WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical engineering approach

  1. Engineering electrical properties of graphene: chemical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Jin; Kim, Yuna; Novoselov, Konstantin; Hong, Byung Hee

    2015-12-01

    To ensure the high performance of graphene-based devices, it is necessary to engineer the electrical properties of graphene with enhanced conductivity, controlled work function, opened or closed bandgaps, etc. This can be performed by various non-covalent chemical approaches, including molecular adsorption, substrate-induced doping, polymerization on graphene, deposition of metallic thin films or nanoparticles, etc. In addition, covalent approaches such as the substitution of carbon atoms with boron or nitrogen and the functionalization with hydrogen or fluorine are useful to tune the bandgaps more efficiently, with better uniformity and stability. In this review, representative examples of chemically engineered graphene and its device applications will be reviewed, and remaining challenges will be discussed.

  2. Approaches to Learning in a Second Year Chemical Engineering Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jennifer M.; Gunstone, Richard F.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates student approaches to learning in a second year chemical engineering course by means of a qualitative research project which utilized interview and journal data from a group of 11 students. Identifies three approaches to learning: (1) conceptual; (2) algorithmic; and (3) information-based. Presents student responses to a series of…

  3. Chemical-Engineering Approach for Evaluation of Vapour Permeation Data.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláková, Zuzana; Morávková, Lenka; Vejražka, Jiří; Izák, Pavel

    Ozarow Mazowiecki: Nobell Compressing sp. z o.o, 2015 - (Kosinsky, K.; Urbanczyk, M.; Žerko, S.), E-026 ISBN N. [Euromembrane Conference 2015. Aachen (DE), 06.09.2015-10.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14094 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : organic vapour permeation * membrane separation * chemical-engineering model Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  4. An Alternative Educational Approach for an Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Course in Industrial and Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Andres; Sanchez-Barba, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    We describe an alternative educational approach for an inorganic chemistry laboratory module named "Experimentation in Chemistry", which is included in Industrial Engineering and Chemical Engineering courses. The main aims of the new approach were to reduce the high levels of failure and dropout on the module and to make the content match the…

  5. An approach in building a chemical compound search engine in oracle database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Volarath, P; Harrison, R

    2005-01-01

    A searching or identifying of chemical compounds is an important process in drug design and in chemistry research. An efficient search engine involves a close coupling of the search algorithm and database implementation. The database must process chemical structures, which demands the approaches to represent, store, and retrieve structures in a database system. In this paper, a general database framework for working as a chemical compound search engine in Oracle database is described. The framework is devoted to eliminate data type constrains for potential search algorithms, which is a crucial step toward building a domain specific query language on top of SQL. A search engine implementation based on the database framework is also demonstrated. The convenience of the implementation emphasizes the efficiency and simplicity of the framework. PMID:17282834

  6. Fundamentals of chemical reaction engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate for a one-semester undergraduate or first-year graduate course, this text introduces the quantitative treatment of chemical reaction engineering. It covers both homogeneous and heterogeneous reacting systems and examines chemical reaction engineering as well as chemical reactor engineering. The authors take a chemical approach, helping students develop an intuitive feeling for concepts, rather than an engineering approach, which tends to overlook the inner workings of systems and objects.Each chapter contains numerous worked-out problems and real-world vignettes involving commercia

  7. A new approach for the column apparatuses modeling in chemical and power engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doichinova Maria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The column apparatuses are main devices for solution of technological and ecological problems in chemical and power engineering. A new approach of the column apparatuses modeling on the base of the physical approximations of the mechanics of continua, using two steps models: convection-diffusion type of model (for qualitative analysis and average concentration model (for quantitative analysis, is presented. The convection-diffusion type of models describe chemical and mass transfer processes in column apparatuses in the cases of one, two ore three phases systems, where the solid phase is reagent, catalytic or packed bad. A qualitative analysis of these models, using generalized (dimensionless variables, where the characteristic (inherent scales are the maximal or average values of the variables, is presented. The using of the convection-diffusion type of models for quantitative analysis of the processes in column apparatuses is not possible because the velocity function in the convection-diffusion equation is unknown. The problem can be avoided if the average values of the velocity and concentration over the cross-sectional area of the column are used. The average concentration models permit to analyze the effect of the radial nonuniformities of the velocity and the concentration on the process efficiency in the column and to solve the scale-up problem. The convection-diffusion type of models are presented as a base for to be created convection and diffusion type of models.

  8. Equilibrium Chemical Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, Tatsuo; Sasa, Shin-ichi

    1997-01-01

    An equilibrium reversible cycle with a certain engine to transduce the energy of any chemical reaction into mechanical energy is proposed. The efficiency for chemical energy transduction is also defined so as to be compared with Carnot efficiency. Relevance to the study of protein motors is discussed. KEYWORDS: Chemical thermodynamics, Engine, Efficiency, Molecular machine.

  9. Nanotechnology for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Salaheldeen Elnashaie, Said; Hashemipour Rafsanjani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic principles of transforming nano-technology into nano-engineering with a particular focus on chemical engineering fundamentals. This book provides vital information about differences between descriptive technology and quantitative engineering for students as well as working professionals in various fields of nanotechnology. Besides chemical engineering principles, the fundamentals of nanotechnology are also covered along with detailed explanation of several specific nanoscale processes from chemical engineering point of view. This information is presented in form of practical examples and case studies that help the engineers and researchers to integrate the processes which can meet the commercial production. It is worth mentioning here that, the main challenge in nanostructure and nanodevices production is nowadays related to the economic point of view. The uniqueness of this book is a balance between important insights into the synthetic methods of nano-structures and nanomaterial...

  10. Introducing Statistical Experimental Designs to Chemical and Industrial Engineering Using Collaborative and Problem Based Learning Approach

    OpenAIRE

    González Fernández, Camino

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the use of the Collaborative and Problem Based- Project Based Learning (PBL) methodology in a Statistical Experimental Design course for Chemical and Industrial Engineering students at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM). The objetives, motivation, and the roles of the teacher and the students in the classroom to get a better understanding of the concepts and examples are explained in detail. Since 2000, there exists in our univesity (UPM) the aim to adapt the c...

  11. A systems engineering approach to manage the complexity in sustainable chemical product-process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    This paper provides a perspective on model-data based solution approaches for chemical product-process design, which consists of finding the identity of the candidate chemical product, designing the process that can sustainably manufacture it and verifying the performance of the product during...... application. The chemical product tree is potentially very large and a wide range of options exist for selecting the product to make, the raw material to use as well as the processing route to employ. It is shown that systematic computer-aided methods and tools integrated within a model-data based design...... framework can manage the complexity associated with product-process problems very efficiently. Three specific computer-aided tools (ICAS, Sustain-Pro and VPPDLab) have been presented and their applications to product-process design, highlighted....

  12. Applied chemical engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tassios, Dimitrios P

    1993-01-01

    Applied Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics provides the undergraduate and graduate student of chemical engineering with the basic knowledge, the methodology and the references he needs to apply it in industrial practice. Thus, in addition to the classical topics of the laws of thermodynamics,pure component and mixture thermodynamic properties as well as phase and chemical equilibria the reader will find: - history of thermodynamics - energy conservation - internmolecular forces and molecular thermodynamics - cubic equations of state - statistical mechanics. A great number of calculated problems with solutions and an appendix with numerous tables of numbers of practical importance are extremely helpful for applied calculations. The computer programs on the included disk help the student to become familiar with the typical methods used in industry for volumetric and vapor-liquid equilibria calculations.

  13. A critical Action Research approach to curriculum development in a laboratory-based chemical engineering course

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Scott R.

    This dissertation is a report of an attempt to critically evaluate a novel laboratory course from within the context of a chemical engineering curriculum. The research was done in a college classroom-laboratory setting, entrenched in the everydayness of classroom activities. All of the students, instructors, and educational researchers were knowing participants in this Action Research study. The students, a mixture of juniors, seniors, & graduate students, worked together on semester-long projects in groups that were mixed by age, gender and academic level. Qualitative techniques were used to gather different forms of representations of the students and instructors' experiences. Emergent patterns from the data gave strength to emergent knowledge claims that informed the instructors and the researcher about what the students were learning about performing experimental work and communicating results with their peers and instructor. The course challenged and in some cases changed the conceptions of instruction previously held by the students and the instructors. The course did not proceed without problems, yet the majority of these problems were overcome by the design of the course. Assertions and recommendations for improvement and application to other educational contexts are suggested.

  14. Chemical Engineering in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmeyer, Dennis A.; Meneghelli, Barry; Steinrock, Todd (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The aerospace industry has long been perceived as the domain of both physicists and mechanical engineers. This perception has endured even though the primary method of providing the thrust necessary to launch a rocket into space is chemical in nature. The chemical engineering and chemistry personnel behind the systems that provide access to space have labored in the shadows of the physicists and mechanical engineers. As exploration into the cosmos moves farther away from Earth, there is a very distinct need for new chemical processes to help provide the means for advanced space exploration. The state of the art in launch systems uses chemical propulsion systems, primarily liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, to provide the energy necessary to achieve orbit. As we move away from Earth, there are additional options for propulsion. Unfortunately, few of these options can compare to the speed or ease of use provided by the chemical propulsion agents. It is with great care and significant cost that gaseous compounds such as hydrogen and oxygen are liquefied and become dense enough to use for rocket fuel. These low-temperature liquids fall within a specialty area known as cryogenics. Cryogenics, the science and art of producing cold operating conditions for use on Earth, in orbit, or on some other nonterrestrial body, has become increasingly important to our ability to travel within our solar system. The production of cryogenic fuels and the long-term storage of these fluids are necessary for travel. As our explorations move farther away from Earth, we need to address how to produce the necessary fuels to make a round-trip. The cost and the size of these expeditions are extreme at best. If we take everything necessary for our survival for the round-trip, we invalidate any chance of travel in the near future. As with the early explorers on Earth, we need to harvest much of our energy and our life support from the celestial bodies. The in situ production of these energy

  15. PARTICLE METHODS FOR COMPLEX FLOWS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING--THE PSEUDO-PARTICLE APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei; GE; Jinghai; LI

    2005-01-01

    The multi-scale structures of complex flows in chemical engineering have been great challenges to the design and scaling of such systems, and multi-scale modeling is the natural way in response. Particle methods (PMs) are ideal constituents and powerful tools of multi-scale models, owing to their physical fidelity and computational simplicity. Especially,pseudo-particle modeling (PPM, Ge & Li, 1996; Ge & Li, 2003) is most suitable for molecular scale flow prediction and exploration of the origin of multi-scale structures; macro-scale PPM (MaPPM, Ge & Li, 2001) and similar models are advantageous for meso-scale simulations of flows with complex and dynamic discontinuity, while the lattice Boltzmann model is more competent for homogeneous media in complex geometries; and meso-scale methods such as dissipative particle dynamics are unique tools for complex fluids of uncertain properties or flows with strong thermal fluctuations. All these methods are favorable for seamless interconnection of models for different scales.However, as PMs are not originally designed as either tools for complexity or constituents of multi-scale models, further improvements are expected. PPM is proposed for microscopic simulation of particle-fluid systems as a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) and direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC). The collision dynamics in PPM is identical to that of hard-sphere MD, so that mass, momentum and energy are conserved to machine accuracy. However, the collision detection procedure, which is most time-consuming and difficult to be parallelized for hard-sphere MD, has been greatly simplified to a procedure identical to that of soft-sphere MD. Actually, the physical model behind such a treatment is essentially different from MD and is more similar to DSMC, but an intrinsic difference is that in DSMC the collisions follow designed statistical rules that are reflection of the real physical processes only in very limited cases such as dilute gas.PPM is ideal

  16. Introduction to chemical reaction engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This deals with chemical reaction engineering with thirteen chapters. The contents of this book are introduction on reaction engineering, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics and chemical reaction, abnormal reactor, non-isothermal reactor, nonideal reactor, catalysis in nonuniform system, diffusion and reaction in porosity catalyst, design catalyst heterogeneous reactor in solid bed, a high molecule polymerization, bio reaction engineering, reaction engineering in material process, control multi-variable reactor process using digital computer.

  17. Projects elaboration, a didactics approach for the chemical engineering final course students; Elaboracao de projetos, uma abordagem didatica para alunos de final de curso de engenharia quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Marco Antonio Gaya de; Ricardo Izidoro [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Operacoes e Projetos Industriais]. E-mail: mgaya@uerj.br; Costa, Joao Manuel da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the adopted approach by the Department of Industrial Operations and Projects of the Institute of Chemistry in the graduation course Design II, where a group of chemical engineering students elaborates a project to finish their graduation. The differential of our proposal consists in the integration of the previous chemical engineering courses (e.g. heat transfer, unit operations, etc.) and to take the student to an activity with a structure similar to those found in the engineering companies, with large application in the oil and gas industries, especially in the petroleum processing and refining. (author)

  18. Modeling in Chemical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap van Brakel

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Models underlying the use of similarity considerations, dimensionless numbers, and dimensional analysis in chemical engineering are discussed. Special attention is given to the many levels at which models and ceteris paribus conditions play a role and to the modeling of initial and boundary conditions. It is shown that both the laws or dimensionless number correlations and the systems to which they apply are models. More generally, no matter which model or description one picks out, what is being modeled is itself a model of something else. Instead of saying that the artifact S models the given B, it is therefore better to say that S and B jointly make up B and S.

  19. Teaching and Learning in Chemical Product Engineering - an Evolving par of the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigild, Martin Etchells; Kiil, Søren; Wesselingh, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    helping the individual to become more assertive and understanding of personal assets. These teaching elements included in Chemical Product Engineering represent a series of general issues in Chemical Engineering Education, which must be discussed as the education is going to adapt to the changes of the......Over the last decade Chemical Product Engineering has evolved as part of the Chemical Engineering Curriculum at several universities in Europe and America. At the DTU Chemical Product Engineering was introduced in 2000. This presentation will report on the experiences gained from teaching classes...... and preparing a text book on the subject. [1] Chemical Product Engineering is solidly based on chemical technical and engineering knowledge. Furthermore, the subject naturally calls for a holistic approach to teaching and learning and introduces elements which target transferable and professional...

  20. Engineering students' sustainability approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.

    2014-05-01

    Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The empirical base of the article is a nation-wide, web-based survey sent to all newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark commencing their education in the fall term 2010. The response rate was 46%. The survey focused on a variety of different aspects of what can be conceived as sustainability. By means of cluster analysis, three engineering student approaches to sustainability are identified and described. The article provides knowledge on the different prerequisites of engineering students in relation to the role of sustainability in engineering. This information is important input to educators trying to target new engineering students and contribute to the provision of engineers equipped to meet sustainability challenges.

  1. Teaching Chemical Engineers about Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Daniel E.; Hoy, Mary; Rathman, James F.; Rohdieck, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department at The Ohio State University in collaboration with the University Center for the Advancement of Teaching developed the Chemical Engineering Mentored Teaching Experience. The Mentored Teaching Experience is an elective for Ph.D. students interested in pursuing faculty careers. Participants are…

  2. Thermodynamics an engineering approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cengel, Yunus A

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach, eighth edition, covers the basic principles of thermodynamics while presenting a wealth of real-world engineering examples so students get a feel for how thermodynamics is applied in engineering practice. This text helps students develop an intuitive understanding by emphasizing the physics and physical arguments. Cengel and Boles explore the various facets of thermodynamics through careful explanations of concepts and use of numerous practical examples and figures, having students develop necessary skills to bridge the gap between knowledge and the confidence to properly apply their knowledge. McGraw-Hill is proud to offer Connect with the eighth edition of Cengel/Boles, Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach. This innovative and powerful new system helps your students learn more efficiently and gives you the ability to assign homework problems simply and easily. Problems are graded automatically, and the results are recorded immediately. Track individual stude...

  3. Milestones of Chemical Engineering Development in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hraste, M.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Solving important problems of chemical and process industries stimulated the creation of a new scientific discipline, chemical engineering, which apart from other disciplines includes firm theoretical foundations, core subjects taught to entering students, widely adopted textbooks and journals. The new discipline, at the beginning of the 20th century, provided a way of analyzing the wide variety of processes in terms of small "unit operations". Later, the largely empirical approach of the unit operations was broadened by molecular explanations of macroscopic phenomena. It was not long before chemical engineering extended the operation approach to chemical reaction engineering. At the same time, process optimization prompted the system approach. Instead of looking for details, higher levels of organization were recognized by synthesis. The use of computers has become the key element in process modeling and control. The methods of chemical engineering have extended to other fields, while the discipline keeps the same basis and characteristics.The changes on the global market stimulate new trends in research and education. Product development has become an important segment of the discipline, which presumes an integrated approach to the phenomena and processes at different time and length levels following the possible transfer from molecule to product at process level.This paper mainly deals with the development of this discipline in Croatia, with a preview of the persons that contributed to the acceptance and propagation of the new concepts.

  4. Engineering approaches to immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Melody A; Hirosue, Sachiko; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

    2012-08-22

    As the science of immunology grows increasingly mechanistic, motivation for developing quantitative, design-based engineering approaches has also evolved, both for therapeutic interventions and for elucidating immunological pathways in human disease. This has seeded the nascent field of "immunoengineering," which seeks to apply engineering analyses and design approaches to problems in translational immunology. For example, cell engineers are creating ways to tailor and use immune cells as living therapeutics; protein engineers are devising new methods of rapid antibody discovery; biomaterials scientists are guiding vaccine delivery and immune-cell activation with novel constructs; and systems immunologists are deciphering the evolution and maintenance of T and B cell receptor repertoires, which could help guide vaccine design. The field is multidisciplinary and collaborative, with engineers and immunologists working together to better understand and treat disease. We discuss the scientific progress in this young, yet rapidly evolving research area, which has yielded numerous start-up companies that are betting on impact in clinical and commercial translation in the near future. PMID:22914624

  5. Milestones of Chemical Engineering Development in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Hraste, M.

    2007-01-01

    Solving important problems of chemical and process industries stimulated the creation of a new scientific discipline, chemical engineering, which apart from other disciplines includes firm theoretical foundations, core subjects taught to entering students, widely adopted textbooks and journals. The new discipline, at the beginning of the 20th century, provided a way of analyzing the wide variety of processes in terms of small "unit operations". Later, the largely empirical approach of the uni...

  6. Homogenization approach in engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homogenization is an approach which studies the macrobehavior of a medium by its microproperties. Problems with a microstructure play an essential role in such fields as mechanics, chemistry, physics, and reactor engineering. Attention is concentrated on a simple specific model problem to illustrate results and problems typical of the homogenization approach. Only the diffusion problem is treated here, but some statements are made about the elasticity of composite materials. The differential equation is solved for linear cases with and without boundaries and for the nonlinear case. 3 figures, 1 table

  7. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports

  8. Chemical Engineering Students: A Distinct Group among Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Allison; Potvin, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores differences between chemical engineering students and students of other engineering disciplines, as identified by their intended college major. The data used in this analysis was taken from the nationally representative Sustainability and Gender in Engineering (SaGE) survey. Chemical engineering students differ significantly…

  9. Chemical-text hybrid search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingyao; Zhou, Bin; Jiang, Shumei; King, Frederick J

    2010-01-01

    As the amount of chemical literature increases, it is critical that researchers be enabled to accurately locate documents related to a particular aspect of a given compound. Existing solutions, based on text and chemical search engines alone, suffer from the inclusion of "false negative" and "false positive" results, and cannot accommodate diverse repertoire of formats currently available for chemical documents. To address these concerns, we developed an approach called Entity-Canonical Keyword Indexing (ECKI), which converts a chemical entity embedded in a data source into its canonical keyword representation prior to being indexed by text search engines. We implemented ECKI using Microsoft Office SharePoint Server Search, and the resultant hybrid search engine not only supported complex mixed chemical and keyword queries but also was applied to both intranet and Internet environments. We envision that the adoption of ECKI will empower researchers to pose more complex search questions that were not readily attainable previously and to obtain answers at much improved speed and accuracy. PMID:20047295

  10. Results of the 2010 Survey on Teaching Chemical Reaction Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, David L.; Vigeant, Margot A. S.

    2012-01-01

    A survey of faculty teaching the chemical reaction engineering course or sequence during the 2009-2010 academic year at chemical engineering programs in the United States and Canada reveals change in terms of content, timing, and approaches to teaching. The report consists of two parts: first, a statistical and demographic characterization of the…

  11. Optimal control for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Upreti, Simant Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control for Chemical Engineers gives a detailed treatment of optimal control theory that enables readers to formulate and solve optimal control problems. With a strong emphasis on problem solving, the book provides all the necessary mathematical analyses and derivations of important results, including multiplier theorems and Pontryagin's principle.The text begins by introducing various examples of optimal control, such as batch distillation and chemotherapy, and the basic concepts of optimal control, including functionals and differentials. It then analyzes the notion of optimality, de

  12. A Case Study of Search Engine on World Wide Web for Chemical Fiber Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利; 邵世煌; 曾献辉; 尹美华

    2001-01-01

    Search engine is an effective approach to promote the service quality of the World Wide Web. On terms of the analysis of search engines at home and abroad, the developing principle of search engines is given according to the requirement of Web information for chemical fiber engineering. The implementation method for the communication and dynamic refreshment of information on home page of the search engines are elaborated by using programming technology of Active Server Page 3.0 (ASP3.0). The query of chemical fiber information and automatic linking of chemical fiber Web sites can be easily realized by the developed search engine under Internet environment according to users' requirement.

  13. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dixon

    2004-04-26

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  14. A New Paradigm for Chemical Engineering?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    system boundary under investigation? A fundamental rethinking of how to identify the needed chemicals based products and how to design, build and operate the corresponding production units, is necessary. Indeed, the chemical industry today is changed from the chemical industry of forty years ago. Clear...... evidence of this change comes from the jobs taken by graduating chemical engineering professionals in North America, Europe, and some of the Asian countries. In terms of where the graduating chemical engineers are going to work, a clear shift from the commodity chemical industry to the product oriented...... businesses has been observed. There is an increasing trend within the chemical industry to focus on products and the sustainable processes that can make them. Do these changes point to a paradigm shift in chemical engineering as a discipline? Historically, two previous paradigm shifts in chemical engineering...

  15. Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications focuses on nonlinear phenomena that are common in the engineering field. The nonlinear approaches described in this book provide a sound theoretical base and practical tools to design and analyze engineering systems with high efficiency and accuracy and with less energy and downtime. Presented here are nonlinear approaches in areas such as dynamic systems, optimal control and approaches in nonlinear dynamics and acoustics. Coverage encompasses a wide range of applications and fields including mathematical modeling and nonlinear behavior as applied to microresonators, nanotechnologies, nonlinear behavior in soil erosion,nonlinear population dynamics, and optimization in reducing vibration and noise as well as vibration in triple-walled carbon nanotubes. This book also: Provides a complete introduction to nonlinear behavior of systems and the advantages of nonlinearity as a tool for solving engineering problems Includes applications and examples drawn from the el...

  16. Diakoptical Approach in Telecommunication Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Yevsyeyeva, Oksana

    2010-01-01

    A diakoptical approach to tensor methods of telecommunications networks engineering, including design, traffic control and maintenance of QoS, is offered. The using of it increases scalability of tensor methods.

  17. Career Opportunities in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Trienne

    This pamphlet discusses career and employment opportunities in chemical engineering. Necessary college preparation is described and median salaries by degree are tabulated. Nontraditional careers in chemistry are also described. Future demand for chemists and chemical engineers is projected to 1985 and the availability of jobs for women and…

  18. Heat Exchanger Lab for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Jonathan W.; Evans, Edward A.; Chase, George G.

    2015-01-01

    Third year chemical engineering undergraduate students at The University of Akron designed and fabricated a heat exchanger for a stirred tank as part of a Chemical Engineering Laboratory course. The heat exchanger portion of this course was three weeks of the fifteen week long semester. Students applied concepts of scale-up and dimensional…

  19. Ecological optimization of endoreversible chemical engines

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Xia, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2011-01-01

    Optimal ecological performances of endoreversible chemical engine cycles with both linear and diffusive mass transfer laws are derived by taking an ecological optimization criterion as the objective, which consists of maximizing a function representing the best compromise between the power output and entropy production rate of the chemical engines. Numerical examples are given to show the effects of mass-reservoir chemical potential ratio and mass-transfer coefficient ratio on the ecological ...

  20. Improving the Practical Education of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Engineering Majors in Chinese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng-qing; Yu, Yi-feng; Ren, Shao-feng; Liu, Shao-jie; Rong, Xin-yu

    2014-01-01

    Practical education in chemical engineering has drawn increasing attention in recent years. This paper discusses two approaches to teaching and learning about experiments among upper-level chemical and pharmaceutical engineering majors in China. On the basis of years of experience in teaching chemical and pharmaceutical engineering, we propose the…

  1. Mini-projects in Chemical Engineering Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Angeles Cancela; Angel Sanchez; Rocio Maceiras

    2013-01-01

    Chemical engineering laboratory practices based in mini-projects were design and applied the students of forestry engineering in chemical subject. This way of practice reveals a more cooperative learning and a different style of experimentation. The stated goal was to design practices that motivate students and to enable them to develop different skills, including cross teamwork and communication. This paper describes how these practices were developed and the advantages and disadvantages of ...

  2. Multiscale computation from a chemical engineering perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jinghai

    2014-01-01

    This-paper-mainly-discusses-the-multiscale-computation-from-a-chemical-engineering-perspective.-From-the-application-designer’s-perspective,we-propose-a-new-approach-to-investigate-and-develop-both-flexi-ble-and-efficient-computer-architectures.-Based-on-the-requirements-of-applications-within-one-category,we-first-induce-and-extract-some-inherent-computing-patterns-or-core-computing-kernels-from-the-applications.-Some-computing-models-and-innovative-computing-architectures-will-then-be-developed-for-these-patterns-or-kernels,as-well-as-the-software-mapping-techniques.-Finally-those-applications-which-can-share-and-utilize-those-computing-patterns-or-kernels-can-be-executed-very-efficiently-on-those-novel-computing-architectures.-We-think-that-the-proposed-approach-may-not-be-achievable-within-the-existing-technology.-However,we-believe-that-it-will-be-available-in-the-near-future.-Hence,we-will-describe-this-approach-from-the-following-four-as-pects:multiscale-environment-in-the-world,-mesoscale-as-a-key-scale,-energy-minimization-multiscale-(EMMS)paradigm-and-our-perspective.

  3. Chemical Engineering Education - Current and Future Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    design, investigations, engineering practice and transferable skills) and a set guidelines (core curriculum, teaching and learning, industrial experience, review of the education process and student assessment) to achieve them, with special emphasis to the ability to solve problems. They also propose...... a leading role to define the chemical engineering curriculum. The result has been a set of recommendations for the first (BSc), second (MSc) and third (PhD) cycle chemical engineering education aligned to the Bologna Process. They recommend that students studying towards bachelor and masters qualifications...... a diversity of individual, academic and labour-market needs. Within Europe, two types of higher education in chemical engineering can be found: more research-oriented or more application-oriented first cycle programmes. Both types of studies cover a period of 3-4 academic years and 60 credits per year. After...

  4. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: CHEMICAL OXIDATION TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidation destroys hazardous contaminants by chemically converting them to nonhazardous or less toxic compounds that are ideally more stable, less mobile, and/or inert. However, under some conditions, other hazardous compounds may be formed. The oxidizing agents most commonly use...

  5. Interdisciplinary Approach in Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda Zeidmane

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the scientific literature available on the types of general competences and their classification caused the authors to conclude that it is necessary to implement interdisciplinary approach in engineering education to develop competences necessary for engineers to make them competitive in the labour market. The attention should be paid to a professional foreign language, computer literacy and educational psychology recommendations. To improve professional foreign language skills, CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning method should be integrated in the study process of engineering education. In order to develop information literacy competence, it is important to create a single e-study environment. The academic staff, developing study subjects for engineering programmes, should focus on the study content and study methods. As regards the content, the compromise should be sought between fundamental acquisition of the knowledge of the subject matter, the know-how of the application of this knowledge as well as the use of brand new software in the calculations. The paper presents the examples of the application of the interdisciplinary approach in the universities, where the authors of the paper are affiliated: the LUA (Latvia University of Agriculture and the RTU (Riga Technical University, respectively.

  6. The rise and realization of molecular chemical engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Modern chemical engineering involves the integration of physical and chemical phenomena over length scales ranging from the atomic/molecular to the macroscopic. The ability to delve into the molecular world and to learn how to engineer it has opened broad sectors of new technology. How has chemical engineering reached this point? How is chemical engineering taking advantage of this position? How will chemical engineering move forward based on its ability to engineer at the molecular/atomic le...

  7. Chemically engineered extracts: source of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramallo, I Ayelen; Salazar, Mario O; Mendez, Luciana; Furlan, Ricardo L E

    2011-04-19

    Biological research and drug discovery critically depend on access to libraries of small molecules that have an affinity for biomacromolecules. By virtue of their sustained success as sources of lead compounds, natural products are recognized as "privileged" starting points in structural space for library development. Compared with synthetic compounds, natural products have distinguishing structural properties; indeed, researchers have begun to quantify and catalog the differences between the two classes of molecules. Measurable differences in the number of chiral centers, the degree of saturation, the presence of aromatic rings, and the number of the various heteroatoms are among the chief distinctions between natural and synthetic compounds. Natural products also include a significant proportion of recurring molecular scaffolds that are not present in currently marketed drugs: the bioactivity of these natural substructures has been refined over the long process of evolution. In this Account, we present our research aimed at preparing libraries of semisynthetic compounds, or chemically engineered extracts (CEEs), through chemical diversification of natural products mixtures. The approach relies on the power of numbers, that is, in the chemical alteration of a sizable fraction of the starting complex mixture. Major changes in composition can be achieved through the chemical transformation of reactive molecular fragments that are found in most natural products. If such fragments are common enough, their transformation represents an entry point for chemically altering a high proportion of the components of crude natural extracts. We have searched for common reactive fragments in the Dictionary of Natural Products (CRC Press) and identified several functional groups that are expected to be present in a large fraction of the components of an average natural crude extract. To date, we have used reactions that incorporate (i) nitrogen atoms through carbonyl groups, (ii

  8. Engineering microbes for efficient production of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Wei; Dole, Sudhanshu; Grabar, Tammy; Collard, Andrew Christopher; Pero, Janice G; Yocum, R Rogers

    2015-04-28

    This present invention relates to production of chemicals from microorganisms that have been genetically engineered and metabolically evolved. Improvements in chemical production have been established, and particular mutations that lead to those improvements have been identified. Specific examples are given in the identification of mutations that occurred during the metabolic evolution of a bacterial strain genetically engineered to produce succinic acid. This present invention also provides a method for evaluating the industrial applicability of mutations that were selected during the metabolic evolution for increased succinic acid production. This present invention further provides microorganisms engineered to have mutations that are selected during metabolic evolution and contribute to improved production of succinic acid, other organic acids and other chemicals of commercial interest.

  9. Introducing Water-Treatment Subjects into Chemical Engineering Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Proposes that inclusion of waste water treatment subjects within the chemical engineering curriculum can provide students with direct access to environmental issues from both a biotechnological and an ethical perspective. The descriptive details of water recycling at a copper plant and waste water stabilization ponds exemplify this approach from…

  10. Mathematical modeling a chemical engineer's perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Aris

    1999-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is the art and craft of building a system of equations that is both sufficiently complex to do justice to physical reality and sufficiently simple to give real insight into the situation. Mathematical Modeling: A Chemical Engineer's Perspective provides an elementary introduction to the craft by one of the century's most distinguished practitioners.Though the book is written from a chemical engineering viewpoint, the principles and pitfalls are common to all mathematical modeling of physical systems. Seventeen of the author's frequently cited papers are reprinted to illus

  11. Mini-projects in Chemical Engineering Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeles Cancela

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical engineering laboratory practices based in mini-projects were design and applied the students of forestry engineering in chemical subject. This way of practice reveals a more cooperative learning and a different style of experimentation. The stated goal was to design practices that motivate students and to enable them to develop different skills, including cross teamwork and communication. This paper describes how these practices were developed and the advantages and disadvantages of using this methodology of teaching.

  12. Centrifugal Pump Experiment for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderslice, Nicholas; Oberto, Richard; Marrero, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a Centrifugal Pump Experiment that provided an experiential learning experience to chemical engineering undergraduates at the University of Missouri in the spring of 2010 in the Unit Operations Laboratory course. Lab equipment was used by senior students with computer-based data and control technology. In…

  13. Drug Transport and Pharmacokinetics for Chemical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Laurent; Kanneganti, Kumud; Kim, Kwang Seok

    2010-01-01

    Experiments in continuous-stirred vessels were proposed to introduce methods in pharmacokinetics and drug transport to chemical engineering students. The activities can be incorporated into the curriculum to illustrate fundamentals learned in the classroom. An appreciation for the role of pharmacokinetics in drug discovery will also be gained…

  14. A First Chemical Engineering Lab Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzi, Vito L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a simple thermodynamics experiment recommended for use in beginning chemical engineering laboratory courses. Outlines the theory behind the experiment, which determines the specific heat of a liquid. Discusses the construction, operation, and maintenance of the apparatus involved, along with the experimental procedure. (TW)

  15. Conceptests for a Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, John L.

    2007-01-01

    Examples of conceptests and suggestions for preparing them for use in an undergraduate, chemical engineering thermodynamics course are presented. Conceptests, combined with hand-held transmitters (clickers), is an effective method to engage students in class. This method motivates students, improves their functional understanding of…

  16. Book of abstracts Chemical Engineering: IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists. Chemical engineering of nanomaterials. Energy- and resource-saving chemical-engineering processes and problems of their intensification. Processes and apparatuses of chemical engineering, chemical cybernetics. Ecological problems of chemical engineering and related fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the given volume of abstracts of the IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists (Moscow, March 18-23, 2012) there are the abstracts of the reports concerning chemical engineering of nanomaterials, energy- and resource-saving chemical-engineering processes, processes and apparatuses of chemical engineering, chemical cybernetics, ecological problems of chemical engineering and related fields. The abstracts deal with state-of-the-art and future development of theoretical and experimental investigations as well as with experience in practical realization of development works in the field of chemical engineering and relative areas

  17. Nuclear industry - challenges in chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical engineering processes and operations are closely involved in every step of the nuclear fuel cycle. Starting from mining and milling of the ore through the production of fuel and other materials and their use in nuclear reactors, fuel reprocessing, fissile material recycle and treatment and disposal of fission product wastes, each step presents a challenge to the chemical engineer to evolve and innovate processes and techniques for more efficient utilization of the energy in the atom. The requirement of high recovery of the desired components at high purity levels is in itself a challenge. ''Nuclear Grade'' specifications for materials put a requirement which very few industries can satisfy. Recovery of uranium and thorium from low grade ores, of heavy water from raw water, etc. are examples. Economical and large scale separation of isotopes particularly those of heavy elements is a task for which processess are under various stages of development. Further design of chemical plants such as fuel reprocessing plants and high level waste treatment plants, which are to be operated and maintained remotely due to the high levels of radio-activity call for engineering skills which are being continually evolved. In the reactor, analysis of the fluid mechanics and optimum design of heat removal system are other examples where a chemical engineer can play a useful role. In addition to the above, the activities in the nuclear industry cover a very wide range of chemical engineering applications, such as desalination and other energy intensive processes, radioisotope and radiation applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. (auth.)

  18. Developing engineering software -- A fundamental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, J. [Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The rapid advanced in computer hardware and software coupled with the power industry`s right-sizing have created a unique opportunity for companies to gain a competitive advantage through custom software development. This custom development can standardize repetitive processes, ensure precise data, and enhance personal productivity. However, if the development is not managed properly, the process quickly becomes a budget-consuming project that delivers none of the anticipated rewards. Engineering software often falls into this realm of expensive and non-productive development. Most power engineers are excellent mechanical, electrical, chemical, civil, or plant engineers, but they have little software development experience. They spend much of their time keeping current with their disciplines and do not have the time or resources to keep current with the rapidly changing computer field. As a result, when a company tells the engineering staff to work smarter, not harder, the power plant engineering often finds himself trying to develop a simple program to help with his repetitive tasks. Since he is not familiar with structured software development, he often spends significant effort, and therefore significant funds performing a trial-and-error development approach. This paper suggests a structured process for small to medium engineering software projects that can be handled with either internal or contract developers. This process will basically follow familiar engineering fundamentals: (1) define the problem--determine the program scope; (2) state the assumptions--determine the necessary input and output; (3) develop a solution--write the program; (4) evaluate the results--test and validate the program; (5) state the conclusions--document the features and limitations. Though these steps seem clear, this paper presents some common pitfalls and how to avoid them.

  19. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports

  20. The hierarchical structure of chemical engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mooson KWAUK

    2007-01-01

    Around the turn of the present century, scholars began to recognize chemical engineering as a complex system, and have been searching for a convenient point of entry for refreshing its knowledge base. From our study of the dynamic structures of dispersed particles in fluidization and the resulting multi-scale method, we have been attempting to extend our findings to structures prevailing in other multiphase systems as well as in the burgeoning industries producing functional materials. Chemical engineering itself is hierarchically structured. Besides structures based on space and time, such hierarchy could be built from ChE history scaled according to science content, or from ChE operation according to the expenditure of manpower and capital investment.

  1. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Jarek

    2004-11-23

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  2. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports

  3. Nonlinear approaches in engineering applications 2

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza N

    2013-01-01

    Provides updated principles and applications of the nonlinear approaches in solving engineering and physics problems Demonstrates how nonlinear approaches may open avenues to better, safer, cheaper systems with less energy consumption Has a strong emphasis on the application, physical meaning, and methodologies of nonlinear approaches in different engineering and science problems

  4. Chemical Engineering and Modular Instruction: A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Karen C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Reported here are the responses of a group of chemical engineering educators to questions relating to the use of a series of undergraduate chemical engineering modules developed by the CHEMI Project. (BB)

  5. Rethinking engineering education the CDIO approach

    CERN Document Server

    Crawley, Edward F; Östlund, Sören; Brodeur, Doris R; Edström, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    This book describes an approach to engineering education that integrates a comprehensive set of personal, interpersonal, and professional engineering skills with engineering disciplinary knowledge in order to prepare innovative and entrepreneurial engineers.  The education of engineers is set in the context of engineering practice, that is, Conceiving, Designing, Implementing, and Operating (CDIO) through the entire lifecycle of engineering processes, products, and systems. The book is both a description of the development and implementation of the CDIO model and a guide to engineering programs worldwide that seek to improve the education of young engineers.   Provides an overview of the CDIO approach, then chapters organized according to the CDIO Standards; Includes in each chapter objectives, discussion questions, case studies and clear diagrams to support key concepts and processes; Avoids the jargon of education specialists and clearly explains education terms in the context of their initial presentatio...

  6. Software engineering a practitioner's approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pressman, Roger S

    1997-01-01

    This indispensable guide to software engineering exploration enables practitioners to navigate the ins and outs of this rapidly changing field. Pressman's fully revised and updated Fourth Edition provides in-depth coverage of every important management and technical topic in software engineering. Moreover, readers will find the inclusion of the hottest developments in the field such as: formal methods and cleanroom software engineering, business process reengineering, and software reengineering.

  7. 2002 Chemical Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemical Engineering Division is one of eight engineering research divisions within Argonne National Laboratory, one of the U.S. government's oldest and largest research laboratories. The University of Chicago oversees the laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Argonne's mission is to conduct basic scientific research, to operate national scientific facilities, to enhance the nation's energy resources, and to develop better ways to manage environmental problems. Argonne has the further responsibility of strengthening the nation's technology base by developing innovative technology and transferring it to industry. The Division is a diverse early-stage engineering organization, specializing in the treatment of spent nuclear fuel, development of advanced electrochemical power sources, and management of both high- and low-level nuclear wastes. Although this work is often indistinguishable from basic research, our efforts are directed toward the practical devices and processes that are covered by Argonne's mission. Additionally, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory; Environment, Safety, and Health Analytical Chemistry services; and Dosimetry and Radioprotection services, which provide a broad range of analytical services to Argonne and other organizations. The Division is multidisciplinary. Its people have formal training as ceramists; physicists; material scientists; electrical, mechanical, chemical, and nuclear engineers; and chemists. They have experience working in academia; urban planning; and the petroleum, aluminum, and automotive industries. Their skills include catalysis, ceramics, electrochemistry, metallurgy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and petroleum refining, as well as the development of nuclear waste forms, batteries, and high-temperature superconductors. Our wide-ranging expertise finds ready application in solving energy and environmental problems. Division personnel are frequently called on by

  8. Introduction to computational mass transfer with applications to chemical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Kuo-Tsong

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a new computational methodology called Computational Mass Transfer (CMT). It offers an approach to rigorously simulating the mass, heat and momentum transfer under turbulent flow conditions with the help of two newly published models, namely the C’2—εC’ model and the Reynolds  mass flux model, especially with regard to predictions of concentration, temperature and velocity distributions in chemical and related processes. The book will also allow readers to understand the interfacial phenomena accompanying the mass transfer process and methods for modeling the interfacial effect, such as the influences of Marangoni convection and Rayleigh convection. The CMT methodology is demonstrated by means of its applications to typical separation and chemical reaction processes and equipment, including distillation, absorption, adsorption and chemical reactors. Professor Kuo-Tsong Yu is a Member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Dr. Xigang Yuan is a Professor at the School of Chemical Engine...

  9. Fluid flow for chemical and process engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, F

    1995-01-01

    This major new edition of a popular undergraduate text covers topics of interest to chemical engineers taking courses on fluid flow. These topics include non-Newtonian flow, gas-liquid two-phase flow, pumping and mixing. It expands on the explanations of principles given in the first edition and is more self-contained. Two strong features of the first edition were the extensive derivation of equations and worked examples to illustrate calculation procedures. These have been retained. A new extended introductory chapter has been provided to give the student a thorough basis to understand the methods covered in subsequent chapters.

  10. EXTENDING THE KNOWLEDGE BASE OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mooson Kwauk

    2005-01-01

    The obvious current reversion to micro-scale investigations in basic chemical engineering, combined with the need, of a quite different nature, in the rapid growth of high added-value and small-lot functional materials, have been pointing to an area not yet sufficiently covered by the unit operations, transport phenomena and chemical reaction engineering. Although it is difficult to define accurately this area, a cursory scan of the activities already in progress has revealed a few common attributes: multi-phased (structured), multi-scaled, multi-disciplined, nonlinear, needs for resolution to reductionism-solvable subsystems, and pervasive in the process industry. From these activities, the present paper drafts a tentative scheme for studying the related problems: first to dissect a problem into various scales - spatial, temporal or otherwise as best suits the case in hand- in order to identify pertinent parameters which are then organized into model formulations. Together with inter-scale model formulations, a zoom-in/zoom-out process is carried out between the scales, by trial-and-error and through reasoning, to arrive at a global formulation of a quantitative solution, in order to derive, eventually, the general from the particular.

  11. Chemical Engineering Division annual technical report, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of the Chemical Engineering (CEN) Division's activities during 1980 are presented. In this period, CEN conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) rechargeable lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide batteries for electric vehicles and other applications; (2) ambient-temperature batteries - improved lead-acid, nickel/zinc, and nickel/iron - for electric vehicles; (3) energy-efficient industrial electrochemical processes; (4) molten carbonate fuel cells for use by electric utilities; (5) coal technology, mainly fluidized-bed combustion of coal in the presence of SO2 sorbent of limestone; (6) heat- and seed-recovery technology for open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic systems; (7) solar energy collectors and thermal energy storage; (8) fast breeder reactor chemistry research - chemical support of reactor safety studies, chemistry of irradiated fuels, and sodium technology; (9) fuel cycle technology - management of nuclear wastes, reprocessing of nuclear fuels, and proof-of-breeding studies for the Light Water Breeder Reactor; and (10) magnetic fusion research - systems analysis and engineering experimentation, materials research, and neutron dosimetry and damage analysis. The CEN Division also has a basic energy sciences program, which includes experimental and theoretical research on (1) the catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide and methanol homologation, (2) the thermodynamic properties of a wide variety of inorganic and organic materials, (3) significant mechanisms for the formation of atmospheric sulfate and nitrogen-bearing aerosols, (4) processes occurring at electrodes and in electrolytes, and (5) the physical properties of salt vapors. In addition, the Division operated the Central Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

  12. Social Engineering a General Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Valerica GREAVU-SERBAN; Oana SERBAN

    2014-01-01

    Social engineering is considered to be a taboo subject in nowadays society. It involves the use of social skills or to obtain usernames, passwords, credit card data, or to compromise or altering the information and systems of an entity. Social engineering methods are numerous and people using it are extremely ingenious and adaptable. This technique takes advantage of the intrinsic nature of mankind, to manipulate and obtain sensitive information, persuading people into divulge it, using excep...

  13. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. Jolley; R. Jarek; P. Mariner

    2004-02-09

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  14. Engineering strategic approach as organizational necessary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Fegh-hi Farahmand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article supports previous evidence that, even in host environments with high cultural distance and constraining employment frameworks, engineering planning, engineering are able to find room for engineering management maneuver. Specific attention paid to the transfer of the headquarters‘ flat organizational structure to a body of organizations with a noticeably hierarchical managerial system. This paper explore the ways in which certain characteristics in case of organizations generates a tendency to prepare a formal written engineering plan and focus is primarily on what describe as the environmental characteristics. Engineering excellence for strategic engineering includes also tools for financial, human resource, and risk management, as well as technology management, acquisitions and marketing. In other words, as has been suggested elsewhere, every national organizational system  even one as constrained engineering strategic approach as organizational necessary   contains some degree of malleability and openness which may be exploited through appropriate organization specific managerial strategies for engineering management.

  15. A paradigm-based evolution of chemical engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexandru Woinaroschy

    2016-01-01

    A short presentation of chemical engineering evolution, as guided by its paradigms, is exposed. The first paradigm–unit operations–has emerged as a necessity of systematization due to the explosion of chemical industrial applica-tions at the end of 19th century. The birth in the late 1950s of the second paradigm–transport phenomena–was the consequence of the need for a deep, scientific knowledge of the phenomena that explain what happens inside of unit operations. In the second part of 20th century, the importance of chemical product properties and qualities has become essential y in the market fights. Accordingly, it was required with additional and even new fundamen-tal approaches, and product engineering was recognized as the third paradigm. Nowadays chemical industry, as a huge materials and energy consumer, and with a strong ecological impact, couldn't remain outside of sustainability requirements. The basics of the fourth paradigm–sustainable chemical engineering–are now formulated.

  16. 2010 University Exemplary Department Award honors chemical engineering, entomology, and mechanical engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Virginia Tech's Department of Entomology in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the Department of Chemical Engineering and the Department of Mechanical Engineering in the College of Engineering have been recognized with the 2010 University Exemplary Department Award.

  17. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Jarek

    2005-08-29

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs

  18. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs documents. The updates

  19. Social Engineering a General Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerica GREAVU-SERBAN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Social engineering is considered to be a taboo subject in nowadays society. It involves the use of social skills or to obtain usernames, passwords, credit card data, or to compromise or altering the information and systems of an entity. Social engineering methods are numerous and people using it are extremely ingenious and adaptable. This technique takes advantage of the intrinsic nature of mankind, to manipulate and obtain sensitive information, persuading people into divulge it, using exceptional communication skills. Thus, five models of persuasion were identified, based on: simplicity, interest, incongruity, confidence and empathy, exploiting key factors which predispose people to fall victim to attacks of social engineering such as greed, self-interest, guilt or ignorance. It is well known fact that security is as strong as the weakest link in its chain (individuals therefore, beyond technical measures, staff training is the key to success in defending against such attacks.

  20. Introduction to Chemical Engineering Reactor Analysis: A Web-Based Reactor Design Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbey, Nese; Clay, Molly; Russell, T.W. Fraser

    2014-01-01

    An approach to explain chemical engineering through a Web-based interactive game design was developed and used with college freshman and junior/senior high school students. The goal of this approach was to demonstrate how to model a lab-scale experiment, and use the results to design and operate a chemical reactor. The game incorporates both…

  1. The hierarchical structure of chemical engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mooson; KWAUK

    2007-01-01

    Around the turn of the present century,scholars began to recognize chemical engineering as a com-plex system,and have been searching for a convenient point of entry for refreshing its knowledge base.From our study of the dynamic structures of dispersed particles in fluidization and the resultingmulti-scale method,we have been attempting to extend our findings to structures prevailing in othermultiphase systems as well as in the burgeoning industries producing functional materials.Chemicalengineering itself is hierarchically structured.Besides structures based on space and time,such hier-archy could be built from ChE history scaled according to science content,or from ChE operation ac-cording to the expenditure of manpower and capital investment.

  2. Advanced computational approaches to biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Punam K; Basu, Subhadip

    2014-01-01

    There has been rapid growth in biomedical engineering in recent decades, given advancements in medical imaging and physiological modelling and sensing systems, coupled with immense growth in computational and network technology, analytic approaches, visualization and virtual-reality, man-machine interaction and automation. Biomedical engineering involves applying engineering principles to the medical and biological sciences and it comprises several topics including biomedicine, medical imaging, physiological modelling and sensing, instrumentation, real-time systems, automation and control, sig

  3. Energy and environmental challenges to chemical engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Research Council's report, Frontiers in Chemical Engineering, was written four years ago. Three high-priority research areas concerned with energy and the environment were identified in the report: in situ processing, liquid fuels for the future, and responsible management of hazardous wastes. As outlined in the recently released National Energy Strategy, in situ processing is viewed by the Department of Energy (DOE) primarily through its use in enhanced oil recovery, and some research is still funded. Industry, driven by the economics of low oil prices, is doing little research on in situ processing but much more on reservoir characterization, a prerequisite to processing. Research on liquid fuels for the future is driven more by environmental concerns now than by energy security concerns. It appears to be wise policy for the future to try to solve the alternative fuel problem as quickly and simply as possible. Otherwise, the nation will find itself with a costly and complex fuel and vehicle system that may have to be changed again in a generation. For the interim, we should look closely at reformulated gasoline followed by compressed natural gas, if necessary. In the long run, vehicle systems based on electricity seem most promising for the middle of the next century. To deliver this technology we need to capitalize on three new high-priority research areas: batteries, fuel cells, and nuclear power. For chemical engineers, future challenges of a different sort will be added to the technical challenges, among them are explaining to a skeptical public the wisdom of proceeding to design the interim system of alternative fuel(s) and to move expeditiously to a final solution

  4. Distributed simulation a model driven engineering approach

    CERN Document Server

    Topçu, Okan; Oğuztüzün, Halit; Yilmaz, Levent

    2016-01-01

    Backed by substantive case studies, the novel approach to software engineering for distributed simulation outlined in this text demonstrates the potent synergies between model-driven techniques, simulation, intelligent agents, and computer systems development.

  5. Externally heated valve engine a new approach to piston engines

    CERN Document Server

    Kazimierski, Zbyszko

    2016-01-01

    This book reports on a novel approach for generating mechanical energy from different, external heat sources using the body of a typical piston engine with valves. By presenting simple yet effective numerical models, the authors show how this new approach, which combines existing internal combustion technology with a lubrication system, is able to offer an economic solution to the problem of mechanical energy generation in piston engines. Their results also show that a stable heat generation process can be guaranteed outside of the engine. The book offers a detailed report on physical and numerical models of 4-stroke and 2-stroke versions of the EHVE together with different models of heat exchange, valves and results of their simulations. It also delivers the test results of an engine prototype run in laboratory conditions. By presenting a novel theoretical framework and providing readers with extensive knowledge of both the advantages and challenges of the method, this book is expected to inspire academic re...

  6. Ethical Standards for Publication in Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering is a publication of the Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China (CIESC) dedicated to present the original contributions of knowledge with permanent value from chemical engineering researcher and technical staff in processing industries in China and the world. The Editors-in-Chief, Associate Editors-in-Chief and Editorial Staff of the journal share the responsibility to maintain the CJChE ethical standards for paper reviewing and handling process.

  7. Ethical Standards for Publication in Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering (CJChE) is a publication of the Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China (CIESC) dedicated to present the original contributions of knowledge with permanent value from chemical engineering researchers and technical staff of process industries in China and the world. The editors-in-chief, associate editors-in-chief and editorial staff of the journal share the responsibility to maintain the CJChE ethical standards for paper reviewing and handling process. The following ethical standards are thought important to the contributors from Chinese and international chemical engineering communities.

  8. Thought-evoking approaches in engineering problems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    In creating the value-added product in not distant future, it is necessary and inevitable to establish a holistic and though-evoking approach to the engineering problem, which should be at least associated with the inter-disciplinary knowledge and thought processes across the whole engineering spheres. It is furthermore desirable to integrate it with trans-disciplinary aspects ranging from manufacturing culture, through liberal-arts engineering, and industrial sociology.   The thought-evoking approach can be exemplified and typified by representative engineering problems: unveiling essential features in ‘Tangential Force Ratio and Interface Pressure’, prototype development for ‘Bio-mimetic Needle’ and application of ‘Water-jet Machining to Artificial Hip Joint’, product innovation in ‘Heat Sink for Computer’, application of ‘Graph Theory’ to similarity evaluation of production systems, leverage among reciprocity attributes in ‘Industrial and Engineering Designs for Machine Enclosure’,...

  9. Using Simulation to Increase Yields in Chemical Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    William C. Conley

    2003-01-01

    Trying to increase the yields or profit or efficiency (less pollution) of chemical processes is a central goal of the chemical engineer in theory and practice. Certainly sound training in chemistry, business and pollution control help the engineer to set up optimal chemical processes. However, the ever changing demands of customers and business conditions, plus the multivariate complexity of the chemical business can make optimization challenging. Mathematical tools such as statistics and lin...

  10. 2003 Chemical Engineering Division annual technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemical Engineering Division is one of six divisions within the Engineering Research Directorate at Argonne National Laboratory, one of the U.S. government's oldest and largest research laboratories. The University of Chicago oversees the laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Argonne's mission is to conduct basic scientific research, to operate national scientific facilities, to enhance the nation's energy resources, to promote national security, and to develop better ways to manage environmental problems. Argonne has the further responsibility of strengthening the nation's technology base by developing innovative technology and transferring it to industry. The Division is a diverse early-stage engineering organization, specializing in the treatment of spent nuclear fuel, development of advanced electrochemical power sources, and management of both high- and low-level nuclear wastes. Additionally, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which provides a broad range of analytical services to Argonne and other organizations. The Division is multidisciplinary. Its people have formal training in chemistry; physics; materials science; and electrical, mechanical, chemical, and nuclear engineering. They are specialists in electrochemistry, ceramics, metallurgy, catalysis, materials characterization, nuclear magnetic resonance, repository science, and the nuclear fuel cycle. Our staff have experience working in and collaborating with university, industry and government research and development laboratories throughout the world. Our wide-ranging expertise finds ready application in solving energy, national security, and environmental problems. Division personnel are frequently called on by governmental and industrial organizations for advice and contributions to problem solving in areas that intersect present and past Division programs and activities. Currently, we are engaged in the development of several technologies of

  11. Thermodynamics an advanced textbook for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Astarita, Gianni

    1989-01-01

    If a Writer would know how to behave himself with relation to Posterity; let him consider in old Books, what he finds, that he is glad to know; and what Omissions he most laments. Jonathan Swift This book emerges from a long story of teaching. I taught chemical engineering thermodynamics for about ten years at the University of Naples in the 1960s, and I still remember the awkwardness that I felt about any textbook I chose to consider-all of them seemed to be vague at best, and the standard of logical rigor seemed immensely inferior to what I could find in books on such other of the students in my first class subjects as calculus and fluid mechanics. One (who is now Prof. F. Gioia of the University of Naples) once asked me a question which I have used here as Example 4. 2-more than 20 years have gone by, and I am still waiting for a more intelligent question from one of my students. At the time, that question compelled me to answer in a way I didn't like, namely "I'll think about it, and I hope I'll have the ...

  12. Towards an Integrated Approach to Requirement Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Broy; Fleischmann; Islam MR; Kof; Lochmann; Leuxner; Penzenstadler; Mendez; Sitou; Winter, de, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Requirements Engineering (RE) still constitutes the Achilles' heel of the entire software development activities. Even worse, there is a considerable gap between the state of the art in academic RE and in industrial RE. Although many academic RE approaches exhibit a high potential in practical application, they are not applied in practice. This report demonstrates that a set of approaches developed at the Technische Universität München can be integrated into one approach that covers most RE t...

  13. Frontiers in Chemical Engineering. Research Needs and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.

    Chemical engineers play a key role in industries such as petroleum, food, artificial fibers, petrochemicals, plastics and many others. They are needed to tailor manufacturing technology to the requirements of products and to integrate product and process design. This report discusses how chemical engineers are continuing to address technological…

  14. Semiconductor Chemical Reactor Engineering and Photovoltaic Unit Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, T. W. F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the nature of semiconductor chemical reactor engineering, illustrating the application of this engineering with research in physical vapor deposition of cadmium sulfide at both the laboratory and unit operations scale and chemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon at the laboratory scale. (JN)

  15. Introducing DAE Systems in Undergraduate and Graduate Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandela, Ravi Kumar; Sridhar, L. N.; Rengaswamy, Raghunathan

    2010-01-01

    Models play an important role in understanding chemical engineering systems. While differential equation models are taught in standard modeling and control courses, Differential Algebraic Equation (DAE) system models are not usually introduced. These models appear naturally in several chemical engineering problems. In this paper, the introduction…

  16. Chemical respiratory allergy: Reverse engineering an adverse outcome pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract by chemicals is associated with rhinitis and asthma and remains an important occupational health issue. Although less than 80 chemicals have been confirmed as respiratory allergens the adverse health effects can be serious, and in rare instances can be fatal, and there are, in addition, related socioeconomic issues. The challenges that chemical respiratory allergy pose for toxicologists are substantial. No validated methods are available for hazard identification and characterisation, and this is due in large part to the fact that there remains considerable uncertainty and debate about the mechanisms through which sensitisation of the respiratory tract is acquired. Despite that uncertainty, there is a need to establish some common understanding of the key events and processes that are involved in respiratory sensitisation to chemicals and that might in turn provide the foundations for novel approaches to safety assessment. In recent years the concept of adverse outcome pathways (AOP) has gained some considerable interest among the toxicology community as a basis for outlining the key steps leading to an adverse health outcome, while also providing a framework for focusing future research, and for developing alternative paradigms for hazard characterisation. Here we explore application of the same general principles to an examination of the induction by chemicals of respiratory sensitisation. In this instance, however, we have chosen to adopt a reverse engineering approach and to model a possible AOP for chemical respiratory allergy working backwards from the elicitation of adverse health effects to the cellular and molecular mechanisms that are implicated in the acquisition of sensitisation

  17. Approaches and methodologies for mobile software engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Serena Pastore

    2015-01-01

    The development of software for mobile devices takes place in a dynamic environment where constraints, technologies and user needs change very frequently requiring enhanced approaches and methodologies in software engineering essential to deal with the concept of bring your own device (BYOD). Mobile apps are developed for various purposes in different categories. This paper discusses about the challenges that affect mobile software engineering, specifically for a science educational and outre...

  18. Property-driven software engineering approach

    OpenAIRE

    Di Marco, Antinisca; Lonetti, Francesca; Angelis, Guglielmo De

    2012-01-01

    We present a research roadmap that defines an enhanced model-driven software engineering approach focused on non-functional properties models. Currently, we have implemented two sub-processes of this roadmap: Property Modeling and Monitoring. We provide a property-driven approach to runtime monitoring based on a comprehensive Property Meta-Model (PMM) and on a generic configurable event-based monitoring infrastructure.

  19. Comparing Two Approaches for Engineering Education Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edström, Kristina; Kolmos, Anette

    2012-01-01

    differences. CDIO and PBL will each be defined and compared in terms of the original need analysis, underlying educational philosophy and the essentials of the respective approaches to engineering education. In these respects we see many similarities. Circumstances that explain differences in history and......During the last decade there have been two dominating models for reforming engineering education: Problem/Project Based Learning (PBL) and the CDIO Initiative. The aim of this paper is to compare the PBL and CDIO approaches to engineering education reform, to identify and explain similarities and...... experiences will be identified and discussed. The comparison gives an overview of history and experiences, organization of community, curriculum implementation principles, model of change, variation in implementation, body of research, and extent of dissemination (world map). It is suggested that the two...

  20. Experiences on dynamic simulation software in chemical engineering education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komulainen, Tiina M.; Enemark-rasmussen, Rasmus; Sin, Gürkan;

    2012-01-01

    Commercial process simulators are increasing interest in the chemical engineer education. In this paper, the use of commercial dynamic simulation software, D-SPICE® and K-Spice®, for three different chemical engineering courses is described and discussed. The courses cover the following topics......: basic chemical engineering, operability and safety analysis and process control. User experiences from both teachers and students are presented. The benefits of dynamic simulation as an additional teaching tool are discussed and summarized. The experiences confirm that commercial dynamic simulators...... provide realistic training and can be successfully integrated into undergraduate and graduate teaching, laboratory courses and research....

  1. Maximum work configurations of finite potential capacity reservoir chemical engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    An isothermal endoreversible chemical engine operating between the finite potential capacity high-chemical-potential reservoir and the infinite potential capacity low-chemical-potential reservoir has been studied in this work.Optimal control theory was applied to determine the optimal cycle configurations corresponding to the maximum work output per cycle for the fixed total cycle time and a universal mass transfer law.Analyses of special examples showed that the optimal cycle configuration with the mass transfer law g∝△μ,where△μis the chemical potential difference,is an isothermal endoreversible chemical engine cycle,in which the chemical potential(or the concentration) of the key component in the working substance of low-chemical-potential side is a constant,while the chemical potentials(or the concentrations) of the key component in the finite potential capacity high-chemical-potential reservoir and the corresponding side working substance change nonlinearly with time,and the difference of the chemical potentials(or the ratio of the concentrations) of the key component between the high-chemical-potential reservoir and the working substance is a constant.While the optimal cycle configuration with the mass transfer law g∝△μc,where △μc is the concentration difference,is different from that with the mass transfer law g∝△μ significantly.When the high-chemical-potential reservoir is also an infinite potential capacity chemical potential reservoir,the optimal cycle configuration of the isothermal endoreversible chemical engine consists of two constant chemical potential branches and two instantaneous constant mass-flux branches,which is independent of the mass transfer law.The object studied in this paper is general,and the results can provide some guidelines for optimal design and operation of real chemical engines.

  2. Chemical Engineering Education - Current and Future Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    The chemical industry today is changed from the chemical industry of twenty-five years ago. Clear evidence of this change comes from the jobs taken by graduating chemical professionals in North America, Europe, and some of the Asian countries. Twenty-five years ago, eighty percent of these graduating students went to the commodity chemical industry, exemplified by Dupont, Exxon, Shell, ICI, BASF and Dow, to name a few. Now, twenty percent do. Twenty-five years ago, around ten percent went to ...

  3. An engineering approach to data mining projects

    OpenAIRE

    Marbán, Óscar; Mariscal Vivas, Gonzalo; Menasalvas, Ernestina; Segovia, Javier

    2007-01-01

    Both the number and complexity of Data Mining projects has increased in late years. Unfortunately, nowadays there isn’t a formal process model for this kind of projects, or existing approaches are not right or complete enough. In some sense, present situation is comparable to that in software that led to ’software crisis’ in latest 60’s. Software Engineering matured based on process models and methodologies. Data Mining’s evolution is being parallel to that in Software Engineering. The resear...

  4. Different approaches to tailoring chemical pulp fibres

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sharkawy, Khalil

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this thesis work was to examine different approaches to tailor chemical fibres of different raw materials. The focus in searching for new approaches was on pressure screen fractionation, selective treatment of each fraction, mechanical pre-treatment before refining, refiner loadability and its link to fibre properties and filling design, and on-line quality control of fibre properties. The evaluation is based on the impacts on fibre properties, filtration, refining and the re...

  5. The history of Korean Institute Chemical Engineers for fifteen years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book reports the history of Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers with commemorative message, three congratulatory address and photos for fifty years. Nest, it consists of five chapters, which deals with development this institute by chronological classification. It reports the development history by activity such as education, research, publishing branch, international activity, data, woman, and executive office. It records challenge of chemical engineering, remembrance for past presidents and appendixes on history and a list of members.

  6. The history of Korean Institute Chemical Engineers for fifteen years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This book reports the history of Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers with commemorative message, three congratulatory address and photos for fifty years. Nest, it consists of five chapters, which deals with development this institute by chronological classification. It reports the development history by activity such as education, research, publishing branch, international activity, data, woman, and executive office. It records challenge of chemical engineering, remembrance for past presidents and appendixes on history and a list of members.

  7. Combining engineering and data-driven approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Katharina; De Sanctis, Gianluca; Kohler, Jochen;

    2015-01-01

    assumptions that may result in a biased risk assessment. In two related papers we show how engineering and data-driven modelling can be combined by developing generic risk models that are calibrated to statistical data on observed fire events. The focus of the present paper is on the calibration procedure. A......Two general approaches may be followed for the development of a fire risk model: statistical models based on observed fire losses can support simple cost-benefit studies but are usually not detailed enough for engineering decision-making. Engineering models, on the other hand, require many...... framework is developed that is able to deal with data collection in non-homogeneous portfolios of buildings. Also incomplete data sets containing only little information on each fire event can be used for model calibration. To illustrate the capabilities of the proposed framework, it is applied to the...

  8. Engineering Design Education through the CDIO Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemata, Kazuya; Minamide, Akiyuki; Matsuishi, Masakatsu

    CDIO is a framework for the engineering education curriculum. It is based on learning the design process through actual system and product development. Students learn to “Conceive-Design-Implement-Operate” within this framework. The CDIO standard needs not to be satisfied by every related subject independently. What is required is just satisfied as a whole. At Kanazawa Institute of Technology (KIT) , we have two introductory engineering design courses: Design Project 1 (PD1) and Design Project 2 (PD2) . PD1 is given in the first semester of the freshman year and PD2 in the second semester of the sophomore year. Standard PD1 and PD2 courses satisfy the “Conceive-Design” processes of the CDIO approach. The authors succeeded in expanding the processes of CDIO in PD2 course. This paper describes the details of engineering design education based upon the CDIO framework.

  9. Chemical Information in Scirus and BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendig, Regina B.

    2009-01-01

    The author sought to determine to what extent the two search engines, Scirus and BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engines), would be useful to first-year university students as the first point of searching for chemical information. Five topics were searched and the first ten records of each search result were evaluated with regard to the type of…

  10. MICROSTRUCTURE DEVICES FOR APPLICATIONS IN THERMAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESS ENGINEERING

    OpenAIRE

    Brandner, Juergen; Anurjew, E.; Henning, T.; Schygulla, U.; Schubert, K.

    2006-01-01

    In this publication, an overview of the work dealing with thermal and chemical micro process engineering performed at the Institute for Micro Process Engineering (IMVT) of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe will be given. The focus will be set on manufacturing of metallic microstructure devices and on microstructure heat exchangers. A brief outlook will describe possible future application fields.

  11. Incorporating Six Sigma Methodology Training into Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lenore L.

    2007-01-01

    Six Sigma is a buzz term in today's technology and business world and there has been increasing interest to initiate Six Sigma training in college education. We have successfully incorporated Six Sigma methodology training into a traditional chemical engineering course, Engineering Experimentation, at Texas Tech University. The students have…

  12. Approaches and methodologies for mobile software engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Pastore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of software for mobile devices takes place in a dynamic environment where constraints, technologies and user needs change very frequently requiring enhanced approaches and methodologies in software engineering essential to deal with the concept of bring your own device (BYOD. Mobile apps are developed for various purposes in different categories. This paper discusses about the challenges that affect mobile software engineering, specifically for a science educational and outreach aim as regards technologies, approaches and methodologies that could be applied to unlock the full potential of mobility. In particular, it analyzes the main challenges to development in this field, such as dealing with enhanced connectivity and networking protocols (e.g., from Bluetooth Low Energy, IEEE 802.15.4-based protocols and new Wi-Fi versions and the fragmented ecosystem of mobile platforms. Moreover, it addresses the possible application of specific development methodologies such as Agile software methods.

  13. NPP site selection: A systems engineering approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessity for improved decision making concerning the siting and licensing of major power facilities has been accelerated in the past decade by the increased environmental consciousness of the public and by the energy crisis. These problems are exceedingly complex due to their multiple objective nature, the many interest groups, the long range time horizons, and the inherent uncertainties of the potential impacts of any decision. Along with the relatively objective economic and engineering concerns, the more subjective factors involving safety, environmental, and social issues are crucial to the problem. The preferences of the general public, as consumers, the utility companies, as builders and operators of power plant facilities, and environmentalists and the government must be accounted for in analyzing power plant siting and licensing issues. We advocate for a systems engineering approach that articulates stake holder's requirements, expert judgements, and a systems decision making approach. The appropriateness and application of systems decision making process is illustrated in this paper

  14. NPP site selection: A systems engineering approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pwani, Henry; Kamanja, Florah; Zolkaffly, Zulfakar; Jung, J. C. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The necessity for improved decision making concerning the siting and licensing of major power facilities has been accelerated in the past decade by the increased environmental consciousness of the public and by the energy crisis. These problems are exceedingly complex due to their multiple objective nature, the many interest groups, the long range time horizons, and the inherent uncertainties of the potential impacts of any decision. Along with the relatively objective economic and engineering concerns, the more subjective factors involving safety, environmental, and social issues are crucial to the problem. The preferences of the general public, as consumers, the utility companies, as builders and operators of power plant facilities, and environmentalists and the government must be accounted for in analyzing power plant siting and licensing issues. We advocate for a systems engineering approach that articulates stake holder's requirements, expert judgements, and a systems decision making approach. The appropriateness and application of systems decision making process is illustrated in this paper.

  15. Quantum Chemical Approach to Estimating the Thermodynamics of Metabolic Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinich, Adrian; Rappoport, Dmitrij; Dunn, Ian; Sanchez-Lengeling, Benjamin; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Noor, Elad; Even, Arren Bar; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2014-11-01

    Thermodynamics plays an increasingly important role in modeling and engineering metabolism. We present the first nonempirical computational method for estimating standard Gibbs reaction energies of metabolic reactions based on quantum chemistry, which can help fill in the gaps in the existing thermodynamic data. When applied to a test set of reactions from core metabolism, the quantum chemical approach is comparable in accuracy to group contribution methods for isomerization and group transfer reactions and for reactions not including multiply charged anions. The errors in standard Gibbs reaction energy estimates are correlated with the charges of the participating molecules. The quantum chemical approach is amenable to systematic improvements and holds potential for providing thermodynamic data for all of metabolism.

  16. Engineering studies on chemical uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In multi-stage separation processes such as the Chemical Enrichment Process, back mixing phenomena are a matter of vital importance for understanding separation efficiency. Back mixing is composed of two parts, microscopic and macroscopic. The microscopic back mixing is known through molecular theory. The macroscopic back mixing effects are quantitatively determined using flow patterns obtained through computational calculations of the fluid dynamics, as well as experimental data. Judging from physical theory and experimental results, the sum of microscopic and the macroscopic back mixing terms is approximately 300μm in the Chemical Enrichment Process. This technology will also contribute to nuclear science in that it can be applied not only to the isotope separation of other elements and to other multi-stage separation processes, but also to the reprocessing of spent fuel. (author)

  17. The engineering approach to winter sports

    CERN Document Server

    Cheli, Federico; Maldifassi, Stefano; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports presents the state-of-the-art research in the field of winter sports in a harmonized and comprehensive way for a diverse audience of engineers, equipment and facilities designers, and materials scientists. The book examines the physics and chemistry of snow and ice with particular focus on the interaction (friction) between sports equipment and snow/ice, how it is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature and pressure, as well as by contaminants and how it can be modified through the use of ski waxes or the microtextures of blades or ski soles. The authors also cover, in turn, the different disciplines in winter sports:  skiing (both alpine and cross country), skating and jumping, bob sledding and skeleton, hockey and curling, with attention given to both equipment design and on the simulation of gesture and  track optimization.

  18. Artificial intelligence approaches to software engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, James D.; Macdonald, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial intelligence approaches to software engineering are examined. The software development life cycle is a sequence of not so well-defined phases. Improved techniques for developing systems have been formulated over the past 15 years, but pressure continues to attempt to reduce current costs. Software development technology seems to be standing still. The primary objective of the knowledge-based approach to software development presented in this paper is to avoid problem areas that lead to schedule slippages, cost overruns, or software products that fall short of their desired goals. Identifying and resolving software problems early, often in the phase in which they first occur, has been shown to contribute significantly to reducing risks in software development. Software development is not a mechanical process but a basic human activity. It requires clear thinking, work, and rework to be successful. The artificial intelligence approaches to software engineering presented support the software development life cycle through the use of software development techniques and methodologies in terms of changing current practices and methods. These should be replaced by better techniques that that improve the process of of software development and the quality of the resulting products. The software development process can be structured into well-defined steps, of which the interfaces are standardized, supported and checked by automated procedures that provide error detection, production of the documentation and ultimately support the actual design of complex programs.

  19. Methods in industrial biotechnology for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha

    2008-01-01

    In keeping with the definition that biotechnology is really no more than a name given to a set of techniques and processes, the authors apply some set of fuzzy techniques to chemical industry problems such as finding the proper proportion of raw mix to control pollution, to study flow rates, to find out the better quality of products. We use fuzzy control theory, fuzzy neural networks, fuzzy relational equations, genetic algorithms to these problems for solutions. When the solution to the problem can have certain concepts or attributes as indeterminate, the only model that can tackle such a situation is the neutrosophic model. The authors have also used these models in this book to study the use of biotechnology in chemical industries. This book has six chapters. First chapter gives a brief description of biotechnology. Second chapter deals will proper proportion of mix of raw materials in cement industries to minimize pollution using fuzzy control theory. Chapter three gives the method of determination of te...

  20. Using Simulation to Increase Yields in Chemical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Conley

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Trying to increase the yields or profit or efficiency (less pollution of chemical processes is a central goal of the chemical engineer in theory and practice. Certainly sound training in chemistry, business and pollution control help the engineer to set up optimal chemical processes. However, the ever changing demands of customers and business conditions, plus the multivariate complexity of the chemical business can make optimization challenging. Mathematical tools such as statistics and linear programming have certainly been useful to chemical engineers in their pursuit of optimal efficiency. However, some processes can be modeled linearly and some can not. Therefore, presented here will be an industrial chemical process with potentially five variables affecting the yield. Data from over one hundred runs of the process has been collected, but it is not known initially whether the yield relationship is linear or nonlinear. Therefore, the CTSP multivariate correlation coefficient will be calculated for the data to see if a relationship exists among the variables. Then once it is proven that there is a statistically significant relationship, an appropriate linear or nonlinear equation can be fitted to the data, and it can be optimized for use in the chemical plant.

  1. Conceptual Framework to Help Promote Retention and Transfer in the Introductory Chemical Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanyak, Michael E., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    In an introductory chemical engineering course, the conceptual framework of a holistic problem-solving methodology in conjunction with a problem-based learning approach has been shown to create a learning environment that nurtures deep learning rather than surface learning. Based on exam scores, student grades are either the same or better than…

  2. Interdisciplinary Learning for Chemical Engineering Students from Organic Chemistry Synthesis Lab to Reactor Design to Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Matt; Comitz, Richard L.; Biaglow, Andrew; Lachance, Russ; Sloop, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach to the Chemical Engineering curriculum sequence of courses at West Point enabled our students to experience a much more realistic design process, which more closely replicated a real world scenario. Students conduct the synthesis in the organic chemistry lab, then conduct computer modeling of the reaction with ChemCad and…

  3. My contribution to broadening the base of chemical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Roger W H

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a short account, from a personal viewpoint, of the various contributions I have made to expand the academic basis of chemical engineering from its origin in the unifying concept of unit operations, focussed on process design, to encompassing all the professional activities of industrial chemical engineers. This includes all aspects of planning and scheduling the operations as well as designing and controlling the process plant. The span of my career also happens to include the birth of the age of computing, with all the consequential implications. PMID:22432607

  4. Automotive fuels and internal combustion engines: a chemical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, T J; Kaiser, E W; Farrell, J T

    2006-04-01

    Commercial transportation fuels are complex mixtures containing hundreds or thousands of chemical components, whose composition has evolved considerably during the past 100 years. In conjunction with concurrent engine advancements, automotive fuel composition has been fine-tuned to balance efficiency and power demands while minimizing emissions. Pollutant emissions from internal combustion engines (ICE), which arise from non-ideal combustion, have been dramatically reduced in the past four decades. Emissions depend both on the engine operating parameters (e.g. engine temperature, speed, load, A/F ratio, and spark timing) and the fuel. These emissions result from complex processes involving interactions between the fuel and engine parameters. Vehicle emissions are comprised of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO, nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and particulate matter (PM). VOCs and NO(x) form photochemical smog in urban atmospheres, and CO and PM may have adverse health impacts. Engine hardware and operating conditions, after-treatment catalysts, and fuel composition all affect the amount and composition of emissions leaving the vehicle tailpipe. While engine and after-treatment effects are generally larger than fuel effects, engine and after-treatment hardware can require specific fuel properties. Consequently, the best prospects for achieving the highest efficiency and lowest emissions lie with optimizing the entire fuel-engine-after-treatment system. This review provides a chemical perspective on the production, combustion, and environmental aspects of automotive fuels. We hope this review will be of interest to workers in the fields of chemical kinetics, fluid dynamics of reacting flows, atmospheric chemistry, automotive catalysts, fuel science, and governmental regulations. PMID:16565750

  5. Chemical approaches to studying stem cell biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenlin Li; Kai Jiang; Wanguo Wei; Yan Shi; Sheng Ding

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells,including both pluripotent stem cells and multipotent somatic stem cells,hold great potential for interrogating the mechanisms of tissue development,homeostasis and pathology,and for treating numerous devastating diseases.Establishment of in vitro platforms to faithfully maintain and precisely manipulate stem cell fates is essential to understand the basic mechanisms of stem cell biology,and to translate stem cells into regenerative medicine.Chemical approaches have recently provided a number of small molecules that can be used to control cell selfrenewal,lineage differentiation,reprogramming and regeneration.These chemical modulators have been proven to be versatile tools for probing stem cell biology and manipulating cell fates toward desired outcomes.Ultimately,this strategy is promising to be a new frontier for drug development aimed at endogenous stem cell modulation.

  6. The role of chemical engineering in medicinal research including Alzheimer's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios M

    2015-01-01

    Various disciplines of chemical engineering, especially thermodynamics and kinetics, play an important role in medicinal research and this has been particularly recognized during the last 10-15 years (von Stockar and van der Wielen, J Biotechnol 59:25, 1997; Prausnitz, Fluid Phase Equilib 53:439, 1989; Prausnitz, Pure Appl Chem 79:1435, 2007; Dey and Prausnitz, Ind Eng Chem Res 50:3, 2011; Prausnitz, J Chem Thermodynamics 35:21, 2003; Tsivintzelis et al. AIChE J 55:756, 2009). It is expected that during the twenty-first century chemical engineering and especially thermodynamics can contribute as significantly to the life sciences development as it has been done with the oil and gas and chemical sectors in the twentieth century. Moreover, it has during the recent years recognized that thermodynamics can help in understanding diseases like human cataract, sickle-cell anemia, Creuzfeldt-Jacob ("mad cow" disease), and Alzheimer's which are connected to "protein aggregation." Several articles in the Perspectives section of prominent chemical engineering journals have addressed this issue (Hall, AIChE J 54:1956, 2008; Vekilov, AIChE J 54:2508, 2008). This work reviews recent applications of thermodynamics (and other areas of chemical engineering) first in drug development and then in the understanding of the mechanism of Alzheimer's and similar diseases. PMID:25416110

  7. Genetic Algorithms for the Optimization of Catalysts in Chemical Engineering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holeňa, Martin

    Hong Kong : Newswood Limited, 2008, s. 969-974. ISBN 978-988-98671-0-2. - (Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science). [WCECS 2008. World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science. San Francisco (US), 22.10.2008-24.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0802; GA ČR GEICC/08/E018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : genetic algorithms * chemical engineering * constrained optimization * mixed optimization * program generator Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  8. Complex chemical dynamics through engineering-like methods

    OpenAIRE

    Moro, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Most of the problems in modern structural design can be described with a set of equation; solutions of these mathematical models can lead the engineer and designer to get info during the design stage. The same holds true for physical-chemistry; this branch of chemistry uses mathematics and physics in order to explain real chemical phenomena. In this work two extremely different chemical processes will be studied; the dynamic of an artificial molecular motor and the generation and propagation ...

  9. Challenges and opportunities in synthetic biology for chemical engineers

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yunzi; Lee, Jung-Kul; Zhao, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic biology provides numerous great opportunities for chemical engineers in the development of new processes for large-scale production of biofuels, value-added chemicals, and protein therapeutics. However, challenges across all scales abound. In particular, the modularization and standardization of the components in a biological system, so-called biological parts, remain the biggest obstacle in synthetic biology. In this perspective, we will discuss the main challenges and opportunitie...

  10. Current approaches to electrospun nanofibers for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultimate goal of tissue engineering is to replace damaged tissues by applying engineering technology and the principles of life sciences. To successfully engineer a desirable tissue, three main elements of cells, scaffolds and growth factors need to be harmonized. Biomaterial-based scaffolds serve as a critical platform both to support cell adhesion and to deliver growth factors. Various methods of fabricating scaffolds have been investigated. One recently developed method that is growing in popularity is called electrospinning. Electrospinning is known for its capacity to make fibrous and porous structures that are similar to natural extracellular matrix (ECM). Other advantages to electrospinning include its ability to create relatively large surface to volume ratios, its ability to control fiber size from micro- to nano-scales and its versatility in material choice. Although early work with electrospun fibers has shown promise in the regeneration of certain types of tissues, further modification of their chemical, biological and mechanical properties would permit future advancements. In this paper, current approaches to the development of modular electrospun fibers as scaffolds for tissue engineering are discussed. Their chemical and physical characteristics can be tuned for the regeneration of specific target tissues by co-spinning of multiple materials and by post-modification of the surface of electrospun fibers. In addition, topology or structure can also be controlled to elicit specific responses from cells and tissues. The selection of proper polymers, suitable surface modification techniques and the control of the dimension and arrangement of the fibrous structure of electrospun fibers can offer versatility and tissue specificity, and therefore provide a blueprint for specific tissue engineering applications. (paper)

  11. Applications of synchrotron radiation to Chemical Engineering Science: Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains extended abstracts that summarize presentations made at the Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Chemical Engineering Science held at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, on April 22--23, 1991. The talks emphasized the application of techniques involving absorption fluorescence, diffraction, and reflection of synchrotron x-rays, with a focus on problems in applied chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as on the use of x-rays in topographic, tomographic, and lithographic procedures. The attendees at the workshop included experts in the field of synchrotron science, scientists and engineers from ANL, other national laboratories, industry, and universities; and graduate and undergraduate students who were enrolled in ANL educational programs at the time of the workshop. Talks in the Plenary and Overview Session described the status of and special capabilities to be offered by the Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as strategies and opportunities for utilization of synchrotron radiation to solve science and engineering problems. Invited talks given in subsequent sessions covered the use of intense infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray photon beams (as provided by synchrotrons) in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering research related to electrochemical and corrosion science, catalyst development and characterization, lithography and imaging techniques, and microanalysis

  12. Applications of synchrotron radiation to Chemical Engineering Science: Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    This report contains extended abstracts that summarize presentations made at the Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Chemical Engineering Science held at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, on April 22--23, 1991. The talks emphasized the application of techniques involving absorption fluorescence, diffraction, and reflection of synchrotron x-rays, with a focus on problems in applied chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as on the use of x-rays in topographic, tomographic, and lithographic procedures. The attendees at the workshop included experts in the field of synchrotron science, scientists and engineers from ANL, other national laboratories, industry, and universities; and graduate and undergraduate students who were enrolled in ANL educational programs at the time of the workshop. Talks in the Plenary and Overview Session described the status of and special capabilities to be offered by the Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as strategies and opportunities for utilization of synchrotron radiation to solve science and engineering problems. Invited talks given in subsequent sessions covered the use of intense infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray photon beams (as provided by synchrotrons) in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering research related to electrochemical and corrosion science, catalyst development and characterization, lithography and imaging techniques, and microanalysis.

  13. Nuclear fuel cycle programs of Argonne's Chemical Engineering Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory's Chemical Engineering Division is actively involved in the research, development and demonstration of nuclear fuel cycle technologies for the United States Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, Generation IV, and Yucca Mountain programs. This paper summarizes current technology development initiatives within the Division that address the needs of the United States' advanced nuclear energy programs. (authors)

  14. Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanneganti, Kumud; Simon, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The transport of potassium permanganate between two continuous-stirred vessels was investigated to help chemical and biomedical engineering students understand two-compartment pharmacokinetic models. Concepts of modeling, mass balance, parameter estimation and Laplace transform were applied to the two-unit process. A good agreement was achieved…

  15. Exploring Simulator Use in the Preparation of Chemical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerrick, Randy; Lund, Carl; Lee, Yonghee

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript, we report the impact of students' usage of a simulator in the preparation of chemical engineers. This case study was conducted using content pretest and posttests, survey questionnaires, interviews, classroom observations, and an analysis of students' written response to design problems. Results showed the use of simulator was…

  16. Application of Plagiarism Screening Software in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Matthew E.; Bullard, Lisa G.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is an area of increasing concern for written ChE assignments, such as laboratory and design reports, due to ease of access to text and other materials via the internet. This study examines the application of plagiarism screening software to four courses in a university chemical engineering curriculum. The effectiveness of plagiarism…

  17. Computer Programs for Chemical Engineering, Volume VI: Stagewise Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, James H., Ed.

    Presented are some computer programs for undergraduate students. These computer programs were designed for use in standard chemical engineering courses such as kinetics, control, thermodynamics, transport, stagewise operation, and stoichiometry. Each of the 17 computer programs is presented in a separate section. Each section presents problem…

  18. Incorporating Computational Chemistry into the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    A graduate-level computational chemistry course was designed and developed and carried out in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Worcester Polytechnic Institute in the Fall of 2005. The thrust of the course was a reaction assignment that led students through a series of steps, beginning with energetic predictions based upon fundamental…

  19. Microfluidics and Microfabrication in a Chemical Engineering Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Shivaun D.

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidics, the manipulation of fluids in channels with micron dimensions, has emerged as an exciting new field that impacts the broad area of nano/microtechnology. This is an important area to train the next generation of chemical engineers. This paper describes an experiment where students are given a problem to design a microfluidic mixer…

  20. Metabolic engineering of yeast for production of fuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jens; Larsson, Christer; van Maris, Antonius; Pronk, Jack

    2013-06-01

    Microbial production of fuels and chemicals from renewable carbohydrate feedstocks offers sustainable and economically attractive alternatives to their petroleum-based production. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae offers many advantages as a platform cell factory for such applications. Already applied on a huge scale for bioethanol production, this yeast is easy to genetically engineer, its physiology, metabolism and genetics have been intensively studied and its robustness enables it to handle harsh industrial conditions. Introduction of novel pathways and optimization of its native cellular processes by metabolic engineering are rapidly expanding its range of cell-factory applications. Here we review recent scientific progress in metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae for the production of bioethanol, advanced biofuels, and chemicals. PMID:23611565

  1. Plasma-chemical surface engineering of wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sokołowska

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Wood infiltrated with nano-silica hydrosol forms a “weak”, irregular composite of components bound with hydrogen bonds only. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of low-energy ions bombardment on the structure and properties of the surface of this composite. The aim of these investigations was to produce a shallow “buried” layer of a dense wood-ceramic composite on a wood surface .Design/methodology/approach: D.c. glow-discharge in N2/H2 (9:11 atmosphere under a pressure of 4hPa was the source of ions. A beech plate was placed on the cathode. The temperature of wood was 200°C. The material collected from the wood-silica composite surface was investigated with FTIR spectroscopy and SEM observations. The surface energy was determined with the use of contact angle measurements.Findings: The ions influenced silica only. The nano-particles underwent sintering changing its medium size twice and a small I.R. peak of N2 trapped in SiO2 suggest the possibility of silica nitriding. A buried, continual surface layer of sintered silica did not form. The surface energy of the “wood-silica” plate was slightly decreased after plasma treatment.Research limitations/implications: The results proved the possibility of plasma treatment of wood even in a d.c. glow-discharge under low pressure. Silica sintering, a difficult process which in a thermal way has to be carried out at a temperature of 1000°C, taking place in a plasma at a temperature of 200°C showed the very special nature of an influence of ions.Originality/value: The plasma surface treatment of wood in the d.c. glow-discharge (GD under reduced pressure has not been investigated. There are only publications about glow-dielectric-barrier-discharge (GDBD at atmospheric pressure applications for wood surface modification. The energy of ions in GDBD is much smaller than that of ions in GD and therefore the application of glow discharge under reduced pressure to

  2. Approaches to engineer stability of beetle luciferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Koksharov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Luciferase enzymes from fireflies and other beetles have many important applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, analytical chemistry and several other areas. Many novel beetle luciferases with promising properties have been reported in the recent years. However, actual and potential applications of wild-type beetle luciferases are often limited by insufficient stability or decrease in activity of the enzyme at the conditions of a particular assay. Various examples of genetic engineering of the enhanced beetle luciferases have been reported that successfully solve or alleviate many of these limitations. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in development of mutant luciferases with improved stability and activity characteristics. It discusses the common limitations of wild-type luciferases in different applications and presents the efficient approaches that can be used to address these problems.

  3. Defect-engineered graphene chemical sensors with ultrahigh sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geonyeop; Yang, Gwangseok; Cho, Ara; Han, Jeong Woo; Kim, Jihyun

    2016-05-25

    We report defect-engineered graphene chemical sensors with ultrahigh sensitivity (e.g., 33% improvement in NO2 sensing and 614% improvement in NH3 sensing). A conventional reactive ion etching system was used to introduce the defects in a controlled manner. The sensitivity of graphene-based chemical sensors increased with increasing defect density until the vacancy-dominant region was reached. In addition, the mechanism of gas sensing was systematically investigated via experiments and density functional theory calculations, which indicated that the vacancy defect is a major contributing factor to the enhanced sensitivity. This study revealed that defect engineering in graphene has significant potential for fabricating ultra-sensitive graphene chemical sensors. PMID:26679757

  4. A Chemical Engineering Perspective on the Origins of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A. Grover

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Atoms and molecules assemble into materials, with the material structure determining the properties and ultimate function. Human-made materials and systems have achieved great complexity, such as the integrated circuit and the modern airplane. However, they still do not rival the adaptivity and robustness of biological systems. Understanding the reaction and assembly of molecules on the early Earth is a scientific grand challenge, and also can elucidate the design principles underlying biological materials and systems. This research requires understanding of chemical reactions, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer, optimization, and control. Thus, the discipline of chemical engineering can play a central role in advancing the field. In this paper, an overview of research in the origins field is given, with particular emphasis on the origin of biopolymers and the role of chemical engineering phenomena. A case study is presented to highlight the importance of the environment and its coupling to the chemistry.

  5. Book of abstracts Chemical Engineering: IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists. Plenary reports. Engineering of inorganic substances and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the given volume of abstracts of the IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists (Moscow, March 18-23, 2012) there are the abstracts of the reports concerning chemical engineering of inorganic substances and materials. The abstracts deal with state-of-the-art and future development of theoretical and experimental investigations as well as with experience in practical realization of development works in the field of chemical engineering and relative areas

  6. The History of Chemical Engineering and Pedagogy: The Paradox of Tradition and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankat, Phillip C.

    2009-01-01

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology started the first US chemical engineering program six score years ago. Since that time, the chemical engineering curriculum has evolved. The latest versions of the curriculum are attempts to broaden chemical engineering to add product engineering, biology and nanotechnology to the traditional process…

  7. Curriculum Assessment as a Direct Tool in ABET Outcomes Assessment in a Chemical Engineering Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Al-Attar, Hazim

    2010-01-01

    The chemical engineering programme at the United Arab Emirates University is designed to fulfil the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) (A-K) EC2000 criteria. The Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering has established a well-defined process for outcomes assessment for the chemical engineering programme in order to…

  8. MULTIDISCIPLINARY PROJECTS FOR SECOND YEAR CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARWAN M. SHAMEL

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the second semester of the second year of a Mechanical Engineering course, students are supposed to take a Module Outside the Main Discipline (MOMD. This module is chosen to be “Product Design Exercise” a module that is offered to Chemical Engineering students at the same stage. The aim was to expose students from both disciplines to an environment in which they are encouraged to interact with and engage team members with a relatively different background. The students were divided into eight groups all comprised of Chemical and Mechanical Engineering students, and they were offered different open-ended projects that were selected to exploit the knowledge developed by the students thus far and they were slightly skewed towards Chemical Engineering. The students demonstrated a high level of cooperation and motivation throughout the period of the project. Effective communication and closing of knowledge gaps were prevalent. At the end of the project period, students produced a journal paper in lieu of the project report.

  9. Chemical bond approach to metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BCS theory of superconductivity was extended to the transition elements and their alloys by a chemical bond approach based on the electronic configurations of the Engel-- Brewer theory of alloys. The net attractive potential between electrons in Cooper pairs, V/sub BCS/, for the late transition series elements and alloys is shown to arise mainly from a generalized electron--electron interaction related to bonding of electrons on the d level alone, the phonon-induced attraction being nearly zero. A mechanism is proposed in which a scattering of superconducting d electrons into nonsuperconducting s and p states is responsible for a predictable reduction in V/sub BCS/. The electron-per-atom ratio and a new chemical parameter, the average atomic radius for coordination twelve, were applied successfully to the prediction of the maximum energy product of multiphase commercial permanent magnets. The correlations developed for the maximum energy product with these two parameters can be applied to optimize the compositions of existing permanent magnets or suggest hypothetical alloy mixtures of possibly better magnetic properties. Heats of reaction of the

  10. An Approach for Evolution-Driven Method Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Ralyte, Jolita; Rolland, Colette; Ben Ayed, Mohamed

    2003-01-01

    The paper considers the evolutionary perspective of the method engineering. It presents an approach for method engineering based on the evolution of an existing method, model or meta-model into a new one satisfying different engineering objective. This approach proposes several different strategies to evolve the initial paradigm model into a new one and provides guidelines supporting these strategies. The approach has been evaluated in the Franco-Japanese research project around the Lyee meth...

  11. `Human nature': Chemical engineering students' ideas about human relationships with the natural world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Daphne; Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Shemesh, Julia

    2014-05-01

    While importance of environmental ethics, as a component of sustainable development, in preparing engineers is widely acknowledged, little research has addressed chemical engineers' environmental concerns. This study aimed to address this void by exploring chemical engineering students' values regarding human-nature relationships. The study was conducted with 247 3rd-4th year chemical engineering students in Israeli Universities. It employed the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP)-questionnaire to which students added written explanations. Quantitative analysis of NEP-scale results shows that the students demonstrated moderately ecocentric orientation. Explanations to the NEP-items reveal diverse, ambivalent ideas regarding the notions embodied in the NEP, strong scientific orientation and reliance on technology for addressing environmental challenges. Endorsing sustainability implies that today's engineers be equipped with an ecological perspective. The capacity of Higher Education to enable engineers to develop dispositions about human-nature interrelationships requires adaptation of curricula towards multidisciplinary, integrative learning addressing social-political-economic-ethical perspectives, and implementing critical-thinking within the socio-scientific issues pedagogical approach.

  12. Software quality engineering a practitioner's approach

    CERN Document Server

    Suryn, Witold

    2014-01-01

    Software quality stems from two distinctive, but associated, topics in software engineering: software functional quality and software structural quality. Software Quality Engineering studies the tenets of both of these notions, which focus on the efficiency and value of a design, respectively. The text addresses engineering quality on both the application and system levels with attention to Information Systems and Embedded Systems as well as recent developments. Targeted at graduate engineering students and software quality specialists, the book analyzes the relationship between functionality

  13. A modular approach to cardiac tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Brendan M; Sefton, Michael V

    2010-10-01

    Functional cardiac tissue was prepared using a modular tissue engineering approach with the goal of creating vascularized tissue. Rat aortic endothelial cells (RAEC) were seeded onto submillimeter-sized modules made of type I bovine collagen supplemented with Matrigel™ (25% v/v) embedded with cardiomyocyte (CM)-enriched neonatal rat heart cells and assembled into a contractile, macroporous, sheet-like construct. Modules (without RAEC) cultured in 10% bovine serum (BS) were more contractile and responsive to external stimulus (lower excitation threshold, higher maximum capture rate, and greater en face fractional area changes) than modules cultured in 10% fetal BS. Incorporating 25% Matrigel in the matrix reduced the excitation threshold and increased the fractional area change relative to collagen only modules (without RAEC). A coculture medium, containing 10% BS, low Mg2+ (0.814mM), and normal glucose (5.5mM), was used to maintain RAEC junction morphology (VE-cadherin) and CM contractility, although the responsiveness of CM was attenuated with RAEC on the modules. Macroporous, sheet-like module constructs were assembled by partially immobilizing a layer of modules in alginate gel until day 8, with or without RAEC. RAEC/CM module sheets were electrically responsive; however, like modules with RAEC this responsiveness was attenuated relative to CM-only sheets. Muscle bundles coexpressing cardiac troponin I and connexin-43 were evident near the perimeter of modules and at intermodule junctions. These results suggest the potential of the modular approach as a platform for building vascularized cardiac tissue. PMID:20504074

  14. Applying Agile Requirements Engineering Approach for Re-engineering & Changes in existing Brownfield Adaptive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Masood, Abdullah; Ali, M. Asim

    2014-01-01

    Requirements Engineering (RE) is a key activity in the development of software systems and is concerned with the identification of the goals of stakeholders and their elaboration into precise statements of desired services and behavior. The research describes an Agile Requirements Engineering approach for re-engineering & changes in existing Brownfield adaptive system. The approach has few modifications that can be used as a part of SCRUM development process for re-engineering & changes. The ...

  15. Engineering Sustainability: A Technical Approach to Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Marc A. Rosen

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability is a critically important goal for human activity and development. Sustainability in the area of engineering is of great importance to any plans for overall sustainability given 1) the pervasiveness of engineering activities in societies, 2) their importance in economic development and living standards, and 3) the significant impacts that engineering processes and systems have had, and continue to have, on the environment. Many factors that need to be considered and appropriate...

  16. Cyanobacterial chassis engineering for enhancing production of biofuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinyan; Sun, Tao; Pei, Guangsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2016-04-01

    To reduce dependence on fossil fuels and curb greenhouse effect, cyanobacteria have emerged as an important chassis candidate for producing biofuels and chemicals due to their capability to directly utilize sunlight and CO2 as the sole energy and carbon sources, respectively. Recent progresses in developing and applying various synthetic biology tools have led to the successful constructions of novel pathways of several dozen green fuels and chemicals utilizing cyanobacterial chassis. Meanwhile, it is increasingly recognized that in order to enhance productivity of the synthetic cyanobacterial systems, optimizing and engineering more robust and high-efficient cyanobacterial chassis should not be omitted. In recent years, numerous research studies have been conducted to enhance production of green fuels and chemicals through cyanobacterial chassis modifications involving photosynthesis, CO2 uptake and fixation, products exporting, tolerance, and cellular regulation. In this article, we critically reviewed recent progresses and universal strategies in cyanobacterial chassis engineering to make it more robust and effective for bio-chemicals production. PMID:26883347

  17. Metabolic engineering is key to a sustainable chemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Annabel C

    2011-08-01

    The depletion of fossil fuel stocks will prohibit their use as the main feedstock of future industrial processes. Biocatalysis is being increasingly used to reduce fossil fuel reliance and to improve the sustainability, efficiency and cost of chemical production. Even with their current small market share, biocatalyzed processes already generate approximately US$50 billion and it has been estimated that they could be used to produce up to 20% of fine chemicals by 2020. Until the advent of molecular biological technologies, the compounds that were readily accessible from renewable biomass were restricted to naturally-occurring metabolites. However, metabolic engineering has considerably broadened the range of compounds now accessible, providing access to compounds that cannot be otherwise reliably sourced, as well as replacing established chemical processes. This review presents the case for continued efforts to promote the adoption of biocatalyzed processes, highlighting successful examples of industrial chemical production from biomass and/or via biocatalyzed processes. A selection of emerging technologies that may further extend the potential and sustainability of biocatalysis are also presented. As the field matures, metabolic engineering will be increasingly crucial in maintaining our quality of life into a future where our current resources and feedstocks cannot be relied upon. PMID:21666928

  18. Engineering Education: Environmental and Chemical Engineering or Technology Curricula--A European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavic, Peter; Lukman, Rebeka; Lozano, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Over recent years, universities have been incorporating sustainable development (SD) into their systems, including their curricula. This article analyses the incorporation of SD into the curricula of chemical and environmental engineering or technology bachelor degrees at universities in the European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association…

  19. CHISA 2014 – Worldwide Chemical Engineers Meet in the Heart of Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křišťál, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2015), s. 574. ISSN 0930-7516 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : chemical engineering * CHISA 2014 Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.442, year: 2014

  20. Integrating chemical engineering fundamentals in the capstone process design project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Woodley, John; Johnsson, Jan Erik;

    2010-01-01

    All B.Eng. courses offered at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) must now follow CDIO standards. The final “capstone” course in the B.Eng. education is Process Design, which for many years has been typical of chemical engineering curricula worldwide. The course at DTU typically has about 30...... receive. The education is designed to provide students with the necessary tools to become productive in a company in a short time – so there is a strong industrial focus. Some students choose to continue with their studies and can then complete an M.Sc. after a further two years of study. The demands of...... chemical plants will incorporate one or more chemical reactors. In the initial stages of a process design, it is sufficient to express simply the reactor inputs and outputs. However in later stages, details about the reactor need to be specified. This is only possible using tools learned in the course...

  1. Integration of engineering and artistic approach in the design process

    OpenAIRE

    Shylov, A. I.; Kharkov National Automobile and Highway University, Ukraine; Dumbur, A. E.; Kharkov National Automobile and Highway University; Crykun, A. A.; Kharkov National Automobile and Highway University

    2012-01-01

    This  article  deals  with  the  problems  of  designing  new  vehicles associated with the necessity of combining engineering and artistic approaches in a project bike, the need to integrate the engineering and artistic approaches to the use of modern computer technology. This  article  deals  with  the  problems  of  designing  new  vehicles associated with the necessity of combining engineering and artistic approaches in a project bike, the need to integrate the engineering and artistic...

  2. An Innovative Approach for online Meta Search Engine Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Manral, Jai; Hossain, Mohammed Alamgir

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to identify efficient techniques used in Web Search Engine Optimization (SEO). Understanding SEO factors which can influence page ranking in search engine is significant for webmasters who wish to attract large number of users to their website. Different from previous relevant research, in this study we developed an intelligent Meta search engine which aggregates results from various search engines and ranks them based on several important SEO parameters. The r...

  3. An alternative Approach to Power Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Havemann (retired June, 2000), Henrik

    In a drive to attract more students, three new courses have been introduced at the Department of Electric Power Engineering of the Technical University of Denmark. Among many students, power engineering has a reputation of being old-fashioned and static, whereas information technology is regarded...

  4. Engineering Students' Sustainability Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The…

  5. Showcasing Chemical Engineering Principles through the Production of Biodiesel from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendall, Sophie; Birdsall-Wilson, Max; Jenkins, Rhodri; Chew, Y. M. John; Chuck, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical engineering is rarely encountered before higher-level education in the U.S. or in Europe, leaving prospective students unaware of what an applied chemistry or chemical engineering degree entails. In this lab experiment, we report the implementation of a three-day course to showcase chemical engineering principles for 16-17 year olds…

  6. Chemical engineering and chemistry: education in a changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijenga Jetse C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Current trends in science and engineering research are analyzed, together with an inventory of changes in the field of employment and practice in industry. The resulting demands on the university education of chemists and chemical engineers have been translated into a more or less continuous updating of the curriculum at the Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry of the Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. In general it can be said that the emphasis within education will have to shift from the knowledge of facts, towards the ability to apply this knowledge to the process of solving problems in a realistic setting. Two topics will be highlighted. Multidisciplinary project group work was successfully introduced to enable students to apply theoretical knowledge to real life situations in a professional (industrial context, resulting among others in a sharper focus on communication skills. On the other hand, knowledge of theory and experimental practice are combined and augmented by the increased use of experiment simulations for illustration, demonstration and experimentation purposes. Here, the increased use of information technology facilities and skills is essential.

  7. Knowledge Engineering Approach to the Geotectonic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenichny, Cyril

    2014-05-01

    The intellectual challenge of geotectonics is, and always was, much harder than that of most of the sciences: geotectonics has to say much when there is objectively not too much to say. As the target of study (the genesis of regional and planetary geological structures) is vast and multidisciplinary and is more or less generic for many geological disciplines, its more or less complete description is practically inachievable. Hence, the normal pathway of natural-scientific research - first acquire data, then draw conclusion - unlikely can be the case here. Geotectonics does quite the opposite; its approach is purely abductive: first to suggest a conceptualization (hypothesis) based on some external grounds (either general planetary/cosmic/philosophic/religious considerations, or based on experience gained from research of other structures/regions/planets) and then to acquire data that either support or refute it. In fact, geotectonics defines the context for data acquisition, and hence, the paradigm for the entire body of geology. Being an obvious necessity for a descriptive science, this nevertheless creates a number of threats: • Like any people, scientists like simplicity and unity, and therefore a single geotectonic hypothesis may seem preferable once based on the data available at the moment and oppress other views which may acquire evidence in the future; • As impartial data acquisition is rather a myth than reality even in most of the natural sciences, in a study like geology this process becomes strongly biased by the reigning hypothesis and controlled to supply only supportive evidence; • It becomes collectively agreed that any, or great many, domains of geological knowledge are determined by a geotectonic concept, which is, in turn, offered by a reigning hypothesis (sometimes reclassified as theory) - e.g., exploration geologists must involve the global geotectonic terminology in their technical reports on assessment of mineral or hydrocarbon

  8. An integrated turbocharger design approach to improve engine performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Turbocharging technology is today considered as a promising way for internal combustion engine energy saving and CO2 reduction.Turbocharger design is a major challenge for turbocharged engine performance improvement.The turbocharger designer must draw upon the information of engine operation conditions,and an appropriate link between the engine requirements and design features must be carefully developed to generate the most suitable design recommendation.The objective of this research is to develop a turbocharger design approach for better turbocharger matching to an internal combustion engine.The development of the approach is based on the concept of turbocharger design and interaction links between engine cycle requirements and design parameter values.A turbocharger through flow model is then used to generate the design alternatives.This integrated method has been applied with success to a gasoline engine turbocharger assembly.

  9. Interdisciplinary Approach to Software Engineering Education

    OpenAIRE

    Karlheinz Blankenbach; Hans-Georg Koeglmayr; Alfred Schaetter; Markus Nippa

    2009-01-01

    One of the most serious problems in software engineering projects is the communication between users and developers. It is widely recognized that communication problems are a major factor in the delay and failure of software projects. During university education, students are usually well-skilled in programming languages, hard- and software engineering tools and project management. This paper provides theoretical background and some successful examples how we train our students under 'real wo...

  10. Molecular and Chemical Engineering of Bacteriophages for Potential Medical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hodyra, Katarzyna; Dąbrowska, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in molecular engineering has contributed to the great progress of medicine. However, there are still difficult problems constituting a challenge for molecular biology and biotechnology, e.g. new generation of anticancer agents, alternative biosensors or vaccines. As a biotechnological tool, bacteriophages (phages) offer a promising alternative to traditional approaches. They can be applied as anticancer agents, novel platforms in vaccine design, or as target carriers in drug d...

  11. Design Science Research – an engineering research approach to improve methods for engineering education research

    OpenAIRE

    Carstensen, Anna-Karin; Bernhard, Jonte

    2015-01-01

    Modelling is an engineering activity commonly used by engineers, and can be used also in engineering education research (EER). The use of qualitative research methods have in EER not always been widely accepted but have recently gained more attention (Case & Light, 2011). There are, however, also qualitative research methods in engineering research that may be used in EER (Bernhard, in press). One such approach is design science research, where the object of research is the design process...

  12. Integrating chemical engineering fundamentals in the capstone process design project

    OpenAIRE

    von Solms, Nicolas; Woodley, John; Johnsson, Jan Erik; Abildskov, Jens

    2010-01-01

    All B.Eng. courses offered at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) must now follow CDIO standards. The final “capstone” course in the B.Eng. education is Process Design, which for many years has been typical of chemical engineering curricula worldwide. The course at DTU typically has about 30 students. The B.Eng. education lasts for 3½ years (seven semesters), of which the 5th semester consists of practical training with a company and the final (7th) semester consists of a research proje...

  13. Engineered Barrier Systems Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical Column Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.E. Lowry

    2001-12-13

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical (THC) Column Tests provide data needed for model validation. The EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Modeling Report (PMR) will be based on supporting models for in-drift THC coupled processes, and the in-drift physical and chemical environment. These models describe the complex chemical interaction of EBS materials, including granular materials, with the thermal and hydrologic conditions that will be present in the repository emplacement drifts. Of particular interest are the coupled processes that result in mineral and salt dissolution/precipitation in the EBS environment. Test data are needed for thermal, hydrologic, and geochemical model validation and to support selection of introduced materials (CRWMS M&O 1999c). These column tests evaluated granular crushed tuff as potential invert ballast or backfill material, under accelerated thermal and hydrologic environments. The objectives of the THC column testing are to: (1) Characterize THC coupled processes that could affect performance of EBS components, particularly the magnitude of permeability reduction (increases or decreases), the nature of minerals produced, and chemical fractionation (i.e., concentrative separation of salts and minerals due to boiling-point elevation). (2) Generate data for validating THC predictive models that will support the EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport PMR, Rev. 01.

  14. Engineered Barrier System Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical Column Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical (THC) Column Tests provide data needed for model validation. The EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Modeling Report (PMR) will be based on supporting models for in-drift THC coupled processes, and the in-drift physical and chemical environment. These models describe the complex chemical interaction of EBS materials, including granular materials, with the thermal and hydrologic conditions that will be present in the repository emplacement drifts. Of particular interest are the coupled processes that result in mineral and salt dissolution/precipitation in the EBS environment. Test data are needed for thermal, hydrologic, and geochemical model validation and to support selection of introduced materials (CRWMS M and O 1999c). These column tests evaluated granular crushed tuff as potential invert ballast or backfill material, under accelerated thermal and hydrologic environments. The objectives of the THC column testing are to: (1) Characterize THC coupled processes that could affect performance of EBS components, particularly the magnitude of permeability reduction (increases or decreases), the nature of minerals produced, and chemical fractionation (i.e., concentrative separation of salts and minerals due to boiling-point elevation). (2) Generate data for validating THC predictive models that will support the EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport PMR, Rev. 01

  15. Interdisciplinary Approach to Software Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlheinz Blankenbach

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious problems in software engineering projects is the communication between users and developers. It is widely recognized that communication problems are a major factor in the delay and failure of software projects. During university education, students are usually well-skilled in programming languages, hard- and software engineering tools and project management. This paper provides theoretical background and some successful examples how we train our students under 'real world' conditions within software projects at the university e.g. to work in teams or to communicate with different stakeholders? Both method and employability result in excellent ratings.

  16. Engineering education: environmental and chemical engineering or technology curricula - a European perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Glavič, Peter; Lukman, Rebeka; Lozano, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Over recent years, universities have been incorporating sustainable development (SD) into their systems, including their curricula. This article analyses the incorporation of SD into the curricula of chemical and environmental engineering or technology bachelor degrees at universities in the European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) states. Available textbooks of some courses were analysed regarding their content and pedagogical-didactical perspectives based on a revised ...

  17. Using vegetable oils and animal fats in Diesel Engines: chemical analyses and engine texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, some vegetable oils (rapeseed oil, palm oil) and animal fat were tested in a Diesel engine at a range of engine spreads and torque settings, after preheating at 700C. Engine performance, fuel consumption and NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons and soot emissions have been recorded. The results have been compared to those obtained with diesel fuel in the same test conditions. The oils and fats were also analyzed for their physical and chemical properties (viscosity, composition, unsaturation, heating value). NOx emissions were found to be lower for the oils than for the diesel fuel. This, combined with higher HC emissions, can probably be explained through less effective atomization due to the higher viscosity of the oils and fat. On the other hand, soot emissions were found to decrease.

  18. Maximum-efficiency architectures for steady-flow combustion engines, I: Attractor trajectory optimization approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present a new systematic optimization approach to identify maximum-efficiency architectures for steady-flow combustion engines. Engine architectures are modeled as trajectories in the thermodynamic state space, and the optimal engine architecture is deduced by minimization of total irreversibility over all permissible trajectories that satisfy device constraints. In the past, both parametric and functional minimizations of engine irreversibility have been studied extensively. Our approach combines the functional optimization aspect (i.e., optimization of the process sequence or engine cycle) and the parametric optimization aspect (i.e., optimization of process lengths or parameters in the engine cycle) to identify the maximum-efficiency architecture permitted by physics. The concept central to this approach is that of chemical-equilibrium attractor states in the thermodynamic state space. It enables semi-analytical optimization for reactive engines with no need to model the detailed combustion dynamics. In this study we present the motivation and theoretical details of this method. In Part II of this study, this approach is applied to optimize the class of simple-cycle gas turbine engines. It is shown that even with modest device technology (e.g., turbine inlet temperature of 1650 K), maximum efficiency above 50% can be achieved in simple-cycle engines. - Highlights: • New irreversibility-minimization approach to identify maximum-efficiency architecture for steady-flow combustion engines. • Establishes both the optimal process sequence (engine cycle) and optimal process-length parameters. • Includes minimization of combustion irreversibility

  19. Recent Approaches in Tooth Engineering Research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švandová, Eva; Veselá, Barbora; Křivánek, J.; Hampl, A.; Matalová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, Suppl 1 (2014), s. 21-29. ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/11/1418; GA MZd(CZ) NT11420 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : engineering * tooth * stem cells * culture techniques Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2014

  20. Engineering Microbial Chemical Factories to Produce Renewable ‘Biomonomers’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DavidR.Nielsen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available By applying metabolic engineering tools and strategies to engineer synthetic enzyme pathways, the number and diversity of commodity and specialty chemicals that can be derived directly from renewable feedstocks is rapidly and continually expanding. This of course includes a number of monomer building-block chemicals that can be used to produce replacements to many conventional plastic materials. This review aims to highlight numerous recent and important advancements in the microbial production of these so-called ‘biomonomers’. Relative to naturally-occurring renewable bioplastics, biomonomers offer several important advantages, including improved control over the final polymer structure and purity, the ability to synthesize non-natural copolymers, and allowing products to be excreted from cells which ultimately streamlines downstream recovery and purification. To highlight these features, a handful of biomonomers have been selected as illustrative examples of recent works, including polyamide monomers, styrenic vinyls, hydroxyacids, and diols. Where appropriate, examples of their industrial penetration to date and end-product uses are also highlighted. Novel biomonomers such as these are ultimately paving the way towards new classes of renewable bioplastics that possess a broader diversity of properties than ever before possible.

  1. Road Transport Congestion Costs Calculations-Adaptation to Engineering Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Marjan Lep; Beno Mesarec

    2008-01-01

    The article represents so called engineering approach for computing the total road transport congestion costs. According to economic welfare theory, the total costs of transport congestion are defined as dead weight loss (DWL) of infrastructure use. With a set of equations DWL could be formulated in a mathematical way. Because such form of equation is not directly applicable for concrete road network calculations it should be transformed into engineering form, which comprises transport engine...

  2. Modular co-culture engineering, a new approach for metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoran; Wang, Xiaonan

    2016-09-01

    With the development of metabolic engineering, employment of a selected microbial host for accommodation of a designed biosynthetic pathway to produce a target compound has achieved tremendous success in the past several decades. Yet, increasing requirements for sophisticated microbial biosynthesis call for establishment and application of more advanced metabolic engineering methodologies. Recently, important progress has been made towards employing more than one engineered microbial strains to constitute synthetic co-cultures and modularizing the biosynthetic labor between the co-culture members in order to improve bioproduction performance. This emerging approach, referred to as modular co-culture engineering in this review, presents a valuable opportunity for expanding the scope of the broad field of metabolic engineering. We highlight representative research accomplishments using this approach, especially those utilizing metabolic engineering tools for microbial co-culture manipulation. Key benefits and major challenges associated with modular co-culture engineering are also presented and discussed. PMID:27242132

  3. Summaries of the 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry has been held in Gdansk on 22-26 September 1997. The most valuable scientific results obtained in Polish Laboratories have been presented in 22 main sections and 7 symposia directed especially at following subjects: analytical chemistry, biochemistry, solid state chemistry and material science, physical chemistry, heteroorganic and coordination chemistry, medical and pharmaceutical chemistry, metalorganic chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry, polymers chemistry, chemistry and environment protection, theoretical chemistry, chemical didactics, photochemistry, radiation chemistry and chemical kinetics, chemical engineering, catalysis, crystallochemistry, chemical technology, electrochemistry, and instrumental methods

  4. Chemical and Biophysical Modulation of Cas9 for Tunable Genome Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, James K; Harrington, Lucas B; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2016-03-18

    The application of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for genome engineering has revolutionized the ability to interrogate genomes of mammalian cells. Programming the Cas9 endonuclease to induce DNA breaks at specified sites is achieved by simply modifying the sequence of its cognate guide RNA. Although Cas9-mediated genome editing has been shown to be highly specific, cleavage events at off-target sites have also been reported. Minimizing, and eventually abolishing, unwanted off-target cleavage remains a major goal of the CRISPR-Cas9 technology before its implementation for therapeutic use. Recent efforts have turned to chemical biology and biophysical approaches to engineer inducible genome editing systems for controlling Cas9 activity at the transcriptional and protein levels. Here, we review recent advancements to modulate Cas9-mediated genome editing by engineering split-Cas9 constructs, inteins, small molecules, protein-based dimerizing domains, and light-inducible systems. PMID:26857072

  5. An engineering approach to hydrogen education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aklil, D. [Pure Energy Centre, Unst (United Kingdom); MacIver, R.D. [Comhairle nan Eilean Siar, Technical Services, Stornoway (United Kingdom); MacLeod, A [Lews Castle College, Stornoway (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogen technologies coupled with renewables and vehicles have attracted much interest from the young to the elderly. Lews Castle College has adopted a new and successful teaching and research approach to help students understand the effect of hydrogen scalability and how to properly handle hydrogen technologies. The approach is student led, rather than lecturer led. This paper reported on student progress with this approach and the type of applications that have been suggested by students. The many positive outcomes from this approach indicate that student led projects positively affect project results.

  6. Dialectic approach to multidisciplinary practice in requirements engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Denley, I. S.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis develops an approach that supports multidisciplinary practice in requirements engineering. It is argued that multidisciplinary requirements engineering practice is ineffective, and some specific problems for multidisciplinary practice are identified. It is also suggested that the incommensurability of conflicting paradigms is an underlying cause of the problems in multidisciplinary practice, and a number of criteria for support to overcome such problems are proposed...

  7. Design Approaches and Comparison of TAPS Packages for Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, S. Manjit

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper's purpose is to promote the use of modern technologies such as multimedia packages to engineering students. The aim is to help them to learning in their learning, visualization, problem solving and understanding engineering concepts such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: TAPS packages are developed to help…

  8. System engineering approach to planning anticancer therapies

    CERN Document Server

    Świerniak, Andrzej; Smieja, Jaroslaw; Puszynski, Krzysztof; Psiuk-Maksymowicz, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the analysis of cancer dynamics and the mathematically based synthesis of anticancer therapy. It summarizes the current state-of-the-art in this field and clarifies common misconceptions about mathematical modeling in cancer. Additionally, it encourages closer cooperation between engineers, physicians and mathematicians by showing the clear benefits of this without stating unrealistic goals. Development of therapy protocols is realized from an engineering point of view, such as the search for a solution to a specific control-optimization problem. Since in the case of cancer patients, consecutive measurements providing information about the current state of the disease are not available, the control laws are derived for an open loop structure. Different forms of therapy are incorporated into the models, from chemotherapy and antiangiogenic therapy to immunotherapy and gene therapy, but the class of models introduced is broad enough to incorporate other forms of therapy as well. The book be...

  9. Greenhouse engineering: New technologies and approaches

    OpenAIRE

    J. I. Montero; Henten, van, J.W.; Son, J.E.; Castilla, N.

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, this article discusses the greenhouse engineering situation in three geographic areas which are relevant in the field of protected cultivation: Northern Asia, The Netherlands and the Mediterranean. For each area, the prevailing greenhouse type and equipment is briefly described. Secondly, the main technological constraints are pointed out and finally the research directions are discussed. For all areas under consideration, attempts to design more efficient greenhouse systems are unde...

  10. Lessons Learned from One-Week Concurrent Engineering Study Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Braukhane, Andy; Romberg, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    The present paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the one-week Concurrent Engineering (CE) study approach applied currently in the Concurrent Engineering Faciliry (CEF) at DLR which has been operating since early 2009. Up to now, ca. 20 condensed studies have been performed at the DLR CEF. This paper compares this approach to the more stretched process, applied e. g. at ESA ESTEC’s Concurrent Design Facility (CDF). The investigation takes into account the different space systems...

  11. A nature-inspired approach to reactor and catalysis engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Coppens, M-O

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms used by biology to solve fundamental problems, such as those related to scalability, efficiency and robustness could guide the design of innovative solutions to similar challenges in chemical engineering. Complementing progress in bioinspired chemistry and materials science, we identify three methodologies as the backbone of nature-inspired reactor and catalysis engineering. First, biology often uses hierarchical networks to bridge scales and facilitate transport, leading to broadl...

  12. "Human Nature": Chemical Engineering Students' Ideas about Human Relationships with the Natural World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Daphne; Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Shemesh, Julia

    2014-01-01

    While importance of environmental ethics, as a component of sustainable development, in preparing engineers is widely acknowledged, little research has addressed chemical engineers' environmental concerns. This study aimed to address this void by exploring chemical engineering students' values regarding human-nature relationships. The…

  13. A view on chemical and biochemical engineering: Where are they going?

    OpenAIRE

    Veljković Vlada B.

    2002-01-01

    A short history of chemical and biochemical engineering is presented, both industrial and educational aspects being considered. The most important trend in the future development of bio/chemical engineering - biological engineering - is pointed out. The current state and near future of biotechnology are described.

  14. Report of the Polymer Core Course Committee: Polymer Principles for the Chemical Engineering Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Offers suggestions for introducing polymer topics into: (1) introductory chemical engineering; (2) transport phenomena and unit operations; (3) chemical engineering thermodynamics; and (4) reaction engineering. Also included for each area are examples of textbooks in current use and a few typical problems. (JN)

  15. Materials of 44. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific assemblies of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry are the most important chemical meeting organised annually in Poland. Basic as well as application studies in all chemical branches have been extensively presented. The next subjects was proposed as scientific sessions and symposia topics: solid state chemistry; didactics of chemistry; electrochemistry; biologically active compounds; geochemistry; organic chemistry; physical chemistry; environment quality and protection; coordination chemistry; chemical technology; polymers; explosive materials; analytical chemistry; theoretical chemistry

  16. Computer-Aided Multiscale Modelling for Chemical Process Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Gani, Rafiqul

    2007-01-01

    Chemical processes are generally modeled through monoscale approaches, which, while not adequate, satisfy a useful role in product-process design. In this case, use of a multi-dimensional and multi-scale model-based approach has importance in product-process development. A computer-aided framework...... for model generation, analysis, solution and implementation is necessary for the development and application of the desired model-based approach for product-centric process design/analysis. This goal is achieved through the combination of a system for model development (ModDev), and a modelling tool...... (MoT) for model translation, analysis and solution. The integration of ModDev, MoT and ICAS or any other external software or process simulator (using COM-Objects) permits the generation of different models and/or process configurations for purposes of simulation, design and analysis. Consequently, it...

  17. Engineering approach to modeling of piled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available methods of analysis of piled systems subjected to dynamic excitation invade areas of mathematics usually beyond the reach of a practising engineer. A simple technique that avoids that conflict is proposed, at least for preliminary studies, and its application, compared with other methods, is shown to be satisfactory. A corrective factor for parameters currently used to represent transmitting boundaries is derived for a finite strip that models an infinite layer. The influence of internal damping on the dynamic stiffness of the layer and on radiation damping is analysed. (Author)

  18. Radio systems engineering a tutorial approach

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Héctor J De Los; Ponte, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for readers who already have knowledge of devices and circuits for radio-frequency (RF) and microwave communication and are ready to study the systems engineering-level aspects of modern radio communications systems. The authors provide a general overview of radio systems with their components, focusing on the analog parts of the system and their non-idealities. Based on the physical functionality of the various building blocks of a modern radio system, block parameters are derived, which allows the examination of their influence on the overall system performance. The dis

  19. Chemical toxicity approach for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of an airborne release of chemical agent or toxic industrial chemical by accidental or intentional means, emergency responders must have a reasonable estimate of the location and size of the resulting hazard area. Emergency responders are responsible for warning persons downwind of the hazard to evacuate or shelter-in-place and must know where to look for casualties after the hazard has passed or dissipated. Given the same source characterization, modern hazard assessment models provide comparable concentration versus location and time estimates. Even urban hazard assessment models often provide similar predictions. There is a major shortcoming, though, in applying model output to estimating human toxicity effects. There exist a variety of toxicity values for non-lethal effects ranging from short-term to occupational to lifetime exposures. For health and safety purposes, these estimates are all safe-sided in converting animal data to human effects and in addressing the most sensitive subset of the population. In addition, these values are usually based on an assumed 1 hour exposure duration at constant concentration and do not reflect either a passing clouds concentration profile or duration. Emergency responders need expected value toxicity parameters rather than the existing safe-sided ones. This presentation will specify the types of toxicity values needed to provide appropriate chemical hazard estimates to emergency responders and will demonstrate how dramatically their use changes the hazard area.(author)

  20. Progressively Fostering Students' Chemical Information Skills in a Three-Year Chemical Engineering Program in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzi, Christel; Arnoux, Marie-Jose´; Breuzard, Jere´my; Marchal, Claire; Nikitine, Clémence; Renaudat, Alice; Toulgoat, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Literature searches are essential for scientists. Thus, courses on how to do a good literature search have been integrated in studies at CPE Lyon for many years. Recently, we modified our pedagogical approach in order to initiate students progressively in the search for chemical information. In addition, this new teaching organization is now based…

  1. An algebraic approach to modeling in software engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our work couples the formalism of universal algebras with the engineering techniques of mathematical modeling to develop a new approach to the software engineering process. Our purpose in using this combination is twofold. First, abstract data types and their specification using universal algebras can be considered a common point between the practical requirements of software engineering and the formal specification of software systems. Second, mathematical modeling principles provide us with a means for effectively analyzing real-world systems. We first use modeling techniques to analyze a system and then represent the analysis using universal algebras. The rest of the software engineering process exploits properties of universal algebras that preserve the structure of our original model. This paper describes our software engineering process and our experience using it on both research and commercial systems. We need a new approach because current software engineering practices often deliver software that is difficult to develop and maintain. Formal software engineering approaches use universal algebras to describe ''computer science'' objects like abstract data types, but in practice software errors are often caused because ''real-world'' objects are improperly modeled. There is a large semantic gap between the customer's objects and abstract data types. In contrast, mathematical modeling uses engineering techniques to construct valid models for real-world systems, but these models are often implemented in an ad hoc manner. A combination of the best features of both approaches would enable software engineering to formally specify and develop software systems that better model real systems. Software engineering, like mathematical modeling, should concern itself first and foremost with understanding a real system and its behavior under given circumstances, and then with expressing this knowledge in an executable form

  2. Technology approach to aero engine noise reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neise, W.; Enghardt, L. [Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft-und Raumfahrt -DLR, Institute of Propulsion Technology, Turbulence Research Div., Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Transportation noise is one of the most pressing environmental problems of modern societies. Aircraft noise is second only to road traffic noise in drawing complaints from the public about noise pollution. Therefore intensive research efforts are necessary on the national levels as well as the European level to reduce the noise load around airports. The most effective and economical way to reach this goal is noise reduction at the source. The aero engines of today's transport aircraft are the dominant noise sources for most flight conditions, although air-frame noise does play an important role for landing aircraft. In this paper noise reduction studies for aero engines are described in which DLR are involved. The topics discussed are low noise fan design, active noise control using wall-flush loudspeakers as secondary sources, ANC using active stators as secondary sources, ANC using flow induced secondary sources at the rotor tips, reduction of low-pressure turbine noise, and flight tests for validation of add-on noise reduction devices. (authors)

  3. Systems engineering: A formal approach. Part 1: System concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhee, K. M.

    1993-03-01

    Engineering is the scientific discipline focused on the creation of new artifacts that are supposed to be of some use to our society. Different types of artifacts require different engineering approaches. However, in all these disciplines the development of a new artifact is divided into stages. Three stages can always be recognized: Analysis, Design, and Realization. The book considers only the first two stages of the development process. It focuses on a specific type of artifacts, called discrete dynamic systems. These systems consist of active components of actors that consume and produce passive components or tokens. Three subtypes are studied in more detail: business systems (like a factory or restaurant), information systems (whether automated or not), and automated systems (systems that are controlled by an automated information system). The first subtype is studied by industrial engineers, the last by software engineers and electrical engineers, whereas the second is a battlefield for all three disciplines. The union of these disciplines is called systems engineering.

  4. Development of Natural Gas Chemical Engineering in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Qingmin

    1996-01-01

    @@ The equivalent ratio of natural gas to oil has reached 0.73:1 worldwide by 1994. The Chinese output of natural gas and oil ranks the 22nd and 5th respectively in the world's oil and gas production. The quantity equivalent ratio of gas to oil in China is only 0.11:1, which can not meet the needs of future economic development. Since the beginning of the 1990s, the discovery and expansion of natural gas reserves in Sichuan, Shaanxi, Xinjiang and Hainan Provinces and offshore area have brought about a solid foundation for the rapid development of the country's natural gas industry. It is sure that a new era of the development of China's natural gas chemical engineering is coming.

  5. Chemical engineering in fuel reprocessing. The French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reprocessing is the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, designed to recover valuable fissile materials, especially plutonium, and to condition safely all the wastes ready for disposal. For its new commercial reprocessing plants (UP3 and UP2800) COGEMA decided to include many engineering innovations as well as new processes and key-components developed by CEA. UP3 is a complete new plant with a capacity of 800 t/y which was put in operation in August 1990. UP2800 is an extension of the existing UP2 facility, designed to achieve the same annual capacity of 800 t/y, to be put in operation at the end of 1993 by the commissioning of a new head-end and highly active chemical process facilities

  6. A contribution to slope engineering in Hong Kong - the engineering geology approach

    OpenAIRE

    Koor, Nicholas Paul

    2016-01-01

    Whilst working in Hong Kong from 1993 to 2005, firstly for the Geotechnical Engineering Office of the Hong Kong Government and then for various international consultants, I was involved in a number of important research studies, landslide investigations and construction projects where I was able to make a significant contribution to science, knowledge and practice under the theme of slope engineering. This work was carried out in what I have described as the engineering geology approach which...

  7. Integrative Chemical-Biological Read-Across Approach for Chemical Hazard Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Yen; Sedykh, Alexander; Fourches, Denis; Golbraikh, Alexander; Whelan, Maurice; Rusyn, Ivan; Tropsha, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Traditional read-across approaches typically rely on the chemical similarity principle to predict chemical toxicity; however, the accuracy of such predictions is often inadequate due to the underlying complex mechanisms of toxicity. Here we report on the development of a hazard classification and visualization method that draws upon both chemical structural similarity and comparisons of biological responses to chemicals measured in multiple short-term assays (”biological” similarity). The Che...

  8. Optical approaches to macroscopic and microscopic engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, P J D S

    2001-01-01

    This research investigates the theoretical basis of a new photo-fabrication system. By this system, optical and thermal effects are used, together or separately, to locally induce a phase change in a liquid resin. This phase change phenomena is used to 'write' three-dimensional shapes. In addition, a thermal-kinetic model has been developed to correctly simulate the physical and chemical changes that occur in the bulk (and surroundings) of the material directly exposed to radiation and/or heat, and the rates at which these changes occur. Through this model, the law of conservation of energy describing the heat transfer phenomena is coupled with a kinetic model describing in detail the cure kinetics in both chemical and diffusion-controlled regimes. The thermal-kinetic model has been implemented using the finite element method. Linear rectangular elements have been considered and the concept of isoparametric formulation used. The Cranck-Nicolson algorithm has been used to integrate the system of equations, res...

  9. Nanostructure Engineered Chemical Sensors for Hazardous Gas and Vapor Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Lu, Yijiang

    2005-01-01

    A nanosensor technology has been developed using nanostructures, such as single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and metal oxides nanowires or nanobelts, on a pair of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) processed with a silicon based microfabrication and micromachining technique. The IDE fingers were fabricated using thin film metallization techniques. Both in-situ growth of nanostructure materials and casting of the nanostructure dispersions were used to make chemical sensing devices. These sensors have been exposed to hazardous gases and vapors, such as acetone, benzene, chlorine, and ammonia in the concentration range of ppm to ppb at room temperature. The electronic molecular sensing in our sensor platform can be understood by electron modulation between the nanostructure engineered device and gas molecules. As a result of the electron modulation, the conductance of nanodevice will change. Due to the large surface area, low surface energy barrier and high thermal and mechanical stability, nanostructured chemical sensors potentially can offer higher sensitivity, lower power consumption and better robustness than the state-of-the-art systems, which make them more attractive for defense and space applications. Combined with MEMS technology, light weight and compact size sensors can be made in wafer scale with low cost.

  10. Recent advances in microbial production of fuels and chemicals using tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Changhee; Choi, So Young; Luo, Zi Wei;

    2015-01-01

    The advent of various systems metabolic engineering tools and strategies has enabled more sophisticated engineering of microorganisms for the production of industrially useful fuels and chemicals. Advances in systems metabolic engineering have been made in overproducing natural chemicals and prod...

  11. Phase Diagrams in Chemical Engineering: Application to Distillation and Solvent Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Coquelet, Christophe; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 19Published under CC BY 3.0 licenseAvailable from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/advances-in-chemical-engineering/phase-diagrams-in-chemical-engineering-example-of-distillation International audience A phase diagram in physical chemistry and chemical engineering is a graphical representation showing distinct phases which are in thermodynamic equilibrium. Since these equilibrium relationships are dependent on the pressure, temperature, and composition of the system, a phase dia...

  12. Water pollution treatability: a molecular engineering approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strier, M.P.

    1980-01-01

    Estimated effluent limits for priority nonpesticide organic pollutants, such as phenol and carbon tetrachloride, were developed from the physical-chemical properties (molecular weight, boiling point, and water solubility) and the biochemical oxidizability of these pollutants. These properties were used to develop a separate treatment model (or system) for each pollutant from the following unit treatment processes: steam- or air-stripping; oil/water separation; filtration-diatomaceous or dual media; biochemical oxidation; and activated-carbon adsorption. Pollutants with highest treatability (1.0 jg/1. in the effluent) were generally high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorohydrocarbons, e.g., chrysene and benzo(a) pyrene; those with the lowest treatability (100-1000 jg/1. in the effluent) were generally low molecular weight, water-soluble compounds, e.g., acrylo nitrile and vinyl chloride. Solubilities were directly related to the estimated theoretical effluent limitations; partition coefficients and bioconcentration factors were inversely related.

  13. Systems engineering approach towards performance monitoring of emergency diesel generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-text: Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems. In this study, systems engineering approach towards the performance monitoring of Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) is presented. Performance monitoring is part and parcel of predictive maintenance where the systems and components conditions can be detected before they result into failures. In an effort to identify the proposal for addressing performance monitoring, the EDG boundary has been defined. Based on the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) results and industry operating experiences, the most critical component is identified. This paper proposed a systems engineering concept development framework towards EDG performance monitoring. The expected output of this study is that the EDG reliability can be improved by the performance monitoring alternatives through the systems engineering concept development effort. (author)

  14. Systems engineering approach towards performance monitoring of emergency diesel generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, Nurhayati, E-mail: nurhayati14@gmail.com; Yong-kwan, Lee, E-mail: nurhayati14@gmail.com [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, 1456-1 Shinam-ri, Ulsan 689-882 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-12

    Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems. In this study, systems engineering approach towards the performance monitoring of Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) is presented. Performance monitoring is part and parcel of predictive maintenance where the systems and components conditions can be detected before they result into failures. In an effort to identify the proposal for addressing performance monitoring, the EDG boundary has been defined. Based on the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) results and industry operating experiences, the most critical component is identified. This paper proposed a systems engineering concept development framework towards EDG performance monitoring. The expected output of this study is that the EDG reliability can be improved by the performance monitoring alternatives through the systems engineering concept development effort.

  15. Dividing the Traffic Matrix to Approach Optimal Traffic Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Balon, Simon; Leduc, Guy

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new method to approach optimal Traffic Engineering routing. The method consists of dividing the traffic matrix into $N$ sub-matrices, called strata, and route each of these independently. We propose two different implementations of our method in routers. Our method can also be used to compute a very precise approximation of the optimal value of a given objective function for comparison to heuristic Traffic Engineering algorithms. For this application, our algorithm ...

  16. The Chemical Weapons Convention and the Role of Engineers and Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Matoušek, J

    2010-01-01

    Chemical weapons, like all military technology, are associated with activities of scientists and engineers. However, chemical weapons differ from any other military technology because they were invented, and their first mass use directly developed by famous chemists. The active contribution of engineers and scientists and their organisations in the negotiations on chemical disarmament, including drafting the Chemical Weapons Convention, is described. Their present and future role in implement...

  17. Recent advances in rational approaches for enzyme engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Steiner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are an attractive alternative in the asymmetric syntheses of chiral building blocks. To meet the requirements of industrial biotechnology and to introduce new functionalities, the enzymes need to be optimized by protein engineering. This article specifically reviews rational approaches for enzyme engineering and de novo enzyme design involving structure-based approaches developed in recent years for improvement of the enzymes’ performance, broadened substrate range, and creation of novel functionalities to obtain products with high added value for industrial applications.

  18. A Reflective Approach to Model-Driven Web Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clowes, Darren; Kolovos, Dimitris; Holmes, Chris; Rose, Louis; Paige, Richard; Johnson, Julian; Dawson, Ray; Probets, Steve

    A reflective approach to model-driven web engineering is presented, which aims to overcome several of the shortcomings of existing generative approaches. The approach uses the Epsilon platform and Apache Tomcat to render dynamic HTML content using Epsilon Generation Language templates. This enables EMF-based models to be used as data sources without the need to pre-generate any HTML or dynamic script, or duplicate the contents into a database. The paper reports on our experimental results in using this approach for dynamically querying and visualising a very large military standard.

  19. An Introductory Course in Bioengineering and Biotechnology for Chemical Engineering Sophomores

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kim C.

    2007-01-01

    Advances in the biological sciences necessitate the training of chemical engineers to translate these fundamental discoveries into applications that will benefit society. Accordingly, Tulane University revised its core chemical engineering curriculum in 2005 to include a new introductory course in bioengineering and biotechnology for sophomores.…

  20. Use of the LITEE Lorn Manufacturing Case Study in a Senior Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Abulencia, James Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of incorporating the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE) Lorn Manufacturing case into a senior level chemical engineering unit operations course at Manhattan College. The purpose of using the case study is to demonstrate the relevance of ethics to chemical engineering…

  1. Teaching chemical product design to engineering students: course contents and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Kiil, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Chemical product design is not taught in the same way as traditional engineering courses like unit operations or transport phenomena. This paper gives an overview of the challenges that we, as teachers, have faced when teaching chemical product design to engineering students. Specific course contents and relevant teaching methods are discussed.

  2. Teaching chemical product design to engineering students: course contents and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Kiil, Søren

    Chemical product design is not taught in the same way as traditional engineering courses like unit operations or transport phenomena. This paper gives an overview of the challenges that we, as teachers, have faced when teaching chemical product design to engineering students. Specific course...

  3. Chemical named entities recognition: a review on approaches and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltyeb, Safaa; Salim, Naomie

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in the flow rate of published digital information in all disciplines has resulted in a pressing need for techniques that can simplify the use of this information. The chemistry literature is very rich with information about chemical entities. Extracting molecules and their related properties and activities from the scientific literature to "text mine" these extracted data and determine contextual relationships helps research scientists, particularly those in drug development. One of the most important challenges in chemical text mining is the recognition of chemical entities mentioned in the texts. In this review, the authors briefly introduce the fundamental concepts of chemical literature mining, the textual contents of chemical documents, and the methods of naming chemicals in documents. We sketch out dictionary-based, rule-based and machine learning, as well as hybrid chemical named entity recognition approaches with their applied solutions. We end with an outlook on the pros and cons of these approaches and the types of chemical entities extracted. PMID:24834132

  4. Integrated system approach for increase of engine combined cycle efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A new approach for the optimization of engine combined cycle systems is presented. ► The efficiency can be increased by integrating all available waste heat sources. ► The optimization of the ICE cooling system towards higher temperatures is examined. ► Higher engine cooling water temperatures increase the combined cycle efficiency. ► The costs of electricity generation can be decreased by five integrated system. - Abstract: Internal combustion engines (ICEs) are widely used as independent power producers due to their high electrical efficiency (up to 47%), which can be further enhanced by operating them in combined cycle mode with a water/steam cycle as bottoming cycle. This study presents an integrated approach to optimize the combined cycle overall system efficiency. Therefore, not only the most favorable design of the waste heat recovery (WHR) cycle, but also the optimal configuration of the ICE cooling system have to be investigated, in order to integrate both available engine waste heat sources (exhaust gas, 300–400 °C, engine cooling water, 90 °C) into the waste heat recovery cycle. For the definition of the most favourable temperature level of the engine cooling water three variants of engine cooling systems are examined, with respect to technical limitations given by the ICE. In order to determine the types of engines for which this optimization approach is suitable, three types of engines with different characteristics (fuel, exhaust gas parameters) combined with a water/steam cycle are simulated, by using the calculation tools Excel and Ebsilon Professional. An energetic, exergetic and economic analysis is conducted. These reveal the impacts of the temperature level to the WHR system and to the design of the engine cooling system. The calculations performed, showed that up to 19% of the engine cooling water heat can be efficiently recovered compared to a portion of 6% in the standard system. The better recovery leads to a 5

  5. A multi-criteria decision making approach for food engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Abakarov, Alik

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to propose a decision making approach and tools (software packages) to solve the multi-criteria decision making problems arising in the food engineering. The proposed decision making approach is based on a simultaneous utilization for a given set of Pareto-optimal solutions the two following decision making methods: 1) well-known Analytic Hierarchy Process method and 2) Tabular Method. The using of Tabular Method allows utilizing the AHP method in a...

  6. The Use of the Software MATLAB To Improve Chemical Engineering Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damatto, T.; Maegava, L. M.; Filho, R. Maciel

    In all the Brazilian Universities involved with the project "Prodenge-Reenge", the main objective is to improve teaching and learning procedures for the engineering disciplines. The Chemical Engineering College of Campinas State University focused its effort on the use of engineering softwares. The work developed by this project has allowed all…

  7. An Alternative Route to Chemical Engineering for Minority and Other Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussler, E. L.

    The following three alternative ways in which minority group chemistry majors may be trained as chemical engineers are examined in this paper: (l) they are admitted as engineers and take the same courses as engineering students at the graduate level; (2) undergraduate courses are taken as part of the transition from chemistry to chemical…

  8. Agile Service Development: A Rule-Based Method Engineering Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Stijn; Zoet, Martijn; Versendaal, Johan; Weerd, Inge van de

    2011-01-01

    Agile software development has evolved into an increasingly mature software development approach and has been applied successfully in many software vendors’ development departments. In this position paper, we address the broader agile service development. Based on method engineering principles we de

  9. Chips for Everyone: A Multifaceted Approach in Electrical Engineering Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, J.; Roy, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a multifaceted approach in electrical engineering outreach focused on the area of semiconductor technology. The activities developed can be used in combination for a very wide range of audiences in both age and stage of education, as has been demonstrated with great success. Moreover, the project has developed…

  10. Design of tailor-made chemical blend using a decomposition-based computer-aided approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yunus, Nor Alafiza; Gernaey, Krist; Manan, Z.A.;

    2011-01-01

    design methodology for blended liquid products that identifies a set of feasible chemical blends. The blend design problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) model where the objective is to find the optimal blended gasoline or diesel product subject to types of chemicals and...... selection. The application of this systematic and computer-aided approach is illustrated through a case study involving the design of blends of gasoline with oxygenated compounds resulting from degradation and fermentation of biomass for use in internal combustion engines. Emphasis is given here on the...

  11. Abstracts Book of Jubilee Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific Assemblies of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry are most important chemical discussion forum organised annually in Poland. Basic as well as application studies in all chemical branches have been extensively presented. The next subjects was proposed as sections and symposia topics: organic chemistry, physical chemistry (chemical kinetics, catalysis, thermodynamics), membranes and membrane processes, biological chemistry, biotechnology, metalorganic compounds and complexes, polymer chemistry, crystallochemical study, spectroscopy in nowadays chemistry, supramolecular chemistry, chemistry and technology of coal, high-energetic materials, environment protection, didactics in chemistry, radiation chemistry, photochemistry, electrochemistry, chemistry and technology of carbohydrates, theoretical and computer chemistry, young scientists forum, history of chemistry

  12. Improving safety of aircraft engines: a consortium approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasche, Lisa J. H.

    1996-11-01

    With over seven million departures per year, air transportation has become not a luxury, but a standard mode of transportation for the United States. A critical aspect of modern air transport is the jet engine, a complex engineered component that has enabled the rapid travel to which we have all become accustomed. One of the enabling technologies for safe air travel is nondestructive evaluation, or NDE, which includes various inspection techniques used to assess the health or integrity of a structure, component, or material. The Engine Titanium Consortium (ETC) was established in 1993 to respond to recommendations made by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Titanium Rotating Components Review Team (TRCRT) for improvements in inspection of engine titanium. Several recent accomplishments of the ETC are detailed in this paper. The objective of the Engine Titanium Consortium is to provide the FAAand the manufacturers with reliable and costeffective new methods and/or improvements in mature methods for detecting cracks, inclusions, and imperfections in titanium. The consortium consists of a team of researchers from academia and industry-namely, Iowa State University, Allied Signal Propulsion Engines, General Electric Aircraft Engines, and Pratt & Whitney Engines-who work together to develop program priorities, organize a program plan, conduct the research, and implement the solutions. The true advantage of the consortium approach is that it brings together the research talents of academia and the engineering talents of industry to tackle a technology-base problem. In bringing industrial competitors together, the consortium ensures that the research results, which have safety implications and result from FAA funds, are shared and become part of the public domain.

  13. Recent non-chemical approaches to estimate the shooting distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Maria; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2014-06-01

    Shooting distance estimation offers useful information for the reconstruction of firearm related incidents. The muzzle to target distance is usually estimated by examining the bullet entrance hole and the gunshot residue pattern. To visualize the pattern the forensic analyst usually uses presumptive tests based on color chemical reactions that are applied using long and tedious proceedings. Due to the drawbacks of the chemical tests recent developments for shooting distance estimation not based on color chemical tests were described in the literature. The present review covers the approaches for shooting distance estimation published in the last 10 years considering two types of target, clothing and skin. PMID:24747671

  14. AN APPROACH TOWARDS HOLISM IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jason SHERWIN

    2010-01-01

    This paper posits the desirability of a shift towards a holistic approach over reductionist approaches in the understanding of complex phenomena encountered in science and engineering.An argument based on set theory is used to analyze three examples that illustrate the shortcomings of the reductionist approach.Using these cases as motivational points,a holistic approach to understand complex phenomena is proposed,whereby the human brain acts as a template to do so.Recognizing the need to maintain the transparency of the analysis provided by reductionism,a promising computational approach is offered by which the brain is used as a template for understanding complex phenomena.Some of the details of implementing this approach are also addressed.

  15. Comparison between Traditional Approach and Object-Oriented Approach in Software Engineering Development

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil Mohammed Ali Munassar; Dr. A.Govardhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the comparison between Traditional approaches and Object-Oriented approach. Traditional approach has a lot of models that deal with different types of projects such as waterfall, spiral, iterative and v-shaped, but all of them and other lack flexibility to deal with other kinds of projects like Object-Oriented. Object-oriented Software Engineering (OOSE) is an object modeling language and methodology. The approach of using object - oriented techniques for designing a syst...

  16. Engineering system dynamics a unified graph-centered approach

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Forbes T

    2006-01-01

    For today's students, learning to model the dynamics of complex systems is increasingly important across nearly all engineering disciplines. First published in 2001, Forbes T. Brown's Engineering System Dynamics: A Unified Graph-Centered Approach introduced students to a unique and highly successful approach to modeling system dynamics using bond graphs. Updated with nearly one-third new material, this second edition expands this approach to an even broader range of topics. What's New in the Second Edition? In addition to new material, this edition was restructured to build students' competence in traditional linear mathematical methods before they have gone too far into the modeling that still plays a pivotal role. New topics include magnetic circuits and motors including simulation with magnetic hysteresis; extensive new material on the modeling, analysis, and simulation of distributed-parameter systems; kinetic energy in thermodynamic systems; and Lagrangian and Hamiltonian methods. MATLAB(R) figures promi...

  17. Stirling engine - Approach for long-term durability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Michael T.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Halford, Gary R.; Freed, Alan D.

    1992-01-01

    The approach employed by NASA Lewis for the long-term durability assessment of the Stirling engine hot-section components is summarized. The approach consists of: preliminary structural assessment; development of a viscoplastic constitutive model to accurately determine material behavior under high-temperature thermomechanical loads; an experimental program to characterize material constants for the viscoplastic constitutive model; finite-element thermal analysis and structural analysis using a viscoplastic constitutive model to obtain stress/strain/temperature at the critical location of the hot-section components for life assessment; and development of a life prediction model applicable for long-term durability assessment at high temperatures. The approach should aid in the provision of long-term structural durability and reliability of Stirling engines.

  18. Towards Multi-Method Research Approach in Empirical Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandić, Vladimir; Markkula, Jouni; Oivo, Markku

    This paper presents results of a literature analysis on Empirical Research Approaches in Software Engineering (SE). The analysis explores reasons why traditional methods, such as statistical hypothesis testing and experiment replication are weakly utilized in the field of SE. It appears that basic assumptions and preconditions of the traditional methods are contradicting the actual situation in the SE. Furthermore, we have identified main issues that should be considered by the researcher when selecting the research approach. In virtue of reasons for weak utilization of traditional methods we propose stronger use of Multi-Method approach with Pragmatism as the philosophical standpoint.

  19. A Rigorous Architectural Approach to Adaptive Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeff Kramer; Jeff Magee

    2009-01-01

    The engineering of distributed adaptive software is a complex task which requires a rigorous approach. Software architectural (structural) concepts and principles are highly beneficial in specifying, designing, analysing, constructing and evolving distributed software. A rigorous architectural approach dictates formalisms and techniques that are compositional,components that are context independent and systems that can be constructed and evolved incrementally. This paper overviews some of the underlying reasons for adopting an architectural approach, including a brief "rational history" of our research work, and indicates how an architectural model can potentially facilitate the provision of self-managed adaptive software system.

  20. The Impact of Agile Approach on Software Engineering Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazni Omar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study presents the initial findings on the impact of agile approach amongst Software Engineering (SE teams in one computer center in Malaysia. This study revealed that agile approach able to receive positive feedbacks and increase positive affectivity amongst team members during software development projects. Approach: This study used action research approach. Data were collected from four Software Engineering (SE teams who volunteered to participate in this study through a series of interviews, short-term observations and a questionnaire. Positive Affect scale from Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS questionnaire was used to measure the developers’ state of positive affect during two intervals. Results: These findings found that not agile- XP practices adopted by the developers. This is due to knowledge barriers and organizational culture. However, agile approach induced level of positive affectivity amongst the members during software development process. In addition, agile approach promotes the members to be more active in coordinating and collaborating amongst teams. Conclusion: The findings in this study give an insight towards applying a flexible agile approach to accommodate and suit organizational culture. Effective methodology and organizational culture are important factors that must be considered to produce innovative teams and quality software.

  1. A scientific approach to writing for engineers and scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    This book is a guide to technical writing, presented in a systematic framework that mirrors the logic associated with the scientific process itself. Other English books merely define concepts and provide rules; this one explains the reasoning behind the rules. Other writing books for scientists and engineers focus primarily on how to gather and organize materials; this one focuses primarily on how to compose a readable sentence. The approach should be satisfying not only to scientists and engineers, but also to anyone that once took a grammar course but can't remember the rules - because there was no exposure to underlying principles.

  2. A decision analytic approach to exposure-based chemical prioritization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Mitchell

    Full Text Available The manufacture of novel synthetic chemicals has increased in volume and variety, but often the environmental and health risks are not fully understood in terms of toxicity and, in particular, exposure. While efforts to assess risks have generally been effective when sufficient data are available, the hazard and exposure data necessary to assess risks adequately are unavailable for the vast majority of chemicals in commerce. The US Environmental Protection Agency has initiated the ExpoCast Program to develop tools for rapid chemical evaluation based on potential for exposure. In this context, a model is presented in which chemicals are evaluated based on inherent chemical properties and behaviorally-based usage characteristics over the chemical's life cycle. These criteria are assessed and integrated within a decision analytic framework, facilitating rapid assessment and prioritization for future targeted testing and systems modeling. A case study outlines the prioritization process using 51 chemicals. The results show a preliminary relative ranking of chemicals based on exposure potential. The strength of this approach is the ability to integrate relevant statistical and mechanistic data with expert judgment, allowing for an initial tier assessment that can further inform targeted testing and risk management strategies.

  3. The Chemical Core of Chemistry I: A Conceptual Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Schummer

    1998-01-01

    Given the rich diversity of research fields usually ascribed to chemistry in a broad sense, the present paper tries to dig our characteristic parts of chemistry that can be conceptually distinguished from interdisciplinary, applied, and specialized subfields of chemistry, and that may be called chemistry in a very narrow sense, or 'the chemical core of chemistry'. Unlike historical, ontological, and 'anti-reductive' approaches, I use a conceptual approach together with some methodological imp...

  4. Merged ontology for engineering design: Contrasting empirical and theoretical approaches to develop engineering ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema; Storga, M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of two previous and separate efforts to develop an ontology in the engineering design domain, together with an ontology proposal from which ontologies for a specific application may be derived. The research contrasts an empirical, user-centered approach to develop...

  5. A computational approach to chemical etiologies of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audouze, Karine Marie Laure; Brunak, Søren; Grandjean, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Computational meta-analysis can link environmental chemicals to genes and proteins involved in human diseases, thereby elucidating possible etiologies and pathogeneses of non-communicable diseases. We used an integrated computational systems biology approach to examine possible pathogenetic......, and offers thus promising guidance for future research in regard to the etiology and pathogenesis of complex diseases....

  6. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites

    OpenAIRE

    Takeshi Suzuki

    2012-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration int...

  7. Road Transport Congestion Costs Calculations-Adaptation to Engineering Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Lep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article represents so called “engineering” approach for computing the total road transport congestion costs. According to economic welfare theory, the total costs of transport congestion are defined as dead weight loss (DWL of infrastructure use. With a set of equations DWL could be formulated in a mathematical way. Because such form of equation is not directly applicable for concrete road network calculations it should be transformed into “engineering” form, which comprises transport engineering related data as classified road links, traffic volumes, passenger unit costs, etc. The equation is well applicable on the interurban road network; adaptations are needed for the urban road network cost calculations, where time losses are not so much related to the link travel time. The final equation was derived for the purposes of national road congestion cost calculation.

  8. Nuclear engineering education: A competence based approach to curricula development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintaining nuclear competencies in the nuclear industry is a one of the most critical challenges in the near future. With the development of a number of nuclear engineering educational programmes in several States, this publication provides guidance to decision makers in Member States on a competence based approach to curricula development, presenting the established practices and associated requirements for educational programmes in this field. It is a consolidation of best practices that will ensure sustainable, effective nuclear engineering programmes, contributing to the safe, efficient and economic operation of nuclear power plants. The information presented is drawn from a variety of recognized nuclear engineering programmes around the world and contributes to the main areas that are needed to ensure a viable and robust nuclear industry

  9. General approaches to the risk assessment of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deciding upon the granting of permits for landfill sites or the discharge of toxic chemicals to water or air and in doing so they must take into account the hydrology, geology and climate of the specific locality. While the basic approach to chemical risk assessment will be the same, irrespective of the specific objective for which the assessment is carried out, the details will vary as a function of: the product type (pharmaceutical, pesticide, industrial chemical, etc.), the target population of interest (patient, environment, consumer, worker, etc.) and the exposure scenario (global, international, national, local)

  10. A software engineering approach for medical workstations development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, F C; Lavril, M; Lemaitre, D; Sauquet, D; Degoulet, P

    1994-01-01

    Multimedia medical workstations represent the natural tool for accessing the hospital information system environment. They are complex medical systems that have to gather, in a single framework, a large collection of components dealing with multimedia medical objects. To remain current with both medical practice and with advances in the computer science field, they have to allow the iterative addition of new functions to the set of existing ones. In this paper, after a survey of commonly required medical workstation functional components, we shall try to discuss how a software engineering approach can streamline the development of a medical workstation. Different software engineering tools needed to build the functional components of a workstation are described. Their integration in a single dedicated environment is considered through four perspectives: data, presentation, communication and control. Benefits and limitations of an object-oriented approach are discussed. PMID:8125636

  11. Sustainable construction : a life cycle approach in engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Bragança, L.; Koukkari, Heli; Veljkovic, Milan; Borg, Ruben Paul

    2010-01-01

    The COST Action C25 “Sustainability of Constructions - Integrated Approach to Life-time Structural Engineering” is a network of scientists and researchers from 28 European countries and the EU Joint Research Centre in Ispra. It was established to promote science-based developments in sustainable construction in Europe through research on life-time structural engineering. The Action is in its fourth year of activity. The Action concentrates on R&D issues that are fundamental for sustainabl...

  12. Agile Service Development: A Rule-Based Method Engineering Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppenbrouwers, S.J.B.A.; Zoet, M.; Versendaal, J.; van de Weerd, I.

    2011-01-01

    Agile software development has evolved into an increasingly mature software development approach and has been applied successfully in many software vendors’ development departments. In this position paper, we address the broader agile service development. Based on method engineering principles we define a framework that conceptualizes an operational way of working for the development of services, emphatically taking into account agility. As a first level of agility, the framework contains sit...

  13. Esophageal tissue engineering: A new approach for esophageal replacement

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A number of congenital and acquired disorders require esophageal tissue replacement. Various surgical techniques, such as gastric and colonic interposition, are standards of treatment, but frequently complicated by stenosis and other problems. Regenerative medicine approaches facilitate the use of biological constructs to replace or regenerate normal tissue function. We review the literature of esophageal tissue engineering, discuss its implications, compare the methodologies that have been e...

  14. Interface Management in Concurrent Engineering Facilities for Systems and Service Systems Engineering: A Model-based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gianni, Daniele; D'Ambrogio, Andrea; Schaus, Volker; Gerndt, Andreas; Lisi, Marco; De Simone, Pierluigi

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent engineering facilities (CEFs) are successfully used in the aeropsace sector to design systems and services that that fulfill the requirements. Model-based systems engineering (MBSE) enables the effective (i.e., unambiguous) communication in the collaborative activities within concurrent engineering and service systems engineering facilities. The advantages obtained by the MBSE approach can be further scaled up by an innovative approach that take into explicit account the representa...

  15. A Predictive Approach to Network Reverse-Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Chris

    2005-03-01

    A central challenge of systems biology is the ``reverse engineering" of transcriptional networks: inferring which genes exert regulatory control over which other genes. Attempting such inference at the genomic scale has only recently become feasible, via data-intensive biological innovations such as DNA microrrays (``DNA chips") and the sequencing of whole genomes. In this talk we present a predictive approach to network reverse-engineering, in which we integrate DNA chip data and sequence data to build a model of the transcriptional network of the yeast S. cerevisiae capable of predicting the response of genes in unseen experiments. The technique can also be used to extract ``motifs,'' sequence elements which act as binding sites for regulatory proteins. We validate by a number of approaches and present comparison of theoretical prediction vs. experimental data, along with biological interpretations of the resulting model. En route, we will illustrate some basic notions in statistical learning theory (fitting vs. over-fitting; cross- validation; assessing statistical significance), highlighting ways in which physicists can make a unique contribution in data- driven approaches to reverse engineering.

  16. Chemical heterogeneities in the mantle: The equilibrium thermodynamic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirone, M.; Buhre, S.; Schmück, H.; Faak, K.

    2016-02-01

    This study attempts to answer a simple and yet fundamental question in relation to our understanding of the chemical evolution of deep Earth and planetary interiors. Given two initially separate assemblages (lithologies) in chemical equilibrium can we predict the chemical and mineralogical compositions of the two assemblages when they are put together to form a new equilibrated system? Perhaps a common perception is that given sufficient time, the two assemblages will homogenize chemically and mineralogically, however from a chemical thermodynamic point of view, this is not the case. Certain petrological differences in terms of bulk composition, mineralogy and mineral abundance remain unless other processes, like melting or mechanical mixing come into play. While there is not a standard procedure to address this problem, in this study it is shown that by applying chemical thermodynamic principles and some reasonable assumptions, it is possible to determine the equilibrium composition of each of the two assemblages. Some examples that consider typical mantle rocks, peridotite, lherzolite, dunite and eclogite described by simplified chemical systems are used to illustrate the general approach. A preliminary application to evaluate the effect of melting a heterogeneous mantle in complete chemical equilibrium using a thermodynamic formulation coupled with a two-phase geodynamic model shows that major element composition of the melt product generated by different peridotites is very similar. This may explain the relative homogeneity of major elements of MORBs which could be the product of melting a relatively uniform mantle, as commonly accepted, or alternatively a peridotitic mantle with different compositions but in chemical equilibrium.

  17. Unifying principles of irreversibility minimization for efficiency maximization in steady-flow chemically-reactive engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systems research has led to the conception and development of various steady-flow, chemically-reactive, engine cycles for stationary power generation and propulsion. However, the question that remains unanswered is: What is the maximum-efficiency steady-flow chemically-reactive engine architecture permitted by physics? On the one hand the search for higher-efficiency cycles continues, often involving newer processes and devices (fuel cells, carbon separation, etc.); on the other hand the design parameters for existing cycles are continually optimized in response to improvements in device engineering. In this paper we establish that any variation in engine architecture—parametric change or process-sequence change—contributes to an efficiency increase via one of only two possible ways to minimize total irreversibility. These two principles help us unify our understanding from a large number of parametric analyses and cycle-optimization studies for any steady-flow chemically-reactive engine, and set a framework to systematically identify maximum-efficiency engine architectures. - Highlights: • A unified thermodynamic model to study chemically-reactive engine architectures is developed. • All parametric analyses of efficiency are unified by two irreversibility-minimization principles. • Variations in internal energy transfers yield a net work increase that is greater than engine irreversibility reduced. • Variations in external energy transfers yield a net work increase that is lesser than engine irreversibility reduced

  18. A Comprehensive Approach for Pectin Chemical and Functional Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Sousa, António Felipe Gomes Teixeira

    In this work, a comprehensive approach for the chemical and functional analysis of pectin was used in order to relate the different extraction conditions used to the polymer structure and the final functional (mainly gelling) properties. A wide range of methods were utilized including chemical and...... chromatographic characterization methods (HPAEC and HPSEC), rheological measurements of elasticity, and biological epitopes detection using carbohydrate microarrays. The end product of this study is expected to contribute to the knowledge of pectin polymeric conformation and structure-function properties as well...

  19. Study on New Approaches for extended chemical management and REACH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun

    2014-01-01

    existing chemical regulations in view of protecting vulnerable populations from “excessive total risk” and to explore the possibilities for improvement. Firstly, the completeness of the REACH exposure scenario was reviewed with the finding that the current scenario does not take into account territorial...... without controlling the quality of recycled materials, increased recycling of resources in a circular economy might increase undesirable recycling of micro-pollutants. Finally, a systemic approach based on sustainable resource flows was proposed for extended chemical management and the role of REACH in a...

  20. Esophageal tissue engineering: a new approach for esophageal replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totonelli, Giorgia; Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Fishman, Jonathan M; Orlando, Giuseppe; Ansari, Tahera; Sibbons, Paul; Birchall, Martin A; Pierro, Agostino; Eaton, Simon; De Coppi, Paolo

    2012-12-21

    A number of congenital and acquired disorders require esophageal tissue replacement. Various surgical techniques, such as gastric and colonic interposition, are standards of treatment, but frequently complicated by stenosis and other problems. Regenerative medicine approaches facilitate the use of biological constructs to replace or regenerate normal tissue function. We review the literature of esophageal tissue engineering, discuss its implications, compare the methodologies that have been employed and suggest possible directions for the future. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, National Research Register and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched with the following search terms: stem cell and esophagus, esophageal replacement, esophageal tissue engineering, esophageal substitution. Reference lists of papers identified were also examined and experts in this field contacted for further information. All full-text articles in English of all potentially relevant abstracts were reviewed. Tissue engineering has involved acellular scaffolds that were either transplanted with the aim of being repopulated by host cells or seeded prior to transplantation. When acellular scaffolds were used to replace patch and short tubular defects they allowed epithelial and partial muscular migration whereas when employed for long tubular defects the results were poor leading to an increased rate of stenosis and mortality. Stenting has been shown as an effective means to reduce stenotic changes and promote cell migration, whilst omental wrapping to induce vascularization of the construct has an uncertain benefit. Decellularized matrices have been recently suggested as the optimal choice for scaffolds, but smart polymers that will incorporate signalling to promote cell-scaffold interaction may provide a more reproducible and available solution. Results in animal models that have used seeded scaffolds strongly suggest that seeding of both muscle and epithelial cells on scaffolds

  1. Chemical engineering challenges in driving thermochemical hydrogen processes with the tandem mirror reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tandem Mirror Reactor is described and compared with Tokamaks, both from a basic physics viewpoint and from the suitability of the respective reactor for synfuel production. Differences and similarities between the TMR as an electricity producer or a synfuel producer are also cited. The Thermochemical cycle chosen to link with the fusion energy source is the General Atomic Sulfur-Iodine Cycle, which is a purely thermal-driven process with no electrochemical steps. There are real chemical engineering challenges of getting this high quality heat into the large thermochemical plant in an efficient manner. We illustrate with some of our approaches to providing process heat via liquid sodium to drive a 1050 K, highly-endothermic, catalytic and fluidized-bed SO3 Decomposition Reactor. The technical, economic, and safety tradeoffs that arise are discussed

  2. A 15-Month MS Chemical Engineering Degree Program for BS Chemists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Richard W.; Oscarson, John L.

    1979-01-01

    The key to shortening the time-frame for this program is a special summer course in unit operations, and the replacement of the usual nine credits of minor courses with undergraduate chemical engineering courses. (BB)

  3. Metabolic Engineering for Production of Biorenewable Fuels and Chemicals: Contributions of Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Jarboe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of fuels and chemicals through microbial fermentation of plant material is a desirable alternative to petrochemical-based production. Fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals requires the engineering of biocatalysts that can quickly and efficiently convert sugars to target products at a cost that is competitive with existing petrochemical-based processes. It is also important that biocatalysts be robust to extreme fermentation conditions, biomass-derived inhibitors, and their target products. Traditional metabolic engineering has made great advances in this area, but synthetic biology has contributed and will continue to contribute to this field, particularly with next-generation biofuels. This work reviews the use of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology in biocatalyst engineering for biorenewable fuels and chemicals production, such as ethanol, butanol, acetate, lactate, succinate, alanine, and xylitol. We also examine the existing challenges in this area and discuss strategies for improving biocatalyst tolerance to chemical inhibitors.

  4. Effects of different chemical additives on biodiesel fuel properties and engine performance. A comparison review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Obed Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel fuel can be used as an alternative to mineral diesel, its blend up to 20% used as a commercial fuel for the existing diesel engine in many countries. However, at high blending ratio, the fuel properties are worsening. The feasibility of pure biodiesel and blended fuel at high blending ratio using different chemical additives has been reviewed in this study. The results obtained by different researchers were analysed to evaluate the fuel properties trend and engine performance and emissions with different chemical additives. It found that, variety of chemical additives can be utilised with biodiesel fuel to improve the fuel properties. Furthermore, the chemical additives usage in biodiesel is inseparable both for improving the cold flow properties and for better engine performance and emission control. Therefore, research is needed to develop biodiesel specific additives that can be adopted to improve the fuel properties and achieve best engine performance at lower exhaust emission effects.

  5. Process-oriented knowledge-sharing platform for chemical engineering design projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A process-oriented knowledge-sharing platform is studied to improve knowledge sharing and project management of chemical engineering design enterprises. First, problems and characteristics of knowledge sharing in multi-projects of chemical engineering design are analyzed. Then based on theories of project management, process management, and knowledge management, a process-oriented knowledge-sharing platform is proposed. The platform has three characteristics: knowledge is divided into professional knowledge...

  6. The terrorist threat nuclear, radiological, biological, chemical - a medical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since September 11, 2001, the fear of a large scale nuclear, biological and/or chemical terrorism is taken again into consideration at the highest level of national policies of risk prevention. The advent of international terrorism implies a cooperation between the military defense and the civil defense. The nuclear, radiological, biological and chemical (NRBC) experts of the health service of army and of civil defense will have to work together in case of major terror attack. This book presents this cooperation between civil and military experts in the NRBC domain: risk analysis, national defense plans, crisis management, syndromes and treatments. The different aspects linked with the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are analyzed by the best experts from French medical and research institutes. All topics of each NRBC domain are approached: historical, basic, diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive. (J.S.)

  7. CURRICULUM: A Chemical Engineering Course for Liberal Arts Students--Indigo: A World of Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piergiovanni, Polly R.

    2012-01-01

    Sophomore liberal arts and engineering students enrolled in a course to learn and practice some basic chemical engineering side by side. The course was developed around the theme of indigo dyeing, which has an interesting history, fascinating chemistry and is accessible to all students. The students participated in a variety of active learning…

  8. Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source: An Illustration of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Marguerite A.; May, Nicole; Assaf-Anid, Nada M.; Castaldi, Marco J.

    2006-01-01

    The ever-increasing global demand for energy has sparked renewed interest within the engineering community in the study of sustainable alternative energy sources. This paper discusses a power generation system which uses biomass as "fuel" to illustrate the concepts taught to students taking a graduate level chemical engineering process…

  9. Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James A.; Davis, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "conservation of life" as a concept and unifying theme for increasing awareness, application, and integration of process safety in chemical engineering education. Students need to think of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of life as equally important in engineering design and analysis.…

  10. An engineering based approach for hydraulic computations in river flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, S.; Biscarini, C.; Pierleoni, A.; Manciola, P.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents an engineering based approach for hydraulic risk evaluation. The aim of the research is to identify a criteria for the choice of the simplest and appropriate model to use in different scenarios varying the characteristics of main river channel. The complete flow field, generally expressed in terms of pressure, velocities, accelerations can be described through a three dimensional approach that consider all the flow properties varying in all directions. In many practical applications for river flow studies, however, the greatest changes occur only in two dimensions or even only in one. In these cases the use of simplified approaches can lead to accurate results, with easy to build and faster simulations. The study has been conducted taking in account a dimensionless parameter of channels (ratio of curvature radius and width of the channel (R/B).

  11. Approaches to Low Fuel Regression Rate in Hybrid Rocket Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pastrone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid rocket engines are promising propulsion systems which present appealing features such as safety, low cost, and environmental friendliness. On the other hand, certain issues hamper the development hoped for. The present paper discusses approaches addressing improvements to one of the most important among these issues: low fuel regression rate. To highlight the consequence of such an issue and to better understand the concepts proposed, fundamentals are summarized. Two approaches are presented (multiport grain and high mixture ratio which aim at reducing negative effects without enhancing regression rate. Furthermore, fuel material changes and nonconventional geometries of grain and/or injector are presented as methods to increase fuel regression rate. Although most of these approaches are still at the laboratory or concept scale, many of them are promising.

  12. Flow sheeting software as a tool when teaching Chemical Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Asad

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to design different chemical processes by using flow sheeting software and to show the usefulness of flow sheeting software as an educational tool. The industries studied are hydrogen, sulfur, nitric acid and ethylene glycol production and a model of drying technique is also included. Firstly, there is an introduction of chemcad as a tool when teaching chemical processes and explanation of each industry which is selected to design. Various production methods for each...

  13. Broadening of nuclear engineering programs: An engineering physics approach at Rensselaer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the maturing of nuclear engineering as an academic discipline and the uncertainty surrounding the nuclear industry, attention is being increasingly turned to ways in which the base of traditional nuclear engineering programs in universities can be broadened to make them more attractively useful to a wider class of potential students and employers while maintaining the strengths in mainstream areas of nuclear technology. An approach that seems to provide a natural evolution combining the existing programmatic strengths, infrastructure, and resources with the trending needs of a broad segment of diversified industries is the development and initiation of an engineering physics degree program as an adjunct to an established nuclear engineering curriculum. In line with these developments, a new comprehensive academic program offering baccalaureate, master's, and doctoral degrees in engineering physics has been developed and formally instituted at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). It provides a valuable opportunity for students to pursue education and research that cuts across traditional disciplinary lines, leading to a wide variety of career opportunities in industry, government, national research and defense laboratories, and academia

  14. Multi-hazard approaches to civil infrastructure engineering

    CERN Document Server

    LaFave, James

    2016-01-01

    This collection focuses on the development of novel approaches to address one of the most pressing challenges of civil engineering, namely the mitigation of natural hazards. Numerous engineering books to date have focused on, and illustrate considerable progress toward, mitigation of individual hazards (earthquakes, wind, and so forth.). The current volume addresses concerns related to overall safety, sustainability and resilience of the built environment when subject to multiple hazards: natural disaster events that are concurrent and either correlated (e.g., wind and surge); uncorrelated (e.g., earthquake and flood); cascading (e.g., fire following earthquake); or uncorrelated and occurring at different times (e.g., wind and earthquake). The authors examine a range of specific topics including methodologies for vulnerability assessment of structures, new techniques to reduce the system demands through control systems; instrumentation, monitoring and condition assessment of structures and foundations; new te...

  15. A software architecture centric engineering approach for Internetware

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Hong; HUANG Gang; ZHAO Haiyan; JIAO Wenpin

    2006-01-01

    As a new software paradigm evolved by the Internet, Internetware brings many challenges for the traditional software development methods and techniques. Though architecture-based component composition (ABC) approach is originated in the traditional software paradigm, it supports the engineering of Internetware effectively due to its philosophy, rationales and mechanisms. ABC has three major contributions to the engineering of Internetware in detail. First, the feature oriented domain modeling method can structure the "disordered" "software entities" to "ordered Internetware" bottom-up in the problem space. Second, the architecture centric design and analysis method can support the development of self-adaptive Internetware. Third, the component operating platform is a reflective and self-adaptive middleware that not only provides Internetware with a powerful and flexible runtime infrastructure but also enables the self-adaptation of the structure and individual entities of Internetware.

  16. The TSCA interagency testing committee`s approaches to screening and scoring chemicals and chemical groups: 1977-1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    This paper describes the TSCA interagency testing committee`s (ITC) approaches to screening and scoring chemicals and chemical groups between 1977 and 1983. During this time the ITC conducted five scoring exercises to select chemicals and chemical groups for detailed review and to determine which of these chemicals and chemical groups should be added to the TSCA Section 4(e) Priority Testing List. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Recent advances in chemical engineering. Tracers and tracing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first congress on 'tracers and tracing methods' has taken place in Nancy in November 1998. It has been a successful national event with more than 100 participants and 65 presentations. The applications of radiotracers in different industries have been studied. The target participants were the researchers, engineers and technologists of various industrial and research sectors

  18. From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering: 1859-1959.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J. N.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a description of the course "From Petroleum to Penicillin" which examines chemical engineering and the chemical industry from a scientific, social and symbolic view. Explains the goals, organization, and requirements of the course. Lists case study and lecture topics. (ML)

  19. Engineering approach to model and compute electric power markets settlements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back-office accounting settlement activities are an important part of market operations in Independent System Operator (ISO) organizations. A potential way to measure ISO market design correctness is to analyze how well market price signals create incentives or penalties for creating an efficient market to achieve market design goals. Market settlement rules are an important tool for implementing price signals which are fed back to participants via the settlement activities of the ISO. ISO's are currently faced with the challenge of high volumes of data resulting from the increasing size of markets and ever-changing market designs, as well as the growing complexity of wholesale energy settlement business rules. This paper analyzed the problem and presented a practical engineering solution using an approach based on mathematical formulation and modeling of large scale calculations. The paper also presented critical comments on various differences in settlement design approaches to electrical power market design, as well as further areas of development. The paper provided a brief introduction to the wholesale energy market settlement systems and discussed problem formulation. An actual settlement implementation framework and discussion of the results and conclusions were also presented. It was concluded that a proper engineering approach to this domain can yield satisfying results by formalizing wholesale energy settlements. Significant improvements were observed in the initial preparation phase, scoping and effort estimation, implementation and testing. 5 refs., 2 figs

  20. Approaches to Improve Mixing in Compression Ignition Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boot, M.D.

    2010-04-20

    This thesis presents three approaches to suppress soot emissions in compression ignition (CI) engines. First, a fuel chemistry approach is proposed. A particular class of fuels - cyclic oxygenates - is identified which is capable of significantly reducing engine-out soot emissions. By means of experiments in 'closed' and optical engines, as well as on an industrial burner, two possible mechanisms are identified that could account for the observed reduction in soot: a) an extended ignition delay (ID) and b) a longer flame lift-length (FLoL). Further analysis of the available data suggests that both mechanisms are related to the inherently low reactivity of the fuel class in question. These findings are largely in line with data found in literature. In the second approach, it is attempted to reduce soot by adopting an alternative combustion concept: early direct injection premixed charge compression ignition (EDI PCCI). In this concept, fuel is injected relatively early in the compression stroke instead of conventional, close to top-dead-center (TDC), injection schemes. While the goal of soot reduction can indeed be achieved via this approach, an important drawback must be addressed before this concept can be considered practically viable. Due to the fact that combustion chamber temperature and pressure is relatively low early in the compression stroke, fuel impingement against the cylinder liner (wall-wetting) often occurs. Consequently, high levels of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), oil dilution and poor efficiency are observed. Several strategies, combining a limited engine modification with dedicated air management and fueling settings, are investigated to tackle this drawback. All of these strategies, and especially their combination, resulted in significantly lower UHC emissions and improved fuel economy. Although UHC emissions are typically a tell-tale sign of wall-wetting, as mentioned earlier, the relation between these two has long been hypothetical

  1. From multiscale modeling to meso-science a chemical engineering perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jinghai; Wang, Wei; Yang, Ning; Liu, Xinhua; Wang, Limin; He, Xianfeng; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Junwu; Kwauk, Mooson

    2013-01-01

    Multiscale modeling is becoming essential for accurate, rapid simulation in science and engineering. This book presents the results of three decades of research on multiscale modeling in process engineering from principles to application, and its generalization for different fields. This book considers the universality of meso-scale phenomena for the first time, and provides insight into the emerging discipline that unifies them, meso-science, as well as new perspectives for virtual process engineering. Multiscale modeling is applied in areas including: multiphase flow and fluid dynamics chemical, biochemical and process engineering mineral processing and metallurgical engineering energy and resources materials science and engineering Jinghai Li is Vice-President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), a professor at the Institute of Process Engineering, CAS, and leader of the EMMS (Energy-minimization multiscale) Group. Wei Ge, Wei Wang, Ning Yang and Junwu Wang are professors at the EMMS Group, part of th...

  2. Sustainable solid waste management a systems engineering approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, N

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between human activities and the environment are complicated and often difficult to quantify. In many occasions, judging where the optimal balance should lie among environmental protection, social well-being, economic growth, and technological progress is complex. The use of a systems engineering approach will fill in the gap contributing to how we understand the intricacy by a holistic way and how we generate better sustainable solid waste management practices. This book aims to advance interdisciplinary understanding of intertwined facets between policy and technology relevant to solid waste management issues interrelated to climate change, land use, economic growth, environmental pollution, industrial ecology, and population dynamics.

  3. TEPCO's Approach to Power-Engineer Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masaki

    We think 'human resources and technology' is developed only by self-training continuously, keeping higher motivation and practicing repeatedly. Moreover it is indispensable for sustainable development of company. Management vision, top-down message with vertical communication, and bottom-up systematic approaches are necessary for sustainable human resource development, sharing the value with coordination, and in addition, OJT and Off-JT method should be used effectively. This paper shows TEPCO's attempts to develop engineers' technical skills as a reference of a in-company continuing professional development.

  4. New approach in lubrication engineering using neutron reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to historic papers in lubrication engineering, lubrication modes between two solids are essentially classified into three groups - boundary lubrication, mixed lubrication and full-film lubrication. This paper proposed some novel approaches for elucidation of lubrication phenomena using neutron reflectometry. For the studies on boundary lubrication, the neutron reflectometry is helpful to in-situ observe the 'absorbed layer' near the solid surface, while for the studies on full-film lubrication, it can reveal the density of lubricants at the solid-liquid interface. Those information will help to clarify the friction mechanism under lubrication in the field of tribology. (author)

  5. Energy systems a new approach to engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gicquel, Renaud

    2011-01-01

    Forewords, About the Author, General introduction, Structure of the book, Objectives, A working tool on many levels, Mind Maps, List of Symbols, Conversion FactorsI First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics1 A New Educational Paradigm1.1 Introduction1.2 General remarks on the evolution of training specifi cations1.3 Specifi cs of applied thermodynamics teaching1.4 A new educational paradigm1.5 Diapason modules1.6 A three-step progressive approach1.7 Main pedagogic innovations brought by Thermoptim1.8 Digital resources of the Thermoptim-UNIT portal1.9 Comparison with other tools with teaching p

  6. An Extended Algorithm of Flexibility Analysis in Chemical Engineering Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An extended algorithm of flexibility analysis with a local adjusting method for flexibility region of chemical processes, which is based on the active constraint strategy, is proposed, which fully exploits the flexibility region of the process system operation. The hyperrectangular flexibility region determined by the extended algorithm is larger than that calculated by the previous algorithms. The limitation of the proposed algorithm due to imperfect convexity and its corresponding verification measure are also discussed. Both numerical and actual chemical process examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new algorithm.

  7. Quantum-chemical approach to cohesive properties of metallic beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations based upon the incremental approach, i.e. an expansion of the correlation energy in terms of one-body, two-body, and higher-order contributions from localized orbital groups, have been performed for metallic beryllium. We apply an embedding scheme which has been successfully applied recently to ground-state properties of magnesium and group 12 elements. This scheme forces localization in metallic-like model systems and allows for a gradual delocalization within the incremental approach. Quantum-chemical methods of the coupled-cluster and multi-reference configuration interaction type are used for evaluating individual increments. Results are given for the cohesive energy and lattice constants of beryllium, and it is shown that further development of the approach is needed for this difficult case

  8. Hybrid bioinorganic approach to solar-to-chemical conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Eva M; Gallagher, Joseph J; Liu, Chong; Su, Yude; Resasco, Joaquin; Yu, Yi; Sun, Yujie; Yang, Peidong; Chang, Michelle C Y; Chang, Christopher J

    2015-09-15

    Natural photosynthesis harnesses solar energy to convert CO2 and water to value-added chemical products for sustaining life. We present a hybrid bioinorganic approach to solar-to-chemical conversion in which sustainable electrical and/or solar input drives production of hydrogen from water splitting using biocompatible inorganic catalysts. The hydrogen is then used by living cells as a source of reducing equivalents for conversion of CO2 to the value-added chemical product methane. Using platinum or an earth-abundant substitute, α-NiS, as biocompatible hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts and Methanosarcina barkeri as a biocatalyst for CO2 fixation, we demonstrate robust and efficient electrochemical CO2 to CH4 conversion at up to 86% overall Faradaic efficiency for ≥ 7 d. Introduction of indium phosphide photocathodes and titanium dioxide photoanodes affords a fully solar-driven system for methane generation from water and CO2, establishing that compatible inorganic and biological components can synergistically couple light-harvesting and catalytic functions for solar-to-chemical conversion. PMID:26305947

  9. Design Paradigm and Risk Assessment of Hybrid Re-engineering with an approach for development of Re-engineering Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Tarar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Software re-engineering, a recent research area includes reverse engineering & forward engineering whileHybrid re-engineering incorporates both the engineering processes where reverse engineering applies toexisting system code to extract design & requirements, although this is often used as means to mitigaterisks & reduced costs of operation and maintaining the software system. This paper briefly describestraditional re-engineering then discusses the emerging process of hybrid-reengineering which is often usedas means to simplify the cumbersome tasks. The paper represents how maintenance is going to be effectwith the help of given software engineering approaches. An analysis of various possible risks, their impactand mapping with various attributes is correspondingly depicted. This paper is also presenting the way toreduce the impact of most of these risks by using hybrid re-engineering.

  10. Some approaches to system reliability improvement in engineering design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis some approaches to system reliability improvement in engineering design are studied. In particular, the thesis aims at developing alternative methodologies for ranking of component importance which are more related to the design practice and which are more useful in system synthesis than the existing ones. It also aims at developing component reliability models by means of stress-strength interference which will enable both component reliability prediction and design for reliability. A new methodology for ranking of component importance is first developed based on the notion of the increase of the expected system yield. This methodology allows for incorporation of different improvement actions at the component level such as parallel redundancy, standby redundancy, burn-in, minimal repair and perfect replacement. For each of these improvement actions, the increase of system reliability is studied and used as the component importance measure. A possible connection between the commonly known models of component lifetimes and the stress-strength interference models is suggested. Under some general conditions the relationship between component failure rate and the stress and strength distribution characteristics is studied. A heuristic approach for obtaining bounds on failure probability through stress-strength interference is also presented. A case study and a worked example are presented, which illustrate and verify the developed importance measures and their applications in the analytical as well as synthetical work of engineering design. (author)

  11. Categories in the pigeon brain: A reverse engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenen, Charlotte; Pusch, Roland; Bröker, Franziska; Thiele, Samuel; Güntürkün, Onur

    2016-01-01

    Pigeons are well known for their visual capabilities as well as their ability to categorize visual stimuli at both the basic and superordinate level. We adopt a reverse engineering approach to study categorization learning: Instead of training pigeons on predefined categories, we simply present stimuli and analyze neural output in search of categorical clustering on a solely neural level. We presented artificial stimuli, pictorial and grating stimuli, to pigeons without the need of any differential behavioral responding while recording from the nidopallium frontolaterale (NFL), a higher visual area in the avian brain. The pictorial stimuli differed in color and shape; the gratings differed in spatial frequency and amplitude. We computed representational dissimilarity matrices to reveal categorical clustering based on both neural data and pecking behavior. Based on neural output of the NFL, pictorial and grating stimuli were differentially represented in the brain. Pecking behavior showed a similar pattern, but to a lesser extent. A further subclustering within pictorial stimuli according to color and shape, and within gratings according to frequency and amplitude, was not present. Our study gives proof-of-concept that this reverse engineering approach-namely reading out categorical information from neural data-can be quite helpful in understanding the neural underpinnings of categorization learning. PMID:26615363

  12. An overview of portuguese chemical engineering undergraduate laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Adélio; Henriques, Carlos; Portugal, Inês; Alves, M.M.; Castro, Almiro; Ramos, Ana M.

    2001-01-01

    The UNESCO’s World Declaration on Higher Education for the Twenty-First Century, Vision and Action (1998) states in its paragraph “Innovative educational approaches: critical thinking and creativity”: “[…] New pedagogical and didactical approaches should be accessible and promoted in order to facilitate the acquisition of skills, competencies and abilities for communication, creative and critical analysis, independent thinking and team work […]”. The importance of teaching labo...

  13. Biomimetic approaches in bone tissue engineering: Integrating biological and physicomechanical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Yague, Marc A; Abbah, Sunny Akogwu; McNamara, Laoise; Zeugolis, Dimitrios I; Pandit, Abhay; Biggs, Manus J

    2015-04-01

    The development of responsive biomaterials capable of demonstrating modulated function in response to dynamic physiological and mechanical changes in vivo remains an important challenge in bone tissue engineering. To achieve long-term repair and good clinical outcomes, biologically responsive approaches that focus on repair and reconstitution of tissue structure and function through drug release, receptor recognition, environmental responsiveness and tuned biodegradability are required. Traditional orthopedic materials lack biomimicry, and mismatches in tissue morphology, or chemical and mechanical properties ultimately accelerate device failure. Multiple stimuli have been proposed as principal contributors or mediators of cell activity and bone tissue formation, including physical (substrate topography, stiffness, shear stress and electrical forces) and biochemical factors (growth factors, genes or proteins). However, optimal solutions to bone regeneration remain elusive. This review will focus on biological and physicomechanical considerations currently being explored in bone tissue engineering. PMID:25236302

  14. Green strength sustainability: a case study of chemical engineering students

    OpenAIRE

    Avsec, Stanislav; Kaučič, Branko

    2015-01-01

    Green chemistry is a relatively new area of science and technology aimed at improving chemical processes and thereby avoiding negative impacts on human health, safety, and the environment (EHS). It is based on careful selection of raw materials for the production of various products, excluding the use of hazardous substances. The field of green chemistry has received much attention from the scientific and industrial communities in almost every highly industrialized nation. It i...

  15. CHEMCAD as a tool when teaching Chemical Engineering.

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Imran Ullah

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this project was to design different chemical processes using Chemcad software. Following five Chemcad models that had industrial relevance were designed and discussed, production of nitric acid by ammonia oxidation process, Production of sodium carbonate by Solvay process, production of hydrogen by steam reforming of natural gas, production of sulphuric acid by Contact process and production of sulphur by Claus process. Equilibrium reactor, Gibbs reactor, absorption tower, heat ex...

  16. Compilation of contract research for the Chemical Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering Technology. Annual report for FY 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation of annual research reports by the contractors to the Chemical Engineering Branch, DET, is published to disseminate information from ongoing programs and covers research conducted during fiscal year 1985. The programs covered in this document include research on: (1) engineered safety feature (ESF) system effectiveness in terms of fission product retention under severe accident conditions; (2) effectiveness and safety aspects of selected decontamination methods; (3) decontamination impacts on solidification and waste disposal; (4) evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects and concepts, and (5) operational schemes to prevent or mitigate the effects of hydrogen combustion during LWR accidents

  17. Solar photochemical process engineering for production of fuels and chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, J. R.; Peterson, D. B.; Fujita, T.

    1985-01-01

    The engineering costs and performance of a nominal 25,000 scmd (883,000 scfd) photochemical plant to produce dihydrogen from water were studied. Two systems were considered, one based on flat-plate collector/reactors and the other on linear parabolic troughs. Engineering subsystems were specified including the collector/reactor, support hardware, field transport piping, gas compression equipment, and balance-of-plant (BOP) items. Overall plant efficiencies of 10.3 and 11.6 percent are estimated for the flat-plate and trough systems, respectively, based on assumed solar photochemical efficiencies of 12.9 and 14.6 percent. Because of the opposing effects of concentration ratio and operating temperature on efficiency, it was concluded that reactor cooling would be necessary with the trough system. Both active and passive cooling methods were considered. Capital costs and energy costs, for both concentrating and non-concentrating systems, were determined and their sensitivity to efficiency and economic parameters were analyzed. The overall plant efficiency is the single most important factor in determining the cost of the fuel.

  18. Combustion in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines: Experiments and Detailed Chemical Kinetic Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, D L

    2002-06-07

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines are being considered as an alternative to diesel engines. The HCCI concept involves premixing fuel and air prior to induction into the cylinder (as is done in current spark-ignition engine) then igniting the fuel-air mixture through the compression process (as is done in current diesel engines). The combustion occurring in an HCCI engine is fundamentally different from a spark-ignition or Diesel engine in that the heat release occurs as a global autoignition process, as opposed to the turbulent flame propagation or mixing controlled combustion used in current engines. The advantage of this global autoignition is that the temperatures within the cylinder are uniformly low, yielding very low emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}, the chief precursors to photochemical smog). The inherent features of HCCI combustion allows for design of engines with efficiency comparable to, or potentially higher than, diesel engines. While HCCI engines have great potential, several technical barriers exist which currently prevent widespread commercialization of this technology. The most significant challenge is that the combustion timing cannot be controlled by typical in-cylinder means. Means of controlling combustion have been demonstrated, but a robust control methodology that is applicable to the entire range of operation has yet to be developed. This research focuses on understanding basic characteristics of controlling and operating HCCI engines. Experiments and detailed chemical kinetic simulations have been applied to the characterize some of the fundamental operational and design characteristics of HCCI engines. Experiments have been conducted on single and multi-cylinder engines to investigate general features of how combustion timing affects the performance and emissions of HCCI engines. Single-zone modeling has been used to characterize and compare the implementation of different control strategies. Multi

  19. Stochastic global optimization techniques and applications in chemical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rangaiah, Gade Pandu

    2010-01-01

    Optimization has played a key role in the design, planning and operation of chemical and related processes, for several decades. Global optimization has been receiving considerable attention in the past two decades. Of the two types of techniques for global optimization, stochastic global optimization is applicable to any type of problems having non-differentiable functions, discrete variables and/or continuous variables. It, thus, shows significant promise and potential for process optimization. So far, there are no books focusing on stochastic global optimization and its applications in chem

  20. Tuning Chemical Potential in the Dirac Cone by Compositional Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal, R. K.; Singh, Sourabh; Sarkar, Jit; Mitra, Chiranjib

    2016-01-01

    We report the successful formation of bulk insulating ternary topological insulators candidate Bi2Se2Te (BST) by pulsed laser deposition technique. The films were deposited with sequential ablation of separate Bi2Se3 (BS) and Bi2Te3 (BT) targets. From the X-ray diffraction analysis and temperature dependent resistivity we were able to conclude that the as grown thin films have ordered chalcogen layers and the chemical potential in these thin films lie in the bulk gap. To realize entirely topo...

  1. An integrated systems engineering approach to aircraft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M.; Raghunathan, S.; Curran, R.

    2006-06-01

    The challenge in Aerospace Engineering, in the next two decades as set by Vision 2020, is to meet the targets of reduction of nitric oxide emission by 80%, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide both by 50%, reduce noise by 50% and of course with reduced cost and improved safety. All this must be achieved with expected increase in capacity and demand. Such a challenge has to be in a background where the understanding of physics of flight has changed very little over the years and where industrial growth is driven primarily by cost rather than new technology. The way forward to meet the challenges is to introduce innovative technologies and develop an integrated, effective and efficient process for the life cycle design of aircraft, known as systems engineering (SE). SE is a holistic approach to a product that comprises several components. Customer specifications, conceptual design, risk analysis, functional analysis and architecture, physical architecture, design analysis and synthesis, and trade studies and optimisation, manufacturing, testing validation and verification, delivery, life cycle cost and management. Further, it involves interaction between traditional disciplines such as Aerodynamics, Structures and Flight Mechanics with people- and process-oriented disciplines such as Management, Manufacturing, and Technology Transfer. SE has become the state-of-the-art methodology for organising and managing aerospace production. However, like many well founded methodologies, it is more difficult to embody the core principles into formalised models and tools. The key contribution of the paper will be to review this formalisation and to present the very latest knowledge and technology that facilitates SE theory. Typically, research into SE provides a deeper understanding of the core principles and interactions, and helps one to appreciate the required technical architecture for fully exploiting it as a process, rather than a series of events. There are major issues as

  2. AMAZON RAINFOREST COSMETICS: CHEMICAL APPROACH FOR QUALITY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Funasaki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The market for natural cosmetics featuring ingredients derived from Amazon natural resources is growing worldwide. However, there is neither enough scientific basis nor quality control of these ingredients. This paper is an account of the chemical constituents and their biological activities of fourteen Amazonian species used in cosmetic industry, including açaí (Euterpe oleracea, andiroba (Carapa guianensis, bacuri (Platonia insignis, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, buriti (Mauritia vinifera or M. flexuosa, cumaru (Dipteryx odorata, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum, guarana (Paullinia cupana, mulateiro (Calycophyllum spruceanum, murumuru (Astrocaryum murumuru, patawa (Oenocarpus bataua or Jessenia bataua, pracaxi (Pentaclethra macroloba, rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora, and ucuuba (Virola sebifera. Based on the reviewed articles, we selected chemical markers for the quality control purpose and evaluated analytical methods. Even though chromatographic and spectroscopic methods are major analytical techniques in the studies of these species, molecular approaches will also be important as used in food and medicine traceability. Only a little phytochemical study is available about most of the Amazonian species and some species such as açaí and andiroba have many reports on chemical constituents, but studies on biological activities of isolated compounds and sampling with geographical variation are limited.

  3. Marine Derived Polysaccharides for Biomedical Applications: Chemical Modification Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Laurienzo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide-based biomaterials are an emerging class in several biomedical fields such as tissue regeneration, particularly for cartilage, drug delivery devices and gelentrapment systems for the immobilization of cells. Important properties of the polysaccharides include controllable biological activity, biodegradability, and their ability to form hydrogels. Most of the polysaccharides used derive from natural sources; particularly, alginate and chitin, two polysaccharides which have an extensive history of use in medicine, pharmacy and basic sciences, and can be easily extracted from marine plants (algae kelp and crab shells, respectively. The recent rediscovery of poly-saccharidebased materials is also attributable to new synthetic routes for their chemical modification, with the aim of promoting new biological activities and/or to modify the final properties of the biomaterials for specific purposes. These synthetic strategies also involve the combination of polysaccharides with other polymers. A review of the more recent research in the field of chemical modification of alginate, chitin and its derivative chitosan is presented. Moreover, we report as case studies the results of our recent work concerning various different approaches and applications of polysaccharide-based biomaterials, such as the realization of novel composites based on calcium sulphate blended with alginate and with a chemically modified chitosan, the synthesis of novel alginate-poly(ethylene glycol copolymers and the development of a family of materials based on alginate and acrylic polymers of potential interest as drug delivery systems.

  4. Engineering propionibacteria as versatile cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals: advances, challenges, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ningzi; Zhuge, Xin; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Wu, Jing; Shi, Zhongping; Liu, Long

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacteria are actinobacteria consisting of two principal groups: cutaneous and dairy. Cutaneous propionibacteria are considered primary pathogens to humans, whereas dairy propionibacteria are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Increasing attention has been focused on improving the performance of dairy propionibacteria for the production of industrially important chemicals, and significant advances have been made through strain engineering and process optimization in the production of flavor compounds, nutraceuticals, and antimicrobial compounds. In addition, genome sequencing of several propionibacteria species has been completed, deepening understanding of the metabolic and physiological features of these organisms. However, the metabolic engineering of propionibacteria still faces several challenges owing to the lack of efficient genome manipulation tools and the existence of various types of strong restriction-modification systems. The emergence of systems and synthetic biology provides new opportunities to overcome these bottlenecks. In this review, we first introduce the major species of propionibacteria and their properties and provide an overview of their functions and applications. We then discuss advances in the genome sequencing and metabolic engineering of these bacteria. Finally, we discuss systems and synthetic biology approaches for engineering propionibacteria as efficient and robust cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals. PMID:25431012

  5. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian;

    2015-01-01

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played an imp...... chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes.......Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played an...... important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine...

  6. Effectiveness of an Applied Microbiology Course Specifically Designed for Chemical Engineering Majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory B. Hecht

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the disciplines of microbiology and chemical engineering have developed an increasing convergence. To meet the needs of their future employers, today’s chemical engineering students must receive some background in microbiology. This report describes the development and content of “Biological Systems and Applications,” a novel course specifically designed to provide basic biology and applied microbiology knowledge, skills, and experience to sophomore chemical engineering majors. Data collected from entrance and exit surveys of the students demonstrated that the course is successful. The importance of the “project-base” learning technique and of interdisciplinary faculty-student and faculty-faculty collaborations are proposed as elements essential to the success of this particular course.

  7. Correlation between electrical, mechanical and chemical properties of fresh and used aircraft engine oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the results are presented of measurements of electrical, mechanical and chemical properties of fresh and used aircraft engine oils. Oils were used in a four-stroke aircraft engine and their samples were taken after the 50-hour work of the engine. The resistivity, permittivity and viscosity of oils were measured as a function of temperature. Additionally, some measurements of the absorbance spectra and size of particles contained in the oils were carried out. The significant reduction in the resistivity of the used Total oil was observed. The relative permittivity of both used oils was slightly increased. The oil's relative viscosity depends on temperature of oil and given time that elapsed from the very first moment when the shear force was applied in a rheometer. The results obtained allowed one to identify more precisely the chemical and physico-chemical interactions occurring in the tested samples, as compared with a typical infrared spectroscopy.

  8. Chemistry of fossil fuels and biofuels (cambridge series in chemical engineering)

    CERN Document Server

    Schobert, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on today's major fuel resources - ethanol, biodiesel, wood, natural gas, petroleum products and coal - this book discusses the formation, composition and properties of the fuels, and the ways in which they are processed for commercial use. The book examines the origin of fuels through natural processes such as photosynthesis and the geological transformation of ancient plant material; the relationships between their composition, molecular structures, and physical properties; and the various processes by which they are converted or refined into the fuel products appearing on today's market. Fundamental chemical aspects such as catalysis and the behaviour of reactive intermediates are presented, and global warming and anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are also discussed. The book is suitable for graduate students in energy engineering, chemical engineering, mechanical engineering and chemistry, as well as professional scientists and engineers.

  9. Artificial Metalloenzymes through Chemical Modification of Engineered Host Proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Zernickel, Anna

    2014-10-01

    With a few exceptions, all organisms are restricted to the 20 canonical amino acids for ribosomal protein biosynthesis. Addition of new amino acids to the genetic code can introduce novel functionalities to proteins, broadening the diversity of biochemical as well as chemical reactions and providing new tools to study protein structure, reactivity, dynamics and protein-protein-interactions. The site directed in vivo incorporation developed by P. G. SCHULTZ and coworkers, using an archeal orthogonal tRNA/aaRS (aminoacyl-tRNA synthase) pair, allows site-specifically insertion of a synthetic unnatural amino acid (UAA) by reprogramming the amber TAG stop codon. A variety of over 80 different UAAs can be introduced by this technique. However by now a very limited number can form kinetically stable bonds to late transition metals. This thesis aims to develop new catalytically active unnatural amino acids or strategies for a posttranslational modification of site-specific amino acids in order to achieve highly enantioselective metallorganic enzyme hybrids (MOEH). As a requirement a stable protein host has to be established, surviving the conditions for incorporation, posttranslational modification and the final catalytic reactions. mTFP* a fluorescent protein was genetically modified by excluding any exposed Cys, His and Met forming a variant mTFP*, which fulfills the required specifications. Posttranslational chemical modification of mTFP* allow the introduction of single site metal chelating moieties. For modification on exposed cysteines different maleiimid containing ligand structures were synthesized. In order to perform copper catalyzed click reactions, suitable unnatural amino acids (para-azido-(L)-phenylalanine, para-ethynyl-(L)-phenylalanine) were synthesized and a non-cytotoxic protocol was established. The triazole ring formed during this reaction may contribute as a moderate σ-donor/π-acceptor ligand to the metal binding site. Since the cell limits the

  10. Fatigue in engineering structures. A three fold analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integrity in most of the engineering structures in influenced by the presence of cracks or crack like defects. These structures fail, even catastrophically if a crack greater than a critically safe size exist. Although most of the optimal designed structures are initially free from critical cracks, sub-critical cracks can lead to failures under cyclic loadings, called fatigue crack growth. It is nearly impractical to prevent sub-critical crack growth in engineering structures particularly in crack sensitive structures like most of the structures in nuclear, aerospace and aeronautical domains. However, it is essential to predict the fatigue crack growth for these structures to preclude the in service failures causing loss of assets. The present research presents an automatic procedure for the prediction of fatigue crack growth in three dimensional engineering structures and the key data for the fracture mechanics based design: the stress intensity factors. Three fold analysis procedures are adopted to investigate the effects of repetitive (cyclic) loadings on the fatigue life of different geometries of aluminum alloy 2219-O. A general purpose Finite Element (FE) Code ANSYS-8.0 is used to predict/estimate the fatigue life of the geometries. Computer codes utilizing the Green's Function are developed to calculate the stress intensity factors. Another code based on superposition technique presented by Shivakumara and Foreman is developed to calculate the fatigue crack growth rate, fatigue life (No. of loading cycles are developed to validate the results and finally full scale laboratory tests are conducted for the comparison of the results. The results showing a close co-relation between the different techniques employed gives the promising feature of the analysis approach for the future work. (author)

  11. Feasibility of Reduced Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms of Methane in Internal Combustion Engine Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennetta, Ridha; Said, Rachid

    2008-09-01

    Three reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms of methane combustion were tested and compared with the standard detailed scheme GriMech 3.0., using the internal combustion engine (ICE) model of Chemkin 4.02 [1]. This study shows acceptable concordances in the prediction of temperature and main species profiles. But reduced schemes were incapables to predict all polluant emissions in an internal combustion engine.

  12. Approaches to nontraditional delivery of nuclear engineering education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, the faculty of the nuclear engineering and engineering physics department have, over the years, been involved in a variety of such approaches in response to the changing needs of nuclear industry personnel. A number of different types of short course and workshop programs have been developed and implemented both on and off campus in such areas as basic nuclear technology, reactor design computer codes and applications, nuclear power plant design and maintenance, reactor operations, health physics, modern developments in boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow, and probabilistic risk assessment. Customized coursed tailored to meet the particular needs of personnel in specialized areas can also be offered on specific industrial site locations, generally resulting in substantial savings of time as well as costs associated with tuition, travel, lodging. The Rensselaer Satellite Video Program (RSVP) brings the latest technological aids to the nontraditional delivery of courses and provides the facilities and opportunities for off-campus students and professional personnel to participate in regular academic programs and courses without leaving their industrial sites

  13. A Systems Engineering Approach to Quality Assurance for Aerospace Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Christena C.

    2015-01-01

    On the surface, it appears that AS91001 has little to say about how to apply a Quality Management System (QMS) to major aerospace test programs (or even smaller ones). It also appears that there is little in the quality engineering Body of Knowledge (BOK)2 that applies to testing, unless it is nondestructive examination (NDE), or some type of lab or bench testing associated with the manufacturing process. However, if one examines: a) how the systems engineering (SE) processes are implemented throughout a test program; and b) how these SE processes can be mapped to the requirements of AS9100, a number of areas for involvement of the quality professional are revealed. What often happens is that quality assurance during a test program is limited to inspections of the test article; what could be considered a manufacturing al fresco approach. This limits the quality professional and is a disservice to the programs and projects, since there are a number of ways that quality can enhance critical processes, and support efforts to improve risk reduction, efficiency and effectiveness.

  14. A Model Driven Engineering Approach Applied to Master Data Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menet, Ludovic; Lamolle, Myriam

    The federation of data sources and the definition of pivot models are strongly interrelated topics. This paper explores a mediation solution based on XML architecture and the concept of Master Data Management. In this solution, pivot models use the standard XML Schema allowing the definition of complex data structures. The introduction of a MDE approach is a means to make modeling easier. We use UML as an abstract modeling layer. UML is a modeling object language, which is more and more used and recognized as a standard in the software engineering field, which makes it an ideal candidate for the modeling of XML Schema models. In this purpose we introduce features of the UML formalism, through profiles, to facilitate the definition and the exchange of models.

  15. The role of chemical engineering in medicinal research including Alzheimer’s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2015-01-01

    - Jacob (“mad cow” disease), and Alzheimer’s which are connected to “protein aggregation.” Several articles in the Perspectives section of prominent chemical engineering journals have addressed this issue (Hall, AIChE J 54:1956, 2008; Vekilov, AIChE J 54:2508, 2008). This work reviews recent applications...... of thermodynamics (and other areas of chemical engineering) first in drug development and then in the understanding of the mechanism of Alzheimer’s and similar diseases....

  16. Failure of Engineering Artifacts: A Life Cycle Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Frate, L.

    2012-01-01

    Failure is a central notion both in ethics of engineering and in engineering practice. Engineers devote considerable resources to assure their products will not fail and considerable progress has been made in the development of tools and methods for understanding and avoiding failure. Engineering et

  17. Generic Engineering Competencies: A Review and Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male, Sally A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper puts forward the view that engineering educators have a responsibility to prepare graduates for engineering work and careers. The current literature reveals gaps between the competencies required for engineering work and those developed in engineering education. Generic competencies feature in these competency gaps. Literature suggests…

  18. Modeling drug- and chemical- induced hepatotoxicity with systems biology approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SudinBhattacharya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of computational systems biology approaches as applied to the study of chemical- and drug-induced toxicity. The concept of ‘toxicity pathways’ is described in the context of the 2007 US National Academies of Science report, “Toxicity testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy”. Pathway mapping and modeling based on network biology concepts are a key component of the vision laid out in this report for a more biologically-based analysis of dose-response behavior and the safety of chemicals and drugs. We focus on toxicity of the liver (hepatotoxicity – a complex phenotypic response with contributions from a number of different cell types and biological processes. We describe three case studies of complementary multi-scale computational modeling approaches to understand perturbation of toxicity pathways in the human liver as a result of exposure to environmental contaminants and specific drugs. One approach involves development of a spatial, multicellular “virtual tissue” model of the liver lobule that combines molecular circuits in individual hepatocytes with cell-cell interactions and blood-mediated transport of toxicants through hepatic sinusoids, to enable quantitative, mechanistic prediction of hepatic dose-response for activation of the AhR toxicity pathway. Simultaneously, methods are being developing to extract quantitative maps of intracellular signaling and transcriptional regulatory networks perturbed by environmental contaminants, using a combination of gene expression and genome-wide protein-DNA interaction data. A predictive physiological model (DILIsymTM to understand drug-induced liver injury (DILI, the most common adverse event leading to termination of clinical development programs and regulatory actions on drugs, is also described. The model initially focuses on reactive metabolite-induced DILI in response to administration of acetaminophen, and spans multiple biological scales.

  19. ATTITUDES AND VIEWS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING STUDENTS TOWARDS SCHOOL EXPERIENCE AND CHEMISTRY LESSONS IN INDIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is the backbone for the chemical engineering students. Basic chemistry learnt in schools till 12th standard makes framework for chemical engineering, hence their understanging of chemistry during school education is important. In present paper, the data of 64 students of Chemical Engineering have been collected and analyzed with respect to to their school experience of 10th and 12th standard of school and chemistry lessons learnt during that period

  20. Metabolic Engineering for Production of Biorenewable Fuels and Chemicals: Contributions of Synthetic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Production of fuels and chemicals through microbial fermentation of plant material is a desirable alternative to petrochemical-based production. Fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals requires the engineering of biocatalysts that can quickly and efficiently convert sugars to target products at a cost that is competitive with existing petrochemical-based processes. It is also important that biocatalysts be robust to extreme fermentation conditions, biomass-derived inhibito...

  1. Engineering Model Reduction and Entropy-based Lyapunov Functions in Chemical Reaction Kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Hangos, Katalin M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the structural properties of chemical reaction systems obeying the mass action law are investigated and related to the physical and chemical properties of the system. An entropy-based Lyapunov function candidate serves as a tool for proving structural stability, the existence of which is guaranteed by the second law of thermodynamics. The commonly used engineering model reduction methods, the so-called quasi equilibrium and quasi steady state assumption based reductions, togeth...

  2. Lessons Learned on University Education Programs of Chemical Engineering Principles for Nuclear Plant Operations - 13588

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jun-hyung [Department of Nuclear and Energy System, Dongguk University, Gyeongju Campus, Gyeongju, 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    University education aims to supply qualified human resources for industries. In complex large scale engineering systems such as nuclear power plants, the importance of qualified human resources cannot be underestimated. The corresponding education program should involve many topics systematically. Recently a nuclear engineering program has been initiated in Dongguk University, South Korea. The current education program focuses on undergraduate level nuclear engineering students. Our main objective is to provide industries fresh engineers with the understanding on the interconnection of local parts and the entire systems of nuclear power plants and the associated systems. From the experience there is a huge opportunity for chemical engineering disciple in the context of giving macroscopic overview on nuclear power plant and waste treatment management by strengthening the analyzing capability of fundamental situations. (authors)

  3. Lessons Learned on University Education Programs of Chemical Engineering Principles for Nuclear Plant Operations - 13588

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    University education aims to supply qualified human resources for industries. In complex large scale engineering systems such as nuclear power plants, the importance of qualified human resources cannot be underestimated. The corresponding education program should involve many topics systematically. Recently a nuclear engineering program has been initiated in Dongguk University, South Korea. The current education program focuses on undergraduate level nuclear engineering students. Our main objective is to provide industries fresh engineers with the understanding on the interconnection of local parts and the entire systems of nuclear power plants and the associated systems. From the experience there is a huge opportunity for chemical engineering disciple in the context of giving macroscopic overview on nuclear power plant and waste treatment management by strengthening the analyzing capability of fundamental situations. (authors)

  4. A master-model approach to whole jet engine analysis and design optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Sandberg, Marcus; Kokkolaras, Michael; Aidanpää, Jan-Olov; Isaksson, Ola; Larsson, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Novel jet engine concepts and architectures are being explored to reduce mass, fuel consumption, development cost and environmental impact while increasing performance. Although the engine systems development process of the next generation aero engines takes place at the original equipment manufacturer level, component manufacturers need to optimize their components using an integrated engine system design approach. Therefore, they need the capability to model and simulate whole engine behavi...

  5. A mixture approach to investigate interstitial growth in engineering scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernerey, Franck J

    2016-04-01

    Controlling biological growth within a cell-laden polymeric scaffold is a critical challenge in the tissue engineering community. Indeed, construct growth must often be balanced with scaffold degradation and is often coupled to varying degrees of deformation that originate from swelling, external forces and the effects of confinement. These factors have been shown to affect growth in many ways, but to date, our understanding is mostly qualitative. While cell sensing, molecular transport and scaffold/tissue interactions are believed to be important players, it will be critical to quantify, predict and control these effects in order to eventually optimize tissue growth in the laboratory. The aim of this paper was thus to provide a theoretical framework to better understand how the scaffold-mediated mechanisms of transport, deposition (and possibly degradation) and elasticity affect the overall growth of a tissue subjected to finite deformations. We propose a formulation in which the macroscopic evolutions in tissue size, density as well as the appearance of residual stresses can be directly related to changes in internal composition by considering three fundamental principles: mechanical equilibrium, chemical equilibrium and molecular incompressibility. The resulting model allows us to pay particular attention to features that are critical to the interaction between growth and deformation: osmotic pressure and swelling, the strain mismatch between old and newly deposited material as well as the mechano-sensitive cell-mediated production. We show that all of these phenomena may indeed strongly affect the overall growth of a construct under finite deformations. PMID:26047777

  6. Recognizing Atoms in Atomically Engineered Nanostructures: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, J.W.; Bouchard, A.; Horn, K.M.; Osbourn, G.C.; Swartzentruber, B.S.

    1998-11-01

    This report describes the results of a Sandia Laboratov Directed Research & Development project to develop a technique that can identifi atoms in atomically engineered nanostructures. The report provides a detailed description of the experimental measurement techniques and subsequent image analysis procedures used in the identification process, followed by examples of the technique's successful application to several atomic surface features. Use of this technique requires the experimental measurement of both constant-current topographic and multi-bias conductance data from an atomic surface with the scanning tunneling microscope. These measurements are rendered as a collection of topographic and single-bias conductance images of the surface. Image pixels are then grouped into classes by a computed grouping algorithm, according to the shared conductance characteristics exhibited at each pixel. The image pixels are then color-coded by class to produce a false-color image of the scanned surface that chemically distinguishes surface electronic features over the entire area of the measured atomic surface.

  7. Chemical entity recognition in patents by combining dictionary-based and statistical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondi, Saber A; Pons, Ewoud; Afzal, Zubair; van Haagen, Herman; Becker, Benedikt F H; Hettne, Kristina M; van Mulligen, Erik M; Kors, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    We describe the development of a chemical entity recognition system and its application in the CHEMDNER-patent track of BioCreative 2015. This community challenge includes a Chemical Entity Mention in Patents (CEMP) recognition task and a Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) classification task. We addressed both tasks by an ensemble system that combines a dictionary-based approach with a statistical one. For this purpose the performance of several lexical resources was assessed using Peregrine, our open-source indexing engine. We combined our dictionary-based results on the patent corpus with the results of tmChem, a chemical recognizer using a conditional random field classifier. To improve the performance of tmChem, we utilized three additional features, viz. part-of-speech tags, lemmas and word-vector clusters. When evaluated on the training data, our final system obtained an F-score of 85.21% for the CEMP task, and an accuracy of 91.53% for the CPD task. On the test set, the best system ranked sixth among 21 teams for CEMP with an F-score of 86.82%, and second among nine teams for CPD with an accuracy of 94.23%. The differences in performance between the best ensemble system and the statistical system separately were small.Database URL: http://biosemantics.org/chemdner-patents. PMID:27141091

  8. A quantum informational approach for dissecting chemical reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Duperrouzel, Corinne; Boguslawski, Katharina; Barcza, Gergerly; Legeza, Örs; Ayers, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    We present a conceptionally different approach to dissect bond-formation processes in metal-driven catalysis using concepts from quantum information theory. Our method uses the entanglement and correlation among molecular orbitals to analyze changes in electronic structure that accompany chemical processes. As a proof-of-principle example, the evolution of nickel-ethene bond-formation is dissected which allows us to monitor the interplay of back-bonding and $\\pi$-donation along the reaction coordinate. Furthermore, the reaction pathway of nickel-ethene complexation is analyzed using quantum chemistry methods revealing the presence of a transition state. Our study supports the crucial role of metal-to-ligand back-donation in the bond-forming process of nickel-ethene.

  9. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Suzuki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Integrated pest management (IPM, which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1 the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2 the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3 the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies.

  10. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1) the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2) the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3) the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies. PMID:26466730

  11. Chemical reaction network approaches to Biochemical Systems Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arceo, Carlene Perpetua P; Jose, Editha C; Marin-Sanguino, Alberto; Mendoza, Eduardo R

    2015-11-01

    This paper provides a framework to represent a Biochemical Systems Theory (BST) model (in either GMA or S-system form) as a chemical reaction network with power law kinetics. Using this representation, some basic properties and the application of recent results of Chemical Reaction Network Theory regarding steady states of such systems are shown. In particular, Injectivity Theory, including network concordance [36] and the Jacobian Determinant Criterion [43], a "Lifting Theorem" for steady states [26] and the comprehensive results of Müller and Regensburger [31] on complex balanced equilibria are discussed. A partial extension of a recent Emulation Theorem of Cardelli for mass action systems [3] is derived for a subclass of power law kinetic systems. However, it is also shown that the GMA and S-system models of human purine metabolism [10] do not display the reactant-determined kinetics assumed by Müller and Regensburger and hence only a subset of BST models can be handled with their approach. Moreover, since the reaction networks underlying many BST models are not weakly reversible, results for non-complex balanced equilibria are also needed. PMID:26363083

  12. The catchment based approach using catchment system engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, Jennine; Quinn, Paul; Barber, Nicholas; Wilkinson, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The catchment based approach (CaBa) has been championed as a potential mechanism for delivery of environmental directives such as the Water Framework Directive in the UK. However, since its launch in 2013, there has been only limited progress towards achieving sustainable, holistic management, with only a few of examples of good practice ( e.g. from the Tyne Rivers trust). Common issues with developing catchment plans over a national scale include limited data and resources to identify issues and source of those issues, how to systematically identify suitable locations for measures or suites of measures that will have the biggest downstream impact and how to overcome barriers for implementing solutions. Catchment System Engineering (CSE) is an interventionist approach to altering the catchment scale runoff regime through the manipulation of hydrological flow pathways throughout the catchment. A significant component of the runoff generation can be managed by targeting hydrological flow pathways at source, such as overland flow, field drain and ditch function, greatly reducing erosive soil losses. Coupled with management of farm nutrients at source, many runoff attenuation features or measures can be co-located to achieve benefits for water quality and biodiversity. A catchment, community-led mitigation measures plan using the CSE approach will be presented from a catchment in Northumberland, Northern England that demonstrate a generic framework for identification of multi-purpose features that slow, store and filter runoff at strategic locations in the landscape. Measures include within-field barriers, edge of field traps and within-ditch measures. Progress on the implementation of measures will be reported alongside potential impacts on the runoff regime at both local and catchment scale and costs.

  13. Finding Hidden Chemistry in Ancient Egyptian Artifacts: Pigment Degradation Taught in a Chemical Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gime´nez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to show the application of the study of ancient technology and science on teaching (and learning) chemistry in Chemical Engineering Undergraduate studies. Degradation patterns of pigments used in Ancient Egypt were incorporated in the syllabus of the course entitled "Technological and Scientific…

  14. Class and Home Problems: Humidification, a True "Home" Problem for p. Chemical Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condoret, Jean-Stephane

    2012-01-01

    The problem of maintaining hygrothermal comfort in a house is addressed using the chemical engineer's toolbox. A simple dynamic modelling proved to give a good description of the humidification of the house in winter, using a domestic humidifier. Parameters of the model were identified from a simple experiment. Surprising results, especially…

  15. Mitigating the Mathematical Knowledge Gap between High School and First Year University Chemical Engineering Mathematics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basitere, Moses; Ivala, Eunice

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out at a University of Technology, South Africa, aimed at identifying the existence of the mathematical knowledge gap and evaluating the intervention designed to bridge the knowledge gap amongst students studying first year mathematics at the Chemical Engineering Extended Curriculum Program (ECP). In this…

  16. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography in the Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Douglas D.; Guo, Hui; Karnik, Nikhila

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the assembly of a simple, low-cost, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system and its use in the undergraduate chemical engineering laboratory course to perform simple experiments. By interpreting the results from these experiments students are able to gain significant experience in the general method of…

  17. Sustainability in the Design, Synthesis and Analysis of Chemical Engineering Processes 1st edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book preface explains the needs found by the book editors for assembling the state of the art of technical and scientific knowledge relevant to chemical engineering, sustainability, and sustainable uses of wastes and materials management, and to do so in an accessible and c...

  18. Incorporating Risk Assessment and Inherently Safer Design Practices into Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Jeffrey R.; Eden, Mario R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces, via case study example, the benefit of including risk assessment methodology and inherently safer design practices into the curriculum for chemical engineering students. This work illustrates how these tools can be applied during the earliest stages of conceptual process design. The impacts of decisions made during…

  19. Finding hidden chemistry in ancient egyptian artifacts: Pigment degradation taught in a chemical engineering course

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez Izquierdo, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to show the application of the study of ancient technology and science on teaching (and learning) chemistry in Chemical Engineering Undergraduate studies. Degradation patterns of pigments used in Ancient Egypt were incorporated in the syllabus of the course entitled

  20. From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering 1859-1959.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J. Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Describes a chemical engineering course for liberal arts students that is taught from a scientific, social, and symbolic perspective. A summary of the early days of oil refining is included as representative of one of the major content segments of the course. (ML)

  1. Integrating Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering Education: The Application of an Environmental Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanes, M. T.; Palomares, A. E.; Sanchez-Tovar, R.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of sustainable development have been integrated in chemical engineering education by means of an environmental management system. These principles have been introduced in the teaching laboratories where students perform their practical classes. In this paper, the implementation of the environmental management system, the problems…

  2. Model Reduction in Chemical Engineering: Case studies applied to process analysis, design and operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorneanu, B.

    2011-01-01

    During the last decades, models have become widely used for supporting a broad range of chemical engineering activities, such as product and process design and development, process monitoring and control, real time optimization of plant operation or supply chain management. Although tremendous advan

  3. A Multi-Institution Study of Student Demographics and Outcomes in Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Susan M.; Layton, Richard A.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Brawner, Catherine E.; Long, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Using a large multi-institutional dataset, we describe demographics and outcomes for students starting in and transferring into chemical engineering (ChE). In this dataset, men outnumber women in ChE except among black students. While ChE starters graduate in ChE at rates comparable to or above their racial/ethnic population average for…

  4. Traffic engineering in ambient networks: challenges and approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsson, Henrik; Gunnar, Anders

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on traffic engineering in ambient networks. We describe and categorize different alternatives for making the routing more adaptive to the current traffic situation and discuss the challenges that ambient networks pose on traffic engineering methods. One of the main objectives of traffic engineering is to avoid congestion by controlling and optimising the routing function, or in short, to put the traffic where the capacity is. The main challenge for traffic engin...

  5. Object-oriented re-engineering: a comprehensive approach

    OpenAIRE

    Signore, Oreste; Loffredo, Mario

    1993-01-01

    Software re-engineering and object orientation are two areas of growing interest in the last years. However, while many researchers have focused their interest in the object-oriented design methodologies, a little attention has been paid to the re-engineering towards an object-oriented environment. In this paper, after a brief discussion of the re-engineering issues, we examine the motivations towards object-oriented re-engineering (extendibility, robustness and reusability of the code) and t...

  6. Design and analysis of questionnaires for survey skills in chemical engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Lucas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false CA X-NONE X-NONE The new reorganization of university education has involved relevant changes in teaching and learning methodologies in order to help students to learn more effectively and to develop important skills and competences demanded by the professional world. In this sense the new configuration of the degree in Chemical Engineering required the identification of the main general and transferable skills, the implementation of the new teaching and learning strategies necessary to achieve them and, in addition, an evaluation procedure for determining the importance and the degree of development of a student´s skills and competences. In this exercise, two obligatory chemical reactor engineering subjects of the still in effect Chemical Engineering degree were chosen as examples of competence-based learning disciplines. For each one, a significant group of transferable and specific skills were selected to be developed. The identification and selection of skills was made according to the recommendations of the European Federation of Chemical Engineering (EFCE together with the established requirements in the ministerial order for the new Chemical Engineering Degree (Ministerial order CIN/351/2009. In order to check the effectiveness of teaching strategies in helping students to acquire these abilities, specific questionnaires were designed. These tests allowed for the utility of the competences in question to be evaluated in terms of the students´ professional work as future chemical engineering graduates and also facilitated the perception of skill development acquired through the methodology implemented in these subjects. The results of the skill evaluation questionnaires revealed the importance that both university collectives (students and professors give to the development of transferable skills. These skills included the ability to communicate effectively (including in English, to work in

  7. Sustainable Development in Engineering Education: A Pedagogical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, A.; Zascerinska, J.

    2012-01-01

    Engineering education is facing a challenge of the development of student engineers' social responsibility in the context of sustainable development. The aim of the research is to analyze efficiency of engineering curriculum in the context of sustainable development underpinning elaboration of pedagogical guidelines on the development of students'…

  8. A Systems Engineering Approach to Electro-Mechanical Actuator Diagnostic and Prognostic Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The authors have formulated a Comprehensive Systems Engineering approach to Electro-Mechanical Actuator (EMA) Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) system...

  9. Probabilistic Approach to Determining Unbiased Random-coil Carbon-13 Chemical Shift Values from the Protein Chemical Shift Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a probabilistic model for deriving, from the database of assigned chemical shifts, a set of random coil chemical shift values that are 'unbiased' insofar as contributions from detectable secondary structure have been minimized (RCCSu). We have used this approach to derive a set of RCCSu values for 13Cα and 13Cβ for 17 of the 20 standard amino acid residue types by taking advantage of the known opposite conformational dependence of these parameters. We present a second probabilistic approach that utilizes the maximum entropy principle to analyze the database of 13Cα and 13Cβ chemical shifts considered separately; this approach yielded a second set of random coil chemical shifts (RCCSmax-ent). Both new approaches analyze the chemical shift database without reference to known structure. Prior approaches have used either the chemical shifts of small peptides assumed to model the random coil state (RCCSpeptide) or statistical analysis of chemical shifts associated with structure not in helical or strand conformation (RCCSstruct-stat). We show that the RCCSmax-ent values are strikingly similar to published RCCSpeptide and RCCSstruct-stat values. By contrast, the RCCSu values differ significantly from both published types of random coil chemical shift values. The differences (RCCSpeptide-RCCSu) for individual residue types show a correlation with known intrinsic conformational propensities. These results suggest that random coil chemical shift values from both prior approaches are biased by conformational preferences. RCCSu values appear to be consistent with the current concept of the 'random coil' as the state in which the geometry of the polypeptide ensemble samples the allowed region of (φ,ψ)-space in the absence of any dominant stabilizing interactions and thus represent an improved basis for the detection of secondary structure. Coupled with the growing database of chemical shifts, this probabilistic approach makes it possible to refine

  10. Optimization of a Reduced Chemical Kinetic Model for HCCI Engine Simulations by Micro-Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A reduced chemical kinetic model (44 species and 72 reactions) for the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion of n-heptane was optimized to improve its autoignition predictions under different engine operating conditions. The seven kinetic parameters of the optimized model were determined by using the combination of a micro-genetic algorithm optimization methodology and the SENKIN program of CHEMKIN chemical kinetics software package. The optimization was performed within the range of equivalence ratios 0.2-1.2, initial temperature 310-375 K and initial pressure 0.1-0.3 MPa. The engine simulations show that the optimized model agrees better with the detailed chemical kinetic model (544 species and 2 446 reactions) than the original model does.

  11. Chemical composition and photochemical reactivity of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Lyon

    Full Text Available Assessment of the environmental impact of aircraft emissions is required by planners and policy makers. Seveal areas of concern are: 1. exposure of airport workers and urban residents to toxic chemicals emitted when the engines operate at low power (idle and taxi on the ground; 2. contributions to urban photochemical air pollution of aircraft volatile organic and nitrogen oxides emissions from operations around airports; and 3. emissions of nitrogen oxides and particles during high-altitude operation. The environmental impact of chemicals emitted from jet aircraft turbine engines has not been firmly established due to lack of data regarding emission rates and identities of the compounds emitted. This paper describes an experimental study of two different aircraft turbine engines designed to determine detailed organic emissions, as well as emissions of inorganic gases. Emissions were measured at several engine power settings. Measurements were made of detailed organic composition from C1 through C17, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measurements were made using a multi-port sampling pro be positioned directly behind the engine in the exhaust exit plane. The emission measurements have been used to determine the organic distribution by carbon number and the distribution by compound class at each engine power level. The sum of the organic species was compared with an independent measurement of total organic carbon to assess the carbon mass balance. A portion of the exhaust was captured and irradiated in outdoor smog chambers to assess the photochemical reactivity of the emissions with respect to ozone formation. The reactivity of emissions from the two engines was apportioned by chemical compound class.

  12. ECSIN's methodological approach for hazard evaluation of engineered nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregoli, Lisa; Benetti, Federico; Venturini, Marco; Sabbioni, Enrico

    2013-04-01

    The increasing production volumes and commercialization of engineered nanomaterials (ENM), together with data on their higher biological reactivity when compared to bulk counterpart and ability to cross biological barriers, have caused concerns about their potential impacts on the health and safety of both humans and the environment. A multidisciplinary component of the scientific community has been called to evaluate the real risks associated with the use of products containing ENM, and is today in the process of developing specific definitions and testing strategies for nanomaterials. At ECSIN we are developing an integrated multidisciplinary methodological approach for the evaluation of the biological effects of ENM on the environment and human health. While our testing strategy agrees with the most widely advanced line of work at the European level, the choice of methods and optimization of protocols is made with an extended treatment of details. Our attention to the methodological and technical details is based on the acknowledgment that the innovative characteristics of matter at the nano-size range may influence the existing testing methods in a partially unpredictable manner, an aspect which is frequently recognized at the discussion level but oftentimes disregarded at the laboratory bench level. This work outlines the most important steps of our testing approach. In particular, each step will be briefly discussed in terms of potential technical and methodological pitfalls that we have encountered, and which are often ignored in nanotoxicology research. The final aim is to draw attention to the need of preliminary studies in developing reliable tests, a crucial aspect to confirm the suitability of the chosen analytical and toxicological methods to be used for the specific tested nanoparticle, and to express the idea that in nanotoxicology,"devil is in the detail".

  13. ECSIN's methodological approach for hazard evaluation of engineered nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing production volumes and commercialization of engineered nanomaterials (ENM), together with data on their higher biological reactivity when compared to bulk counterpart and ability to cross biological barriers, have caused concerns about their potential impacts on the health and safety of both humans and the environment. A multidisciplinary component of the scientific community has been called to evaluate the real risks associated with the use of products containing ENM, and is today in the process of developing specific definitions and testing strategies for nanomaterials. At ECSIN we are developing an integrated multidisciplinary methodological approach for the evaluation of the biological effects of ENM on the environment and human health. While our testing strategy agrees with the most widely advanced line of work at the European level, the choice of methods and optimization of protocols is made with an extended treatment of details. Our attention to the methodological and technical details is based on the acknowledgment that the innovative characteristics of matter at the nano-size range may influence the existing testing methods in a partially unpredictable manner, an aspect which is frequently recognized at the discussion level but oftentimes disregarded at the laboratory bench level. This work outlines the most important steps of our testing approach. In particular, each step will be briefly discussed in terms of potential technical and methodological pitfalls that we have encountered, and which are often ignored in nanotoxicology research. The final aim is to draw attention to the need of preliminary studies in developing reliable tests, a crucial aspect to confirm the suitability of the chosen analytical and toxicological methods to be used for the specific tested nanoparticle, and to express the idea that in nanotoxicology,'devil is in the detail'.

  14. Fueling Chemical Engineering Concepts with Biodiesel Production: A Professional Development Experience for High School Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anju

    2015-01-01

    This one-day workshop for pre-service teachers was aimed at implementing a uniquely designed and ready-to-implement chemical engineering curriculum in high school coursework. This educational and professional development opportunity introduced: 1) chemical engineering curriculum and career opportunities, 2) basic industrial processes and flow…

  15. The Multiplexed Chemical Kinetic Photoionization Mass Spectrometer: A New Approach To Isomer-resolved Chemical Kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, David L.; Zou, Peng; Johnsen, Howard; Hayden, Carl C.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Knyazev, Vadim D.; North, Simon W.; Peterka, Darcy S.; Ahmed, Musahid; Leone, Stephen R.

    2008-08-28

    We have developed a multiplexed time- and photon-energy?resolved photoionizationmass spectrometer for the study of the kinetics and isomeric product branching of gasphase, neutral chemical reactions. The instrument utilizes a side-sampled flow tubereactor, continuously tunable synchrotron radiation for photoionization, a multi-massdouble-focusing mass spectrometer with 100percent duty cycle, and a time- and positionsensitive detector for single ion counting. This approach enables multiplexed, universal detection of molecules with high sensitivity and selectivity. In addition to measurement of rate coefficients as a function of temperature and pressure, different structural isomers can be distinguished based on their photoionization efficiency curves, providing a more detailed probe of reaction mechanisms. The multiplexed 3-dimensional data structure (intensity as a function of molecular mass, reaction time, and photoionization energy) provides insights that might not be available in serial acquisition, as well as additional constraints on data interpretation.

  16. Enzymatic Menthol Production: One-Pot Approach Using Engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toogood, Helen S; Ní Cheallaigh, Aisling; Tait, Shirley; Mansell, David J; Jervis, Adrian; Lygidakis, Antonios; Humphreys, Luke; Takano, Eriko; Gardiner, John M; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2015-10-16

    Menthol isomers are high-value monoterpenoid commodity chemicals, produced naturally by mint plants, Mentha spp. Alternative clean biosynthetic routes to these compounds are commercially attractive. Optimization strategies for biocatalytic terpenoid production are mainly focused on metabolic engineering of the biosynthesis pathway within an expression host. We circumvent this bottleneck by combining pathway assembly techniques with classical biocatalysis methods to engineer and optimize cell-free one-pot biotransformation systems and apply this strategy to the mint biosynthesis pathway. Our approach allows optimization of each pathway enzyme and avoidance of monoterpenoid toxicity issues to the host cell. We have developed a one-pot (bio)synthesis of (1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthol and (1S,2S,5R)-(+)-neomenthol from pulegone, using recombinant Escherichia coli extracts containing the biosynthetic genes for an "ene"-reductase (NtDBR from Nicotiana tabacum) and two menthone dehydrogenases (MMR and MNMR from Mentha piperita). Our modular engineering strategy allowed each step to be optimized to improve the final production level. Moderate to highly pure menthol (79.1%) and neomenthol (89.9%) were obtained when E. coli strains coexpressed NtDBR with only MMR or MNMR, respectively. This one-pot biocatalytic method allows easier optimization of each enzymatic step and easier modular combination of reactions to ultimately generate libraries of pure compounds for use in high-throughput screening. It will be, therefore, a valuable addition to the arsenal of biocatalysis strategies, especially when applied for (semi)-toxic chemical compounds. PMID:26017480

  17. A Biofilm Treatment Approach for Produced Water from Hydraulic Fracturing Using Engineered Microbial Mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyon, B.; Stachler, E.; Bibby, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing results in large volumes of wastewater, called "produced water". Treatment of produced water is challenged by its high salt, organic compound, and radionuclide concentrations. Current disposal approaches include deep well injection and physical-chemical treatment for surface disposal; however, deep well injection has been recently linked to induced seismicity and physical-chemical treatments suffer from fouling and high cost. The reuse of the produced water has emerged as a desirable management option; however, this requires pretreatment to generate a water of usable quality and limit microbial activity. Biological treatment is an underexplored area in produced water management and has the potential to remove organics and reduce overall costs for physiochemical treatment or reuse. Suspended growth biological treatment techniques are known to be limited by salinity motivating a more robust biofilm approach: 'microbial mats'. In this study, we used engineered microbial mats as a biofilm treatment for the produced water. Evaluation of the biodegradation performance of microbial mats in synthetic and real produced waters showed microbial activity at up to 100,000 mg/L TDS concentration (three times the salt concentration of the ocean). Organic removal rates reached to 1.45 mg COD/gramwet-day at 91,351 mg/L TDS in real produced water samples and initial evaluation demonstrated the potential for field-scale application. Metagenomic analyses of microbial mats demonstrated an adaptive shift in the microbial community treating different samples, suggesting the wide applicability of this treatment approach for produced waters with varying chemical composition. On-going studies focus on the evaluation of the removal of the organics and the contaminants of high concern in produced water using microbial mats as well as the effect of the biofilm growth conditions on the biodegradation in changing salt concentrations.

  18. Survey of Traceability Approaches in Model-Driven Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Galvao Lourenco da Silva, I.; Göknil, A.

    2007-01-01

    Models have been used in various engineering fields to help managing complexity and represent information in different abstraction levels, according to specific notations and stakeholder's viewpoints. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) gives the basic principles for the use of models as primary artefacts throughout the software development phases and presents characteristics that simplify the engineering of software in various domains, such as Enterprise Computing Systems. Hence, for its successf...

  19. The Study and Approach of Software Re-Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Phuc V.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of software re-engineering is to improve or transform existing software so it can be understood, controlled and reused as new software. Needs, the necessity of re-engineering software has greatly increased. The system software has become obsolete no longer used in architecture, platform they're running, stable and consistent they support the development and support needs change. Software re-engineering is vital to restore and reuse the things inherent in the existing software, put ...

  20. A Chemical Genetic Approach To The Study Of Cellular Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieland, T.J.F.

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is the use of chemical genetics to study two different aspects of membrane biology, (a) the mechanisms underlying cellular lipid transport and (b) the intersection between endocytic and exocytic traffic. The broad goals of chemical genetics are to find novel chemical tool

  1. Fungi as chemical industries and genetic engineering for the production of biologically active secondary metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abid Ali Khan; Nafees Bacha; Bashir Ahmad; Ghosia Lutfullah; Umar Farooq; Russell John Cox

    2014-01-01

    Fungi is somewhere in between the micro and macro organisms which is a good source of producing biologically active secondary metabolites. Fungi have been used as tool for producing different types of secondary metabolites by providing different nutrients at different laboratory conditions. The fungi have been engineered for the desired secondary metabolites by using different laboratory techniques, for example, homologous and heterologous expressions. This review reported how the fungi are used as chemical industry for the production of secondary metabolites and how they are engineered in laboratory for the production of desirable metabolites;also the biosynthetic pathways of the bio-organic-molecules were reported.

  2. Fungi as chemical industries and genetic engineering for the production of biologically active secondary metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abid; Ali; Khan; Nafees; Bacha; Bashir; Ahmad; Ghosia; Lutfullah; Umar; Farooq; Russell; John; Cox

    2014-01-01

    Fungi is somewhere in between the micro and macro organisms which is a good source of producing biologically active secondary metabolites.Fungi have been used as tool for producing different types of secondary metabolites by providing different nutrients at different laboratory conditions.The fungi have been engineered for the desired secondary metabolites by using different laboratory techniques,for example,homologous and heterologous expressions.This review reported how the fungi are used as chemical industry for the production of secondary metabolites and how they are engineered in laboratory for the production of desirable metabolites:also the biosynthetic pathways of the bio-organic-molecules were reported.

  3. Chemical and biological sensors based on defect-engineered graphene mesh field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seunghee H.; Kwon, Sun Sang; Yi, Jaeseok; Park, Won Il

    2016-07-01

    Graphene has been intensively studied for applications to high-performance sensors, but the sensing characteristics of graphene devices have varied from case to case, and the sensing mechanism has not been satisfactorily determined thus far. In this review, we describe recent progress in engineering of the defects in graphene grown by a silica-assisted chemical vapor deposition technique and elucidate the effect of the defects upon the electrical response of graphene sensors. This review provides guidelines for engineering and/or passivating defects to improve sensor performance and reliability.

  4. A sociological approach of women engineer and the role of interdispclinarity in engineering education

    OpenAIRE

    Didier, Christelle

    2011-01-01

    How to attract more young people in engineering and technology studies? How to attract more women and therefore improve the balance between male and female engineers in society? These are the two questions this conference intends to address. Among the solutions, the organizers of Helena conference chose to make a focus on engineering education as a means to solve two "problems" i.e. the underrepresentation of women in engineering, and the lack of interest of young people for science and techn...

  5. AI AND SAR APPROACHES FOR PREDICTING CHEMICAL CARCINOGENICITY: SURVEY AND STATUS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wide variety of artificial intelligence (AI) and structure-activity relationship (SAR approaches have been applied to tackling the general problem of predicting rodent chemical carcinogenicity. Given the diversity of chemical structures and mechanisms relative to this endpoin...

  6. Safety evaluation and management of complex systems: A system engineering approach

    OpenAIRE

    Guillerm, Romaric; Demmou, Hamid; Sadou, Nabil

    2012-01-01

    International audience This paper addresses the problem of safety evaluation of complex systems. It proposes an original and rigorous approach that integrates safety analysis in system engineering processes. The approach is based on system engineering (SE) principles and uses the famous industrial SE standard ANSI/EIA-632. The objective is to help designers and safety engineers in safety management of complex systems. For an efficient design, the model driven design is adopted through the ...

  7. Comparing Two Approaches for Engineering Education Development:PBL and CDIO

    OpenAIRE

    Edström, Kristina; Kolmos, Anette

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade there have been two dominating models for reforming engineering education: Problem/Project Based Learning (PBL) and the CDIO Initiative. The aim of this paper is to compare the PBL and CDIO approaches to engineering education reform, to identify and explain similarities and differences. CDIO and PBL will each be defined and compared in terms of the original need analysis, underlying educational philosophy and the essentials of the respective approaches to engineering ed...

  8. Management of interdisciplinary project approaches in Engineering Education : a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Rui M.; Carvalho, Dinis; Sousa, Rui M.; Alves, Anabela Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes project management processes of coordination teams, in the implementation of interdisciplinary project approaches in Engineering Education. These interdisciplinary projects are based on the Project-Led Education (PLE) concept and are being implemented since 2004/2005 in the Industrial Management and Engineering (IME) master degree course (1st and 2nd cycle of Engineering Education) at University of Minho. Usually, these approaches involve a coordination tea...

  9. A team-taught interdisciplinary approach to engineering ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Glenn C; Pionke, Christopher D

    2006-04-01

    This paper outlines the development and implementation of a new course in Engineering Ethics at the University of Tennessee. This is a three-semester-hour course and is jointly taught by an engineering professor and a philosophy professor. While traditional pedagogical techniques such as case studies, position papers, and classroom discussions are used, additional activities such as developing a code of ethics and student-developed scenarios are employed to encourage critical thinking. Among the topics addressed in the course are engineering as a profession and its role in society; ethical successes and failures; risk, safety, and the environment; professional responsibilities; credit and intellectual property; and international concerns. The most significant aspect of the course is that it brings both engineering and non-engineering points of view to the topics at hand. This is accomplished in two ways. First, as mentioned previously, it is team-taught by engineering faculty with an interest in ethical and societal issues, and by philosophy faculty with expertise in the field of professional ethics and an interest in science and technology. Second, the course is offered to both engineers and non-engineers. This mix of students requires that all students must be able to explain their technical and ethical decisions in a non-technical manner. Work teams are structured to maximize interdisciplinary interaction and to foster insights by each student into the professional commitments and attitudes of others. PMID:16609717

  10. Translational Approaches in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Jeremy J

    2007-01-01

    This landmark book identifies the current and forthcoming roadblocks to scientific research and technological development in stem cell research, tissue engineering, wound healing, and in-vivo animal models. The book is the first to focus on the translational aspect of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine and bridges the gap between laboratory discovery and clinical applications.

  11. Review of aerospace engineering cost modelling: The genetic causal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, R.; Raghunathan, S.; Price, M.

    2004-11-01

    The primary intention of this paper is to review the current state of the art in engineering cost modelling as applied to aerospace. This is a topic of current interest and in addressing the literature, the presented work also sets out some of the recognised definitions of cost that relate to the engineering domain. The paper does not attempt to address the higher-level financial sector but rather focuses on the costing issues directly relevant to the engineering process, primarily those of design and manufacture. This is of more contemporary interest as there is now a shift towards the analysis of the influence of cost, as defined in more engineering related terms; in an attempt to link into integrated product and process development (IPPD) within a concurrent engineering environment. Consequently, the cost definitions are reviewed in the context of the nature of cost as applicable to the engineering process stages: from bidding through to design, to manufacture, to procurement and ultimately, to operation. The linkage and integration of design and manufacture is addressed in some detail. This leads naturally to the concept of engineers influencing and controlling cost within their own domain rather than trusting this to financers who have little control over the cause of cost. In terms of influence, the engineer creates the potential for cost and in a concurrent environment this requires models that integrate cost into the decision making process.

  12. Survey of Traceability Approaches in Model-Driven Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvao Lourenco da Silva, I.; Göknil, A.

    2007-01-01

    Models have been used in various engineering fields to help managing complexity and represent information in different abstraction levels, according to specific notations and stakeholder's viewpoints. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) gives the basic principles for the use of models as primary artefact

  13. Physics-based approach to chemical source localization using mobile robotic swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzhitsky, Dimitri

    2008-07-01

    Recently, distributed computation has assumed a dominant role in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics. To improve system performance, engineers are combining multiple cooperating robots into cohesive collectives called swarms. This thesis illustrates the application of basic principles of physicomimetics, or physics-based design, to swarm robotic systems. Such principles include decentralized control, short-range sensing and low power consumption. We show how the application of these principles to robotic swarms results in highly scalable, robust, and adaptive multi-robot systems. The emergence of these valuable properties can be predicted with the help of well-developed theoretical methods. In this research effort, we have designed and constructed a distributed physicomimetics system for locating sources of airborne chemical plumes. This task, called chemical plume tracing (CPT), is receiving a great deal of attention due to persistent homeland security threats. For this thesis, we have created a novel CPT algorithm called fluxotaxis that is based on theoretical principles of fluid dynamics. Analytically, we show that fluxotaxis combines the essence, as well as the strengths, of the two most popular biologically-inspired CPT methods-- chemotaxis and anemotaxis. The chemotaxis strategy consists of navigating in the direction of the chemical density gradient within the plume, while the anemotaxis approach is based on an upwind traversal of the chemical cloud. Rigorous and extensive experimental evaluations have been performed in simulated chemical plume environments. Using a suite of performance metrics that capture the salient aspects of swarm-specific behavior, we have been able to evaluate and compare the three CPT algorithms. We demonstrate the improved performance of our fluxotaxis approach over both chemotaxis and anemotaxis in these realistic simulation environments, which include obstacles. To test our understanding of CPT on actual hardware

  14. The design of licensing contracts: Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals, and Electrical Engineering in Imperial Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Burhop, Carsten; Lübbers, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a sample of 180 technology licensing contracts closed by German chemical, pharmaceutical, and electrical engineering companies between 1880 and 1913. Our empirical results suggest that strategic behaviour seems to be relevant for the design of licensing contracts, whereas inventor moral hazard and risk aversion of licensor or licensee seem to be irrelevant. Moreover, our results suggest that uncertainty regarding the profitability of licensed technology influenced the design of...

  15. Recent chemical engineering requirements as the result of TMI on-site experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the experiences gained from the on-site experience at TMI, it is apparent that the role of chemical engineers should increase in order for the nuclear option to proceed in a safe and efficient fashion. It is also obvious that as the results of the reports investigating the causes and effects of the accident come to light and attempts to backfit system designs to prevent a recurrence are studied, more technical demands will be placed on the profession

  16. Influence of surface chemical properties on the toxicity of engineered zinc oxide nanoparticles to embryonic zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Zitao Zhou; Jino Son; Bryan Harper; Zheng Zhou; Stacey Harper

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are widely used in a variety of products, thus understanding their health and environmental impacts is necessary to appropriately manage their risks. To keep pace with the rapid increase in products utilizing engineered ZnO NPs, rapid in silico toxicity test methods based on knowledge of comprehensive in vivo and in vitro toxic responses are beneficial in determining potential nanoparticle impacts. To achieve or enhance their desired function, chemical modif...

  17. Editorial : special Issue contributed by the 10th International Chemical and Biological Engineering Conference - CHEMPOR 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, E. C.; Mota, M.

    2009-01-01

    The 10th International Chemical and Biological Engineering Conference - CHEMPOR 2008, was held in Braga, Portugal, from the 4th to the 6th of September, 2008. The conference was jointly organized by the University of Minho, the “Ordem dos Engenheiros,” and the Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineeing, with the support of “Sociedade Portuguesa de Qu´ımica” and “Sociedade Portuguesa de Biotecnologia”. The CHEMPOR series traditionally brings together both young and establishe...

  18. CO{sub 2}-balance in the athmosphere and CO{sub 2}-utilisation : an engineering approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turunen, H.

    2012-07-01

    The subject of the thesis was to analyze by an engineering approach the global CO{sub 2} balance and CO{sub 2} utilisation. The aim was to apply methods and knowledge used in engineering sciences to describe the global CO{sub 2} balance and the role of CO{sub 2} in anthropogenic utilisation applications. Moreover barriers restricting commercialisation of new applications are discussed. These subjects were studied by literature reviews and calculations based on thermodynamics models. Engineering methods have shown to be applicable to describe the global balance of CO{sub 2} and to define by a numerical way the Earth's system carrying capacity. Direct and indirect actions, which mitigate the overload situation, were derived from the results. To screen out the attractive CO{sub 2} properties in utilisation applications a mapping analysis was carried out. Properties, which enhance mass and heat transfer, are one of the most meaningful characteristics from the chemical engineering point of view. Attractive properties are often achieved at the supercritical state. Engineering thermodynamic methods were used in fluid phase determination of the case studies. Even simple methods are sufficient to advice experimental research work. The thermodynamic knowledge is the basement in creation of industrial scale chemical processes. If detailed information on system properties is needed, a model development due to the special requirements of high pressure systems and CO{sub 2} features is required. This knowledge covers property information from all the components involved in chemical reactions. In addition to engineering knowledge successful technology transfer requires positive social structure as well. Finally, if the humankind is willing to mimic Nature and use light of the Sun as an energy source in engineering systems, development of thermodynamic methods is required also in this area. Especially the work terms, originally defined in classical mechanical thermodynamics

  19. Advances in metabolic pathway and strain engineering paving the way for sustainable production of chemical building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Bio-based production of chemical building blocks from renewable resources is an attractive alternative to petroleum-based platform chemicals. Metabolic pathway and strain engineering is the key element in constructing robust microbial chemical factories within the constraints of cost effective...

  20. An Industrial Engineering Approach to Cost Containment of Pharmacy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Wendy; Bottenberg, Michelle; Chase, Marilea; Chesnut, Renae; Clarke, Cheryl; Schott, Kathryn; Torry, Ronald; Welty, Tim

    2015-11-25

    A 2-semester project explored employing teams of fourth-year industrial engineering students to optimize some of our academic management processes. Results included significant cost savings and increases in efficiency, effectiveness, and student and faculty satisfaction. While we did not adopt all of the students' recommendations, we did learn some important lessons. For example, an initial investment of time in developing a mutually clear understanding of the problems, constraints, and goals maximizes the value of industrial engineering analysis and recommendations. Overall, industrial engineering was a valuable tool for optimizing certain academic management processes. PMID:26839421

  1. The Study and Approach of Software Re-Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Phuc V

    2011-01-01

    The nature of software re-engineering is to improve or transform existing software so it can be understood, controlled and reused as new software. Needs, the necessity of re-engineering software has greatly increased. The system software has become obsolete no longer used in architecture, platform they're running, stable and consistent they support the development and support needs change. Software re-engineering is vital to restore and reuse the things inherent in the existing software, put the cost of software maintenance to the lowest in the control and establish a basis for the development of software in the future.

  2. Gas Turbine Engine Component Development : An Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Jansen

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer - aided engineering methods have made a significant impact in the design technologies of advanced machinery. These methods have been applied in several areas such as aerodynamics and fluid dynamic theory for high efficiency, stress and vibration theory for reliability, and manufacturing strategies to produce machined components at low cost and with short time schedules. The integration of these various design technologies offer the opportunity for even greater productivity in the engineering design and manufacturing process. This paper addresses the application of various engineering disciplines to the demand of producing a reliable, efficient design and the subsequent manufacture of components with short lead times through the interaction of these computer - aided engineering technologies. The concept is further illustrated by simple cases for a centrifugal compressor and a gas turbine.

  3. The Right Approach to Right of Way Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Niemeyer, Grant; Kelly, Rodney; Wood, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Many steps are necessary to prepare the proper documents for right of way engineering. In this session we will discuss the steps and procedures required to be in compliance with INDOT statutes, including LRS electronic submittals.

  4. REVERSE ENGINEERING APPROACH TO INSTATEMENT OF DESIGN ARTIFACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ms.Parul Dongre

    2012-01-01

    Software engineering concerned with improving the productivity of the software development process and the quality of the systems it produces. However, in current scenario, the most of the development effort is spent on maintaining existing systems rather than developing new ones. This paper describes wide research program which is present in the area of reverse engineering, tools developed for reversing and also discuss the concepts of new tool generation. Fjeldstad and Hamlen report says th...

  5. A resilience engineering approach to assess major accident risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, E.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes how the principles of Resilience Engineering can be used to make a risk assessment of an Integrated Operations (IO) scenario. It refers to the case study provided in Chapter 12.......This chapter describes how the principles of Resilience Engineering can be used to make a risk assessment of an Integrated Operations (IO) scenario. It refers to the case study provided in Chapter 12....

  6. Future of the Finnish engineering education : a collaborative stakeholder approach

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen-Yrjänheikki, Kati

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation sheds light on how to develop the Finnish engineering education to face the anticipated challenges of the future based primarily on the views of the key stakeholders. The research questions are: What kind of a framework can be developed for selecting participants for a group communication process of key stakeholders when aiming at capturing future prospects and enhancing development of engineering education nationally, in this case in the context of Finland (RQ 1)? What are t...

  7. Modelling of chemical reaction in foods: a multiresponse approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The quality of foods depends on several factors. One of these factors is the occurrence of (bio)chemical changes taking place during the post-harvest period and during processing, storage and distribution. In order to optimise quality it is of utmost importance to control (bio)chemical changes as mu

  8. The statutory approach: the control of chemical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation and management of risks linked with chemical products and in particular with petroleum products is now performed using all the available tools developed by the OECD or the European Union in order to harmonize the procedures between member states. This paper describes the statutory liabilities linked to the trade of chemical products of industrial use in the case of new and of existing chemical substances (classification, labelling, risk evaluation and reduction, physico-chemical properties, toxicological and eco-toxicological studies, neutralization, limitation of trade and use, import/export, protection of the ozone layer, etc..). It refers to the legal framework (orders, by-laws, decrees, guidelines..) defined by the OECD and the European Community and recalls the organization and administration of the competent authorities for the control of chemical products. (J.S.)

  9. Toward systems metabolic engineering of Aspergillus and Pichia species for the production of chemicals and biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Recently genome sequence data have become available for Aspergillus and Pichia species of industrial interest. This has stimulated the use of systems biology approaches for large-scale analysis of the molecular and metabolic responses of Aspergillus and Pichia under defined conditions, which has...... resulted in much new biological information. Case-specific contextualization of this information has been performed using comparative and functional genomic tools. Genomics data are also the basis for constructing genome-scale metabolic models, and these models have helped in the contextualization of...... knowledge on the fundamental biology of Aspergillus and Pichia species. Furthermore, with the availability of these models, the engineering of Aspergillus and Pichia is moving from traditional approaches, such as random mutagenesis, to a systems metabolic engineering approach. Here we review the recent...

  10. Chemical buffering in natural and engineered barrier systems: Thermodynamic constraints and performance assessment consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermodynamic and kinetic constraints on the chemical buffering properties of natural and engineered-barrier systems are derived in this study from theoretical descriptions, incorporated in the reaction-path model, of reversible and irreversible mass transfer in multicomponent, multiphase systems. The buffering properties of such systems are conditional properties because they refer to a specific aqueous species in a system that is open with respect to a specific reactant. The solution to a mathematical statement of this concept requires evaluation of the dependence of the activity of the buffered species on incremental changes in the overall reaction-progress variable. This dependence can be represented by a truncated Taylor's series expansion, where the values of associated derivatives are calculated using finite-difference techniques and mass-balance, charge-balance and mass-action constraints. Kinetic constraints on buffering behavior can also be described if the relation between reactant flux and reaction rate is well defined. This relation is explicit for the important case of advective groundwater flow and water-rock interaction. We apply the theoretical basis of the chemical buffering concept to processes that could affect the performance of a deep geologic repository for nuclear waste. Specifically, we focus on the likelihood that an inverse relation must exist between the buffer intensity and the migration velocity of reaction fronts in systems involving advective or diffusive mass transport. A quantitative understanding of this relation would provide the basis for evaluating the potential role of chemical buffering in achieving the isolation and retardation functions, of the EBS and geosphere in a KBS-3 repository. Our preliminary evaluation of this role considers the effects of chemical buffering on the propagation velocity of a pH front in both the near- and far field. We use a geochemical modeling technique compatible with the reaction-path model to

  11. Chemical buffering in natural and engineered barrier systems: Thermodynamic constraints and performance assessment consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.C.; Wei Zhou [Monitor Scientific, LLC, Denver, CO (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Thermodynamic and kinetic constraints on the chemical buffering properties of natural and engineered-barrier systems are derived in this study from theoretical descriptions, incorporated in the reaction-path model, of reversible and irreversible mass transfer in multicomponent, multiphase systems. The buffering properties of such systems are conditional properties because they refer to a specific aqueous species in a system that is open with respect to a specific reactant. The solution to a mathematical statement of this concept requires evaluation of the dependence of the activity of the buffered species on incremental changes in the overall reaction-progress variable. This dependence can be represented by a truncated Taylor's series expansion, where the values of associated derivatives are calculated using finite-difference techniques and mass-balance, charge-balance and mass-action constraints. Kinetic constraints on buffering behavior can also be described if the relation between reactant flux and reaction rate is well defined. This relation is explicit for the important case of advective groundwater flow and water-rock interaction. We apply the theoretical basis of the chemical buffering concept to processes that could affect the performance of a deep geologic repository for nuclear waste. Specifically, we focus on the likelihood that an inverse relation must exist between the buffer intensity and the migration velocity of reaction fronts in systems involving advective or diffusive mass transport. A quantitative understanding of this relation would provide the basis for evaluating the potential role of chemical buffering in achieving the isolation and retardation functions, of the EBS and geosphere in a KBS-3 repository. Our preliminary evaluation of this role considers the effects of chemical buffering on the propagation velocity of a pH front in both the near- and far field. We use a geochemical modeling technique compatible with the reaction-path model

  12. Engineering spinal fusion: evaluating ceramic materials for cell based tissue engineered approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    The principal aim of this thesis was to advance the development of tissue engineered posterolateral spinal fusion by investigating the potential of calcium phosphate ceramic materials to support cell based tissue engineered bone formation. This was accomplished by developing several novel model syst

  13. Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Additivity-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powerpoint presentation includes additivity-based chemical mixture risk assessment methods. Basic concepts, theory and example calculations are included. Several slides discuss the use of "common adverse outcomes" in analyzing phthalate mixtures.

  14. Gradient Bundle Analysis: A Full Topological Approach to Chemical Bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Morgenstern, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The "chemical bond" is a central concept in molecular sciences, but there is no consensus as to what a bond actually is. Therefore, a variety of bonding models have been developed, each defining the structure of molecules in a different manner with the goal of explaining and predicting chemical properties. This thesis describes the initial development of gradient bundle analysis (GBA), a chemical bonding model that creates a high resolution picture of chemical interactions within the charge density framework. GBA is based on concepts from the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), but uses a more complete picture of the topology and geometry of the electron charge density to understand and predict bonding interactions. Gradient bundles are defined as volumes bounded by zero-flux surfaces (ZFSs) in the gradient of the charge density with well-defined energies. The structure of gradient bundles provides an avenue for detecting the locations of valence electrons, which correspond to reactive regions in a ...

  15. Quantum Information Processing and Quantum Error Correction An Engineering Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Quantum Information Processing and Quantum Error Correction is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information, quantum computation, and quantum error-correction. Assuming no knowledge of quantum mechanics and written at an intuitive level suitable for the engineer, the book gives all the essential principles needed to design and implement quantum electronic and photonic circuits. Numerous examples from a wide area of application are given to show how the principles can be implemented in practice. This book is ideal for the electronics, photonics and computer engineer

  16. Biomaterials Science An Integrated Clinical and Engineering Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Rosen, Yitzhak

    2012-01-01

    "This book is essential when designing, developing and studying biomedical materials...provides an excellent review-from a patient, disease, and even genetic point of view-of materials engineering for the biomedical field...This well presented book strongly insists on how the materials can influence patients' needs, the ultimate drive for biomedical engineering...[presents an] Interesting and innovative review from a patient focus perspective-the book emphasizes the importance of the patients, which is not often covered in other biomedical material's books." -Fanny Raisin-Dadre, BioI

  17. Approaches to the evaluation of chemical-induced immunotoxicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Krzystyniak, K; Tryphonas, H; Fournier, M

    1995-01-01

    The immune system plays a crucial role in maintaining health; however, accumulating evidence indicates that this system can be the target for immunotoxic effects caused by a variety of chemicals including the environmental pollutants of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, pesticides, and heavy metals. Adverse chemical-induced immunomodulation, which is studied within the discipline of immunotoxicology, may be expressed either as immunosuppression/immunodepression or immu...

  18. Technical Efficiency of The Vietnam's Manufacture of Chemical and Chemical Products: A Dual Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Ngo Thi Minh Tam

    2007-01-01

    This paper is on its way to estimate the technical efficiency (TE) level and identify the sources of technical inefficiency (TIE) of the Vietnam Manufacture of Chemicals and Chemical Products (MCCP) or the chemical industry, using the stochastic frontier cost function and the sample data of 95 MCCP's firms drawn from the Economic Census for Enterprises conducted by the General Statistic Office in 2002. The empirical results show that the mean TE of the industry is 1.50, implying that the cost...

  19. A 'reverse network engineering' framework to develop tourism using a lifestyle approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamann, DJF; Strijker, D; Sijtsma, FJ

    1998-01-01

    This paper uses the network approach in the design of policies for regional development focusing on tourism in rural and peripheral areas. The methodology applied - 'reverse network engineering' - is a combination of a top-down and a bottom-up approach, The top-down approach starts with the demand s

  20. A Constrained and Guided Approach for Managing Software Engineering Course Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.-P.; Lin, J. M.-C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents several years of experimentation with a new approach to organizing and managing projects in a software engineering course. The initial failure and subsequent refinements that the new approach has been through since 2004 are described herein. The "constrained and guided" approach, as it is called, has helped to reduce project…

  1. The Company Approach to Software Engineering Project Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, D.; Sandahl, K.; Abu Baker, M.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching larger software engineering project courses at the end of a computing curriculum is a way for students to learn some aspects of real-world jobs in industry. Such courses, often referred to as capstone courses, are effective for learning how to apply the skills they have acquired in, for example, design, test, and configuration management.…

  2. A Chemical Kinetic Modeling Study of the Effects of Oxygenated Hydrocarbons on Soot Emissions from Diesel Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J

    2005-11-14

    A detailed chemical kinetic modeling approach is used to examine the phenomenon of suppression of sooting in diesel engines by addition of oxygenated hydrocarbon species to the fuel. This suppression, which has been observed experimentally for a few years, is explained kinetically as a reduction in concentrations of soot precursors present in the hot products of a fuel-rich diesel ignition zone when oxygenates are included. Oxygenates decrease the overall equivalence ratio of the igniting mixture, producing higher ignition temperatures and more radical species to consume more soot precursor species, leading to lower soot production. The kinetic model is also used to show how different oxygenates, ester structures in particular, can have different soot-suppression efficiencies due to differences in molecular structure of the oxygenated species.

  3. Colloidal gas aphron foams: A novel approach to a hydrogel based tissue engineered myocardial patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth Edna

    Cardiovascular disease currently affects an estimated 58 million Americans and is the leading cause of death in the US. Over 2.3 million Americans are currently living with heart failure a leading cause of which is acute myocardial infarction, during which a part of the heart muscle is damaged beyond repair. There is a great need to develop treatments for damaged heart tissue. One potential therapy involves replacement of nonfunctioning scar tissue with a patch of healthy, functioning tissue. A tissue engineered cardiac patch would be ideal for such an application. Tissue engineering techniques require the use of porous scaffolds, which serve as a 3-D template for initial cell attachment and grow-th leading to tissue formation. The scaffold must also have mechanical properties closely matching those of the tissues at the site of implantation. Our research presents a new approach to meet these design requirements. A unique interaction between poly(vinyl alcohol) and amino acids has been discovered by our lab, resulting in the production of novel gels. These unique synthetic hydrogels along with one natural hydrogel, alginate (derived from brown seaweed), have been coupled with a new approach to tissue scaffold fabrication using solid colloidal gas aphrons (CGAs). CGAs are colloidal foams containing uniform bubbles with diameters on the order of micrometers. Upon solidification the GCAs form a porous, 3-D network suitable for a tissue scaffold. The project encompasses four specific aims: (I) characterize hydrogel formation mechanism, (II) use colloidal gas aphrons to produce hydrogel scaffolds, (III) chemically and physically characterize scaffold materials and (IV) optimize and evaluate scaffold biocompatibility.

  4. REALIZATION OF COMPETENCE-BASED APPROACH IN THE TEACHING OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES TO CIVIL ENGINEERING STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Kruchinina, G.; Patyaeva, N.

    2008-01-01

    The article deals with the problems of improving the quality of teaching foreign languages to civil engineering students when competence-based approach is used to setting teaching objectives and planning the results of education. The authors describe the model of the didactic system for developing foreign language competence of civil engineering students in their professional domain. The results of the experiment carried out to develop foreign language competence of civil engineering students...

  5. Effect of Chemical Admixtures on the Engineering Properties of Tropical Peat Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujang B.K. Huat

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This research describes a study on the effect of chemical (cement and lime admixtures on the index and engineering properties (compaction and unconfined strength of tropical peat soils. The ordinary Portland cement and hydrated lime were used. The amounts cement and lime added to the peat soil sample, as a percentage of the dry soil mass was in the range of 5-15% and 5-25%, respectively. The results of the study show that the addition of the chemical admixture, cement and lime, can improve the engineering properties of tropical peat soils. The soil liquid limit is found to decrease with an increase in the cement and lime content. The soil maximum dry density is found to increase while the optimum water content is found to decrease with an increase in the cement and lime content. The unconfined compressive strength of the soil is found to increase significantly with increase in cement and lime content, especially after a long curing period. However it is also found that higher organic content of the soil negate the positive effect of the cement and lime in altering (improving the mechanical properties of the soil. When comparing the performance of the cement and lime as a chemical admixture for the tropical peat soil, the ordinary Portland cement appears to perform better than the hydrated lime.

  6. Synthesis and Engineering Materials Properties of Fluid Phase Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Joon; Westman, Matthew P.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Chun, Jaehun; Ronnebro, Ewa

    2015-09-01

    Among candidates for chemical hydrogen storage in PEM fuel cell automotive applications, ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) is considered to be one of the most promising materials due to its high practical hydrogen content of 14-16 wt%. This material is selected as a surrogate chemical for a hydrogen storage system. For easier transition to the existing infrastructure, a fluid phase hydrogen storage material is very attractive and thus, we investigated the engineering materials properties of AB in liquid carriers for a chemical hydrogen storage slurry system. Slurries composed of AB and high temperature liquids were prepared by mechanical milling and sonication in order to obtain stable and fluidic properties. Volumetric gas burette system was adopted to observe the kinetics of the H2 release reactions of the AB slurry and neat AB. Viscometry and microscopy were employed to further characterize slurries engineering properties. Using a tip-sonication method we have produced AB/silicone fluid slurries at solid loadings up to 40wt% (6.5wt% H2) with viscosities less than 500cP at 25°C.

  7. Isuzu`s approach to small DI diesel engine; Joyoshayo kogata chokufun diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, S. [Isuzu Motors Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    The paper introduced a low-fuel proto engine developed as diesel engine which is clean and low in fuel consumption. The low-fuel proto car equipped with Isuzu`s 17DIT proto engine which was on show in fall 1995 was reduced about 38% in fuel consumption from Opel`s Corsa equipped with Isuzu`s existing 15DIT diesel engine. Emission of the proto engine cleared Euro 2 regulation. To clear Euro 3 regulation, however, it is needed to make further reduction in emission. For it, technology for the following is necessary: electronic controlling of injection system and EGR, oxidation catalyst, improvement of combustion chamber, pilot injection for reduction of combustion noise, etc. For reduction of NOx and particulates, a lot of research institutes are making efforts for R and D of oxidation catalyst, particulate filter, and De-NOx catalyst. As to DI engines, of which exhaust gas temperature is low, a development is needed of a catalyst with low-temperature activity. 3 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  8. [Introduction to] : "Sustainability of constructions : integrated approach to life-time structural engineering"

    OpenAIRE

    Bragança, L.; Koukkari, Heli; Blok, Rijk, ed. lit.; Gervásio, H.; Veljkovic, Milan; Plewako, Zbigniew; Landolfo, Raffaele, ed. lit.; Ungureanu, Viorel

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the COST Action C25 ‘Sustainability of Constructions: Integrated Approach lo Life-time Structural Engineering” is to promote science-based developments in sustainable construction in Europe through the collection and collaborative analysis of scientific results concerning life-time structural engineering and especially integration of environmental assessment methods and tolls of structural engineering.

  9. Building International Experiences into an Engineering Curriculum--A Design Project-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Victor; Castillo, Luciano; Carbajal, Gerardo; Hajela, Prabhat

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a descriptive account of how short-term international and multicultural experiences can be integrated into early design experiences in an aerospace engineering curriculum. Such approaches are considered as important not only in fostering a student's interest in the engineering curriculum, but also exposing them to a…

  10. Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-Chemical Recuperation to Maximize In-Use Engine Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigel N. Clark; Francisco Posada; Clinton Bedick; John Pratapas; Aleksandr Kozlov; Martin Linck; Dmitri Boulanov

    2009-03-30

    The key to overcome Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) load range limitations in reciprocating engines is based on proper control over the thermo-chemical properties of the in-cylinder charge. The studied alternative to achieve the required control of LTC is the use of two separate fuel streams to regulate timing and heat release at specific operational points, where the secondary fuel is a reformed product of the primary fuel in the tank. It is proposed in this report that the secondary fuel can be produced using exhaust heat and Thermo-Chemical Recuperation (TCR). TCR for reciprocating engines is a system that employs high efficiency recovery of sensible heat from engine exhaust gas and uses this energy to transform fuel composition. The recuperated sensible heat is returned to the engine as chemical energy. Chemical conversions are accomplished through catalytic and endothermic reactions in a specially designed reforming reactor. An equilibrium model developed by Gas Technology Institute (GTI) for heptane steam reforming was applied to estimate reformed fuel composition at different reforming temperatures. Laboratory results, at a steam/heptane mole ratio less than 2:1, confirm that low temperature reforming reactions, in the range of 550 K to 650 K, can produce 10-30% hydrogen (by volume, wet) in the product stream. Also, the effect of trading low mean effective pressure for displacement to achieve power output and energy efficiency has been explored by WVU. A zerodimensional model of LTC using heptane as fuel and a diesel Compression Ignition (CI) combustion model were employed to estimate pressure, temperature and total heat release as inputs for a mechanical and thermal loss model. The model results show that the total cooling burden on an LTC engine with lower power density and higher displacement was 14.3% lower than the diesel engine for the same amount of energy addition in the case of high load (43.57mg fuel/cycle). These preliminary modeling and

  11. Wildland fire management. Volume 1: Prevention methods and analysis. [systems engineering approach to California fire problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberger, S. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A systems engineering approach is reported for the problem of reducing the number and severity of California's wildlife fires. Prevention methodologies are reviewed and cost benefit models are developed for making preignition decisions.

  12. [Engineering of the xylose metabolic pathway for microbial production of bio-based chemicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weixi; Fu, Jing; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Tao

    2013-08-01

    As the rapid development of economy necessitates a large number of oil, the contradiction between energy supply and demand is further exacerbated by the dwindling reserves of petroleum resource. Therefore, the research of the renewable cellulosic biomass resources is gaining unprecedented momentum. Because xylose is the second most abundant monosaccharide after glucose in lignocellulose hydrolyzes, high-efficiency bioconversion of xylose becomes one of the vital factors that affect the industrial prospects of lignocellulose application. According to the research progresses in recent years, this review summarized the advances in bioconversion of xylose, which included identification and redesign of the xylose metabolic pathway, engineering the xylose transport pathway and bio-based chemicals production. In order to solve the energy crisis and environmental pollution issues, the development of advanced bio-fuel technology, especially engineering the microbe able to metabolize xylose and produce ethanol by synthetic biology, is environmentally benign and sustainable. PMID:24364352

  13. Diesel Surrogate Fuels for Engine Testing and Chemical-Kinetic Modeling: Compositions and Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Charles J.; Cannella, William J.; Bays, J. Timothy; Bruno, Thomas J.; DeFabio, Kathy; Dettman, Heather D.; Gieleciak, Rafal M.; Huber, Marcia L.; Kweon, Chol-Bum; McConnell, Steven S.; Pitz, William J.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    The primary objectives of this work were to formulate, blend, and characterize a set of four ultralow-sulfur diesel surrogate fuels in quantities sufficient to enable their study in single-cylinder-engine and combustion-vessel experiments. The surrogate fuels feature increasing levels of compositional accuracy (i.e., increasing exactness in matching hydrocarbon structural characteristics) relative to the single target diesel fuel upon which the surrogate fuels are based. This approach was tak...

  14. Implementing a Systematic Process for Rapidly Embedding Sustainability within Chemical Engineering Education: A Case Study of James Cook University, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Madoc; Schneider, Phil; Desha, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability has emerged as a primary context for engineering education in the 21st Century, particularly the sub-discipline of chemical engineering. However, there is confusion over how to go about integrating sustainability knowledge and skills systemically within bachelor degrees. This paper addresses this challenge, using a case study of an…

  15. HYPER-­TVT: Development and Implementation of an Interactive Learning Environment for Students of Chemical and Process Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Marina; Mazzotti, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Hyper-TVT is a computer-aided education system that has been developed at the Institute of Process Engineering at the ETH Zurich. The aim was to create an interactive learning environment for chemical and process engineering students. The topics covered are the most important multistage separation processes, i.e. fundamentals of separation…

  16. Power optimization of chemically driven heat engine based on first and second order reaction kinetic theory and probability theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Chen, Lingen; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-03-01

    The finite-time thermodynamic method based on probability analysis can more accurately describe various performance parameters of thermodynamic systems. Based on the relation between optimal efficiency and power output of a generalized Carnot heat engine with a finite high-temperature heat reservoir (heat source) and an infinite low-temperature heat reservoir (heat sink) and with the only irreversibility of heat transfer, this paper studies the problem of power optimization of chemically driven heat engine based on first and second order reaction kinetic theory, puts forward a model of the coupling heat engine which can be run periodically and obtains the effects of the finite-time thermodynamic characteristics of the coupling relation between chemical reaction and heat engine on the power optimization. The results show that the first order reaction kinetics model can use fuel more effectively, and can provide heat engine with higher temperature heat source to increase the power output of the heat engine. Moreover, the power fluctuation bounds of the chemically driven heat engine are obtained by using the probability analysis method. The results may provide some guidelines for the character analysis and power optimization of the chemically driven heat engines.

  17. An Industrial Engineering Approach to Cost Containment of Pharmacy Education

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Wendy; Bottenberg, Michelle; Chase, Marilea; Chesnut, Renae; Clarke, Cheryl; Schott, Kathryn; Torry, Ronald; Welty, Tim

    2015-01-01

    A 2-semester project explored employing teams of fourth-year industrial engineering students to optimize some of our academic management processes. Results included significant cost savings and increases in efficiency, effectiveness, and student and faculty satisfaction. While we did not adopt all of the students’ recommendations, we did learn some important lessons. For example, an initial investment of time in developing a mutually clear understanding of the problems, constraints, and goals...

  18. Gas Turbine Engine Component Development : An Integrated Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Willem Jansen

    1988-01-01

    Computer - aided engineering methods have made a significant impact in the design technologies of advanced machinery. These methods have been applied in several areas such as aerodynamics and fluid dynamic theory for high efficiency, stress and vibration theory for reliability, and manufacturing strategies to produce machined components at low cost and with short time schedules. The integration of these various design technologies offer the opportunity for even greater productivity in ...

  19. Today Prospects for Tissue Engineering Therapeutic Approach in Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In dental practice there is an increasing need for predictable therapeutic protocols able to regenerate tissues that, due to inflammatory or traumatic events, may suffer from loss of their function. One of the topics arising major interest in the research applied to regenerative medicine is represented by tissue engineering and, in particular, by stem cells. The study of stem cells in dentistry over the years has shown an exponential increase in literature. Adult mesenchymal stem cells have r...

  20. A Topic-Driven Modular Approach to Engineering Education Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Ruba Akram Amarin; Ozlem O. Garibay; Issa Batarseh

    2013-01-01

    The interactive technical electronic book, TechEBook, currently under development at the University of Central Florida, provides a useful tool for engineers and scientists through unique features compared to the most used traditional electrical circuit textbooks available in the market. TechEBook has comprised the two worlds of classical circuit books and an interactive operating platform that can be run on mobile devices, laptops and desktops utilizing Java Virtual Machine operator. The Tech...

  1. A Hybrid approach for aeroacoustic analysis of the engine exhaust system

    OpenAIRE

    Sathyanarayana, Y; Munjal, ML

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a new hybrid approach for prediction of noise radiation from engine exhaust systems. It couples the time domain analysis of the engine and the frequency domain analysis of the muffler, and has the advantages of both. In this approach, cylinder/cavity is analyzed in the time domain to calculate the exhaust mass flux history at the exhaust valve by means of the method of characteristics, avoiding the tedious procedure of interpolation at every mesh point and solving a number...

  2. Contemporary engineering economics

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Chan S

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Engineering Economics, 5/e, is intended for undergraduate engineering students taking introductory engineering economics while appealing to the full range of engineering disciplines for which this course is often required: industrial, civil, mechanical, electrical, computer, aerospace, chemical, and manufacturing engineering, as well as engineering technology. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated while continuing to adopt a contemporary approach to the subject, and teaching, of engineering economics. This text aims not only to build a sound and comprehensive coverage of engineering economics, but also to address key educational challenges, such as student difficulty in developing the analytical skills required to make informed financial decisions.

  3. Viable chemical approach for patterning nanoscale magnetoresistive random access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reactive ion etching process with alternating Cl2 and H2 exposures has been shown to chemically etch CoFe film that is an integral component in magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM). Starting with systematic thermodynamic calculations assessing various chemistries and reaction pathways leading to the highest possible vapor pressure of the etch products reactions, the potential chemical combinations were verified by etch rate investigation and surface chemistry analysis in plasma treated CoFe films. An ∼20% enhancement in etch rate was observed with the alternating use of Cl2 and H2 plasmas, in comparison with the use of only Cl2 plasma. This chemical combination was effective in removing metal chloride layers, thus maintaining the desired magnetic properties of the CoFe films. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed visually and spectroscopically that the metal chloride layers generated by Cl2 plasma were eliminated with H2 plasma to yield a clean etch profile. This work suggests that the selected chemistries can be used to etch magnetic metal alloys with a smooth etch profile and this general strategy can be applied to design chemically based etch processes to enable the fabrication of highly integrated nanoscale MRAM devices

  4. Viable chemical approach for patterning nanoscale magnetoresistive random access memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taeseung; Kim, Younghee; Chen, Jack Kun-Chieh; Chang, Jane P., E-mail: jpchang@seas.ucla.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    A reactive ion etching process with alternating Cl{sub 2} and H{sub 2} exposures has been shown to chemically etch CoFe film that is an integral component in magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM). Starting with systematic thermodynamic calculations assessing various chemistries and reaction pathways leading to the highest possible vapor pressure of the etch products reactions, the potential chemical combinations were verified by etch rate investigation and surface chemistry analysis in plasma treated CoFe films. An ∼20% enhancement in etch rate was observed with the alternating use of Cl{sub 2} and H{sub 2} plasmas, in comparison with the use of only Cl{sub 2} plasma. This chemical combination was effective in removing metal chloride layers, thus maintaining the desired magnetic properties of the CoFe films. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed visually and spectroscopically that the metal chloride layers generated by Cl{sub 2} plasma were eliminated with H{sub 2} plasma to yield a clean etch profile. This work suggests that the selected chemistries can be used to etch magnetic metal alloys with a smooth etch profile and this general strategy can be applied to design chemically based etch processes to enable the fabrication of highly integrated nanoscale MRAM devices.

  5. A network dynamics approach to chemical reaction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schaft, A. J.; Rao, S.; Jayawardhana, B.

    2016-04-01

    A treatment of a chemical reaction network theory is given from the perspective of nonlinear network dynamics, in particular of consensus dynamics. By starting from the complex-balanced assumption, the reaction dynamics governed by mass action kinetics can be rewritten into a form which allows for a very simple derivation of a number of key results in the chemical reaction network theory, and which directly relates to the thermodynamics and port-Hamiltonian formulation of the system. Central in this formulation is the definition of a balanced Laplacian matrix on the graph of chemical complexes together with a resulting fundamental inequality. This immediately leads to the characterisation of the set of equilibria and their stability. Furthermore, the assumption of complex balancedness is revisited from the point of view of Kirchhoff's matrix tree theorem. Both the form of the dynamics and the deduced behaviour are very similar to consensus dynamics, and provide additional perspectives to the latter. Finally, using the classical idea of extending the graph of chemical complexes by a 'zero' complex, a complete steady-state stability analysis of mass action kinetics reaction networks with constant inflows and mass action kinetics outflows is given, and a unified framework is provided for structure-preserving model reduction of this important class of open reaction networks.

  6. A network dynamics approach to chemical reaction networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaft, Abraham; Rao, S.; Jayawardhana, B.

    2016-01-01

    A treatment of chemical reaction network theory is given from the perspective of nonlinear network dynamics, in particular of consensus dynamics. By starting from the complex-balanced assumption the reaction dynamics governed by mass action kinetics can be rewritten into a form which allows for a ve

  7. Effect of continuous assessment on learning outcomes on two chemical engineering courses: case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuunila, R.; Pulkkinen, M.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the effect of continuous assessment on the learning outcomes of two chemical engineering courses is studied over a several-year period. Average grades and passing percentages of courses after the final examination are reported and also student feedback on the courses is collected. The results indicate significantly better learning results after the adoption of continuous assessment in the courses. Also student feedback suggests higher quality in teaching after the adoption of more activating teaching methods which compel students to study effectively throughout the course.

  8. Advances in metabolic engineering of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important industrial host for production of enzymes, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical ingredients and recently also commodity chemicals and biofuels. Here, we review the advances in modeling and synthetic biology tools and how these tools can speed up the...... development of yeast cell factories. We also present an overview of metabolic engineering strategies for developing yeast strains for production of polymer monomers: lactic, succinic, and cis,cis-muconic acids. S. cerevisiae has already firmly established itself as a cell factory in industrial biotechnology...

  9. Fluctuation theory of solutions applications in chemistry, chemical engineering, and biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    There are essentially two theories of solutions that can be considered exact: the McMillan-Mayer theory and Fluctuation Solution Theory (FST). The first is mostly limited to solutes at low concentrations, while FST has no such issue. It is an exact theory that can be applied to any stable solution regardless of the number of components and their concentrations, and the types of molecules and their sizes. Fluctuation Theory of Solutions: Applications in Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, and Biophysics outlines the general concepts and theoretical basis of FST and provides a range of applications

  10. Electrochemical approaches for chemical and biological analysis on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Samuel P.

    2003-01-01

    Obtaining in situ chemical data from planetary bodies such as Mars or Europa can present significant challenges. The one analytical technique that has many of the requisite characteristics to meet such a challenge is electroanalysis. Described here are three electroanalytical devices designed for in situ geochemical and biological analysis on Mars. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) was built and flight qualified for the now cancelled NASA Mars 2001 Lander. Part of MECA consisted of four "cells" containing arrays of electrochemical based sensors for measuring the ionic species in soil samples. A next-generation MECA, the Robotic Chemical Analysis Laboratory (RCAL), uses a carousel-type system to allow for greater customization of analytical procedures. A second instrument, proposed as part of the 2007 CryoScout mission, consists of a flow-through inorganic chemical analyzer (MICA). CryoScout is a torpedo-like device designed for subsurface investigation of the stratigraphic climate record embedded in Mars' north polar cap. As the CryoScout melts its way through the ice cap, MICA will collect and analyze the meltwater for a variety of inorganics and chemical parameters. By analyzing the chemistry locked in the layers of dust, salt, and ice, geologists will be able to determine the recent history of climate, water, and atmosphere on Mars and link it to the past. Finally, electroanalysis shows its abilities in the detection of possible microorganism on Mars or elsewhere in the solar system. To identify an unknown microorganism, one that may not even use Earth-type biochemistry, requires a detection scheme which makes minimal assumptions and looks for the most general features. Recent work has demonstrated that the use of an array of electrochemical sensors which monitors the changes in a solution via electrical conductivity, pH, and ion selective electrodes, can be used to detect minute chemical perturbations caused by the growth of bacteria and

  11. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of transuranic wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical and chemical characterization data for transuranic radioactive wastes and transuranic radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program (PSPI). Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 139 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 39,380{sup 3} corresponding to a total mass of approximately 19,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats Plant generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  12. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of transuranic wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides radiological, physical and chemical characterization data for transuranic radioactive wastes and transuranic radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program (PSPI). Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 139 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 39,3803 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 19,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats Plant generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification

  13. Influence of surface chemical properties on the toxicity of engineered zinc oxide nanoparticles to embryonic zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zitao Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs are widely used in a variety of products, thus understanding their health and environmental impacts is necessary to appropriately manage their risks. To keep pace with the rapid increase in products utilizing engineered ZnO NPs, rapid in silico toxicity test methods based on knowledge of comprehensive in vivo and in vitro toxic responses are beneficial in determining potential nanoparticle impacts. To achieve or enhance their desired function, chemical modifications are often performed on the NPs surface; however, the roles of these alterations play in determining the toxicity of ZnO NPs are still not well understood. As such, we investigated the toxicity of 17 diverse ZnO NPs varying in both size and surface chemistry to developing zebrafish (exposure concentrations ranging from 0.016 to 250 mg/L. Despite assessing a suite of 19 different developmental, behavioural and morphological endpoints in addition to mortality in this study, mortality was the most common endpoint observed for all of the ZnO NP types tested. ZnO NPs with surface chemical modification, regardless of the type, resulted in mortality at 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf while uncoated particles did not induce significant mortality until 120 hpf. Using eight intrinsic chemical properties that relate to the outermost surface chemistry of the engineered ZnO nanoparticles, the highly dimensional toxicity data were converted to a 2-dimensional data set through principal component analysis (PCA. Euclidean distance was used to partition different NPs into several groups based on converted data (score which were directly related to changes in the outermost surface chemistry. Kriging estimations were then used to develop a contour map based on mortality data as a response. This study illustrates how the intrinsic properties of NPs, including surface chemical modifications and capping agents, are useful to separate and identify ZnO NP toxicity to

  14. National Ignition Facility: Impacts of chemical accidents and comparison of chemical and radiological accident approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental assessment was conducted to estimate potential impacts or consequences associated with constructing and operating the proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF). The multidisciplinary assessment covered topics ranging from radiological and chemical health and safety to socioeconomic and land-use issues. The impacts of five chemical accidents that could occur at NIF are compared, and the extent of their consequences for workers and off-site populations are discussed. Each of the five accident scenarios was modeled by a chemical release and dispersion model with a toxicological criterion for evaluating potential irreversible human health effects. Results show that most of the chemical release scenarios considered will not impair the general public in taking protective actions in the event of an accidental release. The two exceptions are the mercury release (equipment failure) scenarios for the conceptual design and the enhanced design. In general, the predicted maximum threat zones are significantly less than the distance to the point of nearest public access

  15. Environmentally-engineered concrete system - concrete for oil and chemical plant environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, K; Early, C.; Gillen, M. [Dupont Civil Engineering Systems (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Properties expected of concrete used in oil production and refining facilities and chemical plants are discussed. Concrete in these types of applications must be capable of resisting a wide range of deleterious chemical and thermal exposure conditions, therefore, compressive strength is of lesser importance than the ability to resist chemical attack, maximum resistance to cracking, and other properties relating to durability. Environmental requirements are also an important factor in concrete used in containment structures where potentially hazardous materials are stored or used in plant operations. This paper describes the development, performance characteristics and field experience with what is known as an 'environmentally engineered concrete system' (EECS), which consists of mixture proportions, design details and construction methods which was developed and used for production and environmental containment concrete structures in Dupont plants and plants of its former subsidiary, Conoco. The EECS technology, with its emphasis on the special demands on concrete performance under severe exposure conditions, is considered to have significant potential for application within the oil and chemical industries, including remote overseas locations. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  16. Non-Natural Sugar Analogues: Chemical Probes for Metabolic Oligosaccharide Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Udayanath; Yarema, Kevin J.

    Metabolic oligosaccharide engineering (MOE) is a rapidly growing technology emerging from the field of chemical biology that allows novel chemical functionalities to be biosynthetically installed into the carbohydrates of living cells and animals. Since pioneering efforts to modulate sialic acid display through the use of non-natural N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc) analogues were reported 15 years ago, monosaccharide probes have been developed to manipulate N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc), N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), and fucose-containing glycans. The 'first generation' of analogues, comprised of a series of ManNAc derivatives with elongated N-acyl chains, demonstrated pathway permissivity and the ability of this methodology to impinge on biological processes ranging from pathogen binding to gene expression and cell adhesion. Later analogues have incorporated chemical function groups including ketones, azides, thiols, and alkyne not normally found in carbohydrates. These groups serve as 'tags' for the subsequent use of chemoselective ligation reactions to further elaborate the chemical properties of the cell surface and thereby greatly expand the potential of MOE technology to offer control over biological processes.

  17. Carbon Dioxide Extraction from the Atmosphere Through Engineered Chemical Sinkage: Enabling Energy and Environmental Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, M. K.; Ziock, H.; Rueff, G.; Smith, W. S.; Colman, J.; Elliott, S.; Lackner, K.; Johnston, N. A.

    2002-05-01

    We present the case for carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction from air using engineered chemical sinks as a means of sustaining fossil energy use by avoiding climate change. Existing carbon sequestration strategies such as CO2 injection into geologic formations or the deep ocean and mineral carbonation, require a pure stream of concentrated CO2 to be viable. Furthermore, current emphasis on reducing the global CO2 emissions is on large centralized power plants. However, more than half of all emissions are from the transportation sector and small, distributed sources such as home heating, etc. Most solutions for dealing with these sources explicitly or implicitly entail completely overhauling the existing infrastructure. To solve these problems, Los Alamos National Laboratory has conceived a novel approach for directly extracting CO2 from the atmosphere. Direct extraction converts the dilute CO2 (370 parts per million) in the atmosphere into a pure CO2 stream ready for permanent sequestration. It provides the following advantages: (1) Preserves our existing energy use and fuel distribution systems, which represent a large investment, (2) Indirectly captures CO2 from the myriad of small, distributed, and mobile sources that otherwise are not accessible to sequestration, (3) Allows atmospheric CO2 levels to be restored to their pre-industrial age value, (4) Provides free transport of CO2 to suitable sequestration sites by using natural atmospheric circulation, and (5) Is relatively compact and therefore inexpensive when compared to renewable concepts. Our concept harnesses atmospheric circulation to transport CO2 to sites where the CO2 is extracted by binding it to an adsorbent. The bound CO2 is then recovered as pure gas by heating together with the solid adsorbent that is recycled. As a proof of concept, we show that an aqueous Ca(OH)2 solution efficiently converts CO2 to a CaCO3 solid that can be heated to obtain pure CO2 and recover the CaO. Even with recycling costs

  18. Safety Concepts in Structural Glass Engineering: Towards an Integrated Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, F.P.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation proposes the Integrated Approach to Structural Glass Safety, based on four clearly defined element safety properties, damage sensitivity, relative resistance, redundancy, and fracture mode. The Element Safety Diagram (ESD) is introduced to provide an easy-to-read graphical representation of these properties. The safety performance of a large number of glass beam designs has been compared through experimental testing based on the proposed approach. The effects of a wide range...

  19. Massachusetts Institute of Technology School of Chemical Engineering Practice, Brookhaven station: Summary of projects, 1983-1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    The MIT Graduate School of Chemical Engineering Practice stresses engineering problem solving. The Practice School program, as it is commonly called, develops in a unique and particularly effective way the student's ability to apply fundamentals to problems in the chemical industry and thus accelerates one's professional development. The themes of atomization, emthanol production and utilization, hydrogen production and compression, localized electrochemical corrosion and biochemical engineering reflect some of the major programs at the Laboratory. The titles of all the projects are listed in chronological order in the index at the end of this document. Brief summaries are presented for each project with related projects grouped together.

  20. Massachusetts Institute of Technology School of Chemical Engineering Practice, Brookhaven station: Summary of projects, 1983-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MIT Graduate School of Chemical Engineering Practice stresses engineering problem solving. The Practice School program, as it is commonly called, develops in a unique and particularly effective way the student's ability to apply fundamentals to problems in the chemical industry and thus accelerates one's professional development. The themes of atomization, emthanol production and utilization, hydrogen production and compression, localized electrochemical corrosion and biochemical engineering reflect some of the major programs at the Laboratory. The titles of all the projects are listed in chronological order in the index at the end of this document. Brief summaries are presented for each project with related projects grouped together

  1. Tomato Derived Polysaccharides for Biotechnological Applications: Chemical and Biological Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Nicolaus

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies concerning the isolation and purification of exopolysaccharides from suspension-cultured tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. var. San Marzano cells and the description of a simple, rapid and low environmental impact method with for obtaining polysaccharides from solid tomato-processing industry wastes are reported. Their chemical composition, rheological properties and partial primary structure were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, GC-MS, 1H-, 13C-NMR. Moreover, the anticytotoxic activities of exopolysaccharides obtained from cultured tomato cells were tested in a brine shrimp bioassay and the preparation of biodegradable film by chemical processing of polysaccharides from solid tomato industry waste was also reported.

  2. Writing Compilers and Interpreters A Software Engineering Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mak, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Long-awaited revision to a unique guide that covers both compilers and interpreters Revised, updated, and now focusing on Java instead of C++, this long-awaited, latest edition of this popular book teaches programmers and software engineering students how to write compilers and interpreters using Java. You?ll write compilers and interpreters as case studies, generating general assembly code for a Java Virtual Machine that takes advantage of the Java Collections Framework to shorten and simplify the code. In addition, coverage includes Java Collections Framework, UML modeling, object-oriented p

  3. Engineering approach for elastic-plastic fracture analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V; German, M D; Shih, C F

    1981-07-01

    This report for RP1237-1 presents formulas, charts, and background material that allow calculation of safety margins in ductile structures containing flaws. It is intended as a reference book for engineers who are concerned with design and analysis of flawed structures. The work extends the analysis procedures already available for brittle elastic materials to the tough and ductile steels used in the construction of pressure-boundary components. These new elastic-plastic methods more accurately describe the behavior of ductile materials and show more tolerance to flaws than the elastic methods contained in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and the Code of Federal Regulations.

  4. Engineering approach for elastic-plastic fracture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for RP1237-1 presents formulas, charts, and background material that allow calculation of safety margins in ductile structures containing flaws. It is intended as a reference book for engineers who are concerned with design and analysis of flawed structures. The work extends the analysis procedures already available for brittle elastic materials to the tough and ductile steels used in the construction of pressure-boundary components. These new elastic-plastic methods more accurately describe the behavior of ductile materials and show more tolerance to flaws than the elastic methods contained in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and the Code of Federal Regulations

  5. Chemical named entities recognition: a review on approaches and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Eltyeb, Safaa; Salim, Naomie

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in the flow rate of published digital information in all disciplines has resulted in a pressing need for techniques that can simplify the use of this information. The chemistry literature is very rich with information about chemical entities. Extracting molecules and their related properties and activities from the scientific literature to “text mine” these extracted data and determine contextual relationships helps research scientists, particularly those in drug developmen...

  6. AMAZON RAINFOREST COSMETICS: CHEMICAL APPROACH FOR QUALITY CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Mariko Funasaki; Hileia dos Santos Barroso; Valdelira Lia Araújo Fernandes; Ingrid Sabino Menezes

    2016-01-01

    The market for natural cosmetics featuring ingredients derived from Amazon natural resources is growing worldwide. However, there is neither enough scientific basis nor quality control of these ingredients. This paper is an account of the chemical constituents and their biological activities of fourteen Amazonian species used in cosmetic industry, including açaí (Euterpe oleracea), andiroba (Carapa guianensis), bacuri (Platonia insignis), Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), buriti (Mauritia vi...

  7. Bioscience methodologies in physical chemistry an engineering and molecular approach

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amore, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The field of bioscience methodologies in physical chemistry stands at the intersection of the power and generality of classical and quantum physics with the minute molecular complexity of chemistry and biology. This book provides an application of physical principles in explaining and rationalizing chemical and biological phenomena. It does not stick to the classical topics that are conventionally considered as part of physical chemistry; instead it presents principles deciphered from a modern point of view, which is the strength of this book.

  8. In-Cylinder Heat Transfer Characteristics of Hydrogen Fueled Engine: A Steady State Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents in-cylinder heat transfer characteristics of a single cylinder port injection Hydrogen fueled Internal Combustion Engine (H2ICE using a steady state approach. Problem statement: The differences in characteristics between hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels are led to the difference in the behavior of physical processes during engine cycle. One of these processes is the in-cylinder heat transfer. Approach: One dimensional gas dynamic model was used to describe the heat transfer characteristics of the engine. The engine speed was varied from 2000-5000 rpm, crank angle from -40° to +100°, while Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR was changed from stoichiometric to lean limit. Results: The simulated results showed higher heat transfer rate but lower heat transfer to total fuel energy ratio with increasing the engine speed. The in-cylinder pressure and temperature were increased with decreasing AFR and increasing engine speed. The in-cylinder air flow rate was increased linearly with increasing engine speed as well as air fuel ratio. Conclusion/Recommendations: The results showed that the AFR has a vital effect on characteristics variation while the engine speed has minor effect. These results can be utilized for the study of combustion process, fuel consumption, emission production and engine performance.

  9. Experimental approach to performance of engineered barriers under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental studies have been carried out in order to evaluate the durability of engineered barriers in a geological disposal system. These are as follows: (1) Leaching behavior of waste borosilicate glass. Leaching experiments of simulated waste glass were carried out for more than one year as well on laboratory scale as on engineering scale. The leachability was suppressed under the condition of high SA/V (the surface area of glass/leachant volume). Saturation of leachant with silicon reduces the leaching rates of the glass. (2) Corrosion behavior of candidate overpack materials. Corrosion behavior of carbon steel and titanium was studied in aqueous solutions with and without bentonite. No localized corrosion was observed in either of the materials. The corrosion rate of carbon steel depends on the bentonite/water ratio. The crevice corrosion resistance of titanium and its alloy were also studied. (3) Permeability of compacted bentonite as buffer material. The hydraulic conductivity of saturated compacted bentonite decreases and the swelling pressure increases with increasing density. Influence of cracks on permeability was also studied, and no significant effect was observed. The infiltration of water into dry compacted bentonite was also studied to evaluate the permeability of the buffer material at the initial stage of disposal. (orig.)

  10. Metabolic engineering approaches for production of biochemicals in food and medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah A; Roberts, Susan C

    2014-04-01

    Historically, plants are a vital source of nutrients and pharmaceuticals. Recent advances in metabolic engineering have made it possible to not only increase the concentration of desired compounds, but also introduce novel biosynthetic pathways to a variety of species, allowing for enhanced nutritional or commercial value. To improve metabolic engineering capabilities, new transformation techniques have been developed to allow for gene specific silencing strategies or stacking of multiple genes within the same region of the chromosome. The 'omics' era has provided a new resource for elucidation of uncharacterized biosynthetic pathways, enabling novel metabolic engineering approaches. These resources are now allowing for advanced metabolic engineering of plant production systems, as well as the synthesis of increasingly complex products in engineered microbial hosts. The status of current metabolic engineering efforts is highlighted for the in vitro production of paclitaxel and the in vivo production of β-carotene in Golden Rice and other food crops. PMID:24556196

  11. Aplication of the Simulation Process During the Working Practice of Chemical Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jesús Muñoz Batista

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The success of chemical engineering graduates depends on their aptitude and the skills received during the academic formation. Employers not only require that graduates have the knowledge of basic chemical engineering principles but knowing how to apply this knowledge in solving practical problems. In this paper, one form to obtain important skills is presented. The working practice is one of the most important subjects in the curriculum. HYSYS simulator which can realize the energetic evaluation was introduced. A simulation model of the preheat train of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit was obtained. The model was built using prebuilt models in HYSYS, however a fired heater to steady state doesn’t exist. In this case, a spreadsheet was utilized in programming the energetic evaluation. Sometimes it is useful because it is necessary to use our models for specific equipment. Finally, the model was utilized to predict the system efficiency when changes on the operation variables occur. The use of simulation inside of core subjects helps to improve the level and quality of students’ formation.

  12. Scaffold of chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) blend chemically crosslinked by glutaraldehyde for tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan/PVA based films were chemically crosslinked by glutaraldehyde (GA) in order to achieve scaffolds for potential tissue engineering application. Both precursors and developed films were characterized by FTIR and XRD in order to determine the presence of chemicals groups and nanostructural order, respectively. The results have showed that the GA crosslinking have altered the crystallinity of the chitosan and the increase on the C=N bands and decreasing of NH2 bands suggest that Chitosan/GA crosslinking has preference to occur in the carbon 2 by Schiff's base. The mechanical properties, swelling behavior, degradation rate in vitro and cellular viability were compatible with the characteristic of an epithelial tissue. The material presented a toughness range from 1.4 to 34MJ/m3, swelling from 150% to 700% in 24h, degradation rate from 20% to 75% (wt%) in 24h and cellular viability in vitro above 60% compared to the cellular control. The developed scaffolds from the films have also showed swelling and degradation in vitro properties well-matched for biomedical applications in tissue engineering (author)

  13. Automatic differentiation tools in the dynamic simulation of chemical engineering processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Differentiation is a relatively recent technique developed for the differentiation of functions applicable directly to the source code to compute the function written in standard programming languages. That technique permits the automatization of the differentiation step, crucial for dynamic simulation and optimization of processes. The values for the derivatives obtained with AD are exact (to roundoff. The theoretical exactness of the AD comes from the fact that it uses the same rules of differentiation as in differential calculus, but these rules are applied to an algorithmic specification of the function rather than to a formula. The main purpose of this contribution is to discuss the impact of Automatic Differentiation in the field of dynamic simulation of chemical engineering processes. The influence of the differentiation technique on the behavior of the integration code, the performance of the generated code and the incorporation of AD tools in consistent initialization tools are discussed from the viewpoint of dynamic simulation of typical models in chemical engineering.

  14. A multi-scale, multi-disciplinary approach for assessing the technological, economic and environmental performance of bio-based chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrgård, Markus; Sukumara, Sumesh; Campodonico, Miguel; Zhuang, Kai

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, bio-based chemicals have gained interest as a renewable alternative to petrochemicals. However, there is a significant need to assess the technological, biological, economic and environmental feasibility of bio-based chemicals, particularly during the early research phase. Recently, the Multi-scale framework for Sustainable Industrial Chemicals (MuSIC) was introduced to address this issue by integrating modelling approaches at different scales ranging from cellular to ecological scales. This framework can be further extended by incorporating modelling of the petrochemical value chain and the de novo prediction of metabolic pathways connecting existing host metabolism to desirable chemical products. This multi-scale, multi-disciplinary framework for quantitative assessment of bio-based chemicals will play a vital role in supporting engineering, strategy and policy decisions as we progress towards a sustainable chemical industry. PMID:26614653

  15. Incidence of the biotechnology in the academic development of the chemical engineering in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Colombia, the biotechnology, during the last years, it has been developed in a quick way, particularly in their fundamental and theoretical aspect. In the national market consumption there are products obtained with the help of the advances of the industrial biotechnology, which, for their implementation, it has had to appeal to import technologies and of transfer. This way, among the theoretical investigations in biotechnology and the applicability of their results in production processes in our country a direct relationship has not existed generally. At the moment, the necessities of scientific and technological progress demand the harmonic interaction of the different aspects of the biotechnology. For it, it is indispensable the formation of professionals, able to apply engineering concepts in the processes developed in biotechnical laboratories, like they have already made it other countries, with more scientific and economic advance. In the Colombian universities it is hour of reinforcing the line considerably in biochemical engineering of chemical engineering programs in the different pre and graduate levels; this profundity will allow significantly shortening distances between the different areas of the biotechnology and its industrial application

  16. Stirling engine based solar-thermal power plant with a thermo-chemical storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The system is unaffected by climatic and seasonal variation. • Drawbacks of solar power generation are eliminated. • A constant uninterrupted output power is obtained. - Abstract: This paper describes a solar-thermal run Stirling engine based uninterrupted power generating system employing magnesium sulphate impregnated Zeolite pellets for thermal energy storage. In the proposed system, Stirling engine design is based on the average temperature difference of 480 °C, assuming the heat sink temperature equal to the ambient temperature of that place. In presence of sun, Fresnel lenses of a specially designed hybrid capsule capture solar energy and concentrate them to provide necessary heat for the operation of the engine. In absence of the sun, required heat is provided by the thermo-chemical energy stored in Zeolite pellets. Working methodologies, modelling and simulation of the proposed system along with analyses of the obtained simulated results are presented in this paper. Possible performance of the scheme at different global positions for different period of a year has also been investigated

  17. Harmonization of risk management approaches: radiation and chemical exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiation Safety Systems Div., Mumbai (India)

    2006-07-01

    Assessment of occupational and public risk from the environmental pollutants like chemicals, radiation, etc demands that the effects be considered not only from each individual pollutant, but from the combination of all the pollutants. An integrated risk assessment system needs to be in place to have an overall risk perspective for the benefit of policy makers and decision takers to try to achieve risk reduction in totality. The basis for risk-based radiation dose limits is derived from epidemiological studies, which provide a rich source of data largely unavailable to chemical risk assessors. In addition, use of the principle of optimization as expressed in the ALARA concept has resulted in a safety culture, which is much more than just complying with stipulated limits. The conservative hypothesis of no-threshold dose-effect relation (ICRP) is universally assumed. The end-points and the severity of different classes of pollutants and even different pollutants in a same class vary over a wide range. Hence, it is difficult to arrive at a quantitative value for the net detriment that weighs the various types of end-points and various classes of pollutants. Once the risk due to other pollutants is quantified by some acceptable methodology, it can be expressed in terms of the Risk Equivalent Radiation Dose (R.E.R.D.) for easy comparison with options involving radiation exposure. This paper is an effort to use to quantify and present the risk due to exposure to chemicals and radiation in a common scale for the purpose of easy comparison to facilitate decision taking. (authors)

  18. Harmonization of risk management approaches: radiation and chemical exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of occupational and public risk from the environmental pollutants like chemicals, radiation, etc demands that the effects be considered not only from each individual pollutant, but from the combination of all the pollutants. An integrated risk assessment system needs to be in place to have an overall risk perspective for the benefit of policy makers and decision takers to try to achieve risk reduction in totality. The basis for risk-based radiation dose limits is derived from epidemiological studies, which provide a rich source of data largely unavailable to chemical risk assessors. In addition, use of the principle of optimization as expressed in the ALARA concept has resulted in a safety culture, which is much more than just complying with stipulated limits. The conservative hypothesis of no-threshold dose-effect relation (ICRP) is universally assumed. The end-points and the severity of different classes of pollutants and even different pollutants in a same class vary over a wide range. Hence, it is difficult to arrive at a quantitative value for the net detriment that weighs the various types of end-points and various classes of pollutants. Once the risk due to other pollutants is quantified by some acceptable methodology, it can be expressed in terms of the Risk Equivalent Radiation Dose (R.E.R.D.) for easy comparison with options involving radiation exposure. This paper is an effort to use to quantify and present the risk due to exposure to chemicals and radiation in a common scale for the purpose of easy comparison to facilitate decision taking. (authors)

  19. Analytical environmental nanotechnology. Functional and chemical multielemental speciation in natural and engineered nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Nanoscale materials find use in a variety of different areas such as electronic, biomedical, sensing sciences, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, energy, environmental, catalytic and material applications. The environmental nanoparticles (NPs) can be classified in two groups: Natural NPs and Engineered or Anthropogenic NPs. Today the development of analytical methods for physical and chemical characterization of nanoparticles is still in its infancy .The natural and the engineered NPs can be investigated with an integrated analytical methodology by using several complementary techniques . We will show our experimental results on new analytical methodology to investigate the rol of the elements Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, Co, Mo, Al, B, Fe, Mn, Sb, Sn, Ti, V in Organic and Inorganic Nanoparticles, by using specially hyphenated techniques like as: AsFIFFF-ICP-MS, AsFIFFF-UV.VIS, HPLC-SEC-UV.VIS-ICP-MS, PAGE-ICP-MS, PAGE-LA-ICP-MS, and Solid NPs Voltametry . The application of mathematical deconvolution to the fractograms to refine analytical signals provides a high resolution and the determination of polydispersity of particles as a very interesting information. The obtained results give a useful information about the Bioavailability, Mobility and Toxicity of the elements associated to nanoparticles. We will show also the experimental results and conclusions about the use of these hyphenated techniques to develop analytical methodology from three important point of view: Particle Size-Particle Kind and Chemical Composition, to establish a model of Functional Speciation of engineered nanoparticles like colloidal silver, and several nano-biocolloids from aquatic pseudo-multiphases. The work has been supported by Spanish Department of Science (Project CTQ 2006-00894 BQU).

  20. Probabilistic Approach to Risk Analysis of Chemical Spills at Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magda Bogalecka; Krzysztof Kolowrocki

    2006-01-01

    Risk analysis of chemical spills at sea and their consequences for sea environment are discussed. Mutual interactions between the process of the sea accident initiating events, the process of the sea environment threats, and the process of the sea environment degradation are investigated. To describe these three particular processes, the separate semi-Markov models are built. Furthermore, these models are jointed into one general model of these processes interactions.Moreover, some comments on the method for statistical identification of the considered models are proposed.

  1. Early quark production and approach to chemical equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, D.; Hebenstreit, F.; Berges, J.

    2016-04-01

    We perform real-time lattice simulations of out-of-equilibrium quark production in non-Abelian gauge theory in 3 +1 dimensions. Our simulations include the backreaction of quarks onto the dynamical gluon sector, which is particularly relevant for strongly correlated quarks. We observe fast isotropization and universal behavior of quarks and gluons at weak coupling and establish a quantitative connection to previous pure glue results. In order to understand the strongly correlated regime, we perform simulations for a large number of flavors and compare them to those obtained with two light quark flavors. By doing this we are able to provide estimates of the chemical equilibration time.

  2. Terrorist threat, chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear medical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different aspects linked to the use of nuclear, radiological, biological and or chemical weapons are gathered in this work. They concern history, fundamental aspect, diagnosis, therapy and prevention. The part devoted to the nuclear aspect concern the accidents in relation with ionizing radiations, the radiation syndrome, the contribution and limits of dosimetry, the treatment of medullary aplasia, the evaluation and treatment of an internal contamination, new perspectives on the use of cytokine for the treatment of accidental irradiated persons, alternative to the blood transfusion. (N.C.)

  3. Cell sheet approach for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Utoh, Rie; Nagase, Kenichi; Okano, Teruo

    2014-09-28

    After the biotech medicine era, regenerative medicine is expected to be an advanced medicine that is capable of curing patients with difficult-to-treat diseases and physically impaired function. Our original scaffold-free cell sheet-based tissue engineering technology enables transplanted cells to be engrafted for a long time, while fully maintaining their viability. This technology has already been applied to various diseases in the clinical setting, including the cornea, esophagus, heart, periodontal ligament, and cartilage using autologous cells. Transplanted cell sheets not only replace the injured tissue and compensate for impaired function, but also deliver growth factors and cytokines in a spatiotemporal manner over a prolonged period, which leads to promotion of tissue repair. Moreover, the integration of stem cell biology and cell sheet technology with sufficient vascularization opens possibilities for fabrication of human three-dimensional vascularized dense and intact tissue grafts for regenerative medicine to parenchymal organs. PMID:24858800

  4. A Topic-Driven Modular Approach to Engineering Education Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruba Akram Amarin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The interactive technical electronic book, TechEBook, currently under development at the University of Central Florida, provides a useful tool for engineers and scientists through unique features compared to the most used traditional electrical circuit textbooks available in the market. TechEBook has comprised the two worlds of classical circuit books and an interactive operating platform that can be run on mobile devices, laptops and desktops utilizing Java Virtual Machine operator. The TechEBook provides an interactive applets screen that holds many modules, in which each had a specific application in the self learning process. In this paper the main goals and objectives behind the MeLearning concept will be identified. The paper will describe the differences between the traditional curriculum delivery and the MeLearning concept in details accompanied by the main tools used and a description of the different modules features.

  5. A general approach to computerized inspection of engineered safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineered safety systems are in a standby state during the normal plant operation. Therefore their ability to fulfil their safeguarding functions must be proven by periodic test-start-ups. This paper describes work done on the development of computerized inspection techniques. Generally, engineered safety systems consist of a number of mechanical components and the instrumentation equipment, which is required for supervision. It is assumed that all disturbances are caused by a finite number of component and/or instrumentation faults which are stochastic in nature. To inspect a system, two steps must be carried out. First, an overall performance check, based on the verification of fixed normal operating points is made. If deviations are indicated, disturbance analysis is the next step. Assuming that a system might contain a number of n possible basic faults, theoretically 2sup(n) different disturbance patterns could occur. However, the analysis of large systems can be made easier by decomposition into sub-systems, each of which contains fewer basic faults than the original system. When the failed sub-systems are detected through the process of verification, using the normal operating characteristics for all sub-systems, the prime cause analysis can be restricted to them. The prime cause analysis is based on the substitution of the predefined basic faults. Disturbance patterns of higher complexity can be ignored, since their probability of occurrence has been considerably reduced by the decomposition. Using this concept, simulation experiments are being carried out. An idea of the achievable reliability of computerized inspection techniques can be obtained from the results discussed in this paper. (author)

  6. Adapting advanced engineering design approaches to building design. Potential benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böhms, M.

    2006-01-01

    A number of industries continuously progress advancing their design approaches based on the changing market constraints. Examples such as car, ship and airplane manufacturing industries utilize process setups and techniques, that differ significantly from the processes and techniques used by the tra

  7. THE CONTENT OF FUTURE ENGINEERS' TECHNOLOGICAL CULTURE FORMATION ON THE BASIS OF COMPETENCE APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Murashko, S.

    2010-01-01

    The article reveals the problem of future engineers' technological culture formation on the basis of competence approach. Pedagogical potential of subjects in technological culture formation on the basis of competence approach is presented, the methods, forms and means of its formation are described.

  8. Revisiting Approaches to Learning in Science and Engineering: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gynnild, V.; Myrhaug, D.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have applied the dichotomy of deep and surface approaches to learning in a range of disciplinary contexts. Existing questionnaires have largely assumed the existence of these constructs; however, in a recent study Case and Marshall (2004) described two additional context-specific approaches to learning in engineering. The current…

  9. New approach for direct chemical synthesis of hexagonal Co nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Frank M.; Tzitzios, Vasilis; Hadjipanayis, George C.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we explore the possibility of producing hexagonal Cobalt nanoparticles, with high saturation magnetization by direct chemical synthesis. The nanoparticles were synthesized by reduction of anhydrous cobalt (II) chloride by NaBH4 in tetraglyme at temperatures in the range of 200-270 °C under a nitrogen-hydrogen atmosphere. The reactions were done at high temperatures to allow for the formation of as-made hexagonal cobalt. The size of the particles was controlled by the addition of different surfactants. The best magnetic properties so far were obtained on spherical hexagonal Co nanoparticles with an average size of 45 nm, a saturation magnetization of 143 emu/g and coercivity of 500 Oe. the saturation magnetization and coercivity were further improved by annealing the Co nanoparticles leading to saturation magnetization of 160 emu/g and coercivity of 540 Oe.

  10. The Trouble with Chemical Energy: Why Understanding Bond Energies Requires an Interdisciplinary Systems Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Melanie M.; Klymkowsky, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Helping students understand “chemical energy” is notoriously difficult. Many hold inconsistent ideas about what energy is, how and why it changes during the course of a chemical reaction, and how these changes are related to bond energies and reaction dynamics. There are (at least) three major sources for this problem: 1) the way biologists talk about chemical energy (which is also the way we talk about energy in everyday life); 2) the macroscopic approach to energy concepts that is common in...

  11. Supervised extensions of chemography approaches: case studies of chemical liabilities assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ovchinnikova, Svetlana I; Bykov, Arseniy A; Tsivadze, Aslan Yu.; Dyachkov, Evgeny P; Kireeva, Natalia V

    2014-01-01

    Chemical liabilities, such as adverse effects and toxicity, play a significant role in modern drug discovery process. In silico assessment of chemical liabilities is an important step aimed to reduce costs and animal testing by complementing or replacing in vitro and in vivo experiments. Herein, we propose an approach combining several classification and chemography methods to be able to predict chemical liabilities and to interpret obtained results in the context of impact of structural chan...

  12. Redesigning the Student Learning Approach through Personality Types and Pedagogies, A Case Study in an Undergraduate Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Corinna; Nakagawa, Elizabeth; Kelley, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    As the National Science Foundation and engineers throughout the world seek to strengthen the future of the engineering profession, the Civil Engineering (CE) program at the United States Coast Guard Academy embodies this initiative with a student focused approach. One course in particular, Materials for Civil and Construction Engineers (CE…

  13. Reactor technology assessment and selection utilizing systems engineering approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-text: The first Nuclear power plant (NPP) deployment in a country is a complex process that needs to consider technical, economic and financial aspects along with other aspects like public acceptance. Increased interest in the deployment of new NPPs, both among newcomer countries and those with expanding programs, necessitates the selection of reactor technology among commercially available technologies. This paper reviews the Systems Decision Process (SDP) of Systems Engineering and applies it in selecting the most appropriate reactor technology for the deployment in Malaysia. The integrated qualitative and quantitative analyses employed in the SDP are explored to perform reactor technology assessment and to select the most feasible technology whose design has also to comply with the IAEA standard requirements and other relevant requirements that have been established in this study. A quick Malaysian case study result suggests that the country reside with PWR (pressurized water reactor) technologies with more detailed study to be performed in the future for the selection of the most appropriate reactor technology for Malaysia. The demonstrated technology assessment also proposes an alternative method to systematically and quantitatively select the most appropriate reactor technology. (author)

  14. A 'Reverse Network Engineering' Framework To Develop Tourism Using A Lifestyle Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kamann, D; Strijker, D.; Sijtsma, F.J.

    1998-01-01

    This contribution uses the network approach in the design of policies for regional development focusing on tourism in rural and peripheral areas. The methodology applied - 'reverse network engineering' - is a combination of a top-down and a bottom-up approach. In the top-down approach certain 'concepts' are derived from life styles and consumer profiles. For each concept the products and activities required to produce these concepts are listed. This is initially performed in economic space an...

  15. Nonlinear approaches in engineering applications applied mechanics, vibration control, and numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the latest applications of nonlinear approaches in different disciplines of engineering. For each selected topic, detailed concept development, derivations, and relevant knowledge are provided for the convenience of the readers. The topics range from dynamic systems and control to optimal approaches in nonlinear dynamics. The volume includes invited chapters from world class experts in the field. The selected topics are of great interest in the fields of engineering and physics and this book is ideal for engineers and researchers working in a broad range of practical topics and approaches. This book also: ·         Explores the most up-to-date applications and underlying principles of nonlinear approaches to problems in engineering and physics, including sections on analytic nonlinearity and practical nonlinearity ·         Enlightens readers to the conceptual significance of nonlinear approaches with examples of applications in scientific and engineering problems from v...

  16. The star system: A production engineering approach to STS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angier, R. C.; Swartz, L. D.; Wilson, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    A fundamental change to the way Space Transportation System flight preparation is done is documented. It involves (1) systematic restructuring the Space Transportation System flight preparation task, to minimize its R&D content; (2) development of the Space Transportation Automated Reconfiguration (STAR) system to structure and support the remaining work flow. STAR is an integrated software system providing automation and quality control mechanisms necessary to create a production-like process. This approach was implemented using tools and methodology developed by IBM under NASA contract, to produce payload flight data requirements. It offers increased product quality, reduced cost per flight, and greater responsiveness to change.

  17. Nonlinear approaches in engineering applications advanced analysis of vehicle related technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Liming

    2016-01-01

    This book looks at the broad field of engineering science through the lens of nonlinear approaches. Examples focus on issues in vehicle technology, including vehicle dynamics, vehicle-road interaction, steering, and control for electric and hybrid vehicles. Also included are discussions on train and tram systems, aerial vehicles, robot-human interaction, and contact and scratch analysis at the micro/nanoscale. Chapters are based on invited contributions from world-class experts in the field who advance the future of engineering by discussing the development of more optimal, accurate, efficient, and cost and energy effective systems. This book is appropriate for researchers, students, and practicing engineers who are interested in the applications of nonlinear approaches to solving engineering and science problems.

  18. Semiconductor laser engineering, reliability and diagnostics a practical approach to high power and single mode devices

    CERN Document Server

    Epperlein, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    This reference book provides a fully integrated novel approach to the development of high-power, single-transverse mode, edge-emitting diode lasers by addressing the complementary topics of device engineering, reliability engineering and device diagnostics in the same book, and thus closes the gap in the current book literature. Diode laser fundamentals are discussed, followed by an elaborate discussion of problem-oriented design guidelines and techniques, and by a systematic treatment of the origins of laser degradation and a thorough exploration of the engineering means to enhance the optical strength of the laser. Stability criteria of critical laser characteristics and key laser robustness factors are discussed along with clear design considerations in the context of reliability engineering approaches and models, and typical programs for reliability tests and laser product qualifications. Novel, advanced diagnostic methods are reviewed to discuss, for the first time in detail in book literature, performa...

  19. Model Based System Engineering Approach of a Lightweight Embedded TCP/IP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. Rashed

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of embedded software is growing very rapidly. Accessing the internet is a necessaryservice which has large range of applications in many fields. The Internet is based on TCP/IPwhich is a very important stack. Although TCP/IP is very important there is not a softwareengineering model describing it. The common method in modeling and describing TCP/IP is RFCswhich is not sufficient for software engineer and developers. Therefore there is a need for softwareengineering approach to help engineers and developers to customize their own web basedapplications for embedded systems.This research presents a model based system engineering approach of lightweight TCP/IP. Themodel contains the necessary phases for developing a lightweight TCP/IP for embedded systems.The proposed model is based on SysML as a model based system engineering language.

  20. Omics Approaches for the Engineering of Pathogen Resistant Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Casati, Diego F; Pagani, María A; Busi, María V; Bhadauria, Vijai

    2016-01-01

    The attack of different pathogens, such as bacteria, fungi and viruses has a negative impact on crop production. In counter such attacks, plants have developed different strategies involving the modification of gene expression, activation of several metabolic pathways and post-translational modification of proteins, which culminate into the accumulation of primary and secondary metabolites implicated in plant defense responses. The recent advancement in omics techniques allows the increase coverage of plants transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes during pathogen attack, and the modulation of the response after the infection. Omics techniques also allow us to learn more about the biological cycle of the pathogens in addition to the identification of novel virulence factors in pathogens and their host targets. Both approaches become important to decipher the mechanism underlying pathogen attacks and to develop strategies for improving disease-resistant plants. In this review, we summarize some of the contribution of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and metallomics in devising the strategies to obtain plants with increased resistance to pathogens. These approaches constitute important research tools in the development of new technologies for the protection against diseases and increase plant production. PMID:26363625

  1. Engineering approach for medium modeling in piping dynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two approaches to the problem of dynamic interaction between pipe and medium are compared in the given paper: 1) The first one treats medium as mass rigidly connected to the pipe finite-element model's nodes. 2) In the second one medium is modeled by the finite-element system of rod-elements. In this case the basic fluid-structure interaction (FSI) effects are taken into account. The main techniques for FE modeling of some pipeline elements are presented in the paper. The second approach can be implemented by the use of general purpose FE programs. A model of a feed water pipeline of VVER-440 type NPP has been developed to study how the FSI affects on pipeline response. The results of the analysis which allow estimation of inaccuracy arising from medium dynamics neglecting are as follows: 1. calculation of Eigen frequency and mode shapes; 2. seismic analysis using the response-spectrum method; 3. accidental blast impact assessment with the use of time history analysis; 4. operating vibration assessment on the basis of harmonic analysis. It has become apparent that the way of medium modeling has an essential influence on the dynamic behavior of pipelines. (author)

  2. Chemically Defined Medium and Caenorhabditis elegans: A Powerful Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, N. J.; Kozak, E.; Conley, C. A.

    2003-01-01

    C. elegans has been established as a powerful genetic system. Growth in a chemically defined medium (C. elegans Maintenance Medium (CeMM)) now allows standardization and systematic manipulation of the nutrients that animals receive. Liquid cultivation allows automated culturing and experimentation and should be of me in large-scale growth and screening of animals. Here we present our initial results from developing culture systems with CeMM. We find that CeMM is versatile and culturing is simple. CeMM can be used in a solid or liquid state, it can be stored unused for at least a year, unattended actively growing cultures may be maintained longer than with standard techniques, and standard C. elegans protocols work well with animals grown in defined medium. We also find that there are caveats of using defined medium. Animals in defined medium grow more slowly than on standard medium, appear to display adaptation to the defined medium, and display altered growth rates as they change defined medium composition. As was suggested with the introduction of C. elegans as a potential genetic system, use of defined medium with C. elegans should prove a powerful tool.

  3. Tactical approach to maneuvering within the chemical contamination labyrinth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, T.W. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) recognized the need and accepts the responsibility for understanding the reality and mitigating the consequence of the complex chemical contamination legacy it inherited as well as controlling, reducing, and eliminating extant emissions and effluents. The key to maneuvering through this complicated and multifaceted labyrinth of concerns, from which a meaningful, high quality, and cost-effective restoration/mitigation machine is then set in motions, is the ability to perform accurate, factual, and explicit health and environmental/ecological risk assessments. Likewise, the common denominator for carrying out this essential task is to have access to comprehensive and reliable data of known quality with which to perform those analyses. DOE is committed to identifying the data universe; to technically scrutinize and ensure the quality of that data; to develop efficient and cost-effective means to maximize the handling, utilization, and sharing of that universe; and to undertake those assessments. DOE views this as an effort that can only be accomplished through a merging of the technical excellence that exists within federal and state agencies, academia, and industry. The task at hand is so large that only by integrating that intelligence base can we hope to accomplish the goals of establishing meaningful standards, developing functional and effective solutions, and providing quality guidance at a national scale.

  4. A Value-Based Business Approach to Product Line Software Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Raman K. Agrawalla

    2009-01-01

    The present conceptual paper is an attempt to provide a Value-Based Business Approach (VBBA) to product line software engineering. It argues that Product line software engineering should be seen as a system and considered as a means towards the end of appropriating more and more value for the business firm; contingent upon the fact that it provides value to customer and customer's customers operating its value creating system with agility, speed, economy and innovation; getting governed by th...

  5. A Model-Driven Engineering Approach for ROS using Ontological Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Zander, Stefan; Heppner, Georg; Neugschwandtner, Georg; Awad, Ramez; Essinger, Marc; Ahmed, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel ontology-driven software engineering approach for the development of industrial robotics control software. It introduces the ReApp architecture that synthesizes model-driven engineering with semantic technologies to facilitate the development and reuse of ROS-based components and applications. In ReApp, we show how different ontological classification systems for hardware, software, and capabilities help developers in discovering suitable software components for th...

  6. Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Formal Engineering Approaches to Software Components and Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Kofroň, Jana; Tumova, Jana; Buhnova, Bara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the FESCA workshop is to bring together junior researchers from formal methods, software engineering, and industry interested in the development and application of formal modelling approaches as well as associated analysis and reasoning techniques with practical benefits for software engineering. In recent years, the growing importance of functional correctness and the increased relevance of system quality properties (e.g. performance, reliability, security) have stimulated the eme...

  7. Influence of Underhood Flow on Engine Cooling Using 1-D And 3-D Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bolehovský Ondřej; Novotný Jan

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with numerical simulation of complete cooling system of internal combustion engine (GT-SUITE), which also involves the simulation of flow in underhood using the computationally undemanding simulation. A detailed model of the internal combustion engine is extended to a cooling circuit model which is then coupled to a simplified underhood model which is created with the help of GT-COOL application as a 3-D model and afterwards transferred to a 1-D form. The approaches, one using...

  8. Band gap engineering in polymers through chemical doping and applied mechanical strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzillo, Nicholas A; Breneman, Curt M

    2016-08-17

    We report simulations based on density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory exploring the band gaps of common crystalline polymers including polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene. Our reported band gaps of 8.6 eV for single-chain polyethylene and 9.1 eV for bulk crystalline polyethylene are in excellent agreement with experiment. The effects of chemical doping along the polymer backbone and side-groups are explored, and the use mechanical strain as a means to modify the band gaps of these polymers over a range of several eV while leaving the dielectric constant unchanged is discussed. This work highlights some of the opportunities available to engineer the electronic properties of polymers with wide-reaching implications for polymeric dielectric materials used for capacitive energy storage. PMID:27324304

  9. Production and Characterization of Chemically Inactivated Genetically Engineered Clostridium difficile Toxoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidunas, Eugene; Mathews, Antony; Weaver, Michele; Cai, Ping; Koh, Eun Hee; Patel-Brown, Sujata; Yuan, Hailey; Zheng, Zi-Rong; Carriere, Marjolaine; Johnson, J Erik; Lotvin, Jason; Moran, Justin

    2016-07-01

    A recombinant Clostridium difficile expression system was used to produce genetically engineered toxoids A and B as immunogens for a prophylactic vaccine against C. difficile-associated disease. Although all known enzymatic activities responsible for cytotoxicity were genetically abrogated, the toxoids exhibited residual cytotoxic activity as measured in an in vitro cell-based cytotoxicity assay. The residual cytotoxicity was eliminated by treating the toxoids with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide. Mass spectrometry and amino acid analysis of the EDC-inactivated toxoids identified crosslinks, glycine adducts, and β-alanine adducts. Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated that modifications resulting from the chemical treatment did not appreciably affect recognition of epitopes by both toxin A- and B-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. Compared to formaldehyde-inactivated toxoids, the EDC/N-hydroxysuccinimide-inactivated toxoids exhibited superior stability in solution with respect to reversion of cytotoxic activity. PMID:27233688

  10. Band gap engineering in polymers through chemical doping and applied mechanical strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzillo, Nicholas A.; Breneman, Curt M.

    2016-08-01

    We report simulations based on density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory exploring the band gaps of common crystalline polymers including polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene. Our reported band gaps of 8.6 eV for single-chain polyethylene and 9.1 eV for bulk crystalline polyethylene are in excellent agreement with experiment. The effects of chemical doping along the polymer backbone and side-groups are explored, and the use mechanical strain as a means to modify the band gaps of these polymers over a range of several eV while leaving the dielectric constant unchanged is discussed. This work highlights some of the opportunities available to engineer the electronic properties of polymers with wide-reaching implications for polymeric dielectric materials used for capacitive energy storage.

  11. Innovating in a 4th course of Chemical Engineering: A Bolognese Recipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara García Sastre

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze a case study conducted within a pilot innovation experience in an undergraduate course on Chemical Engineering. The study was developed during three years, 2005/06, 2006/07 y 2007/08, at the University of Valladolid (Spain. The main goal of this work is to show evidence to better understand the methodological changes promoted by the aforementioned pilot experience, as well as to reflect on whether or not this sort of innovations help to reach EHEA thorny demands. The methodological innovation carried out in the course was based on active learning methods, such as Project-based Learning, and the study of real cases from multiple perspectives and subjects.

  12. Biogas Production Modelling: A Control System Engineering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollenwerk, D.; Rieke, C.; Dahmen, M.; Pieper, M.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the Renewable Energy Act, in Germany it is planned to increase the amount of renewable energy carriers up to 60%. One of the main problems is the fluctuating supply of wind and solar energy. Here biogas plants provide a solution, because a demand-driven supply is possible. Before running such a plant, it is necessary to simulate and optimize the process feeding strategy. Current simulation models are either very detailed like the ADM 1, which leads to very long optimization runtimes or not accurate enough to handle the biogas production kinetics. Therefore this paper provides a new model of a biogas plant, which is easy to parametrize but also has the needed accuracy for the output prediction. It is based on the control system approach of system identification and validated with laboratory results of a real biogas production testing facility.

  13. Modeling Engineered Approaches to Enhance Denitrification under Rapid Infiltration Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, P. T.; Akhavan, M.; Finsterle, S.; Andres, S.

    2012-12-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems (RIBS) use the controlled application of treated wastewater to soil to remove wastewater constituents before recharging groundwater. Because wastewater from new wastewater treatment plants is often enriched in NO3, denitrification (DNF) is the most important process for nitrogen removal. Two key requirements for DNF in the subsurface are the absence of molecular oxygen and an adequate supply of carbon to serve as a substrate for heterotrophic bacteria. These requirements can be met by adjusting the wastewater application to maximize anaerobic conditions beneath the infiltration basin, and by incorporating a carbon source layer, where carbon is supplied to infiltrating wastewater by dissolution from a solid matrix, e.g., woodchips. To examine the interplay between alternative wastewater application approaches and the length and thickness of the carbon source layer on DNF, a series of simulations were conducted in two soil types using TOUGHREACT. Because RIBS are often overdesigned, basins may be only partially flooded such that overland flow within the basin controls the infiltration area. For this reason, TOUGHREACT was modified to include both overland and subsurface flow. Simulations with the coupled overland flow-vadose zone model predict uneven water distribution over the basins, a condition that significantly affects DNF. Smaller ratios of wetting to drying time, i.e., shorter but more intense flooding periods, result in greater water saturations, shorter residence times and lower oxygen concentrations in the vadose zone, ultimately resulting in greater DNF. While the addition of a carbon source layer at the bottom of the RIBS is essential for supplying needed carbon, flow bypassing around this carbon layer, which is typically of lower permeability than the surrounding soil, can be problematic. These simulations demonstrate the interplay between the selection of wastewater application approach and carbon source layer design on

  14. Controlling cyclic combustion timing variations using a symbol-statistics predictive approach in an HCCI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Misfire reduction in a combustion engine based on chaotic theory methods. ► Chaotic theory analysis of cyclic variation of a HCCI engine near misfire. ► Symbol sequence approach is used to predict ignition timing one cycle-ahead. ► Prediction is combined with feedback control to lower HCCI combustion variation. ► Feedback control extends the HCCI operating range into the misfire region. -- Abstract: Cyclic variation of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine near misfire is analyzed using chaotic theory methods and feedback control is used to stabilize high cyclic variations. Variation of consecutive cycles of θPmax (the crank angle of maximum cylinder pressure over an engine cycle) for a Primary Reference Fuel engine is analyzed near misfire operation for five test points with similar conditions but different octane numbers. The return map of the time series of θPmax at each combustion cycle reveals the deterministic and random portions of the dynamics near misfire for this HCCI engine. A symbol-statistic approach is used to predict θPmax one cycle-ahead. Predicted θPmax has similar dynamical behavior to the experimental measurements. Based on this cycle ahead prediction, and using fuel octane as the input, feedback control is used to stabilize the instability of θPmax variations at this engine condition near misfire.

  15. An Unified Approach to Limits on Power Generation and Power Consumption in Thermo-Electro-Chemical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Sieniutycz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a unified approach to power limits in power producing and power consuming systems, in particular those using renewable resources. As a benchmark system which generates or consumes power, a well-known standardized arrangement is considered, in which two different reservoirs are separated by an engine or a heat pump. Either of these units is located between a resource fluid (‘upper’ fluid 1 and the environmental fluid (‘lower’ fluid, 2. Power yield or power consumption is determined in terms of conductivities, reservoir temperatures and internal irreversibility coefficient, F. While bulk temperatures Ti of reservoirs’ are the only necessary state coordinates describing purely thermal units, in chemical (electrochemical engines, heat pumps or separators it is necessary to use both temperatures and chemical potentials mk. Methods of mathematical programming and dynamic optimization are applied to determine limits on power yield or power consumption in various energy systems, such as thermal engines, heat pumps, solar dryers, electrolysers, fuel cells, etc. Methodological similarities when treating power limits in engines, separators, and heat pumps are shown. Numerical approaches to multistage systems are based on methods of dynamic programming (DP or on Pontryagin’s maximum principle. The first method searches for properties of optimal work and is limited to systems with low dimensionality of state vector, whereas the second investigates properties of differential (canonical equations derived from the process Hamiltonian. A relatively unknown symmetry in behaviour of power producers (engines and power consumers is enunciated in this paper. An approximate evaluation shows that, at least ¼ of power dissipated in the natural transfer process must be added to a separator or a heat pump in order to assure a required process rate. Applications focus on drying systems which, by nature, require a large amount of thermal

  16. Segmentation Based Approach to Dynamic Page Construction from Search Engine Results

    CERN Document Server

    Kuppusamy, K S

    2012-01-01

    The results rendered by the search engines are mostly a linear snippet list. With the prolific increase in the dynamism of web pages there is a need for enhanced result lists from search engines in order to cope-up with the expectations of the users. This paper proposes a model for dynamic construction of a resultant page from various results fetched by the search engine, based on the web page segmentation approach. With the incorporation of personalization through user profile during the candidate segment selection, the enriched resultant page is constructed. The benefits of this approach include instant, one-shot navigation to relevant portions from various result items, in contrast to a linear page-by-page visit approach. The experiments conducted on the prototype model with various levels of users, quantifies the improvements in terms of amount of relevant information fetched.

  17. Space environment utilization and chemical engineering; Uchu kankyo riyo to kagaku kogaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaishi, N.; Shiraishi, F. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] Suzuki, M. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1997-10-05

    Construction of a giant international space station on an orbit of 460 km distant from the earth will be begun since 1998, JEM (Japanese Experimental Module) will also be launched on 2001, and various experiments using the space environment under a condition of staying 2 to 4 members in the JEM will be planned after the end of that year. Characteristics of the space environment are microgravity, super high vacuum at surrounding apace, superior vision and so forth. In order to utilize the space environment different from the earth environment, it is necessary to consider extremely many things. The chemical engineers who have conducted a lot of complex systems on the earth hitherto shares some large roles in the fields of planning and executing scientific and engineering researches conducted in JEM, utilization of lunar surface and space for materials and energy production base in future, and so forth. In this paper, the Closed Ecological Life Support system (CELSS) essential to specific phenomena and long-term manned space flight under microgravity environment were introduced. 29 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Emerging nanotechnology approaches in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim ES

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Eung-Sam Kim,1,2 Eun Hyun Ahn,3,4 Tal Dvir,5,6 Deok-Ho Kim1,4,71Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Department of Biological Sciences, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea; 3Department of Pathology, 4Institute of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 5Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, 6Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; 7Center for Cardiovascular Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAThe history of human kind suggests that there has been a correlation between global population growth and major events in science and technology over the last three centuries. Sharp increases in the world’s population have been triggered by the industrial revolution and scientific and technological breakthroughs including: the advent of the railways, discovery of penicillin and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA, and the invention of the computer.1 Since the 20th century, interdisciplinary areas in the physical and biological sciences have accelerated the progress of biomedical applications. The recent integration of emerging nanotechnology into biology and biomedicine has resulted in a range of innovative nanoengineering efforts for the repair and regeneration of tissues and organs.2 Thus, it is expected that nanoengineering approaches to biomedical applications can contribute to addressing the present issue of personal and global health care and its economic burden for more than 7 billion people.Why are we paying attention to nanoengineering for biomedical applications? The size of most biomolecules ranges from 0.2 nm to 200 nm (Figure 1. Research has focused on control of the interaction and localization of biomolecules even at the single-molecule level using ever-evolving nanotechnology.3 The evidence indicates that cells can respond to nanoscale changes in the dynamic

  19. An approach for IC engine coolant energy recovery based on low-temperature organic Rankine cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付建勤; 刘敬平; 徐政欣; 邓帮林; 刘琦

    2015-01-01

    To promote the fuel utilization efficiency of IC engine, an approach was proposed for IC engine coolant energy recovery based on low-temperature organic Rankine cycle (ORC). The ORC system uses IC engine coolant as heat source, and it is coupled to the IC engine cooling system. After various kinds of organic working media were compared, R124 was selected as the ORC working medium. According to IC engine operating conditions and coolant energy characteristics, the major parameters of ORC system were preliminary designed. Then, the effects of various parameters on cycle performance and recovery potential of coolant energy were analyzed via cycle process calculation. The results indicate that cycle efficiency is mainly influenced by the working pressure of ORC, while the maximum working pressure is limited by IC engine coolant temperature. At the same working pressure, cycle efficiency is hardly affected by both the mass flow rate and temperature of working medium. When the bottom cycle working pressure arrives at the maximum allowable value of 1.6 MPa, the fuel utilization efficiency of IC engine could be improved by 12.1%. All these demonstrate that this low-temperature ORC is a useful energy-saving technology for IC engine.

  20. An Iterative and Incremental Approach for E-Learning Ontology Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudath Rohitha Heiyanthuduwage

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - There is a boost in the interest on ontology with the developments in Semantic Web technologies. Ontologies play a vital role in semantic web. Even though there is lot of work done on ontology, still a standard framework for ontology engineering has not been defined. Even though current ontology engineering methodologies are available they need improvements. The effort of our work is to integrate various methods, techniques, tools and etc to different stages of proposed ontology engineering life cycle to create a comprehensive framework for ontology engineering. Current methodologies discuss ontology engineering stages and collaborative environments with user collaboration. However, discussion on increasing effectiveness and correct inference has been given less attention. More over, these methodologies provide little discussion on usability of domain ontologies. We consider these aspects as more important in our work. Also, ontology engineering has been done for various domains and for various purposes. Our effort is to propose an iterative and incremental approach for ontology engineering especially for e-learning domain with the intention of achieving a higher usability and effectiveness of e-learning systems. This paper introduces different aspects of the proposed ontology engineering framework and evaluation of it.