoxic agents at work place and environment. Dr A. Autio (Switzerland) presented definitions of different kinds of bimarkers proposed by the Committee on Biological Markers in Environmental Health of USA Academy of Science/National Research Council. Dr D. Anderson (UK) introduced history of biomonitoring. The main lecturers on this topic were dr W. Au (USA), dr R. Sram (Czech Republik), dr M. Lotti (Italy), dr J. Timbell (USA), Dr E. Moustacchi (France). The following group of lectures presented by dr D. Anderson (UK), dr A. Wyrobek (USA), dr J. Bonde (Dennmark), dr H. Norppa (Finland) was regarded to male-mediated mutagenic effect in offspring induced by genotoxic physical and chemical agents

  9. XXX. Days of Radiation Protection. Conference Proceedings of the 30-th Days of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 107 papers are published. The Conference consists of following sections: Effects of ionizing radiation; Regulation of radiation protection; Dosimetry and Metrology of ionizing radiation; Radiation protection in nuclear Power plants; Medical exposure and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology; Natural radioactivity issues in radiation protection; Education, societal aspects and public involvement in radiation protection, trends and perspectives

  10. Proceedings of wide band gap semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the proceedings of wide band gap semiconductors. Wide band gap semiconductors are under intense study because of their potential applications in photonic devices in the visible and ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and devices for high temperature, high frequency and high power electronics. Additionally, due to their unique mechanical, thermal, optical, chemical, and electronic properties many wide band gap semiconductors are anticipated to find applications in thermoelectric, electrooptic, piezoelectric and acoustooptic devices as well as protective coatings, hard coatings and heat sinks. Material systems covered in this symposium include diamond, II-VI compounds, III-V nitrides, silicon carbide, boron compounds, amorphous and microcrystalline semiconductors, chalcopyrites, oxides and halides. The various papers addressed recent experimental and theoretical developments. They covered issues related to crystal growth (bulk and thin films), structure and microstructure, defects, doping, optoelectronic properties and device applications. A theoretical session was dedicated to identifying common themes in the heteroepitaxy and the role of defects in doping, compensation and phase stability of this unique class of materials. Important experimental milestones included the demonstrations of bright blue injection luminescence at room temperatures from junctions based on III-V nitrides and a similar result from multiple quantum wells in a ZnSe double heterojunction at liquid nitrogen temperatures

  11. Proceedings of Seminar on Emerging Environmental Issues in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seminar on emerging environmental issues in Pakistan was held from December 5-7, 1998, in Islamabad, Pakistan. The nature and magnitude of environmental contamination, and who is exposed to it, depend not only on scientific and technological factors but also reflect economic, political, social and many other influences. In the process of creating social and economic benefits to society, industrial production generates hazardous waste and chemical contaminants that impact negatively on quality of life. The main emphases in this proceedings are on different type pollution and their impacts on humane life. (A.B.)

  12. Uranium hexafluoride: Safe handling, processing, and transporting: Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference seeks to provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas of the safety aspects and technical issue related to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. By allowing operators, engineers, scientists, managers, educators, and others to meet and share experiences of mutual concern, the conference is also intended to provide the participants with a more complete knowledge of technical and operational issues. The topics for the papers in the proceedings are widely varied and include the results of chemical, metallurgical, mechanical, thermal, and analytical investigations, as well as the developed philosophies of operational, managerial, and regulatory guidelines. Papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA

  13. Uranium hexafluoride: Safe handling, processing, and transporting: Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strunk, W.D.; Thornton, S.G. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    This conference seeks to provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas of the safety aspects and technical issue related to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. By allowing operators, engineers, scientists, managers, educators, and others to meet and share experiences of mutual concern, the conference is also intended to provide the participants with a more complete knowledge of technical and operational issues. The topics for the papers in the proceedings are widely varied and include the results of chemical, metallurgical, mechanical, thermal, and analytical investigations, as well as the developed philosophies of operational, managerial, and regulatory guidelines. Papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  14. Biomonitoring human exposure to environmental carcinogenic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, P.B.; Sepai, O.; Lawrence, R.;

    1996-01-01

    A coordinated study was carried out on the development, evaluation and application of biomonitoring procedures for populations exposed to environmental genotoxic pollutants. The procedures used involved both direct measurement of DNA or protein damage (adducts) and assessment of second biological...... effects (mutation and cytogenetic damage). Adduct detection at the level of DNA or protein (haemoglobin) was carried out by 32P-postlabelling, immunochemical, HPLC or mass spectrometric methods. Urinary excretion products resulting from DNA damage were also estimated (immunochemical assay, mass...... aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges) and mutation frequency was estimated at a number of loci including the hprt gene and genes involving in cancer development. Blood and urine samples from individuals exposed to urban pollution were collected. Populations exposed through occupational or medical...

  15. Thyroid hormone metabolism and environmental chemical exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leijs Marike M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated dioxins and –furans (PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated-biphenyls (PCBs are environmental toxicants that have been proven to influence thyroid metabolism both in animal studies and in human beings. In recent years polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs also have been found to have a negative influence on thyroid hormone metabolism. The lower brominated flame retardants are now banned in the EU, however higher brominated decabromo-diphenyl ether (DBDE and the brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD are not yet banned. They too can negatively influence thyroid hormone metabolism. An additional brominated flame retardant that is still in use is tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA, which has also been shown to influence thyroid hormone metabolism. Influences of brominated flame retardants, PCDD/F’s and dioxin like-PCBs (dl-PCB’s on thyroid hormone metabolism in adolescence in the Netherlands will be presented in this study and determined if there are reasons for concern to human health for these toxins. In the period 1987-1991, a cohort of mother-baby pairs was formed in order to detect abnormalities in relation to dioxin levels in the perinatal period. The study demonstrated that PCDD/Fs were found around the time of birth, suggesting a modulation of the setpoint of thyroid hormone metabolism with a higher 3,3’, 5,5’tetrathyroxine (T4 levels and an increased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH. While the same serum thyroid hormone tests (- TSH and T4 were again normal by 2 years of age and were still normal at 8-12 years, adolescence is a period with extra stress on thyroid hormone metabolism. Therefore we measured serum levels of TSH, T4, 3,3’,5- triiodothyronine (T3, free T4 (FT4, antibodies and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG in our adolescent cohort. Methods Vena puncture was performed to obtain samples for the measurement of thyroid hormone metabolism related parameters and the current serum dioxin (PCDD/Fs, PCB and PBDE levels. Results The current levels of T3 were positively correlated to BDE-99. A positive trend with FT4 and BDE-99 was also seen, while a positive correlation with T3 and dl-PCB was also seen. No correlation with TBG was seen for any of the contaminants. Neither the prenatal nor the current PCDD/F levels showed a relationship with the thyroid parameters in this relatively small group. Conclusion Once again the thyroid hormone metabolism (an increase in T3 seems to have been influenced by current background levels of common environmental contaminants: dl-PCBs and BDE-99. T3 is a product of target organs and abnormalities might indicate effects on hormone transporters and could cause pathology. While the influence on T3 levels may have been compensated, because the adolescents functioned normal at the time of the study period, it is questionable if this compensation is enough for all organs depending on thyroid hormones.

  16. Estimation of human exposure to chemical substances and radiation. State of the art of the research projects of the Dutch National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM); De schatting van de blootstelling van de mens aan stoffen en straling. De status van het RIVM-onderzoek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeire, T.G.; Van Veen, M.P.; Janssen, M.P.M.; Smetsers, R.C.G.M.

    1997-03-01

    In 1994, the Sector Substances and Risks of RIVM decided to strengthen strategically its research into risk assessment methodology. In this report the research area of human exposure assessment at the RIVM is outlined. A representative selection of human exposure assessment models for both chemical substances and radiation is analysed with regard to aim, principle, degree of model analyses and values of default parameter. For comparison, a model to assess human exposure to micro-organisms is included as well. All models are operational or nearly so in the production of risk assessments in the Sector Substances and Risks and also in the Sectors Public Health Research and Environmental Research. The models discussed all have a defined area of application and support risk management. The research areas of exposure assessment for substances and radiation are compared and many methodological analogies are apparent. However, at the level of models and parameters an in-depth analysis of analogies and explained or unexplained differences is lacking. A detailed examination of organisation aspects and RIVM-models for human exposure assessment learns that all relevant areas of interest are covered. For all routes of exposure the reach of the actual risk and exposure assessment methodology is large. A more uniform coverage is attained for radiation than for chemical substances. For both areas the estimation and registration of emissions can be improved. The development of risk assessment systems and related harmonisation proJects have already attention for many years (e.g. CSOIL, USES, RIBRON). It is concluded that the RIVM requires a broad, up-to-date range of instruments for exposure assessment and active involvement in all kinds of national and international relevant networks. The RIVM should also remain involved in the development and evaluation of methodology and in projects aiming at harmonisation. 2 figs., 9 tabs., 64 refs.

  17. 14 CFR 302.13 - Consolidation of proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS Rules of General Applicability § 302.13... of its business and to the ends of justice and will not unduly delay the proceedings. Although...

  18. Proceedings of the Second APEC Coal Flow Seminar Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-05

    This proceedings includes papers presented at the Second APEC Coal Flow Seminar held at Shanghai in December, 1995. Three keynote speeches were presented, and two panel discussions were held. `Medium-term outlook for coal trade,` `Energy and the environment,` and `Progress with environmental control technology and technical exchanges between economies` were presented as keynote speeches. In the panel discussions, `Achieving low environmental impact from coal production and utilization` and `How to tackle environmental issues related to coal` were discussed. The Panel 1 was divided into Part 1 and Part 2. In the Part 1, overview of current environmental protection policy measures was discussed in relation to coal production and use in economies where coal consumption has been increasing significantly. In the Part 2, overview of current environmental protection policy measures was discussed in relation to coal production and use in major coal producing and consuming economies. 38 refs., 64 figs., 31 tabs.

  19. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Casas, Maribel; Brunekreef, Bert;

    2013-01-01

    hand tobacco smoke (SHS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts), occupational exposures (N......=33), outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27). Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite...

  20. Proceedings of Asia congress on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    203 articles were collected in the proceedings. The contents of the proceedings included the principle and practices of radiation protection, biological effects of radiation, radiation monitoring, protection in medical and other fields, radiation dosimetry, nuclear energy and the environment, natural radiation, radioactive waste management, and other radiation protection issues

  1. Chemical carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemical compounds benefits society in a number of ways. Pesticides, for instance, enable foodstuffs to be produced in sufficient quantities to satisfy the needs of millions of people, a condition that has led to an increase in levels of life expectancy. Yet, at times, these benefits are offset by certain disadvantages, notably the toxic side effects of the chemical compounds used. Exposure to these compounds can have varying effects, ranging from instant death to a gradual process of chemical carcinogenesis. There are three stages involved in chemical carcinogenesis. These are defined as initiation, promotion and progression. Each of these stages is characterised by morphological and biochemical modifications and result from genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. These genetic modifications include: mutations in genes that control cell proliferation, cell death and DNA repair - i.e. mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressing genes. The epigenetic factors, also considered as being non-genetic in character, can also contribute to carcinogenesis via epigenetic mechanisms which silence gene expression. The control of responses to carcinogenesis through the application of several chemical, biochemical and biological techniques facilitates the identification of those basic mechanisms involved in neoplasic development. Experimental assays with laboratory animals, epidemiological studies and quick tests enable the identification of carcinogenic compounds, the dissection of many aspects of carcinogenesis, and the establishment of effective strategies to prevent the cancer which results from exposure to chemicals.A sociedade obtém numerosos benefícios da utilização de compostos químicos. A aplicação dos pesticidas, por exemplo, permitiu obter alimento em quantidade suficiente para satisfazer as necessidades alimentares de milhões de pessoas, condição relacionada com o aumento da esperança de vida. Os benefícios estão, por

  2. PCaPAC 2006 Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavel Chevtsov; Matthew Bickley (Eds.)

    2007-03-30

    The 6-th international PCaPAC (Personal Computers and Particle Accelerator Controls) workshop was held at Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia, from October 24-27, 2006. The main objectives of the conference were to discuss the most important issues of the use of PCs and modern IT technologies for controls of accelerators and to give scientists, engineers, and technicians a forum to exchange the ideas on control problems and their solutions. The workshop consisted of plenary sessions and poster sessions. No parallel sessions were held.Totally, more than seventy oral and poster presentations as well as tutorials were made during the conference, on the basis of which about fifty papers were submitted by the authors and included in this publication. This printed version of the PCaPAC 2006 Proceedings is published at Jefferson Lab according to the decision of the PCaPAC International Program Committee of October 26, 2006.

  3. Hand chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby

    2015-03-01

    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes.

  4. Determinants of Dermal Exposure Relevant for Exposure Modelling in Regulatory Risk Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, J.; Brouwer, D.H.; Gijsbers, J.H.J.; Links, I.H.M.; Warren, N.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2003-01-01

    Risk assessment of chemicals requires assessment of the exposure levels of workers. In the absence of adequate specific measured data, models are often used to estimate exposure levels. For dermal exposure only a few models exist, which are not validated externally. In the scope of a large European

  5. Experimental Investigation of Microbially Induced Corrosion of Test Samples and Effect of Self-Assembled Hydrophobic Monolayers. Exposure of Test Samples to Continuous Microbial Cultures, Chemical Analysis, and Biochemical Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinavichius, K.S.

    1998-09-30

    The study of biocorrosion of aluminum and beryllium samples were performed under conditions of continuous fermentation of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms of different groups. This allowed us to examine the effect of various types of metabolic reactions of reduction-oxidation proceeding at different pH and temperatures under highly reduced conditions on aluminum and beryllium corrosion and effect of self-assembled hydrophobic monolayers.

  6. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  7. Proceedings of the joint Russian-American hydrogeology seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, C.F. [ed.] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Mironenko, V. [ed.] [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of Environmental Geology; Pozdniakov, S. [ed.] [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogeology research has been very active in both Russia and the US because of the concerns for migration of radioactive and chemical contaminants in soils and geologic formations, as well as for water problems related to mining and other industrial operations. Russian hydrogeologists have developed various analysis and field testing techniques, sometimes in parallel with US counterparts. These Proceedings come out of a Seminar held to bring together a small group (about 15) of active Russian researchers in geologic flow and transport associated with the disposal of radioactive and chemical wastes either on the soils or through deep injection wells, with a corresponding group (about 25) of American hydrogeologists. The meeting was intentionally kept small to enable informal, detailed and in-depth discussions on hydrogeological issues of common interest. Out of this interaction, the authors hope that, firstly, they will have learned from each other and secondly, that research collaborations will be established where there is the opportunity. This proceedings presents the summaries and viewgraphs from the presentations. What cannot be conveyed here is the warm and cooperative atmosphere of these interactions, both inside and outside the formal sessions, which may well lead to future collaborations.

  8. Proceedings of the joint Russian-American hydrogeology seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogeology research has been very active in both Russia and the US because of the concerns for migration of radioactive and chemical contaminants in soils and geologic formations, as well as for water problems related to mining and other industrial operations. Russian hydrogeologists have developed various analysis and field testing techniques, sometimes in parallel with US counterparts. These Proceedings come out of a Seminar held to bring together a small group (about 15) of active Russian researchers in geologic flow and transport associated with the disposal of radioactive and chemical wastes either on the soils or through deep injection wells, with a corresponding group (about 25) of American hydrogeologists. The meeting was intentionally kept small to enable informal, detailed and in-depth discussions on hydrogeological issues of common interest. Out of this interaction, the authors hope that, firstly, they will have learned from each other and secondly, that research collaborations will be established where there is the opportunity. This proceedings presents the summaries and viewgraphs from the presentations. What cannot be conveyed here is the warm and cooperative atmosphere of these interactions, both inside and outside the formal sessions, which may well lead to future collaborations

  9. Procedural Justice in Dutch Administrative Court Proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Verburg

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss recent developments in administrative court proceedings in the Netherlands, called the New Approach. Along with developments leading to the New Approach, it became clear that the insights from research on procedural justice deserve particular attention. The goals of the judge's actions in this respect are both that the proceedings are fair and just and that parties perceive the way they are being treated during proceedings as fair and just.Within the New Approach we discern five procedural justice elements: (1 respect, (2 voice and due consideration, (3 some influence on how proceedings will continue, (4 an explanation of how the proceedings will continue and (5 direct interpersonal contact.The introduction of the New Approach shows two important bottlenecks in Dutch administrative court proceedings, which are (i the possible or supposed collision between legally right outcomes and  procedural justice and (ii the lack of uniformity and predictability.Although what we describe and discuss in this paper focuses on the Dutch situation, many of these considerations apply to administrative court proceedings in other countries. The themes and difficulties that face the administrative law judge seem to be common to many countries.

  10. Interactive Chemical Reactivity Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Haag, Moritz P; Bosson, Mael; Redon, Stephane; Reiher, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Elucidating chemical reactivity in complex molecular assemblies of a few hundred atoms is, despite the remarkable progress in quantum chemistry, still a major challenge. Black-box search methods to find intermediates and transition-state structures might fail in such situations because of the high-dimensionality of the potential energy surface. Here, we propose the concept of interactive chemical reactivity exploration to effectively introduce the chemist's intuition into the search process. We employ a haptic pointer device with force-feedback to allow the operator the direct manipulation of structures in three dimensions along with simultaneous perception of the quantum mechanical response upon structure modification as forces. We elaborate on the details of how such an interactive exploration should proceed and which technical difficulties need to be overcome. All reactivity-exploration concepts developed for this purpose have been implemented in the Samson programming environment.

  11. EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM (EXAMS): USER MANUAL AND SYSTEM DOCUMENTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Exposure Analysis Modeling System, first published in 1982 (EPA-600/3-82-023), provides interactive computer software for formulating aquatic ecosystem models and rapidly evaluating the fate, transport, and exposure concentrations of synthetic organic chemicals - pesticides, ...

  12. 12 CFR 263.56 - Initial Licensing Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial Licensing Proceedings. 263.56 Section... Licensing Proceedings. Proceedings with respect to applications for initial licenses shall include, but not... initial licensing proceedings, the procedures set forth in subpart A of this part shall apply, except...

  13. Solid state ionics 3. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, volume 293

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazri, Gholam A.; Tarascon, Jean M.; Armand, Michel

    This proceedings volume includes most of the invited and contributed papers presented as Symposium U, Solid State Ionics, at the 1992 MRS Fall meeting in Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. The Symposium covered material aspects of solid state ionics, theory of ion transfer in solids, ionically and electronically conductive polymers and their application in solid state devices, and various in-situ and ex-situ techniques for materials characterization. The first part of this proceedings volume deals with physics and chemistry of insertion compounds and application of these in advanced solid state batteries. The optical and electrochemical properties of insertion compounds are also presented. The second part of the proceedings deals with ionic and electronic conductive polymers. A new class of rubbery phase polymer electrolytes and their structure-conductivity relationship are presented. Physical and chemical properties of polymer electrolytes and electrodes and their application in solid state devices are presented.

  14. Tritium in the Physical and Biological Sciences. V. 1. Proceedings of a Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of tritium for research in physics, chemistry, biology and hydrology has in recent years become increasingly important. It was for this reason that the first international conference to discuss the progress of new developments was organized by the IAEA in conjunction with the Joint Commission on Applied Radioactivity and held from 3-10 May 1961, in Vienna. The first five sessions of the Symposium were devoted to the use of tritium in hydrology, physics and chemistry. Special emphasis was laid on the role of tritium as a tracer in hydrology, especially in the study of water movement. The establishment and improvement of counting and detection techniques to facilitate the application of tritium as a tracer was another aspect discussed in this part of the proceedings. Papers were read on the preparation of tritiated compounds and it was generally agreed that further clarification of the mechanism of various techniques, and of the Wilzbach gas exposure technique in particular, would lead to further developments in the synthesis of a number of tritium compounds important in biology. Other papers were concerned with tritium applications to studies of the mechanism of some chemical reactions together with the effects of tritium isotopes. During the second part of the Symposium the biological applications of tritium and tritiated compounds were discussed. These included general problems connected with the biological uses of tritium and the radiation effects of tritium on living organisms such as viruses, bacteria and cancer cells. The value of tritium in biological studies became apparent because of the ease with which a large number of metabolically active compounds such as hormones, vitamins and other important constituents in the body can be labelled with tritium. Tritium is also a weak beta-emitter and autoradiographie s of tissues and single cells containing tritium-labelled compounds allow an excellent localization of the tracer. The Symposium was attended by

  15. The Olympia Proceedings. Appendix A: Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Psychology Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Networks in urban school psychology, computers in school psychology, social skills development, and innovative in-service are among 15 in educational psychology listed with purposes and participant names and addresses. The networks were formed at the Olympia Proceedings. (CM)

  16. Proceedings of the heavy ion fusion workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, R C [ed.

    1978-01-01

    These proceedings contain reviews of current laboratory programs dealing with inertial fusion driven by beams of heavy ions, as well as several individually abstracted invited talks, workshop reports and contributed papers.

  17. Fourth DOE environmental protection information meeting. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 51 papers included in this proceedings volume for the Energy Data Base (EDB). All are included in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA); eight are included in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA)

  18. Computer vision for biomedical image applications. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the First International Workshop on Computer Vision for Biomedical Image Applications: Current Techniques and Future Trends, CVBIA 2005, held in Beijing, China, in October 2005 within the scope of ICCV 20. (orig.)

  19. Front Matter: Volume 1 (Proceedings of CBU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Hájek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This PDF file contains the front matter associated with CBU Proceedings Volume 1 including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and Conference Committee listing.

  20. Front Matter: Volume 3 (Proceedings of CBU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Hájek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This PDF file contains the front matter associated with CBU Proceedings Volume 1 including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and Conference Committee listing.

  1. Seventh international mining geology conference 2009. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Subjects covered include geological modelling, resource evaluation, underground and open pit grade control, project case studies, geometallurgy and new technologies. The proceedings are also available on CD-ROM (ISBN 978-1-921522-06-2).

  2. Radiation and society: Comprehending radiation risk. V. 2. Poster papers. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This IAEA international conference on Radiation and Society was the first major international meeting devoted to the comprehension of radiation risk, public attitude towards radiation risk and hazards encountered by the general public in contaminated areas. Volume two of the proceedings mainly deals with assessment of radiation exposure levels, radiation health effects, impact of radiation on the environment, perception of and managing radiation risk. Refs, figs, tabs

  3. Proceedings of the 9th annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management 2010 Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the entitled program and proceedings held from December 1st through 3rd of 2010. The sessions including poster, invited/special speeches etc. are exposure reduction and dose level evaluation, shielding design, radioactive waste handling and its effective use, radiation measurement, safety control of radiation source, radioactive waste management (aerosol, liquid), education on radiation, molecular imaging, image analysis, radioactivity in environment, contamination inspection. (J.P.N)

  4. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  5. Workshop on confidence limits. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The First Workshop on Confidence Limits was held at CERN on 17-18 January 2000. It was devoted to the problem of setting confidence limits in difficult cases: number of observed events is small or zero, background is larger than signal, background not well known, and measurements near a physical boundary. Among the many examples in high-energy physics are searches for the Higgs, searches for neutrino oscillations, Bs mixing, SUSY, compositeness, neutrino masses, and dark matter. Several different methods are on the market: the CLs methods used by the LEP Higgs searches; Bayesian methods; Feldman-Cousins and modifications thereof; empirical and combined methods. The Workshop generated considerable interest, and attendance was finally limited by the seating capacity of the CERN Council Chamber where all the sessions took place. These proceedings contain all the papers presented, as well as the full text of the discussions after each paper and of course the last session which was a discussion session. The list of participants and the 'required reading', which was expected to be part of the prior knowledge of all participants, are also included. (orig.)

  6. 19th Radiation Hygiene Days. Conference Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The proceedings consists of a following chapters: (1) Invited presentation; (2) Nuclear accident: management and instrumentation; (3) Low activity in environmental; (4) Radon: sources, doses and effects; (5) Radiation protection in nuclear medicine; (6) Nuclear power plants: radiation safety. (J.K.)

  7. Simultaneous Control of Phenanthrene and Drought by Dual Exposure System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine N.; Holmstrup, Martin; Damgaard, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    and independent control of chemical and drought exposure in bioassays with terrestrial organisms: Passive dosing from silicone controlled the chemical activity of phenanthrene (chemical stress), while saline solutions controlled the water activity (drought stress) in the closed exposure system. The dual exposure...... system was then applied in a full factorial experiment with seven exposure levels (72), which aimed at determining the combined effects of phenanthrene and drought on the survival of the terrestrial springtail Folsomia candida after 7 d exposure. Fitting an "independent action" model to the complete data...... set revealed statistically significant synergy between phenanthrene and drought (p

  8. Nasal cancer and occupational exposures. Preliminary report of a joint Nordic case-referent study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernberg, S; Collan, Y; Degerth, R;

    1983-01-01

    exposure showed a connection with adenocarcinoma. Softwood dust exposure alone was associated with epidermoid and anaplastic carcinomas. No associations were found for a number of exposures, including agricultural chemicals, textile dust, asbestos, quartz dust, organic solvents, and leather work. Possible...

  9. Environmental chemicals and thyroid function: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, M.; Main, K.M.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To overview the effects of endocrine disrupters on thyroid function. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in recent years have revealed thyroid-disrupting properties of many environmentally abundant chemicals. Of special concern is the exposure of pregnant women and infants, as thyroid......, epidemiological and exposure studies indicates that the ubiquitous human and environmental exposure to industrial chemicals may impose a serious threat to human and wildlife thyroid homeostasis. Currently, available evidence suggests that authorities need to regulate exposure to thyroid-disrupting chemicals...

  10. 1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database

  11. 1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

  12. Conference 'Chemistry of hydrides' Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This collection of thesis of conference of Chemistry hydrides presents the results of investigations concerning of base questions of chemistry of nonorganic hydrides, including synthesis questions, studying of physical and chemical properties, thermodynamics, analytical chemistry, investigation of structure, equilibriums in the systems of metal-hydrogen, behaviour of nonorganic hydrides in non-water mediums and applying investigations in the chemistry area and technology of nonorganic hydrides

  13. Proceedings of the Neural Network Workshop for the Hanford Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    These proceedings were generated from a series of presentations made at the Neural Network Workshop for the Hanford Community. The abstracts and viewgraphs of each presentation are reproduced in these proceedings. This workshop was sponsored by the Computing and Information Sciences Department in the Molecular Science Research Center (MSRC) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Artificial neural networks constitute a new information processing technology that is destined within the next few years, to provide the world with a vast array of new products. A major reason for this is that artificial neural networks are able to provide solutions to a wide variety of complex problems in a much simpler fashion than is possible using existing techniques. In recognition of these capabilities, many scientists and engineers are exploring the potential application of this new technology to their fields of study. An artificial neural network (ANN) can be a software simulation, an electronic circuit, optical system, or even an electro-chemical system designed to emulate some of the brain`s rudimentary structure as well as some of the learning processes that are believed to take place in the brain. For a very wide range of applications in science, engineering, and information technology, ANNs offer a complementary and potentially superior approach to that provided by conventional computing and conventional artificial intelligence. This is because, unlike conventional computers, which have to be programmed, ANNs essentially learn from experience and can be trained in a straightforward fashion to carry out tasks ranging from the simple to the highly complex.

  14. 16th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major topics discussed during the Sixteenth DOE Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference were: waste treatment, including volume reduction and storage; system and component response to stress and accident conditions; Three Mile Island accident; iodine adsorption; treatment and storage of noble gas: treatment of offgases from chemical processing; aerosol; behavior; containment venting; laboratory and in-place filter-testing methods; and particulate filtration. Volume I of the Proceedings has 49 papers from the following sessions; HEPA filter test methods; noble gas separation; air cleaning system design; containment venting; iodine adsorption; reprocessing offgas cleaning; critical review; filtration; filter testing; and aerosols. Volume II contains 44 papers from the sessions on: nuclear waste treatment; critical review; noble gas treatment; carbon-14 and tritium; air cleaning system response to stress; nuclear standards and safety; round table; open end; and air cleaning technology at Three Mile Island. Abstracts are provided for all of these papers

  15. 16th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major topics discussed during the Sixteenth DOE Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference were: waste treatment, including volume reduction and storage; system and component response to stress and accident conditions; Three Mile Island accident; iodine adsorption; treatment and storage of noble gas; treatment of offgases from chemical processing; aerosol behavior; containment venting; laboratory and in-place filter-testing methods; and particulate filtration. Volume I of the Proceedings has 49 papers from the following sessions: HEPA filter test methods; noble gas separation; air cleaning system design; containment venting; iodine adsorption; reprocessing offgas cleaning; critical review; filtration, filter testing, and aerosols. Volume II contains 44 papers from the sessions on: nuclear waste treatment; critical review; noble gas treatment; carbon-14 and tritium; air cleaning system response to stress; nuclear standards and safety; round table; open end; and air cleaning technology at Three Mile Island. Abstracts are provided for all of these papers

  16. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Proceedings of the October 3 - 7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Volume 2 contains information on environmental restoration at federal facilities, waste disposal technology, quality assurance, contingency planning and emergency response, decontamination and decommissioning, environmental restoration, and public involvement in waste management

  17. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Proceedings of the October 3-7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics discussed in Volume 4 include site characterization and remediation projects, environmental monitoring and modeling; disposal site selection and facility design, risk assessment, safety and health issues, and site remediation technology

  18. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    These Proceedings of the October 3-7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics included in Volume 1 are Environmental Data Management, Site characterization technology, Wastewater treatment, Waste management in foreign countries, Transuranic waste management, and Groundwater characterization and treatment.

  19. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    These Proceedings of the October 3--7, 1988 DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics discussed in Volume 5 include environmental assessments and program strategies, waste treatment technologies, and regulations and compliance studies.

  20. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Proceedings of the October 3 - 7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics included in Volume 3 include treatment of soils, waste characterization and certification, waste minimization site remediation management plans and programs, and training programs

  1. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Proceedings of the October 3--7, 1988 DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics discussed in Volume 5 include environmental assessments and program strategies, waste treatment technologies, and regulations and compliance studies

  2. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    These Proceedings of the October 3 - 7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics included in Volume 3 include treatment of soils, waste characterization and certification, waste minimization site remediation management plans and programs, and training programs.

  3. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Proceedings of the October 3-7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics included in Volume 1 are Environmental Data Management, Site characterization technology, Wastewater treatment, Waste management in foreign countries, Transuranic waste management, and Groundwater characterization and treatment

  4. 1988 DOE model conference proceedings: Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    These Proceedings of the October 3-7, 1988, DOE Model Conference are a compilation of the papers that were presented in the technical or poster sessions at the conference. Papers and posters not submitted for publication are not included in the Proceedings. The Table of Contents lists the titles of papers as well as the names of the presenters. These individuals are not, in all cases, the primary authors of the papers published. The actual title pages, appearing later with the papers, show the primary author(s) and all co-authors. The papers in all three volumes of the Proceedings appear as they were originally submitted for publication and have not been edited or changed in any way. Topics discussed in Volume 4 include site characterization and remediation projects, environmental monitoring and modeling; disposal site selection and facility design, risk assessment, safety and health issues, and site remediation technology.

  5. Microbial corrosion: 1988 workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licina, G.J. (ed.)

    1989-04-01

    A workshop on Microbial Induced Corrosion was held in Charlotte, North Carolina on October 18, 1988, hosted by the Electric Power Research Institute. The primary objective was to present an authoritative discussion of MIC for dissemination to the electric power generating community. Industry experts discussed fundamental aspects of MIC, methods for destructive and nondestructive examination, and various approaches for the mitigation of MIC damage. Examinations of the electrochemical, microbiological, and local chemical (as influenced by biofilms) aspects of MIC were included in the presentations on fundamental aspects of MIC. The two papers on diagnostic methods discussed advances in electrochemical methods for laboratory studies of MIC and presented guidelines for planning and conducting a detailed chemical, metallurgical, and microbiological analysis of failure sites where MIC is suspected. Cleaning, water treatment, design and operational considerations, and materials selection were each addressed in detail in discussions of methods for the mitigation of MIC. The information exchange provided additional direction to utility personnel and to EPRI for future activities toward the understanding and solution of MIC related problems. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  6. Proceedings of the KNS 2015 Spring Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proceedings contains articles of 2015 spring meeting of the Korean Nuclear Society. It was held on May 6-8 in Jeju, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 11 sessions. The main subject titles of session are as follows: Reactor system technology, Nuclear data, reactor physics and computational science, Radioactive waste management, Nuclear fuel and materials, Thermal hydraulics and safety, Radiation utilization and protection, Quantum engineering and nuclear fusion, Nuclear power plant construction and operation technology, Nuclear policy, human resources and cooperation, Nuclear I and C and automatic remote systems, Competition Session. (Yi, J. H.)

  7. Proceedings of the KNS 2015 Spring Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-05-15

    This proceedings contains articles of 2015 spring meeting of the Korean Nuclear Society. It was held on May 6-8 in Jeju, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 11 sessions. The main subject titles of session are as follows: Reactor system technology, Nuclear data, reactor physics and computational science, Radioactive waste management, Nuclear fuel and materials, Thermal hydraulics and safety, Radiation utilization and protection, Quantum engineering and nuclear fusion, Nuclear power plant construction and operation technology, Nuclear policy, human resources and cooperation, Nuclear I and C and automatic remote systems, Competition Session. (Yi, J. H.)

  8. Proceedings: National conference on environmental externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the proceedings of the National Conference on Environmental Externalities. A environmental externality is the environmental impact of a process or a plant that society must endure. It is a social cost and is paid, but not by the company who produced it or the company's customers who endure it. The main purpose of this report is to gather the many designs and ideas of how and why to internalize the externalities into the pricing systems of the public utility commissions, especially that of the electric utilities. Economic and sociological aspects of the internalization of these externalities are given in these proceedings. Individual papers are processed separately for databases. (MB)

  9. Symposium on irradiation for national development. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the full proceedings of the symposium on irradiation for national development held at SHESTCO in 1996. It contains the full texts of a forward, opening and special remarks, welcome and keynote addresses and abstracts and texts of 23 technical papers. The subjects covered included regulations, codes of practice, irradiation technology in food, agriculture and industry, radiation protection and dosimetry. The questions, answers and comments in the discussion sessions are also included. Additionally, the abstracts of 8 other papers are included. We wish to thank the Coordinator of SHESTCO for making available this proceedings

  10. Proceedings of the KNS 2015 Fall Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-10-15

    This proceedings contains articles of 2015 fall meeting of the Korean Nuclear Society. It was held on October 28-30 in Kyungju, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 11 sessions. The main subject titles of session are as follows: Reactor system technology, Reactor physics and computational science, Radioactive waste management, Nuclear fuel and materials, Thermal hydraulics and safety, Radiation utilization and protection, Quantum engineering and nuclear fusion, Nuclear power plant construction and operation technology, Nuclear policy, human resources and cooperation, Nuclear I and C and automatic remote systems, Competition Session. (Yi, J. H.)

  11. RHIC spin physics: Proceedings. Volume 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proceedings compiles one-page summaries and five transparencies for each talk, with the intention that the speaker should include a web location for additional information in the summary. Also, email addresses are given with the participant list. The order follows the agenda: gluon, polarimetry, accelerator, W production and quark/antiquark polarization, parity violation searches, transversity, single transverse spin, small angle elastic scattering, and the final talk on ep collisions at RHIC. The authors begin the Proceedings with the full set of transparencies from Bob Jaffe's colloquium on spin, by popular request

  12. Isotope hydrology 1983. Proceedings of a symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain the papers and poster presentations from the Symposium on Isotope Hydrology held 12-16 September 1983 in Vienna, Austria. The topics of the sessions were as follows: Thermal water studies, groundwater dating, hydrology of arid and semi-arid areas, field studies with environmental isotopes, precipitation-surface-groundwater relationships, pollution, artificial tracers and sediment transport. Twenty poster presentations in English have been indexed here separately. All other articles from this Proceedings Series are available under ISBN 92-0-040087-6

  13. RHIC spin physics: Proceedings. Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This proceedings compiles one-page summaries and five transparencies for each talk, with the intention that the speaker should include a web location for additional information in the summary. Also, email addresses are given with the participant list. The order follows the agenda: gluon, polarimetry, accelerator, W production and quark/antiquark polarization, parity violation searches, transversity, single transverse spin, small angle elastic scattering, and the final talk on ep collisions at RHIC. The authors begin the Proceedings with the full set of transparencies from Bob Jaffe`s colloquium on spin, by popular request.

  14. Proceedings of hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the 1980s witnessed a concentrated effort toward identifying the scientific concerns associated with hydrocarbon contaminated soils, the 1990s offer the hope that even more reliable solutions, both scientific and regulatory, will emerge. The hope for this transition from problem identification to problems solution is evident in these papers from the 5th Annual Conference on Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils (formerly called Petroleum Contaminated Soils), as the presentations more clearly reflect the maturation of a rapidly evolving field in the areas of chemical analysis, fate, remediation, public health, and regulatory evaluation. This book attempts to address the multidimensional facets of soil contamination by providing various current general perspectives as well as those from the regulatory and the international communities. Technical information is also provided in specific contamination areas such as diesel fuel, as well as analysis and site assessment, remediation, risk assessment, and management

  15. 29 CFR 501.36 - Caption of proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT Administrative Proceedings Rules of Practice § 501.36 Caption of proceeding... Administrator shall be identified as plaintiff and the person requesting such hearing shall be named...

  16. 7 CFR 3565.206 - Ineligible uses of loan proceeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... not affixed to the real estate, such as special portable equipment, furnishings, kitchen ware, dining... uses of loan proceeds. Loan proceeds must not be used for the following: (a) Specialized equipment...

  17. Assessment of the neurotoxic potential of exposure to 50Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) in naïve and chemically stressed PC12 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Martje W G D M; Kock, Marjolijn D M; Westerink, Remco H S

    2014-01-01

    Increasing exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF), generated by power lines and electric appliances, raises concern about potential adverse health effects of ELF-EMF. The central nervous system is expected to be particularly vulnerable to ELF-EMF as its function strongl

  18. Occupational exposure and urological cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golka, Klaus; Wiese, Andreas; Assennato, Giorgio; Bolt, Hermann M

    2004-02-01

    Occupational exposure is definitely a major cause of cancer. In the field of urology, the urinary bladder is the most important target. A classical cause of bladder cancer is exposure to carcinogenic aromatic amines, especially benzidine and beta-naphthylamine. Such exposures were related to work places in the chemical industry, implying production and processing of classical aromatic amines, and in the rubber industry. Occupational bladder cancer has also been observed in dyers, painters and hairdressers. Even some occupations with much lower exposures to carcinogenic aromatic amines, like coke oven workers or workers in the rubber industry after the ban on beta-naphthylamine, are at risk. In these occupations, exposure to complex mixtures of substances containing combustion products (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) or nitrosamines is common. Renal cell cancer has been observed as an occupational disease in cases of very high exposure to trichloroethylene having led to narcotic or prenarcotic symptoms. Occupationally related cancers of the prostate or the testes appear currently not relevant.

  19. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made. PMID:25284196

  20. Environmental source of arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made.

  1. MODELING A MIXTURE: PBPK/PD APPROACHES FOR PREDICTING CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since environmental chemical exposures generally involve multiple chemicals, there are both regulatory and scientific drivers to develop methods to predict outcomes of these exposures. Even using efficient statistical and experimental designs, it is not possible to test in vivo a...

  2. International Energy and Environmental Congress: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This document contains information presented at the International Energy and Environmental Congress `93 proceedings. Symposiums included demand-side management strategic directions; federal energy management; corporate energy management; and pollution control technologies. Individual reports from the symposiums are processed separately for the data bases.

  3. Proceedings of the conference on radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 32 contributions, the majority of which deal with ecological impacts of the Chernobyl accident. The conference was divided into 3 sessions, viz. Modeling of the Radionuclide Transport in the Environment; Transport of Radionuclides in Food Chains; and Instruments and Systems for Monitoring of Radioactivity. (B.S.)

  4. Nuclear Energy in Central Europe 98, Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional Meeting for Nuclear Energy in Central Europe is an annual meeting of the Nuclear Society of Slovenia. The proceedings contain 63 articles from Slovenia, sorounding countries and countries of the Central and Eastern European Region. Topics are: Research Reactors, Nuclear Methods, Reactor Physics, Thermal Hydraulics, Structural Analysis, Probabilistic Safety Assessment, Severe Accidents, NPP Operation and Nuclear Waste disposal

  5. Indian Child Welfare Act Proceedings. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    This final rule adds a new subpart to the Department of the Interior's (Department) regulations implementing the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA), to improve ICWA implementation. The final rule addresses requirements for State courts in ensuring implementation of ICWA in Indian child-welfare proceedings and requirements for States to maintain records under ICWA.

  6. Procedural Justice in Dutch Administrative Law Proceedings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, André; Schueler, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss recent developments in administrative court proceedings in the Netherlands, called the New Approach. Along with developments leading to the New Approach, it became clear that the insights from research on procedural justice deserve particular attention. The goals of the judg

  7. Isotope hydrology 1970. Proceedings of a symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain the papers from the Symposium on Isotope Hydrology held 9-13 March 1970 in Vienna, Austria. The topics of the sessions were as follows: Thermal water studies, groundwater dating, hydrology of arid and semi-arid areas, field studies with environmental isotopes, precipitation-surface-groundwater relationships, pollution, artificial tracers and sediment transport

  8. 4 CFR 28.133 - Stay proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stay proceedings. 28.133 Section 28.133 Accounts... request shall be in writing and shall specify the nature of the action to be stayed and the basis for the... alleged prohibited personnel practice as specified by the Board's General Counsel; (2) Assess the...

  9. 7 CFR 1.183 - Proceedings covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Act of 1937 (7 U.S.C. 608c(15)(A)) Animal Health Protection Act, sections 10414 and 10415 (7 U.S.C. 8313 and 8314). Animal Quarantine Laws (21 U.S.C. 104, 117, 122, 127, 134e, and 135a) Animal Welfare... Equal Access to Justice Act in Proceedings Before the Department General Provisions § 1.183...

  10. Hawking radiation conference, book of proceedings

    CERN Document Server

    Mersini-Houghton, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Proceedings of the 'Hawking Radiation' conference in Stockholm, Sweden 2015. It includes a link to the video recording of the conference and all the talks, discussions, and communications, that took place during the week of the conference . We hope the recorded discussions will be helpful, especially to the current and future young researchers and students.

  11. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-12-31

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  12. Fusion energy 2002. 19th conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This CD-ROM contains the proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Fusion energy 2002, held in Lyon, France, on 14-19 October 2002. The CD-Rom contains HTML files for navigation via WEB brouser, the papers in PDF and Acrobat Reader 5 for Windows, Mac-OS and UNIX

  13. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  14. Light Meson Dynamics Workshop. Mini proceedings

    CERN Document Server

    Bijnens, J; Fang, S; Giovannella, S; Gradl, W; Hanhart, C; Leupold, B Kubis S; Lutz, M F M; Masjuan, P; Moussallam, B; Nieser, A; Oset, E; Ostrick, M; Pelaez, J R; Scherer, S; Švarc, A; Unverzagt, M; Wanke, R; Wolke, M

    2014-01-01

    The mini-proceedings of the Light Meson Dynamics Workshop held in Mainz from February 10th to 12th, 2014, are presented. The web page of the conference, which contains all talks, can be found at https://indico.cern.ch/event/287442/overview .

  15. Children's Rights and Child Custody Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jessica; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Analyzed 160 contested child custody cases to explore the role of children and determine the extent to which judges use discretionary powers. Results suggested children rarely provide any direct input into divorce/custody proceedings, questioning whether judges fulfill their duty to determine the child's best interests in such cases. (JAC)

  16. Intergas `95: International unconventional gas symposium. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The International Unconventional Gas Symposium was held on May 14--20, 1995 in Tuscaloosa, Alabama where 52 reports were presented. These reports are grouped in this proceedings under: geology and resources; mine degasification and safety; international developments; reservoir characterization/coal science; and environmental/legal and regulatory. Each report has been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Occupational exposure to potential endocrine disruptors: further development of a job exposure matrix.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Tongeren, M. van; Hirst, A.A.; Bretveld, R.W.; Roeleveld, N.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim was to develop a new up-to-date and comprehensive job exposure matrix (JEM) for estimating exposure to potential endocrine disruptors in epidemiological research. METHODS: Chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties were identified from the literature and classified into 10 ch

  18. Impacts of climate change on indirect human exposure to pathogens and chemicals from agriculture Impactos das mudanças climáticas sobre a exposição humana indireta a elementos patogênicos e químicos da agricultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Boxall

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is likely to affect the nature of pathogens/ chemicals in the environment and their fate and transport. We assess the implications of climate change for changes in human exposures to pathogens/chemicals in agricultural systems in the UK and discuss the effects on health impacts, using expert input and literature on climate change; health effects from exposure to pathogens/chemicals arising from agriculture; inputs of chemicals/pathogens to agricultural systems; and human exposure pathways for pathogens/chemicals in agricultural systems. We established the evidence base for health effects of chemicals/pathogens in the agricultural environment; determined the potential implications of climate change on chemical/pathogen inputs in agricultural systems; and explored the effects of climate change on environmental transport and fate of various contaminants. We merged data to assess the implications of climate change in terms of indirect human exposure to pathogens/chemicals in agricultural systems, and defined recommendations on future research and policy changes to manage adverse increases in risks.É provável que a mudança climática afete a natureza, destino e transporte de elementos patogênicos/químicos no ambiente . Avaliamos as implicações das mudanças climáticas em mudanças na exposição humana a elementos patogênicos/químicos nos sistemas agrícolas no Reino Unido e discutimos os efeitos sobre os impactos à saúde, usando a contribuição de especialistas e literatura; efeitos à saúde da exposição a elementos patogênicos/químicos provenientes da agricultura; introdução de elementos químicos/patogênicos e caminhos de exposição humana a elementos patogênicos/químicos nos sistemas agrícolas. Definimos a base de evidência para efeitos de saúde de elementos químicos/patogênicos no ambiente agrícola; determinamos as possíveis implicações da mudança climática na introdução de elementos qu

  19. 39 CFR 3001.18 - Nature of proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nature of proceedings. 3001.18 Section 3001.18 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules of General Applicability § 3001.18 Nature of proceedings. (a) Proceedings to be set for hearing. Except as...

  20. 14 CFR 303.44 - Show cause proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Show cause proceedings. 303.44 Section 303... cause proceedings. If the Assistant Secretary determines that an application, or review of a previously granted application, will be considered in a show cause proceeding, a tentative decision shall be...