WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical disposal superfund

  1. Blasting at a Superfund chemical waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the summer of 1989, Maine Drilling and Blasting of Gardiner, Maine was contracted by Cayer Corporation of Harvard, Massachusetts to drill and blast an interceptor trench at the Nyanza Chemical Superfund Site in Ashland, Massachusetts. The interceptor trench was to be 1,365 feet long and to be blasted out of granite. The trench was to be 12 feet wide at the bottom with 1/1 slopes, the deepest cut being 30 feet deep. A French drain 12 feet wide by 15 to 35 feet deep was blasted below the main trench on a 2% slope from its center to each end. A French drain is an excavation where the rock is blasted but not dug. The trench would be used as a perimeter road with any ground water flow going through the French drain flowing to both ends of the trench. Being a Superfund project turned a simple blasting project into a regulatory nightmare. The US Environmental Protection Agency performed all the chemical related functions on site. The US Army Corps of Engineers was overseeing all related excavation and construction on site, as was the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Quality Engineering, the local Hazardous Wastes Council, and the local Fire Department. All parties had some input with the blasting and all issues had to be addressed. The paper outlines the project, how it was designed and completed. Also included is an outline of the blast plan to be submitted for approval, an outline of the Safety/Hazardous Waste training and a description of all the problems which arose during the project by various regulatory agencies

  2. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Superfund at work: Hazardous waste cleanup efforts nationwide, spring 1993 (Radium Chemical Site profile, Queens, New York)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radium Chemical hazardous waste site in Queens, New York was contaminated with radium, posing a grave potential threat to the community. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) used the Superfund program to design a long-term cleanup for the site using input from citizens and the business community. Superfund staff: Mobilized a quick cleanup action to remove 10,000 small containers of radium; Developed a streamlined approach to long-term cleanup; Secured the site to reduce the possibility of radiation exposure to the local residents; Cooperated with the community to design a well-organized emergency response plan; and Educated local citizens about site hazards, incorporating community concerns into the cleanup process. The Radium Chemical site is a clear example of EPA's effective management and problem-solving strategies at Superfund sites

  4. Superfund TIO videos: Set C. Land disposal restrictions. Part 3. Audio-Visual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The videotape discusses the fundamental requirements of the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDRs) under RCRA, methods for determining whether LDRs are applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements for a CERCLA response, and LDR compliance options

  5. Chemical dechlorination of pesticides at a superfund site in Region II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selecting technologies for cleaning up hazardous waste sites is a complex task, due in part to the rapidly changing nature of the state-of-the-art in technology. There is strong support for use of innovative technologies as specified in Section 121(b) of CERCLA. However, use of an innovative technology requires overcoming a variety of challenges. These challenges include: Screening potentially appropriate technologies, including innovative technologies, and selecting one or more potential innovative technologies for which preliminary results are promising; however, site-specific data are needed prior to technology evaluation. Evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed technology for the site through the use of treatability studies. Gaining acceptance for the innovative technology, which may employ new or unfamiliar concepts. Determining optimal design and operating parameters for full-scale remediation. This paper discusses the technology evaluation process and how that process supported the selection of an innovative technology for the Myers Property site, a Superfund site in Region II. A case study is presented showing how technology screening and laboratory treatability studies were used to evaluate an innovative technology (chemical dechlorination), which was selected as the technology for remediation of soils and sediments contaminated with pesticides at this environmentally sensitive site in New Jersey. The remedy selected by the U.S. EPA for this site designates chemical dechlorination as the selected technology, but does not specify any particular vendor or process. Rather, the remedy sets forth technology performance standards and recommends certain design tasks which may be used to select a particular chemical process. This paper discusses he of these design tasks as they might apply to innovative technologies, using chemical dechlorination as a model

  6. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): Monsanto Chemical Co. (Soda Springs), Soda Springs, ID, April 30, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monsanto Chemical Company Superfund Site is located in Caribou County, Idaho, approximately one mile north of the City of Soda Springs. After screening using conservative human health and ecological screening values, the contaminants of potential concern in soils and on-Plant source piles include, radionuclides (radium-226, lead-210, and uranium-238) and chemicals (arsenic, beryllium, selenium and zinc). The groundwater contaminants of potential concern include those substances detected at concentrations above primary MCLs, i.e., cadmium, fluoride, nitrate, and selenium, and manganese, which is present above a secondary MCL

  7. Superfund Query

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Superfund Query allows users to retrieve data from the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) database.

  8. Chemical Agents: Personal Cleaning and Disposal of Contaminated Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Emergency Response Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations Chemical Agents: Facts About Personal Cleaning and Disposal of ... Filipino) 中文 (Chinese) Français (French) Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks may cause you to come ...

  9. Health Aspects of the Disposal of Waste Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Joe W., Ed.

    Intended to be a source of information on the nature and significance of health effects related to chemical disposal, this document is the final report of the Executive Scientific Panel on Health Aspects of the Disposal of Waste Chemicals. The panel, which was organized by the Universities Associated for Research and Education in Pathology…

  10. Chemical reagent and process for refuse disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for treating refuse by mixing them with a reactive chemical and a puzzolana-type material. Said chemical includes a retarding agent which modifies the viscosity and an accelerating agent. (author)

  11. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program rapid accident assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, C.V.

    1990-08-01

    This report develops a scheme for the rapid assessment of a release of toxic chemicals resulting from an accident in one of the most chemical weapon demilitarization plants or storage areas. The system uses such inputs as chemical and pressure sensors monitoring the plant and reports of accidents radioed to the Emergency Operations Center by work parties or monitoring personnel. A size of release can be estimated from previous calculations done in the risk analysis, from back calculation from an open-air chemical sensor measurement, or from an estimated percentage of the inventory of agent at the location of the release. Potential consequences of the estimated release are calculated from real-time meteorological data, surrounding population data, and properties of the agent. In addition to the estimated casualties, area coverage and no-death contours vs time would be calculated. Accidents are assigned to one of four categories: community emergencies, which are involve a threat to off-site personnel; on-post emergencies, which involve a threat only to on-site personnel; advisory, which involves a potential for threat to on-site personnel; and chemical occurrence, which can produce an abnormal operating condition for the plant but no immediate threat to on-site personnel. 9 refs., 20 tabs.

  12. Pilot demonstration for containment using in situ soil mixing techniques at a chemical disposal superfund site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarlinski, S.J.; Kingham, N.W.; Semenak, R. [Kiber Environmental Services, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Kiber Environmental Services, Inc. (Kiber), under contract to McLaren-Hart Corporation and the site PRP group, performed technical oversight and on-site sampling and analyses at the confidential site located in Texas. The site consists of 15,000 cubic meters (20,000 cubic yards) of contaminated materials that were to be solidified on-site. The contaminants included heavy metals, PAHs, oil and grease, and volatile organics. Groundwater is less than 1 meter from the surface. Kiber was retained after several unsuccessful efforts to find on-site containment methods that effectively solidified the waste pits while achieving the performance goals. The PRP group then contracted with Kiber to perform the treatability and pilot oversight studies. The full-scale pilot demonstration was performed by Geo-Con. Pilot-scale treatment was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of in situ solidification treatment at achieving the site specific performance criteria, including an unconfined compressive strength of greater than 170 kPa (25 psi) and a permeability of less than 1x10{sup -6} cm/sec. Technical oversight and on-site sampling and analysis were provided to evaluate pilot-scale application of the selected technology and verify treatment effectiveness. The project was divided into several subtasks. First, laboratory treatability testing was conducted to verify that performance specifications were achievable using the proposed reagent formulations. Next, a pilot demonstration was performed by Geo-Con using a Manotowoc 4000 crane equipped with a 1.5-meter diameter auger to evaluate shallow soil mixing. The final task included a comparative study between the performance of test specimens collected using wet sampling techniques versus in situ post-treatment coring.

  13. Pilot demonstration for containment using in situ soil mixing techniques at a chemical disposal superfund site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiber Environmental Services, Inc. (Kiber), under contract to McLaren-Hart Corporation and the site PRP group, performed technical oversight and on-site sampling and analyses at the confidential site located in Texas. The site consists of 15,000 cubic meters (20,000 cubic yards) of contaminated materials that were to be solidified on-site. The contaminants included heavy metals, PAHs, oil and grease, and volatile organics. Groundwater is less than 1 meter from the surface. Kiber was retained after several unsuccessful efforts to find on-site containment methods that effectively solidified the waste pits while achieving the performance goals. The PRP group then contracted with Kiber to perform the treatability and pilot oversight studies. The full-scale pilot demonstration was performed by Geo-Con. Pilot-scale treatment was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of in situ solidification treatment at achieving the site specific performance criteria, including an unconfined compressive strength of greater than 170 kPa (25 psi) and a permeability of less than 1x10-6 cm/sec. Technical oversight and on-site sampling and analysis were provided to evaluate pilot-scale application of the selected technology and verify treatment effectiveness. The project was divided into several subtasks. First, laboratory treatability testing was conducted to verify that performance specifications were achievable using the proposed reagent formulations. Next, a pilot demonstration was performed by Geo-Con using a Manotowoc 4000 crane equipped with a 1.5-meter diameter auger to evaluate shallow soil mixing. The final task included a comparative study between the performance of test specimens collected using wet sampling techniques versus in situ post-treatment coring

  14. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Resin Disposal, Jefferson Borough, Allegheny County, PA. (First remedial action), June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 26-acre Resin Disposal site is an inactive industrial landfill and former coal strip mining area in Jefferson Borough, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The site overlies a bedrock aquifer, a source of non-potable ground water. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses source control, as well as preventing migration of contaminated ground water in the Pittsburgh Coal Formation. The primary contaminants of concern affecting soil, debris, and ground water are VOCs including benzene, toluene, and xylenes; and other organics including napthalene, PAHs and phenols. The selected remedial action for the site includes capping the landfill with a multi-layer cap, and upgrading the landfill dike; relocating a sanitary sewer; installing a new oil/water separator for leachate treatment, and implementing institutional controls, including deed restrictions. The estimated present worth cost for this remedial action is $4,348,000

  15. Chemical pretreatment of Savannah River Site nuclear waste for disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes two processes, Extended Sludge Processing and In-Tank Precipitation, which have been developed and demonstrated at full-scale to pretreat the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste for permanent disposal. These processes will be carried out in waste storage tanks which have been modified for chemical processing. These processes will concentrate the radioactivity into a small volume for vitrification. The bulk of the waste will be sufficiently decontaminated such that it can be disposed of as a low-level waste. The decontaminated waste will be incorporated into a cement wasteform in the Saltstone Facility

  16. Assessment of Soil Solution Chemicals after Tannery Effluents Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia A.   Surita

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about soil solution chemicals is important for assessing their mobility, availability, migration to groundwater and toxicity to plants. The objective of this study was to apply factor analysis to data obtained on soil solution chemicals during a one-year monitoring program in a controlled experiment with tannery effluents disposed on the soil surface, to extract information on their relationship and identify the main contaminants. Seventeen chemical parameters were monitored at six different depths on soil profile, focusing on metals and nitrate in soil solution. Four Factors accounted for 79.20% of the total variance, of which the most important were: Factor 1 (48.35% showed significant loadings for Mn2+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, Pb2+ and electric conductivity, strongly influenced by high load effluent disposal; Factor 2 (12.21% was related with SO42+, Factor 3 (10.16% associated with Cu2+ and Zn2+ and Factor 4 (8.49% associated with nitrogen mineralization dynamics after high disposal.

  17. Manufacturing waste disposal practices of the chemical propulsion industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Benjamin E.; Adams, Daniel E.; Schutzenhofer, Scott A.

    1995-01-01

    The waste production, mitigation and disposal practices of the United States chemical propulsion industry have been investigated, delineated, and comparatively assessed to the U.S. industrial base. Special emphasis has been placed on examination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's). The research examines present and anticipated future practices and problems encountered in the manufacture of solid and liquid propulsion systems. Information collected includes current environmental laws and regulations that guide the industry practices, processes in which ODC's are or have been used, quantities of waste produced, funding required to maintain environmentally compliant practices, and preventive efforts.

  18. Voluntary cleanup of the Ames chemical disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy completed a voluntary removal action at the Ames chemical disposal site, a site associated with the early days of the Manhattan Project. It contained chemical and low-level radioactive wastes from development of the technology to extract uranium from uranium oxide. The process included the preparation of a Remedial Investigation, Feasibility Study, Baseline Risk Assessment, and, ultimately, issuance of a Record of Decision. Various stakeholder groups were involved, including members of the regulatory community, the general public, and the landowner, Iowa State University. The site was restored and returned to the landowner for unrestricted use.

  19. Superfund TIO videos. Set B. Superfund: Overview of superfund response agreements. Part 10. Audio-Visual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The videotape describes response agreements and their role in the Superfund program. The difference between Cooperative Agreements (CAs) and Superfund State Contracts (SSCs) are explained, as well as the intent of Superfund state assurance required for Superfund response actions

  20. CERCLA/superfund orientation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manual serves as a program orientation guide and reference document, and it is designed to assist EPA and State personnel involved with hazardous waste remediation, emergency response, and chemical and emergency preparedness. The Manual describes the organizational and operational components of the Superfund Program

  1. Superfund (CERCLIS) Widget

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Superfund Widget allows users to enter a specific location and retrieve hazardous waste sites addressed by the Superfund program within the area of interest

  2. Intelligent robotic control for remote chemical munitions disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of an intelligent robotic control system for material handling operations in a chemical munitions disposal process is described. Fundamental to the design is the maximal reliance on a relatively powerful supervisory minicomputer for implementation of control functions. This strategy allows rapid development of intelligent, computationally demanding control software capable of handling normal operation sequences and analyzing and correcting off-normal or error situations. Additionally, process integration and coordination problems are greatly simplified by providing centralized minicomputer access to all process sensory inputs and control devices

  3. Views on chemical safety information and influences on chemical disposal behaviour in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined how groups representing four tiers in the chemical supply chain (manufacturers, vendors, workers and consumers) understood safety information, and the factors that influenced disposal behaviour. Data from seven, semi-structured, focus groups was analysed both qualitatively (textual analysis) and quantitatively (network analysis). Such combined analytical methods enabled us to achieve both detailed insights into perceptions and behaviour and an objective understanding of the prevailing opinions that occurred within and between the focus group discussions. We found issues around awareness, trust, access and disposal behaviours differed between groups within the supply chain. Participants from the lower tiers perceived chemical safety information to be largely inaccessible. Labels were the main source of information on chemical risks for the middle and bottom tiers of the supply chain. Almost all of the participants were aware of the St Andrew's Cross and skull and crossbones symbols but few were familiar with the Volatile Organic Compound logo or the fish and tree symbol. Both the network and thematic analysis demonstrated that whilst frequent references to health risks associated with chemicals were made environmental risks were usually only articulated after prompting. It is clear that the issues surrounding public understanding of chemical safety labels are highly complex and this is compounded by inconsistencies in the cognitive profiles of chemical users. Substantially different cognitive profiles are likely to contribute towards communication difficulties between different tiers of the supply chain. Further research is needed to examine the most effective ways of communicating chemical hazards information to the public. The findings demonstrate a need to improve and simplify disposal guidance to members of the public, to raise public awareness of the graphic symbols in the CHIP 3.1, 2005 regulations and to improve access to disposal guidance

  4. Views on chemical safety information and influences on chemical disposal behaviour in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinks, J. [Enviresearch Ltd., Nanotechnology Centre, Herschel Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Bush, J. [Institute for Health and Society, Newcastle University, William Leech Building, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Judith.bush@ncl.ac.uk; Andras, P. [School of Computing Science, Newcastle University, Claremont Tower, Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Garratt, J. [Institute for Health and Society, Newcastle University, William Leech Building, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Pigott, G. [NuFarm UK, Wyke, Bradford, West Yorkshire, BD12 9EJ (United Kingdom); Kennedy, A. [Enviresearch Ltd., Nanotechnology Centre, Herschel Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Pless-Mulloli, T. [Institute for Health and Society, Newcastle University, William Leech Building, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    This study examined how groups representing four tiers in the chemical supply chain (manufacturers, vendors, workers and consumers) understood safety information, and the factors that influenced disposal behaviour. Data from seven, semi-structured, focus groups was analysed both qualitatively (textual analysis) and quantitatively (network analysis). Such combined analytical methods enabled us to achieve both detailed insights into perceptions and behaviour and an objective understanding of the prevailing opinions that occurred within and between the focus group discussions. We found issues around awareness, trust, access and disposal behaviours differed between groups within the supply chain. Participants from the lower tiers perceived chemical safety information to be largely inaccessible. Labels were the main source of information on chemical risks for the middle and bottom tiers of the supply chain. Almost all of the participants were aware of the St Andrew's Cross and skull and crossbones symbols but few were familiar with the Volatile Organic Compound logo or the fish and tree symbol. Both the network and thematic analysis demonstrated that whilst frequent references to health risks associated with chemicals were made environmental risks were usually only articulated after prompting. It is clear that the issues surrounding public understanding of chemical safety labels are highly complex and this is compounded by inconsistencies in the cognitive profiles of chemical users. Substantially different cognitive profiles are likely to contribute towards communication difficulties between different tiers of the supply chain. Further research is needed to examine the most effective ways of communicating chemical hazards information to the public. The findings demonstrate a need to improve and simplify disposal guidance to members of the public, to raise public awareness of the graphic symbols in the CHIP 3.1, 2005 regulations and to improve access to disposal

  5. Challenges to Superfund Community Nutrition Programs in Kentucky

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetke, Lisa; Gaetke, Kara; Bowen, Christa

    2008-01-01

    Since 2000, the University of Kentucky's (UK's) Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP) Community Outreach Core has provided support and guidance through Superfund Community Action through Nutrition (SCAN) programs, which meet the needs of individuals and communities affected by environmental contaminants. It has been shown that nutrition may modulate the toxicity of Superfund chemicals. SCAN programs integrate nutrition education, nutrition science research, and health communication to incre...

  6. Groundwater hydrology study of the Ames Chemical Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ames Laboratory Chemical Disposal Site is located in northwestern Ames, Iowa west of Squaw Creek. From 1957 to 1966, Ames Laboratory conducted research to develop processes to separate uranium and thorium from nuclear power fuel and to separate yttrium from neutron shielding sources. The wastes from these processes, which contained both hazardous and radiological components, were placed into nine burial pits. Metal drums, plywood boxes, and steel pails were used to store the wastes. Uranium was also burned on the ground surface of the site. Monitoring wells were placed around the waste burial pits. Groundwater testing in 1993 revealed elevated levels of Uranium 234, Uranium 238, beta and alpha radiation. The north side of the burial pit had elevated levels of volatile organic compounds. Samples in the East Ravine showed no volatile organics; however, they did contain elevated levels of radionuclides. These analytical results seem to indicate that the groundwater from the burial pit is flowing down hill and causing contamination in the East Ravine. Although there are many avenues for the contamination to spread, the focus of this project is to understand the hydrogeology of the East Ravine and to determine the path of groundwater flow down the East Ravine. The groundwater flow data along with other existing information will be used to assess the threat of chemical migration down the East Ravine and eventually off-site. The primary objectives of the project were as follows: define the geology of the East Ravine; conduct slug tests to determine the hydraulic conductivity of both oxidized and unoxidized till; develop a three-dimensional mathematical model using ModIME and MODFLOW to simulate groundwater flow in the East Ravine

  7. Roadmaps to sources of information on chemicals listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-To-Know Act also known as SARA (Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act) Title III, Section 313. Toxic Release Inventory (for microcomputers). Data file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitzke, J.; Edelstein, M.

    1989-07-14

    EPA has developed a database of sources of information on the chemicals listed in Section 313 of the Emergency Preparedness Community Right-To-Know Act, Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. The database is intended to assist users of Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory data to perform exposure and risk assessments of these chemicals. The Roadmaps system displays and/or prints out information for the Section 313 chemicals on health and environmental effects, Federal Regulation, and state air and water regulations, monitoring data, and state contacts.

  8. Superfund Technical Assistance Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes data related to the Superfund Technical Assistance Grant program, including grant number, award amounts, award dates, period of performance,...

  9. Superfund Site Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes a number of individual data sets related to site-specific information for Superfund, which is governed under the Comprehensive Environmental...

  10. Chemical analyses of dredged spoil disposal sites at the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Bavo; Ruttens, Ann; Ampe, Bart; Waegeneers, Nadia; Gauquie, Johanna; Devriese, Lisa; Cooreman, Kris; Parmentier, Koen

    2016-08-01

    The chemical status of five dredged spoil disposal sites in the Belgian Part of the North Sea is evaluated. A linear mixed-effect model was applied to PCB, PAH and heavy metal data from 2005 to 2014. No decrease in PCB concentrations was found, with even an increase at two disposal sites. Hg/AL ratios increased with 62% at one disposal site (BR&WS2) from 2005 to 2006 to 2013-2014. Cu and Zn concentrations increased at two disposal sites. Additional harbour sampling suggests that the latter is possibly linked to antifouling paints. Based on OSPAR environmental assessment criteria, the current chemical status of the sites suggests no chronic effect of dredged spoil disposal. However, increasing time trend data for PCB, Hg, Cu and Zn demonstrate the importance of monitoring to identify adverse trends. PMID:27176939

  11. JOHNSTON ATOLL CHEMICAL AGENT DISPOSAL SYSTEM (JACADS) CLOSURE PLAN DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The JACADS project consists of four incinerators including a liquid chemical agent waste processor, an explosives treatment incinerator and a batch metal parts treatment unit. Its mission was to disassemble and destroy chemcial weapons and bulk chemical agent. This prototypical...

  12. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Radium Chemical Company site, Woodside, Queens County, New York (first remedial action), Final report, June 21, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radium Chemical site consists of a one-story brick building in a light industrial/residential section in Woodside, Queens County, New York. The Radium Chemical Company (RCC) produced luminous paint beginning in 1913 and later manufactured, leased, and sold radium-226 to hospitals, medical centers and research laboratories. RCC abandoned the building without complying leaving a large number of radium-containing sealed devices, some of which were suspected of releasing radium and radon gas. Also onsite were hundreds of containers of laboratory chemicals. In 1989, a Public Health Advisory was issued for the site based on the threatened release of radium-226. The selected remedial action for the site includes partial decontamination and complete dismantling of the contaminated building, followed by offsite disposal of debris as appropriate based on a contamination level; excavation and offsite disposal of contaminated soil and subsurface piping, followed by replacement of piping and backfilling with clean soil; and treatment of some radium-contaminated hazardous waste, followed by offsite disposal of treated and untreated radium-contaminated hazardous wastes in approved facilities

  13. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Miller, R.L.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Johnson, R.O.; Tolbert, V.R.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Rickert, L.W.; Rogers, G.O.; Staub, W.P.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this Phase I report is to examined the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) in light of more detailed and more recent data than those included in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EPEIS). Two principal issues are addressed: (1) whether or not the new data would result in identification of on-site disposal at ANAD as the environmentally preferred alternative (using the same selection method and data analysis tools as in the FPEIS), and (2) whether or not the new data indicate the presence of significant environmental resources that could be affected by on-site disposal at ANAD. In addition, a status report is presented on the maturity of the disposal technology (and now it could affect on-site disposal at ANAD). Inclusion of these more recent data into the FPEIS decision method resulted in confirmation of on-site disposal for ANAD. No unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD have been identified. A review of the technology status identified four principal technology developments that have occurred since publication of the FPEIS and should be of value in the implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD: the disposal of nonlethal agent at Pine Bluff Arsenal, located near Pine Bluff, Arkansas; construction and testing of facilities for disposal of stored lethal agent at Johnston Atoll, located about 1300 km (800 miles) southwest of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean; lethal agent disposal tests at the chemical agent pilot plant operations at Tooele Army Depot, located near Salt Lake City, Utah; and equipment advances. 18 references, 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  15. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  16. Chemical hazard evaluation of material disposal area (MDA) B closure project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laul, Jagdish C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-04-19

    TA-21, MDA-B (NES) is the 'contaminated dump,' landfill with radionuclides and chemicals from process waste disposed in 1940s. This paper focuses on chemical hazard categorization and hazard evaluation of chemicals of concern (e.g., peroxide, beryllium). About 170 chemicals were disposed in the landfill. Chemicals included products, unused and residual chemicals, spent, waste chemicals, non-flammable oils, mineral oil, etc. MDA-B was considered a High hazard site. However, based on historical records and best engineering judgment, the chemical contents are probably at best 5% of the chemical inventory. Many chemicals probably have oxidized, degraded or evaporated for volatile elements due to some fire and limited shelf-life over 60 yrs, which made it possible to downgrade from High to Low chemical hazard site. Knowing the site history and physical and chemical properties are very important in characterizing a NES site. Public site boundary is only 20 m, which is a major concern. Chemicals of concern during remediation are peroxide that can cause potential explosion and beryllium exposure due to chronic beryllium disease (CBD). These can be prevented or mitigated using engineering control (EC) and safety management program (SMP) to protect the involved workers and public.

  17. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Agrico Chemical, Escambia County, Pensacola, FL. (First remedial action), September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-29

    The 35-acre Agrico Chemical site is a former fertilizer manufacturing facility located in Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida. In 1920, the production of superphosphate fertilizer began. The source rock used in the process was fluorapatite, which also contained silica and trace levels of aluminum and uranium. The ROD addresses a final remedy for contaminated soil and sludge at the site as OU1 to prevent current or future exposure. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and sludge are VOCs; other organics including PAHs and pesticide residues; metals, including arsenic and lead; and radioactive materials.

  18. The value of superfund cleanups : evidence from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Shreekant; Van Houtven, George; Cropper, Maureen L.; DEC

    1994-01-01

    Under the Superfund law, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for inspecting hazardous waste sites and for putting those with the most serious contamination problems on a national priorities list. The EPA then oversees the cleanup of these sites, suing potentially responsible parties for the costs of cleanup when possible, and funding the cleanup of"orphaned"sites out of the Superfund, money raised taxing chemical and petroleum products. The Superfund program is contr...

  19. Restoration principles and criteria: superfund program policy for cleanup at radiation contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) is responsible for implementing the long-term (non-emergency) portion of a key U.S. law regulating cleanup: the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, CERCLA, nicknamed 'Superfund'. The purpose of the Superfund program is to protect human health and the environment over the long term from releases or potential releases of hazardous substances from abandoned or uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The focus of this paper is on Superfund, including how radiation is addressed by the Superfund program. This paper provides a brief overview of the approach used by EPA to conduct Superfund cleanups at contaminated sites, including those that are contaminated with radionuclides, to ensure protection of human health and the environment. The paper addresses how EPA Superfund determines if a site poses a risk to human health and the framework used to determine cleanup levels. The theme emphasized throughout the paper is that within the Superfund remediation framework, radioactive contamination is dealt with in a consistent manner as with chemical contamination, except to account for the technical differences between radionuclides and chemicals. This consistency is important since at every radioactively contaminated site being addressed under Superfund's primary program for long-term cleanup, the National Priorities List (NPL), chemical contamination is also present. (author)

  20. Disposable chemical sensors and biosensors made on cellulose paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most sensors are based on ceramic or semiconducting substrates, which have no flexibility or biocompatibility. Polymer-based sensors have been the subject of much attention due to their ability to collect molecules on their sensing surface with flexibility. Beyond polymer-based sensors, the recent discovery of cellulose as a smart material paved the way to the use of cellulose paper as a potential candidate for mechanical as well as electronic applications such as actuators and sensors. Several different paper-based sensors have been investigated and suggested. In this paper, we review the potential of cellulose materials for paper-based application devices, and suggest their feasibility for chemical and biosensor applications. (topical review)

  1. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access Database contains a selected set of...

  2. Time-lapse camera studies of sea-disposed chemical munitions in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Margo H.; Fornari, Daniel J.; Rognstad, Mark R.; Kelley, Christopher D.; Mah, Christopher L.; Davis, Logan K.; Flores, Kyle R. M.; Main, Erin L.; Bruso, Natalie L.

    2016-06-01

    The interactions between fauna and sea-disposed munitions provide important evidence regarding whether munitions constituents affect the health of the ocean environment and its inhabitants. To date few studies of these interactions have been conducted at deep-water disposal sites; typically observations of fauna in the vicinity of sea-disposed munitions are limited to the few minutes or hours required to collect physical samples at a specific location. During the 2012 Hawaii Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) field program we deployed two deep-sea time-lapse camera systems with the objectives of cataloging the diversity of fauna visiting sea-disposed chemical munitions and observing faunal behavior and physiology. Over the 1- and 3-day deployments we recorded 28 different species of fishes, crustaceans, mollusks, cnidarians, and echinoderms at the two sites. Both cameras captured the previously undocumented behavior of brisingid sea stars repositioning themselves along chemical munitions casings. Despite the fact that brisingid sea stars are able to move, for the duration of both time-lapse experiments they remained on chemical munitions casings. We interpret this result to indicate that the advantages of residing on a hard substrate slightly elevated above the seafloor outweigh the effects of chemical munitions constituents for brisingid sea stars. One type of physiological anomaly observed on several arms of the brisingid sea stars at the time-lapse sites led to the collection and examination of six specimens. As reported by Mah (2015. Deep Sea Res. II, 2015, XX-XX), these physiological features are the result of parasitic crustaceans and are not caused by chemical munitions constituents.

  3. Chemical modelling studies in support of radiological risk assessments of radioactive waste disposal 1984-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the testing of computer programs identified as being capable of modelling chemical processes in radioactive waste disposal systems. The functions, limitations and data requirements of the programs assembled at UWIST are discussed and the organisation of an extensive thermodynamic database compiled to support the codes described. The role of chemical models in DoE probabilistic radiological assessment (PRA) methodology, is outlined. Their potential for radiological assessment purposes has been addressed through a series of case studies on existing and potential low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Results to date suggest them to be capable of fulfilling their intended role within the constraints of model assumptions. A number of collaborative projects designed to verify, validate and improve the models have been established. (author)

  4. Disposal of defense spent fuel and HLW from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) resulting from fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been solidified to a calcine since 1963 and stored in stainless steel bins enclosed by concrete vaults. Several different types of unprocessed irradiated DOE-owned fuels are also in storage ate the ICPP. In April, 1992, DOE announced that spent fuel would no longer be reprocessed to recover enriched uranium and called for a shutdown of the reprocessing facilities at the ICPP. A new Spent Fuel and HLW Technology Development program was subsequently initiated to develop technologies for immobilizing ICPP spent fuels and HLW for disposal, in accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The Program elements include Systems Analysis, Graphite Fuel Disposal, Other Spent Fuel Disposal, Sodium-Bearing Liquid Waste Processing, Calcine Immobilization, and Metal Recycle/Waste Minimization. This paper presents an overview of the ICPP radioactive wastes and current spent fuels, with an emphasis on the description of HLW and spent fuels requiring repository disposal

  5. Issues in Financing the Superfund

    OpenAIRE

    Brazell, David W.; Gerardi, Geraldine

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of Superfund financing sources and litigation costs, and review of design issues related to an insurer fee that would pay for proposed litigation reform. Benefits-received, ability-to-pay, and economic efficiency evaluations are included.

  6. Revisions to US EPA Superfund Risk and Dose Assessment Models and Guidance - 13403

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund program's six Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) and Dose Compliance Concentration (DCC) internet based calculators for risk and dose assessment at Superfund sites are being revised to reflect better science, revisions to existing exposure scenarios and new scenarios, and changes to match up more closely with the EPA chemical regional screening level calculator. A revised version of the 1999 guidance document that provides an overview for the Superfund risk assessment process at radioactively contaminated sites, 'Radiation Risk Assessment At CERCLA Sites: Q and A', is being completed that will reflect Superfund recommended guidance and other technical documents issued over the past 13 years. EPA is also issuing a series of fact sheets in the document 'Superfund Radiation Risk Assessment: A Community Tool-kit'. This presentation would go over those changes that are expected to be finished by this spring. (authors)

  7. Superfund list adds Pantex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While Congress crafts Superfund reauthorization to see that more money is spent on cleanups instead of legal fees, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency added 24 federal facilities to the National Priorities List of the worst pollution problems. Three Department of Energy sites were added on May 31, despite objections from state and other officials about how sites were selected. The Pantex nuclear weapon plant in Amarillo, Texas, was included despite protests by state officials, while environmentalists claim that open-quotes political gamesmanshipclose quotes kept a Portsmouth, Ohio, uranium enrichment plant off the list. Other DOE sites listed were the Paducah (Kentucky) Gaseous Diffusion Plant and the Laboratory for Energy Related Health Research in Davis, California

  8. Online data sources for regulation and remediation of chemical production, distribution, use and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental awareness is essential for todays corporation. Corporations have been held liable for the short-term and long-term effects of such chemicals as pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and petrochemicals to name a few. Furthermore, corporations have been held accountable for disposal of wastes or by-products of chemical production. Responsibility for the environment either mandated by government agencies or done voluntarily is an economic factor for business operations. Remediation of environmental hazards on a voluntary basis has often created goodwill and a payoff for being socially responsible. Remediation also can result in new business opportunities or savings in production costs. To be environmentally aware and socially responsible, the chemist should know where to find regulatory information for countries worldwide. Using online data sources is an efficient method of seeking this information

  9. Solid waste disposal in the soil: effects on the physical, chemical, and organic properties of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Regina Lasaro Mangieri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is growing concern over the final destination of the solid waste generated by society. Landfills should not be considered the endpoint for substances contained or generated in solid waste. The sustainable use of natural resources, especially soil and water, has become relevant, given the increase in anthropogenic activities. Agricultural use is an alternative to solid waste (leachate, biosolid disposal, considering the hypothesis that the agricultural use of waste is promising for reducing waste treatment costs, promoting nutrient reuse and improving the physical and chemical conditions of soil. Thus, this literature review, based on previously published data, seeks to confirm or disprove the hypothesis regarding the promising use of solid waste in agriculture to decrease the environmental liability that challenges public administrators in the development of efficient management. The text below addresses the following subtopics after the introduction: current solid waste disposal and environmental issues, the use of solid waste in agriculture, and the effect on the physical and chemical properties of soil and on organic matter, ending with final considerations.

  10. Environmental contaminants in fish and mussels from Meddybemps Lake, the Dennys River, and East Machias River - Eastern Surplus Superfund Site, Meddybemps, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 1946 to the early 1980s, the 3-acre Eastern Surplus Superfund Site in Meddybemps, Maine, was used for the disposal and storage of surplus military equipment...

  11. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Final phase 1, Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  12. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide generation from disposed gypsum drywall using chemical inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy; Bitton, Gabriel

    2011-07-15

    Disposal of gypsum drywall in landfills has been demonstrated to elevate hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) concentrations in landfill gas, a problem with respect to odor, worker safety, and deleterious effect on gas-to-energy systems. Since H(2)S production in landfills results from biological activity, the concept of inhibiting H(2)S production through the application of chemical agents to drywall during disposal was studied. Three possible inhibition agents - sodium molybdate (Na(2)MoO(4)), ferric chloride (FeCl(3)), and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)(2)) - were evaluated using flask and column experiments. All three agents inhibited H(2)S generation, with Na(2)MoO(4) reducing H(2)S generation by interrupting the biological sulfate reduction process and Ca(OH)(2) providing an unfavorable pH for biological growth. Although FeCl(3) was intended to provide an electron acceptor for a competing group of bacteria, the mechanism found responsible for inhibiting H(2)S production in the column experiment was a reduction in pH. Application of both Na(2)MoO(4) and FeCl(3) inhibited H(2)S generation over a long period (over 180 days), but the impact of Ca(OH)(2) decreased with time as the alkalinity it contributed was neutralized by the generated H(2)S. Practical application and potential environmental implications need additional exploration. PMID:21592650

  13. Chemical and mineralogical aspects of water-bentonite interaction in nuclear fuel disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of nuclear fuel disposal, bentonite has been selected as the principal sealing and buffer material for placement around waste canisters, forming both a mechanical and chemical barrier between the radioactive waste and the surrounding ground water. Ion exchange and mineral alteration processes were investigated in a laboratory study of the long-term interaction between compacted Na-bentonite (Volclay MX-80) and ground water solutions, conducted under simulated nuclear fuel disposal conditions. The possible alteration of montmorillonite into illite has been a major object of the mineralogical study. However, no analytical evidence was found, that would indicate the formation of this non-expandable clay type. Apparently, the change of montmorillonite from Na- to Ca-rich was found to be the major alteration process in bentonite. In the water, a concentration decrease in Ca, Mg, and K, and an increase in Na, HCO3 and SO4 were recorded. The amount of calcium ions available in the water was considered insufficient to account for the recorded formation of Ca-montmorillonite. It is therefore assumed that the accessory Ca-bearing minerals in bentonite provide the fundamental source of these cations, which exchange with sodium during the alteration process. (38 refs.)

  14. Treatment, Processing and Future Disposal of Radioactive Wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acidic wastes from the recovery of enriched uranium from aluminium, zirconium, and stainless-steel fuels at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are stored in underground tanks of two configurations and nominal sizes of 30,000 and 300,000 gallons. The design and operation of the waste-tank farm as well as the methods of environmental disposal of low-level wastes is described. The ''concentrate and contain'' philosophy of waste disposal has as its ultimate aim the production of a solid mass containing the fission products. The disadvantage of increased treatment costs may or may not be offset by reduction in storage costs. The low thermal conductivity of solids makes storage temperature considerations more important than for liquids. The acid aluminium nitrate wastes from the processing of fuels of the Material Testing Reactor type may be converted to granular alumina by calcining in a fluidized bed from 350° to 550° C. The major process components are the NaK heated calciner, an off-gas cleaning system and the solids storage vessels. The process design and the research and development programme are reviewed. On the basis of the successful demonstration of fluidized-bed calcining and high-temperature solids storage in conjunction with other considerations, a number of future storage concepts and their environmental connotations are discussed. (author)

  15. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide generation from disposed gypsum drywall using chemical inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal of gypsum drywall in landfills has been demonstrated to elevate hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentrations in landfill gas, a problem with respect to odor, worker safety, and deleterious effect on gas-to-energy systems. Since H2S production in landfills results from biological activity, the concept of inhibiting H2S production through the application of chemical agents to drywall during disposal was studied. Three possible inhibition agents - sodium molybdate (Na2MoO4), ferric chloride (FeCl3), and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) - were evaluated using flask and column experiments. All three agents inhibited H2S generation, with Na2MoO4 reducing H2S generation by interrupting the biological sulfate reduction process and Ca(OH)2 providing an unfavorable pH for biological growth. Although FeCl3 was intended to provide an electron acceptor for a competing group of bacteria, the mechanism found responsible for inhibiting H2S production in the column experiment was a reduction in pH. Application of both Na2MoO4 and FeCl3 inhibited H2S generation over a long period (over 180 days), but the impact of Ca(OH)2 decreased with time as the alkalinity it contributed was neutralized by the generated H2S. Practical application and potential environmental implications need additional exploration.

  16. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon. Final Phase 1 environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  17. Chemical Decomposition of High-Level Nuclear Waste Storage/Disposal Glasses Under Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project is to employ the technique of electron spin resonance (ESR), in conjunction with other experimental methods, to study radiation-induced decomposition of vitreous compositions proposed for immobilization/disposal of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) or excess weapons plutonium. ESR is capable of identifying, even at the parts-per-million level, displaced atoms, ruptured bonds, and free radicals created by radiation in such glassy forms. For example, one of the scientific goals is to search for ESR-detectable superoxide (O2 -) and ozonide (O3 -) ions, which could be precursors of radiation-induced oxygen gas bubbles reported by other investigators via the disproportionation reaction, 2O2 - : O2 2- + O2. The fundamental understandings obtained in this study will enable reliable predictions of the long-term effects of a and B decays of the immobilized radionuclides on the chemical integrity of HLW glasses

  18. Chemical Decomposition of High-Level Nuclear Waste Storage/Disposal Glasses Under Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griscom, David L.

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this project is to employ the technique of electron spin resonance (ESR), in conjunction with other experimental methods, to study radiation-induced decomposition of vitreous compositions proposed for immobilization/disposal of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) or excess weapons plutonium. ESR is capable of identifying, even at the parts-per-million level, displaced atoms, ruptured bonds, and free radicals created by radiation in such glassy forms. For example, one of the scientific goals is to search for ESR-detectable superoxide (O2 -) and ozonide (O3 -) ions, which could be precursors of radiation-induced oxygen gas bubbles reported by other investigators via the disproportionation reaction, 2O2 - : O2 2- + O2. The fundamental understandings obtained in this study will enable reliable predictions of the long-term effects of a and B decays of the immobilized radionuclides on the chemical integrity of HLW glasses.

  19. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pueblo Depot Activity, Colorado. Final, Phase 1: Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, J.W.; Blasing, T.J.; Ensminger, J.T.; Johnson, R.O.; Schexnayder, S.M.; Shor, J.T.; Staub, W.P.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1995-04-01

    Under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the US Army proposes to dispose of lethal chemical agents and munitions stored at eight existing Army installations in the continental United States. In 1988, the US Army issued the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP. The FPEIS and the subsequent Record of Decision (ROD) identified an on-site disposal process as the preferred method for destruction of the stockpile. That is, the FPEIS determined the environmentally preferred alternative to be on-site disposal in high-temperature incinerators, while the ROD selected this alternative for implementation as the preferred method for destruction of the stockpile. In this Phase I report, the overall CSDP decision regarding disposal of the PUDA Stockpile is subjected to further analyses, and its validity at PUDA is reviewed with newer, more detailed data than those providing the basis for the conclusions in the FPEIS. The findings of this Phase I report will be factored into the scope of a site-specific environmental impact statement to be prepared for the destruction of the PUDA stockpile. The focus of this Phase I report is on those data identified as having the potential to alter the Army`s previous decision regarding disposal of the PUDA stockpile; however, several other factors beyond the scope of this Phase I report must also be acknowledged to have the potential to change or modify the Army`s decisions regarding PUDA.

  20. Restoration principles and criteria: Superfund programme policy for cleanup at radiation contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response is responsible for implementing two key US laws regulating waste management and cleanup: the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, CERCLA, nicknamed ''Superfund''. The purpose of the Superfund programme is to protect human health and the environment over the long term from releases or potential releases of hazardous substances from abandoned or uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The focus of this paper is on Superfund, including how radiation is addressed by the Superfund programme. This paper provides a brief overview of the approach used by EPA to conduct Superfund cleanups at contaminated sites, including those that are contaminated with radionuclides, to ensure protection of human health and the environment. The paper addresses how EPA Superfund determines if a site poses a risk to human health and the framework used to determine cleanup levels. The theme emphasized throughout the paper is that within the Superfund remediation framework, radioactive contamination is dealt with in the identical way as chemical contamination. (author)

  1. Patterns of waste generation, treatment and disposal in the chemical and allied industries in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osei-Wusu Achaw

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution and degradation in urban Ghana has been on the increase as a result of the nations drive towards industrialization, a generally weak regulatory regime, and a lack of capacity to manage the environment. This situation is affecting the well-being and livelihood of affected communities. As part of an effort to address the issue, a thirteen (13 item questionnaire was designed and distributed to seventy (70 companies in the chemical and allied industry to solicit and analyze data and information on the their waste management situation. Forty-seven, representing 67.1%, of the distributed questionnaires were completed and returned. The responses were analyzed using tables, percentages and bar charts. The results revealed that while 80.9% of the respondents generate waste as a result of the operation of the plants, 23.3% directly dump their waste into the environment without any prior treatment. Only one company was found that incinerate its waste, and only four (8.5% had comprehensive waste water treatment plants. The low numbers of companies treating the waste they generate prior to disposal means that the chemical and allied industry is contributing to the environmental pollution and degradation in the country.

  2. ‘Geo’chemical research: A key building block for nuclear waste disposal safety cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Scott

    2008-12-01

    Disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep underground repositories has been chosen as solution by several countries. Because of the special status this type waste has in the public mind, national implementation programs typically mobilize massive R&D efforts, last decades and are subject to extremely detailed and critical social-political scrutiny. The culminating argument of each program is a 'Safety Case' for a specific disposal concept containing, among other elements, the results of performance assessment simulations whose object is to model the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. Public and political confidence in performance assessment results (which generally show that radionuclide release will always be at acceptable levels) is based on their confidence in the quality of the scientific understanding in the processes included in the performance assessment model, in particular those governing radionuclide speciation and mass transport in the geological host formation. Geochemistry constitutes a core area of research in this regard. Clay-mineral rich formations are the subjects of advanced radwaste programs in several countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland…), principally because of their very low permeabilities and demonstrated capacities to retard by sorption most radionuclides. Among the key processes which must be represented in performance assessment models are (i) radioelement speciation (redox state, speciation, reactions determining radionuclide solid-solution partitioning) and (ii) diffusion-driven transport. The safety case must therefore demonstrate a detailed understanding of the physical-chemical phenomena governing the effects of these two aspects, for each radionuclide, within the geological barrier system. A wide range of coordinated (and internationally collaborated) research has been, and is being, carried out in order to gain the detailed scientific understanding needed for constructing those parts of the Safety Case

  3. Modelling long-term chemical degradation of a concrete container under near surface disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents an application of a simplified 2D model of chemical degradation for a cracked concrete container termed monolith under near surface disposal conditions. The objective is to gain an improved understanding of the rate of degradation of the cracked monolith and its impact on transport of radionuclides under saturated conditions. Chemical degradation of concrete affects physical and mechanical properties and consequently accelerates migration of radionuclides from the cementitious engineered barriers. The abstracted large scale 2D model of chemical concrete degradation is based on a more detailed model from Jacques et al. (companion paper) who consider Ca leaching of CEM I concrete and consequent evolution of the physical properties such as porosity, bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, and tortuosity. Due to the uncertainty associated with the long term evolution of cracks in concrete, different crack networks have been postulated for different periods of time. The paper examines the effect of different crack densities, water boundary condition and magnitude of hydraulic conductivity on the degradation evolution of the monolith and release of radionuclides from conditioned waste grouted in the monolith. It is concluded that, for the postulated crack network and the transport mode defined by the flow boundary condition, the impact of crack density on the degradation rate and radionuclide leaching was minimal. The impact of the type of transport regime (advective and diffusive) and the magnitude of saturated hydraulic conductivity on the transport were significant. Several simplifications were made in the analyses (e.g. no sorption and decay); however, those could be easily relaxed within the proposed modelling framework. However, further investigations are ongoing to address the impact and sensitivity of additional complexities. (authors)

  4. Superfund Site Information - Site Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes Superfund site-specific sampling information including location of samples, types of samples, and analytical chemistry characteristics of...

  5. CERCLIS (Superfund) ASCII Text Format - CPAD Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access Database (CPAD) contains a selected set...

  6. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - NPL Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Priorities List (NPL) Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access...

  7. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Stauffer Chemical Co. (Tarpon Springs), Operable Unit 1, Tarpon Springs, FL, July 2, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 1 at the Stauffer Chemical Tarpon Springs Site in Tarpon Springs, Pinellas County, Florida. The major components of the selected remedy include: Limited excavation of radiologically and chemically contaminated material/soil which exceed Residential Cleanup Standards; Consolidation of contaminated material/soil in the main pond area, slag area, and/or other areas on-site; Institutional Controls must be placed on the site; In-situ Solidification/Stabilization of pond material and contaminated soil below the water table will be required in the consolidation areas on-site

  8. Development of biological and chemical methods for environmental monitoring of DOE waste disposal and storage facilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-04-01

    Hazardous chemicals in the environment have received ever increasing attention in recent years. In response to ongoing problems with hazardous waste management, Congress enacted the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976. In 1980, Congress adopted the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly called Superfund to provide for emergency spill response and to clean up closed or inactive hazardous waste sites. Scientists and engineers have begun to respond to the hazardous waste challenge with research and development on treatment of waste streams as well as cleanup of polluted areas. The magnitude of the problem is just now beginning to be understood. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List as of September 13 1985, contained 318 proposed sites and 541 final sites (USEPA, 1985). Estimates of up to 30,000 sites containing hazardous wastes (1,200 to 2,000 of which present a serious threat to public health) have been made (Public Law 96-150). In addition to the large number of sites, the costs of cleanup using available technology are phenomenal. For example, a 10-acre toxic waste site in Ohio is to be cleaned up by removing chemicals from the site and treating the contaminated groundwater. The federal government has already spent more than $7 million to remove the most hazardous wastes and the groundwater decontamination alone is expected to take at least 10 years and cost $12 million. Another example of cleanup costs comes from the State of California Commission for Economic Development which predicts a bright economic future for the state except for the potential outlay of $40 billion for hazardous waste cleanup mandated by federal and state laws.

  9. Construction of a technique plan repository and evaluation system based on AHP group decision-making for emergency treatment and disposal in chemical pollution accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Different chemical pollution accidents were simplified using the event tree analysis. • Emergency disposal technique plan repository of chemicals accidents was constructed. • The technique evaluation index system of chemicals accidents disposal was developed. • A combination of group decision and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was employed. • Group decision introducing similarity and diversity factor was used for data analysis. - Abstract: The environmental pollution resulting from chemical accidents has caused increasingly serious concerns. Therefore, it is very important to be able to determine in advance the appropriate emergency treatment and disposal technology for different types of chemical accidents. However, the formulation of an emergency plan for chemical pollution accidents is considerably difficult due to the substantial uncertainty and complexity of such accidents. This paper explains how the event tree method was used to create 54 different scenarios for chemical pollution accidents, based on the polluted medium, dangerous characteristics and properties of chemicals involved. For each type of chemical accident, feasible emergency treatment and disposal technology schemes were established, considering the areas of pollution source control, pollutant non-proliferation, contaminant elimination and waste disposal. Meanwhile, in order to obtain the optimum emergency disposal technology schemes as soon as the chemical pollution accident occurs from the plan repository, the technique evaluation index system was developed based on group decision-improved analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and has been tested by using a sudden aniline pollution accident that occurred in a river in December 2012

  10. Characterization and assessment of chemical modifications of metal-bearing sludges arising from unsuitable disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Ettringite–gypsum sludges were characterized using sequential extraction. ► The dissolution of ettringite was modeled using the program PHREEQC. ► U, Ca, SO42− and F are present in the water-soluble fraction of the samples. ► Due to unsuitable disposal one sample underwent modifications to its structure. ► This finding was confirmed by the modeling of ettringite dissolution. - Abstract: Ettringite–gypsum sludge, formed by neutralization of acid mine drainage with lime, has been stored temporarily in the open pit of a uranium mine that floods periodically. The present study characterized samples of this sludge, named according to the time of placement as Fresh, Intermediate, and Old. Standard leaching and sequential extraction procedures assessed the associations and stabilities of U, Zn, Fe, Mn, and other contaminants in the solid phases. Corresponding mineralogical transformations associated with sludge weathering were modeled using PHREEQC. The main crystalline phases were ettringite, gypsum and calcite; the minor constituents were fluorite and gibbsite. This mineral assemblage could be attributed to the incongruent dissolution of ettringite to form gibbsite, calcite, and gypsum. Sequential extractions indicated high contents of U, Ca, SO4, and Zn in the water-soluble (exchangeable) and carbonate fractions. Thus, the analytical and modeling results indicated that despite being classified as non-toxic by standard leaching protocols, the minerals composing the sludge could be sources of dissolved F, SO4, Fe, Zn, Mn, U, and Al under various environmental conditions. Decommissioning strategies intended to prevent contaminant migration will need to consider the chemical stability of the sludge in various environments.

  11. Radionuclide Speciation During Mineral Reactions in the Chemically Disturbed Zone Around a Geological Disposal Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Geological disposal of radioactive wastes currently stored at Earth's surface is now the favoured management pathway for these materials. Typically, intermediate level wastes (ILW) are grouted and emplaced in a geological disposal facility (GDF) which will be backfilled, possibly with cementitious materials. Post-closure leaching of the cementitious materials in a GDF is expected to create hyperalkaline conditions in and around the repository, resulting in mineral alteration and crystallisati...

  12. Research on the transformation of nitrate due to its chemical interaction with metals in TRU waste disposal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some TRU wastes contain nitrate ions as salt. The nitrate ions might transform into NO2- and NH3, etc. in the disposal site environment because of reducing agent such as metals, possibly changing disposal site environment or affecting nuclide migration parameters. Therefore, we investigated of chemical interaction between NO3- and metals in a low oxygen environment that corresponds to the disposal site environment. (1) The reaction rate constant between carbon steel and NO3- in an environment with low oxygen and high pH underground water was obtained through electrochemical tests. (2) The long-term data on the products (NH3,H2, etc.) of reaction between metals (carbon steel, stainless steel, zircaloy) and NO3- was obtained through immersion tests in an environment with low oxygen and high pH underground water. According to the long-term data of [NO3-], [NO2-] and [NH3], it was considered that reducing reaction of nitrate was consecutive reaction (NO3- → NO2- → NH3). (3) The decomposition and transition behavior of No3- around disposal facilities evaluated, using the geochemical code (PHREEQM-2D), which have considered geochemical reaction based on experimental results. (author)

  13. Integrated Numerical Simulation of Thermo-Hydro-Chemical Phenomena Associated with Geologic Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Uk; Kim, Jun-Mo; Kihm, Jung-Hwi

    2014-05-01

    A series of numerical simulations was performed using a multiphase thermo-hydro-chemical numerical model to predict integratedly and evaluate quantitatively thermo-hydro-chemical phenomena due to heat generation associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The average mineralogical composition of the fifteen unweathered igneous rock bodies, which were classified as granite, in Republic of Korea was adopted as an initial (primary) mineralogical composition of the host rock of the repository of high-level radioactive waste in the numerical simulations. The numerical simulation results show that temperature rises and thus convective groundwater flow occurs near the repository due to heat generation associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Under these circumstances, a series of water-rock interactions take place. As a result, among the primary minerals, quartz, plagioclase (albite), biotite (annite), and muscovite are dissolved. However, orthoclase is initially precipitated and is then dissolved, whereas microcline is initially dissolved and is then precipitated. On the other hand, the secondary minerals such as kaolinite, Na-smectite, chlorite, and hematite are precipitated and are then partly dissolved. In addition, such dissolution and precipitation of the primary and secondary minerals change groundwater chemistry (quality) and induce reactive chemical transport. As a result, in groundwater, Na+, Fe2+, and HCO3- concentrations initially decrease, whereas K+, AlO2-, and aqueous SiO2 concentrations initially increase. On the other hand, H+ concentration initially increases and thus pH initially decreases due to dissociation of groundwater in order to provide OH-, which is essential in precipitation of Na-smectite and chlorite. Thus, the above-mentioned numerical simulation results suggest that thermo-hydro-chemical numerical simulation can provide a better understanding of heat transport, groundwater flow, and reactive

  14. Field application of the Numobag as a portable disposable isolation unit and for treating chemical, radiological or biologically induced wounds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Keith A.; Felton, Robert; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Numotech Inc. has developed the Numobag{trademark}, a disposable, lightweight, wound healing device which produces Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT). The Numobag{trademark} is cost effective and has been clinically validated to heal large skin lesions rapidly and has proven to arrest wound advancement from several insidious forms of biological attack including dermal anthrax, small pox, necrotizing fasciitis etc. The Numobag{trademark} can treat mass casualties wounded by chemical/radiological burns or damaging biological exposures. The Numobag{trademark} can be a frontline tool as an isolation unit, reducing cross-contamination and infection of medical personnel. The heightened oxygen content kills organisms on the skin and in the wound, avoids expensive hospital trash disposal procedures, and helps the flesh heal. The Numobag{trademark} requires high purity oxygen. Numotech Inc. is teaming with Sandia National Laboratories and Spektr Conversion in Russia to develop a cost effective, portable, low power oxygen generator.

  15. Evaluation of improved chemical waste disposal and recovery methods for N reactor fuel fabrication operations: 1984 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory personnel identified and evaluated alternative methods for recovery, recycle, and disposal of waste acids produced during N Reactor fuel operations. This work was conducted under a program sponsored by UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc.; the program goals were to reduce the volume of liquid waste by rejuvenating and recycling acid solutions and to generate a residual waste low in nitrates, fluorides, and metals. Disposal methods under consideration included nitric acid reclamation, grout encapsulation of final residual waste, nitrogen fertilizer production, biodenitrifaction, chemical or thermal destruction of NO3, and short-term impoundment of liquid NO3/SO4 wastes. Preliminary testing indicated that the most feasible and practicable of these alternatives were (1) nitric acid reclamation followed by grouting of residual waste and (2) nitrogen fertilizer production. This report summarizes the investigations, findings, and recommendations for the 1984 fiscal year

  16. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - SUPERFUND_IDEM_IN: Superfund Program Facilities in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — SUPERFUND_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains GPS-located Superfund Program facility locations in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department of...

  17. Research requirements for a unified approach to modelling chemical effects associated with radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results of a review of the current modelling, laboratory experiments and field experiments being conducted in the United Kingdom to aid understanding and improve prediction of the effects of chemistry on the disposal of radioactive wastes. The aim has been to summarise present work and derive a structure for future research effort that would support the use of probabilistic risk assessment (pra) methods for the disposal of radioactive wastes. The review was conducted by a combination of letter and personal visits, and preliminary results were reported to a plenary meeting of participants held in April, 1986. Following this meeting, copies of the report were circulated to participants at draft stage, so that the finalised report should be taken to provide as far as possible a consensus of opinion of research requirements. (author)

  18. Solid waste disposal in the soil: effects on the physical, chemical, and organic properties of soil

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Regina Lasaro Mangieri; João Tavares Filho

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is growing concern over the final destination of the solid waste generated by society. Landfills should not be considered the endpoint for substances contained or generated in solid waste. The sustainable use of natural resources, especially soil and water, has become relevant, given the increase in anthropogenic activities. Agricultural use is an alternative to solid waste (leachate, biosolid) disposal, considering the hypothesis that the agricultural use of waste is promisi...

  19. Superfund National Priority List (NPL) Site Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A set of site boundaries for each site in EPA Region 1 (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont) on EPA's Superfund National...

  20. Superfund at work: Hazardous waste cleanup efforts nationwide, fall 1992. (American Thermostat Corporation, New York)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EPA's Superfund program decisively mitigated dangerously high levels of toxic chemicals at New York's American Thermostat Corporation (ATC) hazardous waste site. Superfund staff: quickly sampled area drinking wells and treated over 10 million gallons of contaminated ground water; used innovative technologies to reduce on-site soil and ground water contamination; secured a permanent alternate water supply for affected residents; and initiated a public outreach effort which gained support for cleanup activities. The American Thermostat site is a prime example of EPA's commitment to preserve the health and welfare of citizens and the environment

  1. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program: Review and comment on the Phase 1 environmental report for the Pueblo Depot Activity, Pueblo, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at the Pueblo Depot Activity (PUDA) in Pueblo, Colorado. The Phase I report addresses new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). These concerns are addressed by examining site-specific data for the PUDA. On the basis of our review of the Phase I report, we concluded that on-site meteorological data from December 1988 to June 1992 appear to be of insufficient quality to have been used instead of the off-site Pueblo airport data. No additional meteorological data have been collected since June 1992. The Phase I report briefly mentions problems with the air pollution control system. These problems will likely require the systems to be upgraded at the Johnston Atoll site and at each of the other depots in the continental United States. Without such improvements, the probability of accidents during start-up and shutdown would likely increase. The Army has a lessons-learned program to incorporate improvements into the design of future facilities. The Phase I report does not make any design change commitments. These issues need to be fully evaluated and resolved before any final conclusion concerning the adequacy of the decision in the FPEIS can be made with respect to the PUDA. With the exception of this issue, the inclusion of other more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at the PUDA). We recommend that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process

  2. Impact of current good manufacturing practices and emission regulations and guidances on the discharge of pharmaceutical chemicals into the environment from manufacturing, use, and disposal.

    OpenAIRE

    Velagaleti, Ranga; Burns, Philip K; Gill, Michael; Prothro, James

    2002-01-01

    The current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) and effluent emission (use and disposal) regulations of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and manufacturing effluent discharge and emission regulations of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) require contained manufacture, use, and disposal of pharmaceuticals with the goal of minimizing the release of pharmaceutical chemicals into the environment. However, debate has recently arisen in several scientific forums over wheth...

  3. Occurrence and possible sources of arsenic in seafloor sediments surrounding sea-disposed munitions and chemical agents near O´ahu, Hawai´i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Michael S.; De Carlo, Eric Heinen

    2016-06-01

    The Department of Defense disposed of conventional and chemical munitions as well as bulk containers of chemical agents in US coastal waters including those surrounding the State of Hawai´i. The Hawai´i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment has been collecting biota, water, and sediment samples from two disposal areas south of the island of O´ahu in waters 500 to 600 m deep known to have received both conventional munitions and chemical agents (specifically sulfur mustard). Unlike a number of other sea-disposed munitions investigations which used grabs or corers lowered from surface vessels, we used manned submersibles to collect the samples. Using this approach, we were able to visually identify the munitions and precisely locate our samples in relation to the munitions on the seafloor. This paper focuses on the occurrence and possible sources of arsenic found in the sediments surrounding the disposed military munitions and chemical agents. Using nonparametric multivariate statistical techniques, we looked for patterns in the chemical data obtained from these sediment samples in order to determine the possible sources of the arsenic found in these sediments. The results of the ordination technique nonmetric multidimensional scaling indicate that the arsenic is associated with terrestrial sources and not munitions. This was not altogether surprising given that: (1) the chemical agents disposed of in this area supposedly did not contain arsenic, and (2) the disposal areas studied were under terrestrial influence or served as dredge spoil disposal sites. The sediment arsenic concentrations during this investigation ranged from <1.3 to 40 mg/kg-dry weight with the lower concentrations typically found around control sites and munitions (not located in dredge disposal areas) and the higher values found at dredge disposal sites (with or without munitions). During the course of our investigation we did, however, discover that mercury appears to be loosely associated

  4. Natural weathering in dry disposed ash dump: Insight from chemical, mineralogical and geochemical analysis of fresh and unsaturated drilled cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, S A; Akinlua, A; Gitari, W M; Khuse, N; Eze, P; Akinyeye, R O; Petrik, L F

    2012-07-15

    Some existing alternative applications of coal fly ash such as cement manufacturing; road construction; landfill; and concrete and waste stabilisation use fresh ash directly collected from coal-fired power generating stations. Thus, if the rate of usage continues, the demand for fresh ash for various applications will exceed supply and use of weathered dry disposed ash will become necessary alternative. As a result it's imperative to understand the chemistry and pH behaviour of some metals inherent in dry disposed fly ash. The bulk chemical composition as determined by XRF analysis showed that SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 were the major oxides in fresh ash and unsaturated weathered ashes. The unsaturated weathered ashes are relatively depleted in CaO, Fe2O3, TiO2, SiO2, Na2O and P2O5 due to dissolution and hydrolysis caused by chemical interaction with ingressing CO2 from the atmosphere and infiltrating rain water. Observed accumulations of Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, K2O, Na2O and SO3 and Zn, Zr, Sr, Pb, Ni, Cr and Co in the lower layers indicate progressive downward movement through the ash dump though at a slow rate. The bulk mineralogy of unsaturated weathered dry disposed ash, as determined by XRD analysis, revealed quartz and mullite as the major crystalline phases; while anorthite, hematite, enstatite, lime, calcite, and mica were present as minor mineral phases. Pore water chemistry revealed a low concentration of readily soluble metals in unsaturated weathered ashes in comparison with fresh ash, which shows high leachability. This suggests that over time the precipitation of transient minor secondary mineral phases; such as calcite and mica might retard residual metal release from unsaturated weathered ash. Chloride and sulphate species of the water soluble extracts of weathered ash are at equilibrium with Na+ and K+; these demonstrate progressive leaching over time and become supersaturated at the base of unsaturated weathered ash. This suggests that the ash dump does not

  5. Chemical stability and adsorption of succinylcholine chloride injections in disposable plastic syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramar, Y V; Moniz, D; Hobbs, D

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of these investigations was to determine the stability and adsorption behaviour of succinylcholine chloride (SCC) when stored in plastic syringes. Drug degradation was monitored using the USP high-pressure liquid chromatography method. Solutions containing 20 mg/ml of SCC in 5% dextrose, and in normal saline, were studied at 5, 25 and 40 degrees C. The hydrolysis of SCC in i.v. fluids followed apparent zero-order kinetics. The manufacturer's recommended expiry period was found to be too conservative. If protected from light, storage at room temperature for up to 3 months can be safely recommended, without significant loss of chemical stability. However, microbiological quality assurance will need to be implemented and an appropriate shelf-life assigned on the basis of both microbiological and chemical stability data. PMID:7962223

  6. Patterns of waste generation, treatment and disposal in the chemical and allied industries in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Osei-Wusu Achaw

    2012-01-01

    Environmental pollution and degradation in urban Ghana has been on the increase as a result of the nations drive towards industrialization, a generally weak regulatory regime, and a lack of capacity to manage the environment. This situation is affecting the well-being and livelihood of affected communities. As part of an effort to address the issue, a thirteen (13) item questionnaire was designed and distributed to seventy (70) companies in the chemical and allied industry to solicit and anal...

  7. Treatment and disposal of steam generator and heat exchanger chemical cleaning wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wet air oxidation was effective in reducing the organic loading of Ontario Hydro's EDTA-based steam generator cleaning wastes and the organic acid formulation used for heat exchanger chemical cleaning. Destruction of the complexing agents resulted in direct precipitation of iron from the waste steam generator magnetite solvent and from the heat exchanger cleaning waste. The oxidized liquors contain lower molecular weight organic acids, ammonia and amines, suitable for secondary biological treatment. The oxidized copper waste requires further treatment to reduce dissolved copper levels prior to biological digestion. A preliminary evaluation of UV and ozone degradation of these wastes showed less promise than wet air oxidation. 24 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  8. Inside the 'Hurt Locker':the combined effects of explosive ordnance disposal and chemical protective clothing on physiological tolerance time in extreme environments

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, J T; Stewart, Kelly L; Stewart, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Explosive ordinance disposal (EOD) technicians are often required to wear specialized clothing combinations that not only protect against the risk of explosion but also potential chemical contamination. This heavy (>35kg) and encapsulating ensemble is likely to increase physiological strain by increasing metabolic heat production and impairing heat dissipation. This study investigated the physiological tolerance times of two different chemical protective undergarments, commonly wo...

  9. Effect of water treatment additives on lime softening residual trace chemical composition--implications for disposal and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weizhi; Roessler, Justin; Blaisi, Nawaf I; Townsend, Timothy G

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water treatment residues (WTR) offer potential benefits when recycled through land application. The current guidance in Florida, US allows for unrestricted land application of lime softening WTR; alum and ferric WTR require additional evaluation of total and leachable concentrations of select trace metals prior to land application. In some cases a mixed WTR is produced when lime softening is accompanied by the addition of a coagulant or other treatment chemical; applicability of the current guidance is unclear. The objective of this research was to characterize the total and leachable chemical content of WTR from Florida facilities that utilize multiple treatment chemicals. Lime and mixed lime WTR samples were collected from 18 water treatment facilities in Florida. Total and leachable concentrations of the WTR were measured. To assess the potential for disposal of mixed WTR as clean fill below the water table, leaching tests were conducted at multiple liquid to solid ratios and under reducing conditions. The results were compared to risk-based soil and groundwater contamination thresholds. Total metal concentrations of WTR were found to be below Florida soil contaminant thresholds with Fe found in the highest abundance at a concentration of 3600 mg/kg-dry. Aluminum was the only element that exceeded the Florida groundwater contaminant thresholds using SPLP (95% UCL = 0.23 mg/L; risk threshold = 0.2 mg/L). Tests under reducing conditions showed elevated concentrations of Fe and Mn, ranging from 1 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than SPLP leachates. Mixed lime WTR concentrations (total and leachable) were lower than the ferric and alum WTR concentrations, supporting that mixed WTR are appropriately represented as lime WTR. Testing of WTR under reducing conditions demonstrated the potential for release of certain trace metals (Fe, Al, Mn) above applicable regulatory thresholds; additional evaluation is needed to assess management options where

  10. Characterization and assessment of chemical modifications of metal-bearing sludges arising from unsuitable disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Abda F S; Lopez, Dina L; Ladeira, Ana Cláudia Q

    2012-01-15

    Ettringite-gypsum sludge, formed by neutralization of acid mine drainage with lime, has been stored temporarily in the open pit of a uranium mine that floods periodically. The present study characterized samples of this sludge, named according to the time of placement as Fresh, Intermediate, and Old. Standard leaching and sequential extraction procedures assessed the associations and stabilities of U, Zn, Fe, Mn, and other contaminants in the solid phases. Corresponding mineralogical transformations associated with sludge weathering were modeled using PHREEQC. The main crystalline phases were ettringite, gypsum and calcite; the minor constituents were fluorite and gibbsite. This mineral assemblage could be attributed to the incongruent dissolution of ettringite to form gibbsite, calcite, and gypsum. Sequential extractions indicated high contents of U, Ca, SO(4), and Zn in the water-soluble (exchangeable) and carbonate fractions. Thus, the analytical and modeling results indicated that despite being classified as non-toxic by standard leaching protocols, the minerals composing the sludge could be sources of dissolved F, SO(4), Fe, Zn, Mn, U, and Al under various environmental conditions. Decommissioning strategies intended to prevent contaminant migration will need to consider the chemical stability of the sludge in various environments. PMID:22138170

  11. Fifteen years of Superfund at South Valley: Reengineering required

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is no surprise to many of Superfund's practitioners that the law and its application are flawed. The South Valley Superfund Site in Albuquerque, New Mexico has not escaped Superfund's problems. The problems and issues arising out of the South Valley Superfund site have spurred the desire to seek a better way to administer and manage cleanup. This new method applies organizational and role changes that bring Superfund closer to an efficient business-like entity. This ''Reengineered'' Superfund strives for reorganization, contractor reduction, improved communication, reporting reduction, and teaming. In addition, modifications are made to the roles of regulators, potentially responsible parties (PRPs), and the public. Today the site encompasses roughly one square mile in area, includes six identified contaminant sources, and deals with solvent and petroleum by-product contamination

  12. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - Non-NPL Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Non-NPL Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access Database contains a...

  13. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) - Contaminants at CERCLIS (Superfund) Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Contaminants at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Sites - The CERCLIS Public Access Database...

  14. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - Responsible Parties at CERCLIS Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Responsible Parties at CERCLIS Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access...

  15. Superfund tio videos: Set A. Overview of superfund, response activities and responsibilities, site discovery, notification, and evaluation. Part 1. Audio-Visual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The videotape is divided into three sections. Section 1 discusses the development and framework of CERCLA and the Superfund Program and outlines the implementing rules that guide Superfund site cleanups. The Superfund response actions - remedial, removal, and enforcement - are reviewed. Section 2 outlines On-Scene Coordinator's (OSC) and Remedial Project Manager's (RPM) roles and responsibilities in Superfund removal, remedial, and enforcement activities. The other players involved in Superfund response activities also are identified. Section 3 describes how EPA learns of potential Superfund sites and lists the authorities that determine the requirements for site discovery. The procedures used to prioritize the sites and to identify and select sites for remediation are discussed

  16. Assessing Worker and Environmental Chemical Exposure Risks at an e-Waste Recycling and Disposal Site in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Caravanos

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling/disposal site in Accra, Ghana revealed an area with extensive lead contamination in both ambient air and topsoil. Given the urban nature of this site e as well as the large adjacent food distribution market, the potential for human health impact is substantial both to workers and local residents.

  17. Hazardous chemical tracking system (HAZ-TRAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramlette, J D; Ewart, S M; Jones, C E

    1990-07-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) developed and implemented a computerized hazardous chemical tracking system, referred to as Haz-Trac, for use at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Haz-Trac is designed to provide a means to improve the accuracy and reliability of chemical information, which enhances the overall quality and safety of ICPP operations. The system tracks all chemicals and chemical components from the time they enter the ICPP until the chemical changes form, is used, or becomes a waste. The system runs on a Hewlett-Packard (HP) 3000 Series 70 computer. The system is written in COBOL and uses VIEW/3000, TurboIMAGE/DBMS 3000, OMNIDEX, and SPEEDWARE. The HP 3000 may be accessed throughout the ICPP, and from remote locations, using data communication lines. Haz-Trac went into production in October, 1989. Currently, over 1910 chemicals and chemical components are tracked on the system. More than 2500 personnel hours were saved during the first six months of operation. Cost savings have been realized by reducing the time needed to collect and compile reporting information, identifying and disposing of unneeded chemicals, and eliminating duplicate inventories. Haz-Trac maintains information required by the Superfund Amendment Reauthorization Act (SARA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).

  18. Experimental study and modelling of physico-chemical mechanisms of clay-concrete interactions in the radioactive waste geological disposal context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These research works are carried out as part of the radioactive wastes geological disposal feasibility study. The current option developed by Andra, includes several cementitious materials in contact with the surrounding Callovo-Oxfordian (COX) (an argillite). Concretes and argillite present very different pore solutions (ionic concentrations and pH). Controlled by the concentrations differences, the aqueous species diffusion in the solids generates chemical and physical disturbances. This study is based on experimental, analytical and numerical works, in order to identify the mechanisms controlling the clayey environment influence on cementitious materials. (author)

  19. The application of a coupled chemical transport model in a trial assessment of deep disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of trial assessments are being undertaken within the United Kingdom to rehearse procedures for post-closure radiological risk analysis of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal sites. These trial studies draw together workers from a variety of scientific disciplines allowing simultaneous rather than isolated development of assessment procedures. This paper illustrates the use of chemical codes and data within a probabilistic risk assessment framework through a demonstration exercise performed on a hypothetical repository located beneath Harwell, Oxfordshire. The implications for risk assessment practices reliant on the assumption of conservative parameters are highlighted by comparison with a more mechanistic approach which takes into account competitive effects

  20. Alternating current electrocoagulation for Superfund site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is being conducted by Electro-Pure Systems, Inc. (EPS) under the Emerging Technology portion of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program to study alternating current electrocoagulation for Superfund site remediation. Alternating current electrocoagulation has proven to be effective in agglomerating and removing colloidal solids, metals and certain organic contaminants from surrogate soils prepared from the US EPA's Synthetic Soil Matrix. Treatments under a wide range of operating conditions have enabled the optimum parameter settings to be established for multiple phase separation. Electrocoagulation enables appreciably enhanced filtration and dewatering rates to be realized for metals- and diesel fuel-spiked surrogate soil slurries; such enhancements are prompted by growth in the mean particle size of the clays and particulates from typically < 10 microns to as much as 150 microns depending on the degree of electrocoagulation. Reduction in the total suspended solids content of clays in all slurries in excess of 90% can routinely be achieved. Bench-scale experiments of the metals-spiked surrogate soils indicate that electrocoagulation preferentially concentrates soluble metals into the sludge phase; excellent metals separation (Pb, Cr, Cu, Cd) can be realized. Experiments on surrogate wastes spiked with volatile organics suggest that this technology is not capable of effecting good volatile extractions from the aqueous phase. Reductions in excess of 80% in the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the diesel fuel-spiked surrogates can, however, be achieved

  1. Investigations of Near-Field Thermal-Hydrologic-Mechanical-Chemical Models for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Clay/Shale Rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of radioactive waste. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA.

  2. Investigations of Near-Field Thermal-Hydrologic-Mechanical-Chemical Models for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Clay/Shale Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.H.; Li, L.; Zheng, L.; Houseworth, J.E.; Rutqvist, J.

    2011-06-20

    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of radioactive waste. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA.

  3. Feasibility study for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United Heckathom Superfund Site in Richmond, California, was used to formulate pesticides from approximately 1947 to 1966. Soils at the site and sediments in the harbor were contaminated with various chlorinated pesticides, primarily DDT, as a result of these activities. The US Environmental Protection Agency listed the site on the Superfund National Priorities List in 1990. This document is part of the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study phase of the Superfund response, which will provide the basis for selection of a final remedy that will protect human health and the environment and achieve compliance with federal and state envirorunental laws

  4. Halomonhystera disjuncta - a young-carrying nematode first observed for the Baltic Sea in deep basins within chemical munitions disposal sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelak, Katarzyna; Kotwicki, Lech

    2016-06-01

    Three deep basins in the Baltic Sea were investigated within the framework of the CHEMSEA project (Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment), which aims to evaluate the ecological impact of chemical warfare agents dumped after World War II. Nematode communities, which comprise the most numerous and diverse organisms in the surveyed areas, were investigated as a key group of benthic fauna. One of the most successful nematode species was morphologically identified as Halomonhystera disjuncta (Bastian, 1865). The presence of this species, which is an active coloniser that is highly resistant to disturbed environments, may indicate that the sediments of these disposal sites are characterised by toxic conditions that are unfavourable for other metazoans. Moreover, ovoviviparous reproductive behaviour in which parents carry their brood internally, which is an important adaptation to harsh environmental conditions, was observed for specimens from Gdansk Deep and Gotland Deep. This reproductive strategy, which is uncommon for marine nematodes, has not previously been reported for nematodes from the Baltic Sea sediment.

  5. PERSONNEL PROTECTION THROUGH RECONNAISSANCE ROBOTICS AT SUPERFUND REMEDIAL SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigation, mitigation, and clean-up of hazardous materials at Superfund sites normally require on-site workers to perform hazardous and sometimes potentially dangerous functions. uch functions include site surveys and the reconnaissance for airborne and buried toxic environme...

  6. Physico-chemical characterization of clays at Kalpakkam nuclear plant site towards assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Colloidal clay particles in groundwater have the potential to transport radionuclides in the ground environment. → Transport of radionuclides through groundwater depends on the nature of the clay colloids and its zeta potential. → The low CEC value of the kaolinite clay colloids ensures reduced potential for transport of radionuclides. → The low cation exchange capacity of the clay mineral in the study area emphasizes the requirement of suitable backfill materials around disposal facilities. - Abstract: In order to evaluate the safety of a radioactive waste repository in a geological formation, it is necessary to study the prevailing sub surface geology surrounding the disposal facility. The Kalpakkam subsurface was found to comprise of charnockite/hypersthene granite which is overlain by clay, sandy clay and sand. Clays can act as a barrier for groundwater flow and attenuate radionuclide migration. Accordingly, in the present study, clay samples were collected at chosen depths in the subsurface within the study area at Kalpakkam and colloidal clay fractions were separated. The clay colloids after separation were characterized for their size, shape, morphology, elemental composition and zeta potential. Photon correlation spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction technique and zetasizer were used to characterize the colloidal particles. The detailed characterization and analysis has revealed that the major clay mineral present in the subsurface at Kalpakkam is kaolinite. Minor quantities of smectite and illite were also identified in some clay samples. It was observed that the clays present in the study area are having low cation exchange capacity for radionuclides and emphasizes the requirement of proper backfill materials around disposal facilities for retardation of radionuclide migration. The occurrence of clay minerals at depths within the aquifer thickness warrants analysis of

  7. Physico-chemical characterization of clays at Kalpakkam nuclear plant site towards assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deepthi Rani, R. [Safety Research Institute, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India); Sasidhar, P., E-mail: sasidhar@igcar.gov.in [Safety Research Institute, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Colloidal clay particles in groundwater have the potential to transport radionuclides in the ground environment. > Transport of radionuclides through groundwater depends on the nature of the clay colloids and its zeta potential. > The low CEC value of the kaolinite clay colloids ensures reduced potential for transport of radionuclides. > The low cation exchange capacity of the clay mineral in the study area emphasizes the requirement of suitable backfill materials around disposal facilities. - Abstract: In order to evaluate the safety of a radioactive waste repository in a geological formation, it is necessary to study the prevailing sub surface geology surrounding the disposal facility. The Kalpakkam subsurface was found to comprise of charnockite/hypersthene granite which is overlain by clay, sandy clay and sand. Clays can act as a barrier for groundwater flow and attenuate radionuclide migration. Accordingly, in the present study, clay samples were collected at chosen depths in the subsurface within the study area at Kalpakkam and colloidal clay fractions were separated. The clay colloids after separation were characterized for their size, shape, morphology, elemental composition and zeta potential. Photon correlation spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction technique and zetasizer were used to characterize the colloidal particles. The detailed characterization and analysis has revealed that the major clay mineral present in the subsurface at Kalpakkam is kaolinite. Minor quantities of smectite and illite were also identified in some clay samples. It was observed that the clays present in the study area are having low cation exchange capacity for radionuclides and emphasizes the requirement of proper backfill materials around disposal facilities for retardation of radionuclide migration. The occurrence of clay minerals at depths within the aquifer thickness warrants analysis of groundwater

  8. Chromosomal aberrations in Sigmodon hispidus from a Superfund site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were collected from an EPA Superfund site located on an abandoned oil refinery. Three trapping grids were located on the refinery and three similar grids were located at uncontaminated localities which served as reference sites. Bone marrow metaphase chromosome preparations were examined for chromosomal damage. For each individual, 50 cells were scored for six classes of chromosomal lesions. For the fall 1991 trapping period, mean number of aberrant cells per individual was 2.33, 0.85, and 1.50 for the three Superfund grids., Mean number of aberrant cells per individual was 2.55, 2.55, and 2.12 from the reference grids. Mean number of lesions per cell was 2.77, 0.86, and 1.9 from the Superfund grids, and 3.55, 2.77, and 2.50 from the reference grids. For the spring 1992 trapping period, more damage was observed in animals from both Superfund and reference sites; however, animals from Superfund grids had more damage than animals from reference grids. Mean number of aberrant cells per individual was 3.50, 3.25, and 3.70 from the Superfund grids, and 2.40, 2.11, and 1.40 from the reference grids. Mean number of lesions per cell was 4.80, 4.25, and 5.50 from the Superfund grids, and 2.60, 2.33, and 1.50 from the reference grids. These data suggest animals may be more susceptible to chromosomal damage during winter months, and animals from the Superfund grids appear to be more severely affected than animals from reference grids

  9. Superfund explanation of significant difference for the record of decision (EPA Region 8): Lowry Landfill, Aurora, CO, October 24, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Please be advised that there is an error within Attachment E (Technical Evaluation of Proposed Ground-Water Treatment and Disposal Alternatives) of the ''Responsiveness Summary for the Second Explanation of Significant Differences, Lowry Landfill Superfund Site'' document. The evaluation table, which summarizes the rankings of the two cleanup alternatives, failed to include numerical values for State Acceptance and Community Acceptance. Enclosed is a copy of the table as it should have appeared in Attachment E. Copies of this errata sheet are being mailed to all recipients of the Responsiveness Summary

  10. Request for interim approval to operate Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground as a chemical waste landfill for disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl waste in submarine reactor compartments. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, G.D.

    1994-06-01

    This request is submitted to seek interim approval to operate a Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 chemical waste landfill for the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. Operation of a chemical waste landfill for disposal of PCB waste is subject to the TSCA regulations of 40 CFR 761. Interim approval is requested for a period not to exceed 5 years from the date of approval. This request covers only the disposal of small 10 quantities of solid PCB waste contained in decommissioned, defueled submarine reactor compartments (SRC). In addition, the request applies only to disposal 12 of this waste in Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground (Trench 94) in the 13 200 East Area of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Facility. Disposal of this waste will be conducted in accordance with the Compliance 15 Agreement (Appendix H) between the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and 16 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. During the 5-year interim approval period, the DOE-RL will submit an application seeking final 18 approval for operation of Trench 94 as a chemical waste landfill, including 19 any necessary waivers, and also will seek a final dangerous waste permit from 20 the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) for disposal of lead 21 shielding contained in the SRCS.

  11. Request for interim approval to operate Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground as a chemical waste landfill for disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl waste in submarine reactor compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This request is submitted to seek interim approval to operate a Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 chemical waste landfill for the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. Operation of a chemical waste landfill for disposal of PCB waste is subject to the TSCA regulations of 40 CFR 761. Interim approval is requested for a period not to exceed 5 years from the date of approval. This request covers only the disposal of small 10 quantities of solid PCB waste contained in decommissioned, defueled submarine reactor compartments (SRC). In addition, the request applies only to disposal 12 of this waste in Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground (Trench 94) in the 13 200 East Area of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Facility. Disposal of this waste will be conducted in accordance with the Compliance 15 Agreement (Appendix H) between the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and 16 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. During the 5-year interim approval period, the DOE-RL will submit an application seeking final 18 approval for operation of Trench 94 as a chemical waste landfill, including 19 any necessary waivers, and also will seek a final dangerous waste permit from 20 the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) for disposal of lead 21 shielding contained in the SRCS

  12. Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste: Investigating the Thermo-Hygro-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) Coupled Processes at the Waste Canister- Bentonite Barrier Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. W.; Davie, D. C.; Charles, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geological disposal of nuclear waste is being increasingly considered to deal with the growing volume of waste resulting from the nuclear legacy of numerous nations. Within the UK there is 650,000 cubic meters of waste safely stored and managed in near-surface interim facilities but with no conclusive permanent disposal route. A Geological Disposal Facility with incorporated Engineered Barrier Systems are currently being considered as a permanent waste management solution (Fig.1). This research focuses on the EBS bentonite buffer/waste canister interface, and experimentally replicates key environmental phases that would occur after canister emplacement. This progresses understanding of the temporal evolution of the EBS and the associated impact on its engineering, mineralogical and physicochemical state and considers any consequences for the EBS safety functions of containment and isolation. Correlation of engineering properties to the physicochemical state is the focus of this research. Changes to geotechnical properties such as Atterberg limits, swelling pressure and swelling kinetics are measured after laboratory exposure to THMC variables from interface and batch experiments. Factors affecting the barrier, post closure, include corrosion product interaction, precipitation of silica, near-field chemical environment, groundwater salinity and temperature. Results show that increasing groundwater salinity has a direct impact on the buffer, reducing swelling capacity and plasticity index by up to 80%. Similarly, thermal loading reduces swelling capacity by 23% and plasticity index by 5%. Bentonite/steel interaction studies show corrosion precipitates diffusing into compacted bentonite up to 3mm from the interface over a 4 month exposure (increasing with temperature), with reduction in swelling capacity in the affected zone, probably due to the development of poorly crystalline iron oxides. These results indicate that groundwater conditions, temperature and corrosion

  13. Remedial design services for Montclair/West Orange and Glen Ridge Superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Montclair/West Orange and Glen Ridge Superfund Sites are located 12 miles west of New York City in Essex County, New Jersey. The sites are contaminated with waste materials from radium-processing facilities which operated in the area during the early 1900's. The waste materials, containing radium and other radioactive isotopes were placed in three separate landfill sites. Major public health risks are indoor radon gas build-up and indoor/ outdoor gamma radiation. In 1989, the EPA issued a Record of Decision (ROD) which chose excavation and off-site disposal of material as the preferred alternative. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight key elements of the design process for the remedial action at Montclair. Those key elements are as follows: meeting community relations challenges; measuring radioactive contamination; developing plans and specifications; packaging of remedial action contacts; and continually improving both the process and the designs

  14. 48 CFR 1426.7103 - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Superfund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Superfund Minority Contractors Utilization... Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Superfund Minority Contractors...

  15. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Superfund National Priority List (NPL) Sites, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Superfund National Priority List Sites as part of the CIMC web service. Superfund is a program administered by the EPA to locate,...

  16. 77 FR 8255 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Constitution Road Drum Superfund...

  17. "Cut holes and sink 'em": chemical weapons disposal and cold war history as a history of risk

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Using the incident of the scuttling of the USS Le Baron Russell Briggs, loaded with roughly 22,000 tons of outdated chemical weapons in 1970, this contribution extrapolates how, why, and when in the United States chemical weapons that had been produced as the ultimate answer to the risk of nuclear war became reframed as a risk themselves. The analysis settles on how questions of knowing and not-knowing about potentialities of future events influenced these re-negotiation processes between the...

  18. Electrochemical corrosion studies on a selected carbon steel for application in nuclear waste disposal containers: Influence of chemical species in brines on corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In previous corrosion studies, carbon steels were identified as promising materials for the manufacture of long-lived high-level waste containers that could act as an engineered barrier in a rock-salt repository. In this paper, the influence of chemical species, potentially present in salt brines, on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of the preselected fine-grained steel TStE 355 was studied. The steel was examined at 90 C in a disposal relevant NaCl-rich brine containing various species (Br-, I-, Cu2+, Mn2+, S2-, B(OH)4- and Fe3+) at concentrations between 10-5 M/I and 10-1 M/I. (orig.)

  19. Contaminant accumulation and biomarker responses in caged mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, to evaluate bioavailability and toxicological effects of remobilized chemicals during dredging and disposal operations in harbour areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remobilization of chemicals from contaminated sediments is a major risk associated with dredging and disposal operations in harbour areas. In this work caged mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, were chosen as bioindicator organisms to reveal the impact and recovery of organisms from these activities in the harbour of Piombino (Tuscany, Italy) where approximately 100,000 m3 of sediments were removed and disposed in a local confined disposal facility (CDF). Organisms were deployed before, during and after the end of operations, selecting sites differently impacted by these activities. Temporal changes in environmental bioavailability and biological effects of pollutants were assessed by integrating analyses of trace metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulated in tissues of caged mussels with a wide array of biomarkers reflecting exposure to specific classes of pollutants and different levels of cellular unbalance or toxicity. Such biological responses included levels of metallothioneins, activity of acyl CoA oxidase (AOX) as a marker of peroxisome proliferation, oxidative stress biomarkers (content of glutathione, enzymatic activities of catalase, glutathione S-transferases, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases), total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) toward peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals, lysosomal membrane stability and genotoxic effects measured as DNA strand breaks and frequency of micronuclei. Obtained results indicated that a general disturbance was already present in the whole harbour area and especially in the inner site before the beginning of operations, when caged mussels exhibited a significant accumulation of PAHs and Pb, lower TOSC values and higher levels of both lysosomal and genotoxic damages. Bioavailability of trace metals and PAHs markedly increased during dredging activities with values up to 40 μg/g for Pb and up to 2200 ng/g for PAHs in tissues of caged mussels, a significant inhibition of antioxidant

  20. Coupled hydro - transport analysis study of geochemical reaction due to unsaturated around the disposal tunnel. Application of the coupled thermo - hydro - mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes model/analysis code in the geological disposal for the high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) around the disposal tunnel affects such as the corrosive environment of the over-pack, re-saturation period of the buffer material, and environmental condition of the nuclear species migration on the geological disposal for the high-level radioactive waste (HLW). It is necessary to consider aftermath of EDZ in initial condition of the realistic numerical simulation of the long-term behavior of near-filed HLW repository after emplacement of engineered barrier system. This report presents the analysis assessment geochemical reaction with the development of the unsaturated zone around the disposal tunnel by developed the coupled Thermo - Hydro - Mechanical and Chemical (THMC) processes model/analysis code. As a result, the THMC processes analysis model apply a change of the solution composition by degasification of the carbon dioxide gas to the pore water and the change of the oxidation-reduction potential due to unsaturated zone around the disposal tunnel. (author)

  1. 77 FR 9652 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Lake Linden Superfund Site in Lake...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Lake Linden Superfund Site in Lake Linden... administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the Lake Linden Superfund Site in Lake..., Chicago, Illinois, C-14J, 60604, (312) 886-6609. Comments should reference the Lake Linden Superfund...

  2. Superfund TIO videos: Set B. Financial management and SCAP. Part 8. Audio-Visual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The videotape covers various aspects of financial management for the Superfund Program. The importance of effective financial management and execution is discussed. The objectives and definitions of the Superfund Comprehensive Accomplishment Plan (SCAP) and the roles and responsibilities of Superfund personnel in the SCAP process are covered

  3. 78 FR 729 - Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... AGENCY Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... concerning a previous Removal Action at the Ellman Battery Superfund Site located in Orlando, Orange County.... Submit your comments by Site name Ellman Battery Superfund Site by one of the following methods:...

  4. 75 FR 53694 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... AGENCY Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlement... costs concerning the Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site located in Davie, Broward County... Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site by one of the following methods: http://www.regulations.gov :...

  5. 76 FR 38389 - Caraleigh Phosphate and Fertlizer Works Superfund Site; Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... AGENCY Caraleigh Phosphate and Fertlizer Works Superfund Site; Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of... response costs concerning the Caraleigh Phosphate and Fertilizer Works Superfund Site located in Raleigh...-0534 or Site name Caraleigh Phosphate and Fertilizer Works Superfund Site by one of the...

  6. Superfund at work: Hazardous waste cleanup efforts nationwide, fall 1992. (CIBA-GEIGY Corporation, McIntosh, Alabama)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 31, 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reached an agreement with Ciba-Geigy Corporation in McIntosh, Alabama to clean up soil and ground water contaminated by DDT, herbicides, and chemicals. The agreement is one of the largest private party settlements in Superfund history, valued at approximately $120 million. EPA activities at the site included: conducting preliminary contamination investigations jointly with the Alabama Environmental Health Administration, beginning in 1979; designing a multi-phased cleanup that is responsive to the complex nature of the contamination and reduces potential risk to the local population and environment; and awarding a grant to a community group to help them participate in cleanup decisions. Ciba-Geigy, like EPA, has made consistent efforts to build and maintain good relations with the community. These efforts demonstrate the increasing trend toward cooperation between industries, local communities, and EPA at Superfund sites

  7. 1992 update of US EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Emerging Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Emerging Technology Program (ETP) has financially supported further development of bench- and pilot-scale testing and evaluation of innovative technologies for use at hazardous waste sites for five years. The ETP was established under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The ETP complies with the goal of the SITE Program to promote, accelerate and make commercially available the development of alternative/innovative treatment technologies for use at Superfund sites. Technologies are submitted to the ETP through yearly solicitations for Preproposals. Applicants are asked to submit a detailed project proposal and a cooperative agreement application that requires Developer/EPA cost sharing. EPA co-funds selected Developers for one to two years. Second-year funding requires documentation of significant progress during the first year. Facilities, equipment, data collection, performance and development are monitored throughout the project. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Air Force (USAF) are participants in the ETP. DOE has co-funded ETP projects since 1990 and the USAF since 1991. A goal of the ETP is to move developed technologies to the field-demonstration stage. A developer may be considered for participation in the SITE Demonstration Program if performance in the ETP indicates the technology is field-ready for evaluation. Six technology categories: biological, chemical, materials handling, physical, solidification/stabilization and thermal, are presently in the ETP. Technologies of primary interest to EPA are those that can treat complex mixtures of hazardous organic and inorganic contaminants and provide improved solids handling and/or pretreatment. An account of the background and progress of the ETP's first five years is presented in this paper. Technologies currently in the ETP are noted, and developers and EPA Project Managers, are listed. 4 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Chemical decomposition of high-level nuclear waste storage/disposal glasses under irradiation. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The objective of this project is to employ the technique of electron spin resonance (ESR), in conjunction with other experimental methods, to study radiation-induced decomposition of vitreous compositions proposed for immobilization/disposal of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) or excess weapons plutonium. ESR is capable of identifying, even at the parts-per-million level, displaced atoms, ruptured bonds, and free radicals created by radiation in such glassy forms. For example, one of the scientific goals is to determine whether ESR-detectable superoxide (O2-) and ozonide (O3-) ions are precursors of radiation-induced oxygen gas bubbles reported by other investigators. The fundamental understandings obtained in this study will enable reliable predictions of the long-term effects of and decays of the immobilized radionuclides on HLW glasses. This report represents the results of an 18-month effort performed under a 3-year research award. Four categories of materials were studied: (1) several actual and proposed HLW glass compositions fabricated at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), samples of which had been irradiated to a dose of 30 MGy (1 Gy = 100 rad) to simulate decay effects, (2) several high-iron phosphate glasses fabricated at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), (3) one other model HLW glass and several simulated natural glasses which had been implanted with 160-keV He+ ions to simulate-decay damage, and (4) an actual geological glass damaged by decays of trace amounts of contained 238U and 232Th over a period of 65 Myears. Among the category-1 materials were two samples of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) borosilicate glasses modeling compositions currently being used to vitrify HLW at SRTC. The ESR spectra recorded for the unirradiated DWPF-glass simulants were attributable to Fe 3+ ions. The 30-MGy irradiation was found to change the Fe3+ concentration of these glasses by a statistically insignificant factor (0.987 261 0.050) and not to

  9. Chemical decomposition of high-level nuclear waste storage/disposal glasses under irradiation. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griscom, D.L.; Merzbacher, C.I.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this project is to employ the technique of electron spin resonance (ESR), in conjunction with other experimental methods, to study radiation-induced decomposition of vitreous compositions proposed for immobilization/disposal of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) or excess weapons plutonium. ESR is capable of identifying, even at the parts-per-million level, displaced atoms, ruptured bonds, and free radicals created by radiation in such glassy forms. For example, one of the scientific goals is to determine whether ESR-detectable superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup -}) and ozonide (O{sub 3}{sup -}) ions are precursors of radiation-induced oxygen gas bubbles reported by other investigators. The fundamental understandings obtained in this study will enable reliable predictions of the long-term effects of and decays of the immobilized radionuclides on HLW glasses. This report represents the results of an 18-month effort performed under a 3-year research award. Four categories of materials were studied: (1) several actual and proposed HLW glass compositions fabricated at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), samples of which had been irradiated to a dose of 30 MGy (1 Gy = 100 rad) to simulate decay effects, (2) several high-iron phosphate glasses fabricated at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), (3) one other model HLW glass and several simulated natural glasses which had been implanted with 160-keV He{sup +} ions to simulate-decay damage, and (4) an actual geological glass damaged by decays of trace amounts of contained {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th over a period of 65 Myears. Among the category-1 materials were two samples of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) borosilicate glasses modeling compositions currently being used to vitrify HLW at SRTC. The ESR spectra recorded for the unirradiated DWPF-glass simulants were attributable to Fe 3{sup +} ions. The 30-MGy irradiation was found to change the Fe{sup 3+} concentration of these glasses by a

  10. The Role of the Two-Component System BaeSR in Disposing Chemicals through Regulating Transporter Systems in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Feng Lin

    Full Text Available Bacterial two-component regulatory systems (TCSs facilitate changes in gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. TCS BaeR regulons influence tigecycline susceptibility in Acinetobacter baumannii through positively regulating the pump genes adeA and adeB. In this study, we demonstrate that an additional two transport systems, AdeIJK and MacAB-TolC, are also regulated by BaeSR. In the wild type and clinical tigecycline-resistant A. baumannii strains, gene expression of AdeIJK and MacAB-TolC increased after tigecycline induction, implicating their importance to tigecycline resistance in addition to AdeABC. Phenotypic microarray results showed that A. baumannii is vulnerable to certain chemicals, especially tannic acid, after deleting baeR, which was confirmed using the spot assay. The wild-type strain of A. baumannii also exhibited 1.6-fold and 4.4-fold increase in gene expression of adeJ and macB in the medium with 100 μg/mL tannic acid, but the increase was fully inhibited by baeR deletion. An electrophoretic motility shift assay based on an interaction between His-BaeR and the adeA, adeI and macA promoter regions did not demonstrate direct binding. In conclusion, A. baumannii can use the TCS BaeSR in disposing chemicals, such as tannic acid and tigecycline, through regulating the efflux pumps.

  11. The role of rock in chemical and isotopic composition of groundwater in the vicinity of radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research results of the hydrodynamic situation, as well as the chemical and isotopic compositions of target aquifers in the vicinity of radioactive waste storage are considered. The surpassing of water quality standards for Ra- 226, α-activity, Si, Fe, F, and some heavy metals was detected in target Upper Carboniferous aquifers. It was ascertained that the main reason for these changes was disturbance of hydrodynamic conditions as a result of withdrawal enhancement. Intensification of water-rock interactions caused the values of Ra-226 and a-activity to increase in target aquifers, because the main natural sources of Ra-226 are water-bearing rocks containing flints with natural radioactivity and overlying Jurassic layers containing phosphorite. Descending or ascending groundwater leakage caused contaminant incursion from the adjacent aquifers. (authors)

  12. Long-term effects of gypsiferous coal combustion ash applied at disposal levels on soil chemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, there is renewed interest in the agricultural utilization of coal combustion byproducts. Field sites where high rates (112 Mg) ha-1 of high gypsum coal combustion spent bed ashes were surface applied in 1980 within fruit tree orchard rows were identified and sampled with depth. The objective of this study was to examine the effects on long-term exposure/leaching of these mateials on soil profile chemical properties. When applied, the material had an aqueous pH of 12.5 and consisted of about 52% calcium sulfate, 33% calcium oxide and 15% coal ash residues. Eleven years after ash applications, soil pH is significantly higher in the top 66 cm of the treated sites compared to unamended sites. This has been accompanied by increases in extractable and total calcium and total boron and sulfur with a concomitant reduction in extractable magnesium. Remaining pieces of the applied spent bed material are composed primarily of calcite and quartz with some gypsum associated with large pieces

  13. Chemical decomposition of high-level nuclear waste storage/disposal glasses under irradiation. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The objective of this research is to use the sensitive technique of electron spin resonance (ESR) to look for evidence of radiation-induced chemical decomposition of vitreous forms contemplated for immobilization of plutonium and/or high-level nuclear wastes, to interpret this evidence in terms of existing knowledge of glass structure, and to recommend certain materials for further study by other techniques, particularly electron microscopy and measurements of gas evolution by high-vacuum mass spectroscopy. Previous ESR studies had demonstrated that an effect of y rays on a simple binary potassium silicate glass was to induce superoxide (O2-) and ozonide (O3-) as relatively stable product of long-term irradiation Accordingly, some of the first experiments performed as a part of the present effort involved repeating this work. A glass of composition 44 K2O: 56 SiO2 was prepared from reagent grade K2CO3 and SiO2 powders melted in a Pt crucible in air at 1,200 C for 1.5 hr. A sample irradiated to a dose of 1 MGy (1 MGy = 108 rad) indeed yielded the same ESR results as before. To test the notion that the complex oxygen ions detected may be harbingers of radiation-induced phase separation or bubble formation, a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiment was performed. SANS is theoretically capable of detecting voids or bubbles as small as 10 305 in diameter. A preliminary experiment was carried out with the collaboration of Dr. John Barker (NIST). The SANS spectra for the irradiated and unirradiated samples were indistiguishable. A relatively high incoherent background (probably due to the presence of protons) may obscure scattering from small gas bubbles and therefore decrease the effective resolution of this technique. No further SANS experiments are planned at this time.'

  14. Chemical decomposition of high-level nuclear waste storage/disposal glasses under irradiation. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griscom, D.L.; Merzbacher, C.I.

    1997-01-01

    'The objective of this research is to use the sensitive technique of electron spin resonance (ESR) to look for evidence of radiation-induced chemical decomposition of vitreous forms contemplated for immobilization of plutonium and/or high-level nuclear wastes, to interpret this evidence in terms of existing knowledge of glass structure, and to recommend certain materials for further study by other techniques, particularly electron microscopy and measurements of gas evolution by high-vacuum mass spectroscopy. Previous ESR studies had demonstrated that an effect of y rays on a simple binary potassium silicate glass was to induce superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup -}) and ozonide (O{sub 3}{sup -}) as relatively stable product of long-term irradiation Accordingly, some of the first experiments performed as a part of the present effort involved repeating this work. A glass of composition 44 K{sub 2}O: 56 SiO{sub 2} was prepared from reagent grade K{sub 2}CO3 and SiO{sub 2} powders melted in a Pt crucible in air at 1,200 C for 1.5 hr. A sample irradiated to a dose of 1 MGy (1 MGy = 10{sup 8} rad) indeed yielded the same ESR results as before. To test the notion that the complex oxygen ions detected may be harbingers of radiation-induced phase separation or bubble formation, a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiment was performed. SANS is theoretically capable of detecting voids or bubbles as small as 10 \\305 in diameter. A preliminary experiment was carried out with the collaboration of Dr. John Barker (NIST). The SANS spectra for the irradiated and unirradiated samples were indistiguishable. A relatively high incoherent background (probably due to the presence of protons) may obscure scattering from small gas bubbles and therefore decrease the effective resolution of this technique. No further SANS experiments are planned at this time.'

  15. 40 CFR 35.6800 - Superfund State Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Superfund State Contract. 35.6800 Section 35.6800 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... for a remedial action at a site within the State and before EPA or a political subdivision can...

  16. Chemical and isotopic characterization of water-rock interactions in shales induced by the intrusion of a basaltic dike: A natural analogue for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal of nuclear waste in deep geological formations is expected to induce thermal fluxes for hundreds of years with maximum temperature reaching about 100-150 deg. C in the nearfield argillaceous environment. The long-term behavior of clays subjected to such thermal gradients needs to be perfectly understood in safety assessment considerations. In this respect, a Toarcian argillaceous unit thermally disturbed by the intrusion of a 1.1-m wide basaltic dike at the Perthus pass (Herault, France), was studied in detail as a natural analogue. The thermal imprint induced by the dike was evaluated by a mineralogical, chemical and K-Ar study of the <2 μm clay fraction of shale samples collected at increasing distance from the basalt. The data suggest that the mineral composition of the shales was not significantly disturbed when the temperature was below 100-150 deg. C. Closer to the dike at 150-300 deg. C, changes such as progressive dissolution of chlorite and kaolinite, increased content of the mixed layers illite-smectite with more illite layers, complete decalcification and subsequent increased content of quartz, were found. At the eastern contact with the dike, the mineral and chemical compositions of both the shales and the basalt suggest water-rock interactions subsequent to the intrusion with precipitation of palagonite and renewed but discrete deposition of carbonate. A pencil cleavage developed in the shales during the dike emplacement probably favored water circulation along the contact. Strontium isotopic data suggest that the fluids of probable meteoric origin, reacted with Bathonian and Bajocian limestones before entering the underlying Toarcian shales. By analogy with deep geological radioactive waste repositories, the results report discrete mineralogical variations of the clays when subjected to temperatures of 100-150 deg. C that are expected in deep storage conditions. Beyond 150 deg. C, significant mineralogical changes may alter the physical and

  17. Disposable rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  18. Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 1997 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near-and far field studies

  19. 75 FR 38100 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Hazardous Substance Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....gov . Introduction The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund Hazardous... Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, and National Institute of Biomedical Imaging...

  20. The Political Production of Superfund: Some Financial Market Results

    OpenAIRE

    Brett Dalton; David Riggs; Bruce Yandle

    1996-01-01

    In this article, we assess the prospective effects of different legislative packages by examining how financial markets reacted to alternate proposals and the final law. The use of financial markets analysis provides at least one avenue for identifying interest groups that won and lost as the major features of proposed legislation were modified. The analysis indirectly determines who pays for Superfund. Significant shareholder losses indicate shareholders pay. By contrast, the absence of weal...

  1. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  2. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  3. Korean Reference HLW Disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. S. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report outlines the results related to the development of Korean Reference Disposal System for High-level radioactive wastes. The research has been supported around for 10 years through a long-term research plan by MOST. The reference disposal method was selected via the first stage of the research during which the technical guidelines for the geological disposal of HLW were determined too. At the second stage of the research, the conceptual design of the reference disposal system was made. For this purpose the characteristics of the reference spent fuels from PWR and CANDU reactors were specified, and the material and specifications of the canisters were determined in term of structural analysis and manufacturing capability in Korea. Also, the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the domestic Ca-bentonite were analyzed in order to supply the basic design parameters of the buffer. Based on these parameters the thermal and mechanical analysis of the near-field was carried out. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical behavior of the disposal system was analyzed. The reference disposal system was proposed through the second year research. At the final third stage of the research, the Korean Reference disposal System including the engineered barrier, surface facilities, and underground facilities was proposed through the performance analysis of the disposal system.

  4. 75 FR 81269 - Ward Transformer Superfund Site Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... AGENCY Ward Transformer Superfund Site Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlements AGENCY... Ward Transformer Superfund Site located in Raleigh, Wake County, North Carolina for publication. DATES... your comments, identified by Docket ID No. EPA-RO4- SFUND-2010-1053 or Site name Ward...

  5. 78 FR 14543 - Ward Transformer Superfund Site; Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... AGENCY Ward Transformer Superfund Site; Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Agency has entered into a settlement at the Ward Transformer Superfund Site located in Raleigh, Wake... EPA Region 4 contact Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Ward...

  6. Smart moves in superfund - revitalization one year later. Volume 1, Number 3, January 1993. Bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of the Smart Moves in Superfund bulletin series provides an update on the revitalization effort, highlighting National Priorities List (NPL) construction completions, accelerating cleanup, the Superfund Accelerated Cleanup Model, risk assessment/risk management, contracts management, enforcement policy/equity, interagency cooperation, public forms, and state meetings

  7. Air/superfund national technical guidance study series. Volume 4. Guidance for ambient air monitoring at superfund sites (revised). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the results of an EPA-sponsored study to develop guidance for designing and conducting ambient air monitoring at Superfund sites. By law, all exposure pathways - including the air pathway - must be evaluated for every Superfund site; therefore, some level of ambient air monitoring usually is necessary at each site. The document offers technical guidance for use by a diverse audience, including EPA Air and Superfund Regional and Headquarters staff, State Air and Superfund staff, federal and state remedial and removal contractors, and potentially responsible parties. The manual is written to serve the needs of individuals with various levels of scientific training and experience in selecting and using ambient air monitoring methods in support of air pathway assessments

  8. A summary of chemical and biological testing of proposed disposal of sediment from Richmond Harbor relative to the Deep Off-Shelf Reference Area, the Bay Farm Borrow Area, and the Alcatraz Environs Reference Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhew, H.L.; Karle, L.M.; Gruendell, B.D.; Pinza, M.R. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers was authorized to dredge Richmond Harbor to accomodate large, deep-draft vessels. An ecological evaluation of the Harbor sediments was performed describing the physical characteristics, toxic substances, effects on aquatic organisms,and potential for bioaccumulation of chemical contaminants. The objective of this report is to compare the sediment chemistry, acute toxicity, and bioaccumulation results of the Richmond Harbor sediments to each of the reference areas; i.e., the Deep Off-Shelf Reference Area, the Bay Farm Borrow Area, and the Alcatraz Environs Reference Area. This report will enable the US Army Corps of Engineers to determine whether disposal at a reference area is appropriate for all or part of the dredged material from Richmond Harbor. Chemical analyses were performed on 30 sediment samples; 28 of those samples were then combined to form 7 composites. The seven composites plus sediment from two additional stations received both chemical and biological evaluations.

  9. Are typical plains state towns potential superfund sites?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A typical plains town (Hastings, population 23,000) in south-central Nebraska was the subject of a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS). This town was classified as a Superfund site in 1985. The RI/FS consisted of installing 40 monitoring wells, drilling 111 exploratory boreholes, and analyzing numerous soil, soil gas, and ground-water samples. As the picture unfolded, it became evident that this Superfund site is probably typical of any agricultural community in the plains states. The site is approximately 3.25 miles long, 0.5 mile wide, and is centered on the intersection of two major rail lines. The site was segmented into seven subsites based on identified sources of ground-water contamination. Each source could represent an operation typical of small towns located on the plains. Two of the subsites were designated because of fumigant releases at former and current grain storage facilities; one of these subsites also experienced a solvent release from a manufacturing facility. A third subsite was designated because of a solvent release. This subsite was adjacent to a fourth subsite containing the residuals of a former coal gasification operation. Another two subsites were former landfills. The seventh subsite, a former Navy Ammunition Depot located outside of town, is not typical of most towns in the plains states. This subsite is currently an industrial complex. Contaminant releases have been identified on this subsite that are the result of former ammunition operations and some current operations. Ground-water contaminant configuration is very complicated in that the site ground-water contaminant plume is the commingling of six major contaminants forming five separate plumes. Given the overall similarity in the physiographic conditions, geologic formations, hydrogeology, and farming related industries/operations, we believe that HaStings may not be unique and other typical plains state towns have the potential to become Superfund sites

  10. Waste disposal: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of high level radioactive waste disposal is analyzed, suggesting an alternative for the final waste disposal from irradiated fuel elements. A methodology for determining the temperature field around an underground disposal facility is presented. (E.G.)

  11. Analysis and Disposal of Organic Pollutants in Waste Soil Chemical Pollution Accident Risk%化工污染事故危险废土中有机污染物的分析与处置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧敏; 王晓毅; 时治富

    2012-01-01

    以(某)化工公司污染事故为例,针对危险固废中主要污染物进行了测试分析和危险特性鉴别,通过对污染土壤焚烧实验研究,着重分析讨论了各种处置方法的优缺点,结果表明,利用民生砖厂隧道窑配制烧砖处置方案较好,通过实际应用,取得了良好效果。%Take a chemical company's pollution accident for example, after the accident of pollution, the test analysis and identification of hazardous properties is made for the major pollutants in the contaminated waste soil. The selection of incineration parameters of contaminated soil is studied and analyzed. Further exploration and study of environmental emergency disposal solution of pollution soil is made, so to provide a soild waste disposal methods for dealing with hazardous waste soil in chemical company pollution acci- dent.

  12. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Superfund Sites, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Superfund Sites as part of the CIMC web service. EPA works with DoD to facilitate the reuse...

  13. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Federal facilities that are also Superfund sites, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Federal facilities are properties owned by the federal government. This data layer provides access to Federal facilities that are Superfund sites as part of the...

  14. Ensuring the adequacy of cost share provisions in superfund state contracts. Directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The memorandum requests regional offices to re-examine existing Superfund State Contracts (SSCs) for Fund-financed remedial actions to verify that they adequately reflect incurred and projected remedial action costs

  15. Strategic planning for waste management: Characterization of chemically and radioactively hazardous waste and treatment, storage, and disposal capabilities for diverse and varied multisite operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information about current and projected waste generation as well as available treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) capabilities and needs is crucial for effective, efficient, and safe waste management. This is especially true for large corporations that are responsible for multisite operations involving diverse and complex industrial processes. Such information is necessary not only for day-to-day operations, but also for strategic planning to ensure safe future performance. This paper reports on some methods developed and successfully applied to obtain requisite information and to assist waste management planning at the corporate level in a nationwide system of laboratories and industries. Waste generation and TSD capabilities at selected US Department of Energy (DOE) sites were studied. 1 ref., 2 tabs

  16. Growth, Structural and Optical Characterization of ZnO Nanotubes on Disposable-Flexible Paper Substrates by Low-Temperature Chemical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Soomro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of vertically aligned ZnO nanotubes (NTs on paper substrates by low-temperature hydrothermal method. The growth of ZnO NTs on the paper substrate is discussed; further, the structural and optical properties are investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and cathodoluminescence (CL, and it was found that the ZnO NTs on paper substrate fulfill the structural and optical properties of ZnO NTs grown on other conventional substrates. This will be more beneficial in future usage of ZnO NTs in different fields and applications. Particularly, this approach opens the ways in research and development for high volume manufacturing of low-cost, flexible optoelectronics devices on disposable paper substrates and can be used in the future miniaturization trends.

  17. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  18. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ''waste,'' but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity

  19. Radioactive Water Treatment at a United States Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Site - 12322

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A water treatment system at a United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Superfund site impacted by radiological contaminants is used to treat water entering the site. The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is actively managing the remedial action for the USEPA using contracts to support the multiple activities on site. The site is where former gas mantle production facilities operated around the turn of the century. The manufacturing facilities used thorium ores to develop the mantles and disposed of off-specification mantles and ore residuals in the surrounding areas. During Site remedial actions, both groundwater and surface water comes into contact with contaminated soils and must be collected and treated at an on-site treatment facility. The radionuclides thorium and radium with associated progeny are the main concern for treatment. Suspended solids, volatile organic compounds, and select metals are also monitored during water treatment. The water treatment process begins were water is pumped to a collection tank where debris and grit settle out. Stored water is pumped to a coagulant tank containing poly-aluminum chloride to collect dissolved solids. The water passes into a reaction tube where aspirated air is added or reagent added to remove Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC'S) by mass transfer and convert dissolved iron to a solid. The water enters the flocculent polymer tank to drop solids out. The flocculated water overflows to a fluidized bed contact chamber to increase precipitation. Flocculation is where colloids of material drop out of suspension and settle. The settled solids are periodically removed and disposed of as radioactive waste. The water is passed through filters and an ion exchange process to extract the radionuclides. Several million liters of water are processed each year from two water treatment plants servicing different areas of the remediation site. Ion exchange resin and filter material are periodically replaced

  20. Proposed plan for the United Nuclear Corporation Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with Section 117(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, is releasing the proposed plan for remedial action at the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Disposal Site located at the DOE Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of this document is to present and solicit for comment to the public and all interested parties the ''preferred plan'' to remediate the UNC Disposal Site. However, comments on all alternatives are invited

  1. Low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final disposal of low level wastes has been carried out for 15 years on the shallow land disposal of the Manche in the north west of France. Final participant in the nuclear energy cycle, ANDRA has set up a new waste management system from the production center (organization of the waste collection) to the disposal site including the setting up of a transport network, the development of assessment, additional conditioning, interim storage, the management of the disposal center, records of the location and characteristics of the disposed wastes, site selection surveys for future disposals and a public information Department. 80 000 waste packages representing a volume of 20 000 m3 are thus managed and disposed of each year on the shallow land disposal. The disposal of low level wastes is carried out according to their category and activity level: - in tumuli for very low level wastes, - in monoliths, a concrete structure, of the packaging does not provide enough protection against radioactivity

  2. Maxey Flats low-level waste disposal site closure activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Maxey Flats Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Fleming County, Kentucky is in the process of being closed. The facility opened for commercial business in the spring of 1963 and received approximately 4.75 million cubic feet of radioactive waste by the time it was closed in December of 1977. During fourteen years of operation approximately 2.5 million curies of by-product material, 240,000 kilograms of source material, and 430 kilograms of special nuclear material were disposed. The Commonwealth purchased the lease hold estate and rights in May 1978 from the operating company. This action was taken to stabilize the facility and prepare it for closure consisting of passive care and monitoring. To prepare the site for closure, a number of remedial activities had to be performed. The remediation activities implemented have included erosion control, surface drainage modifications, installation of a temporary plastic surface cover, leachate removal, analysis, treatment and evaporation, US DOE funded evaporator concentrates solidification project and their on-site disposal in an improved disposal trench with enhanced cover for use in a humid environment situated in a fractured geology, performance evaluation of a grout injection demonstration, USGS subsurface geologic investigation, development of conceptual closure designs, and finally being added to the US EPA National Priority List for remediation and closure under Superfund. 13 references, 3 figures

  3. U.S. EPA Superfund Program's Policy for Community Involvement at Radioactively Contaminated Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the Superfund program's statutory requirements for community involvement. It also discusses the efforts the Superfund program has made that go beyond these statutory requirements to involve communities. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) implements the Superfund program under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). From the beginning of the Superfund program, Congress envisioned a role for communities. This role has evolved and expanded during the implementation of the Superfund program. Initially, the CERCLA statute had community involvement requirements designed to inform surrounding communities of the work being done at a site. CERCLA's provisions required 1) development of a community relations plan for each site, 2) establishment of information repositories near each site where all publicly available materials related to the site would be accessible for public inspection, 3) opportunities for the public to comment on the proposed remedy for each site and 4) development of a responsiveness summary responding to all significant comments received on the proposed remedy. In recognition of the need for people living near Superfund sites to be well-informed and involved with decisions concerning sites in their communities, SARA expanded Superfund's community involvement activities in 1986. SARA provided the authority to award Technical Assistance Grants (TAGs) to local communities enabling them to hire independent technical advisors to assist them in understanding technical issues and data about the site. The Superfund Community Involvement Program has sought to effectively implement the statutory community involvement requirements, and to go beyond those requirements to find meaningful ways to involve citizens in the cleanup of sites in their communities. We've structured our program around

  4. Developing biological and chemical methods for environmental monitoring of DOE waste disposal and storage facilities. Progress report, November 1, 1984-March 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purposed projects are under study to: (1) develop cost effective methods to monitor pollutant discharge from waste storage and disposal sites; (2) assess the effects of pollutant discharge on the terrestrial microbiological environment; and (3) develop microbial strains that can concentrate and/or metabolize pollutants. To achieve these goals we are isolating bacteria from various sites polluted with heavy metals, radionuclides, and/or organic compounds. We are characterizing the microbial activities of these polluted sites to provide clues to both indicators of pollution and alterations caused by the pollutants. In addition we are developing systems for the biological precipitation or transformation of pollutants or for bioconcentration, with the ultimate goal of being able to detoxify the pollutants or to reduce the volume of contaminated material significantly. To date we have isolated a variety of soil bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi. Many of them have been identified, and experiments are under way to characterize their responses to pollutants including heavy metals and halogenated hydrocarbons. The results of these studies are summarized below. 1 fig., 6 tabs

  5. Waste package degradation from thermal and chemical processes in performance assessments for the Yucca Mountain disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes modeling of waste container degradation in performance assessments conducted between 1984 and 2008 to evaluate feasibility, viability, and assess compliance of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As understanding of the Yucca Mountain disposal system increased, modeling of container degradation evolved from a component of the source term in 1984 to a separate module describing both container and drip shield degradation in 2008. A thermal module for evaluating the influence of higher heat loads from more closely packed, large waste packages was also introduced. In addition, a module for evaluating drift chemistry was added in later PAs to evaluate the potential for localized corrosion of the outer barrier of the waste container composed of Alloy 22, a highly corrosion-resistant nickel–chromium–tungsten–molybdenum alloy. The uncertainty of parameters related to container degradation contributed significantly to the estimated uncertainty of performance measures (cumulative release in assessments prior to 1995 and individual dose, thereafter). - Highlights: • Progression of container modeling from an assumption of complete failure before 1993 to a stochastic description after 1995 is described. • Introduction of thermal-hydrologic model to examine interaction between the engineered and natural barrier, and container degradation is described. • The introduction of a water chemistry module to evaluate the possibility of localized corrosion of the container is described. • The addition of seismic damage models to evaluate container damage from drift degradation and container movement is described

  6. 钚在某处置工程屏障水环境中化学形态及影响因素%Chemical Forms and Influence Factors of Plutonium in Environmental Water of a Disposal Engineering Barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马应明; 何艺峰; 李哲; 刘莉; 刘艳; 石建芳

    2013-01-01

    Aimed at backfill structure in the engineering barrier of a certain disposal project,the geochemical modeling software,EQ3/6,was applied to simulate chemical forms of plutonium based on results of barrier samples leaching by the fracture water and chemical analysis of leaching samples.Results showed that the form of plutonium was Pu(OH)5-in Pu(Ⅳ)valence state.Changes of pH and Eh values in environmental water will affect the forms and valence state of plutonium.%针对某放射性废物包装容器回填处置工程屏障结构特征,采用岩体裂隙水浸泡工程屏障样品的方式,在对各平衡水样化学成分分析的基础上,利用地球化学模拟软件EQ3/6对钚在回填工程屏障水环境中的存在化学形态进行了模拟计算,得出钚在回填工程屏障水环境中主要以Pu(Ⅳ)价态Pu(OH)5形式存在,同时水环境中pH值和Eh值的变化皆会影响钚的存在化学形态和价态.

  7. Problems of radioactive waste disposal in cryolithozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers the problems of utilizing perennially frozen rocks as host medium for underground disposal of radwaste. Peculiarities of mechanical, thermal and chemical interaction of radwaste with frozen ground are shown. Significant differences in the impact of low-, intermediate- and high-active waste on the geological environment of cryolithozone are established; the differences require a mathematical modeling of thermal interaction of heat emitting radwaste with frozen soils. The investigations show that a long-term reliable disposal of radwaste in the frozen rock formations is feasible and, according to many indicators, is more preferable as compared to the disposal in nonfrozen rock formations. 15 refs., 10 figs

  8. Case history: Vertical barrier wall system for Superfund Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design considerations and construction aspects are presented for the installation of a vertical barrier wall system for the Boeing Company at a Superfund Site near Seattle, WA. The construction was performed during 1996. The vertical barrier wall system included: (1) a soil-bentonite (SB) slurry wall, approximately 670 meters (2200 feet) in length, ranging from 12 to 21 meters (40 to 70 feet) in depth; (2) expansion of a cover system over the area enclosed by the SB wall; and (3) surface drainage improvements. Design and construction of the system addressed requirements of a Consent Decree for the site issued in 1993. The paper discusses the development of the design to meet remedial performance goals of preventing migration of contaminants in the soil/groundwater system and aiding aquifer restoration. Secondly, the paper details installation of the SB wall, highlighting the more significant construction issues, which included excavation of the wall through glacially deposited cobbles/boulders/till as well as addressing the severe elevation changes along the wall alignment. Thirdly, the paper presents Quality Assurance (QA) monitoring and testing performed during the construction phase

  9. Safe disposal of surplus plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W. L.; Naz, S.; Lutze, W.; Busch, R.; Prinja, A.; Stoll, W.

    2001-06-01

    About 150 tons of weapons grade and weapons usable plutonium (metal, oxide, and in residues) have been declared surplus in the USA and Russia. Both countries plan to convert the metal and oxide into mixed oxide fuel for nuclear power reactors. Russia has not yet decided what to do with the residues. The US will convert residues into a ceramic, which will then be over-poured with highly radioactive borosilicate glass. The radioactive glass is meant to provide a deterrent to recovery of plutonium, as required by a US standard. Here we show a waste form for plutonium residues, zirconia/boron carbide (ZrO 2/B 4C), with an unprecedented combination of properties: a single, radiation-resistant, and chemically durable phase contains the residues; billion-year-old natural analogs are available; and criticality safety is given under all conceivable disposal conditions. ZrO 2/B 4C can be disposed of directly, without further processing, making it attractive to all countries facing the task of plutonium disposal. The US standard for protection against recovery can be met by disposal of the waste form together with used reactor fuel.

  10. Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Requirements publication applies to the disposal of radioactive waste of all types by means of emplacement in designed disposal facilities, subject to the necessary limitations and controls being placed on the disposal of the waste and on the development, operation and closure of facilities. The classification of radioactive waste is discussed. This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements to provide assurance of the radiation safety of the disposal of radioactive waste, in the operation of a disposal facility and especially after its closure. The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. This is achieved by setting requirements on the site selection and evaluation and design of a disposal facility, and on its construction, operation and closure, including organizational and regulatory requirements.

  11. 粉煤灰场复垦地肥力状况及对土壤理化性质的影响%Reclaimed Soil Fertility and Its Response to the Physical-Chemical Properties in Fly Ash Disposal Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长垒; 严家平; 陈孝杨

    2013-01-01

    选择安徽省淮南市上窑镇粉煤灰处置场覆土复垦地为研究区域,测定覆土厚度和土壤剖面各层的容重、pH、含水量、有机质等理化性质,土壤总氮、有效磷、速效钾等养分含量,以及冬小麦抽穗期的生物量,研究粉煤灰处置场复垦土壤理化性质及其与土壤养分的相关性,不同覆土厚度复垦地冬小麦生长的差异性.结果表明,粉煤灰场复垦地土壤总氮含量约0.90 g/kg,有效磷和速效钾含量分别为12~76 mg/kg、114~135 mg/kg,土壤肥力与作物生长状况和自然农业土壤相比差异不显著;除复垦土壤厚度、容重、含水量对有效磷含量影响显著外,其余土壤养分与土壤理化性质和表土厚度的相关性不强.%The reclaimed field of fly ash disposal sites was selected as the research area in Shaoyao,Huainan.The cover soil thickness,some soil physico-chemical properties (bulk density,water content,pH and organic matter),soil nutrients (total nitrogen,available phosphorus and available potassium) and winter wheat biomass in heading stage were determined,and the correlation of the reclaimed soil physico-chemical properties and its nutrient was analyzed in fly ash disposal sites.The winter wheat growth differences were also studied under different coversoil thickness conditions.The results showed that the total nitrogen content was about 900 mg/kg in reclaimed soil of fly ash disposal sites,the content of available phosphorus and available potassium was 12~76mg/kg and 114~135 mg/kg respectively.The soil fertility and crop growth conditions were not significant difference with natural agricultural soils.The available phosphorus content and reclaimed soil bulk density,water content had a significant correlation.In addition,the response relationship between the reclaimed soil fertility and its properties,topsoil thickness was not obvious.

  12. Radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The responsibilities of the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and Ministry policy on radioactive waste disposal are described. The disposal of solid radioactive waste at sea is subject to detailed safeguards developed within two international agreements to which the United Kingdom is a contracting party. The agreements are discussed together with a research and monitoring programme to provide scientific data for informed decisions on waste disposal authorisations and dumping licences. (U.K.)

  13. TECHNO – ECONOMIC ACCEPTABILITY ANALISYS OF WASTE DISPOSAL BY INJECTION INTO APPROPRIATE FORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Vladislav Brkić; Daria Karasalihović Sedlar

    2013-01-01

    During exploration and production of oil and natural gas, various types of waste must be disposed in a permanent and safe way. There is a range of methods for processing and disposal of waste, such as disposal into landfills, solidification, namely chemical stabilization, thermal processing, appropriate formation injections uncovered by a deep well, disposal into salt domes and bioremediation. The method of waste disposal into appropriate formations is a method where strict geological and tec...

  14. 33 CFR 165.905 - USX Superfund Site Safety Zones: St. Louis River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false USX Superfund Site Safety Zones: St. Louis River. 165.905 Section 165.905 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  15. Superfund TIO videos: Set C. Innovative technologies and the site program. Part 10. Audio-Visual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The videotape covers the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program and other EPA programs that deal with the issue of using innovative technologies for hazardous waste site cleanups. The role of EPA's Technology Innovation Office in promoting the use and development of innovative technologies is discussed

  16. Medical costs and lost productivity from health conditions at volatile organic compound-contaminated Superfund sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lybarger, J.A.; Spengler, R.F.; Brown, D.R. [Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States). Div. of Health Studies; Lee, R.; Vogt, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perhac, R.M. Jr. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-10-01

    This paper estimates the health costs at Superfund sites for conditions associated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water. Health conditions were identified from published literature and registry information as occurring at excess rates in VOC-exposed populations. These health conditions were: (1) some categories of birth defects, (2) urinary tract disorders, (3) diabetes, (4) eczema and skin conditions, (5) anemia, (6) speech and hearing impairments in children under 10 years of age, and (7) stroke. Excess rates were used to estimate the excess number of cases occurring among the total population living within one-half mile of 258 Superfund sites. These sites had evidence of completed human exposure pathways for VOCs in drinking water. For each type of medical condition, an individual`s expected medical costs, long-term care costs, and lost work time due to illness or premature mortality were estimated. Costs were calculated to be approximately $330 million per year, in the absence of any remediation or public health intervention programs. The results indicate the general magnitude of the economic burden associated with a limited number of contaminants at a portion of all Superfund sites, thus suggesting that the burden would be greater than that estimated in this study if all contaminants at all Superfund sites could be taken into account.

  17. 77 FR 16548 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...] Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlements AGENCY... entered into four (4) settlements for past response costs concerning the Florida Petroleum Reprocessors... settlement are available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Florida...

  18. 77 FR 2981 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Protection Agency has entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Constitution Road...

  19. 78 FR 13056 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; in re: Factory H Superfund Site, Meriden...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; in re: Factory H Superfund Site, Meriden... approved by the Environment and Natural Resources Division of the United States Department of Justice....

  20. U.S. EPA Superfund Program's Policy for Community Involvement at Radioactively Contaminated Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the EPA Superfund program's statutory requirements for community involvement. It also discusses the efforts the Superfund program has made that go beyond these statutory requirements to involve communities, and what lessons have been learned by EPA when trying to conduct meaningful community involvement at sites. In addition, it discusses tools that EPA has designed to specifically enhance community involvement at radioactively contaminated Superfund sites. In summary, the Superfund program devotes substantial resources to involving the local community in the site cleanup decision making process. We believe community involvement provides us with highly valuable information that must be available to carefully consider remedial alternatives at a site. We also find our employees enjoy their jobs more. Rather than fighting with an angry public they can work collaboratively to solve the problems created by the hazardous waste sites. We have learned the time and resources we devote at the beginning of a project to developing relationships with the local community, and learning about their issues and concerns is time and resources well spent. We believe the evidence shows this up-front investment helps us make better cleanup decisions, and avoids last minute efforts to work with a hostile community who feels left out of the decision-making process. (authors)

  1. U.S. EPA Superfund Program's Policy for Risk and Dose Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) has primary responsibility for implementing the long-term (non-emergency) portion of a key U.S. law regulating cleanup: the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, CERCLA, nicknamed 'Superfund'. The purpose of the Superfund program is to protect human health and the environment over the long term from releases or potential releases of hazardous substances from abandoned or uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The focus of this paper is on risk and dose assessment policies and tools for addressing radioactively contaminated sites by the Superfund program. EPA has almost completed two risk assessment tools that are particularly relevant to decommissioning activities conducted under CERCLA authority. These are the: 1. Building Preliminary Remediation Goals for Radionuclides (BPRG) electronic calculator, and 2. Radionuclide Outdoor Surfaces Preliminary Remediation Goals (SPRG) electronic calculator. EPA developed the BPRG calculator to help standardize the evaluation and cleanup of radiologically contaminated buildings at which risk is being assessed for occupancy. BPRGs are radionuclide concentrations in dust, air and building materials that correspond to a specified level of human cancer risk. The intent of SPRG calculator is to address hard outside surfaces such as building slabs, outside building walls, sidewalks and roads. SPRGs are radionuclide concentrations in dust and hard outside surface materials. EPA is also developing the 'Radionuclide Ecological Benchmark' calculator. This calculator provides biota concentration guides (BCGs), also known as ecological screening benchmarks, for use in ecological risk assessments at CERCLA sites. This calculator is intended to develop ecological benchmarks as part of the EPA guidance 'Ecological Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Process for Designing and Conducting Ecological Risk

  2. Waste Water Disposal Design And Management IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces biological waste water treatment with basic theory and activated sludge process, which includes chemical reaction engineering with reaction velocity and mass balance, an effector, characteristic of water treatment effector and biological waste water disposal such as flow pattern and tracer test. This is biological theory of steady on waste water treatment, design and management.

  3. Decontamination and disposal of PCB wastes.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, L E

    1985-01-01

    Decontamination and disposal processes for PCB wastes are reviewed. Processes are classed as incineration, chemical reaction or decontamination. Incineration technologies are not limited to the rigorous high temperature but include those where innovations in use of oxident, heat transfer and residue recycle are made. Chemical processes include the sodium processes, radiant energy processes and low temperature oxidations. Typical processing rates and associated costs are provided where possible.

  4. Special waste disposal in Austria - cost benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present situation of special waste disposal in Austria is summarized for radioactive and nonradioactive wastes. A cost benefit analysis for regulary collection, transport and disposal of industrial wastes, especially chemical wastes is given and the cost burden for the industry is calculated. (A.N.)

  5. Application of passive sampling for measuring dissolved concentrations of organic contaminants in the water column at three marine superfund sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    At contaminated sediment sites, including U.S. EPA Superfund sites, it is critical to measure water column concentrations of freely dissolved contaminants to understand the complete exposure of aquatic organisms to hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). However, historically a...

  6. 76 FR 72405 - San Fernando Valley Area 2 Superfund Site; Notice of Proposed Prospective Purchaser Agreement Re...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY San Fernando Valley Area 2 Superfund Site; Notice of Proposed Prospective Purchaser Agreement Re: 4057 and 4059 Goodwin Avenue, Los Angeles, CA AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)....

  7. HISTORY AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE US EPA'S SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) MONITORING AND MEASUREMENT (MMT) PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript presents the history and evolution of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Monitoring and Measurement Technology (MMT) Program. This includes a discussion of how the fundamental concepts of a performanc...

  8. Shallow land disposal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillette-Cousin, L. [Nuclear Environment Technology Insitute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of Korea )

    1997-12-31

    This paper covers the radioactive waste management policy and regulatory framework, the characteristics of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, the characteristics of waste package, the waste acceptance criteria, the waste acceptance and related activities, the design of the disposal system, the organization of waste transportation, the operation feature, the safety assessment of the Centre de L`Aube, the post closure measures, the closure of the Centre de la Mache disposal facility, the licensing issues. 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  9. Shallow land disposal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers the radioactive waste management policy and regulatory framework, the characteristics of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, the characteristics of waste package, the waste acceptance criteria, the waste acceptance and related activities, the design of the disposal system, the organization of waste transportation, the operation feature, the safety assessment of the Centre de L'Aube, the post closure measures, the closure of the Centre de la Mache disposal facility, the licensing issues. 3 tabs., 7 figs

  10. Disposal Of Waste Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with disposal of waste matter management of soiled waste matter in city with introduction, definition of waste matter, meaning of management of waste matter, management system of waste matter, current condition in the country, collect and transportation of waste matter disposal liquid waste matter, industrial waste matter like plastic, waste gas sludge, pulp and sulfuric acid, recycling technology of waste matter such as recycling system of Black clawson, Monroe and Rome.

  11. Development of the Borehole Disposal Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Energy Corporation of South Africa (Necsa) initiated the Borehole Disposal Concept (BDC) with a view to improving radioactive waste management practices in Africa. An IAEA Technical Cooperation project was launched to investigate the technical feasibility and economic viability of a borehole for the disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources. Phase III of the project was completed by the end of 2004, and the main objective of this phase was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the concept by means of a practical demonstration. The disposal concept consists of a 260 mm diameter borehole drilled to a depth of up to 100 m in which stainless steel disposal containers are emplaced and backfilled with cement. Each disposal container contains a source within a stainless steel capsule within a containment barrier. Included in the terms of reference of Phase III were the design and the evaluation of the disposal concept. The evaluation included container materials, backfill materials and a generic post-closure safety assessment. The post-closure safety assessment and the associated derivation of activity limits showed that, through the use of multiple physical and chemical barriers, the BDC provides an appropriate degree of long term safety. Furthermore, the safety of the disposal concept is not reliant on an extended period of institutional control, and owing to its small 'footprint', the likelihood of direct human intrusion into the borehole is small. An international peer review team positively assessed the technical feasibility, economic viability and overall safety of the concept, and thus concluded the development phase of the project. The Member States of the African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) have decided to proceed to Phase IV of the project with the main aim to implement the borehole disposal technology. (author)

  12. Selected Water- and Sediment-Quality, Aquatic Biology, and Mine-Waste Data from the Ely Copper Mine Superfund Site, Vershire, VT, 1998-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Denise M.; Kiah, Richard G.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hathaway, Edward; Coles, James F.

    2008-01-01

    The data contained in this report are a compilation of selected water- and sediment-quality, aquatic biology, and mine-waste data collected at the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site in Vershire, VT, from August 1998 through May 2007. The Ely Copper Mine Superfund site is in eastern, central Vermont (fig. 1) within the Vermont Copper Belt (Hammarstrom and others, 2001). The Ely Copper Mine site was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2001. Previous investigations conducted at the site documented that the mine is contributing metals and highly acidic waters to local streams (Hammarstrom and others, 2001; Holmes and others, 2002; Piatak and others, 2003, 2004, and 2006). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USEPA, compiled selected data from previous investigations into uniform datasets that will be used to help characterize the extent of contamination at the mine. The data may be used to determine the magnitude of biological impacts from the contamination and in the development of remediation activities. This report contains analytical data for samples collected from 98 stream locations, 6 pond locations, 21 surface-water seeps, and 29 mine-waste locations. The 98 stream locations are within 3 streams and their tributaries. Ely Brook flows directly through the Ely Copper Mine then into Schoolhouse Brook (fig. 2), which joins the Ompompanoosuc River (fig. 1). The six pond locations are along Ely Brook Tributary 2 (fig. 2). The surface-water seeps and mine-waste locations are near the headwaters of Ely Brook (fig. 2 and fig. 3). The datasets 'Site_Directory' and 'Coordinates' contain specific information about each of the sample locations including stream name, number of meters from the mouth of stream, geographic coordinates, types of samples collected (matrix of sample), and the figure on which the sample location is depicted. Data have been collected at the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site by the

  13. Using a triad approach in the assessment of hazardous waste site leaching from a Superfund site to an adjacent stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppanen, C.J. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology; Blanner, P.M.; Allan, R.S.; Maier, K.J. [Univ. of Memphis, TN (United States); Benson, W.H. [Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A triad approach was used in the evaluation of sediment in the Wolf River adjacent to the North Hollywood Dump, a federally listed Superfund site. Chemical analyses were done for 18 organochlorine pesticides, 21 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 10 metals. Sediment toxicity was evaluated with freshwater invertebrates. Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca. Benthic macroinvertebrate diversity and abundance were assessed with a family-level biotic index. Mean Al, Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations were significantly higher in sediments collected in the spring. Both spring and fall sediments exhibited toxicity downstream from, adjacent to, and upstream from the dump, with toxicity significantly higher in fall sediments; however, a consistent trend was not observed. Toxicity was typically greater in the fall, and metal concentrations were typically higher in spring sediments, suggesting that metals were not responsible for the toxicity. Sediment-associated organochlorine pesticide and PCB congener concentrations were all below detectable limits, suggesting that these potential contaminants are not contributing to the observed toxicity. No differences were found in benthic macroinvertebrate community structure, which was composed of predominantly pollution-tolerant families, among seasons or river reaches, which appear to be limited by the physical characteristics of the river. Sediments in urban reaches of the Wolf River appear to be degraded; the North Hollywood Dump cannot be isolated as a source of toxicity in this study. In situ testing, sediment toxicity identification and evaluation testing, acid-volatile sulfide analyses, or artificial substrate work would be appropriate to follow.

  14. Co-disposal of mixed waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co-disposal of process waste streams with hazardous and radioactive materials in landfills results in large, use-efficiencies waste minimization and considerable cost savings. Wasterock, produced from nuclear and chemical process waste streams, is segregated, treated, tested to ensure regulatory compliance, and then is placed in mixed waste landfills, burial trenches, or existing environmental restoration sites. Large geotechnical unit operations are used to pretreat, stabilize, transport, and emplace wasterock into landfill or equivalent subsurface structures. Prototype system components currently are being developed for demonstration of co-disposal

  15. A Comparison of Distillery Stillage Disposal Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sajbrt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the main stillage disposal methods from the point of view of technology, economics and energetics. Attention is paid to the disposal of both solid and liquid phase. Specifically, the following methods are considered: a livestock feeding, b combustion of granulated stillages, c fertilizer production, d anaerobic digestion with biogas production and e chemical pretreatment and subsequent secondary treatment. Other disposal techniques mentioned in the literature (electrofenton reaction, electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis have not been considered, due to their high costs and technological requirements.Energy and economic calculations were carried out for a planned production of 120 m3 of stillage per day in a given distillery. Only specific treatment operating costs (per 1 m3 of stillage were compared, including operational costs for energy, transport and chemicals. These values were determined for January 31st, 2009. Resulting sequence of cost effectiveness: 1. – chemical pretreatment, 2. – combustion of granulated stillage, 3. – transportation of stillage to a biogas station, 4. – fertilizer production, 5. – livestock feeding. This study found that chemical pretreatment of stillage with secondary treatment (a method developed at the Department of Process Engineering, CTU was more suitable than the other methods. Also, there are some important technical advantages. Using this method, the total operating costs are approximately 1 150 ??/day, i.e. about 9,5 ??/m3 of stillage. The price of chemicals is the most important item in these costs, representing about 85 % of the total operating costs.

  16. Operation of a solar photocatalytic water treatment system at a Superfund Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solar photocatalytic process has been under development at both Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute). This process uses solar ultraviolet light to activate a titanium dioxide catalyst which oxidizes organic contaminants in water. In the summer of 1991, a solar photocatalytic detoxification of water system was installed and tested at a California Superfund Site located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The site was designated a Superfund Site because of widespread groundwater contamination which resulted from the release of chlorinated solvents, principally trichloroethylene, when the site was a Naval Air Station in the early 1940s. The objectives of these experiments were to measure the effects of process variables and the process efficiency in an actual remediation setting, to collect experimental data and operating experience in photocatalytic oxidation of organic contaminants, to develop accurate models of the system operation and to develop control strategies

  17. Operation of a solar photocatalytic water treatment system at a Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, J. E.; Mehos, M.; Turchi, C.; Link, H.

    A solar photocatalytic process has been under development at both Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute). This process uses solar ultraviolet light to activate a titanium dioxide catalyst which oxidizes organic contaminants in water. In the summer of 1991, a solar photocatalytic detoxification of water system was installed and tested at a California Superfund Site located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The site was designated a Superfund Site because of widespread groundwater contamination which resulted from the release of chlorinated solvents, principally trichloroethylene, when the site was a Naval Air Station in the early 1940s. The objectives of these experiments were to measure the effects of process variables and the process efficiency in an actual remediation setting, to collect experimental data and operating experience in photocatalytic oxidation of organic contaminants, to develop accurate models of the system operation, and to develop control strategies.

  18. Superfund at work: Hazardous waste cleanup efforts nationwide, fall 1992. (Lansdowne radioactive residence site profile)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fact sheet gave a general overview of the Superfund clean-up of a Lansdowne, PA house, the only residential site placed on the EPA's National Priorities List and the first non-federal radiation site cleaned up under Superfund. The basement of the house had been Dr. Dicran Kabakjian's unregulated radium processing laboratory from 1924 to 1944. The house and the soil surrounding it had to be completely cleared away because both were seriously contaminated with radon gas and gamma radiation. As a result, the EPA established the precedent for setting radiation levels in residential areas, applying more stringent levels than those set by the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978

  19. Economic and Environmental Repair in the Shadow of Superfund: Local Government Leadership in Building Strategic Partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Glaser

    1994-01-01

    Increasingly rigorous U.S. environmental policy is forcing the convergence of economic and environmental concerns with the intent of internalizing the costs of environmental protection and repair Unfortunately, the costs associated with the generic application of national environmental policy often exceed benefits reaped in environmental repair This article examines the intent and dysfunction of Superfund—Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and Supe...

  20. Electrochemical peroxidation of PCBs and VOCs in superfund site water and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrudato, R.J.; Chiarenzelli, J.R. [SUNY, Oswego, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An electrochemical peroxidation (ECP) process has been developed and used to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and volatile organic compounds (VOC)-contaminated water, sludge, and sediments at a New York State Federal and State Superfund Site. The process involves passing an oscillating low-amperage (<10 amps) current through steel electrodes immersed in an acidified water or sediment slurry into which hydrogen peroxide (<1,000 ppm) is added. The generated free radicals attack organic compounds, including organo-metallic complexes and refractory compounds including PCBs. PCB degradation ranged from about 30% to 80% in experiments involving Federal Superfund Site sediments; total PCBs were reduced by {approximately}97% to 68%, respectively, in water and slurry collected from a State Superfund subsurface storage tank. VOC bench-scale experiments involved chloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and acetone and after a 3-min ECP treatment, degradation ranged from >94% to about 99.9%. Results indicate the ECP is a viable process to degrade organic contaminants in water and sediment suspensions. Because the treated water suspensions are acidified, select trace metal sorbed to the particulates is solubilized and therefore can be segregated from the particulates, offering a process that simultaneously degrades organic contaminants and separates trace metals. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  1. XPERT DESIGN AND DIAGNOSTICS' (XDD) IN-SITU CHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESS USING POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE (KMNO4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xpert Design and Diagnostic's (XDD)potassium permanganate in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) process was evaluated under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at the former MEC Building site located in Hudson, New Hampshire. At this site, both soil and ...

  2. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and disposing of the material according to the manufacturer’s directions. It is critical to store household chemicals in places where children cannot access them. Remember that products such as aerosol cans of hair spray and deodorant, nail polish ...

  3. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  4. Reversible deep disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation, given by the national agency of radioactive waste management (ANDRA) at the meeting of October 8, 2009 of the high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN), describes the concept of deep reversible disposal for high level/long living radioactive wastes, as considered by the ANDRA in the framework of the program law of June 28, 2006 about the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes. The document presents the social and political reasons of reversibility, the technical means considered (containers, disposal cavities, monitoring system, test facilities and industrial prototypes), the decisional process (progressive development and blocked off of the facility, public information and debate). (J.S.)

  5. Study of Clay Materials as Host Rock for Candidate of Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally some rock types such as crystalline, volcanic and clay materials have been using as host rock for radwaste disposal site. Objective of the paper is to completing the clays study for radwaste disposal through literature study which has related to information of clay. The characteristic of clay rocks, both physically and chemically has good potential for radwaste disposal site, due to this reason the clay rocks has been used for radwaste disposal in another countries. (author)

  6. Geological disposal concept hearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article outlines the progress to date on AECL spent-nuclear fuel geological disposal concept. Hearings for discussion, organised by the federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel, of issues related to this type of disposal method occur in three phases, phase I focuses on broad societal issues related to long term management of nuclear fuel waste; phase II will focus on the technical aspects of this method of disposal; and phase III will consist of community visits in New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. This article provides the events surrounding the first two weeks of phase I hearings (extracted from UNECAN NEWS). In the first week of hearings, where submissions on general societal issues was the focus, there were 50 presentations including those by Natural Resources Canada, Energy Probe, Ontario Hydro, AECL, Canadian Nuclear Society, Aboriginal groups, environmental activist organizations (Northwatch, Saskatchewan Environmental Society, the Inter-Church Uranium Committee, and the Canadian Coalition for Nuclear responsibility). In the second week of hearings there was 33 presentations in which issues related to siting and implementation of a disposal facility was the focus. Phase II hearings dates are June 10-14, 17-21 and 27-28 in Toronto

  7. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  8. Hazardous materials waste disposal. 1977-June, 1980 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1977-Jun 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-06-01

    Topics relate to disposal of pesticides, explosives, chemical warfare agents, dangerous industrial chemicals, and other types of hazardous materials. The citations include research on management planning, spills, toxicity, water pollution abatement, and National Disposal Sites. Pollution studies related to disposal in landfills and by incineration are also covered as is deep mine disposal. Radioactive wastes are excluded. (This updated bibliography contains 217 abstracts, 38 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  9. Radioactivity in the industrial effluent disposed soil

    OpenAIRE

    Meenashisundaram V.; Narayanaswamy R.; Senthilkumar R. D.

    2012-01-01

    Studies on radiation and radioactivity distribution in the soils of effluent disposed from the sugar industry in India have been conducted. The external gamma dose rates in air and natural radionuclides activities in the soils were measured using an Environmental Radiation Dosimeter and a Gamma-ray Spectrometer respectively. The soil samples were also subject to various physico-chemical analyses. This study revealed some remarkable results that are discussed in the article.

  10. Radioactivity in the industrial effluent disposed soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenashisundaram V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies on radiation and radioactivity distribution in the soils of effluent disposed from the sugar industry in India have been conducted. The external gamma dose rates in air and natural radionuclides activities in the soils were measured using an Environmental Radiation Dosimeter and a Gamma-ray Spectrometer respectively. The soil samples were also subject to various physico-chemical analyses. This study revealed some remarkable results that are discussed in the article.

  11. Radioactivity in the industrial effluent disposed soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, R. D.; Narayanaswamy, R.; Meenashisundaram, V.

    2012-04-01

    Studies on radiation and radioactivity distribution in the soils of effluent disposed from the sugar industry in India have been conducted. The external gamma dose rates in air and natural radionuclides activities in the soils were measured using an Environmental Radiation Dosimeter and a Gamma-ray Spectrometer respectively. The soil samples were also subject to various physico-chemical analyses. This study revealed some remarkable results that are discussed in the article.

  12. Permeability restoration in underground disposal reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the research performed was to explore methods of permeability restoration in underground disposal reservoirs that may improve the receptive capacity of a well to a level that will allow continued use of the disposal zone without resorting to elevated injection pressures. The laboratory investigation employed a simulated open-hole completion in a disposal well wherein the entire formation face is exposed to the well bore. Cylindrical core samples from representative reservoir rocks through which a central vertical opening or borehole had been drilled were injected with a liquid waste obtained from a chemical manufacturing plant. This particular waste material was found to have a moderate plugging effect when injected into samples of reservoir rocks in a prior study. A review was made of the chemical considerations that might account for the reduction of permeability in waste injection. Purpose of this study was to ascertain the conditions under which the precipitation of certain compounds might occur in the injection of the particular waste liquid employed. A summary of chemical calculations is contained in Appendix B. The data may be useful in the treatment of wastes prior to injection and in the design of restoration procedures where analyses of waste liquids and interstitial materials are available. The results of permeability restoration tests were analyzed mathematically by curve-fitting techniques performed by a digital computer. A summary of the analyses is set forth in the discussion of test results and examples of computer printouts are included in Appendix A

  13. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory--Chemical Management: A Method for Waste Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Stanley H.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods for reducing or eliminating waste disposal problems in the chemistry laboratory, considering both economic and environmental aspects of the problems. Proposes inventory control, shared use, solvent recycling, zero effluent, and various means of disposing of chemicals. (JM)

  14. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 7): Weldon Spring Quarry/Plant/Pits (USDOE), St. Charles, MO, September 30, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Weldon Spring Quarry is one of two noncontiguous areas that constitute the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Weldon Spring site. The main area of the site is the chemical plant. Both areas are located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) listed the quarry on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1987, and the chemical plant area was added to the list in 1989. The quarry is about 6.4 km (4 mi) south-southwest of the chemical plant area; it is accessible from State Route 94 and is currently fenced and closed to the public. The quarry is approximately 300 m (1,000 ft) long by 140 m (450 ft) wide and covers an area of approximately 3.6 ha (9 acres). The quarry was used by the Army for disposal of chemically contaminated (explosive) materials in the 1940s and was later used for the disposal of radioactively contaminated material by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in the 1960s. Approximately 110,000 m3 (144,000 yd3) of soil and waste material was removed from the quarry and transported to the chemical plant area as part of completing the remedial action stipulated in the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Quarry Bulk Waste Operable Unit (DOE 1990). Bulk waste removal was completed in October 1995. These wastes have been placed in the disposal cell at the chemical plant. Prior to bulk waste removal, contaminated water contained in the quarry pond was also removed; approximately 170 million liters (44 million gal) have been treated as of March 1998

  15. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public.

  16. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public

  17. Treatment, recovery, and disposal processes for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes handling and disposal are discussed in over 200 processes here. Isolation means for these wastes must withstand attack, essentially indefinitely, from the radioactive material and the chemical and physical stresses of the natural environment. Contents: Immobilization Techniques; Storage Containers; Water Removal and Concentration Processes; Chemical Treatments; Heat Treatments; Recovery and Recycling Processes; Processing Radioactive Gases; Waste Treatment Apparatus and Equipment

  18. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed

  19. Whither nuclear waste disposal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With respect to the argument that geologic disposal has failed, I do not believe that the evidence is yet sufficient to support that conclusion. It is certainly true that the repository program is not progressing as hoped when the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established a 1998 deadline for initial operation of the first repository. The Department of Energy (DOE) now expects the repository to be available by 2010, and tat date depends upon a finding that the Yucca Mountain site - the only site that DOE is allowed by law to evaluate - is in fact suitable for use. Furthermore, scientific evaluation of the site to determine its suitability is stopped pending resolution of two lawsuits. However, I believe it is premature to conclude that the legal obstacles are insuperable, since DOE just won the first of the two lawsuits, and chances are good it will win the second. The concept of geologic disposal is still broadly supported. A recent report by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council noted that 'There is a worldwide scientific consensus that deep geological disposal, the approach being followed in the United States, is the best option for disposing of high-level radioactive waste'. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) recently implicitly endorsed this view in adopting an updated Waste Confidence position that found confidence that a repository could be available in the first quarter of the next century - sufficient time to allow for rejection of Yucca Mountain and evaluation of a new site

  20. Disposing of fluid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxic liquid waste, eg liquid radioactive waste, is disposed of by locating a sub-surface stratum which, before removal of any fluid, has a fluid pressure in the pores thereof which is less than the hydrostatic pressure which is normal for a stratum at that depth in the chosen area, and then feeding the toxic liquid into the stratum at a rate such that the fluid pressure in the stratum never exceeds the said normal hydrostatic pressure. (author)

  1. Waste and Disposal: Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Buyens, M.; De Bruyn, D.; Volckaert, G

    2002-04-01

    Within the Belgian R and D programme on geological disposal, demonstration experiments have become increasingly important. In this contribution to the scientific report 2001, an overview is given of SCK-CEN's activities and achievements in the field of large-scale demonstration experiments. In 2001, main emphasis was on the PRACLAY project, which is a large-scale experiment to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation. The PRACLAY experiment will contribute to enhance understanding of water flow and mass transport in dense clay-based materials as well as to improve the design of the reference disposal concept. In the context of PRACLAY, a surface experiment (OPHELIE) has been developed to prepare and to complement PRACLAY-related experimental work in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2001, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up. SCK-CEN also contributed to the SELFRAC roject which studies the self-healing of fractures in a clay formation.

  2. TRU waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) which is located on an arid 10,240 acre site in the remote Los Medanos (the dunes) region of the northern Chihuahuan desert in southeast New Mexico near Carlsbad. The mission of the WIPP is to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste resulting from the nation's defense program activities. Authorized by Congress in 1979 via Public Law 96-164, the WIPP represents a necessary, environmentally responsible, deep geologic disposal option. Initially thought to be subject to regulation under the Atomic Energy Act, further definition of the 1980 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1986 and 1988 has made it clear that this demonstration must also show compliance with RCRA. The majority of retrievable TRU waste proposed and available for eventual disposal at the WIPP also contains hazardous constituents defined by RCRA, with the resultant mixed waste subject to its provisions

  3. Quantifying Total and Reactive Gaseous Mercury Emissions from the Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine Superfund Site, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacht, D. M.; Gustin, M. S.; Engle, M. A.; Zehner, R. E.; Giglini, A. D.

    2001-12-01

    Although it is generally assumed that elemental mercury is the dominant form of mercury (Hg) in the atmosphere, small amounts of Reactive Gaseous Mercury (RGM) have been measured. RGM species are at least 105 times more water soluble, more chemically reactive, and exhibit far greater wet and dry deposition rates than elemental mercury. This study evaluated mercury fluxes to the atmosphere and RGM concentrations at the Sulfur Bank Mercury Mine Superfund Site. Mercury emissions were measured from 17 sites on the Sulfur Bank Mercury Mine property and 6 locations offsite. Measured mercury fluxes ranged from 14 to 6895 ng m-2 hr-1 and were correlated with substrate mercury concentrations. RGM concentrations were measured with annular denuders at 8 sites on the Sulfur Bank Mercury Mine property and 2 locations offsite. RGM concentrations measured over the background Franciscan Sediments, during the day, ranged from 0.49 to 0.73 ng m-3, while concentrations measured over tailings, during the day, ranged from 1.79 to 75.88 ng m-3. RGM concentrations, measured during three week long sampling trips, ranged from ~ 0.03 to 70.76 % of total Hg concentrations with the highest percentage measured over the waste rock dam and in hydrothermally active areas. In a comparison of the use of annular versus tubular denuders for the measurement of RGM, it was found that they gave similar concentrations however annular denuders yielded less variability. Two Geographic Information System models were used to estimate mercury emissions from the SBMM site. These two models gave a range of 4.2 to 9.4 kg Hg yr-1.

  4. High level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal a global challenge

    CERN Document Server

    PUSCH, R; NAKANO, M

    2011-01-01

    High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Disposal, A Global Challenge presents the most recent information on proposed methods of disposal for the most dangerous radioactive waste and for assessing their function from short- and long-term perspectives. It discusses new aspects of the disposal of such waste, especially HLW.The book is unique in the literature in making it clear that, due to tectonics and long-term changes in rock structure, rock can serve only as a ""mechanical support to the chemical apparatus"" and that effective containment of hazardous elements can only be managed by properly des

  5. Does Hazardous Waste Matter? Evidence from the Housing Market and the Superfund Program

    OpenAIRE

    Greenstone, Michael; Gallagher, Justin

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses the housing market to develop estimates of the local welfare impacts of Superfund sponsored clean-ups of hazardous waste sites.We show that if consumers value the clean-ups, then the hedonic model predicts that they will lead to increases in local housing prices and new home construction, as well as the migration of individuals that place a high value on environmental quality to the areas near the improved sites. We compare housing market outcomes in the areas surrounding the ...

  6. EFFECTS OF SLASH DISPOSAL METHODS ON THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL ON THE HARVESTED SITES IN NORTHEAST CHINA%森林采伐迹地清理方式对迹地土壤理化性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立海

    2002-01-01

    采伐剩余物迹地清理是森林作业的重要组成部分之一.本文通过在黑龙江省带岭林业局野外迹地取样和实验室分析,对森林采伐剩余物迹地清理方式对迹地土壤的影响进行了初步研究.结果表明,迹地清理方式对作业迹地土壤理化特性产生一定程度的影响,进而影响森林采伐后的迹地天然更新与苗木生长质量.研究结果还表明,火烧和堆积方法对迹地土壤物理特性影响不十分显著,但对土壤的化学特性影响十分显著,尤其是火烧迹地土壤养分流失程度差异比较显著.%Forest harvesting slash disposal is one of the important parts of forest operations. A field survey for investigating slash disposal was carried out in a forest sector in Heilongjiang Province, northeast China. Through the research, it is explicit that slash disposal has also affected on the physical and chemical properties of soil on the harvested sites. The presented results of this study show that both of piling method and burning method do not affect the physical properties of soil very much, but impact the chemical properties of soil quite significantly, and the burning method may cause soil erosion if handling poorly.

  7. Low level radioactive waste disposal in the absence of a disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a six-step strategy to dispose of the large quantity and diverse waste types produced at Port Hope uranium conversion facility. The strategy provides a logical step-by-step process to first characterize a waste, then identify and access feasible options and select a preferred disposal or recycle route. Regulatory and financial approvals are obtained and, finally, implementation of the preferred route takes place. A total of 29 waste types have been identified at the facility. By employing the waste disposal strategy, some 16 wastes are now disposed of or routinely recycled. This represents about 3000 tons of waste material annually. The waste disposal strategy is currently being applied to another ten of the wastes: oils, non-usable drums, scrap metal, zirconium tetrafluoride (ZrF4), PCB liquids, PCB solids, magnesium fluoride, miscellaneous chemicals, waste solvents and calcium fluoride. The strategy is described for three of these: non-usable drums, scrap metal and ZrF4

  8. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A deep gap, reflecting a persisting fear, separates the viewpoints of the experts and that of the public on the issue of the disposal of nuclear WASTES. The history of this field is that of the proliferation with time of spokesmen who pretend to speak in the name of the both humans and non humans involved. Three periods can be distinguished: 1940-1970, an era of contestation and confusion when the experts alone represents the interest of all; 1970-1990, an era of contestation and confusion when spokespersons multiply themselves, generating the controversy and the slowing down of most technological projects; 1990-, an era of negotiation, when viewpoints, both technical and non technical, tend to get closer and, let us be optimistic, leading to the overcome of the crisis. We show that, despite major differences, the options and concepts developed by the different actors are base on two categories of resources, namely Nature and Society, and that the consensus is built up through their 'hydridation'. we show in this part that the perception of nuclear power and, in particular of the underground disposal of nuclear wastes, involves a very deep psychological substrate. Trying to change mentalities in the domain by purely scientific and technical arguments is thus in vain. The practically instinctive fear of radioactivity, far from being due only to lack of information (and education), as often postulated by scientists and engineers, is rooted in archetypical structures. These were, without doubt, reactivated in the 40 s by the traumatizing experience of the atomic bomb. In addition, anthropological-linked considerations allow us to conclude that he underground disposal of wastes is seen as a 'rape' and soiling of Mother Earth. This contributes to explaining, beyond any rationality, the refusal of this technical option by some persons. However, it would naturally be simplistic and counter-productive to limit all controversy in this domain to these psychological aspects

  9. Disposal - practical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most Polish power plants have stockyards for storage of fly ash and slag. This paper describes the: methods of fly ash and slag storage used, methods of conveying the waste to the stockpiles (by railway cars, trucks, belt conveyors or hydraulically); construction of wet stockyards and dry stockyards and comparison of the ash dumped, development of methods of ash disposal in mine workings; composition and properties of fly ash and slag from hard coal; and the effects of ash storage yards on the environment (by leaching of trace elements, dust, effect on soils, and noise of machinery). 16 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  10. HLW Disposal System Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A KRS is suggested through design requirement analysis of the buffer and the canister which are the constituent of disposal system engineered barrier and HLW management plans are proposed. In the aspect of radionuclide retention capacity, the thickness of the buffer is determined 0.5m, the shape to be disc and ring and the dry density to be 1.6 g/cm3. The maximum temperature of the buffer is below 100 .deg. which meets the design requirement. And bentonite blocks with 5 wt% of graphite showed more than 1.0 W/mK of thermal conductivity without the addition of sand. The result of the thermal analysis for proposed double-layered buffer shows that decrease of 7 .deg. C in maximum temperature of the buffer. For the disposal canister, the copper for the outer shell material and cast iron for the inner structure material is recommended considering the results analyzed in terms of performance of the canisters and manufacturability and the geochemical properties of deep groundwater sampled from the research area with granite, salt water intrusion, and the heavy weight of the canister. The results of safety analysis for the canister shows that the criticality for the normal case including uncertainty is the value of 0.816 which meets subcritical condition. Considering nation's 'Basic Plan for Electric Power Demand and Supply' and based on the scenario of disposing CANDU spent fuels in the first phase, the disposal system that the repository will be excavated in eight phases with the construction of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) beginning in 2020 and commissioning in 2040 until the closure of the repository is proposed. Since there is close correlation between domestic HLW management plans and front-end/back-end fuel cycle plans causing such a great sensitivity of international environment factor, items related to assuring the non-proliferation and observing the international standard are showed to be the influential factor and acceptability of HLW management

  11. HLW Disposal System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. W.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, J. Y. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    A KRS is suggested through design requirement analysis of the buffer and the canister which are the constituent of disposal system engineered barrier and HLW management plans are proposed. In the aspect of radionuclide retention capacity, the thickness of the buffer is determined 0.5m, the shape to be disc and ring and the dry density to be 1.6 g/cm{sup 3}. The maximum temperature of the buffer is below 100 .deg. which meets the design requirement. And bentonite blocks with 5 wt% of graphite showed more than 1.0 W/mK of thermal conductivity without the addition of sand. The result of the thermal analysis for proposed double-layered buffer shows that decrease of 7 .deg. C in maximum temperature of the buffer. For the disposal canister, the copper for the outer shell material and cast iron for the inner structure material is recommended considering the results analyzed in terms of performance of the canisters and manufacturability and the geochemical properties of deep groundwater sampled from the research area with granite, salt water intrusion, and the heavy weight of the canister. The results of safety analysis for the canister shows that the criticality for the normal case including uncertainty is the value of 0.816 which meets subcritical condition. Considering nation's 'Basic Plan for Electric Power Demand and Supply' and based on the scenario of disposing CANDU spent fuels in the first phase, the disposal system that the repository will be excavated in eight phases with the construction of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) beginning in 2020 and commissioning in 2040 until the closure of the repository is proposed. Since there is close correlation between domestic HLW management plans and front-end/back-end fuel cycle plans causing such a great sensitivity of international environment factor, items related to assuring the non-proliferation and observing the international standard are showed to be the influential factor and acceptability

  12. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current disposal concept for radioactive waste in the FRG was discussed in the framework of this seminar. In addition to this concept for the treatment of radioactive waste also the volume of this waste is indicated. The present state of the two repositories 'Konrad' and 'Gorleben' is explained, as well as the requirements on waste packages for transportation, intermediate and ultimate storage. The final part discusses the conditioning of this radioactive waste and the control of the barrels as regards the observance of the requirements. (orig.)

  13. Land use and demography survey for a large superfund site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inconsistencies in the exposure assessment process often arise when risk assessors are forced to make assumptions about the frequency and duration of exposures in the absence of site-specific data. EPA encourages the collection of site-specific data so that risks can be more accurately assessed on a case-by-case basis. Typically, estimates of exposure frequency and duration represent the largest source of uncertainty for non-food related exposure pathways, while the largest source of uncertainty for foodchain pathways stems primarily from estimating the fraction ingested that originated from the affected area. A Land Use and Demography Survey was conducted to obtain site-specific information on: (1) the amount of time individuals spend indoors, outdoors, and on or near affected areas; (2) recreational use of surface water bodies on-site; (3) the percentage of food items consumed that were raised or produced locally; and (4) other behavioral patterns and activities that could influence their exposure to site-related chemicals. More than 300 households were randomly selected and the residents personally interviewed. A wide variety of individuals ranging from children to elderly residents with vastly different recreational, behavioral, and consumption patterns were interviewed. This paper discusses the survey results in relation to EPA standard default exposure assumptions

  14. EPA RREL's mobile volume reduction unit advances soil washing at four Superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research testing of the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory's (RREL) Volume Reduction Unit (VRU), produced data helping advance soil washing as a remedial technology for contaminated soils. Based on research at four Superfund sites, each with a different matrix of organic contaminants, EPA evaluated the soil technology and provided information to forecast realistic, full-scale remediation costs. Primarily a research tool, the VRU is RREL's mobile test unit for investigating the breadth of this technology. During a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Demonstration at Escambia Wood Treating Company Site, Pensacola, FL, the VRU treated soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon-laden creosote (PAH). At Montana Pole and Treatment Plant Site, Butte, MT, the VRU treated soil containing PCP mixed with diesel oil (measured as total petroleum hydrocarbons) and a trace of dioxin. At Dover Air Force Base Site, Dover, DE, the VRU treated soil containing JP-4 jet fuel, measured as TPHC. At Sand Creek Site, Commerce City, CO, the feed soil at this site was contaminated with two pesticides: heptachlor and dieldrin. Less than 10 percent of these pesticides remained in the treated coarse soil fractions

  15. Application of Generic Disposal System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report describes specific GDSA activities in fiscal year 2015 (FY2015) toward the development of the enhanced disposal system modeling and analysis capability for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The GDSA framework employs the PFLOTRAN thermal-hydrologic-chemical multi-physics code (Hammond et al., 2011) and the Dakota uncertainty sampling and propagation code (Adams et al., 2013). Each code is designed for massively-parallel processing in a high-performance computing (HPC) environment. Multi-physics representations in PFLOTRAN are used to simulate various coupled processes including heat flow, fluid flow, waste dissolution, radionuclide release, radionuclide decay and ingrowth, precipitation and dissolution of secondary phases, and radionuclide transport through the engineered barriers and natural geologic barriers to a well location in an overlying or underlying aquifer. Dakota is used to generate sets of representative realizations and to analyze parameter sensitivity.

  16. Bioactive contaminants leach from disposable laboratory plasticware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, G Reid; Hudson, Alan L; Dunn, Susan M J; You, Haitao; Baker, Glen B; Whittal, Randy M; Martin, Jonathan W; Jha, Amitabh; Edmondson, Dale E; Holt, Andrew

    2008-11-01

    Disposable plasticware such as test tubes, pipette tips, and multiwell assay or culture plates are used routinely in most biological research laboratories. Manufacturing of plastics requires the inclusion of numerous chemicals to enhance stability, durability, and performance. Some lubricating (slip) agents, exemplified by oleamide, also occur endogenously in humans and are biologically active, and cationic biocides are included to prevent bacterial colonization of the plastic surface. We demonstrate that these manufacturing agents leach from laboratory plasticware into a standard aqueous buffer, dimethyl sulfoxide, and methanol and can have profound effects on proteins and thus on results from bioassays of protein function. These findings have far-reaching implications for the use of disposable plasticware in biological research. PMID:18988846

  17. Canada's disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concept for the safe and permanent disposal of nuclear fuel wastes from Canada's CANDU reactors has been developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL). The waste would be placed in an engineered disposal vault 500 to 1000 m below the surface in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The multiple barriers to retain the waste and retard the release of radioactivity would be the waste form, the containers, buffer and backfill, and the rock overlying the vault. Numerous research programmes have been carried out to develop the technology for the concept. These include work on materials corrosion and failure mechanisms to assess the performance of the used fuel containers. Predictive modelling has shown that more than 97% of ASTM Grade 2 titanium containers will retain their integrity, even under pessimistic assumptions, for 1200-6000 years after emplacement, and even longer times may be achieved with other grades of titanium or copper. Other research has been aimed at vault sealing, at site characterization for an underground research laboratory and at the development of a methodology for assessing radiological and environmental effects after closure of the facility. A review of the safety and environmental impacts of the concept is now being carried out by an independent panel appointed by the government. (2 figures, 3 references) (UK)

  18. Research on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this research are to develop criteria for reviewing reliability and suitability of the result from Preliminary Investigations to be submitted by the implementer, and to establish a basic policy for safety review. For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Preliminary Investigations, we evaluated the uncertainties and their influence from limited amount of investigations, as well as we identified important procedures during investigations and constructions of models, as follows: (1) uncertainties after limited amount of geological exploration and drilling, (2) influence of uncertainties in regional groundwater flow model, (3) uncertainties of DFN (Discrete Fracture Network) models in the fractured rock, (4) analyzed investigation methods described in implementer's report, and (5) identified important aspects in investigation which need to be reviewed and follow QA (Quality Assurance). For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Detailed Investigations, we analyzed important aspects in investigation which supplies data to design and safety assessment, as well as studied the applicability of pressure interference data during excavation to verify hydrogeological model. Regarding the research for safety review, uncertainties of geologic process in long time-scale was studied. In FY2012, we started to evaluate the structural stabilities of concrete and bentonite in disposal environment. Finally, we continued to accumulate the knowledge on geological disposal into the database system. (author)

  19. Geoenvironment and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the activities planned by UNESCO in its Water and Earth Science programme, an interdisciplinary meeting on geology and environment was scheduled by this organization to be held by the beginning of 1983. At this meeting it was intended to consider geological processes in the light of their interaction and influence on the environment with special emphasis on the impact of various means of waste disposal on geological environment and on man-induced changes in the geological environment by mining, human settlements, etc. Considering the increasing interest shown by the IAEA in the field, through environmental studies, site studies, and impact studies for nuclear facilities and particularly nuclear waste disposal, UNESCO expressed the wish to organize the meeting jointly so as to take into account the experience gained by the Agency, and in order to avoid any duplication in the activities of the two organizations. This request was agreed to by the IAEA Secretariat and as a result, the meeting was organized by both organizations and held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 21-23 March 1983. The report of this meeting is herewith presented

  20. 75 FR 30753 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways EPA Superfund Cleanup Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ...The Coast Guard is revising its proposed rule that would establish a permanent regulated navigation area (RNA) on portions of the Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways in Commencement Bay, Tacoma, Washington. The RNA would protect the seabed in portions of those waterways that are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Commencement Bay Nearshore/Tideflats superfund......

  1. 75 FR 76280 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways EPA Superfund Cleanup Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a permanent regulated navigation area (RNA) on portions of the Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways in Commencement Bay, Tacoma, Washington. The RNA will protect the seabed in portions of those waterways that are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Commencement Bay Nearshore/ Tideflats superfund cleanup remediation efforts. This RNA......

  2. Superfund TIO videos: Set B. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR). Part 2. Audio-Visual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The videotape reviews the statutory requirements for removal and remedial action to comply with other environmental laws. Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) and other To Be Considered (TBC) criteria when undertaking removal and remedial responses are defined. The different types of ARARs and how they are applied to Superfund site response is described

  3. TAR CREEK SUPERFUND SITE REMEDIATION: COMBINED ROLES FOR BIOMASS, POULTRY LITTER, FLY ASH AND FLU GAS DESULFURIZATION RESIDUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tar Creek Superfund site in Northeastern Oklahoma is a large area contaminated from 100 years of lead and zinc mining. In this proposal we focus on developing surface coverage and remediation methods for the 45 million cubic yards of mine tailings, known as chat. The chat h...

  4. Fate of chemical warfare agents and toxic indutrial chemicals in landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelt-Hunt, D.L.; Barlaz, M.A.; Knappe, D.R.U.;

    2006-01-01

    One component of preparedness for a chemical attack is planning for the disposal of contaminated debris. To assess the feasibility of contaminated debris disposal in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, the fate of selected chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs...

  5. Disposal in continental geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste retrievability is the factor used to distinguish between waste storage and waste disposal alternatives. Disposal options assume no assured ability to retrieve wastes, while storage alternatives are predicted on a design allowing waste recovery for a specified period of time. The waste form, the emplacement method, and the time elapsed since emplacement are three factors that influence the degree of retrievability from a storage or disposal alternative. An overview of these and other factors and how they apply to various waste management storage and disposal alternatives is presented. The advantages, disadvantages and technical uncertainties associated with geologic waste disposal in very deep holes (greater than 10 km) are summarized. Deep well injection and hydrofracture disposal of selected liquid wastes are briefly reviewed. The geologic requirements for deep well injection and its applicability to tritiated water disposal are discussed. Hydrofracture has been used to dispose of intermediate level liquid wastes at ORNL, and the results to date of this disposal operation are presented. Three emplacement methods for radioactive waste storage and disposal on, in, or under ice sheets are described. Recent international comments on ice sheet disposal, reflecting concern about the lack of knowledge and predictability of long-term ice sheet stability, are presented. Four melting disposal alternatives are described. These techniques all use the thermal power density of high-level waste to bring the surrounding medium to its melting temperature range. The techniques primarily differ in emplacement geometry and the time to first melt and to final resolidification. The similarities and differences of these techniques are discussed

  6. Progress in nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear waste disposal - this is the term or slogan around which turns the continued controversial discussion on power generation in nuclear reactors. The dispute's core is whether the problem of radioactive waste disposal is solved or not. The Federal Government's report on the disposal of radioactive was, passed on the 24. August 1983 says that solutions are available for all partial steps - and plants of nuclear waste disposal. Some of them have proved themselves to be reliable throughout years in industry, or are sufficiently developed, investigated and tried as to present no further obstacle to realisation. (orig.)

  7. Mining-related sediment and soil contamination in a large Superfund site: Characterization, habitat implications, and remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Drake, K. D.

    2016-01-01

    Historical mining activity (1850–1970) in the now inactive Tri-State Mining District provided an ongoing source of lead and zinc to the environment including the US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site located in Cherokee County, southeast Kansas, USA. The resultant contamination adversely affected biota and caused human health problems and risks. Remediation in the Superfund site requires an understanding of the magnitude and extent of contamination. To provide some of the required information, a series of sediment and soil investigations were conducted in and near the Superfund site to characterize lead and zinc contamination in the aquatic and floodplain environments along the main-stem Spring River and its major tributaries. In the Superfund site, the most pronounced lead and zinc contamination, with concentrations that far exceed sediment quality guidelines associated with potential adverse biological effects, was measured for streambed sediments and floodplain soils located within or downstream from the most intensive mining-affected areas. Tributary streambeds and floodplains in affected areas are heavily contaminated with some sites having lead and zinc concentrations that are an order of magnitude (or more) greater than the sediment quality guidelines. For the main-stem Spring River, the streambed is contaminated but the floodplain is mostly uncontaminated. Measured lead and zinc concentrations in streambed sediments, lakebed sediments, and floodplain soils documented a persistence of the post-mining contamination on a decadal timescale. These results provide a basis for the prioritization, development, and implementation of plans to remediate contamination in the affected aquatic and floodplain environments within the Superfund site.

  8. Physiochemical technologies for HCB remediation and disposal: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Man [State Key Lab of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Environmental Science Research Institute, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yuan, Songhu, E-mail: yuansonghu622@hotmail.com [State Key Lab of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCB contamination is still a serious environmental problem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physiochemical technologies for HCB remediation and disposal are reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Perspectives for most remediation technologies are proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pilot and large scale remediation and disposal are presented. - Abstract: Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is one of the 12 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) listed in 'Stockholm Convention'. It is hydrophobic, toxic and persistent in the environment. Due to extensive use in the past, HCB contamination is still a serious environmental problem. Strong adsorption on solid particles makes the remediation difficult. This paper presents an overview of the physiochemical technologies for HCB remediation and disposal. The adsorption/desorption behavior of HCB is firstly described because it comprises the fundamental for most remediation technologies. Physiochemical technologies concerned mostly for HCB remediation and disposal, i.e., chemical enhanced washing, electrokinetic remediation, reductive dechlorination and thermal decomposition, are reviewed in terms of fundamentals, state of the art and perspectives. The other physiochemical technologies including chemical oxidation, radiation induced catalytic dechlorination, ultrasonic assisted treatment and mechanochemical dechlorination are also reviewed. The pilot and large scale tests on HCB remediation or disposal are summarized in the end. This review aims to provide useful information to researchers and practitioners regarding HCB remediation and disposal.

  9. Proposed integrated hazardous waste disposal facility. Public environmental review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Public Environmental Report describes a proposal by the Health Department of Western Australia to establish a disposal facility for certain hazardous wastes and seeks comments from governments agencies and the public that will assist the EPA to make its recommendations to. The facility would only be used for wastes generated in Western Australia.The proposal specifically includes: a high temperature incinerator for the disposal of organo-chlorines (including agricultural chemicals and PCBs), and other intractable wastes for which this is the optimum disposal method; an area for the burial (after any appropriate conditioning) of low level radioactive intractable wastes arising from the processing of mineral sands (including monazite, ilmenite and zircon) and phosphate rock. Detailed information is presented on those wastes which are currently identified as requiring disposal at the facility.The proposed facility will also be suitable for the disposal of other intractable wastes including radioactive wastes (from industry, medicine and research) and other solid intractable wastes of a chemical nature including spent catalysts etc. Proposals to dispose of these other wastes at this facility in the future will be referred to the Environmental Protection Authority for separate assessment

  10. Current direction, chemical, zooplankton, phytoplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 19 February 1982 - 23 March 1983 (NODC Accession 8300099)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  11. Current direction, chemical, zooplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 22 September 1978 - 22 January 1979 (NODC Accession 7900212)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from September...

  12. Current direction, chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 15 September 1977 - 27 May 1981 (NODC Accession 8100657)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  13. Chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 17 April 1980 - 17 July 1981 (NODC Accession 8100731)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  14. Current direction, chemical, phytoplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 21 November 1977 to 09 September 1981 (NODC Accession 8200008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  15. Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 10 March 1980 - 29 July 1981 (NODC Accession 8100727)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  16. Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 14 October 1977 - 24 August 1979 (NODC Accession 7900335)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and wind direction data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  17. Current direction, chemical, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 13 December 1980 - 01 March 1982 (NODC Accession 8200097)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from December 13, 1980 to...

  18. Current direction, chemical, zooplankton, phytoplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 24 January 1980 - 22 June 1981 (NODC Accession 8100704)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  19. Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 21 January 1981 - 27 July 1982 (NODC Accession 8200207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  20. Chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic organisms, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 12 February 1981 - 05 January 1982 (NODC Accession 8200064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, phytoplankton, benthic organisms, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  1. Chemical, zooplankton, phytoplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 17 February 1981 - 27 May 1982 (NODC Accession 8200183)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from February 17,...

  2. Chemical, zooplankton, phytoplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 07 September 1982 - 30 November 1982 (NODC Accession 8300075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from September 7,...

  3. Chemical data from moored current meter, bottle casts, and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 23 June 1978 - 30 June 1978 (NODC Accession 7900006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical data were collected using moored current meter, bottle casts, and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from June 18, 1978 to June 24, 1981. Data were...

  4. Current direction, chemical, and marine toxic substances data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 09 September 1978 - 19 November 1979 (NODC Accession 8000043)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, marine toxic substances, and chemical data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  5. Chemical, benthic organisms, zooplankton, marine toxic substances, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 30 August 1979 - 21 September 1981 (NODC Accession 8200012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, marine toxic substances, benthic organisms, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf...

  6. Current direction, benthic organisms, zooplankton, chemical, toxis substances, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 24 March 1981 - 19 February 1982 (NODC Accession 8200129)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, benthic organisms, zooplankton, chemical, toxic substances, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments...

  7. Chemical, zooplankton, and marine toxic substances data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 02 June 1978 - 02 June 1979 (NODC Accession 8000002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, zooplankton, and marine toxic substances data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from June 2,...

  8. Radioactive waste disposal: Global experience and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document discusses radioactive waste disposal practices followed in various countries. Various technical factors like geology, hydrogeology, seismicity, etc, are taken into account during site selection. Then the sites are prepared for disposal. After disposal and closure of, the disposal facility, the site needs to be regularly monitored. This document presents various issues linked to the disposal facilities and radioactive wastes, for example, classification of radioactive wastes, design of the disposal facility, licensing procedure, disposal costs, public acceptance issues etc

  9. Toxic waste liquor disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxic waste liquors, especially radio active liquors, are disposed in a sub-zone by feeding down a bore hole a first liquid, then a buffer liquid (e.g. water), then the toxic liquors. Pressure variations are applied to the sub-zone to mix the first liquid and liquors to form gels or solids which inhibit further mixing and form a barrier between the sub-zone and the natural waters in the environment of the sub-zone. In another example the location of the sub-zone is selected so that the environement reacts with the liquors to produce a barrier around the zone. Blind bore holes are used to monitor the sub-zone profile. Materials may be added to the liquor to enhance barrier formation. (author)

  10. Disposal of tritiated effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After some introductory remarks on the origin of tritium, its properties and its behaviour in a reprocessing plant three alternative methods for the disposal of tritiated effluents produced during reprocessing are described (deep well injection, in-situ solidification, deep-sea dumping) and compared with each other under various aspects. The study is based on the concept of a 1400 t/a reprocessing plant for LWR fuel, which annually produces 3000 m3 of tritiated waste water with a tritium content of 6.5 x 1012 Bq/m3 as well as a residual fission product and actinide content. An assessment of the three methods under the aspects of simplicity, reliability, safety, costs, state of development and materials handling revealed advantages in favour of 'injection', followed by 'dumping' and 'in-situ solidification'. (orig./HP)

  11. Radwaste Disposal Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of evaluating annual individual doses from a potential repository disposing of radioactive wastes from the operation of the prospective advanced nuclear fuel cycle facilities in Korea, the new safety assessment approaches are developed such as PID methods. The existing KAERI FEP list was reviewed. Based on these new reference and alternative scenarios are developed along with a new code based on the Goldsim. The code based on the compartment theory can be applied to assess both normal and what if scenarios. In addition detailed studies on THRC coupling is studied. The oriental biosphere study ends with great success over the completion of code V and V with JAEA. The further development of quality assurance, in the form of the CYPRUS+ enables handy use of it for information management

  12. Engineering analysis for disposal of depleted uranium tetrafluoride (UF4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents and evaluates options for disposing of depleted uranium in the chemical form of uranium tetrafluoride (UF4). Two depleted uranium inventories are considered. One results from the original U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) inventory of 560,000 metric tons (te) of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6); the other inventory is the original DOE inventory augmented by 145,000 te of depleted UF6 from the United States Enrichment Corporation. Preconceptual designs are included for three disposal options: disposal in a vault, disposal in an engineered trench, and disposal in a deep mine cavity. The disposal container is taken to be either a 30-gallon drum or a 55-gallon drum. Descriptions of the facilities associated with the three disposal options are provided. Staffing estimates for the construction and operation of the facilities are also provided. Wastes and emissions from the facilities during construction, operation, and maintenance have been estimated. Parametric studies have also been performed on the basis of 25% and 50% of the original inventory

  13. Grouting as a waste immobilization/disposal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many options are available today for the immobilization and disposal of wastes that contain environmentally harmful materials. The option chosen depends upon the type of waste, regulatory requirements, and economics of process. Some options are specific to a given waste type; others are more versatile. This presentation discusses a very versatile option for waste immobilization/disposal - grouting. Many types of grout are available, such as chemical, clays or other particulates, fly ash, cements, or a combination of these. This presentation discusses the application of a variety of cement-based grouting techniques available for disposal of environmentally harmful materials. Areas discussed are in situ grouting of pits, ponds and lagoons, grouting as remedial action, and fixation for disposal in burial trenches or vaults. 6 refs

  14. Grouting as a waste immobilization/disposal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many options are available today for the immobilization and disposal of wastes that contain environmentally harmful materials. The option chosen depends upon the type of waste, regulatory requirements, and economics of process. Some options are specific to a given waste type; others are more versatile. This presentation discusses a very versatile option for waste immobilization/disposal, i.e. grouting. Many types of grout are available, such as chemical, clays or other particulates, fly ash, cements, or a combination of these. Within the limited allowable time, this presentation discusses the application of a variety of cement-based grouting techniques available for disposal of environmentally harmful materials. Areas discussed are in situ grouting of pits, ponds and lagoons, grouting as remedial action, and fixation for disposal in burial trenches or vaults

  15. Basic research needs for management and disposal of DOE wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Research. It identifies and describes 87 basic research needs in support of advanced technology for management and disposal of Department of Energy radioactive, hazardous chemical, and mixed wastes. A team of scientists and engineers from several DOE laboratories and sites, from academia, and from industry identified and described the basic research needs called out in this report. Special efforts were made to ensure that basic research needs related to management and disposal of any hazardous chemical wastes generated at nonnuclear DOE sites and facilities were properly identified. It is hoped that scientists in both DOE and nongovernment laboratories and institutions will find this document useful when formulating research efforts relevant to waste management and disposal. For management and disposal of DOE radioactive and mixed wastes, basic research needs are identified in nine separate action areas. Basic research needs for management and disposal of DOE hazardous chemical wastes are identified in five action areas. Sufficient description and background information are provided in the report for each particular research need to enable qualified and imaginative scientists to conceive research efforts and programs that will meet the need. 28 refs., 7 tabs

  16. Application of Passive Sampling for Measuring Dissolved Concentrations of Organic Contaminants in the Water Column at Three U.S. EPA Marine Superfund Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    At contaminated sediment sites, including U.S. EPA Superfund sites, it is critical to measure water column concentrations of freely dissolved contaminants to understand the complete exposure of aquatic organisms to hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). Historically, acquiring...

  17. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities

  18. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-09-25

    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  19. Argentina's radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argentina policy for radioactive waste disposal from nuclear facilities is presented. The radioactive wastes are treated and disposed in confinement systems which ensure the isolation of the radionucles for an appropriate period. The safety criteria adopted by Argentina Authorities in case of the release of radioactive materials under normal conditions and in case of accidents are analysed. (M.C.K.)

  20. Integrated Disposal Facility Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F. M.

    2003-06-03

    An environmental risk assessment associated with the disposal of projected Immobilized Low-Activity Waste, solid wastes and failed or decommissioned melters in an Integrated Disposal Facility was performed. Based on the analyses all performance objectives associated with the groundwater, air, and intruder pathways were met.

  1. Integrated Disposal Facility Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental risk assessment associated with the disposal of projected Immobilized Low-Activity Waste, solid wastes and failed or decommissioned melters in an Integrated Disposal Facility was performed. Based on the analyses all performance objectives associated with the groundwater, air, and intruder pathways were met

  2. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from

  3. Disposal of Savannah River Plant waste salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proposed NRC guidelines for the disposal of waste with the radionuclide content of SRP salt would permit shallow land burial. Federal and state rules require that potentially hazardous chemical wastes (mainly nitrate-nitrite salts in the saltcrete) be contained to the degree necessary to meet drinking water standards in the ground water beneath the landfill boundary. This paper describes the proposed saltcrete landfill and tests under way to ensure that the landfill meet these criteria. The work includes laboratory and field tests of the saltcrete itself, a field test of a one-tenth linear scale model of the entire landfill system, and a numerical model of the system

  4. Disposal of radioactive waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is disposed below ground at a position adjacent the coast line such that, 1. drainage of any water which has flowed through the disposal volume can be drained to the sea, or 2. the waste is disposed below the foreshore or coastal shallow water. Disposal facilities are described which advantageously include surrounding the waste with absorber to increase protection against migration of radionuclides. An example of a radioactive waste disposal facility is shown and includes a number of cells formed from concrete walls and floors, the cells being loaded successively with drums containing the waste, each cell being roofed with concrete after filling, there being absorber placed beneath the floors between the walls and after complete filling, above the said roof, with a soil mound surmounting. Drainage channels extend to sea via monitoring means. (author)

  5. Preparations for Mixed Waste Disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is preparing for the receipt and disposal of low-level mixed waste (MV) generated within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The NTS maintains and develops disposal locations to accommodate various waste forms, and is engaged in developing verification and handling processes to ensure proper acceptance and disposal. Operations at the RWMC are focused on ensuring future disposal needs can be accommodated with a maximum benefit to risk ratio. This paper addresses the programmatic developments implemented at the NTS to accommodate the receipt, verification, and disposal of MW. The Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP) has incorporated aspects of the Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) into the Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The verification program includes statistical sampling components that take into account waste form, program reliability, and other factors. The WAP allows for a conglomerate of verification techniques including visual examination, non-destructive examination, and chemical screening ensuring compliance with the NTSWAC. The WAP also provides for the acceptance of MW with most U.S. Environmental Protection Agency waste codes. The MW sent to the NTS for disposal must meet Land-Disposal Restriction standards. To support the verification processes outlined in the WAP, a Real-Time-Radiography (RTR) facility was constructed. Using a 450 keV, 5-mA tube-head system with a bridge and manipulator assembly, MW packages can undergo non-destructive examination (x-ray) at the RWMC. Prior to the NTS accepting the waste shipment, standard waste boxes, drums, and nominally sized bulk items can be manipulated on a cart and examined directly or skewed in real-time to ensure compliance with NTSWAC requirement s An existing MW disposal cell at the RWMC has been tailored to meet the requirements of a Category 2 non-reactor Nuclear Facility. In retrofitting an existing

  6. Hydrogeologic characterization and assessment of bioremediation of chlorinated benzenes and benzene in wetland areas, Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2009-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Walker, Charles W.; Baker, Anna C.; Teunis, Jessica A.; Majcher, Emily H.; Brayton, Michael J.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site (SCD) in New Castle County, Delaware, are affected by contamination with chlorobenzenes and benzene from past waste storage and disposal, spills, leaks, and contaminated groundwater discharge. In cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey began an investigation in June 2009 to characterize the hydrogeology and geochemistry in the wetlands and assess the feasibility of monitored natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation as remedial strategies. Groundwater flow in the wetland study area is predominantly vertically upward in the wetland sediments and the underlying aquifer, and groundwater discharge accounts for a minimum of 47 percent of the total discharge for the subwatershed of tidal Red Lion Creek. Thus, groundwater transport of contaminants to surface water could be significant. The major contaminants detected in groundwater in the wetland study area included benzene, monochlorobenzene, and tri- and di-chlorobenzenes. Shallow wetland groundwater in the northwest part of the wetland study area was characterized by high concentrations of total chlorinated benzenes and benzene (maximum about 75,000 micrograms per liter [μg/L]), low pH, and high chloride. In the northeast part of the wetland study area, wetland groundwater had low to moderate concentrations of total chlorinated benzenes and benzene (generally not greater than 10,000 μg/L), moderate pH, and high sulfate concentrations. Concentrations in the groundwater in excess of 1 percent of the solubility of the individual chlorinated benzenes indicate that a contaminant source is present in the wetland sediments as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Consistently higher contaminant concentrations in the shallow wetland groundwater than deeper in the wetland sediments or the aquifer also indicate a continued source in the wetland sediments, which could include dissolution of DNAPLs and

  7. Avaliação das técnicas de precipitação química e encapsulamento no tratamento e destinação conjunta de resíduos líquidos contendo cromo e vidrarias de laboratório Evaluation of chemical precipitation and encapsulation techniques in the treatment and joint disposal of liquid wastes containing chromium and laboratory glassware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Graciela Giovannini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present procedures for the treatment and final disposal of residual solutions containing chromium, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical precipitation of the metal and the potential of the glass encapsulation technique, using broken laboratory glassware. The results demonstrated that pH-values convenient for chemical precipitation are between 10 - 11. With regard to Cr(OH3 encapsulation, the leaching and solubilization tests allowed to classify the waste as non-dangerous and non-inert. Finally, it is pointed out that the adoption of waste management practices in universities should be encouraged, helping to train professionals skilled in good laboratory practices.

  8. The Great SO2 Canister Case: Or, How to Stop Worrying and Dispose of a Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spargo, P. E.

    1995-12-01

    One of the services that the Science Education Unit at the University of Cape Town offers to local schools is the disposal of old laboratory chemicals. Upon receiving a cannister half-filled with liquid sulfur dioxide and having a heavily corroded and jammed metal tap, the SEU was faced with the dilemma of practically needing to dispose of a bomb. This article recounts the story of the disposal of the cannister's contents.

  9. Engineered barrier durability: An issue for disposal near populated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the current national policy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the United States of America, each State is required to provide disposal capacity for the LLW generated within its borders. The formation of ''Compacts'' of several States is allowed if approved by Congress. Such forced regionalization of disposal facilities based on State boundaries results in some disposal facilities being sited near populated areas at locations with less than optimum site characteristics from a disposal standpoint. To compensate for this engineered barriers are included in the proposed designs. Portland cement based concrete (PCC), which is the dominant material for disposal vault designs, is degraded via many mechanisms, most of which are related to its permeability. The numerous uncertainties associated with the long-term performance of PCC has lead to many unsuccessful attempts to obtain public acceptance of proposed disposal facilities. These unsuccessful efforts have delayed establishing disposal capacity to the point that a crisis is looming on the horizon. This paper investigates the results of on-going research into the viability of commercially available, impermeable, mass-poured construction materials as an alternative to PCC in LLW disposal vaults. The results from testing and research on two such materials, concrete made from sulfur polymer cement (SPC) and ICOM (an epoxy based concrete) are reported. Material properties and test results include strength parameters, chemical resistance, porosity, permeability, deconability, radiation damage resistance, and biodegradation. The data indicates that with these alternative materials the uncertainties in predicting service life of an engineered barrier can be reduced

  10. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): New Lyme, Ashtabula County, Ohio, September 1985. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-09-27

    The New Lyme Landfill is located near State Route 11 on Dodgeville Road in Ashtabula County, approximately 20 miles south of the City of Ashtabula, Ohio. The landfill occupies about 40 acres of a 100-acre tract. Operations began at the site in 1969, and were initially managed by two farmers. In 1971, the landfill was licensed by the State of Ohio and operations were taken over by a licensed landfill operator. According to documentation, the New Lyme Landfill received household, industrial, commercial, and institutional wastes and construction and demolition debris. However, numerous violations of the license occurred, including: open dumping; improper spreading and compacting of wastes; no State approval for disposal of certain industrial wastes; and excavation of trenches into the shale bedrock. In August 1978, the landfill was closed by the Ashtabula County Health Department. Documents indicate that wastes at the New Lyme Landfill site included: coal tar distillates, asbestos, coal tar, resins and resin tar, paint sludge, oils, paint lacquer thinner, peroxide, corrosive liquids, acetone, xylene, toluene, kerosene, naptha, benzene, linseed oil, mineral oil, fuel oil, chlorinated solvents, 2,4-D, and laboratory chemicals. The selected remedial action is included.

  11. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2001 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments (PA), waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. SCK-CEN partcipated in several PA projects supported by the European Commission. In the BENIPA project, the role of bentonite barriers in performance assessments of HLW disposal systems is evaluated. The applicability of various output variables (concentrations, fluxes) as performance and safety indicators is investigated in the SPIN project. The BORIS project investigates the chemical behaviour and the migration of radionuclides at the Borehole injection site at Krasnoyarsk-26 and Tomsk-7. SCK-CEN contributed to an impact assessment of a radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium) and conducted PA for site-specific concepts regarding surface or deep disposal of low-level waste at the nuclear zones in the Mol-Dessel region. As regards R and D on waste forms and packages, SCK continued research on the compatbility of various waste forms (bituminised waste, vitrified waste, spent fuel) with geological disposal in clay. Main emphasis in 2001 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to

  12. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P

    2002-04-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2001 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments (PA), waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. SCK-CEN partcipated in several PA projects supported by the European Commission. In the BENIPA project, the role of bentonite barriers in performance assessments of HLW disposal systems is evaluated. The applicability of various output variables (concentrations, fluxes) as performance and safety indicators is investigated in the SPIN project. The BORIS project investigates the chemical behaviour and the migration of radionuclides at the Borehole injection site at Krasnoyarsk-26 and Tomsk-7. SCK-CEN contributed to an impact assessment of a radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium) and conducted PA for site-specific concepts regarding surface or deep disposal of low-level waste at the nuclear zones in the Mol-Dessel region. As regards R and D on waste forms and packages, SCK continued research on the compatbility of various waste forms (bituminised waste, vitrified waste, spent fuel) with geological disposal in clay. Main emphasis in 2001 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to

  13. Delineation of areas having elevated electrical conductivity, orientation and characterization of bedrock fractures, and occurrence of groundwater discharge to surface water at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Barite Hill/Nevada Goldfields Superfund site near McCormick, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Huffman, Brad A.; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2015-01-01

    During October 2012 through March 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 4, Superfund Section, conducted borehole geophysical logging, surface geophysical surveys, and water-quality profiling in selected wells and areas to characterize or delineate the extent of elevated subsurface electrical conductivity at the EPA Barite Hill/Nevada Goldfields Superfund site near McCormick, South Carolina. Elevated electrical conductivity measured at the site may be related to native rock materials, waste rock disposal areas used in past operations, and (or) groundwater having elevated dissolved solids (primarily metals and major ions) related to waste migration. Five shallow screened wells and four open-borehole bedrock wells were logged by using a suite of borehole tools, and downhole water-quality profiles were recorded in two additional wells. Well depths ranged from about 26 to 300 feet below land surface. Surface geophysical surveys based on frequency-domain electromagnetic and distributed temperature sensing (DTS) techniques were used to identify areas of elevated electrical conductivity (Earth materials and groundwater) and potential high dissolved solids in groundwater and surface water on land and in areas along the northern unnamed tributary at the site.

  14. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N.

    2013-01-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination.

  15. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Calhoun Park Area, Charleston, SC, September 30, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Calhoun Park Area Superfund Site (the Site) in Charleston, South Carolina. Existing soil and groundwater contamination at this Site, consists mainly of BTEX and PAHs, is attributable to the previous manufactured gas plant operations. This remedial action addresses NAPLs source areas, shallow groundwater contamination, and contaminated soil as the principal threat at this Site. The major components of the selected remedy include: Excavation and transportation of contaminated soils to a permitted landfill followed by the backfilling of the excavated areas with clean fill; Source removal of NAPLs from both the shallow and intermediate aquifer; Treatment of groundwater plume through a combination of recovery wells/filtration system and phytoremediation; and Additional sampling of surface water and sediment, following mitigation of coal tar discharge into Cooper River, to fully delineate extent of contamination and potential threat to aquatic and terrestrial life

  16. Denver Radium Superfund Site changes in selected remedy after record of decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. EPA chose the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its prime contractor, Chem-Nuclear Geotech, Inc. (Geotech), to remediate several operable units in the Denver Radium Superfund Site. This paper examines a case at Operable Unit (OU) III of the Denver Radium Site in which new information regarding the location of contamination was discovered after the ROD had been signed. This discovery required a significant change to the remedy described in the ROD and involved an analysis of a no action alternative. A history of the Denver Radium Site is presented, along with an overview of the methods and processes of risk assessment, remedy selection, cleanup standards and remedial actions. Results indicate that flexibility in environmental laws does not permit changes to the ROD, given reasonable interpretation and application of statutory provisions

  17. Contingency analysis modeling for superfund sites and other sources. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides information on contingency modeling for a wide range of different accidental release scenarios of hazardous air pollutants that might take place at Superfund and other sites. The scenarios are used to illustrate how atmospheric dispersion models, including dense gas models, should be applied. Particular emphasis is made on the input data that is needed for proper applications of models. Flow charts direct the user to specific sections where various scenarios are discussed. A check list of items that should be discussed before running the model is provided. Several examples are provided to specifically show how to apply the models so as to produce a credible analysis for a particular release scenario

  18. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  19. Geological disposal system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected.

  20. Research on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this research are to develop the acceptance criteria for reviewing the acceptability of the result of Preliminary and Detailed Investigations submitted by the implementor for site selection, and to establish a basic policy for safety review. 13 geology/climate related events were selected for development of acceptance criteria, and the accuracy of geophysical exploration methods from the ground necessary for the Preliminary Investigation was evaluated. Regarding the research for safety review, a basic concept of safety regulation for Japanese geological disposal was developed, and the concept of quality assurance was developed. In order to develop the site-scale groundwater flow evaluation method, the methods regarding the process of the development of cracks in the fractured, sedimentary, and fractured sedimentary rock were discussed. And the safety scenarios of important geology/climate related events, e.g. uplift/erosion, active fault, and low-frequent scenario of the formation of mud volcano were developed. We started to support the decision of the Japanese policy to deal with safety standards discussed in IAEA/WASSC. (author)

  1. Research on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this research are to develop criteria for reviewing acceptability of the adequacy of the result of Preliminary and Detailed Investigations submitted by the implementor, and to establish a basic policy to secure safety for safety review. In FY 2010, 13 geology/climate related events for development of acceptance criteria for reviewing the adequacy of the result of Preliminary and Detailed Investigations were extracted. And the accuracy of geophysical exploration methods necessary for the Preliminary Investigation was evaluated. Regarding the research for safety review, we developed an idea of safety concept of Japanese geological disposal, and analyzed basic safety functions to secure safety. In order to verify the groundwater flow evaluation methods developed in regulatory research, the hydrological and geochemical data at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido were obtained, and simulated result of regional groundwater flow were compared with measured data. And we developed the safety scenario of geology/climate related events categorized by geological and geomorphological properties. Also we created a system to check the quality of research results in Japan and other countries in order to utilize for safety regulation, and developed a database system to compile them. (author)

  2. Geological disposal system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected

  3. Coffee Stirrers and Drinking Straws as Disposable Spatulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turano, Morgan A.; Lobuono, Cinzia; Kirschenbaum, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    Although metal spatulas are damaged through everyday use and become discolored and corroded by chemical exposure, plastic drinking straws are inexpensive, sterile, and disposable, reducing the risk of cross-contamination during laboratory procedures. Drinking straws are also useful because they come in a variety of sizes; narrow sample containers…

  4. Development of a model for geomorphological assessment at U.S. DOE chemical/radioactive waste disposal facilities in the central and eastern United States; Weldon spring site remedial action project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landform development and long-term geomorphic stability is the result of a complex interaction of a number of geomorphic processes. These processes may be highly variable in intensity and duration under different physiographic settings. This limitation has influenced the applicability of previous geomorphological stability assessments conducted in the arid or semi-arid western United States to site evaluations in more temperate and humid climates. The purpose of this study was to develop a model suitable for evaluating both long-term and short-term geomorphic processes which may impact landform stability and hence the stability of disposal facilities located in the central and eastern United States. The model developed for the geomorphological stability assessment at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) near St. Louis, Missouri, included an evaluation of existing landforms and consideration of the impact of both long-term and short-term geomorphic processes. These parameters were evaluated with respect to their impact and contribution to three assessment criteria considered most important with respect to the stability analysis; evaluation of landform age, evaluation of present geomorphic process activity and; determination of the impact of the completed facility on existing geomorphic processes. The geomorphological assessment at the Weldon Spring site indicated that the facility is located in an area of excellent geomorphic stability. The only geomorphic process determined to have a potential detrimental effect on long-term facility performance is an extension of the drainage network. A program of mitigating measures has been proposed to minimize the impact that future gully extension could have on the integrity of the facility

  5. Proceedings of the workshop on transite decontamination dismantlement and recycle/disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On February 3--4, 1993, a workshop was conducted to examine issues associated with the decontamination, dismantlement, and recycle/disposal of transite located at the US Department of Energy Fernald site near Cincinnati, OH. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a Superfund Site currently undergoing remediation. A major objective of the workshop was to assess the state-of-the-art of transite remediation, and generate concepts that could be useful to the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Co. (FERMCO) for remediation of transite. Transite is a building material consisting of asbestos fiber and cement and may be radioactively contaminated as a result of past uranium processing operations at the FEMP. Many of the 100 buildings within the former uranium production area were constructed of transite siding and roofing and consequently, over 180,000 m2 of transite must be disposed or recycled. Thirty-six participants representing industry, academia, and government institutions such as the EPA and DOE assembled at the workshop to present their experience with transite, describe work in progress, and address the issues involved in remediating transite

  6. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Midco II, Gary, IN. (First remedial action), (amendment), April 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 7-acre Midco II site is an abandoned chemical waste storage and disposal facility in Gary, Indiana. Land use in the surrounding area is predominantly industrial. The underlying aquifer, which is used primarily for non-drinking purposes, is highly susceptible to contamination from surface sources. From 1976 to 1978, the site was used for treatment, storage, and disposal of chemical and bulk liquid wastes. The ROD amends a 1989 ROD that addressed the remaining contaminated soil, pit wastes, and ground water by treatment of an estimated 35,000 cubic yards of soil wastes. The amended remedy reduces the estimated amount of soil to be treated, as a result of new information on arsenic data and amended soil CALs, further defines the site cover requirements, and further defines the requirements for deep well injection of contaminated ground water. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the subsurface soil, sediment, and ground water are VOCs, including methylene chloride, benzene, toluene, TCE, and xylenes; other organics, including PCBs, phenols, and PAHs; and metals, including chromium, and lead. The amended remedial action for the ROD is included

  7. Superfund TIO videos: Set B. Community relations, communicating with the media and presenting technical information. Part 9. Audio-Visual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The videotape is divided into three sections. Section 1 discusses the Superfund Community Relations (CR) Program and its history and objectives. Community Relations requirements as defined by CERCLA for Superfund actions are outlined. Community Relations requirements, the nature of community involvement in CR plans, effective CR techniques, and the roles of the OSC, RPM, and EPA Community Relations Coordinator (CRC) are discussed. Section 2 (1) describes the media's perspective on seeking information; (2) identifies five settings and mechanisms for interacting with the media; (3) offers good media-relations techniques; and (4) lists tips for conducting media interviews. Section 3 outlines techniques for presenting technical information, describes how to be prepared to address typical issues of community concern, and identifies the four key elements in handling tough questions

  8. Monitoring methods for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines a variety of monitoring activities that would likely be involved in a nuclear fuel waste disposal project, during the various stages of its implementation. These activities would include geosphere, environmental, vault performance, radiological, safeguards, security and community socioeconomic and health monitoring. Geosphere monitoring would begin in the siting stage and would continue at least until the closure stage. It would include monitoring of regional and local seismic activity, and monitoring of physical, chemical and microbiological properties of groundwater in rock and overburden around and in the vault. Environmental monitoring would also begin in the siting stage, focusing initially on baseline studies of plants, animals, soil and meteorology, and later concentrating on monitoring for changes from these benchmarks in subsequent stages. Sampling designs would be developed to detect changes in levels of contaminants in biota, water and air, soil and sediments at and around the disposal facility. Vault performance monitoring would include monitoring of stress and deformation in the rock hosting the disposal vault, with particular emphasis on fracture propagation and dilation in the zone of damaged rock surrounding excavations. A vault component test area would allow long-term observation of containers in an environment similar to the working vault, providing information on container corrosion mechanisms and rates, and the physical, chemical and thermal performance of the surrounding sealing materials and rock. During the operation stage, radiological monitoring would focus on protecting workers from radiation fields and loose contamination, which could be inhaled or ingested. Operational zones would be established to delineate specific hazards to workers, and movement of personnel and materials between zones would be monitored with radiation detectors. External exposures to radiation fields would be monitored with dosimeters worn by

  9. Monitoring methods for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.B.; Barnard, J.W.; Bird, G.A. [and others

    1997-11-01

    This report examines a variety of monitoring activities that would likely be involved in a nuclear fuel waste disposal project, during the various stages of its implementation. These activities would include geosphere, environmental, vault performance, radiological, safeguards, security and community socioeconomic and health monitoring. Geosphere monitoring would begin in the siting stage and would continue at least until the closure stage. It would include monitoring of regional and local seismic activity, and monitoring of physical, chemical and microbiological properties of groundwater in rock and overburden around and in the vault. Environmental monitoring would also begin in the siting stage, focusing initially on baseline studies of plants, animals, soil and meteorology, and later concentrating on monitoring for changes from these benchmarks in subsequent stages. Sampling designs would be developed to detect changes in levels of contaminants in biota, water and air, soil and sediments at and around the disposal facility. Vault performance monitoring would include monitoring of stress and deformation in the rock hosting the disposal vault, with particular emphasis on fracture propagation and dilation in the zone of damaged rock surrounding excavations. A vault component test area would allow long-term observation of containers in an environment similar to the working vault, providing information on container corrosion mechanisms and rates, and the physical, chemical and thermal performance of the surrounding sealing materials and rock. During the operation stage, radiological monitoring would focus on protecting workers from radiation fields and loose contamination, which could be inhaled or ingested. Operational zones would be established to delineate specific hazards to workers, and movement of personnel and materials between zones would be monitored with radiation detectors. External exposures to radiation fields would be monitored with dosimeters worn by

  10. Human intrusion in geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the possibility of human intrusion into the WIPP facility, an undergound disposal facility for alpha-bearing wastes. The probability of exploratory drilling occurring at the site is described

  11. Radioactive waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation contains 4144 citations of foreign and domestic reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books pertaining to radioactive waste processing and disposal. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  12. Arsenic species in weathering mine tailings and biogenic solids at the Lava Cap Mine Superfund Site, Nevada City, CA

    OpenAIRE

    Ashley Roger P; Foster Andrea L; Rytuba James J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background A realistic estimation of the health risk of human exposure to solid-phase arsenic (As) derived from historic mining operations is a major challenge to redevelopment of California's famed "Mother Lode" region. Arsenic, a known carcinogen, occurs in multiple solid forms that vary in bioaccessibility. X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (XAFS) was used to identify and quantify the forms of As in mine wastes and biogenic solids at the Lava Cap Mine Superfund (LCMS) s...

  13. The Brown Superfund Basic Research Program: A Multistakeholder Partnership Addresses Real-World Problems in Contaminated Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Senier, Laura; Hudson, Benjamin; Fort, Sarah; Hoover, Elizabeth; Tillson, Rebecca; Brown, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The NIEHS funds several basic and applied research programs, many of which also require research translation or outreach. This paper reports on a project by the Brown University Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP), in which outreach and research translation teams collaborated with state regulatory agency personnel and community activists on a legislative initiative to mitigate the financial impacts of living in a contaminated community. The Environmentally Compromised Home Ownership (ECHO...

  14. Disposal phase experimental program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility comprises surface and subsurface facilities, including a repository mined in a bedded salt formation at a depth of 2,150 feet. It has been developed to safely and permanently isolate transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes in a deep geological disposal site. On April 12, 1996, the DOE submitted a revised Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The DOE anticipates receiving an operating permit from the NMED; this permit is required prior to the start of disposal operations. On October 29, 1996, the DOE submitted a Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in accordance with the WIPP land Withdrawal Act (LWA) of 1992 (Public Law 102-579) as amended, and the requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) Parts 191 and 194. The DOE plans to begin disposal operations at the WIPP in November 1997 following receipt of certification by the EPA. The disposal phase is expected to last for 35 years, and will include recertification activities no less than once every five years. This Disposal Phase Experimental Program (DPEP) Plan outlines the experimental program to be conducted during the first 5-year recertification period. It also forms the basis for longer-term activities to be carried out throughout the 35-year disposal phase. Once the WIPP has been shown to be in compliance with regulatory requirements, the disposal phase gives an opportunity to affirm the compliance status of the WIPP, enhance the operations of the WIPP and the national TRU system, and contribute to the resolution of national and international nuclear waste management technical needs. The WIPP is the first facility of its kind in the world. As such, it provides a unique opportunity to advance the technical state of the art for permanent disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes.

  15. Clays in radioactive waste disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Delage, Pierre; CUI, Yu-Jun; Tang, Anh-Minh

    2010-01-01

    Clays and argillites are considered in some countries as possible host rocks for nuclear waste disposal at great depth. The use of compacted swelling clays as engineered barriers is also considered within the framework of the multi-barrier concept. In relation to these concepts, various research programs have been conducted to assess the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of radioactive waste disposal at great depth. After introducing the concepts of waste isolation developed in Belgium, Fran...

  16. Americium product solidification and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The americium product from the TRUEX processing plant needs to be converted into a form suitable for ultimate disposal. An evaluation of the disposal based on safety, number of process steps, demonstrated operability of the processes, production of low-level alpha waste streams, and simplicity of maintenance with low radiation exposures to personnel during maintenance, has been made. The best process is to load the americium on a cation exchange resin followed by calcination or oxidation of the resin after loading

  17. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    OpenAIRE

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of c...

  18. Carbowaste: treatment and disposal of irradiated graphite and other carbonaceous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Project on 'Treatment and Disposal of Irradiated Graphite and other Carbonaceous Waste (CARBOWASTE)' addressed the retrieval, characterization, treatment, reuse and disposal of irradiated graphite with the following main results: - I-graphite waste features significantly depend on the specific manufacture process, on the operational conditions in the nuclear reactor (neutron dose, atmosphere, temperature etc.) and on radiolytic oxidation leading to partial releases of activation products and precursors during operation. - The neutron activation process generates significant recoil energies breaking pre-existing chemical bonds resulting in dislocations of activation products and new chemical compounds. - Most activation products exist in different chemical forms and at different locations. - I-graphite can be partly purified by thermal and chemical treatment processes leaving more leach-resistant waste products. - Leach tests and preliminary performance analyses show that i-graphite can be safely disposed of in a wide range of disposal systems, after appropriate treatment and/or conditioning. (authors)

  19. Site characterization for the final disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes (DFDSMA) by physico-chemical properties of the deep ground water and by the transport parameters of the critical radionuclides contained in the wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For DFDSMA site selection, geological, hydrological studies and transport measurements of the radionuclides contained in wastes were initiated at INR Pitesti in 1996, which led to choose Saligny site in the neighborhood of Cernavoda NPP as optimal. Geologically, the Saligny site appears to be a sedimentary formation covered with quaternary loessoid based on clay and sand deposits. To estimate the radionuclide transport, experiments were carried out to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of the deep ground water and the distribution and diffusion coefficients for the 137 Cs and 60 Co radionuclides. In the first case, pH, the conductivity, the content of solved salts, the concentrations of inter-exchangeable cations and major anions were determined. The physical chemical processes contributing to 137 Cs and 60 Co retaining on the surfaces of the mineral constituting the rocks were evaluated from investigation of the behavior of the solutions of these radionuclides in contact with the cores extracted at various depths (0-80 m) at Saligny site. Distribution coefficients, retardation factors, the migration speed and time were determined for characterizing the radionuclide migration in the intervening soils. The diffusion coefficients were determined by measuring transfer in diffusion cells with samples of loess and clay from Saligny site. The concentration profile was deduced by measuring the activity of the radionuclide in different locations in the sample. The experimental results were used as input data of the codes for performance evaluation of the final repository. The variation in time of the physico-chemical parameters of the deep water, the diffusion and distribution coefficients (Ds, Kd) and the retardation factor (R) for the geological samples for Saligny are given

  20. Near-surface land disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Waste Management Handbook provides a comprehensive, systematic treatment of nuclear waste management. Near-Surface Land Disposal, the first volume, is a primary and secondary reference for the technical community. To those unfamiliar with the field, it provides a bridge to a wealth of technical information, presenting the technology associated with the near-surface disposal of low or intermediate level wastes. Coverage ranges from incipient planning to site closure and subsequent monitoring. The book discusses the importance of a systems approach during the design of new disposal facilities so that performance objectives can be achieved; gives an overview of the radioactive wastes cosigned to near-surface disposal; addresses procedures for screening and selecting sites; and emphasizes the importance of characterizing sites and obtaining reliable geologic and hydrologic data. The planning essential to the development of particular sites (land acquisition, access, layout, surface water management, capital costs, etc.) is considered, and site operations (waste receiving, inspection, emplacement, closure, stabilization, etc.) are reviewed. In addition, the book presents concepts for improved confinement of waste, important aspects of establishing a monitoring program at the disposal facility, and corrective actions available after closure to minimize release. Two analytical techniques for evaluating alternative technologies are presented. Nontechnical issues surrounding disposal, including the difficulties of public acceptance are discussed. A glossary of technical terms is included

  1. Financing of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste disposal is modelled as a financial calculus. In this connection the particularity is not primarily the dimension to be expected of financial requirement but above all the uncertainty of financial requirement as well as the ecological, socio-economic and especially also the temporal dimension of the Nuclear Waste Disposal project (disposal of spent fuel elements from light-water reactors with and without reprocessing, decommissioning = safe containment and disposal of nuclear power plants, permanent isolation of radioactive waste from the biosphere, intermediate storage). Based on the above mentioned factors the author analyses alternative approaches of financing or financial planning. He points out the decisive significance of the perception of risks or the evaluation of risks by involved or affected persons - i.e. the social acceptance of planned and designed waste disposal concepts - for the achievement and assessment of alternative solutions. With the help of an acceptance-specific risk measure developed on the basis of a mathematical chaos theory he illustrates, in a model, the social influence on the financing of nuclear waste disposal. (orig./HP)

  2. Development of grouting technologies for geological disposal of high level waste in Japan (7). Hydrological and chemical change of the groundwater in a pre-grouted crystalline rock after earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has conducted 'The project for Grouting Technology Development' under a contract study with the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). As a part of the study, the groundwater chemistry has been monitored for four years after pre-grouting the crystalline rock in the Mizunami underground research laboratory (URL). Measured groundwater pressures were temporarily changed by earthquakes of seismic intensity ≥ 3 and recovered within about one year. Changes to the chemical composition of the groundwater by the earthquakes were not detected and the injected grout material was not significantly damaged. (author)

  3. Disposal in argillaceous formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general description is made of clay as a geochemical medium, including a rapid review of the principal mineralogic data characterizing typical clay minerals, whereafter a description follows of the formation of geologic clay deposits. Two examples are used as illustration: the Boom clay formation at the Nuclear Center of Mol in Belgium and the marly clay layer at the Trisaia Nuclear Research Center in Italy. The principal physico-chemical and hydrogeologic properties of clays e.g. permeability and pore water composition are discussed in some detail due to their importance in assessing clay layers as host rock. Ion exchange of clays is reviewed with particular emphasis on the distribution coefficients, the diffusion coefficient and the migration parameters of radionuclides. Specific data relating to the Boom clay are commented in connection to the required conditioning techniques. The influence of heat on clay is shortly addressed and data are given of the heat transfer coefficients found in Belgium and Italy

  4. Key scientific challenges in geological disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geological disposal of high radioactive waste is a challenging task facing the scientific and technical world. This paper introduces the latest progress of high level radioactive disposal programs in the latest progress of high level radioactive disposal programs in the world, and discusses the following key scientific challenges: (1) precise prediction of the evolution of a repository site; (2) characteristics of deep geological environment; (3) behaviour of deep rock mass, groundwater and engineering material under coupled con-ditions (intermediate to high temperature, geostress, hydraulic, chemical, biological and radiation process, etc); (4) geo-chemical behaviour of transuranic radionuclides with low concentration and its migration with groundwater; and (5) safety assessment of disposal system. Several large-scale research projects and several hot topics related with high-level waste disposal are also introduced. (authors)

  5. Final disposal of radioactive wastes. Pt. 3. Final repository chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical processes become relevant in a nuclear waste repository if water accesses the disposal area. The extend of potential radionuclide releases is determined by a variety of radio-, geo-, and biochemical reactions. Radiolysis and corrosion of waste form, container, and backfill material influence significantly the chemical environment in close vicinity of the waste form. Released radionuclides interact in the farfield of a repository with dissolved and colloidal groundwater constituents and react with mineral surfaces. For the safety case of a nuclear waste repository, the chemical behavior of radioactive waste components is elucidated and reactions are quantified by the derivation of thermodynamic data.

  6. Selecting a land disposal alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter presents procedures needed to plan for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The basic planning objective is to develop facilities for disposal of LLW that will provide adequate protection of public health and safety by: (1) ensuring compliance with basic radiation protection criteria, and (2) reducing detrimental effects from waste disposal to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Compliance with applicable basic radiation dose limits for individual members of the general public and for radiation workers is the primary performance objective, which must be achieved without regard to cost. The ALARA requirement represents a secondary performance objective intended to accomplish further reduction of detrimental effects. Cost becomes a consideration that is taken into account in judging what further reduction of detrimental effects is reasonably achievable. Selection of a disposal site and selection of a disposal technology are the major planning decisions for realizing the basic performance objectives. The focus of this report is, therefore, on presenting a quantitative methodology for selecting a site, technology, and facility design that can accept the candidate waste streams and reduce detrimental effects to levels that are ALARA

  7. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  8. Tracing interactions between natural argillites and hyper-alkaline fluids from engineered cement paste and concrete: Chemical and isotopic monitoring of a 15-years old deep-disposal analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of Toarcian argillite were collected both next to and far from a CEM II cement paste and a CEM II concrete, within the specific context of a 15-a old borehole located in the Tournemire Experimental Platform (Aveyron, France). The objectives were evaluation of the mineralogical and geochemical changes of the claystone at the contact with the cementitious materials and determination of the spatial extent of the interactions. The approach includes the examination of the mineralogical (XRD, SEM, TEM), chemical (major, trace, rare earth elements) and isotopic (Sr, C, O) compositions of argillite whole-rocks and of various soluble phases, at two scales: in the rock matrix (P1 scale) and along micro-cracks (P2 scale). The two study scales outline nearly similar mineralogical modifications, shown by the presence of Ca silicate hydrates (C–S–H) and newly-formed CaCO3 within 10–15 mm of the cement paste and concrete. Chemical data from whole-rock argillites indicate few changes in a slightly thicker zone (18–20 mm), mainly consisting of an increase in the CaO wt.%, and a decrease in Sr contents. The other elementary contents remained quite constant except for MgO, which suggests redistribution with precipitation of a Mg-rich mineral phase at 20 mm from cement paste/concrete interface. Acetic acid leachates had more pronounced variations, including a decrease of the total elementary content in the same ‘geochemical disturbed zone’ (GDZ), together with a significant increase of the Sr isotopic ratios. A combination of Sr and C/O isotopic patterns was used to distinguish the behavior of secondary cementitious phases in the clay-rich rock: (i) calcite dissolution and re-precipitation is supported by C/O isotopic data and (ii) C–S–H neoformation is evidenced by the 87Sr/86Sr ratios; this tool also contributes to determine the origin of the fluids. The proportion of newly-formed C–S–H in the matrix and in the micro-cracks of the argillite is modeled.

  9. Used Fuel Disposal in Crystalline Rocks. FY15 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-20

    The objective of the Crystalline Disposal R&D Work Package is to advance our understanding of long-term disposal of used fuel in crystalline rocks and to develop necessary experimental and computational capabilities to evaluate various disposal concepts in such media. Chapter headings are as follows: Fuel matrix degradation model and its integration with performance assessments, Investigation of thermal effects on the chemical behavior of clays, Investigation of uranium diffusion and retardation in bentonite, Long-term diffusion of U(VI) in bentonite: dependence on density, Sorption and desorption of plutonium by bentonite, Dissolution of plutonium intrinsic colloids in the presence of clay and as a function of temperature, Laboratory investigation of colloid-facilitated transport of cesium by bentonite colloids in a crystalline rock system, Development and demonstration of discrete fracture network model, Fracture continuum model and its comparison with discrete fracture network model.

  10. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume V. Supporting data for estuarine hydrology, discharge plume analysis, chemical oceanography, biological oceanography, and data management. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume V contains appendices for the following: supporting data for estuarine hydrology and hydrography; supporting data analysis of discharge plume; supporting data for water and sediment chemistry; CTD/DO and pH profiles during biological monitoring; supporting data for nekton; and supporting data for data management.

  11. Chemical exchange program analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waffelaert, Pascale

    2007-09-01

    As part of its EMS, Sandia performs an annual environmental aspects/impacts analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the environmental aspects associated with Sandia's activities, products, and services and the potential environmental impacts associated with those aspects. Division and environmental programs established objectives and targets based on the environmental aspects associated with their operations. In 2007 the most significant aspect identified was Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage). The objective for Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage) was to improve chemical handling, storage, and on-site movement of hazardous materials. One of the targets supporting this objective was to develop an effective chemical exchange program, making a business case for it in FY07, and fully implementing a comprehensive chemical exchange program in FY08. A Chemical Exchange Program (CEP) team was formed to implement this target. The team consists of representatives from the Chemical Information System (CIS), Pollution Prevention (P2), the HWMF, Procurement and the Environmental Management System (EMS). The CEP Team performed benchmarking and conducted a life-cycle analysis of the current management of chemicals at SNL/NM and compared it to Chemical Exchange alternatives. Those alternatives are as follows: (1) Revive the 'Virtual' Chemical Exchange Program; (2) Re-implement a 'Physical' Chemical Exchange Program using a Chemical Information System; and (3) Transition to a Chemical Management Services System. The analysis and benchmarking study shows that the present management of chemicals at SNL/NM is significantly disjointed and a life-cycle or 'Cradle-to-Grave' approach to chemical management is needed. This approach must consider the purchasing and maintenance costs as well as the cost of ultimate disposal of the chemicals and materials. A chemical exchange is needed as a mechanism to re-apply chemicals on site. This

  12. Underground radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents some solutions for radioactive waste disposal. An underground disposal of radioactive waste is proposed in deep boreholes of greater diameter, fitted with containers. In northern part of Croatia, the geological data are available on numerous boreholes. The boreholes were drilled during investigations and prospecting of petroleum and gas fields. The available data may prove useful in defining safe deep layers suitable for waste repositories. The paper describes a Russian disposal design, execution and verification procedure. The aim of the paper is to discuss some earlier proposed solutions, and present a solution that has not yet been considered - lowering of containers with high level radioactive waste (HLW) to at least 500 m under the ground surface.(author)

  13. Waste disposal into the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of an atomic energy project is soon followed by the production of a variety of radioactive wastes which must be disposed of safely, quickly and cheaply. Experience has shown that much more thought has been devoted to the design of plant and laboratories than to the apparently dull problem of what to do with the wastes, but the nature of the wastes which will arise from nuclear power production calls for a change in this situation. We shall not be concerned here with power pile wastes, but disposal problems which have occurred in operation of experimental reactors have been serious enough to show that waste disposal should be considered during the early planning stages. (author)

  14. Roadmaps to sources of information on chemicals listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-To-Know Act (also known as SARA Title 3), Section 313. Toxic release inventory (for microcomputers). Data file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    EPA has developed a database of sources of information on the chemicals listed in section 313 of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). The datbase is intended to assist users of section 313 Toxic Release Inventory data to perform exposure and risk assessments of these chemicals. The Roadmaps system displays and/or prints information for the SARA section 313 chemicals on health and environmental effects, Federal regulations, and state air and water regulations, monitoring data, and state contacts.

  15. IAEA coordinated research project (CRP). The use of selected safety indicators (concentrations, fluxes) in the assessment of radioactive waste disposal. Report 5: Chemical weathering rates on the Baltic Shield of Finland for use as indicators of nuclear waste repository safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the available information from the literature on chemical erosion and weathering rates in Finland and northern Sweden is reviewed and experimental data from recent followup studies in defined catchments is discussed. In glaciated terrain as in Finland the best estimates of chemical erosion rates are obtained when geochemical data of glacial till is used. Elemental fluxes in free-flowing rivers and river-lake systems have been studied in greater detail only in a few case studies. The Kalix river drainage basin investigations gave evidence that the mobilization of rare earth elements (REE) is determined by weathering processes in the upper till layers and that the C-horizon below about 0.75 m depth or generally below the groundwater table is practically unaffected by weathering. Also the removal of U from the watershed was found to happen mostly by groundwater flow through predominantly shallow aquifers. Another type of case study is constrained to regions where certain phenomena cause enhanced trace metal mobilization, as in a region stretched along the western coast of Finland where land-uplift exposes clay sediments rich in sulphides above the groundwater level, with the consequence of increased mobilization of a number of heavy metals. Very little quantitative information on elemental flux balances is available from river-lake systems. Some modelling has been attempted on one great lake system the lake Paeijaenne by use of fall-out nuclides. From the same lake a detailed record of sedimentation rates covering the whole period from the end of the latest glaciation to present is available and erosion rate variations since the end of the latest glaciation can be assessed. The main part of this study focusses on investigations of well-defined small catchments over a longer time period, where groundwater is discharging in springs. Geochemical fluxes worth mentioning seem to be constrained to the surficial geological layers which include overburden and

  16. Groundwater Fate and Transport Modeling for Texarkana Wood Preserving Company Superfund Site, Texarkana, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, Ronald Chester

    1999-08-01

    Fate and transport model results are presented for the Texarkana Wood Preserving Company (TWPC)superfund site. The conceptual model assumes two sources of contamination, specifically, the areas around the old and new process areas. Recent data show the presence of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) in the aquifer that are also sources of dissolved contamination in the aquifer. A flow model was constructed and calibrated against measured hydraulic heads at permanent monitoring wells. Good matches were obtained between model simulated heads and most measured heads. An unexplained exception occurs at monitoring well MW-13 down gradient of the site beyond the measured contaminant plume where the model predicts heads that are more than 2 ft. lower than reported field measurements. Adjusting hydraulic parameters in the model could not account for this anomaly and still preserve the head matches at other wells. There is likely a moderate deficiency in the conceptual model or perhaps a data error. Other information such as substantial amounts of infiltrating surface water in the area or a correction in surveyed elevation would improve the flow model. A particle tracking model calculated a travel time from the new process area to the Day’s Creek discharge location on the order of 40 years. Travel times from the old process area to Day’s Creek were calculated to be on the order of 80 years. While these calculations are subject to some uncertainty, travel times of decades are indicated.

  17. Value engineering study for seletion of verticle barrier technology at a Superfund site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A value engineering (VE) study was conducted to identify and evaluate vertical barrier technologies and alignments for a Superfund project in New Castle County, Delaware. The objective was to select and recommend the most appropriate vertical barrier(s) for two separate landfills and a portion of the manufacturing plant on the site. A VE team was assembled to identify and evaluate site specific issues related to effectiveness, constructability and cost for numerous vertical barrier technologies. Several cost-effective alternatives were identified that met project objectives. The VE study concluded that a composite vertical barrier system consisting of a soil-bentonite slurry trench and steel sheet piles would provide effective containment of the North Landfill. Additionally, the geologic confining unit specified in the Record of Decision (ROD) was found to be unsuitable as a vertical barrier key and a more suitable, shallow confining unit was discovered. This paper describes the value engineering process and results of the VE study for one of the landfills

  18. Efficient analysis using custom interactive visualization tools at a Superfund site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custom visualization analysis programs were developed and used to analyze contaminant transport calculations from a three-dimensional numerical groundwater flow model developed for a Department of Energy Superfund site. The site hydrogeology, which is highly heterogenous, includes both fractured limestone and dolomite and alluvium deposits. Three-dimensional interactive visualization techniques were used to understand and analyze the three-dimensional, double-porosity modeling results. A graphical object oriented programming environment was applied to efficiently develop custom visualization programs in a coarse-grained data structure language. Comparisons were made, using the results from the three-dimensional, finite-difference model, between traditional two-dimensional analyses (contour and vector plots) and interactive three-dimensional techniques. Subjective comparison areas include the accuracy of analysis, the ability to understand the results of three-dimensional contaminant transport simulation, and the capability to transmit the results of the analysis to the project management. In addition, a quantitative comparison was made on the time required to develop a thorough analysis of the modeling results. The conclusions from the comparative study showed that the visualization analysis provided an increased awareness of the contaminant transport mechanisms, provided new insights into contaminant migration, and resulted in a significant time savings

  19. In-situ stabilization of the Geiger (C and M Oil) Superfund Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Geiger (C and M Oil) Superfund Site is the first US Army Corps of Engineers managed soil remediation project which utilized the in-situ stabilization/solidification technique to remediate the soil. This project involved the remediation of approximately 23,000 cubic yards of contaminated soil. Contaminants of concern included chromium, lead, PCB'S, toluene, benzene, and other organic compounds. Clean-up criteria for the stabilized material was equal to the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations, when tested using the TCLP leachate extraction method. Chromium, lead, and toluene were the main contaminants of concern, with TCLP clean-up goals of 150, 15 and 1,000 parts per billion (ppb), respectively. This National Priorities List (NPL) site is located near Charleston, SC and was an abandoned old waste oil facility that utilized unlined shallow trenches for the storage of waste oil. This paper summarizes the initial testing programs and the final production work at the site. Extensive testing was performed throughout all phases of the project. This testing was performed for the purpose of mix optimization, quality assurance, and verification testing. Specific parameters tested included: TCLP testing of organics, metals and PCBs, permeability testing, and unconfirmed compression strength

  20. Radioactive waste disposal and constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive waste disposal has many dimensions with regard to the constitutional law. The central problem is the corret delimitation between adequate governmental precautions against risks and or the permitted risk which the state can impose on the citizen, and the illegal danger which nobody has to accept. The solution requires to consider all aspects which are relevant to the constitutional law. Therefore, the following analysis deals not only with the constitutional risks and the risks of the nuclear energy, but also with the liberal, overall-economic, social, legal, and democratic aspects of radioactive waste disposal. (HSCH)

  1. Sewage sludge disposal in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage systems serve about 70% of the Austrian population, producing 6 million m3 of sewage sludge per year with a dry matter content of 4-5%. At present about 52% of this sludge is disposed of in land fills, 33% is incinerated, and only about 15 % is used in agriculture. Although agricultural utilization is becoming increasingly important, several problems, especially those related to public opinion, need to be resolved before increased use will be possible. In this paper, wastewater treatment and sewage-sludge production in Austria, and problems associated with sludge disposal are discussed. (author)

  2. TMT abnormal wastes disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A substantial quantity of high beta-gamma/high-TRU contaminated wastes are expected from cleanup activities of Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station. Those wastes are not disposable because of present regulatory constraints. Therefore, they must be stored temporarily. This paper discusse three options for storage of those wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: (a) storage in temporary storage casks, (b) underground storage in vaults, and (c) storage in silos at a hot shop. Each option is analyzed and evaluated. Also included is a discussion of future disposal strategies, which might be pursued when a suitable federal or commercial repository is built

  3. DOE SNF technology development necessary for final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing technology is inadequate to allow safe disposal of the entire inventory of US Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Needs for SNF technology development were identified for each individual fuel type in the diverse inventory of SNF generated by past, current, and future DOE materials production, as well as SNF returned from domestic and foreign research reactors. This inventory consists of 259 fuel types with different matrices, cladding materials, meat composition, actinide content, and burnup. Management options for disposal of SNF include direct repository disposal, possible including some physical or chemical preparation, or processing to produce a qualified waste form by using existing aqueous processes or new treatment processes. Technology development needed for direct disposal includes drying, mitigating radionuclide release, canning, stabilization, and characterization technologies. While existing aqueous processing technology is fairly mature, technology development may be needed to apply one of these processes to SNF different than for which the process was originally developed. New processes to treat SNF not suitable for disposal in its current form were identified. These processes have several advantages over existing aqueous processes

  4. Carbon dioxide disposal in solid form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Sharp, D.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wendt, C.H. [Auxon Corp., (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Coal reserves can provide for the world`s energy needs for centuries. However, coal`s long term use may be severely curtailed if the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is not eliminated. We present a safe and permanent method of carbon dioxide disposal that is based on combining carbon dioxide chemically with abundant raw materials to form stable carbonate minerals. We discuss the availability of raw materials and potential process designs. We consider our initial rough cost estimate of about 3{cents}/kWh encouraging. The availability of a carbon dioxide fixation technology would serve as insurance in case global warming, or the perception of global warming, causes severe restrictions on carbon dioxide emissions. If the increased energy demand of a growing world population is to be satisfied from coal, the implementation of such a technology would quite likely be unavoidable.

  5. Contributions of Geology to the Problem of Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The earth is the sphere of interest of the geologist, and it is the only place on or in which wastes can he dispersed or stored. In that sense, problems of radioactive waste disposal are primarily geological. Accumulated geologic knowledge and established principles have been applied widely in the United States to problems of disposal, and the unique nature of these problems has led to research and significant advances of knowledge in specialized aspects of geology. A common activity has been appraisal of sites for nuclear energy facilities. This includes analysis and evaluation of geologic, topographic, hydrologic, geochemical and seismic factors. Also, regional analyses are made of the gross characteristics of. major physical subdivisions of the United States and the relation of these characteristics to waste storage and disposal. Special problems include the actual and potential behaviour of ordinary wastes in specific geologic environments. Other studies concern possible use of structural basins, stratigraphic traps, and salt beds and salt domes for storage and containment of high-level waste. Much general and some detailed study has been made of background radiometry. Water is the critical factor in waste disposal; accordingly certain natural processes by which water may be purified or chemically altered have been investigated. Significant results have been achieved in studies of dispersion and diffusion processes in ground water and surface water ; the rate of travel of contaminants in streams; the mechanics of ground-water flow in granular materials ; ground-water flow in cavernous rocks ; and the behaviour of water and chemical solutions in the zone of aeration. Thermal and chemical-stability problems that would develop if high-level waste were injected in geologic formations also have been investigated. Geologic, petrologic and geophysical studies have been made of specific areas, and research in clay mineralogy, ion exchange and geochemistry has been

  6. Applying RESRAD-CHEM for chemical risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RESRAD-CHEM is a multiple pathway analysis computer code to evaluate chemically contaminated sites; it was developed at Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The code is designed to predict human health risks from exposure to hazardous chemicals and to derive cleanup criteria for chemically contaminated soils. It consists of environmental fate and transport models and is capable of predicting chemical concentrations over time in different environmental media. The methodology used in RESRAD-CHEM for exposure assessment and risk characterization follows the US Environmental Protection Agency's guidance on Human Health Evaluation for Superfund. A user-friendly interface is incorporated for entering data, operating the code, and displaying results. RESRAD-CHEM is easy to use and is a powerful tool to assess chemical risk from environmental exposure

  7. Physiochemical technologies for HCB remediation and disposal: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Man; Yuan, Songhu

    2012-08-30

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is one of the 12 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) listed in "Stockholm Convention". It is hydrophobic, toxic and persistent in the environment. Due to extensive use in the past, HCB contamination is still a serious environmental problem. Strong adsorption on solid particles makes the remediation difficult. This paper presents an overview of the physiochemical technologies for HCB remediation and disposal. The adsorption/desorption behavior of HCB is firstly described because it comprises the fundamental for most remediation technologies. Physiochemical technologies concerned mostly for HCB remediation and disposal, i.e., chemical enhanced washing, electrokinetic remediation, reductive dechlorination and thermal decomposition, are reviewed in terms of fundamentals, state of the art and perspectives. The other physiochemical technologies including chemical oxidation, radiation induced catalytic dechlorination, ultrasonic assisted treatment and mechanochemical dechlorination are also reviewed. The pilot and large scale tests on HCB remediation or disposal are summarized in the end. This review aims to provide useful information to researchers and practitioners regarding HCB remediation and disposal. PMID:22709849

  8. Revegetation of flue gas desulfurization sludge pond disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive search of published literature was conducted to summarize research undertaken to date on revegetation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waste disposal ponds. A review of the physical and chemical properties of FGD sludges and wastes with similar characteristics is also included in order to determine the advantages and limitations of FGD sludge for plant growth. No specific guidelines have been developed for the revegetation of FGD sludge disposal sites. Survey studies showed that the wide-ranging composition of FGD wastes was determined primarily by the sulfur dioxide and other flue gas scrubbing processes used at powerplants. Sulfate rich (>90%CaSO4) FGD sludges are physically and chemically more stable, and thus more amenable to revegetation. Because of lack of macronutrients and extremely limited microbial activity, FBD sludge ponds presented a poor plant growth environment without amendment. Studies showed the natural process of inoculation of the FGD sludge with soil microbes that promote plant growth be can after disposal but proceeded slowly. Revegetation studies reviewed showed that FGD sludges amended with soils supported a wider variety of plant species better and longer than abandoned FGD ponds. Two major types of plants have been successful in revegetation of FGD waste ponds and similar wastes: salt-tolerant plants and aquatic plants. A comprehensive list of plant species with potential for regetation of FGD sludge disposal pond sites is presented along with successful revegetation techniques

  9. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK)

  10. Geological disposal programme in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomio Kawata, Executive Director (NUMO) presented the geological disposal programme in Japan. NUMO was created in 2000 by the Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act which describes the site selection process. The siting process is currently underway including a volunteer approach under NUMO's responsibility. The Final Disposal Act provides for a stepwise process of site investigation with a safety case including a demonstration of compliance with siting factors. The safety case will be refined step by step as the investigations proceed from one stage to the next. One of the key issues is the closure strategy, which is now a part of the overall safety strategy because it is closely linked to post-closure safety and to important issues such as monitoring and retrievability. T. Kawata insisted on the importance to share a common understanding of fundamental issues and a common safety philosophy among the countries involved with a view to successful implementation of the disposal programme in each country. In this regard, he declared that the role of the NEA/RWMC is indispensable

  11. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-10-01

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK).

  12. General Instructions for Disposable Respirators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    This podcast, intended for the general public, demonstrates how to put on and take off disposable respirators that are to be used in areas affected by the influenza outbreak.  Created: 4/9/2009 by CDC, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 4/29/2009.

  13. Low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mochovce National Radwaste Repository is a near surface multi-barrier disposal facility for disposal of processed low and very low level radioactive wastes (radwastes) resulting from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities situated in the territory of the Slovak Republic and from research institutes, laboratories, hospitals and other institutions (institutional RAW) which are in compliance with the acceptance criteria. The basic safety requirement of the Repository is to avoid a radioactive release to the environment during its operation and institutional inspection. This commitment is covered by the protection barrier system. The method of solution designed and implemented at the Repository construction complies with the latest knowledge and practice of the repository developments all over the world and meets requirements for the safe radwaste disposal with minimum environmental consequences. All wastes are solidified and have to meet the acceptance criteria before disposal into the Repository. They are processed and treated at the Bohunice RAW Treatment Centre and Liquid RAW Final Treatment Facility at Mochovce. The disposal facility for low level radwastes consists of two double-rows of reinforced concrete vaults with total capacity 7 200 fibre reinforced concrete containers (FCCs) with RAW. One double-row contains 40 The operation of the Repository was started in year 2001 and after ten years, in 2011 was conducted the periodic assessment of nuclear safety with positive results. Till the end of year 2014 was disposed to the Repository 11 514 m3 RAW. The analysis of total RAW production from operation and decommissioning of all nuclear installation in SR, which has been carried out in frame of the BIDSF project C9.1, has showed that the total volume estimation of conditioned waste is 108 thousand m3 of which 45.5 % are low level waste (LLW) and 54,5 % very low level waste (VLLW). On the base of this fact there is the need to build 7.5 double

  14. Chemical munitions dumped at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Margo; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Modern chemical warfare is a byproduct of the industrial revolution, which created factories capable of rapidly producing artillery shells that could be filled with toxic chemicals such as chlorine, phosgene and mustard agent. The trench warfare of World War I inaugurated extensive deployments of modern chemical weapons in 1915. Concomitantly, the need arose to dispose of damaged, captured or excess chemical munitions and their constituents. Whereas today chemical warfare agents (CWA) are destroyed via chemical neutralization processes or high-temperature incineration in tandem with environmental monitoring, in the early to middle 20th century the options for CWA disposal were limited to open-air burning, burial and disposal at sea. The latter option was identified as the least likely of the three to impact mankind, and sea dumping of chemical munitions commenced. Eventually, the potential impacts of sea dumping human waste were recognized, and in 1972 an international treaty, the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, was developed to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the dumping of wastes and other matter into the ocean. By the time this treaty, referred to as the London Convention, was signed by a majority of nations, millions of tons of munitions were known to have been disposed throughout the world's oceans.

  15. Earth Construction and Landfill Disposal Options for Slaker Grits

    OpenAIRE

    Risto Pöykiö; G. Watkins; H. Nurmesniemi and O. Dahl

    2010-01-01

    Slaker grits, an industrial residue originating from the chemical recovery process at sulfate (kraft) pulp mills, are typically disposed of to landfill in Finland. However, due to the relatively low total heavy metal and low leachable heavy metal, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, Dissolved O rganic Carbon (DOC) and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) concentrations, the residue is a potential earth construction material. This paper gives an overview of the relevant Finnish legislation on the use of indu...

  16. High-level waste disposal, ethics and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael O.

    2008-06-01

    Moral philosophy applied to nuclear waste disposal can be linked to paradigmatic science. Simple thermodynamic principles tell us something about rightness or wrongness of our action. Ethical judgement can be orientated towards the chemical compatibility between waste container and geological repository. A container-repository system as close as possible to thermodynamic equilibrium is ethically acceptable. It aims at unlimited stability, similar to the stability of natural metal deposits within the Earth’s crust. The practicability of the guideline can be demonstrated.

  17. Superfund at work: Hazardous waste cleanup efforts nationwide, fall 1992. (Wide Beach section of Brant, New York)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wide-spread contamination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) threatened the Wide Beach section of Brant, New York, a popular vacation resort. EPA's Superfund program effectively completed a permanent cleanup of Wide Beach in the span of one year. Other highlights included: a new and innovative technology to remove PCB contamination; reduction of PCBs to one-fifth of acceptable levels; temporary relocation of residents who were concerned for their health while cleanup activities took place; newly paved roads and driveways, re-landscaped yards, and a new storm sewer system; and restoration of ecologically sensitive wetlands. EPA's achievements significantly reduced PCB risks at Wide Beach, and left a satisfied community in Brant

  18. 48 CFR 245.603 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 245.603 Section 245.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractor Inventory 245.603 Disposal methods....

  19. Chemical and biological methods for the analysis and remediation of environmental contaminants frequently identified at superfund sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melinda Christine Wiles [Texas A& amp; M University, College Station, TX (United States). Department of Veterinary Anatomy & Public Health

    2004-08-15

    Substantial environmental contamination has occurred from coal tar creosote and pentachlorophenol (C5P) in wood preserving solutions. The present studies focused on the characterization and remediation of these contaminants. The first objective was to delineate a sequence of biological changes caused by chlorinated phenol (CP) exposure. The second study was to develop multi-functional sorbents to remediate CPs and other components of wood preserving waste from groundwater. Following water remediation, the final aim of this work was to explore the safety of the parent clay minerals as potential enterosorbents for contaminants ingested in water and food. Based on evaluations of toxicity and neutron activation analysis of tissues, no significant differences were observed between animals receiving clay supplements and control animals, with the exception of slightly decreased brain Rb in animals ingesting clay. Overall, the results suggest that neither clay mineral, at relatively high dietary concentrations, influences mineral uptake or utilization in the pregnant rat. 420 refs., 28 figs, 15 tabs.

  20. Disposable products in the hospital waste stream.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilden, D. J.; Scissors, K. N.; Reuler, J B

    1992-01-01

    Use of disposable products in hospitals continues to increase despite limited landfill space and dwindling natural resources. We analyzed the use and disposal patterns of disposable hospital products to identify means of reducing noninfectious, nonhazardous hospital waste. In a 385-bed private teaching hospital, the 20 disposable products of which the greatest amounts (by weight) were purchased, were identified, and total hospital waste was tabulated. Samples of trash from three areas were so...

  1. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Mahlon Heileson

    2006-10-01

    The Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) has been designed to accept CERCLA waste generated within the Idaho National Laboratory. Hazardous, mixed, low-level, and Toxic Substance Control Act waste will be accepted for disposal at the ICDF. The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the quantities of radioactive and/or hazardous constituents allowable in waste streams designated for disposal at ICDF. This ICDF Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria is divided into four section: (1) ICDF Complex; (2) Landfill; (3) Evaporation Pond: and (4) Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF). The ICDF Complex section contains the compliance details, which are the same for all areas of the ICDF. Corresponding sections contain details specific to the landfill, evaporation pond, and the SSSTF. This document specifies chemical and radiological constituent acceptance criteria for waste that will be disposed of at ICDF. Compliance with the requirements of this document ensures protection of human health and the environment, including the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Waste placed in the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond must not cause groundwater in the Snake River Plain Aquifer to exceed maximum contaminant levels, a hazard index of 1, or 10-4 cumulative risk levels. The defined waste acceptance criteria concentrations are compared to the design inventory concentrations. The purpose of this comparison is to show that there is an acceptable uncertainty margin based on the actual constituent concentrations anticipated for disposal at the ICDF. Implementation of this Waste Acceptance Criteria document will ensure compliance with the Final Report of Decision for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. For waste to be received, it must meet the waste acceptance criteria for the specific disposal/treatment unit (on-Site or off-Site) for which it is destined.

  2. Main orientations in ICRP recommendations on waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposal of chemically toxic or radioactive waste is a particularly thorny problem for the public, since waste is usually perceived as something completely negative and entirely independent of the beneficial practices which generated it. Radioactive waste disposal is a radiological protection problem, since the principal objective is the protection of current and future generations. There is no doubt that the Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) plays an essential role in this subject, due to its competence and to the fact that ICRP is a non governmental organisation independent from national regulatory authorities. However, until recently it should be recognised that its role regarding radioactive waste disposal has been limited, despite a specific publication on the subject more than a decade ago (ICRP 46 'Radiation Protection Principles for the Disposal of Solid Waste'). The purpose of this paper is to show the evolution of ICRP's position, since it considered as essential to clarify the way in which radiological protection principles and concepts are applied to radioactive waste (effluents or solid waste). It will show the importance of publication 77 ('Radiological Protection Policy for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste', 1997) and the main themes of an ongoing study on long lived solid waste ('Radiation Protection Recommendations as applied to the Disposal of Long Lived Solid Radioactive Waste'). Special attention will be given to the following issues: protection of future generations, definition of hypothetical group, optimisation in the context of potential exposure. A distinction should be made between the application of the criteria to exposure situations resulting from natural processes (gradual or disruptive) and human intrusion, technical and managerial principles, compliance with the radiological protection principles. The objective of the paper is to clarity the usefulness of these recommendations in the decision making process. (author)

  3. Solid waste disposal: a long-standing public health problem comes of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wands, R.C.

    1977-05-01

    An important step in the waste disposal issue was the passage of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The chief aims of the Act are to encourage recycling of natural resources, to provide for the safe disposal of discarded materials, and to regulate the management of hazardous waste. Hazardous waste disposal can be controlled only if the public is informed of what wastes are hazardous and provided with an effective and convenient method for their disposal. By far the greatest source of hazardous waste, however, is industry, especially the metallurgical and chemical industries. Some pollution problems dscussed are those caused by polychlorinated biphenyls and kepone, sodium monofluoroacetate in sanitary landfills, leachate waters containing Pb, Se, Fe, and Hg, and shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes. Several industries are trying to solve the problems of solid waste disposal, either voluntarily or in response to regulatory and judicial pressures.

  4. 48 CFR 2845.603 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Disposal methods. 2845.603 Section 2845.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Contract Management GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 2845.603 Disposal...

  5. 48 CFR 945.603 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 945.603 Section 945.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 945.603 Disposal methods....

  6. Environmental chemistry of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, J.R.; Williams, D.R.

    1986-09-01

    In this review the environmental chemistry problems associated with radioactive waste disposal are considered from the point of view of the threat to man of waste disposal, contamination pathways, the chemistry of waste containment, speciation of radio-isotopes, chemisorption, risk assessment and computerized simulation of waste disposal phenomena. A strategy for the future is discussed.

  7. Nuclear waste management: storage and disposal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term disposal of nuclear wastes must resolve difficulties arising chiefly from the potential for contamination of the environment and the risk of misuse. Alternatives available for storage and disposal of wastes are examined in this overview paper. Guidelines and criteria which may govern in the development of methods of disposal are discussed

  8. Shallow disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review and evaluation of computer codes capable of simulating the various processes that are instrumental in determining the dose rate to individuals resulting from the shallow disposal of radioactive waste was conducted. Possible pathways of contamination, as well as the mechanisms controlling radionuclide movement along these pathways have been identified. Potential transport pathways include the unsaturated and saturated ground water systems, surface water bodies, atmospheric transport and movement (and accumulation) in the food chain. Contributions to dose may occur as a result of ingestion of contaminated water and food, inhalation of contaminated air and immersion in contaminated air/water. Specific recommendations were developed regarding the selection and modification of a model to meet the needs associated with the prediction of dose rates to individuals as a consequence of shallow radioactive waste disposal. Specific technical requirements with regards to risk, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses have been addressed

  9. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  10. The disposal of mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper examines the consequences of dam building with slime of high water content, and therefore low relative density, such as the tailings usually associated with the extraction of uranium. It shows how a low relative density reduces the practica maximum rate of rise, and hence the establishment cost, of slimes dams built by conventional means. Further hidden costs of such tailings dams are examined. It is concluded that dewatering of tailings before their disposal is the most cost-effective means of increasing the rate at which a particular dam can be constructed, or of reducing operating or stability problems on existing dams. In the longer term, underground disposal seems to be a feasible alternative. However, it is pointed out that there are factors that can compound the operating difficulties, and that these should be investigated before remedial steps are taken

  11. Underground criticality in geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposition of weapons fissile material as once-through MOx fuel in reactors or immobilization in waste glass would result in end products requiring geologic disposal. Similar considerations apply to some spent fuels in a geologic repository. The criticality potential of these end products in a geologic setting is an important consideration for the final disposal of these materials. In this document the authors present calculations that help define parameters and configurations for criticality, including those that, if the criticality is achieved, could lead to autocatalytic power transients. It is not the purpose of this paper to define scenarios that could reasonably lead to criticality or to establish the probabilities that critical configurations could occur. The authors suggest some parameters that should be considered by waste package designers and repository analysts to ensure that criticality cannot occur

  12. Equity and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the recommendations of the US National Academy of Sciences and the mandates of the 1987 Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act, the US Department of Energy has proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site of the world's first permanent repository for high-level nuclear waste. The main justification for permanent disposal (as opposed to above-ground storage) is that it guarantees safety by means of waste isolation. This essay argues, however, that considerations of equity (safer for whom?) undercut the safety rationale. The article surveys some prima facie arguments for equity in the distribution of radwaste risks and then evaluates four objections that are based, respectively, on practicality, compensation for risks, scepticism about duties to future generations, and the uranium criterion. The conclusion is that, at least under existing regulations and policies, permanent waste disposal is highly questionable, in part, because it fails to distribute risk equitably or to compensate, in full, for this inequity

  13. Radioactive waste disposal in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is any material which contains or is contaminated by radionuclides and for which no use is foreseen. According to this definition, a large number of sources, solid, liquid and gaseous, within the Greek territory can be - and, actually, is - declared as waste. The types of such solid sources are presented. It is estimated that these solid sources represent above 90% of all disused sources in Greece. The medical sources of Co-60 and Cs-137 were used in Teletherapy units, while the Ra-226 ones are in the form of needles or tubes used in Brachytherapy. All the industrial sources had been used for measuring moisture, density, thickness, elementary composition, etc. The small sources used by research labs are mainly in the form of discs. The above sources had been imported a long time ago (even 3 decades ago), had been used, and then stored as useless inside the user's premises. Since 1990 all the users of radioactive sources are obliged to return them back to the suppliers when they are no longer in use. In fact, no source is imported unless there is a written declaration of acceptance by its producer. A project concerning the export of all disused sealed sources is in progress. For every source a certificate will be issued, proper container will be purchased and all the necessary documents will be prepared so that it can be transported for final disposal or reuse in a foreign repository facility. Apart from this 'old generated' waste, unsealed radionuclides have always been used in nuclear medicine producing waste. The above radionuclides are used either in vivo (injected or ingested by patients) or in vitro (labeling of blood and other cells). Both uses leave some radioactive waste inside the needles, the tubes, or other material. Since 1991, Greece has a well-established regulatory system for controlling waste from nuclear medicine labs, so that disposing such solid or liquid waste does no harm to the environment. A revision of these regulations has

  14. Siting of geological disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is generated from the production of nuclear energy and from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme is the IAEA's contribution to establishing and promoting the basic safety philosophy for radioactive waste management and the steps necessary to ensure its implementation. This Safety Guide defines the process to be used and guidelines to be considered in selecting sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. It reflects the collective experience of eleven Member States having programmes to dispose of spent fuel, high level and long lived radioactive waste. In addition to the technical factors important to site performance, the Safety Guide also addresses the social, economic and environmental factors to be considered in site selection. 3 refs

  15. Regional gross disposable household income

    OpenAIRE

    Eddie Holmes

    2008-01-01

    Presents estimates published in May 2008, an overview of methodology used and future plans for regional economic dataThis article looks at estimates for regional gross disposable household income (GDHI) at current basic prices, published in May 2008. These data are published using the European Union Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Statistics (NUTS) regions. Data are published for the NUTS1, NUTS2 and NUTS3 levels for the period 1995 to 2006. There is an overview of the methodology used ...

  16. Dewatering cuts drilling mud and disposal costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on rig site dewatering of drilling fluids with recycling of processed water that can help an operator to comply with environmental rules by reducing volumes of waste and reducing long term liabilities. It can also reduce disposal costs and provide a cleaner drill site overall. Rig site dewatering is the process of injecting coagulants or flocculating chemicals into the mud entering a large clarifying centrifuge. This coagulates the fine, drilled particles allowing them to be separated from the fluid which can then be handled separately. Most of the environmental concerns during the 1980s involved hazardous materials and toxic wastes. Drilling fluids, many of which are chemically benign, have escaped many of the difficult-to-comply-with rules and regulations. During the 1990s, however, operators may be required to submit a written plan for liquid waste reduction for even nonhazardous materials. Many states and local agencies may institute total bans on oil field wastes. Drilling rigs typically produce about 1 bbl of liquid waste for every 1 ft of hole drilled. Thus, a typical drilling operation can produce a large quantity of waste

  17. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste

  18. Engineered Barriers and Geological Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geological disposal system comprises a system of multiple barriers, both natural and man-made, to provide long-term isolation and containment of radioactive waste. Various geological formations are stable and potentially suitable for geological disposal. Engineered barriers are designed to work in an integrated fashion together with the host geological formation. Much research has been carried out to develop engineered barrier systems suitable for use in different host rocks and with different waste types. These studies continue both nationally and within the framework of multilateral international projects, in facilities such as underground research laboratories. Geological disposal is the preferred method for long term management of radioactive waste. In each repository the long-term isolation and containment of the waste is achieved by the host geological formation and the system of engineered barriers. Any engineered barrier system (EBS) is made of several components, each taking different safety roles that are relied upon at different times in the lifetime of the repository. Research, demonstration and development of EBS materials, as well as of their manufacturing and emplacement technologies are important endeavours in national waste management programmes and the subject of international cooperation. These studies and demonstrations have considerably enhanced confidence in the production of the EBS components and in their performance under repository conditions

  19. SPS salvage and disposal alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    A wide range of salvage options exist for the satellite power system (SPS) satellite, ranging from use in and beyond geosynchronous orbit to use in low Earth orbit to return and use on Earth. The satellite might be used intact to provide for various purposes, it might be cannibalized, or it might be melted down to supply materials for space- or ground-based products. The use of SPS beyond its nominal lifetime provides value that can be deducted from the SPS capital investment cost. It is shown that the present value of the salvage value of the SPS satellites, referenced to the system initial operation data, is likely to be on the order of five to ten percent of its on-orbit capital cost. (Given a 30 year satellite lifetime and a four percent discount rate, the theoretical maximum salvage value is 30.8 percent of the initial capital cost). The SPS demonstration satellite is available some 30 years earlier than the first full-scale SPS satellite and has a likely salvage value on the order of 80 percent of its on site capital cost. In the event that it becomes desirable to dispose of either the demonstration or full-scale SPS satellite, a number of disposal options appear to exist for which intact disposal costs are less than one percent of capital costs.

  20. Hanford site grout disposal vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) completed processing and disposal of an initial 3,800 m3 of radioactive waste from the Hanford site's double-shell tanks (DSTs) on July 11, 1989. For the first time in the Hanford site's 46-yr history, tank wastes resulting from weapons-grade plutonium production were moved out of liquid storage and converted into a solid for environmentally safe disposal. In addition to the 3,800 m3 of nonhazardous, low-level waste processed in 1988 and 1989, ∼ 163,000 m3 of mixed waste will be treated for disposal between 1992 and 2013. These low-level wastes are radioactive, concentrated salt solutions classified as hazardous by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and dangerous by the Washington State Department of Ecology. As feed for the grouting process they contain ∼ 11% sodium nitrate, 6% sodium hydroxide, 5% sodium nitrite, 3% sodium aluminate, 1% sodium phosphate, 0.5% sodium chloride, and 73% water. Many radionuclides are present, although 137Cs contributes more than 99% of the 0.3 Ci/l activity. From a long-term performance assessment standpoint, nitrate, 99Tc, and 129I are the primary contaminants of concern

  1. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste.

  2. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  3. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  4. The use and disposal of household pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed

  5. MAW and HTR fuel element test disposal in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kernforschungsanlage Juelich, KFA, (Nuclear Research Center Juelich) has been handling a project since 1983 on 'Further Development of the Borehole Technology for the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes in Salt, with the Examples of Dissolver Sludge, Fuel Element Claddings, Fuel Hardware und HTR Fuel Elements'. The project is sponsored by the Bundesminister fuer Forschung und Technologie, BMFT, (Federal Ministry of Research and Technology) under the identification number KWA 5302 3 and bears the short title 'MAW and HTR Fuel Element Test Disposal in Boreholes'. The major objective of the project is to develop a technique for the disposal of the above mentioned wastes in unlined boreholes in salt and to test this technique in the Asse salt mine. The Institut fuer Chemische Technologie der Nuklearen Entsorgung, ICT (Institute of Chemical Technology) at the KFA is responsible for the scientific and organizational management of the project. The Institut fuer Tieflagerung, IfT, (Institute for Underground Disposal) of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH, GSF, (Society for Radiological and Environmental Research) is responsible for the geomechanical and mining activities in the project. It supervises the in-situ experiments, and as the owner of the Asse salt mine, it submits applications for the experiments to the licensing authorities. Geomechanical calculations are being carried out by the Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, BGR, (Federal Institute for Geological Sciences and Natural Resources). (orig./RB)

  6. Calculating the Diffusive Flux of Persistent Organic Pollutants between Sediments and the Water Column on the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site using Polymeric Passive Samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive samplers were used to determine water concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the surface sediments and near-bottom water of a marine Superfund site on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California, USA. Measured concentrations in the porewater and water column at...

  7. Geomechanical problems in study of radioactive wastes disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for both low-intermediate level radioactive wastes disposal and high level radioactive waste disposal were introduced briefly. Geomechanical problems in radioactive wastes disposal were discussed. Some suggestions were proposed for the radioactive wastes disposal in China

  8. Management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes with regard to their chemical toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary overview is provided of management options for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) with regard to its chemical toxicity. In particular, the following issues are identified and described associated with the management and safe disposal of chemically toxic materials in LILW: the origin and characteristics; the regulatory approaches; the pre-disposal management; the disposal; the safety assessment. Also included are: regulatory framework for chemically toxic low level wastes in the USA; pre-disposal processing options for LILW containing chemically toxic components; example treatment technologies for LILW containing chemically toxic components and safety assessment case studies for Germany, Belgium, France and Sweden

  9. The uncertain future for nuclear graphite disposal: Crisis or opportunity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last twenty years, numerous proposals have been made for the long-term treatment of radioactive graphite waste. These plans have ranged from sea dumping through incineration to land-based disposal, sometimes preceded by a variable period of 'safe-storage' within the original reactor containment, to allow for the decay of shorter-lived isotopes ahead of dismantling. A number of novel chemical or physical pre-treatments of the graphite, with the objective of facilitating its subsequent disposal or improving the environmental consequences of the chosen disposal route, have also been suggested. There are patents issued on systems for transmutation of long-lived isotopes to reduce the radiological consequences of disposal of intact graphite, and for separation of certain isotopes such as carbon-14 from the matrix in an incineration process. Although these far-reaching proposals are not apparently cost-effective, scope for cost-recovery does exist, i.e., in terms of disposal of the separated carbon-14 in cements used for immobilisation of other radioactive solid waste materials. More recently, political and environmental factors have further complicated the issue. Nuclear regulators are challenging the proposed length of 'safe-storage' schemes on the basis that essential knowledge on the reactor materials may be lost in the interim. International agreements such as OSPAR have effectively eliminated the possibility for disposal at sea, whilst public opinion is strongly expressed against any expansion of existing land-based disposal sites or the creation of new ones. As a particular example, the United Kingdom authorities recently denied to the official body charged with the development of a deep repository the necessary planning consents to develop an exploratory rock-structure laboratory on the most favoured site. The current drive towards minimising or eliminating any radioactivity release to the environment has the unintended consequence of causing the waste

  10. Development of CANDU Spent Fuel Disposal Concepts for the Improvement of Disposal Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two types of spent fuels generated from nuclear power plants, CANDU type and PWR type. PWR spent fuels which include a lot of reusable material can be considered to be recycled. CANDU spent fuels are considered to directly disposed in deep geological formation, since they have little reusable material. In this study, based on the Korean Reference spent fuel disposal System(KRS) which is to dispose both PWR and CANDU spent fuels, the more effective CANDU spent fuel disposal systems have been developed. To do this, the disposal canister has been modified to hold the storage basket which can load 60 spent fuel bundles. From these modified disposal canisters, the disposal systems to meet the thermal requirement for which the temperature of the buffer materials should not be over have been proposed. These new disposals have made it possible to introduce the concept of long term storage and retrievability and that of the two-layered disposal canister emplacement in one disposal hole. These disposal concepts have been compared and analyzed with the KRS CANDU spent fuel disposal system in terms of disposal effectiveness. New CANDU spent fuel disposal concepts obtained in this study seem to improve thermal effectiveness, U-density, disposal area, excavation volume, and closure material volume up to 30 - 40 %.

  11. Research of uranium tailing disposal by method of thickened disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A basic principle of a thickened tailings disposal method is described and a main way of increasing tailing dam conditions, the non-selected density of the tailings in a mill, is determined. The followings are assayed: the slops of the tailing deposition, size composition and other main physical mechanical properties in the different positions of the deposition walls as well as the influence of lime and flocculant on various performances of the deposition walls. The basic regularities of deposition, consolidation, seepage, rheological properties and hydraulic transport, etc. are sought. A series of measurements about thickening of tailings slurry, hydraulic transport of heavy ore slurry, deposited dam, etc. are used in the old tailing pool of the mill to solve the problem influencing on safety in the mill are caused by the mill to solve the problem influencing on safety in the mill area caused by the seepage. The technological possibility and the economic reasonability of these measurements are described and the basic for design is provided. The results show that the transport of thickened tailings and deposition of tailing dam mentioned above have special advantages in saving energy, capital cost, decreasing occupied land and environment protection, ect. The suggested new method has a developing prospect in the uranium tailings disposal and a great value to use widely in non-ferrous ore processing plants

  12. Memorandum of Understanding Between U.S. EPA Superfund and U.S. NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are responsible for implementing the 'Memorandum of Understanding Between the Environmental Protection Agency and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission: Consultation and Finality on Decommissioning and Decontamination of Contaminated Sites'. This paper provides a brief overview of the origin of the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), the major features of the MOU, and how the MOU has been implemented site specifically. EPA and NRC developed the MOU in response to direction from the House Committee on Appropriations to EPA and NRC to work together to address the potential for dual regulation. The MOU was signed by EPA on September 30, 2002 and NRC on October 9, 2002. The two agencies had worked on the MOU since March 2000. While both EPA and NRC have statutory authority to clean up these sites, the MOU provides consultation procedures between EPA and NRC to eliminate dual regulation. Under the MOU, EPA and NRC identified the interactions of the two agencies for the decommissioning and decontamination of NRC-licensed sites and the ways in which those responsibilities will be exercised. Except for Section VI, which addresses corrective action under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), this MOU is limited to the coordination between EPA, when acting under its CERCLA authority, and NRC, when a facility licensed by the NRC is undergoing decommissioning, or when a facility has completed decommissioning, and the NRC has terminated its license. EPA believes that implementation of the MOU between the two agencies will ensure that future confusion about dual regulation does not occur regarding the cleanup and reuse of NRC-licensed sites. NRC and EPA have so far exchanged MOU consultation letters on eight NRC-licensed sites. EPA has responded to each consultation request with a letter expressing its views on actions

  13. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  14. Waste Disposal: The PRACLAY Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principal achievements in 2000 with regard to the PRACLAY programme are presented. The PRACLAY project has been conceived: (1) to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation; (2) to improve knowledge on deep excavations in clay through modelling and monitoring; (3) to design, install and operate a complementary mock-up test (OPHELIE) on the surface. In 1999, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up and the CLIPEX project to monitor the evolution of hydro-mechanical parameters of the Boom Clay Formation near the face of a gallery during excavation

  15. Radioactive wastes, disposal sites wanted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two towns that were selected by the French government to home a disposal site for low-level radioactive wastes, have withdrawn their bid. ANDRA (French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) attributes this withdrawal to the unbearable pressure made by the opponents on the city councils despite the public information meetings that were held in the 2 cities. The selection rules included the presence of clay layers with a thickness of at least 50 m, the absence of seismic activity and zones containing exploitable resources like petroleum or metal ores were barred in order to avoid future unexpected drilling. (A.C.)

  16. Geologic disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heat dissipation arising from the radioactive decay constitutes an important problem of the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste. A heating experiment was carried out in a clay quarry near Monterotondo (Rome), at 6.4 M in depth by means of a heater whose thermal power ranged from 250 to 500 watt. The experimental results fit well the theoretical values and show that the clay is a homogeneous and isotropic medium. The clay thermal conductivity, which was deducted by means of the ''curve fitting'' method, ranges from 0.015 to 0.017 watt/C

  17. DOE SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container (SNF DC) supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access mains, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container provides long term confinement of DOE SNF waste, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The DOE SNF Disposal Containers provide containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limit radionuclide release thereafter. The disposal containers maintain the waste in a designated configuration, withstand maximum handling and rockfall loads, limit the individual waste canister temperatures after emplacement. The disposal containers also limit the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resist corrosion in the expected repository environment, and provide complete or limited containment of waste in the event of an accident. Multiple disposal container designs may be needed to accommodate the expected range of DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel. The disposal container will include outer and inner barrier walls and outer and inner barrier lids. Exterior labels will identify the disposal container and contents. Differing metal barriers will support the design philosophy of defense in depth. The use of materials with different failure mechanisms prevents a single mode failure from breaching the waste package. The corrosion-resistant inner barrier and inner barrier lid will be constructed of a high-nickel alloy and the corrosion-allowance outer barrier and outer barrier lid will be made of carbon steel. The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Containers interface with the emplacement drift environment by transferring heat from the waste to the external environment and by protecting

  18. DOE SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Habashi

    1998-06-26

    The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container (SNF DC) supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access mains, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container provides long term confinement of DOE SNF waste, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The DOE SNF Disposal Containers provide containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limit radionuclide release thereafter. The disposal containers maintain the waste in a designated configuration, withstand maximum handling and rockfall loads, limit the individual waste canister temperatures after emplacement. The disposal containers also limit the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resist corrosion in the expected repository environment, and provide complete or limited containment of waste in the event of an accident. Multiple disposal container designs may be needed to accommodate the expected range of DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel. The disposal container will include outer and inner barrier walls and outer and inner barrier lids. Exterior labels will identify the disposal container and contents. Differing metal barriers will support the design philosophy of defense in depth. The use of materials with different failure mechanisms prevents a single mode failure from breaching the waste package. The corrosion-resistant inner barrier and inner barrier lid will be constructed of a high-nickel alloy and the corrosion-allowance outer barrier and outer barrier lid will be made of carbon steel. The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Containers interface with the emplacement drift environment by transferring heat from the waste to the external environment and by protecting

  19. structural design of radioactive waste concrete disposal vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    structural and radiological requirements for designing radioactive waste concrete disposal vaults were reviewed. besides, the details for functional design are also discussed. the ANSYS software was used for modeling the structure in order to predict the behavior of concrete disposal vaults throughout their long life span which can be as long as 300 year. a parametric study was performed to investigate the effect of important factors on the concrete vaults behavior. these factors include the reinforcement ratio, concrete characteristic strength, length to width ratio and concrete deterioration due to chemical ions attack. the study also compares the results of the three-dimensional model developed here for the concrete underground tank to those of the simplified two-dimensional model, which is routinely used in practice . this comparison helped in determining the conditions at which the results of the two -dimensional model can be accepted for practical design purposes

  20. 2005 dossier: clay. Tome: phenomenological evolution of the geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the phenomenological processes taking place in an argilite-type geologic disposal facility for high-level and long-lived (HLLL) radioactive wastes. Content: 1 - introduction: goal, input data, time and space scales, long-time forecasting of the phenomenological evolution; 2 - the Meuse/Haute-Marne site, the HLLL wastes and the disposal concepts: impact of the repository architecture; 3 - initial state of the geologic environment prior to the building up of the repository: general framework, geologic formations, tectonics and fractures, surface environment, geologic synthesis; 4 - phenomenological processes: storage-related processes, geodynamics-related processes, time scales of processes and of radionuclides migration, independence and evolution similarities of the repository and of the geologic environment; 5 - heat loads: heat transfers between containers and geologic formations, spatial organization of the thermal load, for C-type wastes and spent fuels, for B-type wastes, synthesis of the repository thermal load; 6 - flows and liquid solution and gas transfers: hydraulic behaviour of surrounding Jurassic formations (Tithonian, Kimmeridgian, Callovian, Oxfordian); 7 - chemical phenomena: chemical evolution of ventilated facilities (alveoles, galleries, boreholes), chemical evolution of B-type waste alveoles and of gallery and borehole sealing after closure, far field chemical evolution of Callovo-Oxfordian argilites and of other surrounding formations; 8 - mechanical evolution of the disposal and of the surrounding geologic environment: creation of an initial excavated damaged zone (EDZ), mechanical evolution of ventilated galleries, alveoles and sealing before and after closure, large-scale mechanical evolution; 9 - geodynamical evolution of the Callovo-Oxfordian and other surrounding formations and of the surface environment: internal

  1. Disposable optics for microscopy diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmi, Pauliina; Varjo, Sami; Sliz, Rafal; Hannuksela, Jari; Fabritius, Tapio

    2015-11-01

    The point-of-care testing (POCT) is having increasing role on modern health care systems due to a possibility to perform tests for patients conveniently and immediately. POCT includes lot of disposable devices because of the environment they are often used. For a disposable system to be reasonably utilized, it needs to be high in quality but low in price. Optics based POCT systems are interesting approach to be developed, and here we describe a low-cost fabrication process for microlens arrays for microscopy. Lens arrays having average lens diameter of 222 μm with 300 μm lens pitch were fabricated. The lenses were characterized to have standard deviation of 0.06 μm in height and 4.61 μm in diameter. The resolution limit of 3.9μm is demonstrated with real images, and the images were compared with ones made with glass and polycarbonate lens arrays. The image quality is at the same level than with the glass lenses and the manufacturing costs are very low, thus making them suitable for POCT applications.

  2. Shallow ground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidebook outlines the factors to be considered in site selection, design, operation, shut-down and surveillance as well as the regulatory requirements of repositories for safe disposal of radioactive waste in shallow ground. No attempt is made to summarize the existing voluminous literature on the many facets of radioactive waste disposal. In the context of this guidebook, shallow ground disposal refers to the emplacement of radioactive waste, with or without engineered barriers, above or below the ground surface, where the final protective covering is of the order of a few metres thick. Deep geological disposal and other underground disposal methods, management of mill tailings and disposal into the sea have been or will be considered in other IAEA publications. These guidelines have been made sufficiently general to cover a broad variety of climatic, hydrogeological and biological conditions. They may need to be interpreted or modified to reflect local conditions and national regulations

  3. Preliminary risk assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space. Volume I. Executive summary of technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three major conclusions come from this preliminary risk assessment of nuclear waste disposal in space. Preliminary estimates of space disposal risk are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated mined geologic repository (MGR) release risks remain low, and the EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort is warranted. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as an MGR complement is warranted. As a result of this study, the following recommendations are made to NASA and the US DOE: During the continued evaluation of the mined geologic repository risk over the years ahead by DOE, if any significant increase in the calculated health risk is predicted for the MGR, then space disposal should be reevaluated at that time. The risks perceived by the public for the MGR should be evaluated on a broad basis by an independent organization to evaluate acceptance. If, in the future, MGR risks are found to be significant due to some presently unknown technical or social factor, and space disposal is selected as an alternative that may be useful in mitigating the risks, then the following space disposal study activities are recommended: improvement in chemical processing technology for wastes; payload accident response analysis; risk uncertainty analysis for both MGR and space disposal; health risk modeling that includes pathway and dose estimates; space disposal cost modeling; assessment of space disposal perceived (by public) risk benefit; and space systems analysis supporting risk and cost modeling

  4. Shallow land disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of basic radiation protection concepts and objectives to the disposal of radioactive wastes requires the development of specific reference levels or criteria for the radiological acceptance of each type of waste in each disposal option. This report suggests a methodology for the establishment of acceptance criteria for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste containing long-lived radionuclides in shallow land burial facilities

  5. Specified radioactive waste final disposal act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes must be finally and safely disposed far from human activities. Disposal act is a long-range task and needs to be understood and accepted by public for site selection. This paper explains basic policy of Japanese Government for final disposal act of specified radioactive wastes, examination for site selection guidelines to promote residential understanding, general concept of multi-barrier system for isolating the specific radioactive wastes, and research and technical development for radioactive waste management. (S. Ohno)

  6. Recycling Engineering Of Disposal Of Waste Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces conception of waste, generation of waste with generation and circulation of waste, waste generation amount, and classification of waste, management of waste, collection of waste on plan of collection, transportation and device of waste, waste management system such as extended producer responsibility, manifest system, exchange system of waste, volume-rate garbage disposal system, recycling of waste, including disposal technology for recycling waste, sanitary landfill, incineration, composting and human waste of disposal.

  7. The Demand for Solid Waste Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    G. Strathman; Anthony M. Rufolo; Gerard C. S. Mildner

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the elasticity of demand for landfill disposal of municipal solid waste using data from the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area. Efficiency losses associated with deviations from marginal cost pricing of disposal services are then derived. The efficiency losses of small deviations from long-run marginal disposal costs are not large. However, many municipalities finance solid waste services from general tax revenues, in which case waste generators effectively face zero...

  8. Safe, permanent disposal of used CANDU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL's assessment of nuclear fuel waste disposal deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield is now well advanced. A comprehensive understanding has evolved of the chemical and physical processes controlling the containment of radionuclides in used fuel. The following conclusions have been reached: containers with outer shells of titanium and copper can be expected to isolate used fuel from contact with groundwater for at least 500 years, the period during which the hazard is greatest; uranium oxide fuel can be expected to dissolve at a rate less than 10-8 per day, resulting in uranium concentrations less that 1 μg/L, which is consistent with observations of uranium oxide deposits in the earth's crust; movement of dissolved radionuclides away from the containers can be delayed for thousands of years by placing a compacted bentonite-clay layer between the container and the rock mass; and, the granite plutons of interest consist of relatively large rock volumes of low permeability separated by relatively thin fracture zones, and the low permeability volumes are sufficiently large to accommodate a vault design that will ensure radionuclides do not reach the surface in unacceptable concentrations

  9. Monitoring the Performance of an Alternative Landfill Cover at the Monticello, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collaborated on the design and monitoring of an alternative cover for the Monticello uranium mill tailings disposal cell, a Superfund site in southeastern Utah. Ground-water recharge is naturally limited at sites like Monticello where thick, fine-textured soils store precipitation until evaporation and plant transpiration seasonally return it to the atmosphere. The cover at Monticello uses local soils and a native plant community to mimic the natural soil water balance. The cover is fundamentally an evapotranspiration (ET) design with a capillary barrier. A 3-hectare drainage lysimeter was embedded in the cover during construction of the disposal cell in 2000. The lysimeter consists of a geo-membrane liner below the capillary barrier that directs percolation water to a monitoring system. Soil water storage is determined by integration of point water content measurements. Meteorological parameters are measured nearby. Plant cover, shrub density, and leaf area index (LAI) are monitored annually. The cover performed well over the 7-year monitoring period (2000-2007). The cumulative percolation was 4.2 mm (0.6 mm yr-1), satisfying an EPA goal of an average percolation of -1. Almost all percolation can be attributed to the exceptionally wet winter and spring of 2004-2005 when soil water content slightly exceeded the water storage capacity of the cover. The diversity, percent cover, and LAI of vegetation increased over the monitoring period, although the density of native shrubs that extract water from deeper in the cover has remained less than revegetation targets. DOE and EPA are applying the monitoring results to plan for long-term surveillance and maintenance and to evaluate alternative cover designs for other waste disposal sites. (authors)

  10. Characterization and remediation of soil prior to construction of an on-site disposal facility at Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the production years at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), the soil of the site and the surrounding areas was surficially impacted by airborne contamination. The volume of impacted soil is estimated at 2.2 million cubic yards. During site remediation, this contamination will be excavated, characterized, and disposed of. In 1986 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) covering environmental impacts associated with the FMPC. A site wide Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) was initiated pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (CERCLA). The DOE has completed the RI/FS process and has received approval of the final Records of Decision. The name of the facility was changed to the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) to emphasize the change in mission to environmental restoration. Remedial actions which address similar scopes of work or types of contaminated media have been grouped into remedial projects for the purpose of managing the remediation of the FEMP. The Soil Characterization and Excavation Project (SCEP) will address the remediation of FEMP soils, certain waste units, at- and below-grade material, and will certify attainment of the final remedial limits (FRLs) for the FEMP. The FEMP will be using an on-site facility for low level radioactive waste disposal. The facility will be an above-ground engineered structure constructed of geological material. The area designated for construction of the base of the on-site disposal facility (OSDF) is referred to as the footprint. Contaminated soil within the footprint must be identified and remediated. Excavation of Phase 1, the first of seven remediation areas, is complete

  11. Post-disposal safety assessment of toxic and radioactive waste: waste types, disposal practices, disposal criteria, assessment methods and post-disposal impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for safety assessments of waste disposal stems not only from the implementation of regulations requiring the assessment of environmental effects, but also from the more general need to justify decisions on protection requirements. As waste-disposal methods have become more technologically based, through the application of more highly engineered design concepts and through more rigorous and specific limitations on the types and quantities of the waste disposed, it follows that assessment procedures also must become more sophisticated. It is the overall aim of this study to improve the predictive modelling capacity for post-disposal safety assessments of land-based disposal facilities through the development and testing of a comprehensive, yet practicable, assessment framework. This report records all the work which has been undertaken during Phase 1 of the study. Waste types, disposal practices, disposal criteria and assessment methods for both toxic and radioactive waste are reviewed with the purpose of identifying those features relevant to assessment methodology development. Difference and similarities in waste types, disposal practices, criteria and assessment methods between countries, and between toxic and radioactive wastes are highlighted and discussed. Finally, an approach to identify post-disposal impacts, how they arise and their effects on humans and the environment is described

  12. ICRP guidance on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) issued recommendations for a system of radiological protection in 1991 as the 1990 Recommendations. Guidance on the application of these recommendations in the general area of waste disposal was issued in 1997 as Publication 77 and guidance specific to disposal of solid long-lived radioactive waste was issued as Publication 81. This paper summarises ICRP guidance in radiological protection requirements for waste disposal concentrating on the ones of relevance to the geological disposal of solid radioactive waste. Suggestions are made for areas where further work is required to apply the ICRP guidance. (author)

  13. Disposal costs for advanced CANDU fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANDU reactor can 'burn' a wide range of fuels without modification to the reactor system, including natural uranium, slightly enriched uranium, mixed oxide and spent LWR fuels. The economic feasibility of the advanced fuel cycles requires consideration of their disposal costs. Preliminary cost analyses for the disposal of spent CANDU-SEU (Slightly Enriched Uranium) and CANDU-DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel In CANDU) fuels have been performed and compared to the internationally published costs for the direct disposal of spent CANDU and LWR fuels. The analyses show significant economic advantages in the disposal costs of CANDU-SEU and CANDU-DUPIC fuels. (author)

  14. Monitoring. Chapter 5. [Monitoring in both disposal concepts, before, during and after their operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reliable and cost effective monitoring programme is an important part of making geological disposal a safe, effective and acceptable method for radioactive waste and carbon dioxide (CO2) disposal. Monitoring is necessary to demonstrate that the disposal project meets these requirements. Regulatory agencies require the verification that the practice of geological disposal is so safe that it does not have significant, adverse, local environmental impacts. Thus, monitoring is required as a part of the licensing process for geological disposal of radioactive waste and CO2. For radioactive waste disposal, monitoring is required to examine the protection and safety of the repository. Monitoring programmes need to cover several important issues, such as the degradation of repository structures, waste packages and buffer materials. The programmes need to monitor chemical and physical interactions between introduced materials, groundwater and host rock near field, as well as the surrounding environments. In addition, the programme needs to monitor the releases of radioactive substances in the environment from the repository. Monitoring in CO2 disposal is required to demonstrate that CO2 is safely and successfully contained within the disposal zone. The requirements for CO2 monitoring need to cover two critical issues. The programme should monitor the location of the plume of separate phase CO2, either as supercritical fluid or gas in the subsurface. If there is evidence that significant leakage has occurred from the primary disposal structure and CO2 has migrated to the land surface, methods for monitoring the concentration and flux of CO2 at the land surface are highly desirable. Monitoring is also required to ensure effective injection by tracking the condition of the injection well, injection rates, wellhead pressures and formation pressures. The main objectives of monitoring radioactive waste and CO2 disposal facilities depend, to a large extent, on the stage of

  15. Disposal of Radioactive Wastes in Natural Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed use of cavities in salt formations as a disposal site for radioactive wastes is based upon : 1. Existence of salt for geologic time periods, 2. The impermeability of salt to the passage of water; 3. The widespread geographical distribution of salt; 4. The extremely large quantities of salt available; 5. The structural strength of salt; 6. The relatively high thermal conductivity of salt in comparison with other general geologic formations; 7. The possible recovery of valuable fission products in the wastes injected into the salt; 8. The relative ease of forming cavities in salt by mining, and the even greater ease and low cost of developing solution cavities in salt; and 9. The low seismicity in the areas of major salt deposits. Radioactive liquid wastes can be stored in cavities in natural salt formations if the structural properties of the salt are not adversely affected by chemical interaction, pressure, temperature, and radiation. Analytical studies show that it is possible to-store 2-year-old 10,000 MWD/T, 800 gal/ton waste in a sphere of 10 ft diameter without exceeding a temperature of 200° F. Laboratory tests show that the structural properties and thermal conductivity of rock salt are not greatly altered by high radiation doses, although high temperatures increase the creep rate for both irradiated and unirradiated samples. Chemical interaction of liquid wastes with salt produces chlorine and other chlorine compound gases, but the volumes are not excessive. The migration of nuclides through the salt and deformation of the cavity and chamber can only be studied in undisturbed salt in situ. One-fifth-scale models have been run in a bedded salt deposit in Hutchinson, Kansas, and full-scale field tests are in progress. (author)

  16. Stability of colistimethate sodium in a disposable elastomeric infusion device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Alan; van Leeuwen, Roelof W F; de Vries Schultink, Aurelia H M; Koch, Birgit C P

    2015-01-01

    Infections of the respiratory tract with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients are frequently treated with colistimethate sodium (CMS). For the intravenous administration of CMS a disposable elastomeric pump is a convenient option. To date, there are no data available on the chemical stability of CMS solutions stored in elastomeric pumps. We evaluated the chemical stability of 0.8 mg/mL solutions of CMS by measuring the degradation over a period of 7 days. Test samples were prepared by diluting CMS with saline solution (0.9%). The preparations were transferred to 100-mL elastomeric pumps and stored at 4 °C. The chemical stability was measured by a high-performance liquid chromatography method with UV detection. There was no degradation of CMS (elastomeric pump. PMID:25863116

  17. An evaluation of remote sensing technologies for the detection of fugitive contamination at selected Superfund hazardous waste sites in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2014-01-01

    This evaluation was conducted to assess the potential for using both traditional remote sensing, such as aerial imagery, and emerging remote sensing technology, such as hyperspectral imaging, as tools for postclosure monitoring of selected hazardous waste sites. Sixteen deleted Superfund (SF) National Priorities List (NPL) sites in Pennsylvania were imaged with a Civil Air Patrol (CAP) Airborne Real-Time Cueing Hyperspectral Enhanced Reconnaissance (ARCHER) sensor between 2009 and 2012. Deleted sites are those sites that have been remediated and removed from the NPL. The imagery was processed to radiance and atmospherically corrected to relative reflectance with standard software routines using the Environment for Visualizing Imagery (ENVI, ITT–VIS, Boulder, Colorado) software. Standard routines for anomaly detection, endmember collection, vegetation stress, and spectral analysis were applied.

  18. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act Section 120(e)(5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to conducting its operations. In a safe and environmentally sound manner. High priorities for the Department are identifying and correcting environmental problems at DOE facilities that resulted from past operations, and preventing environmental problems from occurring during present and future operations. In this regard, the Department is committed to the 30-year goal of cleanup of all facilities by the year 2019. DOE has issued an Order and guidance establishing policy and procedures for activities conducted under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and has developed a Five-Year Plan, updated annually, that integrates planing for corrective activities, environmental restoration, and waste management operations at its facilities. During Calendar Year 1991 and early 1992, DOE made significant progress in reaching agreements with regulatory entities, undertaking cleanup actions, and initiating preventive measures designed to eliminate future environmental problems. These accomplishments are described

  19. Applying appropriate risk management strategies to improve the Superfund process: Creating mutual gains for PRPs and regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new mechanism to develop an appropriate risk management strategy is the ''Presumptive Remedy''. This allows the Superfund process to be streamlined for certain kinds of sites, e.g. municipal landfill sites. Total Quality Management concepts are also being used to improve risk management decisions and the remediation process. This presentation will describe site-specific case studies and include a panel discussion covering how incorporation of these risk management elements into selection of the site remediation strategy leads to decisions that are acceptable to all stakeholders. The presentation will discuss lessons learned from the following perspectives: Private Industry; Department of Defense (DOD); Department of Energy (DOE); (US EPA); and A-E Firms

  20. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Stringfellow Superfund Site in Riverside, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Van Geet, O.

    2010-12-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a photovoltaics (PV) system on the Stringfellow Superfund Site in Riverside, California. The site was assessed for possible PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.13/kWh and incentives offered by Southern California Edison under the California Solar Initiative. According to the assessment, a government-owned, ground-mounted PV system represents a technically and economically feasible option. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system.

  1. Post-Remediation Biomonitoring of Pesticides in Marine Waters Near the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, PNNL-11911 Rev. 1, was published in July 2000 and replaces PNNL-11911, which was published in September 1998. The revision corrects tissue concentration units that were reported as dry weight but were actually wet weight, and updates conclusions based on the correct reporting units. Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in January 1998 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for the first post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and DDT were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared to pre-remediation data available from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissues) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Chlorinated pesticide concentrations in water samples were similar to pre-remediation levels and did not meet remediation goals. Mean dieldrin concentrations in water ranged from 0.65 ng/L to 18.1 ng/L and were higher than the remediation goal (0.14 ng/L) at all stations. Mean total DDT concentrations in water ranged from 0.65 ng/L to 103 ng/L and exceeded the remediation goal of 0.59 ng/L. The highest concentrations of both pesticides were found in Lauritzen Canal, and the lowest levels were from the Richmond Inner Harbor Channel water. Unusual amounts of detritus in the water column at the time of sampling, particularly in Lauritzen Canal, could have contributed to the elevated pesticide concentrations and poor analytical precision

  2. Nuclear waste disposal educational forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-10-18

    In keeping with a mandate from the US Congress to provide opportunities for consumer education and information and to seek consumer input on national issues, the Department of Energy's Office of Consumer Affairs held a three-hour educational forum on the proposed nuclear waste disposal legislation. Nearly one hundred representatives of consumer, public interest, civic and environmental organizations were invited to attend. Consumer affairs professionals of utility companies across the country were also invited to attend the forum. The following six papers were presented: historical perspectives; status of legislation (Senate); status of legislation (House of Representatives); impact on the legislation on electric utilities; impact of the legislation on consumers; implementing the legislation. All six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

  3. Radioactive waste disposal in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of completing its knowledge of various rock formations, the Federal Government also considers the suitability of granite for radioactive waste disposal. For this purpose, the Federal Minister of Research and Technology participated from 1983 to 1990 in relevant research and development activities in the NAGRA rock laboratory at Grimsel, Switzerland. After about 17 field tests, it can be stated that the understanding of basic connections and interactions between the mechanical behaviour of the rock, which is determined, for instance, by natural or artificially induced rock movements, and the hydrogeological or rock hydraulic relations could be clearly improved. So far, the German share in the project costs amounts to a total of approximately DM 20.7 million. Till the end of 1993, further activities are scheduled to be carried out which will require financial funds of about DM 6.3 million. (orig./HSCH)

  4. Packages for radiactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of multi-stage type package for sea disposal of compactable nuclear wastes, is presented. The basic requirements for the project followed the NEA and IAEA recommendations and observations of the solutions adopted by others countries. The packages of preliminary design was analysed, by computer, under several conditions arising out of its nature, as well as their conditions descent, dumping and durability in the deep of sea. The designed pressure equalization mechanic and the effect compacting on the package, by prototypes and specific tests, were studied. These prototypes were also submitted to the transport tests of the 'Regulament for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'. Based on results of the testes and the re-evaluation of the preliminary design, final indications and specifications for excuting the package design, are presented. (M.C.K.)

  5. Resource implications of deep disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various deep disposal options have been examined by NIREX in a variety of host geologies, and include both land and sea-accessed solutions. In each option, the waste is transported to a land-based reception facility where it is prepared for onward transport to the repository vault. In the case of a sea-accessed repository these vaults are either large diameter, deep shafts (referred to as Boreholes) constructed from an artificial island or caverns accessed by shafts sunk from concrete gravity platforms, two such platforms being provided. For the land-accessed repository, the vaults are either caverns or a network of tunnels also accessed by shafts. This paper is a personal view of some of the constraints on the repository designer resulting from a consideration of construction requirements and waste handling logistics. (author)

  6. Instructive for disposal of fluorescent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instructive is established for the management system of waste fluorescent lamps, ensuring the storage, collection, transportation, and final disposal. The lamp is changed by an official of the Seccion de Matenimiento Construccion of the Oficina de Servicios Generales or is produced with the support of an official of the unit. The fluorescent should be deposited in stock of materials of the building maintenance section or unit specified with the help of a staff and in appropriate conditions. The fluorescent lamp is transported according to the guidelines in the manual. A responsible company is contracted by la Vicerrectoria de Administracion of the Universidad de Costa Rica dedicated to the transport and proper handling of fluorescent lamps

  7. Nuclear waste disposal educational forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In keeping with a mandate from the US Congress to provide opportunities for consumer education and information and to seek consumer input on national issues, the Department of Energy's Office of Consumer Affairs held a three-hour educational forum on the proposed nuclear waste disposal legislation. Nearly one hundred representatives of consumer, public interest, civic and environmental organizations were invited to attend. Consumer affairs professionals of utility companies across the country were also invited to attend the forum. The following six papers were presented: historical perspectives; status of legislation (Senate); status of legislation (House of Representatives); impact on the legislation on electric utilities; impact of the legislation on consumers; implementing the legislation. All six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base

  8. TECHNO – ECONOMIC ACCEPTABILITY ANALISYS OF WASTE DISPOSAL BY INJECTION INTO APPROPRIATE FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Brkić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During exploration and production of oil and natural gas, various types of waste must be disposed in a permanent and safe way. There is a range of methods for processing and disposal of waste, such as disposal into landfills, solidification, namely chemical stabilization, thermal processing, appropriate formation injections uncovered by a deep well, disposal into salt domes and bioremediation. The method of waste disposal into appropriate formations is a method where strict geological and technical criteria must be satisfied when applied. A fundamental scientific hypothesis has been formulated whereby economic acceptability of the waste injection method, as a main method for waste disposal, is to be shown by an economic evaluation. The results of this research are relevant since there has been an intention in Croatia and worldwide to abandon wells permanently due to oil and gas reservoirs depletion and therefore it is essential to estimate economic impacts of the waste injection method application. In that way, profitability of using existing wells for waste disposal in oil industry has been increased, leading to the improvement of petroleum company’s business activities (the paper is published in Croatian.

  9. Expediting the commercial disposal option: Low-level radioactive waste shipments from the Mound Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, S.; Rothman, R.

    1995-12-31

    In April, Envirocare of Utah, Inc., successfully commenced operation of its mixed waste treatment operation. A mixed waste which was (a) radioactive, (b) listed as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and (c) prohibited from land disposal was treated using Envirocare`s full-scale Mixed Waste Treatment Facility. The treatment system involved application of chemical fixation/stabilization technologies to reduce the leachability of the waste to meet applicable concentration-based RCRA treatment standards. In 1988, Envirocare became the first licensed facility for the disposal of naturally occurring radioactive material. In 1990, Envirocare received a RCRA Part B permit for commercial mixed waste storage and disposal. In 1994, Envirocare was awarded a contract for the disposal of DOE mixed wastes. Envirocare`s RCRA Part B permit allows for the receipt, storage, treatment, and disposal of mixed wastes that do not meet the land-disposal treatment standards of 40 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) 268. Envirocare has successfully received, managed, and disposed of naturally occurring radioactive material, low-activity radioactive waste, and mixed waste from government and private generators.

  10. Magnox fuel dry storage and direct disposal assessment of CEGB/SSEB reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report assesses the Boards' presented work in response to Recommendations 17 and 18 of the Environment Committee's First Report (Jan 86). The Boards have made an extensive study of the dry store design and also considered direct disposal. Their basic conclusion that the financial advantage is with continued reprocessing is accepted with the comment that their storage and disposal costs may be on the high side. The Boards statements on drying wet-stored fuel and on improvement of the fuel's chemical stability are accepted. The Boards coverage of fuel after disposal is considered to be too brief; the assessment expresses a more pessimistic view than the Boards' of the acceptability of direct disposal. (author)

  11. Modeling of low-level-waste disposal for environmental impact analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer model was developed to analyze environmental impacts resulting from disposal of both radioactive and chemical wastes. The model simulates a waste-disposal system and includes infiltration through disposal cell caps, source leach rates, and solute transport in geologic media. The solute transport model used is a modified version of an analytical code originally developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The solute transport code was modified based on the Group-Transfer Concentration concept developed by the author. The original model is applicable only to homogeneous media under saturated conditions, but the modified model extends applicability to nonhomogeneous media (layered soils and fractures) and partially saturated conditions. The modified model has broader applicability, e.g., it can be applied to both humid and arid waste-disposal sites, and it is also more practical for environmental impact analysis. 22 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Preliminary Borehole Disposal In Medium Flow Hydrogeological Condition Using IAEA Screening Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A screening tool developed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been used to provide means of improving the capacity of Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in assessing the potential sites for Borehole Disposal for Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources. It allows the isolation provided by the capsule and disposal container to be evaluated. In addition, it has a conservative model of radionuclide transport with no retardation of radionuclide. Hence, rapid decisions can be made by providing an early indication of the potential suitability of sites based on their hydro-chemical characteristics. The objective of this paper is to identify and determine the types and radionuclide activities of inventory that can be disposed in the borehole. The results of the analysis show the volume of gas doses occur from the disposal and time taken for the cement to be corroded. (author)

  13. 50 CFR 300.109 - Gear disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear disposal. 300.109 Section 300.109... Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.109 Gear disposal. (a) The operator of a harvesting vessel may not... fishing vessels or gear, or that may catch fish or cause damage to any marine resource, including...

  14. Medications at School: Disposing of Pharmaceutical Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…

  15. Radioactive waste products - suitability for final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    48 papers were read at the conference. Separate records are available for all of them. The main problem in radioactive waste disposal was the long-term sealing to prevent pollution of the biosphere. Problems of conditioning, acceptance, and safety measures were discussed. Final disposal models and repositories were presented. (PW)

  16. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Hari S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makedonska, Nataliia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffrey De' Haven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, Satish [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-21

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2014 and July 2015 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program.

  17. 7 CFR 2902.21 - Disposable containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Guideline, 40 CFR 247.10. EPA provides recovered materials content recommendations for paper and paper... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposable containers. 2902.21 Section 2902.21... Items § 2902.21 Disposable containers. (a) Definition. Products designed to be used for...

  18. Tritium waste disposal technology in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium waste disposal methods in the US range from disposal of low specific activity waste along with other low-level waste in shallow land burial facilities, to disposal of kilocurie amounts in specially designed triple containers in 65' deep augered holes located in an aird region of the US. Total estimated curies disposed of are 500,000 in commercial burial sites and 10 million curies in defense related sites. At three disposal sites in humid areas, tritium has migrated into the ground water, and at one arid site tritium vapor has been detected emerging from the soil above the disposal area. Leaching tests on tritium containing waste show that tritium in the form of HTO leaches readily from most waste forms, but that leaching rates of tritiated water into polymer impregnated concrete are reduced by as much as a factor of ten. Tests on improved tritium containment are ongoing. Disposal costs for tritium waste are 7 to 10 dollars per cubic foot for shallow land burial of low specific activity tritium waste, and 10 to 20 dollars per cubic foot for disposal of high specific activity waste. The cost of packaging the high specific activity waste is 150 to 300 dollars per cubic foot. 18 references

  19. Probabilistic safety assessment in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic safety assessment codes are now widely used in radioactive waste disposal assessments. This report gives an overview of the current state of the field. The relationship between the codes and the regulations covering radioactive waste disposal is discussed and the characteristics of current codes is described. The problems of verification and validation are considered. (author)

  20. Possibility of high level waste underground disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility that the high level wastes disposed underground return to the biosphere again is the dissolution and transport of radioactive nuclides by underground water. As the strata suitable to underground disposal, rock salt strata without underground water, and granite or shale strata in which the movement of underground water is slight are enumerated as the candidates. Wastes are formed into solidified bodies like glass, moreover the technical measures such as canisters and overpacks are applied, therefore even if underground water intrudes into the places of disposal, radioactive nuclides can be contained for considerable time. At the time of selecting the most suitable stratum and designing and evaluating the place of disposal to construct the underground disposal system with high potential for high level wastes, it is necessary to predict the movement of radioactive nuclides from the dissolution into underground water to the return to the biosphere. The potential danger of high level wastes, the danger of high level wastes disposed underground, the effect of isolation distance (the thickness of strata), and the comparison of the danger due to uranium ore and slag and the places of underground disposal are explained. The danger due to uranium ore and slag occurs early and lasts long, and is 1000 times as dangerous as the high level wastes disposed underground. (Kako, I.)

  1. Retrievable disposal - opposing views on ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the previous decades many research programmes on the disposal of radioactive waste have been completed in the Netherlands. The experts involved have reconfirmed their view that deep underground disposal in suitable geological formations would ensure a safe and prolonged isolation of the waste from the biosphere. Both rock salt and clay formations are considered to qualify as a suitable host rock. In 1993 the government in a position paper stated that such a repository should be designed in a way that the waste can be retrieved from it, should the need arise. In an attempt to involve stakeholders in the decision-making process, a research contract was awarded to an environmental group to study the ethical aspects related to retrievable disposal of radioactive waste. In their report which was published in its final form in January 2000 the authors concluded that retrievable disposal is acceptable from an ethical point of view. However, this conclusion was reached in the understanding that this situation of retrievability would be permanent. From the concept of equity between generations, each successive generation should be offered equal opportunities to decide for itself how to dispose of the radioactive waste. Consequently, the preferred disposal option is retrievable disposal (or long term storage) in a surface facility. Although this view is not in conformity with the ''official'' position on radioactive waste disposal, there is a benefit of having established a dialogue between interested parties in a broad sense. (author)

  2. Commissioning of the very low level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This press kit presents the solution retained by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) for the management of very low level radioactive wastes. These wastes mainly come from the dismantling of decommissioned nuclear facilities and also from other industries (chemical, metal and other industries). The storage concept is a sub-surface disposal facility (Morvilliers center, Aube) with a clay barrier and a synthetic membrane system. The regulatory framework, and the details of the licensing, of the commissioning and of the environment monitoring are recalled. The detailed planing of the project and some exploitation data are given. (J.S.)

  3. Initial studies to assess microbial impacts on nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of the native and introduced bacteria on the performance of geologic nuclear waste disposal facilities should be evaluated because these bacteria could promote corrosion of repository components and alteration of chemical and hydrological properties of the surrounding engineered and rock barriers. As a first step towards investigating these potentialities, native and introduced bacteria obtained from post-construction Yucca Mountain (YM) rock were isolated under varying conditions, including elevated temperature, low nutrient availability, and the absence of available oxygen. Individual isolates are being screened for activities associated with microbially induced corrosion of metals (MIC). Preliminary determination of growth rates of whole YM microbial communities under varying conditions was also undertaken

  4. User's guide to the 'DISPOSALS' model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a User's Guide to the 'DISPOSALS' computer model and includes instructions on how to set up and run a specific problem together with details of the scope, theoretical basis, data requirements and capabilities of the model. The function of the 'DISPOSALS' model is to make assignments of nuclear waste material in an optimum manner to a number of disposal sites each subject to a number of constraints such as limits on the volume and activity. The user is able to vary the number of disposal sites, the range and limits of the constraints to be applied to each disposal site and the objective function for optimisation. The model is based on the Linear Programming technique and uses CAP Scientific's LAMPS and MAGIC packages. Currently the model has been implemented on CAP Scientific's VAX 11/750 minicomputer. (author)

  5. Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liange; Colon, Carlos Jové; Bianchi, Marco; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-08

    Radioactive waste disposal in a deep subsurface repository hosted in clay/shale/argillite is a subject of widespread interest given the desirable isolation properties, geochemically reduced conditions, and widespread geologic occurrence of this rock type (Hansen 2010; Bianchi et al. 2013). Bianchi et al. (2013) provides a description of diffusion in a clay-hosted repository based on single-phase flow and full saturation using parametric data from documented studies in Europe (e.g., ANDRA 2005). The predominance of diffusive transport and sorption phenomena in this clay media are key attributes to impede radionuclide mobility making clay rock formations target sites for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The reports by Hansen et al. (2010) and those from numerous studies in clay-hosted underground research laboratories (URLs) in Belgium, France and Switzerland outline the extensive scientific knowledge obtained to assess long-term clay/shale/argillite repository isolation performance of nuclear waste. In the past several years under the UFDC, various kinds of models have been developed for argillite repository to demonstrate the model capability, understand the spatial and temporal alteration of the repository, and evaluate different scenarios. These models include the coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) models (e.g. Liu et al. 2013; Rutqvist et al. 2014a, Zheng et al. 2014a) that focus on THMC processes in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) bentonite and argillite host hock, the large scale hydrogeologic model (Bianchi et al. 2014) that investigates the hydraulic connection between an emplacement drift and surrounding hydrogeological units, and Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) models (Greenberg et al. 2013) that evaluate thermal evolution in the host rock approximated as a thermal conduction process to facilitate the analysis of design options. However, the assumptions and the

  6. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Woodland Township Route 72 site, Burlington County, New Jersey (first remedial action), May 16, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 12-acre Woodland Route 72 Dump site is an abandoned hazardous waste dump in Woodland Township, Burlington County, New Jersey. The site is being remediated concurrently with another abandoned dump. Several chemical manufacturing firms dumped chemicals and other wastes into trenches and lagoons or burned the waste at the sites from the early 1950s to 1962. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the surface soil, sediment, sludge, debris, and ground water are VOCs including benzene, toluene, TCE and xylenes; organics including PAHs, pesticides, and phenols; radionuclides (e.g., uranium and thorium series); and metals including lead and chromium. The selected remedial action for the site includes excavation, further characterization, and offsite disposal at a permitted facility of 54,000 cubic yards (total from both sites) of contaminated surface soil, sludges, debris and sediment; offsite disposal of 19 cubic yards (total from both sites) of radiologically contaminated surface materials including a drum of radioactive pellets; ground water pumping and treatment with treatment to be determined during design. The total estimated present worth cost for the concurrent remedial actions at the Route 72 and Route 532 sites is $142,200,000

  7. Proceedings of the 1981 subseabed disposal program. Annual workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1981 Annual Workshop was the twelfth meeting of the principal investigators and program management personnel participating in the Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP). The first workshop was held in June 1973, to address the development of a program (initially known as Ocean Basin Floors Program) to assess the deep sea disposal of nuclear wastes. Workshops were held semi-annually until late 1977. Since November 1977, the workshops have been conducted following the end of each fiscal year so that the program participants could review and critique the total scope of work. This volume contains a synopsis, as given by each Technical Program Coordinator, abstracts of each of the talks, and copies of the visual materials, as presented by each of the principal investigators, for each of the technical elements of the SDP for the fiscal year 1981. The talks were grouped under the following categories; general topics; site studies; thermal response studies; emplacement studies; systems analysis; chemical response studies; biological oceanography studies; physical oceanographic studies; instrumentation development; transportation studies; social environment; and international seabed disposal

  8. Proceedings of the 1981 subseabed disposal program. Annual workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The 1981 Annual Workshop was the twelfth meeting of the principal investigators and program management personnel participating in the Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP). The first workshop was held in June 1973, to address the development of a program (initially known as Ocean Basin Floors Program) to assess the deep sea disposal of nuclear wastes. Workshops were held semi-annually until late 1977. Since November 1977, the workshops have been conducted following the end of each fiscal year so that the program participants could review and critique the total scope of work. This volume contains a synopsis, as given by each Technical Program Coordinator, abstracts of each of the talks, and copies of the visual materials, as presented by each of the principal investigators, for each of the technical elements of the SDP for the fiscal year 1981. The talks were grouped under the following categories; general topics; site studies; thermal response studies; emplacement studies; systems analysis; chemical response studies; biological oceanography studies; physical oceanographic studies; instrumentation development; transportation studies; social environment; and international seabed disposal.

  9. Retention Capability of Local Backfill Materials 1-Simulated Disposal Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Egypt, a shallow ground disposal facility was the chosen option for the disposal of low and and intermediate radioactive wastes. The impact of the waste disposal facility on the environment depends on the nature of the barriers, which intend to limit and control contaminant migration. Owing to their physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics. Local soil materials were studied to illustrate the role of the back fill as part of an optimized safety multi-barrier system, which can provide the required level of protection of the environment and meet economic and regulatory requirements. A theoretical model was proposed to calculate the transport phenomena through the backfill materials. The credibility and validity of the proposed model was checked by the experimental results obtained from a three-arms arrangement system. The obtained data for the distribution coefficient (Kd) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (Da) were in good agreement with those previously obtained in the literatures. Taking in consideration the prevailing initial conditions, the data calculated by the theoretical model applied show a reasonable agreement with the results obtained from experimental work. Prediction of radioactive cesium migration through the backfill materials using the proposed model was performed as a function of distance. The results obtained show that after 100 years, a fraction not exceeding 1E-9 of the original activity could be detected at 1m distance away from the waste material

  10. Peculiar aspects of decommissioning waste relating to disposal - lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste acceptance criteria, a series of either qualitative or quantitative requirements, limit the types of radioactive waste that can be disposed of in a repository. Disposing of decommissioning waste into currently operated repositories, which, mostly, are near surface facilities, may be limited by specific activity of both short and long lived radionuclides in the waste, and other safety, technical, and formal criteria. Non-routine, possibly novel approaches may be required. Specifically, accepting decommissioning waste into a repository can require consideration of a number of factors, such as the following: - For safety purposes, knowledge of the specific activity of particular radionuclides, the chemical composition of wastes, their chemotoxicity, and other specific information defining the waste will be needed; - Typically, the dimensions and weight of solid waste items will be needed; - Administratively, an adequate legislative background and QM/QA systems will be required to deal with missing information such as that caused by the presence of old waste, an older regulatory framework and more recent revisions in recycling formalities; - The processing, storage and transport of large volumes of very low level waste and handling of untypical bulky waste will present cost concerns. Keeping this approach in mind, decommissioning wastes can be appropriately conditioned, transported and disposed of in a safe, technically and economically optimal manner. (author)

  11. Borehole Disposal for Spent Radiation Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As generally, many countries in the world, Indonesia still faces some difficulties in the storage and final disposal for spent radiation sources (SRS) which categorized as high risk. Spent radiation sources that have been stored in the Interim Storage 1 and 2 (IS-1 and IS-2), and High Activity Waste Storage (PSLAT) consist of Co-50 or Cs-137 (as irradiator), Pu-238 (as power sources), Am-241 (as neutron source) and Ra-226 (as sources in the medical field). The difficulties faced on storage and disposal are reasoned by long half-life, high gamma radiation, not established disposal system, expensiveness of disposal facility, difficulties on option to reexport of the SRS, lack of skilled labour, and the activity exceed for near surface disposal. For that reason, disposal system for SRS must be developed with the small scale national facility having some advances as well as costly cheaper, fulfill the safety standard, and could avoid the possibility of human intrusion. The answer of this problem is borehole disposal concept. By using this concept can be hoped that the problems of SRS disposal can be handled well, based on site characterization, borehole technology, SRS capsule packaged design, repository facility, and safety assessment. Finally, after obtained the optimum concepts, would be applied in the future to support the national nuclear program accepted by the public. The assessment of borehole disposal technology for SRS has been done. The assessment was done descriptively, involve the waste, site, technology, and safety aspects. Some concepts of borehole have been obtained that have been recommended by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), applicable and suitable with the waste and site condition. The concepts are Borehole Disposal of Sealed Sources (BOSS) with variation as follow: 1) Unsaturated, non-sulphate environments type; 2) Saturated, non-sulphate, non-clay environments with high to medium permeability, and 3) saturated, very low permeability

  12. Transport and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author assesses both past and future of nuclear waste disposal in Germany. The failure of the disposal concept is, he believes, mainly the fault of the Federal Government. On the basis of the Nuclear Energy Act, the government is obliged to ensure that ultimate-storage sites are established and operated. Up to the present, however, the government has failed - apart from the episode in Asse and Morsleben and espite existing feasible proposals in Konrad and Gorleben - to achieve this objective. This negative development is particularly evident from the projects which have had to be prematurely abandoned. The costs of such 'investment follies' meanwhile amount to several billion DM. At least 92% of the capacity in the intermediate-storage sites are at present unused. Following the closure of the ultimate-storage site in Morsleben, action must be taken to change over to long-term intermediate-storage of operational waste. The government has extensive intermediate-storage capacity at the intermediate-storage site Nord in Greifswald. There, the wate originally planned for storage in Morsleben could be intermediately stored at ERAM-rates. Nuclear waste transportation, too, could long ago have been resumed, in the author's view. For the purpose of improving the transport organisation, a new company was founded which represents exclusively the interests of the reprocessing firms at the nuclear power stations. The author's conclusion: The EVU have done their homework properly and implemented all necessary measures in order to be able to resume transport of fuel elements as soon as possible. The generating station operators favour a solution based upon agreement with the Federal Government. The EVU have already declared their willingness - in the event of unanimous agreement - to set up intermediate-storage sites near the power stations. The ponds in the generating stations, however, are unsuitable for use as intermediate-storage areas. If intermediate-storage areas for

  13. Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal from Port Chester, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S. [Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Port Chester was one of seven waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. Tests and analyses were conducted on Port Chester sediment core samples. Because the Port Chester area is located on the border between New York and southeast Connecticut, its dredged material may also be considered for disposal at the Central Long Island Sound Disposal Site. The sediment evaluation consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and dredged material elutriate preparations, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Port Chester were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. In addition, sediment was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and 1,4-dichlorobenzene.

  14. Disposal configuration options for future uses of greater confinement disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of a variety of radioactive and mixed wastes, some of which are considered special-case waste because they do not currently have a clear disposal option. The DOE's Nevada Field Office contracted with Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of disposing of some of this special-case waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). As part of this investigation, a review of a near-surface and subsurface disposal options that was performed to develop alternative disposal configurations for special-case waste disposal at the NTS. The criteria for the review included (1) configurations appropriate for disposal at the NTS; (2) configurations for disposal of waste at least 100 ft below the ground surface; (3) configurations for which equipment and technology currently exist; and (4) configurations that meet the special requirements imposed by the nature of special-case waste. Four options for subsurface disposal of special-case waste are proposed: mined consolidated rock, mined alluvium, deep pits or trenches, and deep boreholes. Six different methods for near-surface disposal are also presented: earth-covered tumuli, above-grade concrete structures, trenches, below-grade concrete structures, shallow boreholes, and hydrofracture. Greater confinement disposal (GCD) in boreholes at least 100 ft deep, similar to that currently practiced at the GCD facility at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the NTS, was retained as the option that met the criteria for the review. Four borehole disposal configurations are proposed with engineered barriers that range from the native alluvium to a combination of gravel and concrete. The configurations identified will be used for system analysis that will be performed to determine the disposal configurations and wastes that may be suitable candidates for disposal of special-case wastes at the NTS

  15. Processing Irradiated Beryllium For Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. J. Tranter; R. D. Tillotson; N. R. Mann; G. R. Longhurst

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a process for decontaminating irradiated beryllium that will allow it to be disposed of through normal radwaste channels. Thus, the primary objectives of this ongoing study are to remove the transuranic (TRU) isotopes to less than 100 nCi/g and remove {sup 60}Co, and {sup 137}Cs, to levels that will allow the beryllium to be contact handled. One possible approach that appears to have the most promise is aqueous dissolution and separation of the isotopes by selected solvent extraction followed by precipitation, resulting in a granular form for the beryllium that may be fixed to prevent it from becoming respirable and therefore hazardous. Beryllium metal was dissolved in nitric and fluorboric acids. Isotopes of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 85}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs were then added to make a surrogate beryllium waste solution. A series of batch contacts was performed with the spiked simulant using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) and polyethylene glycol diluted with sulfone to extract the isotopes of Cs and Sr. Another series of batch contacts was performed using a combination of octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) in tributyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with dodecane for extracting the isotopes of Pu and Am. The results indicate that greater than 99.9% removal can be achieved for each isotope with only three contact stages.

  16. Inspection of disposal canisters components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the inspection techniques of disposal canister components. Manufacturing methods and a description of the defects related to different manufacturing methods are described briefly. The defect types form a basis for the design of non-destructive testing because the defect types, which occur in the inspected components, affect to choice of inspection methods. The canister components are to nodular cast iron insert, steel lid, lid screw, metal gasket, copper tube with integrated or separate bottom, and copper lid. The inspection of copper material is challenging due to the anisotropic properties of the material and local changes in the grain size of the copper material. The cast iron insert has some acoustical material property variation (attenuation, velocity changes, scattering properties), which make the ultrasonic inspection demanding from calibration point of view. Mainly three different methods are used for inspection. Ultrasonic testing technique is used for inspection of volume, eddy current technique, for copper components only, and visual testing technique are used for inspection of the surface and near surface area

  17. Mine waste disposal and managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Young Wook; Min, Jeong Sik; Kwon, Kwang Soo; Kim, Ok Hwan; Kim, In Kee; Song, Won Kyong; Lee, Hyun Joo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) is the product formed by the atmospheric oxidation of the relatively common pyrite and pyrrhotite. Waste rock dumps and tailings containing sulfide mineral have been reported at toxic materials producing ARD. Mining in sulphide bearing rock is one of activity which may lead to generation and release of ARD. ARD has had some major detrimental affects on mining areas. The purpose of this study was carried out to develop disposal method for preventing contamination of water and soil environment by waste rocks dump and tailings, which could discharge the acid drainage with high level of metals. Scope of this study was as following: environmental impacts by mine wastes, geochemical characteristics such as metal speciation, acid potential and paste pH of mine wastes, interpretation of occurrence of ARD underneath tailings impoundment, analysis of slope stability of tailings dam etc. The following procedures were used as part of ARD evaluation and prediction to determine the nature and quantities of soluble constituents that may be washed from mine wastes under natural precipitation: analysis of water and mine wastes, Acid-Base accounting, sequential extraction technique and measurement of lime requirement etc. In addition, computer modelling was applied for interpretation of slope stability od tailings dam. (author). 44 refs., 33 tabs., 86 figs.

  18. Development of techniques to dispose of the Windscale AGR heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a gas-cooled nuclear power plant the gas side of the heat exchanger tubes becomes contaminated with radioactive deposits carried from the reactor in the coolant stream. In order to dispose of the heat exchangers in the safest and most cost-effective way during plant decommissioning, the deposits have to be removed. In situ chemical decontamination is considered to be the only viable method. This paper describes the research and development of chemical decontamination methods for the Windscale AGR heat exchangers, and the testing of a selected method on an in situ superheater. The research involved characterization of tube corrosion and radioactivity deposits, laboratory testing of chemical reagents on actual tube samples, and the provision and operation of a plant to apply the selected reagent. Disposal of radioactive effluent is an important consideration in chemical decontamination and in the present case was the major factor in determining the process

  19. The Dutch geologic radioactive waste disposal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Final Report reviews the work on geologic disposal of radioactive waste performed in the Netherlands over the period 1 January 1978 to 31 December 1979. The attached four topical reports cover detailed subjects of this work. The radionuclide release consequences of an accidental flooding of the underground excavations during the operational period was studied by the institute for Atomic Sciences in Agriculture (Italy). The results of the quantitative examples made for different effective cross-sections of the permeable layer connecting the mine excavations with the boundary of the salt dome, are that under all circumstances the concentration of the waste nuclides in drinking water will remain well within the ICRP maximum permissible concentrations. Further analysis work was done on what minima can be achieved for both the maximum local rock salt temperatures at the disposal borehole walls and the maximum global rock salt temperatures halfway between a square of disposal boreholes. Different multi-layer disposal configurations were analysed and compared. A more detailed description is given of specific design and construction details of a waste repository such as the shaft sinking and construction, the disposal mine development, the mine ventilation and the different plugging and sealing procedures for both the disposal boreholes and the shafts. Thanks to the hospitality of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlenforschung, an underground working area in the Asse mine became available for performing a dry drilling experiment, which resulted successfully in the drilling of a 300 m deep disposal borehole from a mine room at the -750 m level

  20. Geological aspects of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological formations suitable for burying various types of radioactive wastes are characterized applying criteria for the evaluation and selection of geological formations for building disposal sites for radioactive wastes issued in IAEA technical recommendations. They are surface disposal sites, disposal sites in medium depths and deep disposal sites. Attention is focused on geological formations usable for injecting self-hardening mixtures into cracks prepared by hydraulic decomposition and for injecting liquid radioactive wastes into permeable rocks. Briefly outlined are current trends of the disposal of radioactive wastes in Czechoslovakia and the possibilities are assessed from the geological point of view of building disposal sites for radioactive wastes on the sites of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants at Jaslovske Bohunice, Mochovce, Dukovany, Temelin, Holice (eastern Bohemia), Blahoutovice (northern Moravia) and Zehna (eastern Slovakia). It is stated that in order to design an optimal method of the burial of radioactive waste it will be necessary to improve knowledge of geological conditions in the potential disposal sites at the said nuclear plants. There is usually no detailed knowledge of geological and hydrological conditions at greater depths than 100 m. (Z.M.)

  1. Geological disposal of radioactive waste. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Requirements publication is concerned with providing protection to people and the environment from the hazards associated with waste management activities related to disposal, i.e. hazards that could arise during the operating period and following closure. It sets out the protection objectives and criteria for geological disposal and establishes the requirements that must be met to ensure the safety of this disposal option, consistent with the established principles of safety for radioactive waste management. It is intended for use by those involved in radioactive waste management and in making decisions in relation to the development, operation and closure of geological disposal facilities, especially those concerned with the related regulatory aspects. This publication contains 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the environment; 3. The safety requirements for geological disposal; 4. Requirements for the development, operation and closure of geological disposal facilities; Appendix: Assurance of compliance with the safety objective and criteria; Annex I: Geological disposal and the principles of radioactive waste management; Annex II: Principles of radioactive waste management

  2. Spent nuclear fuel disposal liability insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis examines the social efficiency of nuclear power when the risks of accidental releases of spent fuel radionuclides from a spent fuel disposal facility are considered. The analysis consists of two major parts. First, a theoretical economic model of the use of nuclear power including the risks associated with releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility is developed. Second, the costs of nuclear power, including the risks associated with a radionuclide release, are empirically compared to the costs of fossil fuel-fired generation of electricity. Under the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the federally owned and operated spent nuclear fuel disposal facility is not required to maintain a reserve fund to cover damages from an accidental radionuclide release. Thus, the risks of a harmful radionuclide release are not included in the spent nuclear fuel disposal fee charged to the electric utilities. Since the electric utilities do not pay the full, social costs of spent fuel disposal, they use nuclear fuel in excess of the social optimum. An insurance mechanism is proposed to internalize the risks associated with spent fueled disposal. Under this proposal, the Federal government is required to insure the disposal facility against any liabilities arising from accidental releases of spent fuel radionuclides

  3. Toward Hazardless Waste: A Guide for Safe Use and Disposal of Hazardous Household Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toteff, Sally; Zehner, Cheri

    This guide is designed to help individuals make responsible decisions about safe use and disposal of household products. It consists of eight sections dealing with: (1) hazardous chemicals in the home, how hazaradous products become hazardous waste, and whether a hazardous waste problem exists in Puget Sound; (2) which household wastes are…

  4. Geochemical Characterization of Mine Waste, Mine Drainage, and Stream Sediments at the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Adams, Monique; Anthony, Michael W.; Briggs, Paul H.; Jackson, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site in the Vermont copper belt consists of the abandoned Smith, Eureka, and Union mines, all of which exploited Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits. The site was listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004 due to aquatic ecosystem impacts. This study was intended to be a precursor to a formal remedial investigation by the USEPA, and it focused on the characterization of mine waste, mine drainage, and stream sediments. A related study investigated the effects of the mine drainage on downstream surface waters. The potential for mine waste and drainage to have an adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems, on drinking- water supplies, and to human health was assessed on the basis of mineralogy, chemical concentrations, acid generation, and potential for metals to be leached from mine waste and soils. The results were compared to those from analyses of other Vermont copper belt Superfund sites, the Elizabeth Mine and Ely Copper Mine, to evaluate if the waste material at the Pike Hill Copper Mine was sufficiently similar to that of the other mine sites that USEPA can streamline the evaluation of remediation technologies. Mine-waste samples consisted of oxidized and unoxidized sulfidic ore and waste rock, and flotation-mill tailings. These samples contained as much as 16 weight percent sulfides that included chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite. During oxidation, sulfides weather and may release potentially toxic trace elements and may produce acid. In addition, soluble efflorescent sulfate salts were identified at the mines; during rain events, the dissolution of these salts contributes acid and metals to receiving waters. Mine waste contained concentrations of cadmium, copper, and iron that exceeded USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goals. The concentrations of selenium in mine waste were higher than the average composition of eastern United States soils. Most mine waste was

  5. Evaluations for draft reports on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of the technical evaluations on two reports which are named as 'Overview of the Geological Disposal Facility' and Considerable Factors on Selection of Potential Sites for Geological Disposal' drafted by NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan). The review of each draft report has been referred to committee (held on 9th September, 2002) and working group (held on 1st October, 2002) which were organized in order to confirm a progress of implementation of geological disposal by government. (author)

  6. Shallow land disposal, the french system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1969, low and medium activity waste are disposed of in France at the Centre Manche. The management system set up covers the whole of the operations, from the sorting of the wastes and their conditioning to the final disposal. Safety standards and technical issues were found satisfactory by the National Safety Authority and they are the basis of the program for the realization of two new disposal sites which should take over from the Centre Manche loaded towards 1990. ANDRA, a National Agency, is responsible for the long term management of radioactive waste, in France

  7. Land disposal of hazardous waste in Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Illinois Hazardous Waste Task Force was formed to provide a blueprint for developing a clear, comprehensive, long-term policy for hazardous waste management in the State of Illinois. Ten committees were formed to examine existing conditions and to recommend future policy. One of these committees was charged with investigating land disposal of hazardous wastes. That committee studied the various methods of land disposal including landfills, deep-well injection, and surface pits and ponds. This paper reviews the data collected by the committee, the land disposal problems encountered, and the recommendations made by the committee

  8. Nuclear fuel waste disposal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a concept for disposing of Canada's nuclear fuel waste and is submitting it for review under the Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. During this review, AECL intends to show that careful, controlled burial 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield is a safe and feasible way to dispose of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The concept has been assessed without identifying or evaluating any particular site for disposal. AECL is now preparing a comprehensive report based on more than 10 years of research and development

  9. Chemical treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the third manual of three commissioned by the IAEA on the three principal techniques used in concentrating radioactive liquid wastes, namely chemical precipitation, evaporation and ion exchange. The present manual deals with chemical precipitation by coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation, commonly called ''chemical treatment'' of low-activity wastes. Topics discussed in the manual are: (i) principles of coagulation on flocculation and sedimentation and associated processes; (ii) process and equipment; (iii) conditioning and disposal of flocculation sludge; (iv) sampling and the equipment required for experiments; and (v) factors governing the selection of processes. 99 refs, 17 figs, 4 tabs

  10. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: engineering for a disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents some general considerations for engineering a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility, alternative disposal-vault concepts and arrangements, and a conceptual design of a used-fuel disposal centre that was used to assess the technical feasibility, costs and potential effects of disposal. The general considerations and alternative disposal-vault arrangements are presented to show that options are available to allow the design to be adapted to actual site conditions. The conceptual design for a used-fuel disposal centre includes descriptions of the two major components of the disposal facility, the Used-Fuel Packaging Plant and the disposal vault; the ancillary facilities and services needed to carry out the operations are also identified. The development of the disposal facility, its operation, its decommissioning, and the reclamation of the site are discussed. The costs, labour requirements and schedules used to assess socioeconomic effects and that may be used to assess the cost burden of waste disposal to the consumer of nuclear energy are estimated. The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is funded jointly by AECL and Ontario Hydro under the auspices of the CANDU Owners Group. (author)

  11. Superfund Record of Decision amendment (EPA Region 10): Hanford Site -- 200 Area (USDOE), Benton County, WA, September 25, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This ROD Amendment is based on the Administrative Record for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The ERDF ROD specifies that expansion of the facility would be authorized as-needed through the ROD amendment process. Based on estimated remediation waste volumes presented in the ERDF ROD, additional disposal cells were anticipated. This Amendment authorizes two additional ERDF cells to be constructed and operated for disposal of Hanford Site remediation waste. The Phase II construction shall be located entirely within the 4.1 square kilometer (1.6 square miles) area selected for ERDF, as defined in the ERDF ROD

  12. Assessment of alternative disposal concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four alternative repository designs for the disposal of spent nuclear in the Finnish crystalline bedrock were assessed in the study. The alternatives were: (1) the basic KBS-3 design in which copper canisters are emplaced in vertical deposition holes bored in the floors of horizontal tunnels, (2) the KBS-3-2C design with two canisters in a deposition hole, (3) Short Horizontal Holes (SHH) in the side walls of the tunnels, and (4) the Medium Long Holes (MLH) concept in which approximately 25 canisters are emplaced in a horizontal deposition hole about 200 metres in length bored between central and side tunnels. In all the alternatives considered, the thickness of the layer of compacted bentonite between copper canister and bedrock is 35 cm. Two different copper canister designs were also assessed. Technical feasibility and flexibility, post-closure safety and repository cost were assessed for each of the alternative canister and repository designs. On the basis of this assessment it is recommended that further development and studies should focus on the vacuum- or inert gas-filled cast insert type copper canister and the basic KBS-3 type repository design with a single canister in a vertical deposition hole. The KBS-3 design is robust and flexible and provides excellent post-closure safety. The transfer, emplacement and sealing operations are technically uncomplicated. The alternative options assessed do not offer any significant benefits in safety or cost over the basic design, but they are technically more complex and also in some respects more vulnerable to malfunction during the emplacement of canisters and buffer, as well as common mode failures. (60 refs.)

  13. The Application of Existing Oceanographic Knowledge to the Problem of Radioactive Waste Disposal into the Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is presented in three major sections. In the first section the general approach to the overall problem of disposal of radioactive materials into the sea is presented. Those areas where oceanographic knowledge is required are indicated, and a general outline of the status of our present knowledge in these areas is presented. In the second section existing oceanographic knowledge is applied to waste disposal problems, including physical, chemical and biological aspects. It is shown that, on the basis of existing oceanographic knowledge, fairly large amounts (megacuries per year) of packaged wastes can be disposed of into the deep sea without endangering man’s safe uses of the sea. Low-level packaged wastes of the order of several hundred curies per year per disposal site could be safely disposed of on the continental shelf. Discharge of several hundred curies with the spent ion-exchange beds from nuclear-powered ships can be made into surface layers of the open sea without undue risk. The special aspects of near-shore and estuarine environments with respect to nuclear ship operation are discussed. In the third section of the paper a brief discussion is given of some of the oceanographic research activities now under way in the United States applicable to the radioactive waste disposal problem. (author)

  14. Disposal of ash from thermal power stations on land: environmental pathways and mitigation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal ash generated during the production of thermal energy in India is mostly disposed of on land. This method of waste disposal is fraught with environmental risks. The problems associated with ash disposal also escalate as energy production increases. This paper describes the environmental risk and points out how pollutants pass through various components of the ecosystem. In reviewing the environmental issues related to the disposal of ash from thermal power stations, it is necessary to understand the chemical and physical properties of ash that govern the risk to the environment; these are highlighted at the outset. Potential interaction of the environment and the utility wastes disposed of on land is multifaceted. Therefore, the effects of ash on local air quality, soils, terrestrial vegetation, aquatic life, groundwater, and surface waters are described extensively with case-studies to handle the adverse impacts of disposing the ash. Mitigation techniques are also discussed at length. These include both natural mechanisms and engineering technique. (author). 18 refs., 10 tabs., 3 figs

  15. Scenario analysis for the postclosure assessment of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL Research has developed and evaluated a concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste involving deep underground disposal of the waste in intrusive igneous rock of the Canadian Shield. The postclosure assessment of this concept focusses on the effects on human health and the environment due to potential contaminant releases into the biosphere after the disposal vault is closed. Both radiotoxic and chemically toxic contaminants are considered. One of the steps in the postclosure assessment process is scenario analysis. Scenario analysis identifies factors that could affect the performance of the disposal system and groups these factors into scenarios that require detailed quantitative evaluation. This report documents a systematic procedure for scenario analysis that was developed for the postclosure assessment and then applied to the study of a hypothetical disposal system. The application leads to a comprehensive list of factors and a set of scenarios that require further quantitative study. The application also identifies a number of other factors and potential scenarios that would not contribute significantly to environmental and safety impacts for the hypothetical disposal system. (author). 46 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs., 2 appendices

  16. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  17. Technology development for a disposal cell at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) is a DOE cleanup of property and facilities near St. Louis, Missouri, that were used during WWII to produce explosives such as TNT, and during the post-war years, to produce uranium metal. The long history of operations at the facilities generated a complex mixture of contaminants, including toxicants such as nitroaromatics, metals, and radionuclides such as uranium and thorium. These contaminants occur in sod, sludges, construction debris, and bulk wastes from a nearby quarry that was used for waste disposal. Final decisions for site and quarry remediation have yet to bc determined. Alternatives being evaluated include on-site and off-site disposal options for contaminated materials. As part of this effort, studies are under way to define technical approaches and performance criteria for an engineered disposal cell that could be located at the WSSRAP chemical plant site. This cell would be designed to contain by-product radioactive wastes and the end products of treated chemical wastes. A program of support studies has been initiated to facilitate remedial planning. These studies include an evaluation of site suitability and potential long-term cell performance. This information will assist regulators in determining the acceptability of on-site disposal and will address public concerns should on-site disposal be selected as the preferred alternative. The studies will also lay the groundwork for the conceptual design of the disposal cell. The disposal facility studies encompass a broad range of topics in four basic categories: siting, barriers, waste, and constructibility. Because of the breadth of technical topics and an aggressive schedule, most studies are being performed concurrently by a broad array of experts

  18. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k{sub eff} for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes.

  19. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of keff for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes

  20. Timing of High-level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identifies key factors influencing the timing of high-level waste (HLW) disposal and examines how social acceptability, technical soundness, environmental responsibility and economic feasibility impact on national strategies for HLW management and disposal. Based on case study analyses, it also presents the strategic approaches adopted in a number of national policies to address public concerns and civil society requirements regarding long-term stewardship of high-level radioactive waste. The findings and conclusions of the study confirm the importance of informing all stakeholders and involving them in the decision-making process in order to implement HLW disposal strategies successfully. This study will be of considerable interest to nuclear energy policy makers and analysts as well as to experts in the area of radioactive waste management and disposal. (author)

  1. Design of the disposal facility 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent nuclear fuel accumulated from the nuclear power plants in Olkiluoto in Eurajoki and in Haestholmen in Loviisa will be disposed of in Olkiluoto. A facility complex will be constructed at Olkiluoto, and it will include two nuclear waste facilities according to Government Degree 736/2008. The nuclear waste facilities are an encapsulation plant, constructed to encapsulate spent nuclear fuel and a disposal facility consisting of an underground repository and other underground rooms and above ground service spaces. The repository is planned to be excavated to a depth of 400 - 450 meters. Access routes to the disposal facility are an inclined access tunnel and vertical shafts. The encapsulated fuel is transferred to the disposal facility in the canister lift. The canisters are transferred from the technical rooms to the disposal area via central tunnel and deposited in the deposition holes which are bored in the floors of the deposition tunnels and are lined beforehand with compacted bentonite blocks. Two parallel central tunnels connect all the deposition tunnels and these central tunnels are inter-connected at regular intervals. The solution improves the fire safety of the underground rooms and allows flexible backfilling and closing of the deposition tunnels in stages during the operational phase of the repository. An underground rock characterization facility, ONKALO, is excavated at the disposal level. ONKALO is designed and constructed so that it can later serve as part of the repository. The goal is that the first part of the disposal facility will be constructed under the building permit phase in the 2010's and operations will start in the 2020's. The fuel from 4 operating reactors as well the fuel from the fifth nuclear power plant under construction, has been taken into account in designing the disposal facility. According to the information from TVO and Fortum, the amount of the spent nuclear fuel is 5,440 tU. The disposal facility is being excavated

  2. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were developed and input into the analysis. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. Total costs of each level of a standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, was calculated for each alternative standard. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis

  3. Global waste management and disposal update 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is a review of waste management/disposal efforts in various countries of the world in 1993. The activities of 17 countries are summarized, with technical, business, and political aspects being covered in each

  4. Rock alteration in alkaline cement waters over 15 years and its relevance to the geological disposal of nuclear waste

    OpenAIRE

    Moyce, Elizabeth B.A.; Rochelle, Christopher; Morris, Katherine; Milodowski, Antoni E.; Chen, Xiaohui; Thornton, Steve; Small, Joe S.; Shaw, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of groundwater with cement in a geological disposal facility (GDF) for intermediate level radioactive waste will produce a high pH leachate plume. Such a plume may alter the physical and chemical properties of the GDF host rock. However, the geochemical and mineralogical processes which may occur in such systems over timescales relevant for geological disposal remain unclear. This study has extended the timescale for laboratory experiments and shown that, after 15 years two di...

  5. Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14±1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85±0.19 million t representing 37.22±6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait

  6. Underground disposal facility closure design 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posiva has developed a detailed design for construction of a KSB-3 type disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel on Olkiluoto Island. The disposal facility design calls for construction of five shafts and an access tunnel that will serve to connect the disposal level to the surface. Routes to the underground disposal facility would be via the underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, which is currently under construction. The positioning of the underground disposal facility at Olkiluoto Island has been done by taking into account the main geological structures and available geological information on the site. Conditions actually encountered on reaching the potential disposal level will be assessed and the final layout selected at that time. The closure of the underground facility shall complete the isolation of the spent nuclear fuel and contribute to restoring and maintaining the favourable natural conditions in the bedrock. Beyond the deposition tunnels there remain underground openings associated with central and access tunnels, shafts and technical rooms or other spaces that comprise by definition the closure of the underground disposal facility. The underground disposal facility's general closure design described in this document deals specifically with the backfill and plugs installed in regions beyond the deposition tunnels and how the local geosphere may affect their performance. These tunnels, rooms and shafts represent approximately 60 % of the volume of the underground disposal facility openings and will intersect a variety of geological and hydrogeological features. Hence, backfilling and plugging of the disposal facility excavations in these regions will need to be approached in a flexible manner with the ability to modify the materials used to reflect the properties of the features intersected. Based on relevant available information the basis for flexible and general closure plan has been developed. The general closure plan takes into

  7. Future disposal burnup credit process and effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has developed a risk-informed, performance based methodology for disposal criticality analyses. The methodology is documented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report, YMP/TR-004Q (YMP 2000). The methodology includes taking credit for the burnup of irradiated commercial light water reactor fuel in criticality analyses, i.e., burnup credit. This paper summarizes the ongoing and planned future burnup credit activities associated with the methodology. (author)

  8. Hotel to Phase out Disposable Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Several hotels in Changsha, Shanghai and Kunming have recently staged a Green Hotel campaign: hotels will not offer disposable toothbrushes, toothpaste, slippers, combs or bottled shampoo and body lotion to their guests unless requested. Meanwhile a Green Hotel Standard has been issued, proscribing "disposable articles, such as toothbrushes, soap, combs and slippers," and stipulating that "textiles, such as bathrobes, towels and pillowslips, in hotel rooms are to be changed strictly at the request of guests,

  9. UNWANTED AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES: STATE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Centner, Terence J.

    1997-01-01

    Millions of pounds of unwanted pesticides have accumulated in barns throughout our country. The potential environmental and health risks posed by this situation has garnered public attention and governmental action. The federal government has revised its Universal Waste Rule so that it is easier to dispose of unwanted pesticides rather than simply banned pesticides. Nearly every state has initiated efforts to collect and dispose of accumulated pesticides in a safe manner. While the possession...

  10. Radioactive waste storage and disposal: the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solutions to waste management problems are available. After radium is removed, tailings from uranium ores can be disposed of safely in well-designed retention areas. Work is being done on the processing of non-fuel reactor wastes through incineration, reverse osmosis, and evaporation. Spent fuels have been stored safely for years in pools; dry storage in concrete cannisters is being investigated. Ultimate disposal of high-level wastes will be in deep, stable geologic formations. (LL)

  11. DSEM, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site Economic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: The Disposal Site Economic Model calculates the average generator price, or average price per cubic foot charged by a disposal facility to a waste generator, one measure of comparing the economic attractiveness of different waste disposal site and disposal technology combinations. The generator price is calculated to recover all costs necessary to develop, construct, operate, close, and care for a site through the end of the institutional care period and to provide the necessary financial returns to the site developer and lender (when used). Six alternative disposal technologies, based on either private or public financing, can be considered - shallow land disposal, intermediate depth disposal, above or below ground vaults, modular concrete canister disposal, and earth mounded concrete bunkers - based on either private or public development. 2 - Method of solution: The economic models incorporate default cost data from the Conceptual Design Report (DOE/LLW-60T, June 1987), a study by Rodgers Associates Engineering Corporation. Because all costs are in constant 1986 dollars, the figures must be modified to account for inflation. Interest during construction is either capitalized for the private developer or rolled into the loan for the public developer. All capital costs during construction are depreciated over the operation life of the site using straight-line depreciation for the private sector. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of - 100 years post-operating period, 30 years operating period, 15 years pre-operating period. The model should be used with caution outside the range of 1.8 to 10.5 million cubic feet of total volume. Depreciation is not recognized with public development

  12. US charts plans for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) passed in 1982 defines long-term federal programs to dispose of the leftovers from nuclear power generation. A succession of interacting multiple barriers, both natural and man-made, is to protect the public. Inside a mined underground repository will go waste packages. The geological formations surrounding the repository will be the final barrier. The article discussed site selections, salt sites, and subseabed disposal. (DP)

  13. Ecological Risk Assessment of Jarosite Waste Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Kerolli-Mustafa, Mihone; Ćurković, Lidija; Fajković, Hana; Rončević, Sanda

    2015-01-01

    Jarosite waste, originating from zinc extraction industry, is considered hazardous due to the presence and the mobility of toxic metals that it contains. Its worldwide disposal in many tailing damps has become a major ecological concern. Three different methods, namely modified Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP), three-stage BCR sequential extraction procedure and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI) Method were used to access the ecological risk of jarosite waste disposal in...

  14. Nuclear waste disposal: technology and environmental hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; the nature and origin of wastes (fuel cycles; character of wastes; mining and milling operations; middle stages; irradiated fuel; reprocessing (waste generation); reactor wastes); disposal techniques and disposal of reprocessing wastes; siting of repositories; potential environmental impacts (impacts after emplacement in a rock repository; catastrophic effects; dispersion processes (by migrating ground water); thermal effects; future security; environmental survey, monitoring and modelling); conclusion. (U.K.)

  15. Radioactive waste disposal in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently the policy of the United Kingdom Government is that HLW should be stored in a suitable facility for at least fifty years before considering further storage or final disposal. This period allows many short-lived radionuclides, but more importantly, the associated radioactive decay heat, to diminish ahead of disposal. For intermediate-level solid wastes current policy is to develop, as soon as possible, a suitable deep geological facility for its permanent disposal. LLW constitutes the majority by volume of all radioactive waste. The waste arises not only from the nuclear industry, but also from all users of radioactive substances, such as hospitals, research establishments and industry. At present, it is mainly disposed of at a 300-acre site at Drigg in Cumbria, operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNEL). It is packed into containers and placed in concrete-lined trenches which are subsequently sealed. Drigg is expected to continue to take solid low-level wastes for many years. Original plans-term disposal route for LLW involved disposal in a new near-surface repository. However, in 1987, this proposal was abandoned, on cost-benefit arguments, and the Government agreed that a yet to be developed national deep repository should also be used for some LLW. Drigg is expected to continue to take solid low-level wastes for many years.

  16. Disposal facility data for the interim performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to identify and provide information on the waste package and disposal facility concepts to be used for the low-level waste tank interim performance assessment. Current concepts for the low-level waste form, canister, and the disposal facility will be used for the interim performance assessment. The concept for the waste form consists of vitrified glass cullet in a sulfur polymer cement matrix material. The waste form will be contained in a 2 x 2 x 8 meter carbon steel container. Two disposal facility concepts will be used for the interim performance assessment. These facility concepts are based on a preliminary disposal facility concept developed for estimating costs for a disposal options configuration study. These disposal concepts are based on vault type structures. None of the concepts given in this report have been approved by a Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) decision board. These concepts will only be used in th interim performance assessment. Future performance assessments will be based on approved designs

  17. Waste disposal technologies: designs and evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many states and compacts are presently in the throes of considering what technology to select for their low level waste disposal site. Both the technical and economic aspects of disposal technology are important considerations in these decisions. It is also important that they be considered in the context of the entire system. In the case of a nuclear power plant, that system encompasses the various individual waste streams that contain radioactivity, the processing equipment which reduces the volume and/or alters the form in which the radioisotopes are contained, the packaging of the processed wastes in shipment, and finally its disposal. One further part of this is the monitoring that takes place in all stages of this operation. This paper discusses the results of some research that has been sponsored by EPRI with the principal contractor being Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation. Included is a description of the distinguishing features found in disposal technologies developed in a generic framework, designs for a selected set of these disposal technologies and the costs which have been derived from these designs. In addition, a description of the early efforts towards defining the performance of these various disposal technologies is described. 5 figures, 1 table

  18. Third party Superfund lawsuit defense influenced by the choice of remediation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper Company A was sued in a third party action suit initiated by a local utility who was a potential responsible party (PRP) to a contaminated site regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) program. In addition to Paper Company A, other parties to the third party suit included Paper Company B and Contractor C, a demolition contractor/waste hauler. Other PRPs included land owners where the contaminated debris was dumped, Mr. and Mrs. D. Based on background information, Paper Company A dumped coal ash, off quality feed stock, wood and trash north of the D-property. Paper Company B admitted dumping material north of the D-property. Samples of industrial sludges on the D-property had properties characteristic of the Paper Company B's sludges. Paper Company B dumped ash, chromium contaminated gypsum sludge and other waste. The utility company dumped ash on the D-property. Contractor C hauled demolition debris to the D property. A third PRP, Company E was the original owner of the buildings that were demolished. This PRP settled with the EPA as part of a bankruptcy settlement. The hazardous substances encountered at the site included PCBs, chromium and lead in the coal ash, demolition debris and industrial sludges. Disposal of material containing hazardous substances resulted in PCB contaminated debris and sediment, and chromium and lead contamination in the sediment, soil and groundwater

  19. Selected remedy at the Queen City Farms superfund site: A risk management approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A risk management approach at a former industrial waste disposal site in western Washington resulted in a selected remedy that is cost-effective and that meets the CERCLA threshold criterion of protecting human health and the environment. The proposed remedy, which addresses contamination in soil and groundwater, does not require an ARARs waiver and received state and community acceptance. By analyzing the current and potential risk at the site, a proposed remedy was chosen that would control the source and naturally attenuate the groundwater plume. Source control will include removal and treatment of some light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) and some soil, followed by isolation of the remaining soil and LNAPL within a slurry wall and beneath a multilayer cap. A contingent groundwater extraction and treatment system was included to address uncertainty in the risk characterization. Implementing source control is predicted to result in a steady decline in volatile organic compound levels in the drinking water aquifer through adsorption, degradation, and dispersion. Exposure to groundwater during the period of natural attenuation will be controlled by monitoring, institutional controls, and a thorough characterization of the plume and receptors. 7 figs., 1 tab

  20. Characteristics study of bentonite as candidate of buffer materials for radioactive waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature studies on bentonite characteristic of, as candidate for radioactive waste disposal system, have been conducted. Several information have been obtained from references, which would be contributed on performance assessment of engineered barrier. The functions bentonite includes the buffering of chemical and physical behavior, i.e. swelling property, self sealing, hydraulic conductivities and gas permeability. This paper also presented long-term stability of bentonite in natural condition related to the illitisazation, which could change its buffering capacities. These information, showed that bentonite was satisfied to be used for candidate of buffer materials in radioactive waste disposal system. (author)