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Sample records for chemical development section

  1. Results of Section 4 Chemical Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires that data be developed on the effect of chemical substances and mixtures on health and the environment. This data...

  2. Progress Report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: July-December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1999-06-01

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period July-December 1998. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications.

  3. Quarterly Progress Report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: April-June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1999-04-01

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during th eperiod April-June 1998. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications.

  4. Quarterly Progress Report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: January-March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1999-03-01

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period January-March 1998. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within nine major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Studies, Chemistry Research, Biotechnology, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Fluid Structure and Properties, Biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies.

  5. Quarterly progress report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: July--September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1998-07-01

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period July--September 1997. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within nine major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Studies, Chemistry Research, Biotechnology, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Fluid Structure and Properties, Biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies. The name of a technical contact is included with each task described, and readers are encouraged to contact these individuals if they need additional information.

  6. Quarterly progress report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: October-December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1999-02-01

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period October--December 1997. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within six major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Fluid Structure and Properties, Biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies. The name of a technical contact is included with each task described, and readers are encouraged to contact these individuals if they need additional information. Activities conducted within the area of Hot Cell Operations included efforts to optimize the processing conditions for Enhanced Sludge Washing of Hanford tank sludge, the testing of candidate absorbers and ion exchangers under continuous-flow conditions using actual supernatant from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks, and attempts to develop a cesium-specific spherical inorganic sorbent for the treatment of acidic high-salt waste solutions. Within the area of Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, the problem of solids formation in process solutions from caustic treatment of Hanford sludge was addressed and experimental collaborative efforts with Russian scientists to determine the solidification conditions of yttrium barium, and copper oxides from their melts were completed.

  7. The Development of Chemical Nanosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. JIN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the chemical nanosensors (CNS for space and environmental applications, safety alert devices, etc. The high-resolution nanosensors are applied to detect the rocket fuel hydrazine leak. The CNS detects changes in the electrical conductivity response during the chemical species presence. When the hydrazine is leaked into air, it immediately dissociates into NO2. As a result, we are actually detecting the NO2 gas in the trace amount from the fuel leakage. In more detail, we will discuss the sensor chips preparation and process control in terms of the resistance range control while depositing the nanomaterials on the sensors. Furthermore, there will be detailed studies of the CNS response to the dry NO2 in the ambient conditions. The inter-digitized electrode sensors are characterized to the variables of NO2 concentration and nanomaterials.

  8. Sectioning Clay Models Makes Anatomy & Development Tangible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Carina Endres; Howell, James Endres

    2010-01-01

    Clay models have proved to be useful teaching aids for many topics in biology that depend on three-dimensional reasoning. Students studying embryonic development struggle to mentally reconstruct the three-dimensional structure of embryos and larvae by observing prepared slides of cross-sectional slices. Students who build clay models of embryos…

  9. Section XI -- 25 years of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedden, O.F.

    1996-01-01

    The original concept of nuclear power plant designers was that the higher standards of design and fabrication would make inservice inspections unnecessary, and little attention was given to provisions for access. By 1966 the Atomic Energy Commission recognized that a planned program of periodic inservice inspections would be needed. They began development of criteria, and encouraged industry code-writing organizations to do likewise. These groups joined forces in 1968, and their product was published by ASME in 1970 as part of the Boiler and Pressure Code, Section XI, Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Reactor Coolant Systems. Section XI, 24 pages in 1970, is now 723 pages. While it originally covered only light water reactor Class 1 components and piping, it now includes Class 2, 3, and containment, and liquid metal cooled reactor plants. Along the way, rules have been developed for gas-cooled and low pressure heavy water reactor plants. The growth in size of Section XI from its modest beginning has been largely because of recognition that the rules governing plant inspection/operation need to be considerably different from the rules provided for the component designer/manufacturer. Rules have been developed in the areas of repair/replacement technology, NDE methodology, NDE acceptance standards, and analytical evaluation methods in the absence of appropriate rules in Section III

  10. Quarterly Progress Report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: July-September 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    2001-04-16

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period July-September 1999. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within ten major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry, Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Studies, Chemistry Research, Physical Properties Research, Biochemical Engineering, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Fluid Structures and Properties, Biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies. The name of a technical contact is included with each task described, and readers are encouraged to contact these individuals if they need additional information. Activities conducted within the area of the Cell Operations involved the testing of two continuously stirred tank reactors in series to evaluate the Savannah River-developed process of small-tank tetraphenylborate precipitation to remove cesium, strontium and transuranics from supernatant. Within the area of Process Chemistry, various topics related to solids formation in process solutions from caustic treatment of Hanford sludge were addressed. Saltcake dissolution efforts continued, including the development of a predictive algorithm. New initiatives for the section included modeling activities centered on detection of hydrogen in {sup 233}U storage wells and wax formation in petroleum mixtures, as well as support for the Spallation Neutron Source (investigation of transmutation products formed during operation). Other activities involved in situ grouting and evaluation of options for use (i.e., as castable shapes) of depleted uranium. In a continuation of activities of the preceding

  11. 1996 Central New Mexico Section [American Chemical Society] annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cournoyer, M.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Chemistry Science and Technology Div.

    1997-02-07

    The main goal of the Central New Mexico Section this year was to increase attendance at the local meetings. Throughout the course of the year attendance at the meeting more than doubled. This was brought on by several factors: having the meeting spread throughout the section (Albuquerque, Santa Fe, Las Vegas, Socorro, Los Alamos); supplementing the ACS National Tour speakers with interesting local sections speakers; and making full use of the newly formed Public Relations Committee. Activities during 1996 are summarized.

  12. Prediction of Chemical Function: Model Development and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Exposure Forecaster (ExpoCast) project is developing both statistical and mechanism-based computational models for predicting exposures to thousands of chemicals, including those in consumer products. The high-throughput (HT) screening-level exposures developed under ExpoCast can be combined with HT screening (HTS) bioactivity data for the risk-based prioritization of chemicals for further evaluation. The functional role (e.g. solvent, plasticizer, fragrance) that a chemical performs can drive both the types of products in which it is found and the concentration in which it is present and therefore impacting exposure potential. However, critical chemical use information (including functional role) is lacking for the majority of commercial chemicals for which exposure estimates are needed. A suite of machine-learning based models for classifying chemicals in terms of their likely functional roles in products based on structure were developed. This effort required collection, curation, and harmonization of publically-available data sources of chemical functional use information from government and industry bodies. Physicochemical and structure descriptor data were generated for chemicals with function data. Machine-learning classifier models for function were then built in a cross-validated manner from the descriptor/function data using the method of random forests. The models were applied to: 1) predict chemi

  13. Interspecies chemical communication in bacterial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Paul D; Kolter, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Our view of bacteria, from the earliest observations through the heyday of antibiotic discovery, has shifted dramatically. We recognize communities of bacteria as integral and functionally important components of diverse habitats, ranging from soil collectives to the human microbiome. To function as productive communities, bacteria coordinate metabolic functions, often requiring shifts in growth and development. The hallmark of cellular development, which we characterize as physiological change in response to environmental stimuli, is a defining feature of many bacterial interspecies interactions. Bacterial communities rely on chemical exchanges to provide the cues for developmental change. Traditional methods in microbiology focus on isolation and characterization of bacteria in monoculture, separating the organisms from the surroundings in which interspecies chemical communication has relevance. Developing multispecies experimental systems that incorporate knowledge of bacterial physiology and metabolism with insights from biodiversity and metagenomics shows great promise for understanding interspecies chemical communication in the microbial world.

  14. Expanding the species and chemical diversity of Penicillium section Cinnamopurpurea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Stephen W.; Jurjević, Željko; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2015-01-01

    isolates and sequenced. Two species in section Cinnamopurpurea are self-compatible sexual species, but the asexual species had polymorphic loci suggestive of sexual reproduction and variation in conidium size suggestive of ploidy level differences typical of heterothallism. Accordingly we use genealogical...... concordance analysis, a technique valid only in heterothallic organisms, for putatively asexual species. Seven new species were revealed in the analysis and are described here. Extrolite analysis showed that two of the new species, P. colei and P. monsserratidens produce the mycotoxin citreoviridin that has...

  15. Expanding the species and chemical diversity of Penicillium section Cinnamopurpurea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W Peterson

    Full Text Available A set of isolates very similar to or potentially conspecific with an unidentified Penicillium isolate NRRL 735, was assembled using a BLAST search of ITS similarity among described (GenBank and undescribed Penicillium isolates in our laboratories. DNA was amplified from six loci of the assembled isolates and sequenced. Two species in section Cinnamopurpurea are self-compatible sexual species, but the asexual species had polymorphic loci suggestive of sexual reproduction and variation in conidium size suggestive of ploidy level differences typical of heterothallism. Accordingly we use genealogical concordance analysis, a technique valid only in heterothallic organisms, for putatively asexual species. Seven new species were revealed in the analysis and are described here. Extrolite analysis showed that two of the new species, P. colei and P. monsserratidens produce the mycotoxin citreoviridin that has demonstrated pharmacological activity against human lung tumors. These isolates could provide leads in pharmaceutical research.

  16. Development of Green and Sustainable Chemical Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarning, Esben

    Abstract This thesis entitled Development of Green and Sustainable Chemical Reactions is divided into six chapters involving topics and projects related to green and sustainable chemistry. The chapters can be read independently, however a few concepts and some background information is introduced...... as well as the possibility for establishing a renewable chemical industry is discussed. The development of a procedure for using unsaturated aldehydes as olefin synthons in the Diels- Alder reaction is described in chapter three. This procedure affords good yields of the desired Diels- Alder adducts...... in chapter one and two which can be helpful to know when reading the subsequent chapters. The first chapter is an introduction into the fundamentals of green and sustainable chemistry. The second chapter gives an overview of some of the most promising methods to produce value added chemicals from biomass...

  17. Recent developments in chemical decontamination technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.J. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Chemical decontamination of parts of reactor coolant systems is a mature technology, used routinely in many BWR plants, but less frequently in PWRs. This paper reviews recent developments in the technology - corrosion minimization, waste processing and full system decontamination, including the fuel. Earlier work was described in an extensive review published in 1990.

  18. Quarterly progress report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: January-March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1999-11-01

    This reports summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period January--March 1999. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within eight major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Studies, Chemistry Research, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Fluid Structure and Properties, Biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies. The name of a technical contact is included with each task described, and readers are encouraged to contact these individuals if they need additional information. Activities conducted within the area of Hot Cell Operations included column loading of cesium from Melton Valley Storage Tank supematants using an engineered form of crystalline silicotitanate. A second task was to design and construct a continuously stirred tank reactor system to test the Savannah River-developed process of small-tank tetraphenylborate precipitation to remove cesium, strontium, and transuranics from supematant. Within the area of Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, the problem of solids formation in process solutions from caustic treatment of Hanford sludge was addressed, including issues such as pipeline plugging and viscosity measurements. Investigation of solution conditions required to dissolve Hanford saltcake was also continued. MSRE Remediation Studies focused on recovery of {sup 233}U and its transformation into a stable oxide and radiolysis experiments to permit remediation of MSRE fuel salt. In the area of Chemistry Research, activities included studies relative to molecular imprinting for

  19. Chemical sensors technology development planning workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastiaans, G.J.; Haas, W.J. Jr.; Junk, G.A. [eds.

    1993-03-01

    The workshop participants were asked to: (1) Assess the current capabilities of chemical sensor technologies for addressing US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) needs; (2) Estimate potential near term (one to two years) and intermediate term (three to five years) capabilities for addressing those needs; and (3) Generate a ranked list of specific recommendations on what research and development (R&D) should be funded to provide the necessary capabilities. The needs were described in terms of two pervasive EM problems, the in situ determination of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and selected metals in various matrices at DOE sites. The R&D recommendations were to be ranked according to the estimated likelihood that the product technology will be ready for application within the time frame it is needed and the estimated return on investment. The principal conclusions and recommendations of the workshop are as follows: Chemical sensors capable of in situ determinations can significantly reduce analytical costs; Chemical sensors have been developed for certain VOCs in gases and water but none are currently capable of in situ determination of VOCs in soils; The DOE need for in situ determination of metals in soils cannot be addressed with existing chemical sensors and the prospects for their availability in three to five years are uncertain; Adaptation, if necessary, and field application of laboratory analytical instruments and those few chemical sensors that are already in field testing is the best approach for the near term; The chemical sensor technology development plan should include balanced support for near- and intermediate-term efforts.

  20. Chemical sensors technology development planning workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastiaans, G.J.; Haas, W.J. Jr.; Junk, G.A.

    1993-03-01

    The workshop participants were asked to: (1) Assess the current capabilities of chemical sensor technologies for addressing US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) needs; (2) Estimate potential near term (one to two years) and intermediate term (three to five years) capabilities for addressing those needs; and (3) Generate a ranked list of specific recommendations on what research and development (R ampersand D) should be funded to provide the necessary capabilities. The needs were described in terms of two pervasive EM problems, the in situ determination of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and selected metals in various matrices at DOE sites. The R ampersand D recommendations were to be ranked according to the estimated likelihood that the product technology will be ready for application within the time frame it is needed and the estimated return on investment. The principal conclusions and recommendations of the workshop are as follows: Chemical sensors capable of in situ determinations can significantly reduce analytical costs; Chemical sensors have been developed for certain VOCs in gases and water but none are currently capable of in situ determination of VOCs in soils; The DOE need for in situ determination of metals in soils cannot be addressed with existing chemical sensors and the prospects for their availability in three to five years are uncertain; Adaptation, if necessary, and field application of laboratory analytical instruments and those few chemical sensors that are already in field testing is the best approach for the near term; The chemical sensor technology development plan should include balanced support for near- and intermediate-term efforts

  1. Prenatal chemical exposures and child language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwilewski, Kelsey L C; Schantz, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence that prenatal and/or early postnatal exposure to certain chemicals, both manmade (insulating materials, flame retardants, pesticides) and naturally occurring (e.g., lead, mercury), may be associated with delays or impairments in language development. We focus primarily on a subset of more extensively studied chemicals-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and methyl mercury-for which a reasonable body of literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes is available. We also briefly summarize the smaller body of evidence for other chemicals including polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs) and organophosphate pesticides. Very few studies have used specific assessments of language development and function. Therefore, we included discussion of aspects of cognitive development such as overall intellectual functioning and verbal abilities that rely on language, as well as aspects of cognition such as verbal and auditory working memory that are critical underpinnings of language development. A high percentage of prospective birth cohort studies of PCBs, lead, and mercury have reported exposure-related reductions in overall IQ and/or verbal IQ that persist into middle or late childhood. Given these findings, it is important that clinicians and researchers in communication sciences and disorders are aware of the potential for environmental chemicals to impact language development. The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence that prenatal and/or early postnatal exposure to certain chemicals may be associated with delays or impairments in language development. Readers will gain an understanding of the literature suggesting that early exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and mercury may be associated with decrements in cognitive domains that depend on language or are critical for language development. We also briefly summarize the smaller body of evidence regarding polybrominated diphenyl

  2. Measured Mass-Normalized Optical Cross Sections For Aerosolized Organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Simulants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gurton, Kristan P; Felton, Melvin; Dahmani, Rachid; Ligon, David

    2007-01-01

    We present newly measured results of an ongoing experimental program established to measure optical cross sections in the mid and long wave infrared for a variety of chemical and biologically based aerosols...

  3. Developments in the Law--Section 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Javier; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the history and current state of the law under Section 1981 of the Civil Rights Act of 1866. Suggests how it may be interpreted to maintain its vitality as a guarantee of racial equality. Considers actionable discrimination claims, protected interests, prima facie evidence, constitutional defenses, immunities, and procedural issues.…

  4. The development of chemical speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.; Santana, J.L.; Lima, L.; De La Rosa, D.; Melchor, K.

    2003-01-01

    The knowledge of many metals species on the environmental, its bioaccumulation, quantification and its effect in human body has been studied by a wide researchers groups in the last two decades. The development of speciation analysis has an vertiginous advance close to the developing of novel analytical techniques. Separation and quantification at low level is a problem that's has been afford by a coupling of high resolution chromatographic techniques like HPLC and HRGC with a specific method of detection (ICP-MS or CV-AAS). This methodological approach make possible the success in chemical speciation nowadays

  5. Laser chemical analysis: the recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauchien, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper gives a general overview and describes the principles of the main laser-based techniques for physical and chemical analysis, and of their recent developments. Analytical techniques using laser radiations were actually developed at the end of the 1970's. The recent evolutions concern the 3 principal techniques of laser spectroscopy currently used: Raman, fluorescence (atomic and molecular) and ablation (ICP laser ablation-plasma coupling, optical emission spectroscopy on laser-induced plasma). The description of these different techniques is illustrated with some examples of applications. (J.S.)

  6. Evaluating the Effects of Chemicals on Nervous System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are thousands of chemicals that lack data on their potential effects on neurodevelopment. EPA is developing New Approach Methods to evaluate these chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity hazard.

  7. Development of chemical equilibrium analysis code 'CHEEQ'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Shuichiro

    2006-08-01

    'CHEEQ' code which calculates the partial pressure and the mass of the system consisting of ideal gas and pure condensed phase compounds, was developed. Characteristics of 'CHEEQ' code are as follows. All the chemical equilibrium equations were described by the formation reactions from the mono-atomic gases in order to simplify the code structure and input preparation. Chemical equilibrium conditions, Σν i μ i =0 for the gaseous compounds and precipitated condensed phase compounds and Σν i μ i > 0 for the non-precipitated condensed phase compounds, were applied. Where, ν i and μ i are stoichiometric coefficient and chemical potential of component i. Virtual solid model was introduced to perform the calculation of constant partial pressure condition. 'CHEEQ' was consisted of following 3 parts, (1) analysis code, zc132. f. (2) thermodynamic data base, zmdb01 and (3) input data file, zindb. 'CHEEQ' code can calculate the system which consisted of elements (max.20), condensed phase compounds (max.100) and gaseous compounds. (max.200). Thermodynamic data base, zmdb01 contains about 1000 elements and compounds, and 200 of them were Actinide elements and their compounds. This report describes the basic equations, the outline of the solution procedure and instructions to prepare the input data and to evaluate the calculation results. (author)

  8. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DIVISION BURNUP, CROSS SECTIONS, AND DOSIMETRY SEMIANNUAL REPORT, JANUARY--JUNE 1972.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R P; Dudey, N D; Crouthamel, C E; Tevebaugh, A D; Levenson, M; Vogel, R C

    1972-09-01

    Research and development efforts of the burnup, cross sections and dosimetry programs in the Chemical Engineering Division of Argonne National Laboratory are reported for the period January to June 1972. Work is reported in the following areas: (1) development of an X-ray spectrometric method for the determination of the rare-earth fission products and application of this method to the determinations of burnup in nuclear fuels; (2) determination of fast ·fission yields of bum up monitors and other fission products; (3) a search for a spon~aneously fissioning isomer of {sup 241}Pu; (4) measurements of the tritium and alpha particle yields in fast-neutron fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu; (5) evaluations of available data on the differential cross sections for the {sup 56}Fe(n,p){sup 56}Mn and {sup 32}S(n,p){sup 32}P reactions; and (6) measurements of both fission rates by solid-state track recorders and reaction rates by foil activation, in the Coupled Fast Reactivity Measurement Facility.

  9. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, F.G.

    1994-02-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) mission is to receive and store spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes for disposition for Department of Energy (DOE) in a cost-effective manner that protects the safety of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) employees, the public, and the environment by: Developing advanced technologies to process spent nuclear fuel for permanent offsite disposition and to achieve waste minimization. Receiving and storing Navy and other DOE assigned spent nuclear fuels. Managing all wastes in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Identifying and conducting site remediation consistent with facility transition activities. Seeking out and implementing private sector technology transfer and cooperative development agreements. Prior to April 1992, the ICPP mission included fuel reprocessing. With the recent phaseout of fuel reprocessing, some parts of the ICPP mission have changed. Others have remained the same or increased in scope

  10. Chemical-looping combustion - status of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyngfelt, Anders; Johansson, Marcus; Mattisson, Tobias

    2008-05-15

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology with inherent separation of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2}. The technique involves the use of a metal oxide as an oxygen carrier which transfers oxygen from combustion air to the fuel, and hence a direct contact between air and fuel is avoided. Two inter-connected fluidized beds, a fuel reactor and an air reactor, are used in the process. In the fuel reactor, the metal oxide is reduced by the reaction with the fuel and in the air reactor; the reduced metal oxide is oxidized with air. The outlet gas from the fuel reactor consists of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, and almost pure stream of CO{sub 2} is obtained when water is condensed. Considerable research has been conducted on CLC in the last years with respect to oxygen carrier development, reactor design, system efficiencies and prototype testing. In 2002 the process was a paper concept, albeit with some important but limited laboratory work on oxygen carrier particles. Today more than 600 materials have been tested and the technique has been successfully demonstrated in chemical-looping combustors in the size range 0.3 - 50 kW, using different types of oxygen carriers based on the metals Ni, Co, Fe, Cu and Mn. The total time of operational experience is more than a thousand hours. From these tests it can be established that almost complete conversion of the fuel can be obtained and 100% CO{sub 2} capture is possible. Most work so far has been focused on gaseous fuels, but the direct application to solid fuels is also being studied. Moreover, the same principle of oxygen transfer is used in chemical-looping reforming (CLR), which involves technologies to produce hydrogen with inherent CO{sub 2} capture. This paper presents an overview of the research performed on CLC and CLR highlights the current status of the technology

  11. Graphs of neutron cross section data for fusion reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Shigeya

    1979-03-01

    Graphs of neutron cross section data relevant to fusion reactor development are presented. Nuclides and reaction types in the present compilation are based on a WRENDA request list from Japan for fusion reactor development. The compilation contains various partial cross sections for 55 nuclides from 6 Li to 237 Np in the energy range up to 20 MeV. (author)

  12. Scientific and technical development and the chemical weapon convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) was drafted with the recognition that it is impossible to envision every way in which toxic chemicals might be used for aggressive purposes. As terrorist organizations and rogue states replace the major powers as the most likely candidates to employ chemical weapons, the agents of choice may differ from those developed for battlefield use. Twenty- first century chemical warfare may target civilians or agricultural production, and clandestine production-facilities may manufacture toxic agents from chemical precursors, not monitored under the CWC control regime. The effects (on CWC implementation) of changing industrial technologies, including ongoing developments in chemical process technology, dual-use industrial chemicals, and rapid methods for discovering biologically active chemicals, are considerable Also considered is how commercial technologies could be misused for the development of novel chemical weapons, and how such abuses might be detected and monitored. (author)

  13. Chemical reactor development : from laboratory synthesis to industrial production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoenes, D.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical Reactor Development is written primarily for chemists and chemical engineers who are concerned with the development of a chemical synthesis from the laboratory bench scale, where the first successful experiments are performed, to the design desk, where the first commercial reactor is

  14. Chemical effects in the stopping cross sections of protons in rare earth fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, J.; Pineda, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Stopping cross sections were measured for 0.5-0.7 MeV protons impinging on selected rare earth fluorides using energy differences of ions backscattered by thin films. The surface approximation was employed to determine the stopping cross sections. Consideration of chemical effects through the enthalpy of formation of the target compounds, as suggested by Bauer and Semrad (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 182 (2001) 62), allows a much better agreement with the electronic stopping predictions of the SRIM code, the Montenegro et al. universal formula and the tables by Janni

  15. Assessment of microphysical and chemical factors of aerosols over seas of the Russian Artic Eastern Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golobokova, Liudmila; Polkin, Victor

    2014-05-01

    The newly observed kickoff of the Northern Route development drew serious attention to state of the Arctic Resource environment. Occurring climatic and environmental changes are more sensitively seen in polar areas in particular. Air environment control allows for making prognostic assessments which are required for planning hazardous environmental impacts preventive actions. In August - September 2013, RV «Professor Khlustin» Northern Sea Route expeditionary voyage took place. En-route aerosol sampling was done over the surface of the Beringov, Chukotka and Eastern-Siberia seas (till the town of Pevek). The purpose of sampling was to assess spatio-temporal variability of optic, microphysical and chemical characteristics of aerosol particles of the surface layer within different areas adjacent to the Northern Sea Route. Aerosol test made use of automated mobile unit consisting of photoelectric particles counter AZ-10, aetalometr MDA-02, aspirator on NBM-1.2 pump chassis, and the impactor. This set of equipment allows for doing measurements of number concentration, dispersed composition of aerosols within sizes d=0.3-10 mkm, mass concentration of submicron sized aerosol, and filter-conveyed aerosols sampling. Filter-conveyed aerosols sampling was done using method accepted by EMEP and EANET monitoring networks. The impactor channel was upgraded to separate particles bigger than 1 mkm in size, and the fine grain fraction settled down on it. Reverse 5-day and 10-day trajectories of air mass transfer executed at heights of 10, 1500 and 3500 m were analyzed. The heights were selected by considerations that 3000 m is the height which characterizes air mass trend in the lower troposphere. 1500 m is the upper border of the atmospheric boundary layer, and the sampling was done in the Earth's surface layer at less than 10 m. Minimum values of the bespoken microphysical characteristics are better characteristic of higher latitudes where there are no man induced sources of

  16. EUROPEAN CHEMICAL INDUSTRY COMPETITIVENESS: HISTORICAL TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Gladkykh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyze historical trends and development prospects of the European chemical industry competitiveness. It is concluded that the chemical industry is one of the EU’s most successful spheres, boasting €527 billion in sales in 2013, making it the second-largest global manufacture. Methodology. To explain the competitiveness of the EU chemical branch in the global market, it is proposed the constant-market share methodology to chemical exports coupled with econometric analysis. Results. The constant market share (CMS approach to assessing competitiveness, developed in the 1970 s for analysis of trade, is based on the principle that changes in the geographic and product structures of exports will affect a country’s export growth relative to that of the world, and that is way its global export market share. There were analyzed the EU biggest exporters (Germany, France, Italy, UK, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Poland, the USA, Japan; China, India, Saudi Arabia, Brazil. Practical implication. The analysis presents the results of competitiveness assessment in a different way, showing the average annual growth rate of EU and world chemical exports in the top section and then decomposing the gap between the two into that thanks to growth dynamics (structure effect and competitive effect. It is defined a lot of factors that are important to industrial competitiveness. On the cost side, in many industries labor is a large enough share of overall production costs that international differences in salaries can have a large bearing on competitiveness. Costs are also affected by a variety of government policies. It is also defined that innovation is one of the most important factors, which opens up new opportunities both in terms of new products and more efficient processes for manufacturing existing products. Value/originality. Given analysis helps to understand the causes and factors that have an impact on the European

  17. [The recent development of fiber-optic chemical sensor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Wei, Jian-ping; Yang, Bo; Gao, Zhi-yang; Zhang, Li-wei; Yang, Xue-feng

    2014-08-01

    The present article provides a brief review of recent research on fiber-optic chemical sensor technology and the future development trends. Especially, fiber-optic pH chemical sensor, fiber-optic ion chemicl sensor, and fiber-optic gas chemical sensor are introduced respectively. Sensing film preparation methods such as chemical bonding method and sol-gel method were briefly reviewed. The emergence of new type fiber-microstructured optical fiber opened up a new development direction for fiber-optic chemical sensor. Because of its large inner surface area, flexible design of structure, having internal sensing places in fibers, it has rapidly become an important development direction and research focus of the fiber-optic chemical sensors. The fiber-optic chemical sensor derived from microstructured optical fiber is also discussed in detail. Finally, we look to the future of the fiber-optic chemical sensor.

  18. Development of Computational Approaches for Simulation and Advanced Controls for Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Abhinaya; Lou, Xinsheng; Neuschaefer, Carl; Chaudry, Majid; Quinn, Joseph

    2012-07-31

    This document provides the results of the project through September 2009. The Phase I project has recently been extended from September 2009 to March 2011. The project extension will begin work on Chemical Looping (CL) Prototype modeling and advanced control design exploration in preparation for a scale-up phase. The results to date include: successful development of dual loop chemical looping process models and dynamic simulation software tools, development and test of several advanced control concepts and applications for Chemical Looping transport control and investigation of several sensor concepts and establishment of two feasible sensor candidates recommended for further prototype development and controls integration. There are three sections in this summary and conclusions. Section 1 presents the project scope and objectives. Section 2 highlights the detailed accomplishments by project task area. Section 3 provides conclusions to date and recommendations for future work.

  19. Atomic force microscopy of histological sections using a chemical etching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiribilli, B.; Bani, D.; Quercioli, F.; Ghirelli, A.; Vassalli, M.

    2005-01-01

    Physiology and pathology have a big deal on tissue morphology, and the intrinsic spatial resolution of an atomic force microscope (AFM) is able to observe ultrastructural details. In order to investigate cellular and subcellular structures in histological sections with the AFM, we used a new simple method for sample preparation, i.e. chemical etching of semithin sections from epoxy resin-embedded specimens: such treatment appears to melt the upper layers of the embedding resin; thus, removing the superficial roughness caused by the edge of the microtome knife and bringing into high relief the biological structures hidden in the bulk. Consecutive ultrathin sections embedded in epoxy resin were observed with a transmission electron microscope (TEM) to compare the different imaging properties on the same specimen sample. In this paper we report, as an example, our AFM and TEM images of two different tissue specimens, rat pancreas and skeletal muscle fibres, showing that most of the inner details are visible with the AFM. These results suggest that chemical etching of histological sections may be a simple, fast and cost-effective method for AFM imaging with ultrastructural resolution

  20. Discussion on the Development of Green Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunshen

    2017-11-01

    Chemical industry plays a vital role in the development process of national economy. However, in view of the special nature of the chemical industry, a large number of poisonous and harmful substances pose a great threat to the ecological environment and human health in the entire process of raw material acquisition, production, transportation, product manufacturing, and the final practical application. Therefore, it is a general trend to promote the development of chemistry and chemical engineering towards a greener environment. This article will focus on some basic problems occurred in the development process of green chemistry and chemical engineering.

  1. Development of automatic cross section compilation system for MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Sakurai, Kiyoshi

    1999-01-01

    A development of a code system to automatically convert cross-sections for MCNP is in progress. The NJOY code is, in general, used to convert the data compiled in the ENDF format (Evaluated Nuclear Data Files by BNL) into the cross-section libraries required by various reactor physics codes. While the cross-section library: FSXLIB-J3R2 was already converted from the JENDL-3.2 version of Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library for a continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP, the library keeps only the cross-sections at room temperature (300 K). According to the users requirements which want to have cross-sections at higher temperature, say 600 K or 900 K, a code system named 'autonj' is under development to provide a set of cross-section library of arbitrary temperature for the MCNP code. This system can accept any of data formats adopted JENDL that may not be treated by NJOY code. The input preparation that is repeatedly required at every nuclide on NJOY execution is greatly reduced by permitting the conversion process of as many nuclides as the user wants in one execution. A few MCNP runs were achieved for verification purpose by using two libraries FSXLIB-J3R2 and the output of autonj'. The almost identical MCNP results within the statistical errors show the 'autonj' output library is correct. In FY 1998, the system will be completed, and in FY 1999, the user's manual will be published. (K. Tsuchihashi)

  2. Development of GaN-based micro chemical sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kyung-ah; Prokopuk, Nicholas; George, Thomas; Moon, Jeong S.

    2005-01-01

    Sensors based on III-N technology are gaining significant interest due to their potential for monolithic integration of RF transceivers and light sources and the capability of high temperature operations. We are developing a GaN-based micro chemical sensor node for remote detection of chemical toxins, and present electrical responses of AlGaN/GaN HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor) sensors to chemical toxins as well as other common gases.

  3. Section 508 Electronic Information Accessibility Requirements for Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Section 508 Subpart B 1194.21 outlines requirements for operating system and software development in order to create a product that is accessible to users with various disabilities. This portion of Section 508 contains a variety of standards to enable those using assistive technology and with visual, hearing, cognitive and motor difficulties to access all information provided in software. The focus on requirements was limited to the Microsoft Windows® operating system as it is the predominant operating system used at this center. Compliance with this portion of the requirements can be obtained by integrating the requirements into the software development cycle early and by remediating issues in legacy software if possible. There are certain circumstances with software that may arise necessitating an exemption from these requirements, such as design or engineering software using dynamically changing graphics or numbers to convey information. These exceptions can be discussed with the Section 508 Coordinator and another method of accommodation used.

  4. Chemical Reactions: What Understanding Do Students with Blindness Develop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amy L. Micklos; Bodner, George M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the understanding of chemical equations developed by three students with blindness who were enrolled in the same secondary-school chemistry class. The students were interviewed while interpreting and balancing chemical equations. During the course of these interviews, the students produced diagrams using Braille symbols that…

  5. Do Thyroid Disrupting Chemicals Influence Foetal Development during Pregnancy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartoft-Nielsen, Marie-Louise; Boas, Malene; Bliddal, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    Maternal euthyroidism during pregnancy is crucial for normal development and, in particular, neurodevelopment of the foetus. Up to 3.5 percent of pregnant women suffer from hypothyroidism. Industrial use of various chemicals-endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs)-has been shown to cause almost...

  6. Chemical analysis developments for fusion materials studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.; Baldwin, D.L.; Keough, R.F.; Van der Cook, B.P.

    1985-04-01

    Several projects at Hanford under the management of the Westinghouse Hanford Company have involved research and development (R and D) on fusion materials. They include work on the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility and its associated Experimental Lithium System; testing of irradiated lithium compounds as breeding materials; and testing of Li and Li-Pb alloy reactions with various atmospheres, concrete, and other reactor materials for fusion safety studies. In the course of these projects, a number of interesting and challenging analytical chemistry problems were encountered. They include sampling and analysis of lithium while adding and removing elements of interest; sampling, assaying and compound identification efforts on filters, aerosol particles and fire residues; development of dissolution and analysis techniques for measuring tritium and helium in lithium ceramics including oxides, aluminates, silicates and zirconates. An overview of the analytical chemistry development problems plus equipment and procedures used will be presented

  7. 2008 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory 2008 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2009-10-01

    For reporting year 2008, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) submitted a Form R report for lead as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2008 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2008, as well as to provide background information about data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999, EPA promulgated a final rule on persistent bioaccumulative toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.

  8. Developing new chemical tools for solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, B.A.; Baes, C.F.; Burns, J.H.; Case, G.N.; Sachleben, R.A.; Bryan, S.A.; Lumetta, G.J.; McDowell, W.J.; Sachleben, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Prospects for innovation and for greater technological impact in the field of solvent extraction (SX) seem as bright as ever, despite the maturation of SX as an economically significant separation method and as an important technique in the laboratory. New industrial, environmental, and analytical problems provide compelling motivation for diversifying the application of SX, developing new solvent systems, and seeking improved properties. Toward this end, basic research must be dedicated to enhancing the tools of SX: physical tools for probing the basis of extraction and molecular tools for developing new SX chemistries. In this paper, the authors describe their progress in developing and applying the general tools of equilibrium analysis and of ion recognition in SX. Nearly half a century after the field of SX began in earnest, coordination chemistry continues to provide the impetus for important advancements in understanding SX systems and in controlling SX chemistry. In particular, the physical tools of equilibrium analysis, X-ray crystallography, and spectroscopy are elucidating the molecular basis of SX in unprecedented detail. Moreover, the principles of ion recognition are providing the molecular tools with which to achieve new selectivities and new applications

  9. Prediction of Chemical Function: Model Development and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Exposure Forecaster (ExpoCast) project is developing both statistical and mechanism-based computational models for predicting exposures to thousands of chemicals, including those in consumer products. The high-throughput (...

  10. Development of bioeffect sensor for environmental chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochitate, Katsumi; Furuyama, Akiko; Aoki, Yasunobu; Toyama, Chiharu

    1999-01-01

    This study aimed to reconstruct on an equivalent body with alveolus epithelium texture by combining alveolus epithelium cell and fibroblast taken out from lung easiest to suffer effect of air pollutants on an artificial membrane. And, development of a bioeffect sensor detectable precisely and in high sensitivity to damages of alveolus epithelium cell due to air pollutants by using RI and improved on its equivalent one, was investigated. Furthermore, it was already succeeded to develop a culture system capable of forming a characteristic base membrane on an epithelium texture by cocultivation of 2 type alveolus epithelium and lung fibroblast and diverging from 2 type alveolus epithelium cell with strong durability to air pollutants to 1 type cell with high sensitivity. In this study, it was examined to construct a culture system capable of forming 1 type alveolus epithelium texture only through 2 type cell, by advancing this result and by adding a glowing factor or an extracellular stroma to a culturing solution instead of lung fibroblast. (G.K.)

  11. Chemical aspects of nuclear fusion: New developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ache, H.J.; Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH

    1990-01-01

    Managing thermally controlled nuclear fusion will certainly be regarded one day as one of the most successful accomplishments in nuclear physics. At the same time, however, it will represent a technical achievement unparalleled in the history of science and engineering. This in turn would mean, in retrospect, that decisive contributions had to come from a number of disciplines as diverse as materials and engineering sciences and classical chemistry, and that the same collaboration will have to continue in the future in order to reach the ultimate goal, to construct a reactor capable of producing energy from almost inexhaustible source materials (fuels), such as deuterium and lithium. What is the chemist's role in this development. Similarly as in the development of fission reactors, i.e., the nuclear power plants currently in operation, chemists will have to ensure the existence of a reliable fuel cycle - starting from the availability, storage and reprocessing of the fuel through to the provision for safe storage of the waste. In this review article an attempt will be made to outline the problems associated with these tasks and the approaches to be made by the chemist in solving them. (orig.)

  12. Development of techniques for tagging precursor and essential chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swansiger, W.A.; Shepodd, T.J. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Phillips, M.L.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The ability to identify the manufacturers and distributors of chemicals seized in raids of illicit drug labs would be of great value in controlling the diversion of these chemicals. We developed a tagging scheme based on the addition of sub-ppM concentrations of various combinations of rare-earth elements to the target chemicals and evaluated a number of techniques for detecting the tags. We developed soluble tags for tagging liquids and selected Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) as the preferred detection technique. We developed insoluble tags for tagging solids and developed methods to analyze them and mix them into solid precursors. We have successfully demonstrated the tagging of several solvents and two of the precursor chemicals used in one of the most popular clandestine methamphetamine syntheses (ephedrine reacting with hydriodic acid/red phosphorus). The tagging scheme is capable of yielding tens of thousands of signatures (using holmium as an internal standard and up to 9 rare-earths at up to 3 concentrations yields 3{sup 9} {minus} 1 = 19,682 signatures) and is applicable to most of the chemicals on the precursor and essential chemicals list. In the concentrations employed, the tags are safe enough to be added to pharmaceuticals and cheap enough to tag tanker loads of chemicals.

  13. Development of chemical flocculant for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jang Jin; Shin, J. M.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, M. J.; Yang, M. S.; Park, H. S.

    2000-12-01

    Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' which were developed as coagulants for industrial wastewater treatment in the study showed far superior performance to the existing inorganic coagulants such as Alum and Iron salt(FeSO4) when compared to their wastewater treatment performance in color and COD removal. Besides, it was not frozen at -25 deg C ∼ -30 deg C. When reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' were used as coagulant for wastewater treatment, the proper dosage was ranged from 0.1% to 0.5%(v/v) and proper pH range was 10.5 ∼ 11.5 in the area of alkaline pH.Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' showed good performance with 95% or more removal of color-causing material and 60% or more removal of COD

  14. Development of chemical flocculant for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jang Jin; Shin, J. M.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, M. J.; Yang, M. S.; Park, H. S

    2000-12-01

    Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' which were developed as coagulants for industrial wastewater treatment in the study showed far superior performance to the existing inorganic coagulants such as Alum and Iron salt(FeSO4) when compared to their wastewater treatment performance in color and COD removal. Besides, it was not frozen at -25 deg C {approx} -30 deg C. When reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' were used as coagulant for wastewater treatment, the proper dosage was ranged from 0.1% to 0.5%(v/v) and proper pH range was 10.5 {approx} 11.5 in the area of alkaline pH.Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' showed good performance with 95% or more removal of color-causing material and 60% or more removal of COD.

  15. Development of a Persistent Chemical Agent Simulator System (PCASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcginness, W. G.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a persistent chemical agent simulation system (PCASS) is described. This PCASS is to be used for the military training of troops to simulate actual chemical warfare. The purpose of this system is to facilitate in the determination of chemical contamination and effectiveness of decontamination for training purposes. The fluorescent tracer employed has no daylight activation, but yet is easily removed with a decontaminate solution or water and surfactants. Also employed is a time delayed color developing system. When an individual is subjected to the PCASS and does not decontaminate adequately, red blotches or red coloration will develop as a function of time and temperature. The intent of this is to simulate the delayed chemical reaction of mustard contaminates.

  16. Chemical screening and development of novel gibberellin mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kai; Shimotakahara, Hiroaki; Luo, Ming; Otani, Masato; Nakamura, Hidemitsu; Moselhy, Said Salama; Abualnaja, Khalid Omer; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman Labeed; Kumosani, Taha Abduallah; Kitahata, Nobutaka; Nakano, Takeshi; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Asami, Tadao

    2017-08-15

    Gibberellin (GA) plays versatile roles in the regulation of plant growth and development and therefore is widely used as a regulator in agriculture. We performed a chemical library screening and identified a chemical, named 67D, as a stimulator of seed germination that was suppressed by paclobutrazol (PAC), a GA biosynthesis inhibitor. In vitro binding assays indicated that 67D binds to the GID1 receptor. Further studies on the structure-activity relationship identified a chemical, named chemical 6, that strongly promoted seed germination suppressed by PAC. Chemical 6 was further confirmed to promote the degradation of RGA (for repressor of ga1-3), a DELLA protein, and suppress the expression levels of GA3ox1 in the same manner as GA does. 67D and its analogs are supposed to be agonists of GID1 and are expected to be utilized in agriculture and basic research as an alternative to GA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Compendium of shock wave data. Section C. Organic compounds excluding hydrocarbons. Section D. Mixtures. Section E. Mixtures and solutions without chemical characterization. Compendium index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Thiel, M.; shaner, J.; Salinas, E.

    1977-06-01

    This volume lists thermodynamic data for organic compounds excluding hydrocarbons, mixtures, and mixtures and solutions without chemical characterization. Alloys and some minerals are included among the mixtures. This volume also contains the index for the three-volume compendium

  18. Developing Scientific Reasoning Through Drawing Cross-Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Cross-sections and 3D models of subsurface geology are typically based on incomplete information (whether surface geologic mapping, well logs, or geophysical data). Creating and evaluating those models requires spatial and quantitative thinking skills (including penetrative thinking, understanding of horizontality, mental rotation and animation, and scaling). However, evaluating the reasonableness of a cross-section or 3D structural model also requires consideration of multiple possible geometries and geologic histories. Teaching students to create good models requires application of the scientific methods of the geosciences (such as evaluation of multiple hypotheses and combining evidence from multiple techniques). Teaching these critical thinking skills, especially combined with teaching spatial thinking skills, is challenging. My Structural Geology and Advanced Structural Geology courses have taken two different approaches to developing both the abilities to visualize and to test multiple models. In the final project in Structural Geology (a 3rd year course with a pre-requisite sophomore mapping course), students create a viable cross-section across part of the Wyoming thrust belt by hand, based on a published 1:62,500 geologic map. The cross-section must meet a number of geometric criteria (such as the template constraint), but is not required to balance. Each student tries many potential geometries while trying to find a viable solution. In most cases, the students don't visualize the implications of the geometries that they try, but have to draw them and then erase their work if it does not meet the criteria for validity. The Advanced Structural Geology course used Midland Valley's Move suite to test the cross-sections that they made in Structural Geology, mostly using the flexural slip unfolding algorithm and testing whether the resulting line lengths balanced. In both exercises, students seemed more confident in the quality of their cross-sections when the

  19. Do Thyroid Disrupting Chemicals Influence Foetal Development during Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartoft-Nielsen, Marie-Louise; Boas, Malene; Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Åase Krogh; Main, Katharina; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Maternal euthyroidism during pregnancy is crucial for normal development and, in particular, neurodevelopment of the foetus. Up to 3.5 percent of pregnant women suffer from hypothyroidism. Industrial use of various chemicals—endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs)—has been shown to cause almost constant exposure of humans with possible harmful influence on health and hormone regulation. EDCs may affect thyroid hormone homeostasis by different mechanisms, and though the effect of each chemical seems scarce, the added effects may cause inappropriate consequences on, for example, foetal neurodevelopment. This paper focuses on thyroid hormone influence on foetal development in relation to the chemicals suspected of thyroid disrupting properties with possible interactions with maternal thyroid homeostasis. Knowledge of the effects is expected to impact the general debate on the use of these chemicals. However, more studies are needed to elucidate the issue, since human studies are scarce. PMID:21918727

  20. Thyroid-disrupting chemicals and brain development: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal B Mughal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This review covers recent findings on the main categories of thyroid hormone–disrupting chemicals and their effects on brain development. We draw mostly on epidemiological and experimental data published in the last decade. For each chemical class considered, we deal with not only the thyroid hormone–disrupting effects but also briefly mention the main mechanisms by which the same chemicals could modify estrogen and/or androgen signalling, thereby exacerbating adverse effects on endocrine-dependent developmental programmes. Further, we emphasize recent data showing how maternal thyroid hormone signalling during early pregnancy affects not only offspring IQ, but also neurodevelopmental disease risk. These recent findings add to established knowledge on the crucial importance of iodine and thyroid hormone for optimal brain development. We propose that prenatal exposure to mixtures of thyroid hormone–disrupting chemicals provides a plausible biological mechanism contributing to current increases in the incidence of neurodevelopmental disease and IQ loss.

  1. Coal chemical industry and its sustainable development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Kechang; Li, Wenying; Zhao, Wei

    2010-01-01

    China is rich in coal resource, which is vital for energy security in this country. In early 21st century, the coal chemical industry in China will be oriented to the development of high efficiency, safety, cleanliness, and optimum utilization. In this review, the authors present an introduction to the utilization status of primary energy production and consumption in China. Since 2005, fundamental research studies, supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Chinese National Basic Research Program, have been carried out at Taiyuan University of Technology. The Ministry stresses that the new coal chemical industry should be developed in a sustainable manner to realize effective utilization of energy. Moreover, upgrading the high technology to improve actively the recycling processes of coal chemical engineering is of strategic importance to realize the modern coal chemical engineering.

  2. Do Thyroid Disrupting Chemicals Influence Foetal Development during Pregnancy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartoft-Nielsen, Marie-Louise; Boas, Malene; Bliddal, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    Maternal euthyroidism during pregnancy is crucial for normal development and, in particular, neurodevelopment of the foetus. Up to 3.5 percent of pregnant women suffer from hypothyroidism. Industrial use of various chemicals-endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs)-has been shown to cause almost...... constant exposure of humans with possible harmful influence on health and hormone regulation. EDCs may affect thyroid hormone homeostasis by different mechanisms, and though the effect of each chemical seems scarce, the added effects may cause inappropriate consequences on, for example, foetal...

  3. Development of chemical process for synthesis of polyunsaturated esters

    OpenAIRE

    Vera LÃcia Viana do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed to develop refining processes, chemical alcoholysis followed by separation of fatty acids using the complexation with urea technique for the synthesis of poly-unsaturated esters from waste of fish oils. The special crude fish oil was purchased from Company Campestre - SÃo Paulo. Initially this oil has undergone a process of physical and chemical refining. From the refined oil, an alcoholysis process was carried out to obtain the mixture of free fatty acids. From the hydrolyzed...

  4. Development of Thin Section Zinc Die Casting Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, Frank [International Lead Zinc Research Org., Inc., Durham, NC (United States)

    2013-10-31

    A new high fluidity zinc high pressure die casting alloy, termed the HF alloy, was developed during laboratory trials and proven in industrial production. The HF alloy permits castings to be achieved with section thicknesses of 0.3 mm or less. Technology transfer activities were conducted to develop usage of the HF high fluidity alloy. These included production of a brochure and a one-hour webinar on the HF alloy. The brochure was then sent to 1,184 product designers in the Interzinc database. There was excellent reception to this mailing, and from this initial contact 5 technology transfer seminars were conducted for 81 participants from 30 companies across a wide range of business sectors. Many of the successful applications to date involve high quality surface finishes. Design and manufacturing assistance was given for development of selected applications.

  5. Development of high power chemical oxygen lodine laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, C. M.; Kim, M. S.; Baik, S. H.; Kwon, S. O.; Park, S. K.; Kim, T. S

    2001-10-01

    This project is directed to construct 10kW Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL) for decommissioning of old nuclear facilities, and to get the key technology that can be used for the development of high energy laser weapon. COIL is possible up to MW class in proportion to the amount of chemical reaction. For this reason, high energy laser weapon including Airborne Laser (ABL) and Airborne Tactical Laser (ATL) has been developed as a military use in USA. Recently, many research group have been doing a development study of COIL for nuclear and industrial use in material processing such as cutting and decommissioning by combining laser beam delivery through optical fiber. The Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser of 6 kW output power has been developed in this project. The main technologies of chemical reaction and supersonic fluid control were developed. This technology can be applied for construction of 10 kW laser system. This laser can be used for old nuclear facilities and heavy industry by combining laser beam delivery through optical fiber. The development of High Energy Laser (HEL) weapon is necessary as a military use, and we conclude that Airborne Tactical Laser should be developed in our country.

  6. 1992 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory: Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know-Act of 1986 Section 313

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA) requires the annual submittal of toxic chemical release information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The following document is the July 1993 submittal of the EPCRA Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R). Included is a Form R for chlorine and for lead, the two chemicals used in excess of the established regulatory thresholds at the Hanford Site by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and its contractors during calendar year 1992

  7. Green Toxicology: a strategy for sustainable chemical and material development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Sarah E; Hartung, Thomas; Hollert, Henner; Mathes, Björn; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Studer, Christoph; Krug, Harald F

    2017-01-01

    Green Toxicology refers to the application of predictive toxicology in the sustainable development and production of new less harmful materials and chemicals, subsequently reducing waste and exposure. Built upon the foundation of "Green Chemistry" and "Green Engineering", "Green Toxicology" aims to shape future manufacturing processes and safe synthesis of chemicals in terms of environmental and human health impacts. Being an integral part of Green Chemistry, the principles of Green Toxicology amplify the role of health-related aspects for the benefit of consumers and the environment, in addition to being economical for manufacturing companies. Due to the costly development and preparation of new materials and chemicals for market entry, it is no longer practical to ignore the safety and environmental status of new products during product development stages. However, this is only possible if toxicologists and chemists work together early on in the development of materials and chemicals to utilize safe design strategies and innovative in vitro and in silico tools. This paper discusses some of the most relevant aspects, advances and limitations of the emergence of Green Toxicology from the perspective of different industry and research groups. The integration of new testing methods and strategies in product development, testing and regulation stages are presented with examples of the application of in silico, omics and in vitro methods. Other tools for Green Toxicology, including the reduction of animal testing, alternative test methods, and read-across approaches are also discussed.

  8. Development of Chemical Technology in Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Kwang Yong; Kim, W. H.; Kim, J. S.

    2007-06-01

    This project mainly concentrates on the development of technologies related to elemental analysis for the mass balance of pyro-chemical process, on the development of in-line measurement system for high temperature molten salt, and on the development of radiation shielded LA-ICP-MS and micro-XRD system to evaluate the integrity of nuclear fuel. Chemical analysis methods for the quantitative determination of fissile elements, minor actinide elements, fission products, chemical additive and corrosion products in Uranium Metal Ingots are established. It will be applied to the evaluation of mass balance in electrolytic reduction process for the optimization of the process. Optical fiber based UV-VIS spectrophotometer combined with reaction cell was developed for the measurement of reactions in high temperature molten salt. This system is applicable to in-line monitoring of electro-refining process and contribute to clarify the chemical reactions. Radiation shielded LA-ICP-MS and micro-XRD systems are planned to be used for the analysis of isotopic distribution and structural changes from core to rim of spent nuclear fuel pellet, respectively. The developed techniques can contribute to produce database needed for authorization and practical use of ultra high burn-up fuel. In addition, it can be applicable to the other industries such as microelectronics, nano material science and semiconductor to analyze micro region

  9. Developing chemical information system; Henbosuru kagaku joho -intanetto no sekai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chihara, H.

    1999-12-01

    With the internet's popularization, the chemical information system greatly changes. In this paper, recent development of a chemical information system using the internet is summarized. To begin with, the kinds of online information systems using WWW and how to use them are described. Next, features of the electronic journals and how to use them are described. Next, CAS and STN as internet editions of the secondary information are introduced. Next, the Scifinder and the SciFinder Scholar which CAS developed as information retrieval tools for researcher are explained well. Next, ISI and DIALOG are introduced as information retrieval services of the other web editions. Finally, realization of retrieval and display of the English database by Japanese and preparation of a fact database such as density, boiling point, spectra, etc. and the offer of them by the internet are mentioned as a future image of chemical information systems. (NEDO)

  10. Chemical Fingerprinting of Materials Developed Due To Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Doris A.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on chemical fingerprinting of materials developed due to environmental issues. Some of the topics include: 1) Aerospace Materials; 2) Building Blocks of Capabilities; 3) Spectroscopic Techniques; 4) Chromatographic Techniques; 5) Factors that Determine Fingerprinting Approach; and 6) Fingerprinting: Combination of instrumental analysis methods that diagnostically characterize a material.

  11. Development of radar cross section analysis system of naval ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kookhyun Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A software system for a complex object scattering analysis, named SYSCOS, has been developed for a systematic radar cross section (RCS analysis and reduction design. The system is based on the high frequency analysis methods of physical optics, geometrical optics, and physical theory of diffraction, which are suitable for RCS analysis of electromagnetically large and complex targets as like naval ships. In addition, a direct scattering center analysis function has been included, which gives relatively simple and intuitive way to discriminate problem areas in design stage when comparing with conventional image-based approaches. In this paper, the theoretical background and the organization of the SYSCOS system are presented. To verify its accuracy and to demonstrate its applicability, numerical analyses for a square plate, a sphere and a cylinder, a weapon system and a virtual naval ship have been carried out, of which results have been compared with analytic solutions and those obtained by the other existing software.

  12. IMS software developments for the detection of chemical warfare agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepel, ST.; Graefenhain, U.; Lippe, R.; Stach, J.; Starrock, V.

    1995-01-01

    Interference compounds like gasoline, diesel, burning wood or fuel, etc. are presented in common battlefield situations. These compounds can cause detectors to respond as a false positive or interfere with the detector's ability to respond to target compounds such as chemical warfare agents. To ensure proper response of the ion mobility spectrometer to chemical warfare agents, two special software packages were developed and incorporated into the Bruker RAID-1. The programs suppress interferring signals caused by car exhaust or smoke gases resulting from burning materials and correct the influence of variable sample gas humidity which is important for detection and quantification of blister agents like mustard gas or lewisite.

  13. Do indoor chemicals promote development of airway allergy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G D; Larsen, S T; Olsen, O

    2007-01-01

    in animal studies and allergy-promoting effects in humans. Quaternary ammonium compounds may possess adjuvant effects in animal studies and promoted sensitization in humans in occupational settings. The use of cleaning agents, anionic and non-ionic surfactants are not considered to possess an important...... products, the important question may be would it be profitable to look for lifestyle factors and non-chemical indoor exposures in order to abate airway allergy? PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Indoor chemicals (pollutants) have been accused to promote development of airway allergy by adjuvant effects......Allergic asthma has increased worldwide in the industrialized countries. This review evaluates whether the major groups of indoor chemical exposures possess allergy-promoting (adjuvant) effects; formaldehyde was excluded, because of the size of the literature. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs...

  14. Chemical water shutoff profile research status and development trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L. T.

    2017-08-01

    Excess water production is now a common problem encountered in almost every water flooding mature oilfield. The exploitation of oil field is faced with great challenge because of the decrease of oil field production. For the development of high water cut rare the status quo chemical water shutoff profile control technology is an important solution to solve this problem. Oilfield chemical water shutoff has important application prospects. This paper analyzes the water shutoff profile control and water shutoff profile control agent currently oilfield applications, moreover the use and development of blocking agent profile technology is to improve reservoir recovery and propose solutions. With the constant increase in water cut, profile technology should be simple, efficient, practical and profile control agent of development should be economic, environmental, and long period

  15. Advancements in Development of Chemical-Looping Combustion: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Fang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical-looping combustion (CLC is a novel combustion technology with inherent separation of greenhouse CO2. Extensive research has been performed on CLC in the last decade with respect to oxygen carrier development, reaction kinetics, reactor design, system efficiencies, and prototype testing. Transition metal oxides, such as Ni, Fe, Cu, and Mn oxides, were reported as reactive species in the oxygen carrier particles. Ni-based oxygen carriers exhibited the best reactivity and stability during multiredox cycles. The performance of the oxygen carriers can be improved by changing preparation method or by making mixedoxides. The CLC has been demonstrated successfully in continuously operated prototype reactors based on interconnected fluidized-bed system in the size range of 0.3–50 kW. High fuel conversion rates and almost 100%  CO2 capture efficiencies were obtained. The CLC system with two interconnected fluidized-bed reactors was considered the most suitable reactor design. Development of oxygen carriers with excellent reactivity and stability is still one of the challenges for CLC in the near future. Experiences of building and operating the large-scale CLC systems are needed before this technology is used commercially. Chemical-looping reforming (CLR and chemical-looping hydrogen (CLH are novel chemical-looping techniques to produce synthesis gas and hydrogen deserving more attention and research.

  16. Heat and mass transfer in turbulent chemically nonequilibrium flow in the tube with boundary second kind conditions. The section with the stabilized heat and mass transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritsuk, E.L.; Mishina, L.V.; Shegidevich, L.N.

    1986-01-01

    The hydrodynamically stabilized chemically nonequilibrium turbulent flow in a tube with the inert impermeable surface and constant specific heat flow on the wall is considered. The reversible homogeneous reaction of nitrogen dioxide dissociation 2NO 2 ↔ 2NO+O 2 takes place in the flow. Chemically equilibrium flow with homogeneous profile of temperature and concentration arrives into the channel inlet. After application of simplifying assumptions, the expressions for characteristics of heat and mass transfer have been written down, which are valid in the whole range of the flow parameter variation from frozen up to chemically equilibrium flow. An integral transformation method is suggested for a radial coordinate which allows a wall region to be extended, thereby essentially extending the step of integration. A solution in quadratures has been obtained for the heat and mass transfer problem in an inert fluid flow for the developed process section. The elimination method has been employed to solve the boundary-value second-kind problem for the function governing heat and mass transfer in a chemically nonequilibrium turbulent flow over the developed heat and mass transfer section. The results of calculations are presented

  17. New Chemical Information Bulletin: Exemptions for Research and Development and Test Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has received numerous questions about the scope of the exemption for R&D, under TSCA section 5(h)(3). This New Chemical Information Bulletin provides more specific guidance to manufacturers and processors of new chemical substances.

  18. Development of Improved Chemicals and Plastics from Oilseeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, Patricia A.; Lysenko, Zenon

    2006-11-09

    The overall objective of this program was to develop technology that can be applied to the production of various chemicals and plastics from seed oils. This research and development program included activities in all four key barrier areas identified in the US DOE Technology Roadmap for Plant/Crop-Based Renewable Resources, namely Plant Science, Production, Processing, and Utilization. Participants in the project included The Dow Chemical Company, Castor Oil, Inc., and the USDA Western Regional Research Center (WRRC). The objective of this production task was to evaluate and develop metathesis catalyst technology as a means of utilizing seed oils as feedstocks for the chemical industry. Specifically, ethenolysis of fatty acid methyl esters, FAME’s, leads to functionalized derivatives. These serve as valuable starting points for materials which cascade into a variety of applications, many of which have a current market presence. The relatively recent discovery and commercial availability of a family of metathesis catalysts which are tolerant of polar functional groups and the acquisition and implementation of high throughput synthesis and screening infrastructure led to a prime opportunity to investigate this project area.

  19. Content Model Use and Development to Redeem Thin Section Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) is a catalog of documents and datasets that provide information about geothermal resources located primarily within the United States. The goal of NGDS is to make large quantities of geothermal-relevant geoscience data available to the public by creating a national, sustainable, distributed, and interoperable network of data providers. The Geological Survey of Alabama (GSA) has been a data provider in the initial phase of NGDS. One method by which NGDS facilitates interoperability is through the use of content models. Content models provide a schema (structure) for submitted data. Schemas dictate where and how data should be entered. Content models use templates that simplify data formatting to expedite use by data providers. These methodologies implemented by NGDS can extend beyond geothermal data to all geoscience data. The GSA, using the NGDS physical samples content model, has tested and refined a content model for thin sections and thin section photos. Countless thin sections have been taken from oil and gas well cores housed at the GSA, and many of those thin sections have related photomicrographs. Record keeping for these thin sections has been scattered at best, and it is critical to capture their metadata while the content creators are still available. A next step will be to register the GSA's thin sections with SESAR (System for Earth Sample Registration) and assign an IGSN (International Geo Sample Number) to each thin section. Additionally, the thin section records will be linked to the GSA's online record database. When complete, the GSA's thin sections will be more readily discoverable and have greater interoperability. Moving forward, the GSA is implementing use of NGDS-like content models and registration with SESAR and IGSN to improve collection maintenance and management of additional physical samples.

  20. 1997 toxic chemical release inventory. Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, Section 313

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaloudek, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Two listed toxic chemicals were used at the Hanford Site above established activity thresholds: phosphoric acid and chlorine. Because total combined quantities of chlorine released, disposed, treated, recovered through recycle operations, co-combusted for energy recovery, and transferred to off-site locations for the purpose of recycle, energy recovery, treatment, and/or disposal, amounted to less than 500 pounds, the Hanford Site qualified for the alternate one million pound threshold for chlorine. Accordingly, this Toxic Chemical Release Inventory includes a Form A for chlorine, and a Form B for phosphoric acid

  1. 1995 Toxic chemical release inventory: Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Section 313

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincey, S.L.

    1996-08-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act (EPCRA) requires the annual submittal of toxic chemical release information to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.Executive Order 12856, 'Federal Compliance With Right-to-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements' extends the requirements of EPCRA to all Federal agencies. The following document is the August 1996 submittal of the Hanford Site Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report. Included is a Form R for ethylene glycol, the sole chemical used in excess of the established regulatory thresholds at the Hanford Site by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and its contractors during Calendar Year 1995

  2. Design and development workshop interior design and furniture section

    OpenAIRE

    Fadhel saif bushehri

    2016-01-01

    International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of Computer Science, Neural Networks, Electrical Engineering, Software Engineering, Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Plastic Engineering, Food Technology, Textile Engineering, Nano Technology & science, Power Electronics, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Computa...

  3. Upper Secondary French Students, Chemical Transformations and the "Register of Models": A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokelez, Aytekin; Dumon, Alain; Taber, Keith S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify how upper secondary school French students (Grade 10-12) interpret chemical transformation with regards to the changes within molecules and atoms, and in terms of intramolecular and/or intermolecular bond breaking. In order to identify and describe the students' assimilated knowledge, four questions were…

  4. 77 FR 15609 - Revocation of TSCA Section 4 Testing Requirements for Certain High Production Volume Chemical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... substitute language for your requested changes. iv. Describe any assumptions and provide any technical... boiling point listed for that chemical substance in the ``Handbook of Chemistry and Physics'' (Ref. 21...-0182). 21. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 85th Edition. David R. Lide, ed., CRC Press. Boca...

  5. Automated Physico-Chemical Cell Model Development through Information Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Ortoleva

    2005-11-29

    The objective of this project was to develop predictive models of the chemical responses of microbial cells to variations in their surroundings. The application of these models is optimization of environmental remediation and energy-producing biotechnical processes.The principles on which our project is based are as follows: chemical thermodynamics and kinetics; automation of calibration through information theory; integration of multiplex data (e.g. cDNA microarrays, NMR, proteomics), cell modeling, and bifurcation theory to overcome cellular complexity; and the use of multiplex data and information theory to calibrate and run an incomplete model. In this report we review four papers summarizing key findings and a web-enabled, multiple module workflow we have implemented that consists of a set of interoperable systems biology computational modules.

  6. Development of chemical technology in nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Ho; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. G.

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this study are to develop the technology for both chemical analysis of fissile materials and fission products and chemical characterization in dry process, and also to compose LA/ICP-MS and micro-XRD systems. Chemical techniques for quantitative analysis of Cs, Tc, Np, Am, Cm in LiCl molten salts and Am, Cm, Tc, 3 H, 14 C in oxidized PWR spent fuel powders were developed for the evaluation of its material balance in the dry process. In particular, the rate of uranium oxide reduction was measured by the determination of concentrations of lithium metal and lithium oxide in LiCl molten salts. The solubility data of the reactants in LiCl molten salt were acquired, the oxide ion selective electrode to determine the oxide contents in the medium being fabricated, and a chronoamperometric technique applicable to in-line and real time monitoring of lithium metal reduction process was developed. On the other side, the electrochemical reduction of uranium oxides was studied, which has contributed to better understand the reduction behavior and thus lead to modify processes involved. Laser ablation ICP-MS system was developed by coupling laser ablation system with ICP-MS system, which was supposed to measure the isotope distribution from core to rim of irradiated fuel. The micro-XRD was developed with a micro beam, two hundreds times as narrow as conventional XRD, to measure structural changes of solid samples by 50μm interval in the radial direction. The performance of the two systems developed was confirmed by means of the examinations on precision, spatial resolution, and reproducibility. The development of LA/ICP-MS and micro-XRD system led to an establishment of techniques for the evaluation of its long-term integrity of high burn-up spent nuclear fuel and these techniques will be applied to the development of new nuclear fuels. Especially, the micro-XRD system will be useful to develop new materials and to control the quality in the various industrial

  7. Development of ASME Code Section 11 visual examination requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    Section XI of the American Society for Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code) defines three types of nondestructive examinations, visual, surface, and volumetric. Visual examination is important since it is the primary examination method for many safety-related components and systems and is also used as a backup examination for the components and systems which receive surface or volumetric examinations. Recent activity in the Section XI Code organization to improve the rules for visual examinations is reviewed and the technical basis for the new rules, which cover illumination, vision acuity, and performance demonstration, is explained

  8. Recent Developments in Chemical Synthesis with Biocatalysts in Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh K. Potdar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, a variety of ionic liquids have emerged as greener solvents for use in the chemical manufacturing industries. Their unique properties have attracted the interest of chemists worldwide to employ them as replacement for conventional solvents in a diverse range of chemical transformations including biotransformations. Biocatalysts are often regarded as green catalysts compared to conventional chemical catalysts in organic synthesis owing to their properties of low toxicity, biodegradability, excellent selectivity and good catalytic performance under mild reaction conditions. Similarly, a selected number of specific ionic liquids can be considered as greener solvents superior to organic solvents owing to their negligible vapor pressure, low flammability, low toxicity and ability to dissolve a wide range of organic and biological substances, including proteins. A combination of biocatalysts and ionic liquids thus appears to be a logical and promising opportunity for industrial use as an alternative to conventional organic chemistry processes employing organic solvents. This article provides an overview of recent developments in this field with special emphasis on the application of more sustainable enzyme-catalyzed reactions and separation processes employing ionic liquids, driven by advances in fundamental knowledge, process optimization and industrial deployment.

  9. The Application of Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Evans, Laura J.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been developing miniature chemical sensors for a variety of applications including fire detection, emissions monitoring, fuel leak detection, and environmental monitoring. Smart Lick and Stick sensor technology which integrates a sensor array, electronics, telemetry, and power into one microsystem are being developed. These microsystems require low power consumption for long-term aerospace applications. One approach to decreasing power consumption is the use of nanotechnology. Nanocrystalline tin oxide (SnO2) carbon monoxide (CO) sensors developed previously by this group have been successfully used for fire detection and emissions monitoring. This presentation will briefly review the overall NASA GRC chemical sensor program and discuss our further effort in nanotechnology applications. New carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing material using doped nanocrystalline SnO2 will be discussed. Nanocrystalline SnO2 coated solid electrolyte CO2 sensors and SnO2 nanorod and nanofiber hydrogen (H2) sensors operated at reduced or room temperatures will also be discussed.

  10. Development and new applications of quantum chemical simulation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A. K. H.

    2012-01-01

    The Division of Theoretical Chemistry at the University of Innsbruck is focused on the study of chemical compounds in aqueous solution, in terms of mainly hybrid quantum mechanical / molecular mechanical molecular dynamics simulations (QM/MM MD). Besides the standard means of data analysis employed for such simulations, this study presents several advanced and capable algorithms for the description of structural and dynamic properties of the simulated species and its hydration. The first part of this thesis further presents selected exemplary simulations, in particular a comparative study of Formamide and N-methylformamide, Guanidinium, and Urea. An included review article further summarizes the major advances of these studies. The computer programs developed in the course of this thesis are by now well established in the research field. The second part of this study presents the theory and a development guide for a quantum chemical program, QuMuLuS, that is by now used as a QM program for recent QM/MM simulations at the division. In its course, this part presents newly developed algorithms for electron integral evaluation and point charge embedding. This program is validated in terms of benchmark computations. The associated theory is presented on a detailed level, to serve as a source for contemporary and future studies in the division. In the third and final part, further investigations of related topics are addressed. This covers additional schemes of molecular simulation analysis, new software, as well as a mathematical investigation of a non-standard two-electron integral. (author)

  11. An integrated biotechnology platform for developing sustainable chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Nelson R; Burgard, Anthony P; Burk, Mark J; Crater, Jason S; Osterhout, Robin E; Pharkya, Priti; Steer, Brian A; Sun, Jun; Trawick, John D; Van Dien, Stephen J; Yang, Tae Hoon; Yim, Harry

    2015-03-01

    Genomatica has established an integrated computational/experimental metabolic engineering platform to design, create, and optimize novel high performance organisms and bioprocesses. Here we present our platform and its use to develop E. coli strains for production of the industrial chemical 1,4-butanediol (BDO) from sugars. A series of examples are given to demonstrate how a rational approach to strain engineering, including carefully designed diagnostic experiments, provided critical insights about pathway bottlenecks, byproducts, expression balancing, and commercial robustness, leading to a superior BDO production strain and process.

  12. Development of a hybrid chemical/mechanical heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzyll, Lawrence R.; Silvestri, John J.; Scaringe, Robert P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present the current development status of a hybrid chemical/mechanical heat pump for low-lift applications. The heat pump provides electronics cooling by evaporating a pure refrigerant from an absorbent/refrigerant mixture in a generator/cold plate. The current development focused on evaluation of absorbent/refrigerant pairs, corrosion testing, pump and compressor design, and electronic cold plate design. Two cycle configurations were considered. The first configuration utilized a standard mechanical compressor and pump. The second cycle configuration investigated pumps and compressors with non-moving parts. An innovative generator/cold plate design is also presented. The development to date shows that this cycle has about the same performance as standard vapor compression heat pumps with standard refrigerants but may have some performance and reliability advantages over vapor compression heat pumps.

  13. Microbiological, chemical and physical quality of drinking water for commercial turkeys: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, G; Piccirillo, A; Giacomelli, M; Comin, D; Gallina, A; Capello, K; Buniolo, F; Montesissa, C; Bonfanti, L

    2018-04-17

    Drinking water for poultry is not subject to particular microbiological, chemical and physical requirements, thereby representing a potential transmission route for pathogenic microorganisms and contaminants and/or becoming unsuitable for water-administered medications. This study assessed the microbiological, chemical and physical drinking water quality of 28 turkey farms in North-Eastern Italy: 14 supplied with tap water (TW) and 14 with well water (WW). Water salinity, hardness, pH, ammonia, sulphate, phosphate, nitrate, chromium, copper and iron levels were also assessed. Moreover, total bacterial count at 22°C, presence and enumeration of Enterococcus spp. and E. coli, presence of Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. were quantified. A water sample was collected in winter and in summer at 3 sampling sites: the water source (A), the beginning (B) and the end (C) of the nipple line (168 samples in total). Chemical and physical quality of both TW and WW sources was mostly within the limits of TW for humans. However, high levels of hardness and iron were evidenced in both sources. In WW vs. TW, sulphate and salinity levels were significantly higher, whilst pH and nitrate levels were significantly lower. At site A, microbiological quality of WW and TW was mostly within the limit of TW for humans. However, both sources had a significantly lower microbiological quality at sites B and C. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Kentucky was isolated only twice from WW. Campylobacter spp. were rarely isolated (3.6% of farms); however, Campylobacter spp. farm-level prevalence by real-time PCR was up to 43% for both water sources. Winter posed at higher risk than summer for Campylobacter spp. presence in water, whereas no significant associations were found with water source, site, recirculation system, and turkey age. Low salinity and high hardness were significant risk factors for C. coli and C. jejuni presence, respectively. These results show the need of

  14. Chemical and biological comparison of different sections of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Gou-Teng).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Gang; Geng, Chang-An; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Xing-Long; Ma, Yun-Bao; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Chen, Ji-Jun

    2017-02-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla (Gou-Teng in Chinese) is officially documented in Chinese pharmacopoeia as one of the authentic sources for the crude drug of Gou-Teng which has long been used for mental and cardiovascular diseases. Indole alkaloids are the characteristic constituents responsible for the desired hypotensive effect; however, the psychiatric active constituents of Gou-Teng are still unclear. According to traditional Chinese medicine theory, only the hook-bearing stems of U. rhynchophylla are used as the crude materials for Gou-Teng, while its leaves and fruits are scarcely used. The present study aimed to compare the metabolic fingerprints of different parts (hooks, stems, leaves and fruits) of U. rhynchophylla by LC-DAD-MS/MS analysis and further evaluate their psychiatric activities on HEK293 cell line in vitro. A total of 38 constituents including 26 alkaloids, six flavonoids, two triterpenoids, two chlorogenic acid analogs and two other compounds were characterized. The different parts of U. rhynchophylla can be well differentiated from their chemical profiles. Leaves displayed the most potent activity on both MT 1 and MT 2 receptors, with agonistic rates of 39.7% and 97.6%. For 5-HT 1A and 5-HT 2C receptors, hooks showed the strongest activity with agonistic rates of 92.6% and 83.1%, respectively. This investigation provided valuable information for understanding the chemical divergence between different parts of U. rhynchophylla, and their substantial bases for psychiatric purposes.

  15. Development of clean chemical mechanical polishing systems; Clean CMP system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, M.; Hosokawa, M. [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    Described herein are clean chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) systems developed by Ebara. A CMP system needs advanced peripheral techniques, in addition to those for grinding adopted by the conventional system, in order to fully exhibit its inherent functions. An integrated design concept is essential for the CMP steps, including slurry supplying, polishing, washing, process controlling and waste fluid treatment. The Ebara has adopted a standard concept `Clean CMP, dry-in and dry-out of wafers,` and provided world`s highest grades of techniques for inter-layer insulating film, shallow trench isolation, plug and wiring. The head for the polishing module is specially designed by FEM, to improve homogeneity of wafers from the center to edges. The dresser is also specially designed, to improve pad surface topolody after dressing. A slurry dipsersing method is developed to reduce slurry consumption. Various washing modules, designed to have the same external shape, can be allocated to various functions. 10 figs.

  16. Development of a global aerosol model using a two-dimensional sectional method: 1. Model design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, H.

    2017-08-01

    This study develops an aerosol module, the Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation version 2 (ATRAS2), and implements the module into a global climate model, Community Atmosphere Model. The ATRAS2 module uses a two-dimensional (2-D) sectional representation with 12 size bins for particles from 1 nm to 10 μm in dry diameter and 8 black carbon (BC) mixing state bins. The module can explicitly calculate the enhancement of absorption and cloud condensation nuclei activity of BC-containing particles by aging processes. The ATRAS2 module is an extension of a 2-D sectional aerosol module ATRAS used in our previous studies within a framework of a regional three-dimensional model. Compared with ATRAS, the computational cost of the aerosol module is reduced by more than a factor of 10 by simplifying the treatment of aerosol processes and 2-D sectional representation, while maintaining good accuracy of aerosol parameters in the simulations. Aerosol processes are simplified for condensation of sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate, organic aerosol formation, coagulation, and new particle formation processes, and box model simulations show that these simplifications do not substantially change the predicted aerosol number and mass concentrations and their mixing states. The 2-D sectional representation is simplified (the number of advected species is reduced) primarily by the treatment of chemical compositions using two interactive bin representations. The simplifications do not change the accuracy of global aerosol simulations. In part 2, comparisons with measurements and the results focused on aerosol processes such as BC aging processes are shown.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2003-05-31

    This Final Report for Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-95PC93052, the ''Development of Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas,'' was prepared by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products), and covers activities from 29 December 1994 through 31 July 2002. The overall objectives of this program were to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture primarily of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO), to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at the LaPorte, Texas Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). Laboratory work was performed by Air Products and a variety of subcontractors, and focused on the study of the kinetics of production of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, the production of DME using the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) Process, the conversion of DME to fuels and chemicals, and the production of other higher value products from syngas. Four operating campaigns were performed at the AFDU during the performance period. Tests of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process and the LPDME{trademark} Process were made to confirm results from the laboratory program and to allow for the study of the hydrodynamics of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) at a significant engineering scale. Two campaigns demonstrated the conversion of syngas to hydrocarbon products via the slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. Other topics that were studied within this program include the economics of production of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), the identification of trace components in coal-derived syngas and the means to economically remove these species, and the study of systems for separation of wax from catalyst in the F-T process. The work performed under this Cooperative Agreement has continued to promote the development of technologies that use clean syngas produced

  18. Aum Shinrikyo’s Nuclear and Chemical Weapons Development Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A. Nehorayoff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article details the terrorist activities of the Japanese cult, Aum Shinrikyo, from the perspective of its complex engineering efforts aimed at producing nuclear and chemical weapons. The experience of this millenarian organization illustrates that even violent non-state actors with considerable wealth and resources at their disposal face numerous obstacles to realizing their destructive aspirations. Specifically, Aum’s attempts at complex engineering were stymied by a combination of unchecked fantastical thinking, self-imposed ideological constraints, and a capricious leadership. The chapter highlights each of these mechanisms, as well as the specific ways in which they constrained the decision-making process and the implementation of the complex engineering tasks associated with their unconventional weapons development.

  19. Screening of Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activity of Section Brevifilamentum of Origanum (L. Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasibe Yılmaz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Six Origanum species, Origanum acutidens (Hand. -Mazz. Ietsw. (OA, Origanum brevidens (Bornm. Dinsm. (OB, Origanum haussknechtii Boiss. (OC, Origanum husnucan-baseri H.Duman, Aytaç & A.Duran (OHB, Origanum leptocladum Boiss. (OL, Origanum rotundifolium Boiss. (OR, belonging to sect. Brevifilamentum were analyzed for their essential oil and phenolic components. For the essential oil analyses, GC-MS and GC-FID were used. Phenolic contents of the aerial parts of the chloroform, acetone, and methanol extracts were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Antioxidant activity of the species was investigated by three methods; DPPH free radical scavenging activity, β-carotene linoleic acid assays and CUPRAC assays. Also, acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition of the extracts were investigated. While the essential oil contents of the section Brevifilamentum showed difference in chemotype, the phenolic contents were found to be coumaric acids and derivatives. These groups were the most abundant components of the extracts. Especially rosmarinic acid was detected in high amounts in acetone and methanol extracts. OA had the best activity both in antioxidant and anticholinesterase assays.

  20. Impact of psychological problems in chemical warfare survivors with severe ophthalmologic complication, a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, Gholamhosein; Ghasemi, Hassan; Mousavi, Batool; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Rahnama, Parvin; Jafari, Farhad; Afshin-Majd, Siamak; Sadeghi Naeeni, Maryam; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi

    2012-04-12

    Sulfur mustard (SM) has been used as a chemical warfare agent since the early twentieth century. Despite the large number of studies that have investigated SM induced ocular injuries, few of those studies have also focused on the psychological health status of victims. This study has evaluated the most prominent influences on the psychological health status of patients with severe SM induced ocular injuries. This descriptive study was conducted on 149 Iranian war veterans with severe SM induced eye injuries. The psychological health status of all patients was assessed using the Iranian standardized Symptom Check List 90-Revised (SCL90-R) questionnaire. The results of patients' Global Severity Index (GSI) were compared with the optimal cut-off point of 0.4 that has previously been calculated for GSI in Iranian community. The Mann-Whitney U test, T tests and effect sizes (using Cohen's d) were employed as statistical methods. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. The mean age of patients was 44.86 (SD=8.7) and mean duration of disease was 21.58 (SD=1.20) years. Rate of exposure was once in 99 (66.4%) cases. The mean GSI (1.46) of the study group was higher compared to standardized cut off point (0.4) of the Iranian community. The results of this study showed that the mean of total GSI score was higher in participants with lower educational levels (effect size=0.507), unemployment (effect size=0.464) and having more than 3 children (effect size=0.62). Among the participants, 87 (58.4%) cases had a positive psychological history for hospitalization or receiving outpatient cares previously and 62 (41.6%) cases had a negative psychological history. In addition, the mean of GSI in participants with negative psychological history was lower than those with positive psychological history (Mean Change Difference=-0.621 with SD=0.120). There was a significant difference between positive and negative psychological history with respect to GSI (Pchemical survivors are

  1. Laminar dispersion in parallel plate sections of flowing systems used in analytical chemistry and chemical engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolev, S.D.; Kolev, Spas D.; van der Linden, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    An exact solution of the convective-diffusion equation for fully developed parallel plate laminar flow was obtained. It allows the derivation of theoretical relationships for calculating the Peclet number in the axially dispersed plug flow model and the concentration distribution perpendicular to

  2. Flaxseed hull: Chemical composition and antioxidant activity during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herchi, Wahid; Al Hujaili, Abdullah D; Sakouhi, Faouzi; Sebei, Khaled; Trabelsi, Hajer; Kallel, Habib; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull during maturation were investigated. P129 hull variety was studied at four maturation stages (St1, St2, St3, and St4). Significant variation in proximate composition and flaxseed hull oil characteristics were observed. A significant increase in the carbohydrates content of the hull was observed during development. The main methyl esters were linolenic acid (48.95 - 51.52 %), oleic acid (20.27-23.41%) and linoleic acid (15.62-17.70%). The highest polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were found to be 67.14 % at the first stage of maturity (St1). Flaxseed hull oil was of good quality, containing an abundance of omega-3 essential fatty acids. The iodine value increased, while the saponification value of oil decreased during seed development. The decrease in ascorbic acid content was steady. The maximum level of total phenolic acid content (128.3 mg/100 g oil) was reached at 7 DAF. The antioxidant activity of oilseed was assessed by means of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. Radical scavenging activity for green hull was 52.74% and mature hull was 69.32%.

  3. Proton Radiography: Cross Section Measurement and Detector Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Proton radiography offers significant advantages over conventional X-ray radiography, including the capability of looking into thick, dense materials, better contrast for a wide range of materials, sensitivity to different materials of similar density, and better resolution because of the ability to focus beams. In order to achieve this capability it is crucial to understand the background due to neutrons and photons and to develop techniques to reduce it to tolerable levels. The physics goal of this project is to measure forward production of neutrons and photons produced by high-energy proton beams striking a variety of targets. This work is being carried out in conjunction with the Fermilab Experiment 907 (MIPP) collaboration including physicists from Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Our group is responsible for the E907 forward neutron/photon calorimeters. These are the only detectors in the experiment that provide information on neutrons and photons. We are taking a leading role in obtaining and analyzing the for-ward production data and in developing an optimal detector for proton radiography. With the support of our Stewardship Science Academic Alliances grant, we were able to design, build, and commission the calorimeters on budget and ahead of schedule. E-907 officially started physics running at Fermilab in January 2005, and data taking continued through February 2006. Data were taken on a range of targets, from liquid hydrogen to uranium, at beam energies from 5 GeV/c to 120 GeV/c. The analysis of the data is challenging because data from many different detector systems must be understood and merged and over 31 million events were accumulated. Our recent efforts have been devoted to the calibration of the neutron and photon detectors, to track and shower reconstruction, identification of forward-going neutrons, and simulation of the calorimeters in a Monte Carlo. Reconstruction of the data with improved tracking is underway

  4. Developing ecotoxicological testing procedures for chemicals in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, I.; Doerfler, U.; Quast, I.; Schroll, R.; Topp, E.; Wolf, E.; Korte, F.

    1989-01-01

    The work deals with the determination of adsorption coefficients of volatile environmental chemicals, of volatilization rates (example: Lindane), biomineralization rates, total balances, and uptake into higher plants, further with the correlation of the uptake of chemicals by plants with physico-chemical and structural mass characteristics, and field experiments with lysimeters using labelled carbon 14 compounds for validation of the results obtained under laboratory conditions. - The devices for determination of adsorption coefficients and of volatilization rates of chemicals from soil and plant surfaces, as well as the closed experimental setup with controlled air throughput for billing labelled carbon 14 chemicals in the soil/plant system are described. The mass balance of the adsorption of volatile labelled carbon 14 chemicals in an alfisol, the volatilization of Lindane from the surface of a sandy soil, the concentration of hexachlorbenzene in different parts of plants, the uptake pathways of organic chemicals in higher plants and their corelation with mass properties, as well as the correlation between bioconcentration factors of chemicals in barley after application into the soil and physico-chemical and structural mass parameters are investigated and indicated in the form of tables and diagrams. (HK) [de

  5. Standing operating procedures for developing acute exposure guideline levels for hazardous chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels

    2001-01-01

    Standing Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Chemicals contains a detailed and comprehensive methodology for developing acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs...

  6. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  7. Development of chemical conversion process of long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae Hyung; Lee, Byung Gik; Kang, Young Ho

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a conversion technology of long-lived radionuclides so that it can be a suitable form as a fuel or target in the nuclear transmutation system. During the first stage of the project (Apr 1997∼Mar 2001), the fundamental studies were performed with a focus on non-radioactive experiments as well as theoretical analyses in such areas as follows : fluorination of metals or metal oxides, electrorefining and electrowinning of actinides and lanthanides, pyro hydrolysis and regeneration of used molten salt. Since the chemical form of transuranium fuel in the transmutation system was assumed to be a molten fluoride, the electrolysis experiments of molten fluoride were conducted to study on the recovery of unused transuranium from the LiF-BeF 2 salt that was chosen as a basic salt medium. Fluorination of metals or metal oxides were also tested in this work by applying the method of three-phase (gas-liquid-solid) reaction. In the electrowinning experiments, the depositions of uranium, zirconium and niobium on the cathode were tested and analyzed. The electrorefining of lanthanides was studied with the salt media of FLINAK and FLICA and their behaviors were compared. In addition, the regeneration of used salts was examined by applying the method of electrolysis of molten salt, where alkali and alkali earth metals were found to be removed into the liquid lead cathode

  8. New Developments in Membrane-Based Chemical Separations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jirage, Kshama

    1998-01-01

    Membrane based chemical separations is an emerging field of research. This is because membrane-based separations are potentially less energy intensive and more cost effective than competing separation methods...

  9. 2009 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Environmental Stewardship Group (ENV-ES)

    2010-11-01

    For reporting year 2009, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) submitted a Form R report for lead as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2009 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2009, as well as to provide background information about data included on the Form R reports.

  10. 2002 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, M.

    2003-01-01

    For reporting year 2002, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead compounds and mercury as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2002 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical usage and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2002 as well as provide background information about the data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999 EPA promulgated a final rule on Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable under EPCRA Section 313. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R

  11. Why Leading Consumer Product Companies Develop Proactive Chemical Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Caroline E.; Van Buren, Harry J.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have studied the various pressures that companies face related to socially responsible behavior when stakeholders know the particular social issues under consideration. Many have examined social responsibility in the context of environmental responsibility and the general approaches companies take regarding environmental management. The issue of currently unregulated, but potentially hazardous, chemicals in consumer products is not well understood by the general public, but a number of proactive consumer product companies have voluntarily adopted strategies to minimize use of such chemicals. These companies are exceeding regulatory requirements by restricting from their products chemicals that could harm human or environmental health, despite the fact that these actions are costly. They do not usually advertise the details of their strategies to end consumers. This article uses interviews with senior environmental directors of 20 multinational consumer product companies to investigate why these companies engage in voluntary chemicals management. The authors conclude that the most significant reasons are to achieve a competitive advantage and stay ahead of regulations, manage relationships and maintain legitimacy with stakeholders, and put managerial values into practice. Many of the characteristics related to the case of chemicals management are extendable to other areas of stakeholder management in which risks to stakeholders are either unknown or poorly understood. PMID:27471326

  12. Why Leading Consumer Product Companies Develop Proactive Chemical Management Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Caroline E; Van Buren, Harry J

    2016-05-01

    Scholars have studied the various pressures that companies face related to socially responsible behavior when stakeholders know the particular social issues under consideration. Many have examined social responsibility in the context of environmental responsibility and the general approaches companies take regarding environmental management. The issue of currently unregulated, but potentially hazardous, chemicals in consumer products is not well understood by the general public, but a number of proactive consumer product companies have voluntarily adopted strategies to minimize use of such chemicals. These companies are exceeding regulatory requirements by restricting from their products chemicals that could harm human or environmental health, despite the fact that these actions are costly. They do not usually advertise the details of their strategies to end consumers. This article uses interviews with senior environmental directors of 20 multinational consumer product companies to investigate why these companies engage in voluntary chemicals management. The authors conclude that the most significant reasons are to achieve a competitive advantage and stay ahead of regulations, manage relationships and maintain legitimacy with stakeholders, and put managerial values into practice. Many of the characteristics related to the case of chemicals management are extendable to other areas of stakeholder management in which risks to stakeholders are either unknown or poorly understood.

  13. Chemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section

  14. 2006 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecology and Air Quality Group (ENV-EAQ)

    2007-12-12

    For reporting year 2006, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2006 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2006, as well as to provide background information about data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999, EPA promulgated a final rule on persistent bioaccumulative toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.

  15. Chemometrics review for chemical sensor development, task 7 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This report, the seventh in a series on the evaluation of several chemical sensors for use in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) site characterization and monitoring programs, concentrates on the potential use of chemometrics techniques in analysis of sensor data. Chemometrics is the chemical discipline that uses mathematical, statistical, and other methods that employ formal logic to: design or select optimal measurement procedures and experiments and provide maximum relevant chemical information by analyzing chemical data. The report emphasizes the latter aspect. In a formal sense, two distinct phases are in chemometrics applications to analytical chemistry problems: (1) the exploratory data analysis phase and (2) the calibration and prediction phase. For use in real-world problems, it is wise to add a third aspect - the independent validation and verification phase. In practical applications, such as the ERWM work, and in order of decreasing difficulties, the most difficult tasks in chemometrics are: establishing the necessary infrastructure (to manage sampling records, data handling, and data storage and related aspects), exploring data analysis, and solving calibration problems, especially for nonlinear models. Chemometrics techniques are different for what are called zeroth-, first-, and second-order systems, and the details depend on the form of the assumed functional relationship between the measured response and the concentrations of components in mixtures. In general, linear relationships can be handled relatively easily, but nonlinear relationships can be difficult

  16. The periodic system of chemical elements: old and new developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.

    1987-09-01

    Some historical facts about the construction of a periodic system of chemical elements are reviewed. The Madelung rule is used to generate an unusual format for the periodic table. Following the work of Byakov, Kulakov, Rumer and Fet, such a format is further refined on the basis of a chain of groups starting with SU(2)xS0(4.2)

  17. Chemometrics review for chemical sensor development, task 7 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    This report, the seventh in a series on the evaluation of several chemical sensors for use in the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) site characterization and monitoring programs, concentrates on the potential use of chemometrics techniques in analysis of sensor data. Chemometrics is the chemical discipline that uses mathematical, statistical, and other methods that employ formal logic to: design or select optimal measurement procedures and experiments and provide maximum relevant chemical information by analyzing chemical data. The report emphasizes the latter aspect. In a formal sense, two distinct phases are in chemometrics applications to analytical chemistry problems: (1) the exploratory data analysis phase and (2) the calibration and prediction phase. For use in real-world problems, it is wise to add a third aspect - the independent validation and verification phase. In practical applications, such as the ERWM work, and in order of decreasing difficulties, the most difficult tasks in chemometrics are: establishing the necessary infrastructure (to manage sampling records, data handling, and data storage and related aspects), exploring data analysis, and solving calibration problems, especially for nonlinear models. Chemometrics techniques are different for what are called zeroth-, first-, and second-order systems, and the details depend on the form of the assumed functional relationship between the measured response and the concentrations of components in mixtures. In general, linear relationships can be handled relatively easily, but nonlinear relationships can be difficult.

  18. Microbial production of bulk chemicals: development of anaerobic processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weusthuis, R.A.; Lamot, I.; Oost, van der J.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    nnovative fermentation processes are necessary for the cost-effective production of bulk chemicals from renewable resources. Current microbial processes are either anaerobic processes, with high yield and productivity, or less-efficient aerobic processes. Oxygen utilization plays an important role

  19. Approximate method of calculation of non-equilibrium flow parameters of chemically reacting nitrogen tetroxide in the variable cross-section channels with energy exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazhin, M.A.; Fedosenko, G.Eh.; Shiryaeva, N.M.; Mal'ko, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that adiabatic non-equilibrium chemically reacting gas flow with energy exchange in a variable cross-section channel may be subdivided into five possible types: 1) quasi-equilibrium flow; 2) flow in the linear region of deviation from equilibrium state; 3) quasi-frozen flow; 4) flow in the linear region of deviation from frozen state; 5) non-equilibrium flow. Criteria of quasi-equilibrium and quazi-frozen flows, including factors of external action of chemically reacting gas on flow, allow to obtain simple but sufficiently reliable approximate method of calculation of flow parameters. The considered method for solving the problem of chemically reacting nitrogen tetroxide in the variable cross-section channel with energy exchange can be used for evaluation of chemical reaction kinetics on the flow parameter in the stages of axial-flow and radial-flow turbines and in another practical problems

  20. 1998 Tier two emergency and hazardous chemical inventory - emergency planning and community right-to-know act section 312

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZALOUDEK, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    The Hanford Site covers approximately 1,450 square kilometers (560 square miles) of land that is owned by the U.S, Government and managed by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). The Hanford Site is located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The city of Richland adjoins the southeastern portion of the Hanford Site boundary and is the nearest population center. Activities on the Hanford Site are centralized in numerically designated areas. The 100 Areas, located along the Columbia River, contain deactivated reactors. The processing units are in the 200 Areas, which are on a plateau approximately 11 kilometers (7 miles) from the Columbia River. The 300 Area, located adjacent to and north of Richland, contains research and development laboratories. The 400 Area, 8 kilometers (5 miles) northwest of the 300 Area, contains the Fast Flux Test Facility previously used for testing liquid metal reactor systems. Adjacent to the north of Richland, the 1100 Area contains offices associated with administration, maintenance, transportation, and materials procurement and distribution. The 600 Area covers all locations not specifically given an area designation. This Tier Two Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory report contains information pertaining to hazardous chemicals managed by DOE-RL and its contractors on the Hanford Site. It does not include chemicals maintained in support of activities conducted by others on lands covered by leases, use permits, easements, and other agreements whereby land is used by parties other than DOE-RL. For example, this report does not include chemicals stored on state owned or leased lands (including the burial ground operated by US Ecology, Inc.), lands owned or used by the Bonneville Power Administration (including the Midway Substation and the Ashe Substation), lands used by the National Science Foundation (the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory), lands leased to the Washington

  1. Hanford 1999 Tier 2 Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act Section 312

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZALOUDEK, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Hanford Site covers approximately 1,450 square kilometers (560 square miles) of land that is owned by the U.S. Government and managed by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). The Hanford Site is located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The city of Richland adjoins the southeastern portion of the Hanford Site boundary and is the nearest population center. Activities on the Hanford Site are centralized in numerically designated areas. The 100 Areas, located along the Columbia River, contain deactivated reactors. The processing units are in the 200 Areas, which are on a plateau approximately 11 kilometers (7 miles) from the Columbia River. The 300 Area, located adjacent to and north of Richland, contains research and development laboratories. The 400 Area, 8 kilometers (5 miles) northwest of the 300 Area, contains the Fast Flux Test Facility previously used for testing liquid metal reactor systems. Adjacent to the north of Richland, the 1100 Area contains offices associated with administration, maintenance, transportation, and materials procurement and distribution. The 600 Area covers all locations not specifically given an area designation. This Tier Two Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory report contains information pertaining to hazardous chemicals managed by DOE-RL and its contractors on the Hanford Site. It does not include chemicals maintained in support of activities conducted by others on lands covered by leases, use permits, easements, and other agreements whereby land is used by parties other than DOE-RL. For example, this report does not include chemicals stored on state owned or leased lands (including the burial ground operated by US Ecology, Inc.), lands owned or used by the Bonneville Power Administration (including the Midway Substation and the Ashe Substation), lands used by the National Science Foundation (the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory), lands leased to the Washington

  2. Development of A U. S. Coast Guard Chemical Response Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    Challerge 5100 C: CONDITION UFO && TEST: Unused. no visible Lmerfections - - D: SUPPLIERt Chemical Fabric Corp.. 9: CATALOG NUMBER: N/A I: LOT OR...1 Inch cA.li was used./Detector Temperature - IOOC. 7. EV’IA4 I0’ M Th A. w T9 T. to cell vas 100 cctmiu. 3. ALIEN CHN"CAL 1 • 2 :3 1. CHEM NAME(s

  3. 2004 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Stockton

    2006-01-15

    Section 313 of Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. For reporting year 2004, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead compounds, nitric acid, and nitrate compounds as required under the EPCRA Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2004 above the reportable thresholds. This document provides a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2004, as well as background information about data included on the Form R reports.

  4. The use of mental models in chemical risk protection: developing a generic workplace methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Patrick; Niewöhmer, Jörg; Pidgeon, Nick; Gerrard, Simon; Fischhoff, Baruch; Riley, Donna

    2003-04-01

    We adopted a comparative approach to evaluate and extend a generic methodology to analyze the different sets of beliefs held about chemical hazards in the workplace. Our study mapped existing knowledge structures about the risks associated with the use of perchloroethylene and rosin-based solder flux in differing workplaces. "Influence diagrams" were used to represent beliefs held by chemical experts; "user models" were developed from data elicited from open-ended interviews with the workplace users of the chemicals. The juxtaposition of expert and user understandings of chemical risks enabled us to identify knowledge gaps and misunderstandings and to reinforce appropriate sets of safety beliefs and behavior relevant to chemical risk communications. By designing safety information to be more relevant to the workplace context of users, we believe that employers and employees may gain improved knowledge about chemical hazards in the workplace, such that better chemical risk management, self-protection, and informed decision making develop over time.

  5. Forecasting global developments in the basic chemical industry for environmental policy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeren, M.L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371687438; Saygin, D.; Patel, M.K.

    The chemical sector is the largest industrial energy user, but detailed analysis of its energy use developments lags behind other energy-intensive sectors. A cost-driven forecasting model for basic chemicals production is developed, accounting for regional production costs, demand growth and stock

  6. Fostering Multirepresentational Levels of Chemical Concepts: A Framework to Develop Educational Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Guilherme A.; Torres, Bayardo B.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a convenient framework for developing interactive chemical education software to facilitate the integration of macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic dimensions of chemical concepts--specifically, via the development of software for gel permeation chromatography. The instructional role of the software was evaluated in a study…

  7. Chemical-Looping Combustion and Gasification of Coals and Oxygen Carrier Development: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical-looping technology is one of the promising CO2 capture technologies. It generates a CO2 enriched flue gas, which will greatly benefit CO2 capture, utilization or sequestration. Both chemical-looping combustion (CLC and chemical-looping gasification (CLG have the potential to be used to generate power, chemicals, and liquid fuels. Chemical-looping is an oxygen transporting process using oxygen carriers. Recently, attention has focused on solid fuels such as coal. Coal chemical-looping reactions are more complicated than gaseous fuels due to coal properties (like mineral matter and the complex reaction pathways involving solid fuels. The mineral matter/ash and sulfur in coal may affect the activity of oxygen carriers. Oxygen carriers are the key issue in chemical-looping processes. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA has been widely used for the development of oxygen carriers (e.g., oxide reactivity. Two proposed processes for the CLC of solid fuels are in-situ Gasification Chemical-Looping Combustion (iG-CLC and Chemical-Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU. The objectives of this review are to discuss various chemical-looping processes with coal, summarize TGA applications in oxygen carrier development, and outline the major challenges associated with coal chemical-looping in iG-CLC and CLOU.

  8. Hydrogen Peroxide: A Key Chemical for Today's Sustainable Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriminna, Rosaria; Albanese, Lorenzo; Meneguzzo, Francesco; Pagliaro, Mario

    2016-12-20

    The global utilization of hydrogen peroxide, a green oxidant that decomposes in water and oxygen, has gone from 0.5 million tonnes per year three decades ago to 4.5 million tonnes per year in 2014, and is still climbing. With the aim of expanding the utilization of this eminent green chemical across different industrial and civil sectors, the production and use of hydrogen peroxide as a green industrial oxidant is reviewed herein to provide an overview of the explosive growth of its industrial use over the last three decades and of the state of the art in its industrial manufacture, with important details of what determines the viability of the direct production from oxygen and hydrogen compared with the traditional auto-oxidation process. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Use of Chemical Pesticides in Ethiopia : A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Farmers and Farm Workers in Three Farming Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negatu, Beyene; Kromhout, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Mekonnen, Yalemtshay; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620

    Chemical pesticides, regardless of their inherent hazard, are used intensively in the fast changing agricultural sector of Ethiopia. We conducted a cross-sectional pesticide Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) survey among 601 farmers and farm workers (applicators and re-entry workers) in three

  10. Development of an Efficient Steel Beam Section for Modular Construction Based on Six-Sigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyu Ha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a systematic approach for the development of an efficient steel beam section for modular construction based on Six-Sigma. Although the Six-Sigma is frequently implemented in manufacturing and other service industries, it is a relatively new concept in the area of building design and construction. As a first step in this approach, market studies and surveys are conducted to obtain the opinions of potential customers. Then the opinions of customers are converted into quality characteristics for the steel beam using the quality function deployment methodology. A steel hollow flanged channel is chosen as the main modular beam shape, and the design concept is derived and developed by applying the Pugh matrix methodology. A pilot test was performed to validate the effectiveness of the developed beam section. The results indicated that the developed channel beam section showed excellent performance and retained high accuracy in fabrication, thus resulting in a significant reduction of steel consumption.

  11. Research and development activities of the Seismology Section for the period January 1984 - December 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, C.A.; Murty, G.S.

    1987-01-01

    The Research and Development (R and D) activities during 1984-1985 of the Seismology Section of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay are reported in the form of individual summaries. The R and D activities of the Section are directed towards development of seismological instruments and methods of analysis of the seismic field data with the main objective of detecting underground nuclear explosions and assessing seismicity and seismic risk of sites considered for nuclear power stations. The Section has two field stations - one at Gauribidanur in the Southern part of the country and another at Delhi i.e. in the northern part of the country. During the report period, a total of 62 events out of the detected ones were identified as underground explosions. The expertise of the Section is also made available for outside organisations. (M.G.B.)

  12. Development of the common law in view of Sections 39(2) and 173 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The common (or non-statutory) law has also retained its position, subject however to the superior courts' inherent power, or rather their obligation in terms of section 173 of the Constitution, to develop the common law taking into account the interests of justice. The courts have for a long time had the task of developing the ...

  13. 78 FR 27860 - Revocation of TSCA Section 4 Testing Requirements for One High Production Volume Chemical Substance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... unit for this chemical substance are no longer supported. III. Amendment to Chemical Testing... proposed rule document (Ref. 4). The EDF comment indicated support for the May 14, 2012 Federal Register.... Fresh Water Algal Growth Inhibition Test with C.I. Pigment Blue 61 study. Submitted on April 13, 2012...

  14. Sustainable Chemical Process Development through an Integrated Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Kumar Tula, Anjan; Anantpinijwatna, Amata

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development and the application of a general integrated framework based on systematic model-based methods and computer-aided tools with the objective to achieve more sustainable process designs and to improve the process understanding. The developed framework can be appli...... studies involve multiphase reaction systems for the synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients....

  15. Mixed endometrioid and serous carcinoma developing in abdominal wall endometriosis following Cesarean section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Ines, David; Montoriol, Pierre Francois; Petitcolin, Virginie; Garcier, Jean-Marc (Dept. of Radiology and Medical Imaging, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, CHU Estaing, Clermont-Ferrand (France)), email: ddaines@chu-clermontferrand.fr; Bourdel, Nicolas; Canis, Michel (Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, CHU Estaing, Clermont-Ferrand (France)); Charpy, Cecile (Dept. of Pathology, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, CHU Estaing, Clermont-Ferrand (France))

    2011-06-15

    Abdominal wall endometriosis is unusual and mostly occurs in scars following Cesarean section. Although malignant transformation is rare, it must be recognized in order to benefit from radical resection. We report a very rare case of mixed endometrioid and serous carcinoma developing in a Cesarean section endometriosis scar and the way we managed it using surgery and chemotherapy. 18-FDG PET-CT imaging was performed to correctly stage the disease

  16. Mixed endometrioid and serous carcinoma developing in abdominal wall endometriosis following Cesarean section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Ines, David; Montoriol, Pierre Francois; Petitcolin, Virginie; Garcier, Jean-Marc; Bourdel, Nicolas; Canis, Michel; Charpy, Cecile

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal wall endometriosis is unusual and mostly occurs in scars following Cesarean section. Although malignant transformation is rare, it must be recognized in order to benefit from radical resection. We report a very rare case of mixed endometrioid and serous carcinoma developing in a Cesarean section endometriosis scar and the way we managed it using surgery and chemotherapy. 18-FDG PET-CT imaging was performed to correctly stage the disease

  17. The development of the globally harmonized system (GHS) of classification and labelling of hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winder, Chris; Azzi, Rola; Wagner, Drew

    2005-01-01

    The hazards of chemicals can be classified using classification criteria that are based on physical, chemical and ecotoxicological endpoints. These criteria may be developed be iteratively, based on scientific or regulatory processes. A number of national and international schemes have been developed over the past 50 years, and some, such as the UN Dangerous Goods system or the EC system for hazardous substances, are in widespread use. However, the unnecessarily complicated multiplicity of existing hazard classifications created much unnecessary confusion at the user level, and a recommendation was made at the 1992 Rio Earth summit to develop a globally harmonized chemical hazard classification and compatible labelling system, including material safety data sheets and easily understandable symbols, that could be used for manufacture, transport, use and disposal of chemical substances. This became the globally harmonized system for the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). The developmental phase of the GHS is largely complete. Consistent criteria for categorising chemicals according to their toxic, physical, chemical and ecological hazards are now available. Consistent hazard communication tools such as labelling and material safety data sheets are also close to finalisation. The next phase is implementation of the GHS. The Intergovernmental Forum for Chemical Safety recommends that all countries implement the GHS as soon as possible with a view to have the system fully operational by 2008. When the GHS is in place, the world will finally have one system for classification of chemical hazards

  18. Menstrual cycle characteristics in fertile women from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine exposed to perfluorinated chemicals: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngsø, J; Ramlau-Hansen, C H; Høyer, B B; Støvring, H; Bonde, J P; Jönsson, B A G; Lindh, C H; Pedersen, H S; Ludwicki, J K; Zviezdai, V; Toft, G

    2014-02-01

    Does perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanate (PFOA) exposure disrupt the menstrual cyclicity? The female reproductive system may be sensitive to PFOA exposure, with longer menstrual cycle length at higher exposure. PFOS and PFOA are persistent man-made chemicals. Experimental animal studies suggest they are reproductive toxicants but epidemiological findings are inconsistent. A cross-sectional study including 1623 pregnant women from the INUENDO cohort enrolled during antenatal care visits between June 2002 and May 2004 in Greenland, Poland and Ukraine. Information on menstrual cycle characteristics was obtained by questionnaires together with a blood sample from each pregnant woman. Serum concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Multiple imputations were performed to account for missing data. The association between PFOS/PFOA and menstrual cycle length (short cycle: ≤24 days, long cycle: ≥32 days) and irregularities (≥7 days in difference between cycles) was analyzed using logistic regression with tertiles of exposure. Estimates are given as adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Higher exposure levels of PFOA were associated with longer menstrual cycles in pooled estimates of all three countries. Compared with women in the lowest exposure tertile, the adjusted OR of long cycles was 1.8 (95% CI: 1.0; 3.3) among women in the highest tertile of PFOA exposure. No significant associations were observed between PFOS exposure and menstrual cycle characteristics. However, we observed a tendency toward more irregular cycles with higher exposure to PFOS [OR 1.7 (95% CI: 0.8; 3.5)]. The overall response rate was 45.3% with considerable variation between countries (91.3% in Greenland, 69.1% in Poland and 26.3% in Ukraine). Possible limitations in our study include varying participation rates across countries; a selected study group overrepresenting the most fertile part of

  19. Development of an Integrated Biofuel and Chemical Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trawick, John [Genomatica, San Diego, CA (United States); Burk, Mark [Genomatica, San Diego, CA (United States); Barton, Nelson [Genomatica, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    This project has demonstrated the level of commercial readiness for production of the industrial chemical, 1,4-butanediol (BDO), from lignocellulosic biomass by engineered E. coli. Targets were BDO titer, rate, and yield (TRY) and growth in lignocellulosic hydrolysates (Hz). A range of Hzs were used to assess limitations for biomass-to-BDO. Via adaptive evolution methods, whole-genome sequencing, and introduction of identified target genes, strains co-utilizing C5/ C6 sugars were made. The composition of Hz versus TRY led to a modified Hz composition. This was used in partnership with the DOE to redirect the project to focus on 1) several biomass Hz from new suppliers, 2) Hz specification due to the characteristics of the Genomatica BDO process, 3) a gene cassette to engineer any BDO producing strain for biomass, and 4) modified BDO recovery to more economically recover BDO at industry specifications. BDO TRY and growth of the E. coli strains were predictable based on Hz composition from several suppliers. This defined metrics for biomass Hz composition to achieve BDO TRY along with internal TEA to evaluate the economic potential of each modification to strain, Hz feed, and process. An improved biomass-to-BDO production strain reached BDO T-R in a 30 L fermentation above original objectives. Yield approached the proposed Y and modifications to BDO recovery were demonstrated. Genomatica is now in the position of being able to incorporate biomass feedstocks into the commercial GENO BDO process.

  20. Mixtures of environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals affect mammary gland development in female and male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Boberg, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Estrogenic chemicals are able to alter mammary gland development in female rodents, but little is known on the effects of anti-androgens and mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with dissimilar modes of action. Pregnant rat dams were exposed during gestation and lactation to mixtures...

  1. Development of an Instrument to Evaluate High School Students' Chemical Symbol Representation Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuhao; Chi, Shaohui; Luo, Ma; Yang, Yuqin; Huang, Min

    2017-01-01

    Chemical symbol representation is a medium for transformations between the actual phenomena of the macroscopic world and those of the sub-microscopic world. The aim of this study is to develop an instrument to evaluate high school students' chemical symbol representation abilities (CSRA). Based on the current literature, we defined CSRA and…

  2. Development of chemical profiles for U.S. Department of Energy low-level mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.Y.; Wilkins, B.D.; Meshkov, N.K.; Dolak, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Chemical and radiological profiles of waste streams from US Department of Energy (DOE) low-level mixed wastes (LLMWs) have been developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to provide technical support information for evaluating waste management alternatives in the Office of Environmental Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EM PEIS). The chemical profiles were developed for LLMW generated from both Waste Management (WM) operations and from Environmental Restoration (ER) activities at DOE facilities. Information summarized in the 1994 DOE Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR-2), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Automated Remedial Assessment Methodology (ARAM), and associated PNL supporting data on ER secondary waste streams that will be treated in WM treatment facilities were used as the sources for developing chemical profiles. The methodology for developing the LLMW chemical profiles is discussed, and the chemical profiles developed from data for contact-handled (CH) non-alpha LLMW are presented in this paper. The hazardous chemical composition of remote-handled (RH) LLMW and alpha LLMW follow the chemical profiles developed for CH non-alpha LLMW

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INSOLUBLE SALT SIMULANT TO SUPPORT ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING TESTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibling, R

    2008-01-01

    The closure process for high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site will require dissolution of the crystallized salts that are currently stored in many of the tanks. The insoluble residue from salt dissolution is planned to be removed by an Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process. Development of a chemical cleaning process requires an insoluble salt simulant to support evaluation tests of different cleaning methods. The Process Science and Engineering section of SRNL has been asked to develop an insoluble salt simulant for use in testing potential ECC processes (HLE-TTR-2007-017). An insoluble salt simulant has been developed based upon the residues from salt dissolution of saltcake core samples from Tank 28F. The simulant was developed for use in testing SRS waste tank chemical cleaning methods. Based on the results of the simulant development process, the following observations were developed: (1) A composition based on the presence of 10.35 grams oxalate and 4.68 grams carbonate per 100 grams solids produces a sufficiently insoluble solids simulant. (2) Aluminum observed in the solids remaining from actual waste salt dissolution tests is probably precipitated from sodium aluminate due to the low hydroxide content of the saltcake. (3) In-situ generation of aluminum hydroxide (by use of aluminate as the Al source) appears to trap additional salts in the simulant in a manner similar to that expected for actual waste samples. (4) Alternative compositions are possible with higher oxalate levels and lower carbonate levels. (5) The maximum oxalate level is limited by the required Na content of the insoluble solids. (6) Periodic mixing may help to limit crystal growth in this type of salt simulant. (7) Long term storage of an insoluble salt simulant is likely to produce a material that can not be easily removed from the storage container. Production of a relatively fresh simulant is best if pumping the simulant is necessary for testing purposes. The insoluble

  4. Changes in the classification of carcinogenic chemicals in the work area. (Section III of the German List of MAK and BAT values).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, H G; Thielmann, H W; Filser, J G; Gelbke, H P; Greim, H; Kappus, H; Norpoth, K H; Reuter, U; Vamvakas, S; Wardenbach, P; Wichmann, H E

    1998-01-01

    Carcinogenic chemicals in the work area were previously classified into three categories in section III of the German List of MAK and BAT values (the list of values on maximum workplace concentrations and biological tolerance for occupational exposures). This classification was based on qualitative criteria and reflected essentially the weight of evidence available for judging the carcinogenic potential of the chemicals. In the new classification scheme the former sections IIIA1, IIIA2, and IIIB are retained as categories 1, 2, and 3, to correspond with European Union regulations. On the basis of our advancing knowledge of reaction mechanisms and the potency of carcinogens, these three categories are supplemented with two additional categories. The essential feature of substances classified in the new categories is that exposure to these chemicals does not contribute significantly to the risk of cancer to man, provided that an appropriate exposure limit (MAK value) is observed. Chemicals known to act typically by non-genotoxic mechanisms, and for which information is available that allows evaluation of the effects of low-dose exposures, are classified in category 4. Genotoxic chemicals for which low carcinogenic potency can be expected on the basis of dose/response relationships and toxicokinetics and for which risk at low doses can be assessed are classified in category 5. The basis for a better differentiation of carcinogens is discussed, the new categories are defined, and possible criteria for classification are described. Examples for category 4 (1,4-dioxane) and category 5 (styrene) are presented.

  5. 78 FR 41768 - Chemical Substances and Mixtures Used in Oil and Gas Exploration or Production; TSCA Section 21...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ... expectation is that the TSCA proposal would focus on providing aggregate pictures of the chemical substances... focused attention on hydraulic fracturing due to specific concerns raised about this practice, and most of...

  6. A Summer Leadership Development Program for Chemical Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Annie E.; Evans, Greg J.; Reeve, Doug

    2012-01-01

    The Engineering Leaders of Tomorrow Program (LOT) is a comprehensive curricular, co-curricular, extra-curricular leadership development initiative for engineering students. LOT envisions: "an engineering education that is a life-long foundation for transformational leaders and outstanding citizens." Academic courses, co-curricular certificate…

  7. Development of a Rapid Chemical Identification System (RCIS) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Three members of this group of drugs (tablet form) available in the Nigerian market and labelled MA and MB for metronidazole, T A and TB for ... of acetone, ethyl acetate and ammonia (100:5:1) and method B with mobile phase consisting of acetone, chloroform and ammonia (100:15:1) were developed for the ...

  8. Development of C-band Accelerating Section for SuperKEKB

    CERN Document Server

    Kamitani, T; Ikeda, M; Kakihara, K; Ohsawa, S; Oogoe, T; Sugimura, T; Takatomi, T; Yamaguchi, S; Yokoyama, K

    2004-01-01

    For the luminosity upgrade of the present KEK B-factory to SuperKEKB, the injector linac has to increase the positron acceleration energy from 3.5 to 8.0 GeV. In order to double the acceleration field gradient from 21 to 42 MV/m, design studies on C-band accelerator module has started in 2002. First prototype 1-m long accelerating section has been fabricated based upon a design which is half scale of the present S-band section. High power test of the C-band section has been performed at a test stand and later at an accelerator module in the KEKB injector linac. In a beam acceleration test, a field gradient of 41 MV/m is achieved with 43 MW RF power from a klystron. This paper report on the recent status of the high-power test and also the development of a second prototype section.

  9. High prevalence of respiratory symptoms among workers in the development section of a manually operated coal mine in a developing country: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bråtveit Magne

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies of miners have been carried out in African countries; most are from South Africa, where the working conditions are assumed to be better than in the rest of Africa. Several studies have focused on respiratory disorders among miners, but development workers responsible for creating underground road ways have not been studied explicitly. This is the first study assessing the associations between exposure to dust and quartz and respiratory symptoms among coal mine workers in a manually operated coal mine in Tanzania, focusing on development workers, as they have the highest exposure to coal dust. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 250 production workers from a coal mine. Interviews were performed using modified standardized questionnaires to elicit information on occupational history, demographics, smoking habits and acute and chronic respiratory symptoms. The relationships between current dust exposure as well as cumulative respirable dust and quartz and symptoms were studied by group comparisons as well as logistic regression. Results Workers from the development group had the highest dust exposure, with arithmetic mean of 10.3 mg/m3 for current respirable dust and 1.268 mg/m3 for quartz. Analogous exposure results for mine workers were 0.66 mg/m3 and 0.03 mg/m3, respectively; and for other development workers were 0.88 mg/m3 and 0.10 mg/m3, respectively. The workers from the development section had significantly higher prevalence of the acute symptoms of dry cough (45.7%, breathlessness (34.8% and blocked nose (23.9%. In addition, development workers had significantly more chronic symptoms of breathlessness (17.0% than the mine workers (6.4% and the other production workers (2.4%. The highest decile of cumulative exposure to respirable dust was significantly associated with cough (OR = 2.91, 95% CI 1.06, 7.97 as were cumulative exposure to quartz and cough (OR = 2.87, CI 1.05, 7.88, compared with

  10. Chemical risk evaluation, importance of the risk analysis framework uses: Latin America development restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, M.

    2013-01-01

    The power point presentation is about reach and results of the risk analysis in Venezuela, chemical dangers in food, human damage, injuries , technologies news in fodd development, toxicity, microbiological risk, technical recommendations

  11. Leader Development in Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Defense: Trained and Ready

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van

    2001-01-01

    .... Careful and deliberate preparation and emphasis on leader development now will obviate the devastating role of WMD in the future and ensure that the Army is nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) trained and ready...

  12. Recent developments in chemical treatment of roughages and their relevance to animal production in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.

    1989-01-01

    Recent research in developed regions, at laboratory level, has investigated acids, amines and the oxidizing agents sulphur dioxide, ozone and alkaline hydrogen peroxide as reagents for upgrading roughages. In vivo experiments with sheep show improvements in digestibility from treating with 40 g SO 2 per kg wheat straw DM for 3 d at 70 deg. C, comparable to responses normally gained by treating with NaOH. Alkaline H 2 O 2 (pH11.5) treatment in one study increased wheat straw DM digestibility in sheep fed ad libitum, from 467 to 659 g/kg. However this treatment used large inputs (260 g H 2 O 2 and 180 g NaOH/kg straw DM in 26 L solution for 16 h, followed by drying); subsequent studies showed possible input reductions. The techniques are not relevant for use in developing countries except possibly at centralized processing plants, but greater commercial viability will need to be demonstrated before then. The NaOH dip method is the most effective current, low technology upgrading technique and is capable of further development to produce treated roughage of improved digestibility and optimum content of N and required minerals. There are no major new developments in urea ammonia treatment. The recent 'AGRI-AM' method produces NH 3 by hydrating a mixture of CaO and (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 fertilizers, but the method requires much chemical input. 'Ensiling' barley straw for 60 d with 60 g Ca(OH) 2 and 30 g urea per kg straw DM improves intake and digestibility in sheep, with little loss of N from the system. This is due to reduced urea hydrolysis caused by high pH. Other research shows that the quantity of straw needing to be treated can be halved by allowing goats (or sheep) to 'graze' untreated straw (to allow 50% refusals) followed by treatment and refeeding. 92 refs, 11 tabs

  13. Research and development activities of the Seismology Section for the period January 1982-December 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Falguni

    1984-01-01

    The research and development activities of the Seismology Section of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) at Bombay are reported for the period January 1982-December 1983 in the form of summaries. The Section's activities are mainly directed towards detection of underground nuclear explosions. During the report period 64 signals out of about 12000 seismograms which were examined were identified as the signals due to underground nuclear explosions. The instrumentation work for Kolar rockburst research was almost completed under the collaboration programme of BARC with Bharat Gold Mines Ltd. Analytical methods have been developed for interpreting the frequency-magnitude relation of earthquake. These methods will be useful in the seismic estimation of risk in case only restricted data involving events of low magnitude are available. A list of publications of the staff-members of the Section during the report period is given. (M.G.B.)

  14. Development of a global 1-D chemically radiatively coupled model and an introduction to the development of a chemically coupled General Circulation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyoshi, H.

    1997-01-01

    A global one-dimensional, chemically and radiatively coupled model has been developed. The basic concept of the coupled model, definition of globally averaged zenith angles, the formulation of the model chemistry, radiation, the coupled processes, and profiles and diurnal variations of temperature and chemical species at a normal steady state are presented. Furthermore, a suddenly doubled CO 2 experiment and a Pinatubo aerosol increase experiment were performed with the model. The time scales of variations in ozone and temperature in the lower stratosphere of the coupled system in the doubled CO 2 experiment was long, due to a feedback process among ultra violet radiation, O(1D), NO y , NO x , and O 3 . From the Pinatubo aerosol experiment, a delay of maximum ozone decrease from the maximum aerosol loading is shown and discussed. Developments of 3-D chemical models with coupled processes are briefly described, and the ozone distribution from the first version of the 3-D model are presented. Chemical model development in National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) are briefly described. (author)

  15. Implementing an Early Childhood Professional Development Course across 10 Sites and 15 Sections: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Kraft-Sayre, Marcia; Pianta, Robert C.; Hamre, Bridget K.; Downer, Jason T.; Leach, Allison; Burchinal, Margaret; Howes, Carollee; La Paro, Karen; Scott-Little, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    In this article we describe the design and implementation of the National Center for Research on Early Childhood Education's (NCRECE's) college-level course and its delivery to teachers across 10 settings and 15 instructional sections. This professional development intervention, found effective in changing teachers' beliefs, knowledge, and actual…

  16. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  17. Development of optical techniques for chemical engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamadie, F.; Charton, S.; Langlard, M. de; Ouattara, M.; Sentis, M. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, DEN,DTEC,SGCS, F-30207 Marcoule (France)

    2016-07-01

    The design of separation processes for nuclear spend fuel treatment, dedicated to either research studies or industrial applications, is currently based on a phenomenological approach, relying on Computational Fluid Dynamics, and complemented by validation tests performed at small-scale. Indeed, most of the steps of the Purex process involve multiphasic flows (dissolution, leaching, liquid-liquid extraction, precipitation, filtration, etc.). Therefore an accurate knowledge of the dispersed phase properties is required in order to assess their coupling with the flow features, to predict the process performance and efficiency and to achieve size reduction or extrapolation. Hence, the measurements of particulate flows properties, and especially the particles (or drops or bubbles) size distribution, concentration (i.e. hold-up) and velocity has become a growing issue. Relevant techniques for measuring these flow properties are multiple, from the high-speed video acquisition coupled to image processing to the laser-induced fluorescence, including the particle imaging velocimetry or interferometric techniques (digital in-line holography, rainbow refractometry, etc.). In this communication, different techniques developed at CEA Marcoule for the characterization of multiphase flows, will be introduced. The strong interaction with computational fluid dynamics, in the scope of a multi-scale approach, will be discussed through typical results of gas-liquid, liquid-liquid and solid-liquid flows possibly encountered in nuclear fuel reprocessing process. (authors)

  18. Radiation chemical technology of industrial polymer reagents development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudaibergenov, S.; Nurkeeva, Z.; Mun, G.; Sigitov, V.; Maltzeva, R.; Petukhov, V.; Tchekushin, A.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop the technology of producing of polymeric reagents from the raw materials of Kazakstan for application in medicine, agriculture, enhanced oil recovery and ecology. To achieve the objectives the next technological lines or operations (Blocks) should be realized: 1. Rectification column and distilling apparatus for purification of monomers and solvents including analytical equipment to control the quality of the final product; 2. Irradiation of reaction mixture by either gamma-irradiation source Co-60; 3. Purification of polymer reagents; 4. Producing of commercial products. It is supposed that the power irradiation devices for producing of hydrogels will be mounted on the research atomic reactor of the Almaty Branch of the Institute of Atomic Energy of the National Nuclear Center. There are high qualification personal which has much experience in radioactive materials operating. Irradiation technologies will provide the low cost of hydrogels, approximately 250-300 US$ per 1 ton. Expected results. One can expect that the realization of this project allows to produce hydrogels in industrial scale to cover partly the requirements of medicine, agriculture, oil industry and ecology

  19. Toxic chemical release inventory reporting form R and instructions. Revised 1992 version. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Reporting is required to provide the public with information on the releases of listed toxic chemicals in their communities and to provide EPA with release information to assist the Agency in determining the need for future regulations. Facilities must report the quantities of both routine and accidental releases of listed toxic chemicals, as well as the maximum amount of the listed toxic chemical on-site during the calendar year and the amount contained in wastes transferred off-site. These instructions supplement and elaborate on the requirements in the reporting rule (40 CFR Part 372). Together with the reporting rule, they constitute the reporting requirements. All references in these instructions are to sections in the reporting rule unless otherwise indicated

  20. Environmental Product Development Combining the Life Cycle Perspective with Chemical Hazard Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askham, Cecilia

    in the design or redesign process. This thesis concerns marrying the life cycle perspective with chemical hazard information, in order to advance the practice of environmental product development, and hence takes further steps towards sustainable development. The need to consider the full value chain...... for the life cycle of products meant that systems theory and systems engineering principles were important in this work. Life cycle assessment methodology was important for assessing environmental impacts for case products. The new European regulation for chemicals (REACH) provided the main driver......Concerns regarding the short- and long-term detrimental effects of chemicals on human health and ecosystems have made the minimisation of chemical hazards a vitally important issue. If sustainable development is to be achieved, environmental efficient products (and product life cycles...

  1. Expanding the test set: Chemicals with potential to disrupt mammalian brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-throughput test methods including molecular, cellular, and alternative species-based assays that examine critical events of normal brain development are being developed for detection of developmental neurotoxcants. As new assays are developed, a "training set' of chemicals i...

  2. 1995 Tier Two emergency and hazardous chemical inventory. Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, Section 312

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    Tier Two reports are required as part of the Superfund compliance. The purpose is to provide state and local officials and the public with specific information on hazardous chemicals present at a facility during the past year. The facility is required to provide specific information on description, hazards, amounts, and locations of all hazardous materials. This report compiled such information for the Hanford Reservation

  3. Development of a cross-section based stream package for MODFLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, G.; Chen, X.; Irmak, A.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate simulation of stream-aquifer interactions for wide rivers using the streamflow routing package in MODFLOW is very challenging. To better represent a wide river spanning over multiple model grid cells, a Cross-Section based streamflow Routing (CSR) package is developed and incorporated into MODFLOW to simulate the interaction between streams and aquifers. In the CSR package, a stream segment is represented as a four-point polygon instead of a polyline which is traditionally used in streamflow routing simulation. Each stream segment is composed of upstream and downstream cross-sections. A cross-section consists of a number of streambed points possessing coordinates, streambed thicknesses and streambed hydraulic conductivities to describe the streambed geometry and hydraulic properties. The left and right end points are used to determine the locations of the stream segments. According to the cross-section geometry and hydraulic properties, CSR calculates the new stream stage at the cross-section using the Brent's method to solve the Manning's Equation. A module is developed to automatically compute the area of the stream segment polygon on each intersected MODFLOW grid cell as the upstream and downstream stages change. The stream stage and streambed hydraulic properties of model grids are interpolated based on the streambed points. Streambed leakage is computed as a function of streambed conductance and difference between the groundwater level and stream stage. The Muskingum-Cunge flow routing scheme with variable parameters is used to simulate the streamflow as the groundwater (discharge or recharge) contributes as lateral flows. An example is used to illustrate the capabilities of the CSR package. The result shows that the CSR is applicable to describing the spatial and temporal variation in the interaction between streams and aquifers. The input data become simple due to that the internal program automatically interpolates the cross-section data to each

  4. The role of microRNAs in the development and progression of chemical-associated cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogribny, Igor P.; Beland, Frederick A.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to certain natural and man-made chemical carcinogens is one of the major risk factors for cancer development. The effect of chemical carcinogens on genetic and epigenetic alterations and their significance in the development of cancer has been well-established. In contrast, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the etiology of chemical-associated cancers remains relatively unexplored despite extensive reports on changes in miRNA expression upon carcinogen exposure. This review summarizes the current knowledge for the role of miRNAs as drivers of chemical-induced carcinogenesis by bridging the gap between carcinogen exposure and cancer development through functional studies. It also emphasizes the potential for miRNA changes as early indicators of the carcinogenic process, markers for carcinogen exposure, and identification of chemical carcinogenic hazards. - Highlights: • Exposure to chemical carcinogens alters microRNA expression. • MicroRNA alterations may have significance in the development of cancer. • MicroRNAs may be early indicators of the carcinogenic process and carcinogen exposure.

  5. The role of microRNAs in the development and progression of chemical-associated cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogribny, Igor P., E-mail: igor.pogribny@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, United States Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Beland, Frederick A. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, United States Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Rusyn, Ivan [Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Human exposure to certain natural and man-made chemical carcinogens is one of the major risk factors for cancer development. The effect of chemical carcinogens on genetic and epigenetic alterations and their significance in the development of cancer has been well-established. In contrast, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the etiology of chemical-associated cancers remains relatively unexplored despite extensive reports on changes in miRNA expression upon carcinogen exposure. This review summarizes the current knowledge for the role of miRNAs as drivers of chemical-induced carcinogenesis by bridging the gap between carcinogen exposure and cancer development through functional studies. It also emphasizes the potential for miRNA changes as early indicators of the carcinogenic process, markers for carcinogen exposure, and identification of chemical carcinogenic hazards. - Highlights: • Exposure to chemical carcinogens alters microRNA expression. • MicroRNA alterations may have significance in the development of cancer. • MicroRNAs may be early indicators of the carcinogenic process and carcinogen exposure.

  6. Changes in the classification of carcinogenic chemicals in the work area. Section III of the German List of MAK and BAT Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, H G; Vamvakas, S; Thielmann, H W; Gelbke, H P; Filser, J G; Reuter, U; Greim, H; Kappus, H; Norpoth, K H; Wardenbach, P; Wichmann, H E

    1998-11-01

    Carcinogenic chemicals in the work area are currently classified into three categories in section III of the German List of MAK and BAT Values (list of values on maximum workplace concentrations and biological tolerance for occupational exposures). This classification is based on qualitative criteria and reflects essentially the weight of evidence available for judging the carcinogenic potential of the chemicals. It is proposed that these categories - IIIA1, IIIA2, IIIB - be retained as Categories 1, 2, and 3, to correspond with European Union regulations. On the basis of our advancing knowledge of reaction mechanisms and the potency of carcinogens, these three categories are supplemented with two additional categories. The essential feature of substances classified in the new categories is that exposure to these chemicals does not contribute significantly to risk of cancer to man, provided that an appropriate exposure limit (MAK value) is observed. Chemicals known to act typically by nongenotoxic mechanisms and for which information is available that allows evaluation of the effects of low-dose exposures, are classified in Category 4. Genotoxic chemicals for which low carcinogenic potency can be expected on the basis of dose-response relationships and toxicokinetics, and for which risk at low doses can be assessed are classified in Category 5. The basis for a better differentiation of carcinogens is discussed, the new categories are defined, and possible criteria for classification are described. Examples for Category 4 (1,4-dioxane) and Category 5 (styrene) are presented.

  7. Forecasting global developments in the basic chemical industry for environmental policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeren, M.L.M.; Saygin, D.; Patel, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical sector is the largest industrial energy user, but detailed analysis of its energy use developments lags behind other energy-intensive sectors. A cost-driven forecasting model for basic chemicals production is developed, accounting for regional production costs, demand growth and stock turnover. The model determines the global production capacity placement, implementation of energy-efficient Best Practice Technology (BPT) and global carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions for the period 2010–2030. Subsequently, the effects of energy and climate policies on these parameters are quantified. About 60% of new basic chemical production capacity is projected to be placed in non-OECD regions by 2030 due to low energy prices. While global production increases by 80% between 2010 and 2030, the OECD's production capacity share decreases from 40% to 20% and global emissions increase by 50%. Energy pricing and climate policies are found to reduce 2030 CO 2 emissions by 5–15% relative to the baseline developments by increasing BPT implementation. Maximum BPT implementation results in a 25% reduction. Further emission reductions require measures beyond energy-efficient technologies. The model is useful to estimate general trends related to basic chemicals production, but improved data from the chemical sector is required to expand the analysis to additional technologies and chemicals. - Highlights: • We develop a global cost-driven forecasting model for the basic chemical sector. • We study regional production, energy-efficient technology, emissions and policies. • Between 2010 and 2030, 60% of new chemicals capacity is built in non-OECD regions. • Global CO 2 emissions rise by 50%, but climate policies may limit this to 30–40%. • Measures beyond energy efficiency are needed to prevent increasing CO 2 emissions

  8. Development of ANJOYMC Program for Automatic Generation of Monte Carlo Cross Section Libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kang Seog; Lee, Chung Chan

    2007-03-01

    The NJOY code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to generate the cross section libraries in ACE format for the Monte Carlo codes such as MCNP and McCARD by processing the evaluated nuclear data in ENDF/B format. It takes long time to prepare all the NJOY input files for hundreds of nuclides with various temperatures, and there can be some errors in the input files. In order to solve these problems, ANJOYMC program has been developed. By using a simple user input deck, this program is not only to generate all the NJOY input files automatically, but also to generate a batch file to perform all the NJOY calculations. The ANJOYMC program is written in Fortran90 and can be executed under the WINDOWS and LINUX operating systems in Personal Computer. Cross section libraries in ACE format can be generated in a short time and without an error by using a simple user input deck

  9. Development of waste minimization and decontamination technologies at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.L.; Archibald, K.E.; Demmer, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Emphasis on the minimization of decontamination secondary waste has increased because of restrictions on the use of hazardous chemicals and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) waste handling issues. The Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co. (LITCO) Decontamination Development Subunit has worked to evaluate and introduce new performed testing, evaluations, development and on-site demonstrations for a number of novel decontamination techniques that have not yet previously been used at the ICPP. This report will include information on decontamination techniques that have recently been evaluated by the Decontamination Development Subunit

  10. Development and Testing of a High Capacity Plasma Chemical Reactor in the Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, Raymond W.

    2012-07-30

    This project, Development and Testing of a High Capacity Plasma Chemical Reactor in the Ukraine was established at the Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT). The associated CRADA was established with Campbell Applied Physics (CAP) located in El Dorado Hills, California. This project extends an earlier project involving both CAP and KIPT conducted under a separate CRADA. The initial project developed the basic Plasma Chemical Reactor (PCR) for generation of ozone gas. This project built upon the technology developed in the first project, greatly enhancing the output of the PCR while also improving reliability and system control.

  11. Research and development activities of the Seismology Section for the period January 1988-December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Murty, G.S.

    1990-01-01

    This report summarises the research and development activities of the Seismology Section during the periods from January 1988 to December 1989. Apart from the ongoing work on forensic seismology, seismicity studies, rock burst monitoring, elastic wave propagation, a new field system became operational at Bhatsa, located about 100 km from Bombay, comprising 11 station radio-telemetered seismic network with a central recording laboratory to study the reservoir induced seismicity. (author). figs., tabs

  12. Development of estrogen receptor beta binding prediction model using large sets of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Selvaraj, Chandrabose; Gong, Ping; Zhang, Chaoyang; Tong, Weida; Hong, Huixiao

    2017-11-03

    We developed an ER β binding prediction model to facilitate identification of chemicals specifically bind ER β or ER α together with our previously developed ER α binding model. Decision Forest was used to train ER β binding prediction model based on a large set of compounds obtained from EADB. Model performance was estimated through 1000 iterations of 5-fold cross validations. Prediction confidence was analyzed using predictions from the cross validations. Informative chemical features for ER β binding were identified through analysis of the frequency data of chemical descriptors used in the models in the 5-fold cross validations. 1000 permutations were conducted to assess the chance correlation. The average accuracy of 5-fold cross validations was 93.14% with a standard deviation of 0.64%. Prediction confidence analysis indicated that the higher the prediction confidence the more accurate the predictions. Permutation testing results revealed that the prediction model is unlikely generated by chance. Eighteen informative descriptors were identified to be important to ER β binding prediction. Application of the prediction model to the data from ToxCast project yielded very high sensitivity of 90-92%. Our results demonstrated ER β binding of chemicals could be accurately predicted using the developed model. Coupling with our previously developed ER α prediction model, this model could be expected to facilitate drug development through identification of chemicals that specifically bind ER β or ER α .

  13. Development of Chemical Engineering Course Methods Using Action Research: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkki-Hatakka, Terhi; Tuunila, Ritva; Nurkka, Niina

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the systematic development of a teaching methodology for two chemical engineering courses. The aim was to improve the quality of teaching to achieve expected learning outcomes more effectively. The development was carried out over a period of several years based on an action research methodology with data systematically…

  14. Development of a benchtop baking method for chemically leavened crackers. II. Validation of the method

    Science.gov (United States)

    A benchtop baking method has been developed to predict the contribution of gluten functionality to overall flour performance for chemically leavened crackers. Using a diagnostic formula and procedure, dough rheology was analyzed to evaluate the extent of gluten development during mixing and machinin...

  15. Development of Diffusion barrier coatings and Deposition Technologies for Mitigating Fuel Cladding Chemical Interactions (FCCI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Cole, James

    2013-02-27

    The goal of this project is to develop diffusion barrier coatings on the inner cladding surface to mitigate fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). FCCI occurs due to thermal and radiation enhanced inter-diffusion between the cladding and fuel materials, and can have the detrimental effects of reducing the effective cladding wall thickness and lowering the melting points of the fuel and cladding. The research is aimed at the Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in which higher burn-ups will exacerbate the FCCI problem. This project will study both diffusion barrier coating materials and deposition technologies. Researchers will investigate pure vanadium, zirconium, and titanium metals, along with their respective oxides, on substrates of HT-9, T91, and oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels; these materials are leading candidates for ABR fuel cladding. To test the efficacy of the coating materials, the research team will perform high-temperature diffusion couple studies using both a prototypic metallic uranium fuel and a surrogate the rare-earth element lanthanum. Ion irradiation experiments will test the stability of the coating and the coating-cladding interface. A critical technological challenge is the ability to deposit uniform coatings on the inner surface of cladding. The team will develop a promising non-line-of-sight approach that uses nanofluids . Recent research has shown the feasibility of this simple yet novel approach to deposit coatings on test flats and inside small sections of claddings. Two approaches will be investigated: 1) modified electrophoretic deposition (MEPD) and 2) boiling nanofluids. The coatings will be evaluated in the as-deposited condition and after sintering.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF AG-1 SECTION FI ON METAL MEDIA FILTERS - 9061

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D.; Waggoner, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Development of a metal media standard (FI) for ASME AG-1 (Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment) has been under way for almost ten years. This paper will provide a brief history of the development process of this section and a detailed overview of its current content/status. There have been at least two points when dramatic changes have been made in the scope of the document due to feedback from the full Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT). Development of the proposed section has required resolving several difficult issues associated with scope; namely, filtering efficiency, operating conditions (media velocity, pressure drop, etc.), qualification testing, and quality control/acceptance testing. A proposed version of Section FI is currently undergoing final revisions prior to being submitted for balloting. The section covers metal media filters of filtering efficiencies ranging from medium (less than 99.97%) to high (99.97% and greater). Two different types of high efficiency filters are addressed; those units intended to be a direct replacement of Section FC fibrous glass HEPA filters and those that will be placed into newly designed systems capable of supporting greater static pressures and differential pressures across the filter elements. Direct replacements of FC HEPA filters in existing systems will be required to meet equivalent qualification and testing requirements to those contained in Section FC. A series of qualification and quality assurance test methods have been identified for the range of filtering efficiencies covered by this proposed standard. Performance characteristics of sintered metal powder vs. sintered metal fiber media are dramatically different with respect to parameters like differential pressures and rigidity of the media. Wide latitude will be allowed for owner specification of performance criteria for filtration units that will be placed into newly designed systems. Such allowances will permit use of the most

  17. Thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals and their influence on the developing rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad

    differentiation and proliferation, normal status of these hormones during early development is crucial, and in humans even moderate and transient reductions in maternal T4 levels during pregnancy, can adversely affect the child’s neurological development. In order to maintain correct levels of THs, the body...... is dependent on sufficient iodine intake but several substances in the environment may also affect thyroid status. These are called thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs), and they are xenobiotics that can change the levels of circulating THs. The TDCs are made up of a wide range of chemical structures...... and include industrial chemicals, pesticides and ingredients used in personal care products. A way of getting more insight into the causal relationship between exposure to endocrine disrupters, their effects on TH levels and subsequent adverse effects on brain development, is by investigating it in animal...

  18. Development of a rear wall for the KATRIN rear section and investigation of tritium compatibility of rear section components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Kerstin

    2016-01-15

    The aim of the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment is to improve the current neutrino mass sensitivity limit to 0.2 eV/c{sup 2} (90%C.L.). For that, the required proof of suitability of several components for a low pressure tritium atmosphere is furnished. In addition, an optical design for an e-gun is developed and the resulting electron rate is calculated. Also, a final Rear Wall with temporally stable and homogeneous work function is developed and characterized within the scope of this thesis.

  19. Development of a Rear Wall for the KATRIN Rear Section and investigation of tritium compatibility of Rear Section components

    OpenAIRE

    Schönung, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment is to improve the current neutrino mass sensitivity limit to 0.2 eV/c2 (90%C.L.). For that, the required proof of suitability of several components for a low pressure tritium atmosphere is furnished. In addition, an optical design for an e-gun is developed and the resulting electron rate is calculated. Also, a final Rear Wall with temporally stable and homogeneous work function is developed and characterized within the scope of this thesis.

  20. Chemical Atherogenesis: Role of Endogenous and Exogenous Poisons in Disease Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K. Ross

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical atherogenesis is an emerging field that describes how environmental pollutants and endogenous toxins perturb critical pathways that regulate lipid metabolism and inflammation, thus injuring cells found within the vessel wall. Despite growing awareness of the role of environmental pollutants in the development of cardiovascular disease, the field of chemical atherogenesis can broadly include both exogenous and endogenous poisons and the study of molecular, biochemical, and cellular pathways that become dysregulated during atherosclerosis. This integrated approach is logical because exogenous and endogenous toxins often share the same mechanism of toxicity. Chemical atherogenesis is a truly integrative discipline because it incorporates concepts from several different fields, including biochemistry, chemical biology, pharmacology, and toxicology. This review will provide an overview of this emerging research area, focusing on cellular and animal models of disease.

  1. Research on the competitiveness and development strategy of china's modern coal chemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Han, Y. J.; Yu, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    China's modern coal chemical industry has grown into a certain scale after over a decade of development, and remarkable progress has been made in key technologies. But as oil price collapsed since 2015, the economic benefit of the industry also slumped, with loud controversies in China over the necessity of modern coal chemical industry. The research believes that the modern coal chemical industry plays a positive role in the clean and sustainable exploitation of coal in China. It makes profit when oil price is no lower than 60/bbl, and outperforms petrochemical in terms of cost effectiveness when the price is between 60/bbl and 80/bbl. Given the low oil price and challenges posed by environmental protection and water restraints, we suggest that the state announce a guideline quickly, with adjusted tax policies and an encouragement to technological innovation, so that the modern coal chemical industry in China can grow sound and stable.

  2. Chemical Atherogenesis: Role of Endogenous and Exogenous Poisons in Disease Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Matthew K; Matthews, Anberitha T; Mangum, Lee C

    Chemical atherogenesis is an emerging field that describes how environmental pollutants and endogenous toxins perturb critical pathways that regulate lipid metabolism and inflammation, thus injuring cells found within the vessel wall. Despite growing awareness of the role of environmental pollutants in the development of cardiovascular disease, the field of chemical atherogenesis can broadly include both exogenous and endogenous poisons and the study of molecular, biochemical, and cellular pathways that become dysregulated during atherosclerosis. This integrated approach is logical because exogenous and endogenous toxins often share the same mechanism of toxicity. Chemical atherogenesis is a truly integrative discipline because it incorporates concepts from several different fields, including biochemistry, chemical biology, pharmacology, and toxicology. This review will provide an overview of this emerging research area, focusing on cellular and animal models of disease.

  3. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Chemical Peels Uses for Chemical Peels Learn more ...

  4. Challenges to developing countries after joining WTO: risk assessment of chemicals in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Junshi

    2004-01-01

    FAO/WHO encourages member countries to develop national food control measures based on risk assessment in order to assure proper protection level to consumers and facilitate fair trade. This is particularly important for developing countries as WTO members because it is clearly stated in the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) Agreement that: (a) SPS measures should be based on risk assessment techniques developed by relevant international organizations; and (b) Codex standards which is based on risk assessment are regarded as the international norm in trade dispute settlement. When conducting risk assessment on food chemicals (including additives and contaminants) in developing countries, in most cases it is not necessary to conduct their own hazard characterization because the ADIs or PTWIs of food chemicals developed by international expert groups (e.g. JECFA) are universally applicable and also developing countries do not have the resources to repeat those expensive toxicological studies. On the other hand, it is necessary to conduct exposure assessment in developing countries because exposure to food chemicals varies from country to country. This is not only crucial in setting national standards, but also very important for developing countries to participate in the process of developing Codex standards. In addition to food standard development, risk assessment is also useful in setting up priorities in imported food inspection and evaluating the success of various food safety control measures

  5. Challenges to developing countries after joining WTO: risk assessment of chemicals in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junshi

    2004-05-20

    FAO/WHO encourages member countries to develop national food control measures based on risk assessment in order to assure proper protection level to consumers and facilitate fair trade. This is particularly important for developing countries as WTO members because it is clearly stated in the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) Agreement that: (a) SPS measures should be based on risk assessment techniques developed by relevant international organizations; and (b) Codex standards which is based on risk assessment are regarded as the international norm in trade dispute settlement. When conducting risk assessment on food chemicals (including additives and contaminants) in developing countries, in most cases it is not necessary to conduct their own hazard characterization because the ADIs or PTWIs of food chemicals developed by international expert groups (e.g. JECFA) are universally applicable and also developing countries do not have the resources to repeat those expensive toxicological studies. On the other hand, it is necessary to conduct exposure assessment in developing countries because exposure to food chemicals varies from country to country. This is not only crucial in setting national standards, but also very important for developing countries to participate in the process of developing Codex standards. In addition to food standard development, risk assessment is also useful in setting up priorities in imported food inspection and evaluating the success of various food safety control measures.

  6. The Diagnosis and Management of Asherman’s Syndrome Developed after Cesarean Section and Reproductive Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Ozcan Cenksoy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine adhesions (IUAs frequently occur as a result of trauma to the basal layer of endometrium following pregnancy-related curettage such as incomplete abortion (33,3%, postpartum hemorrhage (37,5%, and elective abortion (8,3%. Hysterotomy, myomectomy, Cesarean section, hysteroscopic procedures, such as resection of submucosal leiomyomata or uterine septae, and endometrial ablation are less common etiologic factors resulting in IUA formation. Patients with Asherman’s syndrome usually present with menstrual disturbances, infertility, or recurrent pregnancy loss. A successful treatment of infertility could be achieved by restoration of the uterine cavity, prevention of IUA reformation, and promotion of healing process. We presented the diagnosis and management of a case that suffers from menstrual disturbances and secondary infertility resulted from IUA formation developed after Cesarean section.

  7. Development of modern CANDU PHWR cross-section libraries for SCALE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoman, Nathan T.; Skutnik, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New ORIGEN libraries for CANDU 28 and 37-element fuel assemblies have been created. • These new reactor data libraries are based on modern ENDF/B-VII.0 cross-section data. • The updated CANDU data libraries show good agreement with radiochemical assay data. • Eu-154 overestimated when using ENDF-VII.0 due to a lower thermal capture cross-section. - Abstract: A new set of SCALE fuel lattice models have been developed for the 28-element and 37-element CANDU fuel assembly designs using modern cross-section data from ENDF-B/VII.0 in order to produce new reactor data libraries for SCALE/ORIGEN depletion analyses. These new libraries are intended to provide users with a convenient means of evaluating depletion of CANDU fuel assemblies using ORIGEN through pre-generated cross sections based on SCALE lattice physics calculations. The performance of the new CANDU ORIGEN libraries in depletion analysis benchmarks to radiochemical assay data were compared to the previous version of the CANDU libraries provided with SCALE (based on WIMS-AECL models). Benchmark comparisons with available radiochemical assay data indicate that the new cross-section libraries perform well at matching major actinide species (U/Pu), which are generally within 1–4% of experimental values. The library also showed similar or better results over the WIMS-AECL library regarding fission product species and minor actinoids (Np, Am, and Cm). However, a notable exception was in calculated inventories of "1"5"4Eu and "1"5"5Eu, where the new library employing modern nuclear data (ENDF/B-VII.0) performed substantially poorer than the previous WIMS-AECL library (which used ENDF-B/VI.8 cross-sections for these species). The cause for this discrepancy appears to be due to differences in the "1"5"4Eu thermal capture cross-section between ENDF/B-VI.8 and ENDF/B-VII.0, an effect which is exacerbated by the highly thermalized flux of a CANDU heavy water reactor compared to that of a typical

  8. Development of California Public Health Goals (PHGs) for chemicals in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howd, R A; Brown, J P; Morry, D W; Wang, Y Y; Bankowska, J; Budroe, J D; Campbell, M; DiBartolomeis, M J; Faust, J; Jowa, L; Lewis, D; Parker, T; Polakoff, J; Rice, D W; Salmon, A G; Tomar, R S; Fan, A M

    2000-01-01

    As part of a program for evaluation of environmental contaminants in drinking water, risk assessments are being conducted to develop Public Health Goals (PHGs) for chemicals in drinking water, based solely on public health considerations. California's Safe Drinking Water Act of 1996 mandated the development of PHGs for over 80 chemicals by 31 December 1999. The law allowed these levels to be set higher or lower than federal maximum contaminant levels (MCLs), including a level of zero if data are insufficient to determine a specific level. The estimated safe levels and toxicological rationale for the first 26 of these chemicals are described here. The chemicals include alachlor, antimony, benzo[a]pyrene, chlordane, copper, cyanide, dalapon, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 2,4-D, diethylhexylphthalate, dinoseb, endothall, ethylbenzene, fluoride, glyphosate, lead, nitrate, nitrite, oxamyl, pentachlorophenol, picloram, trichlorofluoromethane, trichlorotrifluoroethane, uranium and xylene(s). These risk assessments are to be considered by the State of California in revising and developing state MCLs for chemicals in drinking water (which must not exceed federal MCLs). The estimates are also notable for incorporation or consideration of newer guidelines and principles for risk assessment extrapolations.

  9. Development and Analysis of Group Contribution Plus Models for Property Prediction of Organic Chemical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustaffa, Azizul Azri

    for the GIPs are then used in the UNIFAC model to calculate activity coefficients. This approach can increase the application range of any “host” UNIFAC model by providing a reliable predictive model towards fast and efficient product development. This PhD project is focused on the analysis and further......Prediction of properties is important in chemical process-product design. Reliable property models are needed for increasingly complex and wider range of chemicals. Group-contribution methods provide useful tool but there is a need to validate them and improve their accuracy when complex chemicals...... are present in the mixtures. In accordance with that, a combined group-contribution and atom connectivity approach that is able to extend the application range of property models has been developed for mixture properties. This so-called Group-ContributionPlus (GCPlus) approach is a hybrid model which combines...

  10. Culture of bovine ovarian follicle wall sections maintained the highly estrogenic profile under basal and chemically defined conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, R.B.; Salles, L.P.; Silva, I. Oliveira e; Gulart, L.V.M.; Souza, D.K.; Torres, F.A.G.; Bocca, A.L.; Silva, A.A.M. Rosa e

    2013-01-01

    Follicle cultures reproduce in vitro the functional features observed in vivo. In a search for an ideal model, we cultured bovine antral follicle wall sections (FWS) in a serum-free defined medium (DM) known to induce 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) production, and in a nondefined medium (NDM) containing serum. Follicles were sectioned and cultured in NDM or DM for 24 or 48 h. Morphological features were determined by light microscopy. Gene expression of steroidogenic enzymes and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor were determined by RT-PCR; progesterone (P 4 ) and E 2 concentrations in the media were measured by radioimmunoassay. DM, but not NDM, maintained an FWS morphology in vitro that was similar to fresh tissue. DM also induced an increase in the expression of all steroidogenic enzymes, except FSH receptor, but NDM did not. In both DM and NDM, there was a gradual increase in P 4 throughout the culture period; however, P 4 concentration was significantly higher in NDM. In both media, E 2 concentration was increased at 24 h, followed by a decrease at 48 h. The E 2 :P 4 ratio was higher in DM than in NDM. These results suggest that DM maintains morphological structure, upregulates the expression of steroidogenic enzyme genes, and maintains steroid production with a high E 2 :P 4 ratio in FWS cultures

  11. Culture of bovine ovarian follicle wall sections maintained the highly estrogenic profile under basal and chemically defined conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, R.B. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Reprodução, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Salles, L.P. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Silva, I. Oliveira e; Gulart, L.V.M. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Reprodução, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Souza, D.K. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Reprodução, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Faculdade de Ceilândia, Universidade de Brasília, Ceilândia, DF (Brazil); Torres, F.A.G. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Bocca, A.L. [Departamento de Biologia Celular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Silva, A.A.M. Rosa e [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Reprodução, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2013-08-16

    Follicle cultures reproduce in vitro the functional features observed in vivo. In a search for an ideal model, we cultured bovine antral follicle wall sections (FWS) in a serum-free defined medium (DM) known to induce 17β-estradiol (E{sub 2}) production, and in a nondefined medium (NDM) containing serum. Follicles were sectioned and cultured in NDM or DM for 24 or 48 h. Morphological features were determined by light microscopy. Gene expression of steroidogenic enzymes and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor were determined by RT-PCR; progesterone (P{sub 4}) and E{sub 2} concentrations in the media were measured by radioimmunoassay. DM, but not NDM, maintained an FWS morphology in vitro that was similar to fresh tissue. DM also induced an increase in the expression of all steroidogenic enzymes, except FSH receptor, but NDM did not. In both DM and NDM, there was a gradual increase in P{sub 4} throughout the culture period; however, P{sub 4} concentration was significantly higher in NDM. In both media, E{sub 2} concentration was increased at 24 h, followed by a decrease at 48 h. The E{sub 2}:P{sub 4} ratio was higher in DM than in NDM. These results suggest that DM maintains morphological structure, upregulates the expression of steroidogenic enzyme genes, and maintains steroid production with a high E{sub 2}:P{sub 4} ratio in FWS cultures.

  12. Development of activated carbon pore structure via physical and chemical activation of biomass fibre waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Paul T.; Reed, Anton R.

    2006-01-01

    Biomass waste in the form of biomass flax fibre, produced as a by-product of the textile industry was processed via both physical and chemical activation to produce activated carbons. The surface area of the physically activated carbons were up to 840 m 2 g -1 and the carbons were of mesoporous structure. Chemical activation using zinc chloride produced high surface area activated carbons up to 2400 m 2 g -1 and the pore size distribution was mainly microporous. However, the process conditions of temperature and zinc chloride concentration could be used to manipulate the surface area and porosity of the carbons to produce microporous, mesoporous and mixed microporous/mesoporous activated carbons. The physically activated carbons were found to be a mixture of Type I and Type IV carbons and the chemically activated carbons were found to be mainly Type I carbons. The development of surface morphology of physically and chemically activated carbons observed via scanning electron microscopy showed that physical activation produced activated carbons with a nodular and pitted surface morphology whereas activated carbons produced through chemical activation had a smooth surface morphology. Transmission electron microscopy analysis could identify mesopore structures in the physically activated carbon and microporous structures in the chemically activated carbons

  13. Development of Screening Tools for the Interpretation of Chemical Biomonitoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Becker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of a larger number of chemicals in commerce from the perspective of potential human health risk has become a focus of attention in North America and Europe. Screening-level chemical risk assessment evaluations consider both exposure and hazard. Exposures are increasingly being evaluated through biomonitoring studies in humans. Interpreting human biomonitoring results requires comparison to toxicity guidance values. However, conventional chemical-specific risk assessments result in identification of toxicity-based exposure guidance values such as tolerable daily intakes (TDIs as applied doses that cannot directly be used to evaluate exposure information provided by biomonitoring data in a health risk context. This paper describes a variety of approaches for development of screening-level exposure guidance values with translation from an external dose to a biomarker concentration framework for interpreting biomonitoring data in a risk context. Applications of tools and concepts including biomonitoring equivalents (BEs, the threshold of toxicologic concern (TTC, and generic toxicokinetic and physiologically based toxicokinetic models are described. These approaches employ varying levels of existing chemical-specific data, chemical class-specific assessments, and generic modeling tools in response to varying levels of available data in order to allow assessment and prioritization of chemical exposures for refined assessment in a risk management context.

  14. Developing the Biomolecular Screening Facility at the EPFL into the Chemical Biology Screening Platform for Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcatti, Gerardo

    2014-05-01

    The Biomolecular Screening Facility (BSF) is a multidisciplinary laboratory created in 2006 at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) to perform medium and high throughput screening in life sciences-related projects. The BSF was conceived and developed to meet the needs of a wide range of researchers, without privileging a particular biological discipline or therapeutic area. The facility has the necessary infrastructure, multidisciplinary expertise and flexibility to perform large screening programs using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and chemical collections in the areas of chemical biology, systems biology and drug discovery. In the framework of the National Centres of Competence in Research (NCCR) Chemical Biology, the BSF is hosting 'ACCESS', the Academic Chemical Screening Platform of Switzerland that provides the scientific community with chemical diversity, screening facilities and know-how in chemical genetics. In addition, the BSF started its own applied research axes that are driven by innovation in thematic areas related to preclinical drug discovery and discovery of bioactive probes.

  15. Diffusion-weighted imaging of the liver at 3 T using section-selection gradient reversal: emphasis on chemical shift artefacts and lesion conspicuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.S.; Kim, Y.K.; Jeong, W.K.; Choi, D.; Lee, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess the value of section-selection gradient reversal (SSGR) in liver diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) by comparing it to conventional DWI with an emphasis on chemical shift artefacts and lesion conspicuity. Materials and methods: Forty-eight patients (29 men and 19 women; age range 33–80 years) with 48 liver lesions underwent two DWI examinations using spectral presaturation with inversion recovery fat suppression with and without SSGR at 3 T. Two reviewers evaluated each DWI (b = 100 and b = 800 image) with respect to chemical shift artefacts and liver lesion conspicuity using five-point scales and performed pairwise comparisons between the two DWIs. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the liver and the lesion and the lesion–liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were also calculated. Results: SSGR-DWI was significantly better than conventional DWI with respect to chemical shift artefacts and lesion conspicuity in both separate reviews and pairwise comparisons (p < 0.05). There were significant differences in the SNR of the liver (b = 100 and b = 800 images) and lesion (b = 800) between SSGR-DWI and conventional DWI (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Applying the SSGR method to DWI using SPIR fat suppression at 3 T could significantly reduce chemical shift artefacts without incurring additional acquisition time or SNR penalties, which leads to increased conspicuity of focal liver lesions. - Highlights: • Chemical shift artefact in liver DWI is markedly decreased by applying SSGR. • Liver lesion conspicuity is improved by applying SSGR to DWI. • In SNR of the liver, SSGR-DWI is better than conventional DWI

  16. Developing Turbulent Flow in Strongly Curved Passages of Square and Circular Cross-Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    laser-velocimetry study known to us for developing tur- bulent flow in curved pipes, Enayet , et al. E113 investigated the motion in a 90* bend with Rc...flows are very similar, being De - Re (D/Rc) 1 / 2 6.8 x 104in Rowe’s bend and 2.6 x 104 in the bend of Enayet , et al., the difference in the maximum...a curved duct of square cross section. In addition to the data taken at three longitudioal stations in the curved pipe, (0 9 300, 60° and 900), Enayet

  17. Intercomparison of modal and sectional aerosol microphysics representations within the same 3-D global chemical transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Mann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the most advanced aerosol-climate models it is common to represent the aerosol particle size distribution in terms of several log-normal modes. This approach, motivated by computational efficiency, makes assumptions about the shape of the particle distribution that may not always capture the properties of global aerosol. Here, a global modal aerosol microphysics module (GLOMAP-mode is evaluated and improved by comparing against a sectional version (GLOMAP-bin and observations in the same 3-D global offline chemistry transport model. With both schemes, the model captures the main features of the global particle size distribution, with sub-micron aerosol approximately unimodal in continental regions and bi-modal in marine regions. Initial bin-mode comparisons showed that the current values for two size distribution parameter settings in the modal scheme (mode widths and inter-modal separation sizes resulted in clear biases compared to the sectional scheme. By adjusting these parameters in the modal scheme, much better agreement is achieved against the bin scheme and observations. Annual mean surface-level mass of sulphate, sea-salt, black carbon (BC and organic carbon (OC are within 25% in the two schemes in nearly all regions. Surface level concentrations of condensation nuclei (CN, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN, surface area density and condensation sink also compare within 25% in most regions. However, marine CCN concentrations between 30° N and 30° S are systematically 25–60% higher in the modal model, which we attribute to differences in size-resolved particle growth or cloud-processing. Larger differences also exist in regions or seasons dominated by biomass burning and in free-troposphere and high-latitude regions. Indeed, in the free-troposphere, GLOMAP-mode BC is a factor 2–4 higher than GLOMAP-bin, likely due to differences in size-resolved scavenging. Nevertheless, in most parts of the atmosphere, we conclude that bin

  18. Solar cells elaborated by chemical methods: examples of research and development at CIE-UNAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, Marina E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: At the Energy Research Center (CIE-UNAM-Mexico), the major areas of renewable energy research are solar thermal energy, photovoltaic energy, geothermal energy, hydrogen energy, materials for renewable energy, and energy planning. Among the efforts to developed solar cells, both physical and chemical methods are in progress at CIE-UNAM. In this contribution we focus on the advancement in efficiency, stability, and cost, of photovoltaic junctions based on chemically deposited films. Examples of early research are a composite thin film electrode comprised of SnO2/Bi2S3 nanocrystallites (5 nm) prepared by sequential deposition of SnO2 and Bi2S3 films onto an optically transparent electrode; the co-deposition of pyrrole and Bi2S3 nanoparticles on chemically deposited bismuth sulfide substrates to explore new approaches to improve light-collection efficiency in polymer photovoltaics; the sensitization of titanium dioxide coatings by chemically deposited cadmium selenide and bismuthe sulfide thin films. Here the good photostability of the coatings was promising for the use of the sensitized films in photocatalytic as well as photovoltaic applications. More recently, chemically deposited cadmium sulfide thin films have been explored in planar hybrid heterojunctions with chemically synthesized poly 3-octylthiophene, as well as all-chemically deposited photovoltaic structures. Examples of the last are: chemically deposited thin films of CdS (80 nm), Sb2S3 (450 nm), and Ag2Se (150 nm) annealed at 300 C and integrated into a p-i-n structure glass/SnO2:F/n-CdS/Sb2S3/p-AgSbSe2/Ag, showing Voc ∼ 550 mV and Jsc ∼ 2.3 mA/cm2 at 1 kW/m2 (tungsten halogen) intensity. Similarly, chemically deposited SnS (450nm) and CuS (80nm) thin films integrated in a photovoltaic structure SnO2:F/CdS/SnS/CuS/Ag, showing Voc>300 mV and Jsc up to 5 mA/cm2 under 850 W/m2 tungsten halogen illumination. These photovoltaic structures have been found to be stable over a period extending over

  19. Current Challenges in Development of a Database of Three-Dimensional Chemical Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Miki H.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a database named 3DMET, a three-dimensional structure database of natural metabolites. There are two major impediments to the creation of 3D chemical structures from a set of planar structure drawings: the limited accuracy of computer programs and insufficient human resources for manual curation. We have tested some 2D–3D converters to convert 2D structure files from external databases. These automatic conversion processes yielded an excessive number of improper conversions. To ascertain the quality of the conversions, we compared IUPAC Chemical Identifier and canonical SMILES notations before and after conversion. Structures whose notations correspond to each other were regarded as a correct conversion in our present work. We found that chiral inversion is the most serious factor during the improper conversion. In the current stage of our database construction, published books or articles have been resources for additions to our database. Chemicals are usually drawn as pictures on the paper. To save human resources, an optical structure reader was introduced. The program was quite useful but some particular errors were observed during our operation. We hope our trials for producing correct 3D structures will help other developers of chemical programs and curators of chemical databases. PMID:26075200

  20. Development of High Temperature/High Sensitivity Novel Chemical Resistive Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Chunrui [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Enriquez, Erik [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Wang, Haibing [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Xu, Xing [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Bao, Shangyong [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Collins, Gregory [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2013-08-13

    The research has been focused to design, fabricate, and develop high temperature/high sensitivity novel multifunctional chemical sensors for the selective detection of fossil energy gases used in power and fuel systems. By systematically studying the physical properties of the LnBaCo2O5+d (LBCO) [Ln=Pr or La] thin-films, a new concept chemical sensor based high temperature chemical resistant change has been developed for the application for the next generation highly efficient and near zero emission power generation technologies. We also discovered that the superfast chemical dynamic behavior and an ultrafast surface exchange kinetics in the highly epitaxial LBCO thin films. Furthermore, our research indicates that hydrogen can superfast diffuse in the ordered oxygen vacancy structures in the highly epitaxial LBCO thin films, which suggest that the LBCO thin film not only can be an excellent candidate for the fabrication of high temperature ultra sensitive chemical sensors and control systems for power and fuel monitoring systems, but also can be an excellent candidate for the low temperature solid oxide fuel cell anode and cathode materials.

  1. Grand Challenges and Chemical Engineering Curriculum--Developments at TU Dortmund University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockmann, Norbert; Lutze, Philip; Gorak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Chemical processing industry is progressively focusing their research activities and product placements in the areas of Grand Challenges (or Global Megatrends) such as mobility, energy, communication, or health care and food. Innovation in all these fields requires solving high complex problems, rapid product development as well as dealing with…

  2. Integrating Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering Education: The Application of an Environmental Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanes, M. T.; Palomares, A. E.; Sanchez-Tovar, R.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of sustainable development have been integrated in chemical engineering education by means of an environmental management system. These principles have been introduced in the teaching laboratories where students perform their practical classes. In this paper, the implementation of the environmental management system, the problems…

  3. Can exposure to environmental chemicals increase the risk of diabetes type 1 development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Johanna; Stene, Lars Christian; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease, where destruction of beta-cells causes insulin deficiency. The incidence of T1DM has increased in the last decades and cannot entirely be explained by genetic predisposition. Several environmental factors are suggested to promote T1DM, like early childhood enteroviral infections and nutritional factors, but the evidence is inconclusive. Prenatal and early life exposure to environmental pollutants like phthalates, bisphenol A, perfluorinated compounds, PCBs, dioxins, toxicants, and air pollutants can have negative effects on the developing immune system, resulting in asthma-like symptoms and increased susceptibility to childhood infections. In this review the associations between environmental chemical exposure and T1DM development is summarized. Although information on environmental chemicals as possible triggers for T1DM is sparse, we conclude that it is plausible that environmental chemicals can contribute to T1DM development via impaired pancreatic beta-cell and immune-cell functions and immunomodulation. Several environmental factors and chemicals could act together to trigger T1DM development in genetically susceptible individuals, possibly via hormonal or epigenetic alterations. Further observational T1DM cohort studies and animal exposure experiments are encouraged.

  4. Can Exposure to Environmental Chemicals Increase the Risk of Diabetes Type 1 Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Bodin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is an autoimmune disease, where destruction of beta-cells causes insulin deficiency. The incidence of T1DM has increased in the last decades and cannot entirely be explained by genetic predisposition. Several environmental factors are suggested to promote T1DM, like early childhood enteroviral infections and nutritional factors, but the evidence is inconclusive. Prenatal and early life exposure to environmental pollutants like phthalates, bisphenol A, perfluorinated compounds, PCBs, dioxins, toxicants, and air pollutants can have negative effects on the developing immune system, resulting in asthma-like symptoms and increased susceptibility to childhood infections. In this review the associations between environmental chemical exposure and T1DM development is summarized. Although information on environmental chemicals as possible triggers for T1DM is sparse, we conclude that it is plausible that environmental chemicals can contribute to T1DM development via impaired pancreatic beta-cell and immune-cell functions and immunomodulation. Several environmental factors and chemicals could act together to trigger T1DM development in genetically susceptible individuals, possibly via hormonal or epigenetic alterations. Further observational T1DM cohort studies and animal exposure experiments are encouraged.

  5. Developing Computer Model-Based Assessment of Chemical Reasoning: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Waight, Noemi; Gregorius, Roberto; Smith, Erica; Park, Mihwa

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a feasibility study on developing computer model-based assessments of chemical reasoning at the high school level. Computer models are flash and NetLogo environments to make simultaneously available three domains in chemistry: macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic. Students interact with computer models to answer assessment…

  6. Federal agencies active in chemical industry-related research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-29

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 calls for a program to further the commercialization of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies for the industrial sector.. The primary objective of the Office of Industrial Technologies Chemical Industry Team is to work in partnership with the US chemical industry to maximize economic, energy, and environmental benefits through research and development of innovative technologies. This document was developed to inventory organizations within the federal government on current chemical industry-related research and development. While an amount of funding or number of projects specifically relating to chemical industry research and development was not defined in all organizations, identified were about 60 distinct organizations representing 7 cabinet-level departments and 4 independent agencies, with research efforts exceeding $3.5 billion in fiscal year 1995. Effort were found to range from less than $500 thousand per year at the Departments of Agriculture and the Interior to over $100 million per year at the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and Health and Human Services and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The total number of projects in these programs exceeded 10,000. This document is complete to the extent that agencies volunteered information. Additions, corrections, and changes are encouraged and will be incorporated in future revisions.

  7. Recent developments in the Clean Water Act: Section 404 regulatory program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsch, T. (EPA, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Since the late 1970's and the 1980's, the Nation has become increasingly aware of the vital role wetlands play in providing habitat, protecting us from flooding and maintaining surface water quality. This public awakening came at the same time that the Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wetlands Inventory published reports indicating that less than one half of the wetlands that existed when the Europeans came to the US remain. The reports also indicated that the US was continuing to lose approximately 450,000 acres of our wetlands per year. Although recent data updating the status and trends of wetland losses for the 1980's indicate that the rate of loss has decreased, the Fish and Wildlife Service estimates indicate that approximately 290,000 acres of wetlands are still lost each year. Any loss in the natural functions provided by wetlands is not just felt in the environment; we simultaneously sustain, as a loss to our national economy, a decline in the income that could have been derived from the fisheries, recreation and other critical services performed by wetland systems. Clearly wetlands merit protection. However, in the US, where over 75 percent of our remaining wetlands are on private property, the protection of wetlands is often a difficult and sometimes contentious issue -- evoking debate about private property rights, economic development, the public interest in protecting wetland values, and the kind of world we wish to leave for future generations. Section 404 of the Clean Water Act establishes the primary Federal regulatory program providing protection for the Nation's remaining wetlands. The Section 404 permit program is recognized by both its supporters and critics as one of the strongest, yet often most contentious, Federal environmental protection programs. This presentation provides an overview of the Section 404 regulatory requirements and discusses some of the recent developments that have stirred considerable

  8. Cesarean section delivery and development of food allergy and atopic dermatitis in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathoma, Evangelia; Triga, Maria; Fouzas, Sotirios; Dimitriou, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Delivery by Cesarean section (CS) may predispose to allergic disorders, presumably due to alterations in the establishment of normal gut microbiota in early infancy. In this study, we sought to investigate the association between CS and physician-diagnosed food allergy and atopic dermatitis during the first 3 years of life, using data from a homogeneous, population-based, birth cohort. A total of 459 children born and cared for in the same tertiary maternity unit were examined at birth and followed up at 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months of age. Participants with symptoms suggestive of food allergy or atopic dermatitis were evaluated by a pediatric allergy specialist to confirm the diagnosis based on well-defined criteria. The rate of CS was 50.8% (n = 233). Food allergy was diagnosed in 24 participants (5.2%) while atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 62 children (13.5%). Cesarean section (OR 3.15; 95% CI 1.14-8.70), atopic dermatitis of the child (OR 3.01; 95% CI 1.18-7.80), parental atopy (OR 4.33; 95% CI 1.73-12.1), and gestational age (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.07-2.37) were significant and independent predictors of food allergy. Children with at least one allergic parent delivered by CS had higher probability of developing food allergy compared with vaginally delivered children of non-allergic parents (OR 10.0; 95% CI 3.06-32.7). Conversely, the effect of CS on atopic dermatitis was not significant (OR 1.35; 95% CI 0.74-2.47). Delivery by CS predisposes to the development of food allergy but not atopic dermatitis in early childhood. Cesarean section delivery seems to upregulate the immune response to food allergens, especially in children with allergic predisposition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Transient simulation of an endothermic chemical process facility coupled to a high temperature reactor: Model development and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Seker, Volkan; Revankar, Shripad T.; Downar, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Models for PBMR and thermochemical sulfur cycle based hydrogen plant are developed. ► Models are validated against available data in literature. ► Transient in coupled reactor and hydrogen plant system is studied. ► For loss-of-heat sink accident, temperature feedback within the reactor core enables shut down of the reactor. - Abstract: A high temperature reactor (HTR) is a candidate to drive high temperature water-splitting using process heat. While both high temperature nuclear reactors and hydrogen generation plants have high individual degrees of development, study of the coupled plant is lacking. Particularly absent are considerations of the transient behavior of the coupled plant, as well as studies of the safety of the overall plant. The aim of this document is to contribute knowledge to the effort of nuclear hydrogen generation. In particular, this study regards identification of safety issues in the coupled plant and the transient modeling of some leading candidates for implementation in the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). The Sulfur Iodine (SI) and Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycles are considered as candidate hydrogen generation schemes. Three thermodynamically derived chemical reaction chamber models are coupled to a well-known reference design of a high temperature nuclear reactor. These chemical reaction chamber models have several dimensions of validation, including detailed steady state flowsheets, integrated loop test data, and bench scale chemical kinetics. The models and coupling scheme are presented here, as well as a transient test case initiated within the chemical plant. The 50% feed flow failure within the chemical plant results in a slow loss-of-heat sink (LOHS) accident in the nuclear reactor. Due to the temperature feedback within the reactor core the nuclear reactor partially shuts down over 1500 s. Two distinct regions are identified within the coupled plant response: (1) immediate LOHS due to the loss of the sulfuric

  10. Virtual embryology: a 3D library reconstructed from human embryo sections and animation of development process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, M; Miura, T; Shiota, K; Minato, K; Takahashi, T

    1995-01-01

    The volumetric shape of a human embryo and its development is hard to comprehend as they have been viewed as a 2D schemes in a textbook or microscopic sectional image. In this paper, a CAI and research support system for human embryology using multimedia presentation techniques is described. In this system, 3D data is acquired from a series of sliced specimens. Its 3D structure can be viewed interactively by rotating, extracting, and truncating its whole body or organ. Moreover, the development process of embryos can be animated using a morphing technique applied to the specimen in several stages. The system is intended to be used interactively, like a virtual reality system. Hence, the system is called Virtual Embryology.

  11. A Collaborative Approach to Transportation Planning: Federal and State Perspectives on Section 180(c) Program Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macaluso, C.; Strong, T.; Janairo, L.; Helvey, E.

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) committed in its November 2003 Strategic Plan for the Safe Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste to Yucca Mountain: A Guide to Stakeholder Interactions to develop the transportation system collaboratively with stakeholders. The Strategic Plan further stated that four state regional groups (SRGs) would be the 'anchors' for OCRWM's collaboration with the states. The first major transportation planning activity that OCRWM initiated after publication of the Strategic Plan was the development of the Section 180(c) grant program. This document describes that collaboration and its outcomes from the perspective of the OCRWM participants and one of the SRGs, the Council of State Governments - Midwestern Office (CSG Midwest). (authors)

  12. Patterns of development of unspecific reaction of cells and modification of chemical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veksler, A.M.; Korystov, Yu.N.; Kublik, L.N.; Ehjdus, L.Kh.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of a correlation between radioprotective efficiency of different chemical agents (weak electrolytes) and conditions of treatment. It was demonstrated that the pattern of changes in the protection efficiency, with modification thereof, is similar to that of the development of unspecific reaction and determined by the intracellular concentration of the chemical agents, which, in turn, is function of physicochemical parameters of the substance and pH gradient between cell and medium. With similar intracellular concentration, caffeine-benzoate, thioglicolic acid and caffeine proved to be equally effective, while the protective effect of cysteamine was appreciably higher

  13. Development of a Mechanical Analysis System Considering Chemical Transitions of Barrier Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahara, F.; Murakami, T.; Ito, H.; Kobayashi, I.; Yokozeki, K.

    2006-01-01

    An analysis system for the long-term mechanical behavior of barrier materials (MACBECE: Mechanical Analysis system considering Chemical transitions of Bentonite-based and Cement-based materials) was developed in order to improve the reliability of the evaluation of the hydraulic field that is one of the important environmental conditions in the safety assessment of the TRU waste disposal in Japan. The MACBECE is a system that calculates the deformation of barrier materials using their chemical property changes as inputs, and subsequently their hydraulic conductivity taking both their chemical property changes and deformation into consideration. This paper provides a general description of MACBECE and the results of experimental analysis carried out using MACBECE. (authors)

  14. Development of chemical cleaning formulation for service water system of FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Das, P.C.; Mathur, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    Service water system of Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) was found to be corroded and at few locations, the corrosion product oxides were choking the smaller diameter pipelines. An attempt was made to develop a chemical cleaning formulation to chemically remove the oxides using a surface conditioner and chelating agents. Of the several complexants tested, hydroxyethylethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (HEDTA) was found to be better than other complexants from the point of view of oxide dissolution efficiency, solubility etc. A two stage chemical cleaning process involving conditioning of the oxide layer with 0.1% tannic acid followed by exposure of the conditioned oxide layer with a formulation containing 1% HEDTA + 0.5% Sodium Gluconate +0.2% hexamine was recommended to remove the corrosion product oxide present in the service water system. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Development of tight-binding, chemical-reaction-dynamics simulator for combinatorial computational chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Momoji; Ando, Minako; Sakahara, Satoshi; Jung, Changho; Seki, Kotaro; Kusagaya, Tomonori; Endou, Akira; Takami, Seiichi; Imamura, Akira; Miyamoto, Akira

    2004-01-01

    Recently, we have proposed a new concept called 'combinatorial computational chemistry' to realize a theoretical, high-throughput screening of catalysts and materials. We have already applied our combinatorial, computational-chemistry approach, mainly based on static first-principles calculations, to various catalysts and materials systems and its applicability to the catalysts and materials design was strongly confirmed. In order to realize more effective and efficient combinatorial, computational-chemistry screening, a high-speed, chemical-reaction-dynamics simulator based on quantum-chemical, molecular-dynamics method is essential. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no chemical-reaction-dynamics simulator, which has an enough high-speed ability to perform a high-throughput screening. In the present study, we have succeeded in the development of a chemical-reaction-dynamics simulator based on our original, tight-binding, quantum-chemical, molecular-dynamics method, which is more than 5000 times faster than the regular first-principles, molecular-dynamics method. Moreover, its applicability and effectiveness to the atomistic clarification of the methanol-synthesis dynamics at reaction temperature were demonstrated

  16. The Alexandria library, a quantum-chemical database of molecular properties for force field development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremanpour, Mohammad M; van Maaren, Paul J; van der Spoel, David

    2018-04-10

    Data quality as well as library size are crucial issues for force field development. In order to predict molecular properties in a large chemical space, the foundation to build force fields on needs to encompass a large variety of chemical compounds. The tabulated molecular physicochemical properties also need to be accurate. Due to the limited transparency in data used for development of existing force fields it is hard to establish data quality and reusability is low. This paper presents the Alexandria library as an open and freely accessible database of optimized molecular geometries, frequencies, electrostatic moments up to the hexadecupole, electrostatic potential, polarizabilities, and thermochemistry, obtained from quantum chemistry calculations for 2704 compounds. Values are tabulated and where available compared to experimental data. This library can assist systematic development and training of empirical force fields for a broad range of molecules.

  17. The Alexandria library, a quantum-chemical database of molecular properties for force field development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremanpour, Mohammad M.; van Maaren, Paul J.; van der Spoel, David

    2018-04-01

    Data quality as well as library size are crucial issues for force field development. In order to predict molecular properties in a large chemical space, the foundation to build force fields on needs to encompass a large variety of chemical compounds. The tabulated molecular physicochemical properties also need to be accurate. Due to the limited transparency in data used for development of existing force fields it is hard to establish data quality and reusability is low. This paper presents the Alexandria library as an open and freely accessible database of optimized molecular geometries, frequencies, electrostatic moments up to the hexadecupole, electrostatic potential, polarizabilities, and thermochemistry, obtained from quantum chemistry calculations for 2704 compounds. Values are tabulated and where available compared to experimental data. This library can assist systematic development and training of empirical force fields for a broad range of molecules.

  18. Development and validation of a cross-section interface for PARCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalek, Mathias; Demaziere, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of a cross-section interface for PARCS and its validation. The interface is used to feed PARCS with material constants for Light Water Reactors. These material constants are obtained from a CASMO-4 library file and the SIMULATE-3 code is then used to read this library file. This interface allows a dependency of the material constants on exposure and on instantaneous and history variables. Since the functionalization of the cross-sections in CASMO-4/SIMULATE-3 is different from the one in PARCS, the conversion of the material data from the CASMO-4/SIMULATE-3 formalism to the PARCS formalism is not trivial. As a first check of the proper conversion of the data by the interface, the cross-section files created by the interface were read by PARCS. The data were thereafter edited for all possible burnup, instantaneous and history parameters and compared to the original data used to create the files. After this successful verification, a benchmark between PARCS and plant measured data was carried out. For this benchmark a number of measurement sets from the Swedish Ringhals-3 pressurized water reactor were obtained. These data were measured during different cycles and at different core exposures. The spatial distribution of the instantaneous variables, the history variables and the exposure were calculated by SIMULATE-3 and used by PARCS to retrieve the actual three-dimensional distribution of the material data. The deviation of the effective multiplication factor k eff from criticality was found to be within ±200 pcm. Both the measured axial and radial power profiles were adequately reproduced by the PARCS simulations, although some discrepancies with plant data need to be further investigated

  19. Development of a Minimum Data Set (MDS) for C-Section Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheykhotayefeh, Mostafa; Safdari, Reza; Ghazisaeedi, Marjan; Khademi, Seyed Hossein; Seyed Farajolah, Seyedeh Sedigheh; Maserat, Elham; Jebraeily, Mohamad; Torabi, Vahid

    2017-04-01

    Caesarean section, also known as C-section, is a very common procedure in the world. Minimum data set (MDS) is defined as a set of data elements holding information regarding a series of target entities to provide a basis for planning, management, and performance evaluation. MDS has found a great use in health care information systems. Also, it can be considered as a basis for medical information management and has shown a great potential for contributing to the provision of high quality care and disease control measures. The principal aim of this research was to determine MDS and required capabilities for Anesthesia information management system (AIMS) in C-section in Iran. Data items collected from several selected AIMS were studied to establish an initial set of data. The population of this study composed of 115 anesthesiologists was asked to review the proposed data elements and score them in order of importance by using a five-point Likert scale. The items scored as important or highly important by at least 75% of the experts were included in the final list of minimum data set. Overall 8 classes of data (consisted of 81 key data elements) were determined as final set. Also, the most important required capabilities were related to airway management and hypertension and hypotension management. In the development of information system (IS) based on MDS and identification, because of the broad involvement of users, IS capabilities must focus on the users' needs to form a successful system. Therefore, it is essential to assess MDS watchfully by considering the planned uses of data. Also, IS should have essential capabilities to meet the needs of its users.

  20. Develop of a model to minimize and to treat waste coming from the chemical laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon Hernandez, M.

    2000-01-01

    They were investigated and proposed alternative of minimization and treatment of waste organic type coming from chemical laboratories, considering as alternative the disposition for the drainage, the chemical treatment of the waste, the disposition in sanitary fillers, the creation of a cellar to recycle material, the incineration, the distillation and the possibility to establish an agreement with the company Cements INCSA to discard the materials in the oven to cements of this enterprise. the methodology had as first stage the summary of information about the production of residuals for Investigation Center or Academic Unit. For this they were considered the laboratories of investigation of the CICA, CELEQ, CIPRONA, LAYAFA, and the laboratories of teaching of the sections of Organic Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Physicochemical, Pharmacognosy, Drugs Analysis, Physicopharmacy, Histology and Physiology. Additionally, you considers the office of purveyor of the Microbiology School. Subsequently one carries out an analysis of costs to determine which waste constituted most of the waste generated by the University, as for cost and volume. Then, they were carried out classifications of the materials according to chemical approaches, classification of the NFPA and for data of combustion heats. Once carried out this classification and established the current situation of the laboratories considered as for handling and treatment of waste, they proceeded to evaluate and select treatment options and disposition of waste considering advantages and disadvantages as for implementation possibility and cost stops this way a minimization model and treatment that it can be implemented in the University to settle down [es

  1. Systematic development and optimization of chemically defined medium supporting high cell density growth of Bacillus coagulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Dong, Fengqing; Wang, Yonghong

    2016-09-01

    With determined components and experimental reducibility, the chemically defined medium (CDM) and the minimal chemically defined medium (MCDM) are used in many metabolism and regulation studies. This research aimed to develop the chemically defined medium supporting high cell density growth of Bacillus coagulans, which is a promising producer of lactic acid and other bio-chemicals. In this study, a systematic methodology combining the experimental technique with flux balance analysis (FBA) was proposed to design and simplify a CDM. The single omission technique and single addition technique were employed to determine the essential and stimulatory compounds, before the optimization of their concentrations by the statistical method. In addition, to improve the growth rationally, in silico omission and addition were performed by FBA based on the construction of a medium-size metabolic model of B. coagulans 36D1. Thus, CDMs were developed to obtain considerable biomass production of at least five B. coagulans strains, in which two model strains B. coagulans 36D1 and ATCC 7050 were involved.

  2. Development of a Neutron Long Counter Detector for (α, n) Cross Section Measurements at Ohio University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Kristyn; Meisel, Zach; Brune, Carl R.; Massey, Thomas; Soltesz, Doug; Subedi, Shiv

    2017-01-01

    The origin of the elements from roughly zinc-to-tin (30 determined. The neutron-rich neutrino driven wind of core collapse supernova (CCSN) is a proposed site for the nucleosynthesis of these elements. However, a significant source of uncertainty exists in elemental abundance yields from astrophysics model calculations due to the uncertainty for (α , n) reaction rates, as most of the relevant cross sections have yet to be measured. We are developing a neutron long counter tailored to measure neutrons for (α , n) reaction measurements performed at The Ohio University Edwards Accelerator Laboratory. The detector design will be optimized using the Monte-Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP6). Details of the optimization process, as well as the present status of the detector design will be provided. The plans for first (α , n) cross section measurements will also be briefly discussed. This work was supported in part by the US Department of Energy under Grant Number DE-FG02-88ER40387.

  3. Prototype development of radio frequency cavity and quadrupole for ADSS - initial efforts by mechanical design and prototype development section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Manish; Kamble, Sunil; Choughule, L.S.; Kumar, Sunil; Patankar, S.R.; Phalke, V.M.; Dharmik, D.A.; Singh, Tejinder; Ram, Y.; Chaudhari, A.T.; Pathak, Kavindra; Prasad, N.K.; Marathe, V.V.; Matkar, A.W.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical Design and Prototype Development Section has participated in the efforts for development of RF cavity and Quadrupole for ADSS. Recently prototype Super conducting RF cavity, Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) Simulation Chamber and related experimental setups were developed, fabricated and delivered for the characterisation of various relevant parameters. Under the program for development of Super conducting RF Cavity for high-energy section of LINAC of ADS first prototype RF Cavity of ETP copper was developed by machining and brazing process. The prototype cavity having elliptical and circular profile is the heart of this setup. The cavity is made up of two symmetrical cups joined together by welding or brazing. Various methods are being tried out by MD and PDS for the fabrication of cups and joining them together. Manufacturing of cup by machining and joining them by conventional brazing technique to make the cavity was the first step in this direction. Another method of manufacturing and joining viz forming of cup by deep drawing and joining them by EB welding is in progress. RFQ is a versatile and efficient system for accelerating ion beams especially at low energy. It works in quadrupole mode, which is at 350M Hz. RFQ Focuses, Bunches and Accelerates the beam simultaneously. The bunching is done in this RFQ, which results in more than 95% transmission where as in the normal buncher the transmission is less than 40%. The actual RFQ, which is designed for the PURNIMA facility, will be fabricated from OFHC copper that will accelerate a deuteron (D+) ion beam from 50keV to 400keV over its 1.37meter length. For the validation of manufacturing process and characterisation of various parameters at low frequency a 500mm long prototype RFQ in Aluminium with an accuracy of ± 25microns and surface finish of 1.6 micron has been fabricated by MD and PDS. A simplified simulation chamber to facilitate the development of RFQ for

  4. Development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models to predict the carcinogenic potency of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatapathy, Raghuraman; Wang Chingyi; Bruce, Robert Mark; Moudgal, Chandrika

    2009-01-01

    Determining the carcinogenicity and carcinogenic potency of new chemicals is both a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In order to expedite the screening process, there is a need to identify alternative toxicity measures that may be used as surrogates for carcinogenic potency. Alternative toxicity measures for carcinogenic potency currently being used in the literature include lethal dose (dose that kills 50% of a study population [LD 50 ]), lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between tumor dose (TD 50 ) and three alternative toxicity measures as an estimator of carcinogenic potency. A second aim of this study was to develop a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) between TD 50 and estimated/experimental predictor variables to predict the carcinogenic potency of new chemicals. Rat TD 50 s of 590 structurally diverse chemicals were obtained from the Cancer Potency Database, and the three alternative toxicity measures considered in this study were estimated using TOPKAT, a toxicity estimation software. Though poor correlations were obtained between carcinogenic potency and the three alternative toxicity (both experimental and TOPKAT) measures for the CPDB chemicals, a CART developed using experimental data with no missing values as predictor variables provided reasonable estimates of TD 50 for nine chemicals that were part of an external validation set. However, if experimental values for the three alternative measures, mutagenicity and logP are not available in the literature, then either the CART developed using missing experimental values or estimated values may be used for making a prediction

  5. Development of a system of measuring double-differential cross sections for proton-induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Sato, K. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Meigo, S.

    1997-03-01

    We report the present status of a counter telescope and a data acquisition system which are being developed for the measurement of double-differential cross sections of all light-charged particles emitted from proton-induced reactions on {sup 12}C at incident energies less than 90 MeV. The counter telescope consists of an active collimator made of a plastic scintillator, two thin silicon {Delta}E-detectors and a CsI(Tl) E-detectors with photo-diode readout. Signals from each detector are processed using the data acquisition system consisting of the front-end electronics (CAMAC) and two computers connected with the ethernet LAN: a personal computer as the data collector and server, and a UNIX workstation as the monitor and analyzer. (author)

  6. Development of a code FITWR for nuclear cross section statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alrwashdeh, Mohammad; Kan, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We used the weighted least square with nonlinear regression method to fit experimental nuclear data. • The FITWR code has been successful applied for both light and heavy nuclei with many resonance points. • More improvements will be applied in the future, by including a new methods for nuclear data fitting. - Abstract: A computer program named FITWR has been developed and applied to the experimental total cross sections for MEV incident energy particles such as neutron and proton. The computer program FITWR adapted the weighted least square method with weighted mathematical models with nonlinear regression applied to high order fitting polynomial, in order to meet the growing demands of the experimental nuclear data. The computer program FITWR deals with variance and covariance data provided along with experimental data and yields those for the evaluated ones

  7. Developments in environmental and engineering law in 1990. Section VI. Atomic energy and radiation protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandner, T.

    1991-01-01

    Section VI is devoted to the development of atomic and radiation protection law in the period between 1.1.1990-31.1.1991. Through the debate on the greenhouse effect, nuclear power has recently become more attractive again as an energy carrier. Legislation took place in the EC (import conditions after the Chernobyl accident, maximum radioactivity values in animal feeds) and in Germany (statutory order on the establishment of a Radiation Protection Register, special provisions for the acceded territories of the former GDR). The following individual questions are discussed: Federal supervision - decision of the Federal Constitutional Court of 22.5.1990 on the fast breeder reactor with regard to the right to issue orders; nuclear disposal - decision of the Federal Administrative Court on the Gorleben salt dome with regard to planning procedure. (HSCH) [de

  8. Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program: Recent developments in crack initiation and arrest research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Technology for the analysis of crack initiation and arrest is central to the reactor pressure vessel fracture-margin-assessment process. Regulatory procedures for nuclear plants utilize this technology to assure the retention of adequate fracture-prevention margins throughout the plant operating license period. As nuclear plants age and regulatory procedures dictate that fracture-margin assessments be performed, interest in the fracture-mechanics technology incorporated into those procedures has heightened. This has led to proposals from a number of sources for development and refinement of the underlying crack-initiation and arrest-analysis technology. This paper presents an overview of ongoing Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program research aimed at refining the fracture toughness data used in the analysis of fracture margins under pressurized-thermal-shock loading conditions. 33 refs., 13 figs

  9. Recent developments pertinent to processing of ENDF/B-6 type resonance cross section data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, R. N.

    1998-01-01

    In view of our increasing dependence on computations rather than construction and operation of more costly experimental facilities, the rigor and accuracy achievable by calculational methods certainly deserve more attention. This is particularly so for the Monte Carlo methods which are generally regarded as the ultimate computational standard for the entire nuclear community around the globe. One obvious question that one may raise is whether the numerical algorithms deployed to process cross sections accurately reflect the rigor of the state-of-the-art nuclear data. The case in point is particularly essential in the resolved and the unresolved resonance regions, which constitute the most demanding task in all processing codes for reactor applications. For the resolved energy region, the point-wise cross sections are highly fluctuating functions of energy and temperature. In light of the availability of a large body of resonance data spanning over the much expanded energy ranges for most of major nuclides, critical examinations and improvement where appropriate, of the existing methods are apparently in order. For the unresolved energy region, improvement of traditional methods based on statistical approaches for treating the self-shielding effects is also desirable. From the perspective of the Monte Carlo approach, an alternative means for generating the probability tables without the inevitable difficulties associated with statistical uncertainties and/or those with concerns of uniqueness is needed. The accuracy considerations provide the motivation for the recent efforts at ANL to upgrade the existing VIMB processing code developed in early 70's in order to deal processing codes with these issues. Various tasks of upgrading are still at various stages of development. The purpose of this paper is to present an up-to-date account of the work in progress

  10. Development of Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Fralick, G.; Thomas, V.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, W. H.; Ward, B.; Makel, D.

    2002-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, fire detection, and environmental monitoring. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. However, due to issues of selectivity and cross-sensitivity, individual sensors are limited in the amount of information that they can provide in environments that contain multiple chemical species. Thus, sensor arrays are being developed to address detection needs in such multi-species environments. This paper discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, hydrazine, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  11. Comparison of chemical and radiological risk assessment and management in a perspective of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.

    2002-01-01

    The development towards improved health in the world has been associated with increased pressures on the environment. To cope with these and promote development, strategies to develop social, economic and environmental sustainability have been developed following the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio 1992. The OECD has established an Initiative for Sustainable Development, and will in the spring of 2001 discuss an Environmental Outlook and a Strategy. The objectives of the Environmental Outlook and Strategy are: (i) to generate an economy-based 'vision' of environmental conditions in 2020 (the Outlook); and (ii) to review (and recommend) practical policy options for moving that outlook in a more 'environmentally-friendly' direction (the Strategy). In discussions around the Environmental strategy, five objectives have been proposed to enhance environmental policies in the context of sustainable development. The human practices involving radiation and chemicals should concur with these objectives. The purposes of radiation protection and chemical safety are to ensure that protection of health and the environment is given sufficient weight when the balance is sought between the social, economic and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. This paper examines to what extent such balance is addressed in about 60 examples of principles and implementation, structured according to the five draft objectives. To give a couple of examples, in radiation protection, control of new practices from the beginning is distinguished from intervention in existing situations. In both radiation protection and chemical safety, control of practices as well as interventions is used, but radiation protection has come much further in controlling practices, with e.g. due regard taken to the long-term capacity of sinks to absorb pollution. For nuclear power, costs of environmental pollution, waste management and accidents are to a high degree

  12. Children's Elementary School Social Experience and Executive Functions Development: Introduction to a Special Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lier, Pol A C; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2016-01-01

    Children's executive functions, encompassing inhibitory control, working memory and attention are vital for their self-regulation. With the transition to formal schooling, children need to learn to manage their emotions and behavior in a new and complex social environment that with age increases in the intensity of social interactions with peers and teachers. Stronger executive functions skills facilitate children's social development. In addition, new experiences in the social environments of school also may influence executive function development. The focus of this special section is on this potential impact of elementary school social experiences with peers and teacher on the development of children's executive functions. The collection of papers encompass various aspects of peer and teacher social environments, and cover broad as well as specific facets and measures of executive functions including neural responses. The collection of papers sample developmental periods that span preschool through mid-adolescence. In this introduction, we summarize and highlight the main findings of each of the papers, organized around social interactions with peers and interactions with teachers. We conclude our synopsis with implications for future research, and a specific focus on prevention and intervention.

  13. Sex-Specific Effects of Combined Exposure to Chemical and Non-chemical Stressors on Neuroendocrine Development: a Review of Recent Findings and Putative Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Whitney J; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-12-01

    Environmental toxicants and psychosocial stressors share many biological substrates and influence overlapping physiological pathways. Increasing evidence indicates stress-induced changes to the maternal milieu may prime rapidly developing physiological systems for disruption by concurrent or subsequent exposure to environmental chemicals. In this review, we highlight putative mechanisms underlying sex-specific susceptibility of the developing neuroendocrine system to the joint effects of stress or stress correlates and environmental toxicants (bisphenol A, alcohol, phthalates, lead, chlorpyrifos, and traffic-related air pollution). We provide evidence indicating that concurrent or tandem exposure to chemical and non-chemical stressors during windows of rapid development is associated with sex-specific synergistic, potentiated and reversed effects on several neuroendocrine endpoints related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, sex steroid levels, neurotransmitter circuits, and innate immune function. We additionally identify gaps, such as the role that the endocrine-active placenta plays, in our understanding of these complex interactions. Finally, we discuss future research needs, including the investigation of non-hormonal biomarkers of stress. We demonstrate multiple physiologic systems are impacted by joint exposure to chemical and non-chemical stressors differentially among males and females. Collectively, the results highlight the importance of evaluating sex-specific endpoints when investigating the neuroendocrine system and underscore the need to examine exposure to chemical toxicants within the context of the social environment.

  14. Status summary of chemical processing development in plutonium-238 supply program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Emory D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Benker, Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wham, Robert M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DePaoli, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delmau, Laetitia Helene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sherman, Steven R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This document summarizes the status of development of chemical processing in the Plutonium-238 Supply Program (PSP) near the end of Demonstration 1. The objective of the PSP is “to develop, demonstrate, and document a production process that meets program objectives and to prepare for its operation” (Frazier et al. 2016). Success in the effort includes establishing capability using the current infrastructure to produce Np targets for irradiation in Department of Energy research reactors, chemically processing the irradiated targets to separate and purify the produced Pu and transferring the PuO2 product to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) at an average rate of 1.5 kg/y.

  15. Chemical dissection of the cell cycle: probes for cell biology and anti-cancer drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senese, S; Lo, Y C; Huang, D; Zangle, T A; Gholkar, A A; Robert, L; Homet, B; Ribas, A; Summers, M K; Teitell, M A; Damoiseaux, R; Torres, J Z

    2014-10-16

    Cancer cell proliferation relies on the ability of cancer cells to grow, transition through the cell cycle, and divide. To identify novel chemical probes for dissecting the mechanisms governing cell cycle progression and cell division, and for developing new anti-cancer therapeutics, we developed and performed a novel cancer cell-based high-throughput chemical screen for cell cycle modulators. This approach identified novel G1, S, G2, and M-phase specific inhibitors with drug-like properties and diverse chemotypes likely targeting a broad array of processes. We further characterized the M-phase inhibitors and highlight the most potent M-phase inhibitor MI-181, which targets tubulin, inhibits tubulin polymerization, activates the spindle assembly checkpoint, arrests cells in mitosis, and triggers a fast apoptotic cell death. Importantly, MI-181 has broad anti-cancer activity, especially against BRAF(V600E) melanomas.

  16. The development of chemically vapor deposited mullite coatings for the corrosion protection of SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auger, M.; Hou, P.; Sengupta, A.; Basu, S.; Sarin, V. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Crystalline mullite coatings have been chemically vapor deposited onto SiC substrates to enhance the corrosion and oxidation resistance of the substrate. Current research has been divided into three distinct areas: (1) Development of the deposition processing conditions for increased control over coating`s growth rate, microstructure, and morphology; (2) Analysis of the coating`s crystal structure and stability; (3) The corrosion resistance of the CVD mullite coating on SiC.

  17. Development of a chemically defined medium for studying foodborne bacterial-fungal interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsbjerg, Stina Dissing; Honoré, Anders Hans; Vogensen, Finn Kvist

    2015-01-01

    judged by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry) a chemically defined interaction medium (CDIM) was developed. The medium supported growth of antifungal cultures such as Lactobacillus paracasei and Propionibacterium freudenreichii, as well as spoilage moulds and yeasts isolated from...... fermented milk products. Both strong and weak antifungal interactions observed in milk could be reproduced in CDIM. The medium seems suitable for studying antifungal activity of bacterial cultures....

  18. Developing Navy Capability to Recover Forces in Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Hazard Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    damage control; LHD flight deck and well deck operations; fleet surgical team; Afloat Training Group; Assault Craft Unit; Naval Surface Warfare Center ...Biological, Radiological and Nuclear School, and U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center , Guidelines for Mass Casualty Decontamination During a HAZMAT...Policy Center of the RAND National Defense Research Institute, a federally funded research and development center sponsored by OSD, the Joint Staff

  19. Formation and Chemical Development of Non-metallic Inclusions in Ladle Treatment of Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Beskow, Kristina

    2003-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate theformation and chemical development of non-metallic inclusionsduring ladle treatment of steel. To begin with, an investigation of the deoxidation processand the impact of aluminium addition was carried out. For thispurpose, a new experimental setup was constructed. The setupallowed the examination of the deoxidation process as afunction of time by using a quenching technique. Preliminaryexperiments showed that homogeneous nucleation of alumin...

  20. Possibilities for recovery and prospects of the Serbian chemical industry in the light of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Petar M.

    2014-01-01

    such as food, construction, energy, and many others, from the medium technologies domain, as well as those from the high technologies domain, such as bio-medical, pharmaceutical or cosmetic technologies. In such manner, the participation of chemical industry in the re-industrialisation of Serbia should not be observed only as a contribution to the recovery of industry, but as a factor of sustainable development in all its components, economic, social and ecological.

  1. Development and Field Trial of Dimpled-Tube Technology for Chemical Industry Process Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaroslav Chudnovsky; Aleksandr Kozlov

    2006-10-12

    Most approaches to increasing heat transfer rates in the convection sections of gas-fired process heaters involve the incorporation of fins, baffles, turbulizers, etc. to increase either the heat transfer surface area or turbulence or both. Although these approaches are effective in increasing the heat transfer rates, this increase is invariably accompanied by an associated increase in convection section pressure drop as well as, for heaters firing ‘dirty’ fuel mixtures, increased fouling of the tubes – both of which are highly undesirable. GTI has identified an approach that will increase heat transfer rates without a significant increase in pressure drop or fouling rate. Compared to other types of heat transfer enhancement approaches, the proposed dimpled tube approach achieves very high heat transfer rates at the lowest pressure drops. Incorporating this approach into convection sections of chemical industry fired process heaters may increase energy efficiency by 3-5%. The energy efficiency increase will allow reducing firing rates to provide the required heating duty while reducing the emissions of CO2 and NOx.

  2. Experimental Engineering Section semiannual progress report (excluding reactor programs), March 1, 1975--August 31, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, C.D.; Burtis, C.A.; Groenier, W.S.; Pitt, W.W.; Ryon, A.D.; Watson, C.D.; Watson, J.S. (comps.)

    1976-09-01

    Sections are included on centrifugal analyzer development, advanced analytical techniques, bioengineering research and development, environmental studies, chemical engineering research, controlled thermonuclear processing, and coal conversion process development. A separate abstract was prepared for each section. (JRD)

  3. Development of a technical scheme for the management of chemical dangerous substances in hospitable environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleja Amador, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    The chemical substances that are used in the hospitals, and their remainders, represent risks for the environment, the health and security of those who work in these establishments, and of the civil population. The deficiency of a norm that establishes the directives for the handling responsible for such products in the hospitals that our country has motivated the elaboration of a technical scheme that serves as it guides for the correct manipulation, storage and safe disposition of chemical substances in the twenty-nine hospitals of the Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, establishing Procedures of Standard Operation for its management. To development of the guideline proposal it took a sample of hospitals that includes three levels of comple complexity: national, regional and peripheral. Applying a methodology of evaluation of risks two factors of risk of hospitable were determined, the zones and the population but affected by the existence of chemical substances, which allowed to identify some operative deficiencies in the product handling diverse. The qualitative analysis of the results lead to the elaboration of a technical scheme that includes an instrument for the identification of risks, guideline for the management responsible for hospitable chemical substances, a friendly tool computations like complementary source of intelligence and the proposal of a governing group in charge of the monitoring of the fulfillment of these lineament. (Author) [es

  4. SigmaCalc recent development and present status of the evaluated cross-sections for IBA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurbich, A.F.

    2016-03-15

    A new version of the SigmaCalc Internet site ( (http://sigmacalc.iate.obninsk.ru)) intended to provide evaluated differential cross-sections for spectra simulation is presented. Results of the revision of previously evaluated cross-sections and new evaluations including data for PIGE were made available to the IBA community through a simple interface. New SigmaCalc features allow users to compare evaluated differential cross-sections with the available results of the cross-section measurements taken on-the-fly from the IBANDL database and to validate them against benchmarks. The current status of the evaluated cross-sections for IBA is discussed.

  5. Reproductive toxicity assessment of surface water of the Tai section of the Yangtze River, China by in vitro bioassays coupled with chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoyi; Wu Jiang; Hao Yingqun; Zhu Bingqing; Shi Wei; Hu Guanjiu; Han Xiaodong; Giesy, John P.; Yu Hongxia

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive toxicity of organic extracts of the surface water from the Tai section of the Yangtze River was assessed by in vitro cytotoxity assays and selected persistent organic pollutants including PCBs, OCPs and PAHs were quantified by instrumental analysis. Eleven of the US EPA priority PAHs were detected. Individual PAHs were found to range from 0.7 to 20 ng/L. Concentrations of BaP did not exceed the national drinking water source quality standard of China. However, a 286-fold concentrated organic extract induced significant reproductive toxicity in adult male rats. The morphology of cells, MTT assay and LDH release assay were all affected by exposure to the organic extracts of water. The results of the reproductive toxicity indicated that PAHs posed the greatest risk of the chemicals studied. The compounds present in the water could be bioconcentrated and result in adverse effects. - Highlights: → Only 11 PAHs of US EPA priority PAHs were detected in surface water the Yangtze River. → Level of BaP didn't exceed national drinking water source quality standard of China. → 286-fold concentrated organic extracts induced great reproductive toxicity in rats. → PAHs posed the greatest risk of the chemicals studied. → The compounds in the water could be bioconcentrated and result in adverse effects. - In vitro bioassay responses observed in Yangtze River source water extracts showed great reproductive toxicity, and PAHs were responsible.

  6. Justification of Constructing Rijeka-Zagreb Motorway Section for the Development of the Port of Rijeka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Huzjan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the significance of the Rijeka-Zagrebmotorway for the development of the Port of Rijeka, as well asits significance in the European road network and the networkof state motorways. It gives a short historic overview of thephase construction of the Rijeka-Zagreb motorway per sectionsand years of completion, and the most important parametersare mentioned that influence the justification of the upgradingof the motorway section to full transversal profile.Since "traffic" is one of the key components of developmentand necessary for all the aspects of human activities, the completionof a safe, reliable and fast traffic connection of the Croatiancapital with the biggest Croatian port represents the keyfactor of the Strategy of traffic development of the Republic ofCroatia.Besides, the Rijeka-Zagreb motorway represents the backboneof the Croatian motorway network, since it integrates theCroatian space connecting it with the European traffic corridors.Thus, new possibilities are opened to the national economy,mainly tourism and port traffic, and bringing direct benefits.Therefore, the greatest significance of the construction i. e.upgrading of this motorway lies precisely in raising the qualityof traffic service regarding road connection, but also in a widertraffic sense.

  7. Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program: Recent developments in crack initiation and arrest research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Technology for the analysis of crack initiation and arrest is central to the reactor pressure vessel fracture-margin-assessment process. Regulatory procedures for nuclear plants utilize this technology to assure the retention of adequate fracture-prevention margins throughout the plant operating license period. As nuclear plants age and regulatory procedures dictate that fracture-margin assessments be performed, interest in the fracture-mechanics technology incorporated into those procedures has heightened. This has led to proposals from a number of sources for development and refinement of the underlying crack-initiation and arrest-analysis technology. An important element of the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program is devoted to the investigation and evaluation of these proposals. This paper presents the technological bases and fracture-margin assessment objectives for some of the recently proposed crack-initiation and arrest-technology developments. The HSST Program approach to the evaluation of the proposals is described and the results and conclusions obtained to date are presented

  8. Analysis on Development of Transverse - Sectioned Weld Zone using FEM Verified with Multipulsed Resistance Seam Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper details an investigation, through an experimental study, of the development of weld nuggets and a heat-affected zone (HAZ in resistance seam welding(RSEW using a numerical simulation approach. SYSWELD software for the simulation of heat treatment, welding, and welding assembly was utilized for the simulation process. The integrated Spot Weld Advisor (SWA in SYSWELD was applied to simulate the RSEW model using a two-dimensional axis-symmetric FE model with customized electrode meshing. The thermal-mechanical-electrical characteristic and contact condition were taken into account throughout this study. The developed model comprised a transverse cross section for welding two layers of low carbon steel with a thickness of 1 mm. For the experimental verification, three-pulsed RSEW with two different current stages was carried out. It was discovered that this program code, Spotweld Advisor, when used with the meshing method, was capable of offering results that were in agreement with physical experiments.

  9. A Facet-Factorial Approach towards the Development and Validation of a Jazz Rhythm Section Performance Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Brian C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable rating scale to assess jazz rhythm sections in the context of jazz big band performance. The research questions that guided this study included: (a) what central factors contribute to the assessment of a jazz rhythm section? (b) what items should be used to describe and assess a jazz…

  10. Development of a security vulnerability assessment process for the RAMCAP chemical sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David A; Fuller, Brad; Hazzan, Michael; Jones, J William

    2007-04-11

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Directorate of Information Analysis & Infrastructure Protection (IAIP), Protective Services Division (PSD), contracted the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Innovative Technologies Institute, LLC (ASME ITI, LLC) to develop guidance on Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection (RAMCAP). AcuTech Consulting Group (AcuTech) has been contracted by ASME ITI, LLC, to provide assistance by facilitating the development of sector-specific guidance on vulnerability analysis and management for critical asset protection for the chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) sectors. This activity involves two key tasks for these three sectors: Development of a screening to supplement DHS understanding of the assets that are important to protect against terrorist attack and to prioritize the activities. Development of a standard security vulnerability analysis (SVA) framework for the analysis of consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats. This project involves the cooperative effort of numerous leading industrial companies, industry trade associations, professional societies, and security and safety consultants representative of those sectors. Since RAMCAP is a voluntary program for ongoing risk management for homeland security, sector coordinating councils are being asked to assist in communicating the goals of the program and in encouraging participation. The RAMCAP project will have a profound and positive impact on all sectors as it is fully developed, rolled-out and implemented. It will help define the facilities and operations of national and regional interest for the threat of terrorism, define standardized methods for analyzing consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats, and describe best security practices of the industry. This paper will describe the results of the security vulnerability analysis process that was developed and field tested for the chemical manufacturing

  11. Development of a security vulnerability assessment process for the RAMCAP chemical sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, David A.; Fuller, Brad; Hazzan, Michael; Jones, J. William

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Directorate of Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection (IAIP), Protective Services Division (PSD), contracted the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Innovative Technologies Institute, LLC (ASME ITI, LLC) to develop guidance on Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection (RAMCAP). AcuTech Consulting Group (AcuTech) has been contracted by ASME ITI, LLC, to provide assistance by facilitating the development of sector-specific guidance on vulnerability analysis and management for critical asset protection for the chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) sectors. This activity involves two key tasks for these three sectors:*Development of a screening to supplement DHS understanding of the assets that are important to protect against terrorist attack and to prioritize the activities. *Development of a standard security vulnerability analysis (SVA) framework for the analysis of consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats. This project involves the cooperative effort of numerous leading industrial companies, industry trade associations, professional societies, and security and safety consultants representative of those sectors. Since RAMCAP is a voluntary program for ongoing risk management for homeland security, sector coordinating councils are being asked to assist in communicating the goals of the program and in encouraging participation. The RAMCAP project will have a profound and positive impact on all sectors as it is fully developed, rolled-out and implemented. It will help define the facilities and operations of national and regional interest for the threat of terrorism, define standardized methods for analyzing consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats, and describe best security practices of the industry. This paper will describe the results of the security vulnerability analysis process that was developed and field tested for the chemical manufacturing

  12. The quality of informed consent in Croatia-a cross-sectional study and instrument development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučemilo, Luka; Milošević, Milan; Dodig, Doris; Grabušić, Bruno; Đapić, Biljana; Borovečki, Ana

    2016-03-01

    To examine the informed consent process implementation and quality in Croatia using a specially developed instrument. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in 300 patients (response rate 73%) from six hospitals in Croatia, along with psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire. Signing the informed consent form was a formality for 64% of patients, 54% of patients did not give their written consent, and in 39% of cases physicians made treatment decisions by themselves. The overall informed consent process score was 4.06±0.60 (of 5.00). Physician-patient relationship score was 4.61±0.57, Verbal information 3.99±0.98, Decision making 3.94±0.75, and Written information 3.60±1.42. The overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.890. Significant correlations were found in relation to Physician-patient relationship and education levels (OR=0.43, 95% CI=0.18-0.99, p=0.048), and Verbal information and duration of health problems (OR=1.83, 95% CI=1.02-3.25, p=0.041). The developed questionnaire is reliable and valid. The informed consent process quality in Croatia was reasonably high, although insufficient and inadequate written materials represent a weak spot that require enhancement. The study contributes to the development of suitable measuring instrument for assessment of the informed consent process quality in clinical practice. The questionnaire could be of use in the hospital accreditation process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a new chemical technology for cleanup of VVER steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smykov, V.B.; Yermolaev, N.P.; Ivanov, V.N.

    2002-01-01

    As shows the maintenance experience of SG's, the long-time maintenance them without chemical cleanup on secondary-side results in accumulation of considerable amounts of depositions of oxides of iron with a high content of copper on outside of tubes. The deposit accumulation creates conditions for concentrating of salts which promote corrosion and, then, the loosing of inter-contour tightness. Therefore the experts do not have any doubts in necessity of chemical cleanups and the chemical cleanups were carried out at some NPP's with VVER during last years. However it is possible to say, that these cleanups were carried out not by the best mode - the same main reagents had been used in order to dissolve the copper and iron oxides. For example, all cleanups at Balakovo NPP in 1996-1997 years had the common deficiency - even during 5. final stage of process the copper prolongs to be washed. By our opinion, the reasons of it are the poor scientific and technical justification of this process. Therefore at various NPP's with VVER cleanups realize by various techniques. The process of chemical cleanup, close to offered in the present work, was repeated many times utilized at BN-600 Belojarsk NPP and at BN-350 Shevtchenko NPP. The purposes of the present work are: 1. Research the behaviours of physicochemical processes during dissolution of components of depositions and their mixtures with use of the various formulas; 2. Analysis of the carried out chemical cleanups of PGV-1000M at an example of Balakovo NPP; 3. Development of a new process of SG's cleanup on the base of experimental researches and analysis; 4. Check of this process on the samples of full-scale depositions from SG Balakovo NPP. (authors)

  14. PWR steam generator chemical cleaning. Phase I: solvent and process development. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrick, A.P.; Paasch, R.A.; Hall, T.M.; Schneidmiller, D.

    1979-01-01

    A program to demonstrate chemical cleaning methods for removing magnetite corrosion products from the annuli between steam generator tubes and the tube support plates in vertical U-tube steam generators is described. These corrosion products have caused steam generator tube ''denting'' and in some cases have caused tube failures and support plate cracking in several PWR generating plants. Laboratory studies were performed to develop a chemical cleaning solvent and application process for demonstration cleaning of the Indian Point Unit 2 steam generators. The chemical cleaning solvent and application process were successfully pilot-tested by cleaning the secondary side of one of the Indian Point Unit 1 steam generators. Although the Indian Point Unit 1 steam generators do not have a tube denting problem, the pilot test provided for testing of the solvent and process using much of the same equipment and facilities that would be used for the Indian Point Unit 2 demonstration cleaning. The chemical solvent selected for the pilot test was an inhibited 3% citric acid-3% ascorbic acid solution. The application process, injection into the steam generator through the boiler blowdown system and agitation by nitrogen sparging, was tested in a nuclear environment and with corrosion products formed during years of steam generator operation at power. The test demonstrated that the magnetite corrosion products in simulated tube-to-tube support plate annuli can be removed by chemical cleaning; that corrosion resulting from the cleaning is not excessive; and that steam generator cleaning can be accomplished with acceptable levels of radiation exposure to personnel

  15. Development of a novel scoring system for identifying emerging chemical risks in the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmanns, J; Licht, O; Bitsch, A; Bohlen, M-L; Escher, S E; Silano, V; MacLeod, M; Serafimova, R; Kass, G E N; Merten, C

    2018-02-21

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is responsible for risk assessment of all aspects of food safety, including the establishment of procedures aimed at the identification of emerging risks to food safety. Here, a scoring system was developed for identifying chemicals registered under the European REACH Regulation that could be of potential concern in the food chain using the following parameters: (i) environmental release based on maximum aggregated tonnages and environmental release categories; (ii) biodegradation in the environment; (iii) bioaccumulation and in vivo and in vitro toxicity. The screening approach was tested on 100 data-rich chemicals registered under the REACH Regulation at aggregated volumes of at least 1000 tonnes per annum. The results show that substance-specific data generated under the REACH Regulation can be used to identify potential emerging risks in the food chain. After application of the screening procedure, priority chemicals can be identified as potentially emerging risk chemicals through the integration of exposure, environmental fate and toxicity. The default approach is to generate a single total score for each substance using a predefined weighting scenario. However, it is also possible to use a pivot table approach to combine the individual scores in different ways that reflect user-defined priorities, which enables a very flexible, iterative definition of screening criteria. Possible applications of the approaches are discussed using illustrative examples. Either approach can then be followed by in-depth evaluation of priority substances to ensure the identification of substances that present a real emerging chemical risk in the food chain.

  16. Development of low-dose protocols for thin-section CT assessment of cystic fibrosis in pediatric patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Owen J

    2010-12-01

    To develop low-dose thin-section computed tomographic (CT) protocols for assessment of cystic fibrosis (CF) in pediatric patients and determine the clinical usefulness thereof compared with chest radiography.

  17. Recent joint developments in cross-section uncertainty analysis at Los Alamos and EIR [Eidgenoessiches Institut fuer Reaktorforschung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Muir, D.W.; Stepanek, J.; Higgs, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses recent developments and future plans for the SENSIBL code (the successor to the SENSIT[6] and SENSIT-2D[7] codes), along with associated covariance data and cross section libraries. 34 refs

  18. Windows of sensitivity to toxic chemicals in the motor effects development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Susan Z; Pohl, Hana R

    2016-02-01

    Many chemicals currently used are known to elicit nervous system effects. In addition, approximately 2000 new chemicals introduced annually have not yet undergone neurotoxicity testing. This review concentrated on motor development effects associated with exposure to environmental neurotoxicants to help identify critical windows of exposure and begin to assess data needs based on a subset of chemicals thoroughly reviewed by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) in Toxicological Profiles and Addenda. Multiple windows of sensitivity were identified that differed based on the maturity level of the neurological system at the time of exposure, as well as dose and exposure duration. Similar but distinct windows were found for both motor activity (GD 8-17 [rats], GD 12-14 and PND 3-10 [mice]) and motor function performance (insufficient data for rats, GD 12-17 [mice]). Identifying specific windows of sensitivity in animal studies was hampered by study designs oriented towards detection of neurotoxicity that occurred at any time throughout the developmental process. In conclusion, while this investigation identified some critical exposure windows for motor development effects, it demonstrates a need for more acute duration exposure studies based on neurodevelopmental windows, particularly during the exposure periods identified in this review. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Development of hydraulic analysis code for optimizing thermo-chemical is process reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Atsuhiko; Hino, Ryutaro; Hirayama, Toshio; Nakajima, Norihiro; Sugiyama, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been conducting study on thermochemical IS process for water splitting hydrogen production. Based on the test results and know-how obtained through the bench-scale test, a pilot test plant, which has a hydrogen production performance of 30 Nm 3 /h, is being designed conceptually as the next step of the IS process development. In design of the IS pilot plant, it is important to make chemical reactors compact with high performance from the viewpoint of plant cost reduction. A new hydraulic analytical code has been developed for optimizing mixing performance of multi-phase flow involving chemical reactions especially in the Bunsen reactor. Complex flow pattern with gas-liquid chemical interaction involving flow instability will be characterized in the Bunsen reactor. Preliminary analytical results obtained with above mentioned code, especially flow patterns induced by swirling flow agreed well with that measured by water experiments, which showed vortex breakdown pattern in a simplified Bunsen reactor. (author)

  20. Applications of Ionic Liquids for the Development of Optical Chemical Sensors and Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muginova, Svetlana V; Myasnikova, Dina A; Kazarian, Sergei G; Shekhovtsova, Tatiana N

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the primary literature reporting the use of ionic liquids (ILs) in optical sensing technologies. The optical chemical sensors that have been developed with the assistance of ILs are classified according to the type of resultant material. Key aspects of applying ILs in such sensors are revealed and discussed. They include using ILs as solvents for the synthesis of sensor matrix materials; additives in polymer matrices; matrix materials; modifiers of the surfaces; and multifunctional sensor components. The operational principles, design, texture, and analytical characteristics of the offered sensors for determining CO 2 , O 2 , metal ions, CN - , and various organic compounds are critically discussed. The key advantages and disadvantages of using ILs in optical sensing technologies are defined. Finally, the applicability of the described materials for chemical analysis is evaluated, and possibilities for their further modernization are outlined.

  1. Development of a Thermo-chemical Non-equilibrium Solver for Hypervelocity Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, R.; Anandhanarayanan, K.

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, a three dimensional flowsolver is indigenously developed to numerically simulate hypervelocity thermal and chemical non equilibrium reactive air flow past flight vehicles. The two-temperature, five species, seventeen reactions, thermo-chemical non equilibrium, non-ionizing, air-chemistry model of Park is implemented in a compressible viscous code CERANS and solved in the finite volume framework. The energy relaxation is addressed by a conservation equation for the vibrational energy of the gas mixture resulting in the evaluation of its vibrational temperature. The AUSM-PW+ numerical flux function has been used for modeling the convective fluxes and a central differencing approximation is used for modeling the diffusive fluxes. The flowsolver had been validated for specifically chosen test cases with inherent flow complexities of non-ionizing hypervelocity thermochemical nonequilibrium flows and results obtained are in good agreement with results available in open literature.

  2. Design, development and validation of software for modelling dietary exposure to food chemicals and nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, C; Naddy, B; Rohan, D; Sexton, J

    2003-10-01

    The Monte Carlo computational system for stochastic modelling of dietary exposure to food chemicals and nutrients is presented. This system was developed through a European Commission-funded research project. It is accessible as a Web-based application service. The system allows and supports very significant complexity in the data sets used as the model input, but provides a simple, general purpose, linear kernel for model evaluation. Specific features of the system include the ability to enter (arbitrarily) complex mathematical or probabilistic expressions at each and every input data field, automatic bootstrapping on subjects and on subject food intake diaries, and custom kernels to apply brand information such as market share and loyalty to the calculation of food and chemical intake.

  3. Development of novel tungsten processing technologies for electro-chemical machining (ECM) of plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holstein, Nils; Krauss, Wolfgang; Konys, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Plasma facing components for fusion applications must exhibit long-term stability under extreme conditions, and therefore material imperfections cannot be tolerated due to a high risk of technical failures. To prevent or abolish defects in refractory metals components during the manufacturing process, some methods of electro-chemical machining as S-ECM and C-ECM were developed, enabling both the processing of smooth plain defect-free surfaces of different geometry and the removal of bulk material for the shaping of three-dimensional structures, also without cracks. It is discussed, that tungsten ablation with accurate electro-chemical molding is very sensitive to the kind of electric current, and therefore current investigations focused also on the effects of frequency profiles on the sharpness of edge rounding.

  4. Development and implementation of the IPCS conceptual framework for evaluating mode of action of chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybing, E.

    2002-01-01

    The framework developed by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) for assessing the mode of action of tumour induction of chemicals in experimental animals has been illustrated with d-limonene, sodium saccharin, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and sulfamethazine as examples. d-Limonene causes renal tumours only in male rats through a response associated with α 2u -globulin. Sodium saccharin induces urinary bladder tumours only in male rats through formation of a urinary precipitate causing erosion of the bladder surface and extensive regenerative hyperplasia. DEHP causes liver tumours in rats and mice through activation of the receptor PPARα leading to peroxisome proliferation and hepatocellular proliferation. Sulfamethazine induces thyroid follicular cell tumours in rats and mice through a mechanism involving altered thyroid hormone homeostasis

  5. Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, Harris; Gan, K.K.; Kass, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2009, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2013, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

  6. Development of a cross-section methodology and a real-time core model for VVER-1000 simulator application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgieva, Emiliya Lyudmilova

    2016-06-06

    The novel academic contributions are summarized as follows. A) A cross-section modelling methodology and a cycle-specific cross-section update procedure are developed to meet fidelity requirements applicable to a cycle-specific reactor core simulation, as well as particular customer needs and practices supporting VVER-1000 operation and safety. B) A real-time version of the Nodal Expansion Method code is developed and implemented into Kozloduy 6 full-scope replica control room simulator.

  7. Developing a predictive model for the chemical composition of soot nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Violi, Angela [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Michelsen, Hope [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hansen, Nils [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Wilson, Kevin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-07

    In order to provide the scientific foundation to enable technology breakthroughs in transportation fuel, it is important to develop a combustion modeling capability to optimize the operation and design of evolving fuels in advanced engines for transportation applications. The goal of this proposal is to develop a validated predictive model to describe the chemical composition of soot nanoparticles in premixed and diffusion flames. Atomistic studies in conjunction with state-of-the-art experiments are the distinguishing characteristics of this unique interdisciplinary effort. The modeling effort has been conducted at the University of Michigan by Prof. A. Violi. The experimental work has entailed a series of studies using different techniques to analyze gas-phase soot precursor chemistry and soot particle production in premixed and diffusion flames. Measurements have provided spatial distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other gas-phase species and size and composition of incipient soot nanoparticles for comparison with model results. The experimental team includes Dr. N. Hansen and H. Michelsen at Sandia National Labs' Combustion Research Facility, and Dr. K. Wilson as collaborator at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab's Advanced Light Source. Our results show that the chemical and physical properties of nanoparticles affect the coagulation behavior in soot formation, and our results on an experimentally validated, predictive model for the chemical composition of soot nanoparticles will not only enhance our understanding of soot formation since but will also allow the prediction of particle size distributions under combustion conditions. These results provide a novel description of soot formation based on physical and chemical properties of the particles for use in the next generation of soot models and an enhanced capability for facilitating the design of alternative fuels and the engines they will power.

  8. [Development of the Coparental Regulation Inventory and cross-sectional analysis of mothers' encouragement and criticism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Michiyo; Kurosawa, Tai; Kamiya, Tetsuji

    2014-02-01

    We developed the Coparental Regulation Inventory to assess the regulatory behavior of the mothers in involving fathers with child rearing. We translated and modified the short form of the Parental Regulation Inventory (PRI) for Japanese couples in different stages of child rearing. An online questionnaire was conducted with mothers (n = 500) and fathers (n = 500) whose youngest child was less than 21-years-old. Exploratory factor analysis identified two factors, which were labeled "encouragement" and "criticism". The resulting Coparental Regulation Inventory (the modified PRI) had high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The construct validity of the scale was supported by its correlation with parenting alliance, marital satisfaction, and the father's involvement. These findings suggest that the scale is an adequate instrument for identifying the behaviors of mothers related to coparenting. In addition, we examined the frequency of encouragement and criticism used by the mother in relation to the child-rearing stage using cross-sectional analysis. In the mothers' reports, mothers with infants and children encouraged fathers more than mothers with early and late adolescents. Mothers with late adolescents criticized fathers less than mothers with infants. In the fathers' reports, mothers gave more encouragement to fathers who had infants than at any other age, whereas the child's age was not related to mothers' criticism perceived by the fathers.

  9. Development of partial safety factors for the design of partially prestressed rectangular sections in biaxial flexure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Aritra; Bhattacharya, Baidurya; Agrawal, Gunjan; Mondal, Apurba

    2011-01-01

    Partial safety factors (PSFs) used in reliability-based design are intended to account for uncertainties in load, material and mathematical modeling while ensuring that the target reliability is satisfied for the relevant class of structural components in the given load combination and limit state. This paper describes the methodology in detail for developing a set of optimal reliability-based PSFs for the design of rectangular partially prestressed concrete sections subjected to biaxial flexure. The mechanical formulation of the flexural limit state is based on the principle behind prestressed concrete design recommended by IS 1343 and SP16 and failure is defined as tensile cracking of concrete extending beyond the depth of cover. The applied moments are combined according to Wood's criteria. The optimization of the PSFs is based on reliability indices obtained from first order reliability analysis of the structural components; Monte Carlo simulations are performed in each run to determine the capacity statistics and dependence between capacity and applied loads (effected through the axial loads influencing moment capacity corresponding to cracking). Numerical examples involving flexural design of partially prestressed concrete shell elements in nuclear power plant containments under accidental pressure load combination are provided. (author)

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF INTERACTIVE E-BOOK BASED ON CHEMICAL REPRESENTATION REFER TO CURRICULUM 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tania

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop an interactive e-book based representations of chemistry; describes the characteristics of the interactive e-book developed; the teachers responses in content suitability with curriculum and graphics aspects; and student responses in readibility aspects. The method used was research and development. The characteristics of interactive e-book: it was developed referring to the core competencies (KI and basic competence (KD in the curriculum 2013, allowed active interaction between students and e-book, completed with pictures, animations or videos in three levels of the chemical representation. Teachers’ responses to the content suitability and graphic aspects were very good with the percentage of each 98.46% and 97.5%. The students’ responses in readibility aspects was very good with percentage of 88.5%.

  11. Materials for the pulp and paper industry. Section 1: Development of materials for black liquor recovery boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, J.R.; Hubbard, C.R.; Payzant, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Black liquor recovery boilers are essential components of kraft pulp and paper mills because they are a critical element of the system used to recover the pulping chemicals required in the kraft pulping process. In addition, the steam produced in these boilers is used to generate a significant portion of the electrical power used in the mill. Recovery boilers require the largest capital investment of any individual component of a paper mill, and these boilers are a major source of material problems in a mill. The walls and floors of these boilers are constructed of tube panels that circulate high pressure water. Molten salts (smelt) accumulate on the floor of recovery boilers, and leakage of water into the boiler can result in a violent explosion when the leaked water instantly vaporizes upon contacting the molten smelt. Because corrosion of the conventionally-used carbon steel tubing was found to be excessive in the lower section of recovery boilers, use of stainless steel/carbon steel co-extruded tubing was adopted for boiler walls to lessen corrosion and reduce the likelihood of smelt/water explosions. Eventually, this co-extruded or composite (as it is known in the industry) tubing was selected for use as a portion or all of the floor of recovery boilers, particularly those operating at pressures > 6.2 MPa (900 psi), because of the corrosion problems encountered in carbon steel floor tubes. Since neither the cause of the cracking nor an effective solution has been identified, this program was established to develop a thorough understanding of the degradation that occurs in the composite tubing used for walls and floors. This is being accomplished through a program that includes collection and review of technical reports, examination of unexposed and cracked tubes from boiler floors, computer modeling to predict residual stresses under operating conditions, and operation of laboratory tests to study corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and thermal fatigue.

  12. Metal hydride/chemical heat-pump development project. Phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argabright, T.A.

    1982-02-01

    The metal hydride/chemical heat pump (MHHP) is a chemical heat pump containing two hydrides for the storage and/or recovery of thermal energy. It utilizes the heat of reaction of hydrogen with specific metal alloys. The MHHP design can be tailored to provide heating and/or cooling or temperature upgrading over a wide range of input and ambient temperatures. The system can thus be used with a variety of heat sources including waste heat, solar energy or a fossil fuel. The conceptual design of the MHHP was developed. A national market survey including a study of applications and market sectors was conducted. The technical tasks including conceptual development, thermal and mechanical design, laboratory verification of design and material performance, cost analysis and the detailed design of the Engineering Development Test Unit (EDTU) were performed. As a result of the market study, the temperature upgrade cycle of the MHHP was chosen for development. Operating temperature ranges for the upgrader were selected to be from 70 to 110/sup 0/C (160 to 230/sup 0/F) for the source heat and 140 to 190/sup 0/C (280 to 375/sup 0/F) for the product heat. These ranges are applicable to many processes in industries such as food, textile, paper and pulp, and chemical. The hydride pair well suited for these temperatures is LaNi/sub 5//LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 5/Al/sub 0/ /sub 5/. The EDTU was designed for the upgrade cycle. It is a compact finned tube arrangement enclosed in a pressure vessel. This design incorporates high heat transfer and low thermal mass in a system which maximizes the coefficient of performance (COP). It will be constructed in Phase II. Continuation of this effort is recommended.

  13. Developing a multi-physics solver in APOLLO3 and applications to cross section homogenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugan, Kevin-James

    2016-01-01

    Multi-physics coupling is becoming of large interest in the nuclear engineering and computational science fields. The ability to obtain accurate solutions to realistic models is important to the design and licensing of novel reactor designs, especially in design basis accident situations. The physical models involved in calculating accident behavior in nuclear reactors includes: neutron transport, thermal conduction/convection, thermo-mechanics in fuel and support structure, fuel stoichiometry, among others. However, this thesis focuses on the coupling between two models, neutron transport and thermal conduction/convection.The goal of this thesis is to develop a multi-physics solver for simulating accidents in nuclear reactors. The focus is both on the simulation environment and the data treatment used in such simulations.This work discusses the development of a multi-physics framework based around the Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method. The framework includes linear and nonlinear solvers, along with interfaces to existing numerical codes that solve neutron transport and thermal hydraulics models (APOLLO3 and MCTH respectively) through the computation of residuals. a new formulation for the neutron transport residual is explored, which reduces the solution size and search space by a large factor; instead of the residual being based on the angular flux, it is based on the fission source.The question of whether using a fundamental mode distribution of the neutron flux for cross section homogenization is sufficiently accurate during fast transients is also explored. It is shown that in an infinite homogeneous medium, using homogenized cross sections produced with a fundamental mode flux differ significantly from a reference solution. The error is remedied by using an alternative weighting flux taken from a time dependent calculation; either a time-integrated flux or an asymptotic solution. The time-integrated flux comes from the multi-physics solution of the

  14. Toxmatch-a new software tool to aid in the development and evaluation of chemically similar groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlewicz, G; Jeliazkova, N; Gallegos Saliner, A; Worth, A P

    2008-01-01

    Chemical similarity is a widely used concept in toxicology, and is based on the hypothesis that similar compounds should have similar biological activities. This forms the underlying basis for performing read-across, forming chemical groups and developing (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationships ((Q)SARs). Chemical similarity is often perceived as structural similarity but in fact there are a number of other approaches that can be used to assess similarity. A systematic similarity analysis usually comprises two main steps. Firstly the chemical structures to be compared need to be characterised in terms of relevant descriptors which encode their physicochemical, topological, geometrical and/or surface properties. A second step involves a quantitative comparison of those descriptors using similarity (or dissimilarity) indices. This work outlines the use of chemical similarity principles in the formation of endpoint specific chemical groupings. Examples are provided to illustrate the development and evaluation of chemical groupings using a new software application called Toxmatch that was recently commissioned by the European Chemicals Bureau (ECB), of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre. Insights from using this software are highlighted with specific focus on the prospective application of chemical groupings under the new chemicals legislation, REACH.

  15. Development and Application of Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors For Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Fralick, G.; Thomas, V.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Sawayda, M. S.; Jin, A.; Hammond, J.; Makel, D.; hide

    1990-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring and control, and fire detection. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. This paper discusses the needs of space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (Nox, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed. A description is given of each sensor type and its present stage of development. Demonstration and application these sensor technologies will be described. The demonstrations range from use of a microsystem based hydrogen sensor on the Shuttle to engine demonstration of a nanocrystalline based sensor for NO, detection. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  16. Development and chemical characterization of flour obtained from the external mesocarp of "pequizeiro" fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Soares Soares Júnior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop a recommendation for the chemical peeling of pequi fruit and characterize the flour obtained from the external mesocarp of "Pequizeiro", pequi tree (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.. The technology applied to obtain the external mesocarp pequi flour included the epicarp removal with NaOH solution. The Response Surface Method was used to optimize the chemical peeling process by applying the Central Composite Rotatable Design, with eleven trials including three replicates at the central point, varying the NaOH aqueous solution concentration and fruit immersion time. The mass loss was evaluated through the analysis of variance and using bi and three dimensional graphs. The chemical characteristics of the external mesocarp pequi flour evaluated were: moisture content, ashes, proteins, lipids, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and some minerals. The best combination for an efficient removal of the fruit peel with the lowest mass loss was reached with 7.05 minutes of immersion in a 5.08 g.L-1 NaOH aqueous solution. This study indicated that the external mesocarp pequi flour is a food source rich in dietary fiber, carbohydrates, ashes, magnesium, calcium, manganese, and copper, but it is poor in lipids, zinc, and iron.

  17. Nanoscale Chemical Characterization of Solid-State Microbattery Stacks by Means of Auger Spectroscopy and Ion-Milling Cross Section Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhart, A; Ledeuil, J B; Pecquenard, B; Le Cras, F; Proust, M; Martinez, H

    2017-09-27

    The current sustained demand for "smart" and connected devices has created a need for more miniaturized power sources, hence for microbatteries. Lithium-ion or "lithium-free" all-solid-state thin-film batteries are adapted solutions to this issue. The capability to carry out spatially resolved chemical analysis is fundamental for the understanding of the operation in an all-solid-state microbattery. Classically cumbersome and not straightforward techniques as TEM/STEM/EELS and FIB preparation methods could be used to address this issue. The challenge in this work is to make the characterization of Li-based material possible by coupling ion-milling cross section preparation method and AES techniques to characterize the behavior of a LiCoO 2 positive electrode in an all solid state microbattery. The surface chemistry of LiCoO 2 has been studied before and after LiPON deposition. Modifications of the chemical environments characteristic of the positive electrode have been reported at different steps of the electrochemical process. An original qualitative and a semiquantitative analysis has been used in this work with the peak deconvolution method based on real, certified reference spectra to better understand the lithiation/delithiation process. This original coupling has demonstrated that a full study of the pristine, cycled, and post mortem positive electrode in a microbattery is also possible. The ion-milling preparation method allows access to a large area, and the resolution of Auger analysis is highly resolved in energy to separate the lithium and the cobalt signals in an accurate way.

  18. Asymmetric catalysis in Brazil: development and potential for advancement of Brazilian chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Antonio Luiz; Luedtke, Diogo Seibert; Schneider, Paulo Henrique; Andrade, Leandro Helgueira; Paixao, Marcio Weber

    2013-01-01

    The preparation of enantiomerically pure or enriched substances is of fundamental importance to pharmaceutical, food, agrochemical, and cosmetics industries and involves a growing market of hundreds of billions of dollars. However, most chemical processes used for their production are not environmentally friendly because in most cases, stoichiometric amounts of chiral inductors are used and substantial waste is produced. In this context, asymmetric catalysis has emerged as an efficient tool for the synthesis of enantiomerically enriched compounds using chiral catalysts. More specifically, considering the current scenario in the Brazilian chemical industry, especially that of pharmaceuticals, the immediate prospect for the use of synthetic routes developed in Brazil in an enantioselective fashion or even the discovery of new drugs is practically null. Currently, the industrial production of drugs in Brazil is primarily focused on the production of generic drugs and is basically supported by imports of intermediates from China and India. In order to change this panorama and move forward toward the gradual incorporation of genuinely Brazilian synthetic routes, strong incentive policies, especially those related to continuous funding, will be needed. These incentives could be a breakthrough once we establish several research groups working in the area of organic synthesis and on the development and application of chiral organocatalysts and ligands in asymmetric catalysis, thus contributing to boost the development of the Brazilian chemical industry. Considering these circumstances, Brazil can benefit from this opportunity because we have a wide biodiversity and a large pool of natural resources that can be used as starting materials for the production of new chiral catalysts and are creating competence in asymmetric catalysis and related areas. This may decisively contribute to the growth of chemistry in our country. (author)

  19. Application and further development of diffusion based 2D chemical imaging techniques in the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, Christoph; Santner, Jakob; Borisov, Sergey; Kreuzeder, Andreas; Wenzel, Walter; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Two dimensional chemical imaging of root processes refers to novel in situ methods to investigate and map solutes at a high spatial resolution (sub-mm). The visualization of these solutes reveals new insights in soil biogeochemistry and root processes. We derive chemical images by using data from DGT-LA-ICP-MS (Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) and POS (Planar Optode Sensors). Both technologies have shown promising results when applied in aqueous environment but need to be refined and improved for imaging at the soil-plant interface. Co-localized mapping using combined DGT and POS technologies and the development of new gel combinations are in our focus. DGTs are smart and thin (hydrogels; containing a binding resin for the targeted analytes (e.g. trace metals, phosphate, sulphide or radionuclides). The measurement principle is passive and diffusion based. The present analytes are diffusing into the gel and are bound by the resin. Thereby, the resin acts as zero sink. After application, DGTs are retrieved, dried, and analysed using LA-ICP-MS. The data is then normalized by an internal standard (e.g. 13C), calibrated using in-house standards and chemical images of the target area are plotted using imaging software. POS are, similar to DGT, thin sensor foils containing a fluorophore coating depending on the target analyte. The measurement principle is based on excitation of the flourophore by a specific wavelength and emission of the fluorophore depending on the presence of the analyte. The emitted signal is captured using optical filters and a DSLR camera. While DGT analysis is destructive, POS measurements can be performed continuously during the application. Both semi-quantitative techniques allow an in situ application to visualize chemical processes directly at the soil-plant interface. Here, we present a summary of results from rhizotron experiments with different plants in metal contaminated and

  20. Development of a purification system at Dhruva to treat oil contaminated and chemically impure heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suttraway, S.K.; Mishra, V.; Bitla, S.V.; Ghosh, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Dhruva, a 100 MW (thermal) Research reactor uses Heavy Water as moderator, reflector and coolant. Normally during plant operation, the Heavy water from the system gets removed during operational and maintenance activities and this collected heavy water gets degraded and contaminated in the process. The degraded heavy water meeting the chemical specification requirement of the up gradation plant is sent for up gradation. Part of the Heavy water collected is contaminated with various organic and inorganic impurities and therefore cannot be sent for IP up gradation as it does not meet the chemical specification of the up gradation plant. This contaminated Heavy water was being stored in SS drums. Over the years of Reactor operation reasonable amount of contaminated Heavy water got collected in the plant. This Heavy water collected from leakages, during routine maintenance, operational activities and fuelling operation had tritium activity and variety of contamination including oil, chlorides, turbidity due to which the specific conductivity was very high. It was decided to purify this Heavy water in house to bring it up to up gradation plant chemical specification requirement. There were number of challenges in formulating a scheme to purify this Heavy water. The scheme needed to be simple and compact in design which could be set up in the plant itself. It should not pose radiological hazards due to radioactive Heavy water during its purification and handling. The contaminated Heavy water collected in drums had varying chemistry and IP. The purification plant should be able to do batch processing so that the different IP and chemical quality of Heavy water stored in different drums are not mixed during purification. It should be capable of removing the oil, chlorides, turbidity and decrease the conductivity to acceptable limits of the Up gradation plant. A purification plant was developed and commissioned after detail laboratory studies and trials. This paper explains

  1. Process development for waveguide chemical sensors with integrated polymeric sensitive layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberkar, Raghu; Gao, Zhan; Park, Jongwon; Henthorn, David B.; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2008-02-01

    Due to the proper optical property and flexibility in the process development, an epoxy-based, high-aspect ratio photoresist SU-8 is now attracting attention in optical sensing applications. Manipulation of the surface properties of SU-8 waveguides is critical to attach functional films such as chemically-sensitive layers. We describe a new integration process to immobilize fluorescence molecules on SU-8 waveguide surface for application to intensity-based optical chemical sensors. We use two polymers for this application. Spin-on, hydrophobic, photopatternable silicone is a convenient material to contain fluorophore molecules and to pattern a photolithographically defined thin layer on the surface of SU-8. We use fumed silica powders as an additive to uniformly disperse the fluorophores in the silicone precursor. In general, additional processes are not critically required to promote the adhesion between the SU-8 and silicone. The other material is polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA). Recently we demonstrated a novel photografting method to modify the surface of SU-8 using a surface bound initiator to control its wettability. The activated surface is then coated with a monomer precursor solution. Polymerization follows when the sample is exposed to UV irradiation, resulting in a grafted PEGDA layer incorporating fluorophores within the hydrogel matrix. Since this method is based the UV-based photografting reaction, it is possible to grow off photolithographically defined hydrogel patterns on the waveguide structures. The resulting films will be viable integrated components in optical bioanalytical sensors. This is a promising technique for integrated chemical sensors both for planar type waveguide and vertical type waveguide chemical sensors.

  2. Development of improved procedures for evaluation of neutron cross sections for reactor neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonach, H.

    1980-06-01

    The cross-sections for the four important neutron dosimetry reactions 19 F(n,2n) 18 F, 31 P(n,p) 31 Si, 93 Nb(n,n')sup(93m)Nb and 103 Rh(n,n')sup(103m)Rh were evaluated in the neutron energy range from threshold to 20 MeV. For the 19 F(n,2n) reaction the evaluation could be based entirely on experimental data; for the reactions 31 P(n,p) 31 Si and 103 Rh(n,n')sup(103m)Rh large gaps in the experimental excitation functions and large discrepancies between the existing data made it necessary to supplement the experimental data by cross-section calculations and to give about equal weight to the experimental and calculated cross-sections. For the 93 Nb(n,n')sup(93m)Nb reaction the evaluation had to be based entirely on the theoretically calculated cross-sections. The cross-section calculations were performed using the statistical model of nuclear reactions allowing for precompound processes in the first reaction step and errors of the calculated cross-sections were estimated from their sensitivity to the various input parameters. Cross-section values were evaluated for energy groups between 0.1 MeV and 1 MeV wide, the width depending on both the slope of the excitation functions and the density of the available data. For each evaluated cross-section also an uncertainty (on a 1 sigma confidence level) was derived taking into account the errors given by the experimentalists, the general consistency of the experimental data and the estimated errors of the theoretically calculated cross-sections. In addition relative correlation matrices were derived for each evaluated excitation function describing the correlations between the uncertainties of the cross-sections at different energies. The correlations between the cross-section uncertainties for different reactions were found to be negligible. The results of this evaluation as well as those of Ref. 1 will be combined with the ENDF/B-V dosimetry file into an international neutron dosimetry file by the nuclear data section of

  3. Recent developments and applications of clickable photoprobes in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinsky, David J; Johnson, Douglas S

    2015-01-01

    Photoaffinity labeling is a well-known biochemical technique that has grown significantly since the turn of the century, principally due to its combination with bioorthogonal/click chemistry reactions. This review highlights new developments and applications of clickable photoprobes in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology. In particular, recent examples of clickable photoprobes for target identification, activity- or affinity-based protein profiling (ABPP or AfBPP), characterization of sterol- or lipid-protein interactions and characterization of ligand-binding sites are presented.

  4. Problems in the development of autonomous mobile laser systems based on a cw chemical DF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, B P; Bashkin, A S; Beznozdrev, V N; Parfen'ev, M V; Pirogov, N A; Semenov, S N

    2003-01-01

    The problems involved in designing autonomous mobile laser systems based on high-power cw chemical DF lasers, whose mass and size parameters would make it possible to install them on various vehicles, are discussed. The need for mobility of such lasers necessitates special attention to be paid to the quest for ways and means of reducing the mass and size of the main laser systems. The optimisation of the parameters of such lasers is studied for various methods of scaling their systems. A complex approach to analysis of the optical scheme of the laser system is developed. (special issue devoted to the 80th anniversary of academician n g basov's birth)

  5. Negative affect is associated with development and persistence of chemical intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Christensen, Karl Bang; Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: A general population sample aged 19 to 72years was examined in 2006-2008 and again in 2011-2012. Longitudinal data on CI were analysed with the purpose of examining baseline negative affect as a risk factor for having developed CI at 5-year follow-up and for reporting persistent CI. Participants.......4% of the participants who had reported CI at baseline also reported CI at follow-up. In participants with no baseline CI, 15.5% reported CI at follow-up and 18.1% reported symptoms related to chemicals but no daily life adjustments. Baseline negative affect was positively and statistically significantly associated...

  6. Development of international standards for surface analysis by ISO technical committee 201 on surface chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established Technical Committee 201 on Surface Chemical Analysis in 1991 to develop documentary standards for surface analysis. ISO/TC 201 met first in 1992 and has met annually since. This committee now has eight subcommittees (Terminology, General Procedures, Data Management and Treatment, Depth Profiling, AES, SIMS, XPS, and Glow Discharge Spectroscopy (GDS)) and one working group (Total X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy). Each subcommittee has one or more working groups to develop standards on particular topics. Australia has observer-member status on ISO/TC 201 and on all ISO/TC 201 subcommittees except GDS where it has participator-member status. I will outline the organization of ISO/TC 201 and summarize the standards that have been or are being developed. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  7. Development of standards for chemical and biological decontamination of buildings and structures affected by terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumley, T.C.; Volchek, K.; Fingas, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch; Hay, A.W.M. [Leeds Univ., Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Currently, there are no suitable standards for determining levels of safety when reoccupying a building that has been recommissioned following a biological or chemical attack. For that reason, this study focused on developing clean-up standards for decontaminating buildings and construction materials after acts of terrorism. Several parameters must be assessed when determining the course of action to decontaminate toxic agents and to rehabilitate facilities. First, the hazardous substance must be positively identified along with the degree of contamination and information on likely receptors. Potential exposure route is also a key consideration in the risk assessment process. A key objective of the study was to develop specific guidelines for ascertaining and defining clean. In particular, standards for chemical and biological agents that pose a real or potential risk for use as agents of terrorism will be developed. The selected agents for standards development were ammonia, fentanyl, malathion, mustard gas, potassium cyanide, ricin, sarin, hepatitis A virus, and bacillus anthracis. The standards will be developed by establishing the relationship between the amount of exposure and expected health effects; assessing real and potential risks by identifying individuals at risk and consideration of all exposure routes; and, characterizing the risk to determine the potential for toxicity or infectivity. For non-carcinogens, this was done through the analysis of other known guidelines. Cancer-slope factors will be considered for carcinogens. The standards will be assessed in the laboratory using animal models. The guidelines and standards are intended for first-responders and are scheduled for development by the end of 2006. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Us army corps of engineers - Engineering research and development center - Petrographic analysis of section 3 personnel tunnel concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-04

    The Concrete and Materials Branch (CMB) of the Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory was requested to perform an analysis on concrete cores collected from the north and south walls of the H-Canyon Section 3 Personnel Tunel, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina to determine the cause of the lower than expected compressive strength. This study examined five cores provided to the ERDC by the Department of Energy. The cores were logged in as CMB No. 170051-1 to 170051-5 and subjected to petrographic examination, air void analysis, chemical sprays, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction.

  9. Antibiotic use in dentistry: A cross-sectional survey from a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaramakrishnan Gowri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance is a well-known entity and the most common factor leading to this is the irrational use of antibiotics. Several studies from the West have substantiated the irrational use of antibiotics in dentistry. Aims: The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP of antimicrobial drug use among dental fraternity in a tertiary care teaching dental college and hospital. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey of various dental fraternities using a structured validated questionnaire. The study was initiated following approval from Institutional Ethics Committee and interns, junior residents and faculty members of various departments in dentistry were enrolled after obtaining written informed consent. A structured validated questionnaire was developed to assess the above-mentioned objectives. Statistical analysis: Descriptive statistics was used for representing each category of response and kappa statistics were used to assess the reliability in the initial cohort. Chi-square test for independence was used to evaluate the difference in proportion between different professional cadres. Results: A total of 120 participants were recruited out of which 81.6% (98/120 of the participants accepted their frequent antibiotic usage. The most common dental indication of antibiotics among dentists was post dental extraction, attributing to 30.8% (37/120, followed by dental abscess 21.6% (26/120 and 60% (72/120 prescribed antibiotics after most minor surgical procedures. Surprisingly, 37.5% (45/120 of the participants opined that they use antibiotics against viral infection. Regarding the spectrum of antibiotic usage, 74.1% (89/120 preferred broad spectrum instead of narrow spectrum 25.8% (31/120. The commonly prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin 71.7% (86/120, metronidazole 33.3% (40/120, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid 26.6% (32/120. A total of (43/120 35.8% opted generic name for mentioning the

  10. Controlling the Release of Indomethacin from Glass Solutions Layered with a Rate Controlling Membrane Using Fluid-Bed Processing. Part 1: Surface and Cross-Sectional Chemical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereymaker, Aswin; Scurr, David J; Steer, Elisabeth D; Roberts, Clive J; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2017-04-03

    Fluid bed coating has been shown to be a suitable manufacturing technique to formulate poorly soluble drugs in glass solutions. Layering inert carriers with a drug-polymer mixture enables these beads to be immediately filled into capsules, thus avoiding additional, potentially destabilizing, downstream processing. In this study, fluid bed coating is proposed for the production of controlled release dosage forms of glass solutions by applying a second, rate controlling membrane on top of the glass solution. Adding a second coating layer adds to the physical and chemical complexity of the drug delivery system, so a thorough understanding of the physical structure and phase behavior of the different coating layers is needed. This study aimed to investigate the surface and cross-sectional characteristics (employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)) of an indomethacin-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) glass solution, top-coated with a release rate controlling membrane consisting of either ethyl cellulose or Eudragit RL. The implications of the addition of a pore former (PVP) and the coating medium (ethanol or water) were also considered. In addition, polymer miscibility and the phase analysis of the underlying glass solution were investigated. Significant differences in surface and cross-sectional topography of the different rate controlling membranes or the way they are applied (solution vs dispersion) were observed. These observations can be linked to the polymer miscibility differences. The presence of PVP was observed in all rate controlling membranes, even if it is not part of the coating solution. This could be attributed to residual powder presence in the coating chamber. The distribution of PVP among the sample surfaces depends on the concentration and the rate controlling polymer used. Differences can again be linked to polymer miscibility. Finally, it was shown that the underlying glass solution layer

  11. Fueling Chemical Engineering Concepts with Biodiesel Production: A Professional Development Experience for High School Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anju

    2015-01-01

    This one-day workshop for pre-service teachers was aimed at implementing a uniquely designed and ready-to-implement chemical engineering curriculum in high school coursework. This educational and professional development opportunity introduced: 1) chemical engineering curriculum and career opportunities, 2) basic industrial processes and flow…

  12. Innovative Strategies to Develop Chemical Categories Using a Combination of Structural and Toxicological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Batke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available 1.AbstractInterest is increasing in the development of non-animal methods for toxicological evaluations. These methods are however, particularly challenging for complex toxicological endpoints such as repeated dose toxicity. European Legislation, e.g. the European Union´s Cosmetic Directive and REACH, demands the use of alternative methods. Frameworks, such as the Read-across Assessment Framework or the Adverse Outcome Pathway Knowledge Base, support the development of these methods. The aim of the project presented in this publication was to develop substance categories for a read-across with complex endpoints of toxicity based on existing databases. The basic conceptual approach was to combine structural similarity with shared mechanisms of action. Substances with similar chemical structure and toxicological profile form candidate categories suitable for read-across. We combined two databases on repeated dose toxicity, RepDose database and ELINCS database to form a common database for the identification of categories. The resulting database contained physicochemical, structural and toxicological data, which were refined and curated for cluster analyses. We applied the Predictive Clustering Tree (PCT approach for clustering chemicals based on structural and on toxicological information to detect groups of chemicals with similar toxic profiles and pathways/mechanisms of toxicity. As many of the experimental toxicity values were not available, this data was imputed by predicting them with a multi-label classification method, prior to clustering. The clustering results were evaluated by assessing chemical and toxicological similarities with the aim of identifying clusters with a concordance between structural information and toxicity profiles/mechanisms. From these chosen clusters, seven were selected for a quantitative read-across, based on a small ratio of NOAEL of the members with the highest and the lowest NOAEL in the cluster (<5. We discuss

  13. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant low-level waste grout stabilization development program FY-96 status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, A.K.

    1996-09-01

    The general purpose of the Grout Stabilization Development Program is to solidify and stabilize the liquid low-level wastes (LLW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). It is anticipated that LLW will be produced from the following: (1) chemical separation of the tank farm high-activity sodium-bearing waste; (2) retrieval, dissolution, and chemical separation of the aluminum, zirconium, and sodium calcines; (3) facility decontamination processes; and (4) process equipment waste. The main tasks completed this fiscal year as part of the program were chromium stabilization study for sodium-bearing waste and stabilization and solidification of LLW from aluminum and zirconium calcines. The projected LLW will be highly acidic and contain high amounts of nitrates. Both of these are detrimental to Portland cement chemistry; thus, methods to precondition the LLW and to cure the grout were explored. A thermal calcination process, called denitration, was developed to solidify the waste and destroy the nitrates. A three-way blend of Portland cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash was successfully tested. Grout cubes were prepared at various waste loadings to maximize loading while meeting compressive strength and leach resistance requirements. For the sodium LLW, a 25% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 3.5 and a compressive strength of 2,500 pounds per square inch while meeting leach, mix, and flow requirements. It was found that the sulfur in the slag reduces the chromium leach rate below regulatory limits. For the aluminum LLW, a 15% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.5 and a compressive strength of 4,350 pounds per square inch while meeting leach requirements. Likewise for zirconium LLW, a 30% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.3 and a compressive strength of 3,570 pounds per square inch

  14. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage and reprocessing since 1953. Reprocessing of SNF has resulted in an existing inventory of 1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid waste and 3800 cubic meters (m 3 ) of calcine, in addition to the 768 metric tons (MT) of SNF and various other fuel materials in inventory. To date, the major activity of the ICPP has been the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium; however, recent changes in world events have diminished the demand to recover and recycle this material. As a result, DOE has discontinued reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery, making the need to properly manage and dispose of these and future materials a high priority. In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982, as amended, disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a geological repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF ampersand WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will properly stored and prepared for final disposal. Program elements in support of acceptable interim storage and waste minimization include: developing and implementing improved radioactive waste treatment technologies; identifying and implementing enhanced decontamination and decommissioning techniques; developing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) recycle capabilities; and developing and implementing improved technologies for the interim storage of SNF

  15. Local geological sections and regional stratigraphy based on physical geology and chemical stratigraphy of the Serra Geral Group from Araraquara to Avaré, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia João Fernandes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: From Araraquara to Avaré, in the Serra Geral Group outcropping area, 22 detailed geological sections were elaborated. The stratigraphic relationships and the chemical analysis allowed the identification of seven [P2O5] basalt classes, all of them pertaining to the Pitanga type, showing a consistent stacking order across the studied region. Thus, each class is considered to correspond to a specific lava flow, allowing a general stratigraphic column to be proposed. Besides the stacking order, the validation of P2O5 as a tool for lava correlation at great distances was also based on the values obtained from samples collected at different positions in a single flow, and on the remarkable [P2O5] contrast between adjacent flows. Minimum lateral extensions range from 75 to 185 km, and thickness from 20 to 80 m. Vertical tectonic displacements, which took place in different periods, were inferred from the altitude of specific flows, and also from the Botucatu and Piramboia formations. They are noticeable in a region bounded by EW drainage lineaments, which contains a large area where Piramboia and Botucatu formations crop out, probably due to the tectonic activity causing this region to be a generalized structural high.

  16. Reactor component chemical decontamination-developments in waste handling and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papesch, R.; Atwood, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    Because of restrictive limits on man-rem exposure in European nuclear plants, a company has developed and applied a number of chemical decontamination techniques for components that must be periodically maintained. These techniques are particularly effective for components that can be placed in a decontamination bath for dose reduction prior to performing maintenance. The cleaning technique has the ability to achieve decontamination factors of at least 20 and in some cases much greater. For components with before cleaning dose rates of between 1 to as high as 80 R/hr, significant man-rem reductions are achieved when hundreds of manhours may be required to complete required component maintenance. Transferring this solvent technology to the U.S. required a program to develop solidification formulas to allow the solvent wastes to be disposed of in accordance with regulations and in a cost effective manner. This paper demonstrates in chemical decontaminations with small liquid volume systems that concentrated decontamination solvents can be employed to achieve high decontamination factors

  17. Development of catalytic materials for the synthesis of valuable chemical products via multifunctional and multisite reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apesteguia, C.R; Padro, C.L; Diez, V.K; Di Cosimo, J.I; Trasarti, A.F; Marchi, A.J

    2004-01-01

    This work reports on the successful development of solid catalytic materials carried out by our working group to obtain fine high yield chemical products. Specifically, a report is made of i) the development of metal/acid bi-functional catalysts to obtain racemic menthol from citral in a one step liquid phase process. This menthol is one of the most important chemical flavouring compounds in industry; ii) The use of acid zeolites containing a balanced concentration of Bronsted and Lewis heavy acid sites, which allow the selective synthesis of o-hydroxy acetophenone from the gas phase acylation of phenol with acetic acid. The o-hydroxy acetophenone is an intermediate compound in the production of 4-hydroxy coumarin and warfarin that are used as anticoagulants drugs; iii) The use of mixed MgAl x O y oxides containing dual acid-basic sites (Mg 2- O 2- and Al 3+ -O 2- ) to synthesize isoforone from acetone in gas phase. The isoforone is an intermediate key in the synthesis of vitamin E (CW)

  18. Development of a chemically defined medium for the production of the antibiotic platensimycin by Streptomyces platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzone, Maria; Martens, Evan; Tynan, Heather; Maggio, Christian; Golden, Samantha; Nayda, Vasyl; Crespo, Emmanuel; Inamine, Gregory; Gelber, Michael; Lemence, Ryan; Chiappini, Nicholas; Friedman, Emily; Shen, Ben; Gullo, Vincent; Demain, Arnold L

    2013-11-01

    The actinomycete Streptomyces platensis produces two compounds that display antibacterial activity: platensimycin and platencin. These compounds were discovered by the Merck Research Laboratories, and a complex insoluble production medium was reported. We have used this medium as our starting point in our studies. In a previous study, we developed a semi-defined production medium, i.e., PM5. In the present studies, by varying the concentration of the components of PM5, we were able to develop a superior semi-defined medium, i.e., PM6, which contains a higher concentration of lactose. Versions of PM6, containing lower concentrations of all components, were also found to be superior to PM5. The new semi-defined production media contain dextrin, lactose, MOPS buffer, and ammonium sulfate in different concentrations. We determined antibiotic production capabilities using agar diffusion assays and chemical assays via thin-layer silica chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. We reduced crude nutrient carryover from the seed medium by washing the cells with distilled water. Using these semi-defined media, we determined that addition of the semi-defined component soluble starch stimulated antibiotic production and that it and dextrin could both be replaced with glucose, resulting in the chemically defined medium, PM7.

  19. Development of a Whole Slide Imaging System on Smartphones and Evaluation With Frozen Section Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Gao, Feng; Jiang, Liren; Ma, Shuoxin

    2017-09-15

    The aim was to develop scalable Whole Slide Imaging (sWSI), a WSI system based on mainstream smartphones coupled with regular optical microscopes. This ultra-low-cost solution should offer diagnostic-ready imaging quality on par with standalone scanners, supporting both oil and dry objective lenses of different magnifications, and reasonably high throughput. These performance metrics should be evaluated by expert pathologists and match those of high-end scanners. The aim was to develop scalable Whole Slide Imaging (sWSI), a whole slide imaging system based on smartphones coupled with optical microscopes. This ultra-low-cost solution should offer diagnostic-ready imaging quality on par with standalone scanners, supporting both oil and dry object lens of different magnification. All performance metrics should be evaluated by expert pathologists and match those of high-end scanners. In the sWSI design, the digitization process is split asynchronously between light-weight clients on smartphones and powerful cloud servers. The client apps automatically capture FoVs at up to 12-megapixel resolution and process them in real-time to track the operation of users, then give instant feedback of guidance. The servers first restitch each pair of FoVs, then automatically correct the unknown nonlinear distortion introduced by the lens of the smartphone on the fly, based on pair-wise stitching, before finally combining all FoVs into one gigapixel VS for each scan. These VSs can be viewed using Internet browsers anywhere. In the evaluation experiment, 100 frozen section slides from patients randomly selected among in-patients of the participating hospital were scanned by both a high-end Leica scanner and sWSI. All VSs were examined by senior pathologists whose diagnoses were compared against those made using optical microscopy as ground truth to evaluate the image quality. The sWSI system is developed for both Android and iPhone smartphones and is currently being offered to the

  20. Development of a Whole Slide Imaging System on Smartphones and Evaluation With Frozen Section Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liren

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim was to develop scalable Whole Slide Imaging (sWSI), a WSI system based on mainstream smartphones coupled with regular optical microscopes. This ultra-low-cost solution should offer diagnostic-ready imaging quality on par with standalone scanners, supporting both oil and dry objective lenses of different magnifications, and reasonably high throughput. These performance metrics should be evaluated by expert pathologists and match those of high-end scanners. Objective The aim was to develop scalable Whole Slide Imaging (sWSI), a whole slide imaging system based on smartphones coupled with optical microscopes. This ultra-low-cost solution should offer diagnostic-ready imaging quality on par with standalone scanners, supporting both oil and dry object lens of different magnification. All performance metrics should be evaluated by expert pathologists and match those of high-end scanners. Methods In the sWSI design, the digitization process is split asynchronously between light-weight clients on smartphones and powerful cloud servers. The client apps automatically capture FoVs at up to 12-megapixel resolution and process them in real-time to track the operation of users, then give instant feedback of guidance. The servers first restitch each pair of FoVs, then automatically correct the unknown nonlinear distortion introduced by the lens of the smartphone on the fly, based on pair-wise stitching, before finally combining all FoVs into one gigapixel VS for each scan. These VSs can be viewed using Internet browsers anywhere. In the evaluation experiment, 100 frozen section slides from patients randomly selected among in-patients of the participating hospital were scanned by both a high-end Leica scanner and sWSI. All VSs were examined by senior pathologists whose diagnoses were compared against those made using optical microscopy as ground truth to evaluate the image quality. Results The sWSI system is developed for both Android and iPhone smartphones and

  1. Regularities of development of unspecific reaction of cells, and modification of chemical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veksler, A.M.; Korystov, Yu.N.; Kublik, L.N.; Ehjdus, L.Kh.

    1979-01-01

    Regularities of development of a unspecific reaction of cells under the effect of different substances belonging to weak electrolytes have been studied. It was demonstrated that the rate of the unspecific reaction development under the effect of cysteamine and caffeine-benzoate depends on the agent concentration, temperature and pH of a medium. It was established that the response of a cell is determined by the overall intracellular concentration of the agent rather than by its specific character. The total concentration of the substance inside the cell depends on its physico-chemical characteristics and, with a pH gradient between cell and medium, can markedly vary from that in the medium. With similar intracellular content, both substances proved to be virtually equally effective. This suggests that it is possible to assess the effectiveness of some other biologically active substances many of which are weak electrolytes

  2. State-of-the-Art of (Bio)Chemical Sensor Developments in Analytical Spanish Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata, María Reyes; Contento, Ana María; Ríos, Angel

    2010-01-01

    (Bio)chemical sensors are one of the most exciting fields in analytical chemistry today. The development of these analytical devices simplifies and miniaturizes the whole analytical process. Although the initial expectation of the massive incorporation of sensors in routine analytical work has been truncated to some extent, in many other cases analytical methods based on sensor technology have solved important analytical problems. Many research groups are working in this field world-wide, reporting interesting results so far. Modestly, Spanish researchers have contributed to these recent developments. In this review, we summarize the more representative achievements carried out for these groups. They cover a wide variety of sensors, including optical, electrochemical, piezoelectric or electro-mechanical devices, used for laboratory or field analyses. The capabilities to be used in different applied areas are also critically discussed. PMID:22319260

  3. The Chemical Recycling of PET in the Framework of Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achilias, D. S.; Karayannidis, G. P.

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, all the techniques used in the chemical recycling of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are critically reviewed according to the overall benefits together with the environmental surcharge that they cause. Those, which are consistent with the principles of sustainable development, are indicated. Experimental data are presented for the acid hydrolysis of PET and compared with previous results on the alkaline hydrolysis of PET with, or without, the use of a phase transfer catalyst. Overall material balances are carried out for the hydrolysis of PET. Finally, it can be postulated that recycling according to the scheme:is the only one within the framework of sustainable development. Therefore, the recycling of PET does not only serve as a partial solution to the solid waste problem but also contributes to the conservation of raw petrochemical products and energy

  4. Chemical aspects of cylinder corrosion and a scenario for hole development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, E.J. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    In June 1990, two cylinders in the depleted UF{sub 6} cylinder storage yards at Portsmouth were discovered to have holes in their walls at the valve-end stiffening ring at a point below the level of the gas-solid interface of the UF{sub 6}. The cylinder with the larger hole, which extended under the stiffening ring, was stacked in a top row 13 years ago. The cylinder with the smaller hole had been stacked in a bottom row 4 years ago. The lifting lugs of the adjacent cylinders pointed directly at the holes. A Cylinder Investigating Committee was appointed to determine the cause or causes of the holes and to assess the implications of these findings. This report contains a listing of the chemically related facts established by the Investigating Committee with the cooperation of the Operations and Technical Support Divisions at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, the scenario developed to explain these findings and some implications of this scenario. In summary, the interrelated reactions of water, solid UF{sub 6} and iron presented by R. L. Ritter are used to develop a scenario which explains the observations and deductions made during the investigation. The chemical processes are intimately related to the course of the last three of the four stages of hole development. A simple model is proposed which permits semiquantitative prediction of such information as the HF loss rates as a function of time, the rate of hole enlargement, the time to hydrolyze a cylinder of UF{sub 6} and the approximate size of the hole. The scenario suggests that the environmental consequences associated with a developing hole in a depleted UF{sub 6} cylinder are minimal for the first several years but will become significant if too many years pass before detection. The overall environmental picture is presented in more detail elsewhere.

  5. Measurement of the thorium absorption cross section shape near thermal energy (LWBR development program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, L.

    1976-11-01

    The shape of the thorium absorption cross section near thermal energies was investigated. This shape is dominated by one or more negative energy resonances whose parameters are not directly known, but must be inferred from higher energy data. Since the integral quantity most conveniently describing the thermal cross section shape is the Westcottg-factor, effort was directed toward establishing this quantity to high precision. Three nearly independent g-factor estimates were obtained from measurements on a variety of foils in three different neutron spectra provided by polyethylene-moderated neutrons from a 252 Cf source and from irradiations in the National Bureau of Standards ''Standard Thermal Neutron Density.'' The weighted average of the three measurements was 0.993 +- 0.004. This is in good agreement with two recent evaluations and supports the adequacy of the current cross section descriptions

  6. Development of sine/cosine coil based on cross-section modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Takahiro; Kondoh, Junji; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji; Shimada, Ryuichi

    1996-01-01

    New type sine and cosine coils whose areas of cross sections vary as sine and cosine are proposed. The measurements of current position by the new coils showed their availability. Traditional sine or cosine coil is wound with a pitch which varies as sine or cosine. However these coils have a problem of manufacturing, i.e. it is not easy to wind wire exactly with a pitch of sine or cosine. This new modulation, i.e. varying cross section, provides handy and accurate measurements of the current position. (author)

  7. Do hormone-modulating chemicals impact on reproduction and development of wild amphibians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Frances; Tyler, Charles R

    2015-11-01

    Globally, amphibians are undergoing a precipitous decline. At the last estimate in 2004, 32% of the approximately 6000 species were threatened with extinction and 43% were experiencing significant declines. These declines have been linked with a wide range of environmental pressures from habitat loss to climate change, disease and pollution. This review evaluates the evidence that endocrine-disrupting contaminants (EDCs) - pollutants that affect hormone systems - are impacting on wild amphibians and contributing to population declines. The review is limited to anurans (frogs and toads) as data for effects of EDCs on wild urodeles (salamanders, newts) or caecilians (limbless amphibians) are extremely limited. Evidence from laboratory studies has shown that a wide range of chemicals have the ability to alter hormone systems and affect reproductive development and function in anurans, but for the most part only at concentrations exceeding those normally found in natural environments. Exceptions can be found for exposures to the herbicide atrazine and polychlorinated biphenyls in leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) and perchlorate in African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). These contaminants induce feminising effects on the male gonads (including 'intersex' - oocytes within testes) at concentrations measured in some aquatic environments. The most extensive data for effects of an EDC in wild amphibian populations are for feminising effects of atrazine on male gonad development in regions across the USA. Even where strong evidence has been provided for feminising effects of EDCs, however, the possible impact of these effects on fertility and breeding outcome has not been established, making inference for effects on populations difficult. Laboratory studies have shown that various chemicals, including perchlorate, polychlorinated biphenyls and bromodiphenylethers, also act as endocrine disrupters through interfering with thyroid-dependent processes that are fundamental for

  8. [The development of neurotoxic agents as chemical weapons during the National Socialist period in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Muñoz, F; Alamo, C; Guerra, J A; García-García, P

    The discovery and development of the so-called 'nerve agents' (neurotoxic substances to be used as weapons) took place in the Third Reich, largely thanks to the vast amount of progress being made in pharmacology in Germany at that time, both in academic and industrial terms. Furthermore, successive National Socialist governments set up a collaborative network made up of the academia, the chemical industry and military chiefs that also favoured this line of research. The first neurotoxic substance to be incorporated into the category of 'chemical warfare agent' did so almost wholly by chance. As part of the work being carried out on organophosphate-type pesticides and insecticides, Gerald Schrader, a chemist at the I.G. Farben company, synthesised tabun (ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate) and an incident involving accidental contamination of laboratory staff with this substance highlighted its potential toxicity. The same group of researchers later synthesised another substance with the same properties, sarin (isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate). Both agents were studied for use as chemical weapons by Wolfgang Wirth. At the same time, a group led by Richard Kuhn, who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1938, synthesised pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate, otherwise known as soman. Pharmacological studies confirmed that the neurotoxic mechanism of action of these substances was the irreversible inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for metabolising acetylcholine. Results also showed that an excess of this neurotransmitter led to a continuous over-stimulation of the cholinergic (nicotinic and muscarinic) receptors, which is what triggers the appearance of the wide range of symptoms of poisoning and their swift fatal effect.

  9. Using Market Segmentation to Develop a Large Section, Web-Enhanced Survey Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jason; Robertson, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Increasing enrollment and decreasing budgets have caused many public universities, such as San Fransisco State University (SFU), to offer mega-sections of courses to hundreds of students. Yet the needs of many students are at odds with the large enrollments, inflexible times, and inconvenient locations of these classes. Jason Cole and Bruce…

  10. 75 FR 17303 - Section 108 Community Development Loan Guarantee Program: Participation of States as Borrowers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... with access to long-term (up to 20-year) fixed-rate loans at relatively low interest rates to finance certain categories of eligible CDBG projects. Historically, section 108 guarantee authority has been... local governments in nonentitlement areas. The July 22, 2009, interim rule implemented the expansion of...

  11. THE USE OF CHEMICALS AS PLANT REGULATORS. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS, THIS MODULE IS SPECIFICALLY CONCERNED WITH CHEMICALS AS PLANT REGULATORS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES. SECTIONS INCLUDE -- (1) CHEMICALS AS MODIFIERS OF PLANT GROWTH, (2)…

  12. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and waste management technology development program plan: 1994 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until April 1992, the major activity of the ICPP was the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium and the management of the resulting high-level wastes (HLW). In 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the continued safe management and disposition of SNF and radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3,800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons heavy metal of SNF are in inventory at the ICPP. Disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF ampersand WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will be properly stored and prepared for final disposal in accordance with regulatory drivers. This Plan presents a brief summary of each of the major elements of the SF ampersand WMTDP; identifies key program assumptions and their bases; and outlines the key activities and decisions that must be completed to identify, develop, demonstrate, and implement a process(es) that will properly prepare the SNF and radioactive wastes stored at the ICPP for safe and efficient interim storage and final disposal

  13. Development of Chemical and Metabolite Sensors for Rhodococcus opacus PD630.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorenzo, Drew M; Henson, William R; Moon, Tae Seok

    2017-10-20

    Rhodococcus opacus PD630 is a nonmodel, Gram-positive bacterium that possesses desirable traits for biomass conversion, including consumption capabilities for lignocellulose-based sugars and toxic lignin-derived aromatic compounds, significant triacylglycerol accumulation, relatively rapid growth rate, and genetic tractability. However, few genetic elements have been directly characterized in R. opacus, limiting its application for lignocellulose bioconversion. Here, we report the characterization and development of genetic tools for tunable gene expression in R. opacus, including: (1) six fluorescent reporters for quantifying promoter output, (2) three chemically inducible promoters for variable gene expression, and (3) two classes of metabolite sensors derived from native R. opacus promoters that detect nitrogen levels or aromatic compounds. Using these tools, we also provide insights into native aromatic consumption pathways in R. opacus. Overall, this work expands the ability to control and characterize gene expression in R. opacus for future lignocellulose-based fuel and chemical production.

  14. E-waste: development of recycling process and chemical characterization of circuit printed - motherboard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junior, O.L.F.; Vargas, R.A.; Andreoli, M.; Martinelli, J.R.; Seo, E.S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The electro-electronic industry has been regulated by the National Politic of Solid Residues Act (PNRS) and Bill no. 7.404, concerning the actions, procedures, and method to collect, recycle and promotion of environmentally acceptable final destination of residues. The present work contributes to develop recycling process of printed circuit used in microcomputers and in its chemical characterization. The experimental procedure consisted of grinding, classification, magnetic and electrostatic separation, and separation based on density difference, followed by chemical characterization of the metallic and non metallic materials in the motherboard. It was determined that the amounts of Ag, Al, Ba, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn in the residue are above the toxicity allowable levels, and they are in the samples of the decanted material. Among the samples of the floating material, Al, Ba, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Pb (in less quantity), Si (in more quantity), and Sn, Ti and Zn were detected. Those materials can be useful in the preparation of red ceramics. (author)

  15. Development of a Wireless and Passive SAW-Based Chemical Sensor for Organophosphorous Compound Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Qian Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new wireless and passive surface acoustic wave (SAW-based chemical sensor for organophosphorous compound (OC detection is presented. A 434 MHz reflective delay line configuration composed by single phase unidirectional transducers (SPUDTs and three shorted reflectors was fabricated on YZ LiNbO3 piezoelectric substrate as the sensor element. A thin fluoroalcoholpolysiloxane (SXFA film acted as the sensitive interface deposited onto the SAW propagation path between the second and last reflectors of the SAW device. The first reflector was used for the temperature compensation utilizing the difference method. The adsorption between the SXFA and OC molecules modulates the SAW propagation, especially for the time delay of the SAW, hence, the phase shifts of the reflection peaks from the corresponding reflectors can be used to characterize the target OC. Prior to the sensor fabrication, the coupling of modes (COM and perturbation theory were utilized to predict the SAW device performance and the gas adsorption. Referring to a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW-based reader unit, the developed SAW chemical sensor was wirelessly characterized in gas exposure experiments for dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP detection. Sensor performance parameters such as phase sensitivity, repeatability, linearity, and temperature compensation were evaluated experimentally.

  16. Development of a Batch Fabrication Process for Chemical Nanosensors: Recent Advancements at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin M.

    2014-01-01

    A major objective in aerospace sensor development is to produce sensors that are small in size, easy to batch fabricate and low in cost, and have low power consumption. Chemical sensors involving nanostructured materials can provide these characteristics as well as the potential for the development of sensor systems with unique properties and improved performance. However, the fabrication and processing of nanostructures for sensor applications currently is limited by the ability to control their location on the sensor platform, which in turn hinders the progress for batch fabrication. This presentation will discuss the following: the development of a novel room temperature methane (CH4) sensor fabricated using porous tin oxide (SnO2) nanorods as the sensing material, the advantages of using nanomaterials in sensor designs, the challenges encountered with the integration of nanostructures into microsensordevices, and the different methods that have been attempted to address these challenges. An approach for the mass production of sensors with nanostructures using a method developed by our group at the NASA Glenn Research Center to control the alignment of nanostructures onto a sensor platform will also be described.

  17. Development and validation of NIR-chemometric methods for chemical and pharmaceutical characterization of meloxicam tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomuta, Ioan; Iovanov, Rares; Bodoki, Ede; Vonica, Loredana

    2014-04-01

    Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is an important component of a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) toolbox and is a key technology for enabling the rapid analysis of pharmaceutical tablets. The aim of this research work was to develop and validate NIR-chemometric methods not only for the determination of active pharmaceutical ingredients content but also pharmaceutical properties (crushing strength, disintegration time) of meloxicam tablets. The development of the method for active content assay was performed on samples corresponding to 80%, 90%, 100%, 110% and 120% of meloxicam content and the development of the methods for pharmaceutical characterization was performed on samples prepared at seven different compression forces (ranging from 7 to 45 kN) using NIR transmission spectra of intact tablets and PLS as a regression method. The results show that the developed methods have good trueness, precision and accuracy and are appropriate for direct active content assay in tablets (ranging from 12 to 18 mg/tablet) and also for predicting crushing strength and disintegration time of intact meloxicam tablets. The comparative data show that the proposed methods are in good agreement with the reference methods currently used for the characterization of meloxicam tablets (HPLC-UV methods for the assay and European Pharmacopeia methods for determining the crushing strength and disintegration time). The results show the possibility to predict both chemical properties (active content) and physical/pharmaceutical properties (crushing strength and disintegration time) directly, without any sample preparation, from the same NIR transmission spectrum of meloxicam tablets.

  18. Antibiotic use in dentistry: A cross-sectional survey from a developing country

    OpenAIRE

    Sivaramakrishnan Gowri; Deeksha Mehta; Sridharan Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance is a well-known entity and the most common factor leading to this is the irrational use of antibiotics. Several studies from the West have substantiated the irrational use of antibiotics in dentistry. Aims: The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of antimicrobial drug use among dental fraternity in a tertiary care teaching dental college and hospital. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey of various dental fraternities...

  19. Innovative development of mesosystems in the sphere of chemical technology (by the example of Tatarstan Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulpan A. Misbakhova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify the peculiarities of innovative development of mesosystems basing on the systematization of practical experience of Tatarstan Republic and to conduct the economicmathematical modeling. Methods systemic analysis description and generalization component and factor analysis. Results the author substantiates the necessity of development and modernization of petrochemical plants as one of the most important sectors of Russian industry. It is stated that the development of petrochemical wastesrsquo processing technologies flexible production technologies as well as the creation of energy efficient and ecologically safe technologies of oil refining requires substantial revision of approaches to innovations implementation and financing. The article shows that despite the large number of hightech industries Russia ranks only 20 among developed countries by the level of spending on research and development. The analysis carried out on the basis of statistical data for the Republic of Tatarstan showed that the petrochemical complex occupies the leading position in the regional economy while demonstrating higher efficiency compared to other industries. The main institutions for the petrochemical industry development in the Republic have been defined including Tekhnopolis quotKhimgradquot quotRegional center of engineering in the sphere of chemical technologiesquot JSC and others. To assess the development of the national innovation system the innovation diffusion factors were studied and systematized. 16 indicators of research and innovation activities in the Republic of Tatarstan for 20102014 were selected which were then grouped into four integrated categories intellectual activity research and development innovation activity of small businesses and innovation outcomes. Factor analysis determined their contribution to the process of the innovations diffusion at the level of 86 . Scientific novelty the model of innovation diffusion at

  20. Development of polishing methods for Chemical Vapor Deposited Silicon Carbide mirrors for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, B.A.; Brown, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    Material properties of Chemical Vapor Deposited Silicon Carbide (CVD SiC) make it ideal for use in mirrors for synchrotron radiation experiments. We developed methods to grind and polish flat samples of CVD SiC down to measured surface roughness values as low as 1.1 Angstroms rms. We describe the processing details, including observations we made during trial runs with alternative processing recipes. We conclude that pitch polishing using progressively finer diamond abrasive, augmented with specific water based lubricants and additives, produces superior results. Using methods based on these results, a cylindrical and a toroidal mirror, each about 100 x 300mm, were respectively finished by Continental Optical and Frank Cooke, Incorporated. WYCO Interferometry shows these mirrors have surface roughness less than 5.7 Angstroms rms. These mirrors have been installed on the LLNL/UC X-ray Calibration and Standards Facility at the Stanford Synthrotron Radiation Laboratory

  1. Predicting dermal absorption of gas-phase chemicals: transient model development, evaluation, and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, M.; Zhang, Y.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    A transient model is developed to predict dermal absorption of gas-phase chemicals via direct air-to-skin-to-blood transport under non-steady-state conditions. It differs from published models in that it considers convective mass-transfer resistance in the boundary layer of air adjacent to the skin....... Results calculated with this transient model are in good agreement with the limited experimental results that are available for comparison. The sensitivity of the modeled estimates to key parameters is examined. The model is then used to estimate air-to-skin-to-blood absorption of six phthalate esters...... and less absorbed into blood than would a steady-state model. In the 7-day scenario, results calculated by the transient and steady-state models converge over a time period that varies between 3 and 4days for all but the largest phthalate (DEHP). Dermal intake is comparable to or larger than inhalation...

  2. HISTORY OF FORMATION AND PROSPECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF BELARUSIAN SCIENTIFIC CHEMICAL ANT THERMAL TREATMENT SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Ivanitsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available History of the «Material Science in Mechanical Engineering»” accounts for more than 40 years and by right it can be called a history of the Belarusian School of Metal Science Specialists. One of the founders of the Scientific School of Belarusian Metal Science Specialists has been Professor Leonid Grigorievich Voroshnine, double N.A. Minkevich prize-winner, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Head of the Department. Under his leadership and as a result of his personal participation more than 100 new diffusion coatings of multi- and special purposes such as heat-resistant, wear-resistant, anti-corrosive, cavitation- resistant have been developed. The papers written by the Department scientists are well known and they are generally recognized as classical books on chemical and thermal treatment. Nowadays the Scientific School created by Professor Voroshnine L.G is successfully working.

  3. Evaluation and Development of Chemical Kinetic Mechanism Reduction Scheme for Biodiesel and Diesel Fuel Surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poon, Hiew Mun; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Gan, Suyin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the existing chemical kinetic mechanism reduction techniques. From here, an appropriate reduction scheme was developed to create compact yet comprehensive surrogate models for both diesel and biodiesel fuels for diesel engine applications. The reduction...... techniques applied here were Directed Relation Graph (DRG), DRG with Error Propagation, DRG-aided Sensitivity Analysis, and DRG with Error Propagation and Sensitivity Analysis. Nonetheless, the reduced mechanisms generated via these techniques were not sufficiently small for application in multi......-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study. A new reduction scheme was therefore formulated. A 68-species mechanism for biodiesel surrogate and a 49-species mechanism for diesel surrogate were successfully derived from the respective detailed mechanisms. An overall 97% reduction in species number...

  4. Reaction path analysis of sodium-water reaction phenomena in support of chemical reaction model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kenro

    2011-01-01

    Computational study of the sodium-water reaction at the gas (water) - liquid (sodium) interface has been carried out using ab initio (first-principle) method. A possible reaction channel has been identified for the stepwise OH bond dissociations of a single water molecule. The energetics including the binding energy of a water molecule to the sodium surface, the activation energies of the bond cleavages, and the reaction energies, have been evaluated, and the rate constants of the first and second OH bond-breakings have been compared. The results are used as the basis for constructing the chemical reaction model used in a multi-dimensional sodium-water reaction code, SERAPHIM, being developed by JAEA toward the safety assessment of the steam generator (SG) in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). (author)

  5. 24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000.42 Section 1000.42 Housing and... ACTIVITIES General § 1000.42 Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of...

  6. Importance of Intelligence for Strategic Scenario Building: The Information Section Role in Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamizaki, Noriko

    2017-01-01

    Product development of Japanese companies has changed greatly from the post-war revival period, when it was promoted mainly to provide low-cost, high-quality products. In recent years, it has become necessary to develop products and services that correspond to social issues. Research and development has shifted from a technological basis to a…

  7. Chemical sensors for breath gas analysis: the latest developments at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisch, Ulrike; Haick, Hossam

    2014-06-01

    Profiling the body chemistry by means of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath opens exciting new avenues in medical diagnostics. Gas sensors could provide ideal platforms for realizing portable, hand-held breath testing devices in the near future. This review summarizes the latest developments and applications in the field of chemical sensors for diagnostic breath testing that were presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013 in Wallerfangen, Germany. Considerable progress has been made towards clinically applicable breath testing devices, especially by utilizing chemo-sensitive nanomaterials. Examples of several specialized breath testing applications are presented that are either based on stand-alone nanomaterial-based sensors being highly sensitive and specific to individual breath compounds over others, or on combinations of several highly specific sensors, or on experimental nanomaterial-based sensors arrays. Other interesting approaches include the adaption of a commercially available MOx-based sensor array to indirect breath testing applications, using a sample pre-concentration method, and the development of compact integrated GC-sensor systems. The recent trend towards device integration has led to the development of fully integrated prototypes of point-of-care devices. We describe and compare the performance of several prototypes that are based on different sensing technologies and evaluate their potential as low-cost and readily available next-generation medical devices.

  8. Advanced-safeguards systems development for chemical-processing plants. Final report for FY 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartan, F.O.

    1981-04-01

    The program is installing a computer system to test and evaluate process monitoring as a new Safeguards function to supplement the usual physical security and accountability functions. Safeguards development sensors and instruments installed in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) provide information via a data acquisition system to a Safeguards analysis computer. The monitoring function can significantly enhance current material control (accountability) and containment surveillance capabilities for domestic and international Safeguards uses. Installation of sensors and instruments in the ICPP was more than 75% complete in FY-1980. Installation work was halted at the request of ICPP operations near the end of the year to eliminate possible conflict with instrument calibrations prior to plant startup. Some improvements to the computer hardware were made during FY-1980. Sensor and instrument development during FY-1980 emphasized device testing for ICPP monitoring applications. Pressure transducers, pressure switches, a bubble flowmeter, and load cells were tested; an ultrasonic liquid-in-line sensor was developed and tested. Work on the portable, isotope-ratio mass spectrometer led to the comparison of the HP quadrupole instrument with a small magnetic instrument and to the selection of the quadrupole

  9. Abnormal development of tapetum and microspores induced by chemical hybridization agent SQ-1 in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Song, Qilu; Zhang, Yingxin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Ma, Shoucai; Wang, Junwei

    2015-01-01

    Chemical hybridization agent (CHA)-induced male sterility is an important tool in crop heterosis. To demonstrate that CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility is associated with abnormal tapetal and microspore development, the cytology of CHA-SQ-1-treated plant anthers at various developmental stages was studied by light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay and DAPI staining. The results indicated that the SQ-1-treated plants underwent premature tapetal programmed cell death (PCD), which was initiated at the early-uninucleate stage of microspore development and continued until the tapetal cells were completely degraded; the process of microspore development was then blocked. Microspores with low-viability (fluorescein diacetate staining) were aborted. The study suggests that premature tapetal PCD is the main cause of pollen abortion. Furthermore, it determines the starting period and a key factor in CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility at the cell level, and provides cytological evidence to further study the mechanism between PCD and male sterility.

  10. Abnormal development of tapetum and microspores induced by chemical hybridization agent SQ-1 in wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuping Wang

    Full Text Available Chemical hybridization agent (CHA-induced male sterility is an important tool in crop heterosis. To demonstrate that CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility is associated with abnormal tapetal and microspore development, the cytology of CHA-SQ-1-treated plant anthers at various developmental stages was studied by light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL assay and DAPI staining. The results indicated that the SQ-1-treated plants underwent premature tapetal programmed cell death (PCD, which was initiated at the early-uninucleate stage of microspore development and continued until the tapetal cells were completely degraded; the process of microspore development was then blocked. Microspores with low-viability (fluorescein diacetate staining were aborted. The study suggests that premature tapetal PCD is the main cause of pollen abortion. Furthermore, it determines the starting period and a key factor in CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility at the cell level, and provides cytological evidence to further study the mechanism between PCD and male sterility.

  11. Development of Methods for Obtaining Position Image and Chemical Binding Information from Flow Experiments of Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugan, Are

    1998-12-01

    Existing oil reservoirs might be more fully exploited if the properties of the flow of oil and water in porous media were better known. In laboratory experiments it is important to collect as much information as possible to make a descriptive model of the system, including position imaging and chemical binding information. This thesis develops nuclear methods for obtaining position image and chemical binding information from flow experiments of porous media. A combined positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography system to obtain position images, and a time-differential perturbed angular correlation system to obtain chemical binding information, have been built and thoroughly tested. 68 refs., 123 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. Developing pongid dentition and its use for ageing individual crania in comparative cross-sectional growth studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, M C; Wood, B A

    1981-01-01

    This study of the developing pongid dentition is based on cross-sectional radiographic data of juvenile Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, and Pongo pygmaeus skulls. Comparisons with developmental features of the human dentition are made, and possible explanations for the formation of larger teeth within the reduced pongid growth period are discussed. The data presented in this study provide an alternative method for ageing individual pongid crania in comparative cross-sectional growth studies. The advantages of this method are demonstrated by ageing individual Gorilla crania form radiographs and plotting relative dental age against length of the jaw.

  13. The development of a capability for aerodynamic testing of large-scale wing sections in a simulated natural rain environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezos, Gaudy M.; Cambell, Bryan A.; Melson, W. Edward

    1989-01-01

    A research technique to obtain large-scale aerodynamic data in a simulated natural rain environment has been developed. A 10-ft chord NACA 64-210 wing section wing section equipped with leading-edge and trailing-edge high-lift devices was tested as part of a program to determine the effect of highly-concentrated, short-duration rainfall on airplane performance. Preliminary dry aerodynamic data are presented for the high-lift configuration at a velocity of 100 knots and an angle of attack of 18 deg. Also, data are presented on rainfield uniformity and rainfall concentration intensity levels obtained during the calibration of the rain simulation system.

  14. Enhanced Geothermal Systems Research and Development: Models of Subsurface Chemical Processes Affecting Fluid Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller, Nancy; Weare J. H.

    2008-05-29

    Successful exploitation of the vast amount of heat stored beneath the earth’s surface in hydrothermal and fluid-limited, low permeability geothermal resources would greatly expand the Nation’s domestic energy inventory and thereby promote a more secure energy supply, a stronger economy and a cleaner environment. However, a major factor limiting the expanded development of current hydrothermal resources as well as the production of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is insufficient knowledge about the chemical processes controlling subsurface fluid flow. With funding from past grants from the DOE geothermal program and other agencies, we successfully developed advanced equation of state (EOS) and simulation technologies that accurately describe the chemistry of geothermal reservoirs and energy production processes via their free energies for wide XTP ranges. Using the specific interaction equations of Pitzer, we showed that our TEQUIL chemical models can correctly simulate behavior (e.g., mineral scaling and saturation ratios, gas break out, brine mixing effects, down hole temperatures and fluid chemical composition, spent brine incompatibilities) within the compositional range (Na-K-Ca-Cl-SO4-CO3-H2O-SiO2-CO2(g)) and temperature range (T < 350°C) associated with many current geothermal energy production sites that produce brines with temperatures below the critical point of water. The goal of research carried out under DOE grant DE-FG36-04GO14300 (10/1/2004-12/31/2007) was to expand the compositional range of our Pitzer-based TEQUIL fluid/rock interaction models to include the important aluminum and silica interactions (T < 350°C). Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the earth’s crust; and, as a constituent of aluminosilicate minerals, it is found in two thirds of the minerals in the earth’s crust. The ability to accurately characterize effects of temperature, fluid mixing and interactions between major rock-forming minerals and hydrothermal and

  15. Conserved Binding Regions Provide the Clue for Peptide-Based Vaccine Development: A Chemical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Curtidor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic peptides have become invaluable biomedical research and medicinal chemistry tools for studying functional roles, i.e., binding or proteolytic activity, naturally-occurring regions’ immunogenicity in proteins and developing therapeutic agents and vaccines. Synthetic peptides can mimic protein sites; their structure and function can be easily modulated by specific amino acid replacement. They have major advantages, i.e., they are cheap, easily-produced and chemically stable, lack infectious and secondary adverse reactions and can induce immune responses via T- and B-cell epitopes. Our group has previously shown that using synthetic peptides and adopting a functional approach has led to identifying Plasmodium falciparum conserved regions binding to host cells. Conserved high activity binding peptides’ (cHABPs physicochemical, structural and immunological characteristics have been taken into account for properly modifying and converting them into highly immunogenic, protection-inducing peptides (mHABPs in the experimental Aotus monkey model. This article describes stereo–electron and topochemical characteristics regarding major histocompatibility complex (MHC-mHABP-T-cell receptor (TCR complex formation. Some mHABPs in this complex inducing long-lasting, protective immunity have been named immune protection-inducing protein structures (IMPIPS, forming the subunit components in chemically synthesized vaccines. This manuscript summarizes this particular field and adds our recent findings concerning intramolecular interactions (H-bonds or π-interactions enabling proper IMPIPS structure as well as the peripheral flanking residues (PFR to stabilize the MHCII-IMPIPS-TCR interaction, aimed at inducing long-lasting, protective immunological memory.

  16. Latest Developments in Data Analysis and Structure Determination and Refinement: Software for Chemical Crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dix, I.; Adam, M.; Jacob, H. F.; Roter, A.

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of a two-dimensional CCD X-ray detector nearly 10 years ago by Bruker started a revolution in chemical crystallography. Since then, crystallographers can accomplish a complete data collection even of small and poorly scattering crystals in a few hours instead of days. The launch of the kappa geometry by Nonius a few years ago beforehand equally revolutionized the field of single crystal diffractometry. Currently Bruker Nonius has far more than 500 CCD systems installed. The latest development of Bruker Nonius, the X8 APEX, is the powerful combination of both: the APEX CCD detector and the unique Kappa four-circle goniometer. The APEX 4K CCD detector provides the utmost sensitivity, while the Kappa four-circle goniometer offers a very open geometry, granting all the flexibility to align any crystallographic axis. This provides a more efficient data collection for axial photographs to investigate e.g. diffuse scattering or incommensurate structures. Even the crystal-detector distance is computer-controlled for precise and superior data collection. The X8 APEX software suite gives a whole new look to the CCD users interface. It not only has improved data collection abilities, but also guides the chemist or mineralogist through gathering the raw crystal data to producing the final crystal structure. It provides context-dependent menus, which are well-known from business software packages such as Outlook. The tools for unit cell determination, views into reciprocal space, optimisation of the data collection strategy, data integration, scaling and correcting (SADABS) as well as tools for structure solving and refining (SHELXTL package) will be presented. Low temperature work has become an essential tool for challenging samples. The Bruker Nonius Kryo-Flex cryogenic device makes chemical crystallography at low temperatures a routine method in your laboratory. Of course, the Kryo-Flex is fully controlled by the new graphical user interface of the X8 APEX

  17. Cross Sectional Study of Agile Software Development Methods and Project Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Agile software development methods, characterized by delivering customer value via incremental and iterative time-boxed development processes, have moved into the mainstream of the Information Technology (IT) industry. However, despite a growing body of research which suggests that a predictive manufacturing approach, with big up-front…

  18. Transformative Role of Epigenetics in Child Development Research: Commentary on the Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Lester, Conradt, and Marsit (2016) have assembled a set of articles that bring to readers of "Child Development" the scope and impact of the exponentially growing research on epigenetics and child development. This commentary aims to place this work in a broader context of theory and research by (a) providing a conceptual framework for…

  19. Development of an eco- and material-efficient pellet production chain. A chemical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuokkanen, M.

    2013-06-01

    According to the EU's strategy and the corresponding Finnish national strategy on waste materials, all kinds of waste must be utilised primarily as material (reuse, recycling) and secondarily as energy, and at the lowest level of waste hierarchy is their disposal using environmentally friendly methods. Today material efficiency is an essential topic in promoting sustainable use of natural resources, industrial by-products and waste material. The present goal proposed by the EU sets the target for the total proportion of renewable energy as high as 38% by 2020 in Finland. Up to 20 million tonnes of waste wood biomass per year are left unused in Finland, mainly in the forests during forestry operations, because supply and demand do not meet. As a consequence of high heat energy prices, the looming threat of climate change, the greenhouse effect and global as well as national demands to considerably increase the proportion of renewable energy, Finland currently has a tremendous interest in increasing decentralised pellet production alongside of large-scale factories. The aim of this thesis is to promote the development of eco-, material- and cost-efficient Nordic wood-based pellet production and utilisation of pellet bio-ash by means of chemical research. Using Finnish wood (sawdust and shavings) as a model raw material, the total functionality of a pilot-scale pellet facility combined with an extensive chemical toolbox was tested in this study to promote development of an eco-, material- and cost-efficient wood-based pellet production chain. The chemical toolbox includes measurements of moisture content, density, heat value, mechanical durability and particle size distribution, TG analysis and elementary analysis, as well as new applications for pellet biodegradation using BOD OxiTop equipment and optical microscopic staining methods. To improve the quality of pellets, considering the profitability of production and occupational safety factors (wood dust

  20. The development of a nuclear chemical plant human reliability management approach: HRMS and JHEDI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirwan, Barry

    1997-01-01

    -be-assessed, task or scenario. The extrapolation process therefore required a set of PSF profiles for a number of real and representative data-based scenarios, and empirically-derived rules to extrapolate to new but similar scenarios. Using existing nuclear chemical plant human error and other data, a PSF profiling and extrapolation system was developed, which could assess most HEPs required for nuclear chemical risk assessments. The two techniques were then employed in a major risk assessment, with HRMS being utilised for approximately twenty high risk scenarios, and JHEDI being used to calculate well over five hundred HEPs for a large range of tasks and scenarios, by a number of assessors

  1. Development of a quantum chemical molecular dynamics tribochemical simulator and its application to tribochemical reaction dynamics of lubricant additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, T; Tsuboi, H; Hatakeyama, N; Endou, A; Miyamoto, A; Miura, R; Takaba, H; Suzuki, A; Kubo, M

    2010-01-01

    Tribology at the atomistic and molecular levels has been theoretically studied by a classical molecular dynamics (MD) method. However, this method inherently cannot simulate the tribochemical reaction dynamics because it does not consider the electrons in nature. Although the first-principles based MD method has recently been used for understanding the chemical reaction dynamics of several molecules in the tribology field, the method cannot simulate the tribochemical reaction dynamics of a large complex system including solid surfaces and interfaces due to its huge computation costs. On the other hand, we have developed a quantum chemical MD tribochemical simulator on the basis of a hybrid tight-binding quantum chemical/classical MD method. In the simulator, the central part of the chemical reaction dynamics is calculated by the tight-binding quantum chemical MD method, and the remaining part is calculated by the classical MD method. Therefore, the developed tribochemical simulator realizes the study on tribochemical reaction dynamics of a large complex system, which cannot be treated by using the conventional classical MD or the first-principles MD methods. In this paper, we review our developed quantum chemical MD tribochemical simulator and its application to the tribochemical reaction dynamics of a few lubricant additives

  2. Recent Developments on Genetic Engineering of Microalgae for Biofuels and Bio-Based Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, I-Son; Tan, Shih-I; Kao, Pei-Hsun; Chang, Yu-Kaung; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2017-10-01

    Microalgae serve as a promising source for the production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals. They are superior to terrestrial plants as feedstock in many aspects and their biomass is naturally rich in lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, pigments, and other valuable compounds. Due to the relatively slow growth rate and high cultivation cost of microalgae, to screen efficient and robust microalgal strains as well as genetic modifications of the available strains for further improvement are of urgent demand in the development of microalgae-based biorefinery. In genetic engineering of microalgae, transformation and selection methods are the key steps to accomplish the target gene modification. However, determination of the preferable type and dosage of antibiotics used for transformant selection is usually time-consuming and microalgal-strain-dependent. Therefore, more powerful and efficient techniques should be developed to meet this need. In this review, the conventional and emerging genome-editing tools (e.g., CRISPR-Cas9, TALEN, and ZFN) used in editing the genomes of nuclear, mitochondria, and chloroplast of microalgae are thoroughly surveyed. Although all the techniques mentioned above demonstrate their abilities to perform gene editing and desired phenotype screening, there still need to overcome higher production cost and lower biomass productivity, to achieve efficient production of the desired products in microalgal biorefineries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Development of Cr Electroplated Cladding Tube for preventing Fuel-Cladding Chemical Interaction (FCCI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Hwan; Woo, Je Woong; Kim, Sung Ho; Cheon, Jin Sik; Lee, Byung Oon; Lee, Chan Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Metal fuel has been selected as a candidate fuel in the SFR because of its superior thermal conductivity as well as enhanced proliferation resistance in connection with the pyroprocessing. However, metal fuel suffers eutectic reaction (Fuel Cladding Chemical Interaction, FCCI) with the fuel cladding made of stainless steel at reactor operating temperature so that cladding thickness gradually reduces to endanger reactor safety. In order to mitigate FCCI, barrier concept has been proposed between the fuel and the cladding in designing fuel rod. Regarding this, KAERI has initiated barrier cladding development to prevent interdiffusion process as well as enhance the SFR fuel performance. Previous study revealed that Cr electroplating has been selected as one of the most promising options because of its technical and economic viability. This paper describes the development status of the Cr electroplating technology for the usage of fuel rod in SFR. This paper summarizes the status of Cr electroplating technology to prevent FCCI in metal fuel rod. It has been selected for the ease of practical application at the tube inner surface. Technical scoping, performance evaluation and optimization have been carried out. Application to the tube inner surface and in-pile test were conducted which revealed as effective.

  4. Incidence of the biotechnology in the academic development of the chemical engineering in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellanos, Oscar Fernando; Rueda Maria Angelica; Ramirez, Julio Cesar

    1998-01-01

    In Colombia, the biotechnology, during the last years, it has been developed in a quick way, particularly in their fundamental and theoretical aspect. In the national market consumption there are products obtained with the help of the advances of the industrial biotechnology, which, for their implementation, it has had to appeal to import technologies and of transfer. This way, among the theoretical investigations in biotechnology and the applicability of their results in production processes in our country a direct relationship has not existed generally. At the moment, the necessities of scientific and technological progress demand the harmonic interaction of the different aspects of the biotechnology. For it, it is indispensable the formation of professionals, able to apply engineering concepts in the processes developed in biotechnical laboratories, like they have already made it other countries, with more scientific and economic advance. In the Colombian universities it is hour of reinforcing the line considerably in biochemical engineering of chemical engineering programs in the different pre and graduate levels; this profundity will allow significantly shortening distances between the different areas of the biotechnology and its industrial application

  5. Introduction to the special section on developing guidelines for the evidence-based assessment (EBA) of adult disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsley, John; Mash, Eric J

    2005-09-01

    The goal of this special section is to encourage greater awareness of evidence-based assessment (EBA) in the development of a scientifically supported clinical psychology. In this introductory article, the authors describe the elements that authors in this special section were asked to consider in their focused reviews (including the scope of available psychometric evidence, advancements in psychopathology research, and evidence of attention to factors such as gender, age, and ethnicity in measure validation). The authors then present central issues evident in the articles that deal with anxiety, depression, personality disorders, and couple distress and in the accompanying commentaries. The authors conclude by presenting key themes emerging from the articles in this special section, including gaps in psychometric information, limited information about the utility of assessment, the discrepancy between recommended EBAs and current training and practice, and the need for further data on the process of clinical assessment.

  6. Complementary feeding patterns in a developing country: a cross-sectional study across Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batal, M; Boulghourjian, C; Akik, C

    2010-02-01

    This first, large-scale study on complementary feeding in Lebanon analysed the timing and types of food introduced to infants according to mothers' demographic and socioeconomic and infants' characteristics. A cross-sectional survey over 10 months found that the majority of infants were introduced to solid foods at or after 4 months of age. A large number of infants were given liquids other than breast or formula milk earlier. Women in employment outside the home were almost twice as likely to introduce solid foods before age 4 months. The most common starting food was cereals. More than half the children consumed starchy foods and fruits every day, but not meats and fish.

  7. Alarms, Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    cited in applicable qualitative materiel requirements, small development requirements, technical characteristics, and other requirements and documentation that pertain to automatic chemical agent alarms.

  8. Possibility of the development of a Serbian protection system against chemical accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan R. Inđić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a draft of a system model for responding in case of chemical accidents in accordance with the current legislation regarding the environment protection, the structure and elements of the existing response system in case of chemical accidents, other works dealing with the issue as well as the prospects planned by those responsible for the environmental protection. The paper discuss the possibilities of different institutions and agencies of the Republic of Serbia to engage in specialized methods of cooperation and protection against chemical hazards in accordance with Article X of the Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons.

  9. Development of Bicarbonate-Activated Peroxide as a Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent Decontaminant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richardson, David E

    2006-01-01

    ...) and other chemistry for the decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents. The mechanism of formation of the active oxidant, peroxymonocarbonate, has been investigated in detail. New surfoxidants...

  10. Protein structure similarity clustering (PSSC) and natural product structure as inspiration sources for drug development and chemical genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Frank J; Koch, Marcus A; Waldmann, Herbert; Dekker, Frans

    Finding small molecules that modulate protein function is of primary importance in drug development and in the emerging field of chemical genomics. To facilitate the identification of such molecules, we developed a novel strategy making use of structural conservatism found in protein domain

  11. Planning for transit-supportive development : a practitioner's guide. Section 4 : corridor planning and transit-supportive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Planning for Transit-Supportive Development: A Practitioners Guide is a toolkit of practical and innovative measures to help : Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs), regional planners, transit agencies, and local government elected o...

  12. Planning for transit-supportive development : a practitioner's guide. Section 5 : local planning and transit-supportive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Planning for Transit-Supportive Development: A Practitioners Guide is a toolkit of practical and innovative measures to help : Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs), regional planners, transit agencies, and local government elected o...

  13. Planning for transit-supportive development : a practitioner's guide. Section 2 : general transit-supportive development planning topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Planning for Transit-Supportive Development: A Practitioners Guide is a toolkit of practical and innovative measures to help : Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs), regional planners, transit agencies, and local government elected o...

  14. Development of a SISAK extraction system for chemical studies of element 108, hassium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samadani, F.; Alstad, J.; Bjoernstad, T.; Stavsetra, L.; Omtvedt, J.P. [Oslo Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-07-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction system suitable for studies of chemical properties of Hs (element 108), in the form of HsO{sub 4}, was developed using {gamma}-emitting isotopes of its homologue Os. The system is targeted for the fast on-line extraction system SISAK, which operates in a continuous manner and is suitable for liquid-phase studies of transactinide elements. The distribution of OsO{sub 4} between various dilute NaOH solutions and toluene was studied. Both batch and SISAK on-line experiments were performed to develop an appropriate system. From analysis of the extraction curves equilibrium constants for the formation of the presumed complexes, Na[OsO{sub 4}(OH)] and Na{sub 2}[OsO{sub 4}(OH){sub 2}], were obtained: K{sub 1} = (1 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 4} and K{sub 2} = 12 {+-} 8, respectively. The SISAK system includes a liquid-scintillation detection system for {alpha} measurements. Due to quenching effects it is not possible to perform direct measurement of the aqueous phase {alpha}'s. Therefore, a two-stage extraction method that provides an indirect measurement of the activity in the aqueous phase was developed as part of the proposed system for Hs: Acidification of the raffinate from the first stage result in recovery of OsO{sub 4}, which is highly extractable into toluene. The yield of extraction in the second step, from 0.01 M NaOH solution after acidification with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, was (90 {+-} 3)%. (orig.)

  15. Development of a SISAK extraction system for chemical studies of element 108, hassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samadani, F.; Alstad, J.; Bjoernstad, T.; Stavsetra, L.; Omtvedt, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction system suitable for studies of chemical properties of Hs (element 108), in the form of HsO 4 , was developed using γ-emitting isotopes of its homologue Os. The system is targeted for the fast on-line extraction system SISAK, which operates in a continuous manner and is suitable for liquid-phase studies of transactinide elements. The distribution of OsO 4 between various dilute NaOH solutions and toluene was studied. Both batch and SISAK on-line experiments were performed to develop an appropriate system. From analysis of the extraction curves equilibrium constants for the formation of the presumed complexes, Na[OsO 4 (OH)] and Na 2 [OsO 4 (OH) 2 ], were obtained: K 1 = (1 ± 0.5) x 10 4 and K 2 = 12 ± 8, respectively. The SISAK system includes a liquid-scintillation detection system for α measurements. Due to quenching effects it is not possible to perform direct measurement of the aqueous phase α's. Therefore, a two-stage extraction method that provides an indirect measurement of the activity in the aqueous phase was developed as part of the proposed system for Hs: Acidification of the raffinate from the first stage result in recovery of OsO 4 , which is highly extractable into toluene. The yield of extraction in the second step, from 0.01 M NaOH solution after acidification with H 2 SO 4 solution, was (90 ± 3)%. (orig.)

  16. Innovation in Integrated Chemical Product-Process Design - Development through a Model-based Systems Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa

    The ‘consumer oriented chemicals based products’ such as shampoos, sunscreens, insect repellents are used everyday by millions of people. They are structured products, constituted of numerous chemicals. This complexity gives the reason for which mainly experimental techniques are still employed...

  17. Mindfulness and Compassion in Human Development: Introduction to the Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeser, Robert W.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2015-01-01

    Research on contemplative practices (e.g., mindfulness or compassion training) is growing rapidly in the clinical, health and neuro-sciences, but almost none of this research takes an explicitly developmental life span perspective. At present, we know rather little about the naturalistic development of mindfulness or compassion in children and…

  18. Research and development activities of the seismology section for the period January 1986 to December 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, T.K.; Murty, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    This report sumarises the R and D in Seismology during the period from January 1986 to December 1987. Major topics of current study are (1) Forensic Seismology, (2) Seismicity and Seismic Risk estimates, (3) Reservoir induced seismicity and (4) Rockburst monitoring. Considerable effort is devoted to development of seismic data acquisition systems and theoretical aspects of seismology. (author)

  19. Development program of hydrogen production by thermo-chemical water splitting is process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryutaro Hino

    2005-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been conducting R and D on the HTGR and also on thermo-chemical water splitting hydrogen production by using a iodine-sulfur cycle (IS process) in the HTTR project. The continuous hydrogen production for one week was demonstrated with a bench-scale test apparatus made of glass, and the hydrogen production rare was about 31 NL/h. Based on the test results and know-how obtained through the bench-scale test, a pilot test plant, which has a hydrogen production performance of 30 Nm 3 /h and will be operated under the high pressure up to 2 MPa, is being designed conceptually as the next step of the IS process development aiming to realize a future nuclear hydrogen production coupled with the HTGR. In this paper, we will introduce one-week continuous hydrogen production conducted with the bench-scale test apparatus and the pilot test program including R and D and an analytical system necessary for designing the pilot test plant. MW. Figure 1 shows an overview of the HTTR-IS plant. In this paper, we will introduce latest test results obtained with the bench-scale test apparatus and concepts of key components of the IS process, a sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) and a sulfur trioxide (SO 3 ) decomposers working under high-temperature corrosive circumstance, are also introduced as well as relating R and D and an analytical system for the pilot plant design. (authors)

  20. Development of life cycle water footprints for the production of fuels and chemicals from algae biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira Junior, Edson; Kumar, Mayank; Pankratz, Stan; Oyedun, Adetoyese Olajire; Kumar, Amit

    2018-09-01

    This study develops life cycle water footprints for the production of fuels and chemicals via thermochemical conversion of algae biomass. This study is based on two methods of feedstock production - ponds and photobioreactors (PBRs) - and four conversion pathways - fast pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), conventional gasification, and hydrothermal gasification (HTG). The results show the high fresh water requirement for algae production and the necessity to recycle harvested water or use alternative water sources. To produce 1 kg of algae through ponds, 1564 L of water are required. When PBRs are used, only 372 L water are required; however, the energy requirements for PBRs are about 30 times higher than for ponds. From a final product perspective, the pathway based on the gasification of algae biomass was the thermochemical conversion method that required the highest amount of water per MJ produced (mainly due to its low hydrogen yield), followed by fast pyrolysis and HTL. On the other hand, HTG has the lowest water footprint, mainly because the large amount of electricity generated as part of the process compensates for the electricity used by the system. Performance in all pathways can be improved through recycling channels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bridging gaps in discovery and development: chemical and biological sciences for affordable health, wellness and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Prem Man Singh

    2011-05-01

    To commemorate 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry, the Indian Society of Chemists and Biologists organized its 15th International Conference on 'Bridging Gaps in Discovery and Development: Chemical and Biological Sciences for Affordable Health, Wellness and Sustainability' at Hotel Grand Bhagwati, in association with Saurashtra University, Rajkot, India. Anamik Shah, President of the Indian Society of Chemists and Biologists, was organizing secretary of the conference. Nicole Moreau, President of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and Secretary General of the Comité National de la Chimie, National Centre for Scientific Research France, was chief guest of the function. The four-day scientific program included 52 plenary lectures, 24 invited lectures by eminent scientists in the field and 12 oral presentations. A total of 317 posters were presented by young scientists and PhD students in three different poster sessions. Approximately 750 delegates from India, the USA, UK, France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Sweden, Japan and other countries attended the conference. The majority of the speakers gave presentations related to their current projects and areas of interest and many of the talks covered synthesis, structure-activity relationships, current trends in medicinal chemistry and drug research.

  2. Impacts of chemical modification on the toxicity of diverse nanocellulose materials to developing zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Bryan J; Clendaniel, Alicea; Sinche, Federico; Way, Daniel; Hughes, Michael; Schardt, Jenna; Simonsen, John; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Harper, Stacey L

    2016-06-01

    Cellulose is an abundant and renewable resource currently being investigated for utility in nanomaterial form for various promising applications ranging from medical and pharmaceutical uses to mechanical reinforcement and biofuels. The utility of nanocellulose and wide implementation ensures increasing exposure to humans and the environment as nanocellulose-based technologies advance. Here, we investigate how differences in aspect ratio and changes to surface chemistry, as well as synthesis methods, influence the biocompatibility of nanocellulose materials using the embryonic zebrafish. Investigations into the toxicity of neutral, cationic and anionic surface functionalities revealed that surface chemistry had a minimal influence on the overall toxicity of nanocellulose materials. Higher aspect ratio cellulose nanofibers produced by mechanical homogenization were, in some cases, more toxic than other cellulose-based nanofibers or nanocrystals produced by chemical synthesis methods. Using fluorescently labeled nanocellulose we were able to show that nanocellulose uptake did occur in embryonic zebrafish during development. We conclude that the benign nature of nanocellulose materials makes them an ideal platform to systematically investigate the inherent surface features driving nanomaterial toxicity in order to create safer design principles for engineered nanoparticles.

  3. Review on modeling development for multiscale chemical reactions coupled transport phenomena in solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Martin; Yuan, Jinliang; Sunden, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    A literature study is performed to compile the state-of-the-art, as well as future potential, in SOFC modeling. Principles behind various transport processes such as mass, heat, momentum and charge as well as for electrochemical and internal reforming reactions are described. A deeper investigation is made to find out potentials and challenges using a multiscale approach to model solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and combine the accuracy at microscale with the calculation speed at macroscale to design SOFCs, based on a clear understanding of transport phenomena, chemical reactions and functional requirements. Suitable methods are studied to model SOFCs covering various length scales. Coupling methods between different approaches and length scales by multiscale models are outlined. Multiscale modeling increases the understanding for detailed transport phenomena, and can be used to make a correct decision on the specific design and control of operating conditions. It is expected that the development and production costs will be decreased and the energy efficiency be increased (reducing running cost) as the understanding of complex physical phenomena increases. It is concluded that the connection between numerical modeling and experiments is too rare and also that material parameters in most cases are valid only for standard materials and not for the actual SOFC component microstructures.

  4. Chemical composition of tempeh from soybean cultivars specially developed for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Furlan Bavia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tempeh is a food obtained by fermentation of soybean grains by the fungus Rizophus oligosporus. It is a traditional Indonesian food that presents benefits for human health protecting against diarrhea and chronic diseases. Tempeh processing includes dehulling, cooking, inoculation, and fermentation. In this study, chemical characteristics of tempeh prepared with soybean cultivars specially developed for human consumption (BRS 216, BRS 232, BRS 257, and BRS 267 were investigated. Soybean grains and tempeh obtained from these cultivars were analyzed for oil, protein, antinutrional factors, and isoflavone content. Cultivar BRS 216 presented the highest protein content in the grains (36.81% and in tempeh (51.99%. On average, the protein content in tempeh increased 16% in relation to that of soybean grains. Isoflavone content was higher in the grains than in tempeh with significant differences among the cultivars. However, the aglycones content increased about 50% in tempeh (49.00 mg.100 g-1 on average compared to that of raw material (soybean grains - 21.49 mg.100 g-1, on average. The content of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KSTI reduced 83% in tempeh, on average, as compared to the value found in the grains. Phytic acid content was similar in both tempeh and the grains.

  5. Measurement of developing turbulent flow in a U-bend of circular cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gun Hyee; Choi, Young Don; Han, Seong Ho

    2007-01-01

    Hot-wire measurements of the full mapping of the velocity and Reynolds stress components are reported for developing turbulent flow in a strongly curved 180 deg pipe and its tangents. A slanted wire is rotated into 6 orientations and the voltage outputs from wires are combined to obtain the mean velocity and Reynolds stress components. The strength of secondary flow reaches up to the 28% of bulk mean velocity. The strong counter-rotating vortex pair induced by the transverse pressure gradient and centrifugal force imbalance grows up to θ = 67.5 .deg. into the bend. But the vortex pair breaks down into two cell pattern after θ=90 .deg. Core vortex formation and reversal of secondary flow direction along the bend symmetry plane is cleanly found in the secondary vector plot. At θ=67.5 .deg. and θ = 90 .deg. into bend a large 'trough' develops in the longitudinal velocity toward the inside of the bend due to the breakdown of secondary flow. In the bend, the mean longitudinal velocity component changes little after θ=90 .deg., but secondary flow never achieves fully-developed state. Similar behaviors are observed in the radial and circumferential stresses

  6. Policies on Conflicts of Interest in Health Care Guideline Development: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morciano, Cristina; Basevi, Vittorio; Faralli, Carla; Hilton Boon, Michele; Tonon, Sabina; Taruscio, Domenica

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether organisations that develop health care guidelines have conflict of interest (COI) policies and to review the content of the available COI policies. Methods Survey and content analysis of COI policies available in English, French, Spanish, and Italian conducted between September 2014 and June 2015. A 24-item data abstraction instrument was created on the basis of guideline development standards. Results The survey identified 29 organisations from 19 countries that met the inclusion criteria. From these organisations, 19 policies were eligible for inclusion in the content analysis. Over one-third of the policies (7/19, 37%) did not report or did not clearly report whether disclosure was a prerequisite for membership of the guideline panel. Strategies for the prevention of COI such as divestment were mentioned by only two organisations. Only 21% of policies (4/19) used criteria to determine whether an interest constitutes a COI and to assess the severity of the risk imposed. Conclusions The finding that some organisations, in contradiction of widely available standards, still do not have COI policies publicly available is concerning. Also troubling were the findings that some policies did not clearly report critical steps in obtaining, managing and communicating disclosure of relationships of interest. This in addition to the variability encountered in content and accessibility of COI policies may cause confusion and distrust among guideline users. It is in the interest of guideline users and developers to design an agreed-upon, comprehensive, clear, and accessible COI policy. PMID:27846255

  7. WetA bridges cellular and chemical development in Aspergillus flavus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yueh Wu

    Full Text Available Bridging cellular reproduction and survival is essential for all life forms. Aspergillus fungi primarily reproduce by forming asexual spores called conidia, whose formation and maturation is governed by the central genetic regulatory circuit BrlA→AbaA→WetA. Here, we report that WetA is a multi-functional regulator that couples spore differentiation and survival, and governs proper chemical development in Aspergillus flavus. The deletion of wetA results in the formation of conidia with defective cell walls and no intra-cellular trehalose, leading to reduced stress tolerance, a rapid loss of viability, and disintegration of spores. WetA is also required for normal vegetative growth, hyphal branching, and production of aflatoxins. Targeted and genome-wide expression analyses reveal that WetA exerts feedback control of brlA and that 5,700 genes show altered mRNA levels in the mutant conidia. Functional category analyses of differentially expressed genes in ΔwetA RNA-seq data indicate that WetA contributes to spore integrity and maturity by properly regulating the metabolic pathways of trehalose, chitin, α-(1,3-glucan, β-(1,3-glucan, melanin, hydrophobins, and secondary metabolism more generally. Moreover, 160 genes predicted to encode transcription factors are differentially expressed by the absence of wetA, suggesting that WetA may play a global regulatory role in conidial development. Collectively, we present a comprehensive model for developmental control that bridges spore differentiation and survival in A. flavus.

  8. Chemical Characterization of Nuclear Materials: Development a New Combined X-Ray Fluorescence and Raman Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szaloki, I.; Gerenyi, A.

    2015-01-01

    New mobile analytical device based on combination of X-ray fluorescence and Raman spectrometer has been developed for prompt and quantitative characterization of chemical component from Al to U in nuclear waste or undeclared materials. The excitation source of the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is an air-cooled X-ray tube with Ag transmission anode. For collection of secondary X-ray photons and data processing, a compact Amptek X-ray detector system is applied with silicon drift X-ray detector. The XRF system operates in confocal mode with focal volume around 1-4 mm 3 . Varying the geometrical position and orientation of the sample optional part of its surface can be analyzed. The Raman unit includes thermoelectrically cooled laser source having 500 mW power at wavelength 785 nm. In order to obtain spectral information from sample surface a reflection-type probe is connected by optical fibres to the Raman spectrometer. A mini focusing optics is set up to the sensor-fibre that provides the system to operate as confocal optical device in reflection mode. The XRF spectrometer with X-ray detector, Raman probe and X-ray tube are mechanically fixed and hermetically connected to an aluminium chamber, which can be optionally filled with helium. The chamber is mounted on a vertical stage that provides moving it to the sample surface. A new model and computer code have been developed for XRF quantitative analysis which describes the mathematical relationship between the concentration of sample elements and their characteristic X-ray intensities. For verification of the calculations standard reference alloy samples were measured. The results was in good agreement with certified concentrations in range of 0.001-100 w%. According to these numerical results this new method is successfully applicable for quick and non-destructive quantitative analysis of waste materials without using standard samples. (author)

  9. Development of chemical isotope labeling liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for silkworm hemolymph metabolomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Weifeng; Han, Wei; Li, Yunong; Meng, Zhiqi; Cai, Leiming; Li, Liang

    2016-01-01

    -Methyl-D-aspartic and tyrosine were identified. The changes of these biomarkers were likely due to the disruption of the endocrine system of silkworm by DDT. This work illustrates that the method of CIL LC-MS is useful to generate quantitative submetabolome profiles from a small volume of silkworm hemolymph with much higher coverage than conventional LC-MS methods, thereby facilitating the discovery of potential metabolite biomarkers related to EDC or other chemical exposure. - Highlights: • A method was developed for profiling silkworm hemolymph metabolome with high coverage. • Dansylation isotope labeling LC-MS was used for amine/phenol submetabolome quantification. • Metabolomic changes in silkworm after DDT exposure were studied. • Among 2044 metabolites detected, 65 were positively identified and 1809 were putatively identified. • 33 positively identified metabolites showed significant changes in five groups of silkworms.

  10. Development of chemical isotope labeling liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for silkworm hemolymph metabolomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Weifeng [Key Laboratory of Detection for Pesticide Residues, Ministry of Agriculture (China); Sericultural Research Institute, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou (China); Han, Wei; Li, Yunong [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Meng, Zhiqi [Sericultural Research Institute, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou (China); Cai, Leiming, E-mail: cailm@mail.zaas.ac.cn [Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou (China); Li, Liang, E-mail: Liang.Li@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2016-10-26

    -Methyl-D-aspartic and tyrosine were identified. The changes of these biomarkers were likely due to the disruption of the endocrine system of silkworm by DDT. This work illustrates that the method of CIL LC-MS is useful to generate quantitative submetabolome profiles from a small volume of silkworm hemolymph with much higher coverage than conventional LC-MS methods, thereby facilitating the discovery of potential metabolite biomarkers related to EDC or other chemical exposure. - Highlights: • A method was developed for profiling silkworm hemolymph metabolome with high coverage. • Dansylation isotope labeling LC-MS was used for amine/phenol submetabolome quantification. • Metabolomic changes in silkworm after DDT exposure were studied. • Among 2044 metabolites detected, 65 were positively identified and 1809 were putatively identified. • 33 positively identified metabolites showed significant changes in five groups of silkworms.

  11. Development of Indian cross section data files for Th-232 and U-233 and integral validation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the tasks performed towards the development of Indian cross section data files for Th-232 and U-233. Discrepancies in various neutron induced reaction cross sections in various available evaluated data files have been obtained by processing the basic data into multigroup form and intercomparison of the latter. Interesting results of integral validation studies for capture, fission and (n,2n) cross sections for Th-232 by analyses of selected integral measurements are presented. In the resonance range, energy regions where significant differences in the calculated self-shielding factors for Th-232 occur have been identified by a comparison of self-shielded multigroup cross sections derived from two recent evaluated data files, viz., ENDF/B-V (Rev.2) and JENDL-2, for several dilutions and temperatures. For U-233, the three different basic data files ENDF/B-IV, JENDL-2 and ENDL-84 were intercompared. Interesting observations on the predictional capability of these files for the criticality of the spherical metal U-233 system are given. The current status of Indian data file is presented. (author) 62 ref

  12. Some tools of the trade we've developed for our cross-section calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.

    1992-11-01

    A number of compute codes have been modified or developed, both main-frame and PC. Seven codes, of which three are discussed in some detail. The later are: a controller-driven, double-precision version of the coupled-channel code ECIS; the latest version of STAPRE, a precompound plus Hauser-Feshbach nuclear reaction code; and NUSTART, a PC code that analyzes large sets of discrete nuclear levels and the multipole transitions among them. All main-frame codes are now being converted to the UNICOS operating system

  13. FINAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT - PROTON RADIOGRAPHY: CROSS SECTION MEASUREMENTS AND DETECTOR DEVELOPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, Michael J.; Gustafson, H. Richard.; Rajaram, Durga; Nigmanov, Turgun

    2007-01-01

    Proton radiography offers significant advantages over conventional X-ray radiography, including the capability of looking into thick, dense materials, better contrast for a wide range of materials, sensitivity to different materials of similar density, and better resolution because of the ability to focus beams. In order to achieve this capability it is crucial to understand the background due to neutrons and photons and to develop techniques to reduce it to tolerable levels. The physics goal of this project is to measure forward production of neutrons and photons produced by high-energy proton beams striking a variety of targets. This work is being carried out in conjunction with the Fermilab Experiment 907 (MIPP) collaboration including physicists from Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Our group is responsible for the E907 forward neutron/photon calorimeters. These are the only detectors in the experiment that provide information on neutrons and photons. We are taking a leading role in obtaining and analyzing the for-ward production data and in developing an optimal detector for proton radiography. With the support of our Stewardship Science Academic Alliances grant, we were able to design, build, and commission the calorimeters on budget and ahead of schedule. E-907 officially started physics running at Fermilab in January 2005, and data taking continued through February 2006. Data were taken on a range of targets, from liquid hydrogen to uranium, at beam energies from 5 GeV/c to 120 GeV/c. The analysis of the data is challenging because data from many different detector systems must be understood and merged and over 31 million events were accumulated. Our recent efforts have been devoted to the calibration of the neutron and photon detectors, to track and shower reconstruction, identification of forward-going neutrons, and simulation of the calorimeters in a Monte Carlo. Reconstruction of the data with improved tracking is underway

  14. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in fish: developing exposure indicators and predictive models of effects based on mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankley, Gerald T; Bencic, David C; Breen, Michael S; Collette, Timothy W; Conolly, Rory B; Denslow, Nancy D; Edwards, Stephen W; Ekman, Drew R; Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Jensen, Kathleen M; Lazorchak, James M; Martinović, Dalma; Miller, David H; Perkins, Edward J; Orlando, Edward F; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Wang, Rong-Lin; Watanabe, Karen H

    2009-05-05

    Knowledge of possible toxic mechanisms (or modes) of action (MOA) of chemicals can provide valuable insights as to appropriate methods for assessing exposure and effects, thereby reducing uncertainties related to extrapolation across species, endpoints and chemical structure. However, MOA-based testing seldom has been used for assessing the ecological risk of chemicals. This is in part because past regulatory mandates have focused more on adverse effects of chemicals (reductions in survival, growth or reproduction) than the pathways through which these effects are elicited. A recent departure from this involves endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), where there is a need to understand both MOA and adverse outcomes. To achieve this understanding, advances in predictive approaches are required whereby mechanistic changes caused by chemicals at the molecular level can be translated into apical responses meaningful to ecological risk assessment. In this paper we provide an overview and illustrative results from a large, integrated project that assesses the effects of EDCs on two small fish models, the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). For this work a systems-based approach is being used to delineate toxicity pathways for 12 model EDCs with different known or hypothesized toxic MOA. The studies employ a combination of state-of-the-art genomic (transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic), bioinformatic and modeling approaches, in conjunction with whole animal testing, to develop response linkages across biological levels of organization. This understanding forms the basis for predictive approaches for species, endpoint and chemical extrapolation. Although our project is focused specifically on EDCs in fish, we believe that the basic conceptual approach has utility for systematically assessing exposure and effects of chemicals with other MOA across a variety of biological systems.

  15. Development of a New Decision Tree to Rapidly Screen Chemical Estrogenic Activities of Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Li, Weiying; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Lin, Zhifen; Kong, Deyang

    2014-02-01

    During the last past decades, there is an increasing number of studies about estrogenic activities of the environmental pollutants on amphibians and many determination methods have been proposed. However, these determination methods are time-consuming and expensive, and a rapid and simple method to screen and test the chemicals for estrogenic activities to amphibians is therefore imperative. Herein is proposed a new decision tree formulated not only with physicochemical parameters but also a biological parameter that was successfully used to screen estrogenic activities of the chemicals on amphibians. The biological parameter, CDOCKER interaction energy (Ebinding ) between chemicals and the target proteins was calculated based on the method of molecular docking, and it was used to revise the decision tree formulated by Hong only with physicochemical parameters for screening estrogenic activity of chemicals in rat. According to the correlation between Ebinding of rat and Xenopus laevis, a new decision tree for estrogenic activities in Xenopus laevis is finally proposed. Then it was validated by using the randomly 8 chemicals which can be frequently exposed to Xenopus laevis, and the agreement between the results from the new decision tree and the ones from experiments is generally satisfactory. Consequently, the new decision tree can be used to screen the estrogenic activities of the chemicals, and combinational use of the Ebinding and classical physicochemical parameters can greatly improves Hong's decision tree. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Experience in developing and using the VITAMIN-C 171-neutron, 36-gamma-ray group cross-section library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussin, R.W.; Weisbin, C.R.; White, J.E.; Wright, R.Q.; Greene, N.M.; Ford, W.E. III; Wright, J.B.; Diggs, B.R.

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Division of Magnetic Fusion Energy (DMFE) and Reactor Research and Technology (DRRT) jointly sponsored the development of a coupled, fine-group cross-section library. The 171-neutron, 36-gamma-ray group library is intended to be applicable to fusion reactor neutronics and LMFBR core and shield analysis. Versions of the library are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in both AMPX and CCCC formats. Computer codes for energy group collapsing, interpolation on Bondarenko factors for resonance self-shielding and temperature corrections, and various other useful data manipulations are available. The experience gained in the utilization of this library is discussed. Indications are that this venture, which is designed to allow users to derive problem-dependent cross sections from a fine-group master library, has been a success

  17. Early developed section of the jaw as an index of prenatal growth conditions in adult roe deer Capreolus capreolus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høye, Toke Thomas; Forchhammer, Mads Cedergreen

    2006-01-01

    -maturing bones are poor predictors of resource limitations during early development, as later benign conditions may lead to compensatory growth. We analysed the temporal growth dynamics of different sections of the lower jaw of roe deer Capreolus capreolus and found that the medioanterior section of the lower......Increasing evidence suggests that conditions in early life have important consequences for ultimate body size and fitness. Skeletal parts are often used as retrospective indices of body size and growth constraints because of their resistance to seasonal variation in resource availability. Yet, slow...... post partum and, as such, potentially leaves a fingerprint of prenatal growth conditions that is evident even in adult individuals. This supports earlier findings in ungulates of a shift in skeletal growth spurts after weaning, and suggests that the choice of skeletal index for population and cohort...

  18. Developing flow in S-shaped ducts. 2: Circular cross-section duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A. M. K. P.; Whitelaw, J. H.; Yianneskis, M.

    1984-01-01

    Laser-Doppler velocimetry measured the laminar and turbulent streamwise flow in a S-duct. The wall pressure distribution and one component of cross-stream velocity were also obtained for the turbulent flow case. Boundary layers near the duct inlet were about 25 percent of the hydraulic diameter in the laminar flow and varied around the periphery of the pipe between 10 percent and 20 percent in turbulent flow. Pressure-driven secondary flows develop in the first half of the S-duct and are attenuated and reversed in the second half. For both Reynolds numbers there is a region near the outer wall of the second half of the duct where the sign of the radial vorticity results in an enforcement of the secondary flow which was established in the first half of the S-duct. The core flow migrates, for both Reynolds numbers, to the outside wall of the first half and lies towards the inside wall of the second half of the S-duct at the outlet. The thinner inlet boundary layers in the turbulent flow give rise to weaker secondary motion.

  19. [Effect of developing tourism on chemical characteristic of precipitation: taking Lijiang for example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning-Ning; He, Yuan-Qing; Wang, Chun-Feng; Pang, Hong-Xi; He, Xian-Zhong

    2011-02-01

    1090 precipitation samples were collected from 1989 to 2006 at Lijiang City. The analyzed results indicate that the average pH value is 6.08 at study period, which is higher than the average pH value (5.0) during 1987 to 1989, and the annual pH value show an increasing trend, suggesting there are more alkaline mass input to air after 1989. the concentrations of major ions Cl-, SO4(2-), NO3-, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ are 11.56, 32.64, 3.63, 2.54, 50.19, 7.73 and 11.36 microeq x L(-1), respectively. By computed the correlation coefficients and sources contribution among major ions, it find that Ca2+ and Mg2+ are from soil-derived sources, and about 57.2% of SO4(2-) also come from soil-derived sources; 95.4% of total NO3- and 41.9% of SO4(2-) come from anthropogenic sources, and only Na+ and 25.7% of Cl- come from sea source, meaning that the chemical composition of precipitation at Lijiang region is main influenced by regional sources. According to the variation of tour scale at Lijiang city, it can be divided into 3 periods of 1987-1989, 1989-1996 and 1997-2006. The percent of soil-derived ions at different periods is 40%, 53% and 72%, respectively, showing a significant increase trend; but the percent of anthropology-derived ions at different periods is 39%, 36% and 15%, respectively, showing a decrease trend. It explains that more dust input to the air by expending city scale, changing the land form and overusing water resources. But in order to develop tourism, the pollutants related to industries are controlled well.

  20. Development of a benchtop baking method for chemically leavened crackers. I. Identification of a diagnostic formula and procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    A benchtop baking method has been developed to predict the contribution of gluten functionality to overall flour performance for chemically leavened crackers. In order to identify a diagnostic cracker formula, the effects of leavening system (sodium bicarbonate, monocalcium phosphate, and ammonium b...

  1. Developing predictions of in vivo developmental toxicity of ToxCast chemicals using mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing predictions of in vivo developmental toxicity of ToxCast chemicals using mouse embryonic stem cells S. Hunter, M. Rosen, M. Hoopes, H. Nichols, S. Jeffay, K. Chandler1, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Labor...

  2. Rotary Bed Reactor for Chemical-Looping Combustion with Carbon Capture. Part 1: Reactor Design and Model Development

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Zhenlong; Chen, Tianjiao; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel and promising technology for power generation with inherent CO2 capture. Currently, almost all of the research has been focused on developing CLC-based interconnected fluidized-bed reactors. In this two

  3. HYPER-­TVT: Development and Implementation of an Interactive Learning Environment for Students of Chemical and Process Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Marina; Mazzotti, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Hyper-TVT is a computer-aided education system that has been developed at the Institute of Process Engineering at the ETH Zurich. The aim was to create an interactive learning environment for chemical and process engineering students. The topics covered are the most important multistage separation processes, i.e. fundamentals of separation…

  4. Computer literacy among first year medical students in a developing country: A cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of computer assisted learning (CAL) has enhanced undergraduate medical education. CAL improves performance at examinations, develops problem solving skills and increases student satisfaction. The study evaluates computer literacy among first year medical students in Sri Lanka. Methods The study was conducted at Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka between August-September 2008. First year medical students (n = 190) were invited for the study. Data on computer literacy and associated factors were collected by an expert-validated pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Computer literacy was evaluated by testing knowledge on 6 domains; common software packages, operating systems, database management and the usage of internet and E-mail. A linear regression was conducted using total score for computer literacy as the continuous dependant variable and other independent covariates. Results Sample size-181 (Response rate-95.3%), 49.7% were Males. Majority of the students (77.3%) owned a computer (Males-74.4%, Females-80.2%). Students have gained their present computer knowledge by; a formal training programme (64.1%), self learning (63.0%) or by peer learning (49.2%). The students used computers for predominately; word processing (95.6%), entertainment (95.0%), web browsing (80.1%) and preparing presentations (76.8%). Majority of the students (75.7%) expressed their willingness for a formal computer training programme at the faculty. Mean score for the computer literacy questionnaire was 48.4 ± 20.3, with no significant gender difference (Males-47.8 ± 21.1, Females-48.9 ± 19.6). There were 47.9% students that had a score less than 50% for the computer literacy questionnaire. Students from Colombo district, Western Province and Student owning a computer had a significantly higher mean score in comparison to other students (p computer training was the strongest predictor of computer literacy (β = 13.034), followed by using

  5. Computer literacy among first year medical students in a developing country: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranasinghe Priyanga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of computer assisted learning (CAL has enhanced undergraduate medical education. CAL improves performance at examinations, develops problem solving skills and increases student satisfaction. The study evaluates computer literacy among first year medical students in Sri Lanka. Methods The study was conducted at Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka between August-September 2008. First year medical students (n = 190 were invited for the study. Data on computer literacy and associated factors were collected by an expert-validated pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Computer literacy was evaluated by testing knowledge on 6 domains; common software packages, operating systems, database management and the usage of internet and E-mail. A linear regression was conducted using total score for computer literacy as the continuous dependant variable and other independent covariates. Results Sample size-181 (Response rate-95.3%, 49.7% were Males. Majority of the students (77.3% owned a computer (Males-74.4%, Females-80.2%. Students have gained their present computer knowledge by; a formal training programme (64.1%, self learning (63.0% or by peer learning (49.2%. The students used computers for predominately; word processing (95.6%, entertainment (95.0%, web browsing (80.1% and preparing presentations (76.8%. Majority of the students (75.7% expressed their willingness for a formal computer training programme at the faculty. Mean score for the computer literacy questionnaire was 48.4 ± 20.3, with no significant gender difference (Males-47.8 ± 21.1, Females-48.9 ± 19.6. There were 47.9% students that had a score less than 50% for the computer literacy questionnaire. Students from Colombo district, Western Province and Student owning a computer had a significantly higher mean score in comparison to other students (p Conclusion Sri Lankan medical undergraduates had a low-intermediate level of computer

  6. A multidimensional framework of conceptual change for developing chemical equilibrium learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanyoo, Wassana; Suwannoi, Paisan; Treagust, David F.

    2018-01-01

    The purposes of this research is to investigate the existing chemical equilibrium lessons in Thailand based on the multidimensional framework of conceptual change, to determine how the existing lessons could enhance students' conceptual change. This research was conducted based on qualitative perspective. Document, observations and interviews were used to collect data. To comprehend all students conceptions, diagnostic tests were applied comprised of The Chemical Equilibrium Diagnostic Test (the CEDT) and The Chemical Equilibrium Test for Reveal Conceptual Change (the CETforRCC). In addition, to study students' motivations, the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (the MSLQ) and students' task engagement were applied. Following each perspective of conceptual change - ontological, epistemological, and social/affective - the result showed that the existing chemical equilibrium unit did not enhance students' conceptual change, and some issues were found. The problems obstructed students conceptual change should be remedy under the multidimensional framework of conceptual change. Finally, some suggestions were provided to enhance students' conceptual change in chemical equilibrium effectively

  7. The development of multitasking in children aged 7-12years: Evidence from cross-sectional and longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tian-Xiao; Xie, Weizhen; Chen, Chu-Sheng; Altgassen, Mareike; Wang, Ya; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the development of multitasking ability across childhood. A sample of 65 typically developing children aged 7, 9, and 11years completed two multitasking tests across three time points within a year. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data consistently indicated continuous linear growth in children's multitasking ability. By the age of 12years, children could effectively perform a simple multitasking scenario comprising six equally important tasks, although their ability to strategically organize assorted tasks with varied values and priorities in a complex multitasking setting had not reached proficiency yet. Cognitive functions underlying a complex multitasking scenario varied in their developmental trajectories. Retrospective memory developed continuously from 7 to 12years of age, suggesting its supporting role in the development of multitasking. Planning skills developed slowly and showed practice effects for older children but not for younger children. The ability to adhere to plans also developed slowly, and children of all age groups benefited from practice. This study offers a preliminary benchmark for future comparison with clinical populations and may help to inform the development of targeted interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a general model for determination of thermal conductivity of liquid chemical compounds at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharagheizi, Farhad; Ilani‐Kashkouli, Poorandokht; Sattari, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    In this communication, a general model for representation/presentation of the liquid thermal conductivity of chemical compounds (mostly organic) at 1 atm pressure for temperatures below normal boiling point and at saturation pressure for temperatures above the normal boiling point is developed...... using the Gene Expression Programming algorithm. Approximately 19,000 liquid thermal conductivity data at different temperatures related to 1636 chemical compounds collected from the DIPPR 801 database are used to obtain the model as well as to assess its predictive capability. The parameters...

  9. Simulation codes of chemical separation process of spent fuel reprocessing. Tool for process development and safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Toshihide; Sato, Makoto; Matsumura, Masakazu; Morita, Yasuji

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the succeeding development and utilization of Extraction System Simulation Code for Advanced Reprocessing (ESSCAR). From the viewpoint of development, more tests with spent fuel and calculations should be performed with better understanding of the physico-chemical phenomena in a separation process. From the viewpoint of process safety research on fuel cycle facilities, it is important to know the process behavior of a key substance; being highly reactive but existing only trace amount. (author)

  10. Health and Natural Resources: The Extraction of Useful Chemicals from Plants and their Impact on Socio-Economic Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munavu, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    Poverty reduction strategies in developing countries are based on the need to develop and improve the quality of life of people. The successful strategies link wealth creating activities of adding value to local resources with employment creation. These strategies lead to increased capacity to produce needed consumer goods such as food, fuel, construction materials, textiles and pharmaceuticals starting from local resources. Most value-adding transformations of materials to consumer goods use chemicals conversion processes

  11. Simulating Mobility of Chemical Contaminants from Unconventional Gas Development for Protection of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, C.; Edlin, D.; Borrillo-Hutter, T.; McCray, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Potential contamination of ground water and surface water supplies from chemical contaminants in hydraulic fracturing fluids or in natural gas is of high public concern. However, quantitative assessments have rarely been conducted at specific energy-producing locations so that the true risk of contamination can be evaluated. The most likely pathways for contamination are surface spills and faulty well bores that leak production fluids directly into an aquifer. This study conducts fate and transport simulations of the most mobile chemical contaminants, based on reactivity to subsurface soils, degradation potential, and source concentration, to better understand which chemicals are most likely to contaminate water resources, and to provide information to planners who wish to be prepared for accidental releases. The simulations are intended to be most relevant to the Niobrara shale formation.

  12. [Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsumi

    2005-10-01

    Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary.

  13. Development and application of Darwin X-ray diffraction theory for structure and chemical composition determination in multilayered crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, M.; Gaca, J.; Turos, A.; Strupinski, W.

    2000-01-01

    The method of investigation of the chemical composition for quaternary heterostructures has been developed. To this end X-ray high resolution diffractometry and RBS methods were applied. This method consists in finding a best fit between experimental diffraction pattern and theoretical one calculated, employing Darwin dynamical diffraction theory for a given model of heterostructure. This procedure was applied to determine the chemical profile in the growth direction for InGaAsP/InP superlattices that were grown by MOCVD technology on 001 InP substrate. The relations between the chemical composition of In x Ga 1-x As y P 1-y layer, its lattice parameter, optoelectronic properties and growth conditions were found. (author)

  14. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL LIMITATIVE FACTORS FOR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN STERLET (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS LINNAEUS, 1758 IN EXTENSIVELY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. DIMA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The oldest and most common method of increasing fish is a fish breeding ponds in which the supervision of nutrition and growth of biological material. Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus ruthenus Linnaeus 1785 is the 4th of sturgeon scale and economic importance as a share of production of these fish .Monitoring of physicochemical parameters of sturgeons ponds has a crucial role to obtain satisfactory yields both in qualitative and quantitative. Chemical characteristics of water were determined in laboratory ecosystems Chemistry of the Institute of Research and Development for Ecology Aquaculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture Galaţi for the samples have been taken of the total water. Determination of the chemical characteristics was performed by standardized methods. Physic-chemical parameters of water were determined according to norm on the classification of surface water quality in order to establish the ecological status of water (Order no. 161/2006, for Class II of quality.

  15. From nuclides to nerve gas: The development of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Exercise Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gant, K.S.; Adler, M.V.

    1991-01-01

    The Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency established the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), to improve emergency preparedness around each location storing the nation's aging stockpile of unitary chemical weapons. The CSEPP requires that a series of exercises be conducted at each location on a regular schedule. The CSEPP exercise program drew upon the existing Army and civilian exercises. Merging the exercise traditions of both the communities and installations into a joint exercise program acceptable to both sides and the particular nature of the hazard required a number of adjustments in the usual approaches. 14 refs., 1 fig

  16. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and obesity development in humans: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang-Péronard, Jeanett; Andersen, Helle Raun; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2011-01-01

    This study reviewed the literature on the relations between exposure to chemicals with endocrine-disrupting abilities and obesity in humans. The studies generally indicated that exposure to some of the endocrine-disrupting chemicals was associated with an increase in body size in humans...... dibenzofurans found either associations with weight gain or an increase in waist circumference, or no association. The one study investigating relations with bisphenol A found no association. Studies investigating prenatal exposure indicated that exposure in utero may cause permanent physiological changes...

  17. Development of a robotics system for automated chemical analysis of sediments, sludges, and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrail, B.P.; Dodson, M.G.; Skorpik, J.R.; Strachan, D.M.; Barich, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Adaptation and use of a high-reliability robot to conduct a standard laboratory procedure for soil chemical analysis are reported. Results from a blind comparative test were used to obtain a quantitative measure of the improvement in precision possible with the automated test method. Results from the automated chemical analysis procedure were compared with values obtained from an EPA-certified lab and with results from a more extensive interlaboratory round robin conducted by the EPA. For several elements, up to fivefold improvement in precision was obtained with the automated test method

  18. Development of a Procedure to Apply Detailed Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms to CFD Simulations as Post Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Martin Skov; Glarborg, Peter; Jensen, Anker

    2003-01-01

    mechanism. It involves post-processing of data extracted from computational fluid dynamics simulations. Application of this approach successfully describes combustion chemistry in a standard swirl burner, the so-called Harwell furnace. Nevertheless, it needs validation against more complex combustion models......It is desired to make detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms applicable to the complex geometries of practical combustion devices simulated with computational fluid dynamics tools. This work presents a novel general approach to combining computational fluid dynamics and a detailed chemical kinetic...

  19. Development of New Generation of Ceramics for Environmentally Focused Chemical Separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Girish

    This dissertation focuses on the use of composite materials for environmental applications. For the first time, applications of both fresh and aged concrete as inexpensive adsorbents for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) removal is demonstrated. Concrete is the most widely used composite material of the modern era. Cement manufacturing (a major component of concrete) is considered to be one of the leading contributors to air pollution, resulting in 7% of the global carbon dioxide emissions along with a number of other harmful pollutants such as oxides, mercury and particulates. These emissions aide in the formation of acid rain, smog, and toxic ground level ozone, causing detrimental effects such as respiratory illnesses, visibility reduction, eutrification and global warming. This thesis offers a novel and sustainable solution in mitigating NOX emissions, by introducing the significant adsorption potential of recycled concrete. The work is based on both commercially available cement paste and already aged concrete samples, providing truly scalable solutions. The concrete samples aged for different periods of time were exposed to NO2 to measure their adsorption capacity. The results show that all of the concrete samples (fresh and aged) exhibited excellent NO2 adsorption capacity, with the fresh concrete samples removing almost 100% of the NO2. Furthermore, to compare the effects of long term aging, 12 year-old recently demolished concrete samples were obtained and its NOX removal was shown to be almost 60%. The experimental results provide evidence of nitrate and nitrite species formation from chemical reactions occurring between NO2 and surface alkaline species. This important discovery can be utilized for NO2 removal and subsequent NOX sequestered demolished concrete (NSDC) recycling in new concrete, either as a set accelerating admixture or as a corrosion inhibitor, a big leap towards better sustainability and longevity of the new reinforced concrete structures. The rest

  20. The Safety "Use Case": Co-Developing Chemical Information Management and Laboratory Safety Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Ralph B.; McEwen, Leah R.

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 edition of the American Chemical Society's "Guidelines and Evaluation Procedures for Bachelor's Degree Programs" identifies six skill sets that undergraduate chemistry programs should instill in their students. In our roles as support staff for chemistry departments at two different institutions (one a Primarily Undergraduate…

  1. Development and Application of 3D Printed Mesoreactors in Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Tahseen; Iloska, Marija; Scuereb, Daniel; Taira, Noriko; Jin, Chongguang; Zaitsev, Vladimir; Afshar, Fara; Kim, Taejin

    2018-01-01

    3D printing technology has an enormous potential to apply to chemical engineering education. In this paper, we describe several designs of 3D printed mesoreactors (Y-shape, T-shape, and Long channel shape) using the following steps: reactor sketching, CAD modeling, and reactor printing. With a focus on continuous plug flow mesoreactors (PFRs, i.d.…

  2. Standing operating procedures for developing acute exposure guideline levels for hazardous chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels

    2001-01-01

    ... Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Chemicals Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels Committee on Toxicology Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, origina...

  3. Development of advanced mesostructured catalytic coatings on different substrates for fine chemical synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Protasova, L.N.

    2011-01-01

    Catalytic microstructured reactors are becoming widely recognized for their unique properties, such as high surface–to–volume ratios, isothermal conditions due to high heat transfer rates, enhanced safety, and potential applications in chemistry and in chemical industry. The efficient use of

  4. Developing, Applying, and Evaluating Models for Rapid Screening of Chemical Exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnot, J.; Shin, H.; Ernstoff, Alexi

    2015-01-01

    provides an introduction to underlying principles of some models used for exposure- and risk-based HTS for chemical prioritization for human health, including tools used in the ExpoDat project (USEtox, RAIDAR, CalTox) and other initiatives (SHEDS-HT). Case study examples of HTS include(i) model...

  5. Bush will tour Illionois lab working to fight terrorism Argonne develops chemical detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "A chemical sensor that detects cyanide gas, a biochip that can determine the presence of anthrax, and a portable device that finds concealed nuclear materials are among the items scientists at Argonne National Laboratory are working on to combat terrorism" (1/2 page).

  6. Development of a QSAR for worst case estimates of acute toxicity of chemically reactive compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freidig, A.P.; Dekkers, S.; Verwei, M.; Zvinavashe, E.; Bessems, J.G.M.; Sandt, van de J.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Future EU legislations enforce a fast hazard and risk assessment of thousands of existing chemicals. If conducted by means of present data requirements, this assessment will use a huge number of test animals and will be neither cost nor time effective. The purpose of the current research was to

  7. Development of Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination Near the Carcass Burial Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Choi, J.; Kim, M.; Choi, J.; Lee, M.; Lee, H.; Jeon, S.; Bang, S.; Noh, H.; Yoo, J.; Park, S.; Kim, H.; Kim, D.; Lee, Y.; Han, J.

    2011-12-01

    A serious outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) and avian influenza (AI) led to the culling of millions of livestock in South Korea from late 2010 to earlier 2011. Because of the scale of FMD and AI epidemic in Korea and rapid spread of the diseases, mass burial for the disposal of carcass was conducted to halt the outbreak. The improper construction of the burial site or inappropriate management of the carcass burial facility can cause the contamination of groundwater mainly due to the discharges of leachate through the base of disposal pit. The leachate from carcass burial contains by products of carcass decay such as amino acids, nitrate, ammonia and chloride. The presence of these chemical components in groundwater can be used as indicators demonstrating contamination of groundwater with leachate from carcass. The major concern about using these chemical indicators is that other sources including manures, fertilizers and waste waters from human or animal activities already exist in farming area. However, we lack the understanding of how groundwater contamination due to mass burial of carcass can be differentiated from the contamination due to livestock manures which shows similar chemical characteristics. The chemical compositions of the leachate from carcass burial site and the wastewater from livestock manure treatment facilities were compared. The chemical compositions considered include total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, organic nitrogen (Organic nitrogen =TN-Ammonium Nitrogen- Nitrate nitrogen), ammonia, chloride, sodium, potassium and amino acids (20 analytes). The ratios of concentrations of the chemical compositions as indicators of contamination were determined to distinguish the sources of contamination in groundwater. Indicators which showed a linear relationship between two factors and revealed a distinct difference between the carcass leachate and livestock manure were chosen. In addition, the background level of the

  8. Development of a one-group cross section data base of the ORIGEN2 computer code for research reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Do; Gil, Choong Sub; Lee, Jong Tai; Hwang, Won Guk

    1992-01-01

    A one-group cross section data base of the ORIGEN2 computer code was developed for research reactor applications. For this, ENDF/B-IV and -V data were processed using the NJOY code system into 69-group data. The burnup dependent weighting spectra for KMRR were calculated with the WIMS-KAERI computer code, and then the 69-group data were collapsed to one-group using the spectra. The ORlGEN2-predicted burnup-dependent actinide compositions of KMRR spent fuel using the newly developed data base show a good agreement with the results of detailed multigroup transport calculation. In addition, the burnup characteristics of KMRR spent fuel was analyzed with the new data base. (Author)

  9. Development of a one-group cross section data base of the ORIGEN2 computer code for research reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Do; Gil, Choong Sub; Lee, Jong Tai [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Won Guk [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-01

    A one-group cross section data base of the ORIGEN2 computer code was developed for research reactor applications. For this, ENDF/B-IV and -V data were processed using the NJOY code system into 69-group data. The burnup dependent weighting spectra for KMRR were calculated with the WIMS-KAERI computer code, and then the 69-group data were collapsed to one-group using the spectra. The ORlGEN2-predicted burnup-dependent actinide compositions of KMRR spent fuel using the newly developed data base show a good agreement with the results of detailed multigroup transport calculation. In addition, the burnup characteristics of KMRR spent fuel was analyzed with the new data base. (Author).

  10. Development of a multipurpose beam foil spectroscopy set-up for the low cross-section measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Gaurav [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, New Delhi, Delhi 110042 (India); Nandi, T. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi 110067 (India); Berry, H.G. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Puri, Nitin K., E-mail: nitin.phy@dce.edu [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, New Delhi, Delhi 110042 (India)

    2016-08-01

    A multipurpose facility for low cross section measurements has been developed at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, India. The facility consists of a multipurpose miniature chamber equipped with 1 m focal length normal incidence Monochromator and charge coupled device based detection system which has been aligned to realize the best resolution of the spectrometer. The chamber in this facility collects radiation 100 times more efficiently from the older system, without using any extra focusing mirror assembly. It is ensured to have the provision of mounting an X-ray detector and the spectrometer transverse to the beam direction simultaneously in the same chamber. The atomic spectroscopic studies can be performed by interaction of ions beams with both thin foil and gas targets. Provision for using photomultiplier tube instead of charge coupled device, is employed in the system depending on the condition of the source strength or other detection issues. We observed the essence of a very weak atomic phenomenon, a triply excited autoionizing forbidden transition, using the above facility to demonstrate its capability for measuring such low cross section phenomena. The present developed facility covers a large spectroscopic region from X-rays to the near infrared (0.1–10,000 Å).

  11. Development of a Chemical Equilibrium Model for a Molten Core-Concrete Interaction Analysis Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jae Uk; Lee, Dae Young; Park, Chang Hwan [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This molten core could interact with the reactor cavity region which consists of concrete. In this process, components of molten core react with components of concrete through a lot of chemical reactions. As a result, many kinds of gas species are generated and those move up forming rising bubbles into the reactor containment atmosphere. These rising bubbles are the carrier of the many kinds of the aerosols coming from the MCCI (Molten Core Concrete Interaction) layers. To evaluate the amount of the aerosols released from the MCCI layers, the amount of the gas species generated from those layers should be calculated. The chemical equilibrium state originally implies the final state of the multiple chemical reactions; therefore, investigating the equilibrium composition of molten core can be applicable to predict the gas generation status. The most common way for finding the chemical equilibrium state is a minimization of total Gibbs free energy of the system. In this paper, the method to make good guess of initial state is suggested and chemical reaction results are compared with results of CSSI report No 164. Total mass of system and the number of atoms of each element are conserved. The tendency of calculation results is similar with results presented in CSNI Report except a few species. These differences may be caused by absence of Gibbs energy data of the species such as Fe{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, U(OH){sub 3}, UO(OH), UO{sub 2}(OH), U{sub 3}O{sub 7}, La, Ce.

  12. Development of the next generation code system as an engineering modeling language (6). Development of a cross section adjustment and nuclear design accuracy evaluation solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kenji; Numata, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    A new cross section adjustment and nuclear design accuracy evaluation solver was developed as a set of modules for MARBLE (multi-purpose advanced reactor physics analysis system based on language of engineering). In order to enhance the system extendibility and flexibility, the object-oriented design and analysis technique was adopted to the development. In the new system, it is easy to add a new design accuracy evaluation method because a new numerical calculation module is independent from other modules. Further, several new functions such as searching and editing calculation data are provided in the new solver. These functions can be easily customised by users because they are designed to work cooperatively with Python scripting language, which is used as a user interface of the MARBLE system. In order to validate the new solver, a test calculation was performed for a realistic calculation case of creating a new unified cross section library. In the test calculation, results calculated by the new solver agreed well with those by the conventional code system. In addition, it is possible to reuse existing input data files prepared for the conventional code system because the new solver utilities support the conventional formats. Because the new solver implements all main functions of the conventional code system, MARBLE can be used as a new calculation code system for cross section adjustment and nuclear design accuracy evaluation

  13. Analysis of Zebrafish Kidney Development with Time-lapse Imaging Using a Dissecting Microscope Equipped for Optical Sectioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perner, Birgit; Schnerwitzki, Danny; Graf, Michael; Englert, Christoph

    2016-04-07

    In order to understand organogenesis, the spatial and temporal alterations that occur during development of tissues need to be recorded. The method described here allows time-lapse analysis of normal and impaired kidney development in zebrafish embryos by using a fluorescence dissecting microscope equipped for structured illumination and z-stack acquisition. To visualize nephrogenesis, transgenic zebrafish (Tg(wt1b:GFP)) with fluorescently labeled kidney structures were used. Renal defects were triggered by injection of an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide against the Wilms tumor gene wt1a, a factor known to be crucial for kidney development. The advantage of the experimental setup is the combination of a zoom microscope with simple strategies for re-adjusting movements in x, y or z direction without additional equipment. To circumvent focal drift that is induced by temperature variations and mechanical vibrations, an autofocus strategy was applied instead of utilizing a usually required environmental chamber. In order to re-adjust the positional changes due to a xy-drift, imaging chambers with imprinted relocation grids were employed. In comparison to more complex setups for time-lapse recording with optical sectioning such as confocal laser scanning or light sheet microscopes, a zoom microscope is easy to handle. Besides, it offers dissecting microscope-specific benefits such as high depth of field and an extended working distance. The method to study organogenesis presented here can also be used with fluorescence stereo microscopes not capable of optical sectioning. Although limited for high-throughput, this technique offers an alternative to more complex equipment that is normally used for time-lapse recording of developing tissues and organ dynamics.

  14. Motor development of preterm and term infants in the fundamental movement phase: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Karla Machado da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Motor development is a continuous process of motor behavior changes throughout life, allowing for movement control. Premature birth can affect this process, with a greater risk of delays in acquiring these skills. Objective: Compare motor development during the fundamental movement phase of preterm infants submitted to early stimulation and full-term babies. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study with convenience sampling, performed with twenty 3-year-old children of both sexes, distributed into two groups: the preterm group (n = 10, which received physical therapy in the first months of life, and the term group (n = 10. Motor development stages were assessed between January and April 2013, using the Motor Development Scale (Escala de Desenvolvimento Motor - EDM developed by Francisco Rosa Neto, with an average execution time of thirty minutes. Statistical analysis was performed using BioEstat 5.0 software, and the Shapiro-Wilk test was applied to verify data normality. A significance level of p ≤ 0.05 was adopted, analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. Results: The term group exhibited significant differences in relation to the preterm group for the variables Fine and Gross Motor Skills, and Spatial and Temporal Awareness, with no differences in Balance and Body Scheme. Conclusion: Only the premature infants submitted to early intervention achieved normal levels of Balance and Body Scheme on the EDM Scale.

  15. Report on the FY17 Development of Computer Program for ASME Section III, Division 5, Subsection HB, Subpart B Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, M. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jetter, R. I. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sham, T. -L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    One of the objectives of the high temperature design methodology activities is to develop and validate both improvements and the basic features of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components, Division 5, High Temperature Reactors, Subsection HB, Subpart B (HBB). The overall scope of this task is to develop a computer program to aid assessment procedures of components under specified loading conditions in accordance with the elevated temperature design requirements for Division 5 Class A components. There are many features and alternative paths of varying complexity in HBB. The initial focus of this computer program is a basic path through the various options for a single reference material, 316H stainless steel. However, the computer program is being structured for eventual incorporation all of the features and permitted materials of HBB. This report will first provide a description of the overall computer program, particular challenges in developing numerical procedures for the assessment, and an overall approach to computer program development. This is followed by a more comprehensive appendix, which is the draft computer program manual for the program development. The strain limits rules have been implemented in the computer program. The evaluation of creep-fatigue damage will be implemented in future work scope.

  16. Optimization of microwave-induced chemical etching for rapid development of neutron-induced recoil tracks in CR-39 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, G.S.; Tripathy, S.P.; Bandyopadhyay, T.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic investigation is carried out to optimize the recently established microwave-induced chemical etching (MICE) parameters for rapid development of neutron-induced recoil tracks in CR-39 detectors. Several combinations of all available microwave powers with different etching durations were analysed to determine the most suitable etching condition. The etching duration was found to reduce with increasing microwave power and the tracks were observed at about 18, 15, 12, and 6 min for 300, 450, 600 and 900 W of microwave powers respectively compared to a few hours in chemical etching (CE) method. However, for complete development of tracks the etching duration of 30, 40, 50 and 60 min were found to be suitable for the microwave powers of 900, 600, 450 and 300 W, respectively. Temperature profiles of the etchant for all the available microwave powers at different etching durations were generated to regulate the etching process in a controlled manner. The bulk etch rates at different microwave powers were determined by 2 methods, viz., gravimetric and removed thickness methods. A logarithmic expression was used to fit the variation of bulk etch rate with microwave power. Neutron detection efficiencies were obtained for all the cases and the results on track parameters obtained with MICE technique were compared with those obtained from another detector processed with chemical etching. - Highlights: • Microwave-induced chemical etching method is optimized for rapid development of recoil tracks due to neutrons in CR-39 detector. • Several combinations of microwave powers and etching durations are investigated to standardize the suitable etching condition. • Bulk-etch rates are determined for all microwave powers by two different methods, viz. gravimetric and removed thickness method. • The method is found to be simple, effective and much faster compared to conventional chemical etching

  17. Renovation of CPF (Chemical Processing Facility) for Development of Advanced Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinichi Aose; Takafumi Kitajima; Kouji Ogasawara; Kazunori Nomura; Shigehiko Miyachi; Yoshiaki Ichige; Tadahiro Shinozaki; Shinichi Ohuchi

    2008-01-01

    CPF (Chemical Processing Facility) was constructed at Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories of JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) in 1980 as a basic research field where spent fuel pins from fast reactor (FR) and high level liquid waste can be dealt with. The renovation consists of remodeling of the CA-3 cell and the laboratory A, installation of globe boxes, hoods and analytical equipments to the laboratory C and the analytical laboratory. Also maintenance equipments in the CA-5 cell which had been out of order were repaired. The CA-3 cell is the main cell in which important equipments such as a dissolver, a clarifier and extractors are installed for carrying out the hot test using the irradiated FR fuel. Since the CPF had specialized originally in the research function for the Purex process, it was desired to execute the research and development of such new, various reprocessing processes. Formerly, equipments were arranged in wide space and connected with not only each other but also with utility supply system mainly by fixed stainless steel pipes. It caused shortage of operation space in flexibility for basic experimental study. Old equipments in the CA-3 cell including vessels and pipes were removed after successful decontamination, and new equipments were installed conformably to the new design. For the purpose of easy installation and rearranging the experimental equipments, equipments are basically connected by flexible pipes. Since dissolver is able to be easily replaced, various dissolution experiments is conducted. Insoluble residue generated by dissolution of spent fuel is clarified by centrifugal. This small apparatus is effective to space-saving. Mini mixer settlers or centrifugal contactors are put on to the prescribed limited space in front of the backside wall. Fresh reagents such as solvent, scrubbing and stripping solution are continuously fed from the laboratory A to the extractor by the reagent supply system with semi-automatic observation

  18. Use of Social Media for Professional Development by Health Care Professionals: A Cross-Sectional Web-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Social media can be used in health care settings to enhance professional networking and education; patient communication, care, and education; public health programs; organizational promotion; and research. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the use of social media networks for the purpose of professional development among health care professionals in Saudi Arabia using a purpose-designed Web-based survey. Methods A cross-sectional web-based survey was undertaken. A link to the survey was posted on the investigator’s personal social media accounts including Twitter, LinkedIn, and WhatsApp. Results A total of 231 health care professionals, who are generally social media users, participated in the study. Of these professionals, 70.6% (163/231) use social media for their professional development. The social media applications most frequently used, in the descending order, for professional development were Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, Facebook, Snapchat, and LinkedIn. The majority of respondents used social media for professional development irrespective of their age group, with the highest proportion seen in those aged 20-30 years. Social media were perceived as being most beneficial for professional development in terms of their impact on the domains of knowledge and problem solving and least helpful for enhancing clinical skills. Twitter was perceived as the most helpful type of social media for all domains listed. Respondents most frequently reported that social media were useful for professional development for the reasons of knowledge exchange and networking. Conclusions Social media are frequently used by health care professionals in Saudi Arabia for the purposes of professional development, with Twitter most frequently used for this purpose. These findings suggest that social media networks can be powerful tools for engaging health care professionals in their professional development. PMID:27731855

  19. Use of Social Media for Professional Development by Health Care Professionals: A Cross-Sectional Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsobayel, Hana

    2016-09-12

    Social media can be used in health care settings to enhance professional networking and education; patient communication, care, and education; public health programs; organizational promotion; and research. The aim of this study was to explore the use of social media networks for the purpose of professional development among health care professionals in Saudi Arabia using a purpose-designed Web-based survey. A cross-sectional web-based survey was undertaken. A link to the survey was posted on the investigator's personal social media accounts including Twitter, LinkedIn, and WhatsApp. A total of 231 health care professionals, who are generally social media users, participated in the study. Of these professionals, 70.6% (163/231) use social media for their professional development. The social media applications most frequently used, in the descending order, for professional development were Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, Facebook, Snapchat, and LinkedIn. The majority of respondents used social media for professional development irrespective of their age group, with the highest proportion seen in those aged 20-30 years. Social media were perceived as being most beneficial for professional development in terms of their impact on the domains of knowledge and problem solving and least helpful for enhancing clinical skills. Twitter was perceived as the most helpful type of social media for all domains listed. Respondents most frequently reported that social media were useful for professional development for the reasons of knowledge exchange and networking. Social media are frequently used by health care professionals in Saudi Arabia for the purposes of professional development, with Twitter most frequently used for this purpose. These findings suggest that social media networks can be powerful tools for engaging health care professionals in their professional development.

  20. Application of a gamma spectroscopy system to the measurement of neutron cross sections necessary to the development of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deruelle, O.

    2002-09-01

    This work concerns the development of nuclear energy and nuclear waste management in particular. Two parts of this study can be distinguished. In the first part (theoretical), a thorium-plutonium fuel based on MOX and dedicated for PWR was investigated in order to transmute plutonium in a potentially low waste fuel cycle. It was shown that this type of fuel is not regenerative but could be used for a transition to the industrial thorium fuel cycle without building new reactors. Thanks to moderated neutron spectra and high loaded actinide mass in the core, U-233 is quickly created (∼300 kg/y) for a loss of about ∼1200 kg of fissile plutonium. In the second part (experimental), we have developed and built a new reaction chamber to measure neutron cross sections of actinides by alpha-gamma spectroscopy. This experimental device (in principle transportable) was commissioned in the high flux reactor of ILL Grenoble. Neutron flux was measured by gamma spectroscopy of irradiated Al and Co samples and was found to be of the order of 6,0. 10 14 n.cm -2 .s -1 (4%). By the irradiation of 11μg of Am-243 and Pu-242, corresponding capture cross sections were measured in the thermal neutron flux at 50 deg C. These are the results: 243 Am(n,γ) 244fond. Am = 4,72±1,42b; 243 Am(n,γ) 244total Am = 74,8±3,25b; 242 Pu (n,γ) 243 Pu = 22,7±1,09b. Uncertainties of the measurements are mostly due to the determination of the neutron flux, efficiency of the electronics and ambiguities related to the definition of the area under α-γ spectra. Although our measured cross sections deviate (by 10-30%) from the corresponding values widely used in evaluated data libraries such as ENDF, JEF and JENDL, in this work we have demonstrated the feasibility and principle of our experimental method. Furthermore, the value for the 243-americium capture cross-section is in very good agreement with the last two measurements done in 1975 and 1997. These facts allowed us to think of new experiments

  1. Recent Development in Optical Chemical Sensors Coupling with Flow Injection Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuensanta Sánchez Rojas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Optical techniques for chemical analysis are well established and sensors based on thesetechniques are now attracting considerable attention because of their importance in applications suchas environmental monitoring, biomedical sensing, and industrial process control. On the other hand,flow injection analysis (FIA is advisable for the rapid analysis of microliter volume samples and canbe interfaced directly to the chemical process. The FIA has become a widespread automatic analyticalmethod for more reasons; mainly due to the simplicity and low cost of the setups, their versatility, andease of assembling. In this paper, an overview of flow injection determinations by using opticalchemical sensors is provided, and instrumentation, sensor design, and applications are discussed. Thiswork summarizes the most relevant manuscripts from 1980 to date referred to analysis using opticalchemical sensors in FIA.

  2. Accelerating the development of transparent graphene electrodes through basic science driven chemical functionalization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Calvin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beechem, III, Thomas Edwin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ohta, Taisuke [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brumbach, Michael T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wheeler, David Roger [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Veneman, Alexander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gearba, I. Raluca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stevenson, Keith J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Chemical functionalization is required to adapt graphenes properties to many applications. However, most covalent functionalization schemes are spontaneous or defect driven and are not suitable for applications requiring directed assembly of molecules on graphene substrates. In this work, we demonstrated electrochemically driven covalent bonding of phenyl iodoniums onto epitaxial graphene. The amount of chemisorption was demonstrated by varying the duration of the electrochemical driving potential. Chemical, electronic, and defect states of phenyl-modified graphene were studied by photoemission spectroscopy, spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy, and water contact angle measurement. Covalent attachment rehybridized some of the delocalized graphene sp2 orbitals to localized sp3 states. Control over the relative spontaneity (reaction rate) of covalent graphene functionalization is an important first step to the practical realization of directed molecular assembly on graphene. More than 10 publications, conference presentations, and program highlights were produced (some invited), and follow-on funding was obtained to continue this work.

  3. Development of an apparatus to study chemical reactions at high temperature - a progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturzenegger, M; Schelling, Th; Steiner, E; Wuillemin, D [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    TREMPER is an apparatus that was devised to study kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of high-temperature reactions under concentrated solar irradiation. The design allows investigations on solid or liquid samples under inert or reactive atmospheres. The working temperature is adjustable; the upper limit that has yet been reached is about 1900 K. TREMPER will facilitate chemical reactivity studies on a temperature level that is difficult to access by other means. First experiments were conducted to study the decomposition of manganese oxide MnO{sub 2}. Chemical analysis of exposed samples confirmed that the parent MnO{sub 2} was decomposed to mixtures of Mn O and Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The amount of Mn O ranged from 60 mol-% in air to 86 mol-% under inert atmosphere. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 2 refs.

  4. Impact of chemical reaction in fully developed radiated mixed convective flow between two rotating disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, T.; Khan, M. Waleed Ahmed; Khan, M. Ijaz; Waqas, M.; Alsaedi, A.

    2018-06-01

    Flow of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) viscous fluid between two rotating disks is modeled. Angular velocities of two disks are different. Flow is investigated for nonlinear mixed convection. Heat transfer is analyzed for nonlinear thermal radiation and heat generation/absorption. Chemical reaction is also implemented. Convective conditions of heat and mass transfer are studied. Transformations used lead to reduction of PDEs into the ODEs. The impacts of important physical variables like Prandtl number, Reynold number, Hartman number, mixed convection parameter, chemical reaction and Schmidt number on velocities, temperature and concentration are elaborated. In addition velocity and temperature gradients are physically interpreted. Our obtained results indicate that radial, axial and tangential velocities decrease for higher estimation of Hartman number.

  5. Comparison of Steady State Evaporation Models for Toxic Chemical Spills: Development of a New Evaporation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-29

    for diffusivity based on theory : DVab- 0.002e6 703/2 eS/s(bPM11 t/ ,cm/s (28) ab ab 1) where DV-b a molecular diffusion coefflcient of chemical a In...24 Ugt W m -K (48)S[(/hg) + (1/h)] m- K- where ha is the coefficient of heat conduction through the ground, and hl is the liquid heat transfer

  6. Sensitivity of the Early Development of Ramshorn Snail, Marisa cornuarietis (Ampullariidae) to Environmental Chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Sawasdee, Banthita

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the suitability of the M. cornuarietis embryo toxicity test (MariETT) for environmental chemicals was investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the recently introduced M. cornuarietis embryo toxicity test (MariETT) using selected metals (inorganic pollutants) and pesticides (organic pollutants), and to compare its sensitivity and practicability to other established bioassay. The following endpoints were observed: mortality, formation of tentacl...

  7. Substrate-Specific Development of Thermophilic Bacterial Consortia by Using Chemically Pretreated Switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichorst, Stephanie A; Joshua, Chijioke; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W

    2014-12-01

    Microbial communities that deconstruct plant biomass have broad relevance in biofuel production and global carbon cycling. Biomass pretreatments reduce plant biomass recalcitrance for increased efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. We exploited these chemical pretreatments to study how thermophilic bacterial consortia adapt to deconstruct switchgrass (SG) biomass of various compositions. Microbial communities were adapted to untreated, ammonium fiber expansion (AFEX)-pretreated, and ionic-liquid (IL)-pretreated SG under aerobic, thermophilic conditions using green waste compost as the inoculum to study biomass deconstruction by microbial consortia. After microbial cultivation, gravimetric analysis of the residual biomass demonstrated that both AFEX and IL pretreatment enhanced the deconstruction of the SG biomass approximately 2-fold. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) experiments and acetyl bromide-reactive-lignin analysis indicated that polysaccharide hydrolysis was the dominant process occurring during microbial biomass deconstruction, and lignin remaining in the residual biomass was largely unmodified. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene amplicon libraries revealed that although the dominant taxa across these chemical pretreatments were consistently represented by members of the Firmicutes, the Bacteroidetes, and Deinococcus-Thermus, the abundance of selected operational taxonomic units (OTUs) varied, suggesting adaptations to the different substrates. Combining the observations of differences in the community structure and the chemical and physical structure of the biomass, we hypothesize specific roles for individual community members in biomass deconstruction. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Development Of Chemical Reduction And Air Stripping Processes To Remove Mercury From Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Looney, Brian B.; Craig, Robert R.; Thompson, Martha C.; Kmetz, Thomas F.

    2013-07-10

    This study evaluates the removal of mercury from wastewater using chemical reduction and air stripping using a full-scale treatment system at the Savannah River Site. The existing water treatment system utilizes air stripping as the unit operation to remove organic compounds from groundwater that also contains mercury (C ~ 250 ng/L). The baseline air stripping process was ineffective in removing mercury and the water exceeded a proposed limit of 51 ng/L. To test an enhancement to the existing treatment modality a continuous dose of reducing agent was injected for 6-hours at the inlet of the air stripper. This action resulted in the chemical reduction of mercury to Hg(0), a species that is removable with the existing unit operation. During the injection period a 94% decrease in concentration was observed and the effluent satisfied proposed limits. The process was optimized over a 2-day period by sequentially evaluating dose rates ranging from 0.64X to 297X stoichiometry. A minimum dose of 16X stoichiometry was necessary to initiate the reduction reaction that facilitated the mercury removal. Competing electron acceptors likely inhibited the reaction at the lower 1 doses, which prevented removal by air stripping. These results indicate that chemical reduction coupled with air stripping can effectively treat large-volumes of water to emerging part per trillion regulatory standards for mercury.

  9. Change in chemical constituents and free radical-scavenging activity during Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cultivar fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Eun Hee; Yun, Hae Rim; Jeong, Hang Yeon; Lee, Yu Geon; Kim, Wol-Soo; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2015-01-01

    Changes in chemical constituent contents and DPPH radical-scavenging activity in fruits of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cultivars during the development were investigated. The fruits of seven cultivars (cv. Niitaka, Chuhwangbae, Wonhwang, Hwangkeumbae, Hwasan, Manpungbae, and Imamuraaki) were collected at 15-day intervals after day 20 of florescence. Vitamins (ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol), arbutin, chlorogenic acid, malaxinic acid, total caffeic acid, total flavonoids, and total phenolics were the highest in immature pear fruit on day 20 after florescence among samples at different growth stages. All of these compounds decreased gradually in the fruit during the development. Immature pear fruit on day 35 or 50 after florescence exhibited higher free radical-scavenging activity than that at other times, although activities were slightly different among cultivars. The chemical constituent contents and free radical-scavenging activity were largely different among immature fruits of the pear cultivars, but small differences were observed when they matured.

  10. Critical Evaluation of Chemical Reaction Rates and Collision Cross Sections of Importance in the Earth's Upper Atmosphere and the Atmospheres of Other Planets, Moons, and Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, David L.

    2006-01-01

    We propose to establish a long-term program of critical evaluation by domain experts of the rates and cross sections for atomic and molecular processes that are needed for understanding and modeling the atmospheres in the solar system. We envision data products resembling those of the JPL/NASA Panel for Data Evaluation and the similar efforts of the international combustion modeling community funded by US DoE and its European counterpart.

  11. Development of a Chemically Defined Medium for Better Yield and Purification of Enterocin Y31 from Enterococcus faecium Y31

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wenli; Zhang, Lanwei; Yi, Huaxi

    2017-01-01

    The macro- and micronutrients in traditional medium, such as MRS, used for cultivating lactic acid bacteria, especially for bacteriocin production, have not been defined, preventing the quantitative monitoring of metabolic flux during bacteriocin biosynthesis. To enhance Enterocin Y31 production and simplify steps of separation and purification, we developed a simplified chemically defined medium (SDM) for the growth of Enterococcus faecium Y31 and production of its bacteriocin, Enterocin Y31...

  12. Development of 19F-NMR chemical shift detection of DNA B-Z equilibrium using 19F-NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, S; Yang, H; Hirata, C; Kersaudy, F; Fujimoto, K

    2017-06-28

    Various DNA conformational changes are in correlation with biological events. In particular, DNA B-Z equilibrium showed a high correlation with translation and transcription. In this study, we developed a DNA probe containing 5-trifluoromethylcytidine or 5-trifluoromethylthymidine to detect DNA B-Z equilibrium using 19 F-NMR. Its probe enabled the quantitative detection of B-, Z-, and ss-DNA based on 19 F-NMR chemical shift change.

  13. Development of Procedures for the Analysis of Components of Dumped Chemical Weapons and Their Principal Transformation Products in Sea Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saveleva, E. I.; Koryagina, N. L.; Radilov, A. S.; Khlebnikova, N. S.; Khrustaleva, V. S.

    2007-01-01

    A package of chemical analytical procedures was developed for the detection of products indicative of the presence of damped chemical weapons in the Baltic Sea. The principal requirements imposed upon the procedures were the following: high sensitivity, reliable identification of target compounds, wide range of components covered by survey analysis, and lack of interferences from sea salts. Thiodiglycol, a product of hydrolysis of sulfur mustard reportedly always detected in the sites of damping chemical weapons in the Baltic Sea, was considered the principal marker. We developed a high-sensitivity procedure for the determination of thiodiglycol in sea water, involving evaporation of samples to dryness in a vacuum concentrator, followed by tert-butyldimethylsilylation of the residue and GCMS analysis in the SIM mode with meta-fluorobenzoic acid as internal reference. The detection limit of thiodiglycol was 0.001 mg/l, and the procedure throughput was up to 30 samples per day. The same procedure, but with BSTFA as derivatizing agent instead of MTBSTFA, was used for preparing samples for survey analysis of nonvolatile components. In this case, full mass spectra were measured in the GCMS analysis. The use of BSTFA was motivated by the fact that trimethylsilyl derivatives are much wider represented in electronic mass spectral databases. The identification of sulfur mustard, volatile transformation products of sulfur mustard and lewisite, as well as chloroacetophenone in sea water was performed by means of GCMS in combination with SPME. The survey GC-MS analysis was focused on the identification of volatile and nonvolatile toxic chemicals whose mass spectra are included in the OPCW database (3219 toxic chemicals, precursors, and transformation products) with the use of AMDIS software (version 2.62). Using 2 GC-MS instruments, we could perform the survey analysis for volatile and nonvolatile components of up to 20 samples per day. Thus, the package of three procedures

  14. Hip dysplasia: a significant risk factor for the development of hip osteoarthritis. A cross-sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2005-01-01

    joint space width (JSW) /=60 yr of age. Of factors entered into logistic regression analyses, only age (P LT 0.001 for right hips and P LT 0.001 for left hips) and hip dysplasia (P LT 0.001 for right hips and P = 0.004 for left hips) were significantly associated with hip OA prevalence in women. In men......, only hip dysplasia was associated with hip OA prevalence, P LT 0.001 in right hips and P = 0.001 in left hips. CONCLUSIONS: Of the individual risk factors investigated in this study, only age and hip dysplasia were associated with the development of hip osteoarthritis.......OBJECTIVES: The aim of this cross-sectional survey of 2232 women and 1336 men (age range 20-91 yr) was to investigate individual risk factors for hip joint osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Standardized, weight-bearing pelvic radiographs were evaluated. Radiological hip joint OA was defined as minimum...

  15. Scientific and technical conference. Problems and horizons of development of chemical and radiochemical control in nuclear energetics. Collection of summaries of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    During scientific and technical conference on problems of development of chemical and radiochemical control in nuclear energetics following themes were considered: the problems of methodological and instrumental assurance of chemical and radiochemical control at working nuclear power plants and nuclear energetic units; modern conceptions of automation systems construction of chemical and radiochemical control on the basis of intellectual measuring channels; the ways of decision of generally system problems of organization and management of chemical and radiochemical control using computed technologies; the problems of certification of chemical and radiochemical methods of measuring in nuclear energetics [ru

  16. III Scientific-technical conference. Problems and outlooks for development of chemical and radiochemical control in atomic energetics (Atomenergoanalytics-2005). Summaries of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Summaries of reports of the III Scientific-technical conference: Problems and outlooks for development of chemical and radiochemical control in atomic energetics (Atomenergoanalytics-2005) are presented. The conference performed 20-22 September, 2005, in Sosnovyj Bor. Problems of methodical, instrumental and metrological supply of chemical, radiochemical and radiometric control at active NPP and NPU, modern concepts of construction of automated systems of chemical and radiometric control in the atomic energetics, directions for the decision of questions in organization and conducting of chemical and radiochemical control of water-chemical regimes of NPP and NPU are discussed [ru

  17. Are doctors and nurses associated with coverage of essential health services in developing countries? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Pinho Helen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is broad policy consensus that a shortage of doctors and nurses is a key constraint to increasing utilization of essential health services important for achieving the health Millennium Development Goals. However there is limited research on the quantitative links between health workers and service coverage rates. We examined the relationship between doctor and nurse concentrations and utilization rates of five essential health services in developing countries. Methods We performed cross-national analyses of low- and middle-income countries by means of ordinary least squares regression with coverage rates of antenatal care, attended delivery, caesarean section, measles immunization, tuberculosis case diagnosis and care for acute respiratory infection as outcomes. Doctor, nurse and aggregate health worker (sum of doctors and nurses concentrations were the main explanatory variables. Results Nurses were associated with utilization of skilled birth attendants (P = 0.02 and doctors were associated with measles immunization rates (P = 0.01 in separate adjusted analyses. Aggregate health workers were associated with the utilization of skilled birth attendants (P Conclusion A range of health system and population-level factors aside from health workers influences coverage of health services in developing countries. However, it is also plausible that health workers who are neither doctors nor nurses, such as clinical officers and community health workers, may be providing a substantial proportion of health services. The human resources for health research agenda should be expanded beyond doctors and nurses.

  18. Development of Bi-phase sodium-oxygen-hydrogen chemical equilibrium calculation program (BISHOP) using Gibbs free energy minimization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Yasushi

    1999-08-01

    In order to analyze the reaction heat and compounds due to sodium combustion, the multiphase chemical equilibrium calculation program for chemical reaction among sodium, oxygen and hydrogen is developed in this study. The developed numerical program is named BISHOP; which denotes Bi-Phase, Sodium - Oxygen - Hydrogen, Chemical Equilibrium Calculation Program'. Gibbs free energy minimization method is used because of the special merits that easily add and change chemical species, and generally deal many thermochemical reaction systems in addition to constant temperature and pressure one. Three new methods are developed for solving multi-phase sodium reaction system in this study. One is to construct equation system by simplifying phase, and the other is to expand the Gibbs free energy minimization method into multi-phase system, and the last is to establish the effective searching method for the minimum value. Chemical compounds by the combustion of sodium in the air are calculated using BISHOP. The Calculated temperature and moisture conditions where sodium-oxide and hydroxide are formed qualitatively agree with the experiments. Deformation of sodium hydride is calculated by the program. The estimated result of the relationship between the deformation temperature and pressure closely agree with the well known experimental equation of Roy and Rodgers. It is concluded that BISHOP can be used for evaluated the combustion and deformation behaviors of sodium and its compounds. Hydrogen formation condition of the dump-tank room at the sodium leak event of FBR is quantitatively evaluated by BISHOP. It can be concluded that to keep the temperature of dump-tank room lower is effective method to suppress the formation of hydrogen. In case of choosing the lower inflammability limit of 4.1 mol% as the hydrogen concentration criterion, formation reaction of sodium hydride from sodium and hydrogen is facilitated below the room temperature of 800 K, and concentration of hydrogen

  19. Chemical sensors and the development of potentiometric methods for liquid media analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, Yu.G.; Kolodnikov, V.V.; Ermolenko, Yu.E.; Mikhajlova, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    Aspects of applying indirect potentiometric determination to chemical analysis are considered. Among them are the standard and modified addition and subtraction methods, the multiple addition method, and potentiometric titration using ion-selective electrodes as indicators. These methods significantly extend the capabilities of ion-selective potentiometric analysis. Conditions for the applicability of the above-mentioned methods to various samples (Cd, REE, Th, iodides and others) are discussed using all available ion-selective electrodes as examples. 162 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Indoor environment and children's health: recent developments in chemical, biological, physical and social aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cann, Pierre; Bonvallot, Nathalie; Glorennec, Philippe; Deguen, Séverine; Goeury, Christophe; Le Bot, Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Much research is being carried out into indoor exposure to harmful agents. This review focused on the impact on children's health, taking a broad approach to the indoor environment and including chemical, microbial, physical and social aspects. Papers published from 2006 onwards were reviewed, with regards to scientific context. Most of publications dealt with chemical exposure. Apart from the ongoing issue of combustion by-products, most of these papers concerned semi volatile organic compounds (such as phthalates). These may be associated with neurotoxic, reprotoxic or respiratory effects and may, therefore, be of particular interest so far as children are concerned. In a lesser extent, volatile organic compounds (such as aldehydes) that have mainly respiratory effects are still studied. Assessing exposure to metals is still of concern, with increasing interest in bioaccessibility. Most of the papers on microbial exposure focused on respiratory tract infections, especially asthma linked to allergens and bio-aerosols. Physical exposure includes noise and electromagnetic fields, and articles dealt with the auditory and non auditory effects of noise. Articles on radiofrequency electromagnetic fields mainly concerned questions about non-thermal effects and papers on extremely low-frequency magnetic fields focused on the characterization of exposure. The impact of the indoor environment on children's health cannot be assessed merely by considering the effect of these different types of exposure: this review highlights new findings and also discusses the interactions between agents in indoor environments and also with social aspects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of fabric-based chemical gas sensors for use as wearable electronic noses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seesaard, Thara; Lorwongtragool, Panida; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2015-01-16

    Novel gas sensors embroidered into fabric substrates based on polymers/ SWNT-COOH nanocomposites were proposed in this paper, aiming for their use as a wearable electronic nose (e-nose). The fabric-based chemical gas sensors were fabricated by two main processes: drop coating and embroidery. Four potential polymers (PVC, cumene-PSMA, PSE and PVP)/functionalized-SWCNT sensing materials were deposited onto interdigitated electrodes previously prepared by embroidering conductive thread on a fabric substrate to make an optimal set of sensors. After preliminary trials of the obtained sensors, it was found that the sensors yielded a electrical resistance in the region of a few kilo-Ohms. The sensors were tested with various volatile compounds such as ammonium hydroxide, ethanol, pyridine, triethylamine, methanol and acetone, which are commonly found in the wastes released from the human body. These sensors were used to detect and discriminate between the body odors of different regions and exist in various forms such as the urine, armpit and exhaled breath odor. Based on a simple pattern recognition technique, we have shown that the proposed fabric-based chemical gas sensors can discriminate the human body odor from two persons.

  2. Development of Fabric-Based Chemical Gas Sensors for Use as Wearable Electronic Noses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thara Seesaard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel gas sensors embroidered into fabric substrates based on polymers/ SWNT-COOH nanocomposites were proposed in this paper, aiming for their use as a wearable electronic nose (e-nose. The fabric-based chemical gas sensors were fabricated by two main processes: drop coating and embroidery. Four potential polymers (PVC, cumene-PSMA, PSE and PVP/functionalized-SWCNT sensing materials were deposited onto interdigitated electrodes previously prepared by embroidering conductive thread on a fabric substrate to make an optimal set of sensors. After preliminary trials of the obtained sensors, it was found that the sensors yielded a electrical resistance in the region of a few kilo-Ohms. The sensors were tested with various volatile compounds such as ammonium hydroxide, ethanol, pyridine, triethylamine, methanol and acetone, which are commonly found in the wastes released from the human body. These sensors were used to detect and discriminate between the body odors of different regions and exist in various forms such as the urine, armpit and exhaled breath odor. Based on a simple pattern recognition technique, we have shown that the proposed fabric-based chemical gas sensors can discriminate the human body odor from two persons.

  3. A multimedia fate and chemical transport modeling system for pesticides: I. Model development and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rong; Yang Fuquan; Sloan, James J; Scholtz, M Trevor

    2011-01-01

    We have combined the US EPA MM5/MCIP/SMOKE/CMAQ modeling system with a dynamic soil model, the pesticide emission model (PEM), to create a multimedia chemical transport model capable of describing the important physical and chemical processes involving pesticides in the soil, in the atmosphere, and on the surface of vegetation. These processes include: agricultural practices (e.g. soil tilling and pesticide application mode); advection and diffusion of pesticides, moisture, and heat in the soil; partitioning of pesticides between soil organic carbon and interstitial water and air; emissions from the soil to the atmosphere; gas-particle partitioning and transport in the atmosphere; and atmospheric chemistry and dry and wet deposition of pesticides to terrestrial and water surfaces. The modeling system was tested by simulating toxaphene in a domain that covers most of North America for the period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2000. The results show obvious transport of the pesticide from the heavily contaminated soils in the southern United States and Mexico to water bodies including the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and the Great Lakes, leading to significant dry and wet deposition into these ecosystems. The spatial distributions of dry and wet depositions differ because of their different physical mechanisms; the former follows the distribution of air concentrations whereas the latter is more biased to the North East due to the effect of precipitation.

  4. A multimedia fate and chemical transport modeling system for pesticides: I. Model development and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Rong; Yang Fuquan; Sloan, James J [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Scholtz, M Trevor, E-mail: sloanj@connect.uwaterloo.ca [ORTECH Environmental, 2395 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, ON L5K 1B3 (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    We have combined the US EPA MM5/MCIP/SMOKE/CMAQ modeling system with a dynamic soil model, the pesticide emission model (PEM), to create a multimedia chemical transport model capable of describing the important physical and chemical processes involving pesticides in the soil, in the atmosphere, and on the surface of vegetation. These processes include: agricultural practices (e.g. soil tilling and pesticide application mode); advection and diffusion of pesticides, moisture, and heat in the soil; partitioning of pesticides between soil organic carbon and interstitial water and air; emissions from the soil to the atmosphere; gas-particle partitioning and transport in the atmosphere; and atmospheric chemistry and dry and wet deposition of pesticides to terrestrial and water surfaces. The modeling system was tested by simulating toxaphene in a domain that covers most of North America for the period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2000. The results show obvious transport of the pesticide from the heavily contaminated soils in the southern United States and Mexico to water bodies including the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and the Great Lakes, leading to significant dry and wet deposition into these ecosystems. The spatial distributions of dry and wet depositions differ because of their different physical mechanisms; the former follows the distribution of air concentrations whereas the latter is more biased to the North East due to the effect of precipitation.

  5. A multimedia fate and chemical transport modeling system for pesticides: I. Model development and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Scholtz, M. Trevor; Yang, Fuquan; Sloan, James J.

    2011-07-01

    We have combined the US EPA MM5/MCIP/SMOKE/CMAQ modeling system with a dynamic soil model, the pesticide emission model (PEM), to create a multimedia chemical transport model capable of describing the important physical and chemical processes involving pesticides in the soil, in the atmosphere, and on the surface of vegetation. These processes include: agricultural practices (e.g. soil tilling and pesticide application mode); advection and diffusion of pesticides, moisture, and heat in the soil; partitioning of pesticides between soil organic carbon and interstitial water and air; emissions from the soil to the atmosphere; gas-particle partitioning and transport in the atmosphere; and atmospheric chemistry and dry and wet deposition of pesticides to terrestrial and water surfaces. The modeling system was tested by simulating toxaphene in a domain that covers most of North America for the period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2000. The results show obvious transport of the pesticide from the heavily contaminated soils in the southern United States and Mexico to water bodies including the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and the Great Lakes, leading to significant dry and wet deposition into these ecosystems. The spatial distributions of dry and wet depositions differ because of their different physical mechanisms; the former follows the distribution of air concentrations whereas the latter is more biased to the North East due to the effect of precipitation.

  6. Evaluation of electrode surface modification techniques for the development of chemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiatsatos, C.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis covers several aspects of electrode surface modification techniques. The successful application of gamma-radiation to create polymer-coated electrodes, where the polymers can be ion exchangers and consequently of great analytical interest by themselves (such as the polymer poly(diallyl) dimethyl ammonium chloride) or where some other neutral polymers can function as convenient matrices for the introduction of biomolecules and/or other electrochemically interesting species is reported. This is demonstrated by using the neutral polymer poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAL) as a matrix for immobilization of the enzyme glucose oxidase and the mediator methyl viologen. The effect of γ-radiation on PVAL is discussed, as well as swelling properties of the irradiated polymers and specific characteristics of the created chemical sensors. Results of an experiment where the various kinds of interactions between the ion-exchange polymer Nafion and some positively charged species are explored are reported, and a model system for competition (methyl viologen vs. ruthenium hexaamine) which increases significantly our understanding of the interaction is mentioned. The effect of γ-radiation on Nafion and its ion-exchange compabilities is discussed also. A system of conduction polymers primarily polypyrrole, used as a detector of electroinactive anions due to their doping-undergoing in the film is discussed. Preliminary results on a new method that involves chemical cross-linking of a triisocyane molecule with -OH containing polymers in the presence of enzymes are reported

  7. Oil and chemical spill research and development in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Marine Pollution Control Unit (MPCU) falls within the UK Department of Transport's Marine Directorate and is the lead agency in the UK for the control of marine pollution. The MPCU assumes central government's responsibility for controlling two aspects of marine pollution: at sea response to oil and chemical spills from ships, and coordinating beach cleaning activities. All research funded by the MPCU is therefore directed at these two responsibilities. The MPCU was established in 1978 after a series of major tanker incidents in European waters (notably the AMOCO CADIZ, France) in recognition of the fact that it was not reasonable to expect the owners of tankers which operate on a world-wide basis to make arrangements for dealing with oil spills wherever they may occur. The UK Government therefore decided to set up a response unit, the MPCU, with specific responsibilities for dealing with oil and chemical spills from ships at sea. The responsibility for dealing with pollution once it comes ashore lies with the local authorities. However, to avoid expenditure by individual authorities on specialized equipment which will be rarely required, the government decided to set up stockpiles of such equipment in strategic locations to be drawn on by authorities as and when necessary. The government also provides training in the use of this equipment, offers scientific and technical advice and, for major spills, will coordinate beach cleaning activities

  8. Development of polyparameter linear free energy relationship models for octanol-air partition coefficients of diverse chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaochen; Fu, Zhiqiang; Li, Xuehua; Chen, Jingwen

    2017-03-22

    The octanol-air partition coefficient (K OA ) is a key parameter describing the partition behavior of organic chemicals between air and environmental organic phases. As the experimental determination of K OA is costly, time-consuming and sometimes limited by the availability of authentic chemical standards for the compounds to be determined, it becomes necessary to develop credible predictive models for K OA . In this study, a polyparameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER) model for predicting K OA at 298.15 K and a novel model incorporating pp-LFERs with temperature (pp-LFER-T model) were developed from 795 log K OA values for 367 chemicals at different temperatures (263.15-323.15 K), and were evaluated with the OECD guidelines on QSAR model validation and applicability domain description. Statistical results show that both models are well-fitted, robust and have good predictive capabilities. Particularly, the pp-LFER model shows a strong predictive ability for polyfluoroalkyl substances and organosilicon compounds, and the pp-LFER-T model maintains a high predictive accuracy within a wide temperature range (263.15-323.15 K).

  9. Development of a stable cell line with an intact PGC-1α/ERRα axis for screening environmental chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Christina T.; Beames, Burton; Alex Merrick, B.; Martin, Negin; Romeo, Charles; Jetten, Anton M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a stable cell line with intact PGC-1α/ERRα axis. • The ERRα repressor, XCT790, down regulates this pathway. • Phytoestrogen, genisten stimulates this pathway. - Abstract: The estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) play critical roles in the control of several physiological functions, including the regulation of genes involved in energy homeostasis. However, little is known about the ability of environmental chemicals to disrupt or modulate this important bioenergetics pathway in humans. The goal of this study was to develop a cell-based assay system with an intact PGC-1α/ERRα axis that could be used as a screening assay for detecting such chemicals. To this end, we successfully generated several stable cell lines expressing PGC-1α and showed that the reporter driven by the native ERRα hormone response unit (AAB-Luc) is active in these cell lines and that the activation is PGC-1α-dependent. Furthermore, we show that this activation can be blocked by the ERRα selective inverse agonist, XCT790. In addition, we find that genistein and bisphenol A further stimulate the reporter activity, while kaempferol has minimal effect. These cell lines will be useful for identifying environmental chemicals that modulate this important pathway

  10. Development of a stable cell line with an intact PGC-1α/ERRα axis for screening environmental chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Christina T., E-mail: teng1@niehs.nih.gov [DNTP, BioMolecular Screening Branch, Division, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Beames, Burton; Alex Merrick, B. [DNTP, BioMolecular Screening Branch, Division, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Martin, Negin; Romeo, Charles [DIR, Viral Core Lab, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Jetten, Anton M. [DIR Laboratory of Respiratory Biology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • We developed a stable cell line with intact PGC-1α/ERRα axis. • The ERRα repressor, XCT790, down regulates this pathway. • Phytoestrogen, genisten stimulates this pathway. - Abstract: The estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) play critical roles in the control of several physiological functions, including the regulation of genes involved in energy homeostasis. However, little is known about the ability of environmental chemicals to disrupt or modulate this important bioenergetics pathway in humans. The goal of this study was to develop a cell-based assay system with an intact PGC-1α/ERRα axis that could be used as a screening assay for detecting such chemicals. To this end, we successfully generated several stable cell lines expressing PGC-1α and showed that the reporter driven by the native ERRα hormone response unit (AAB-Luc) is active in these cell lines and that the activation is PGC-1α-dependent. Furthermore, we show that this activation can be blocked by the ERRα selective inverse agonist, XCT790. In addition, we find that genistein and bisphenol A further stimulate the reporter activity, while kaempferol has minimal effect. These cell lines will be useful for identifying environmental chemicals that modulate this important pathway.

  11. Basic physical and chemical information needed for development of Monte Carlo codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokuti, M.

    1993-01-01

    It is important to view track structure analysis as an application of a branch of theoretical physics (i.e., statistical physics and physical kinetics in the language of the Landau school). Monte Carlo methods and transport equation methods represent two major approaches. In either approach, it is of paramount importance to use as input the cross section data that best represent the elementary microscopic processes. Transport analysis based on unrealistic input data must be viewed with caution, because results can be misleading. Work toward establishing the cross section data, which demands a wide scope of knowledge and expertise, is being carried out through extensive international collaborations. In track structure analysis for radiation biology, the need for cross sections for the interactions of electrons with DNA and neighboring protein molecules seems to be especially urgent. Finally, it is important to interpret results of Monte Carlo calculations fully and adequately. To this end, workers should document input data as thoroughly as possible and report their results in detail in many ways. Workers in analytic transport theory are then likely to contribute to the interpretation of the results

  12. [Risk factors for the development of rotator cuff tears in individuals with paraplegia : A cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepke, W; Brunner, M; Abel, R; Almansour, H; Gerner, H J; Hug, A; Zeifang, F; Kentar, Y; Bruckner, T; Akbar, M

    2018-02-27

    Shoulder pain and rotator cuff tears are highly prevalent among wheelchair dependent individuals with paraplegia. The purpose of this study was to identify potential risk factors associated with the development of rotator cuff tears in this population. A total of 217 wheelchair dependent individuals with paraplegia were included in this cross-sectional study (level of evidence III). The mean age of this population was 47.9 years and the mean duration of wheelchair dependence was 24.1 years. Each individual was asked to complete a questionnaire designed to identify risk factors for rotator cuff tears and underwent a standardized clinical examination with the documentation of the Constant-Murley shoulder outcome score and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of both shoulder joints. MRI analysis revealed at least one rotator cuff tear in 93 patients (43%). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified the following factors to be associated with the presence of rotator cuff tear: patient age, duration of spinal cord injury/wheelchair dependence, gender, and wheelchair athletic activity. Neither BMI nor the level of spinal cord injury was found to pose a risk factor in the population studied. With respect to patient age, the risk of developing a rotator cuff tear increased by 11% per annum. In terms of duration of spinal cord injury, the analysis revealed a 6% increased risk per year of wheelchair dependence (OR = 1.06). Females had a 2.6-fold higher risk of developing rotator cuff tears than males and wheelchair sport activity increased the risk 2.3-fold. There is a high prevalence of rotator cuff tears in wheel-chair dependent persons with paraplegia. Risk factors such as age, gender, duration of paraplegia, and wheel chair sport activity seem to play an important role in the development of rotator cuff tears.

  13. GEM-AQ/EC, an on-line global multi-scale chemical weather modelling system: model development and evaluation of global aerosol climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Gong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A global air quality modeling system GEM-AQ/EC was developed by implementing tropospheric chemistry and aerosol processes on-line into the Global Environmental Multiscale weather prediction model – GEM. Due to the multi-scale features of the GEM, the integrated model, GEM-AQ/EC, is able to investigate chemical weather at scales from global to urban domains. The current chemical mechanism is comprised of 50 gas-phase species, 116 chemical and 19 photolysis reactions, and is complemented by a sectional aerosol module CAM (The Canadian Aerosol Module with 5 aerosols types: sulphate, black carbon, organic carbon, sea-salt and soil dust. Monthly emission inventories of black carbon and organic carbon from boreal and temperate vegetation fires were assembled using the most reliable areas burned datasets by countries, from statistical databases and derived from remote sensing products of 1995–2004. The model was run for ten years from from 1995–2004 with re-analyzed meteorology on a global uniform 1° × 1° horizontal resolution domain and 28 hybrid levels extending up to 10 hPa. The simulating results were compared with various observations including surface network around the globe and satellite data. Regional features of global aerosols are reasonably captured including emission, surface concentrations and aerosol optical depth. For various types of aerosols, satisfactory correlations were achieved between modeled and observed with some degree of systematic bias possibly due to large uncertainties in the emissions used in this study. A global distribution of natural aerosol contributions to the total aerosols is obtained and compared with observations.

  14. Phase equilibria for mixtures containing very many components. development and application of continuous thermodynamics for chemical process design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotterman, R.L.; Bender, R.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    For some multicomponent mixtures, where detailed chemical analysis is not feasible, the compositio of the mixture may be described by a continuous distribution function of some convenient macroscopic property suc as normal boiling point or molecular weight. To attain a quantitative description of phase equilibria for such mixtures, this work has developed thermodynamic procedures for continuous systems; that procedure is called continuous thermodynamics. To illustrate, continuous thermodynamics is used to calculate dew points for natural-gas mixtures, solvent loss in a high-pressure absorber, and liquid-liquid phase equilibria in a polymer fractionation process. Continuous thermodynamics provides a rational method for calculating phase equilibria for those mixtures where complete chemical analysis is not available but where composition can be given by some statistical description. While continuous thermodynamics is only the logical limit of the well-known pseudo-component method, it is more efficient than that method because it is less arbitrary and it often requires less computer time

  15. Status report on multigroup cross section generation code development for high-fidelity deterministic neutronics simulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.S.; Lee, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Under the fast reactor simulation program launched in April 2007, development of an advanced multigroup cross section generation code was initiated in July 2007, in conjunction with the development of the high-fidelity deterministic neutron transport code UNIC. The general objectives are to simplify the existing multi-step schemes and to improve the resolved and unresolved resonance treatments. Based on the review results of current methods and the fact that they have been applied successfully to fast critical experiment analyses and fast reactor designs for last three decades, the methodologies of the ETOE-2/MC 2 -2/SDX code system were selected as the starting set of methodologies for multigroup cross section generation for fast reactor analysis. As the first step for coupling with the UNIC code and use in a parallel computing environment, the MC 2 -2 code was updated by modernizing the memory structure and replacing old data management package subroutines and functions with FORTRAN 90 based routines. Various modifications were also made in the ETOE-2 and MC 2 -2 codes to process the ENDF/B-VII.0 data properly. Using the updated ETOE-2/MC 2 -2 code system, the ENDF/B-VII.0 data was successfully processed for major heavy and intermediate nuclides employed in sodium-cooled fast reactors. Initial verification tests of the MC 2 -2 libraries generated from ENDF/B-VII.0 data were performed by inter-comparison of twenty-one group infinite dilute total cross sections obtained from MC 2 -2, VIM, and NJOY. For almost all nuclides considered, MC 2 -2 cross sections agreed very well with those from VIM and NJOY. Preliminary validation tests of the ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries of MC 2 -2 were also performed using a set of sixteen fast critical benchmark problems. The deterministic results based on MC 2 -2/TWODANT calculations were in good agreement with MCNP solutions within ∼0.25% Δρ, except a few small LANL fast assemblies. Relative to the MCNP solution, the MC 2 -2/TWODANT

  16. Status report on multigroup cross section generation code development for high-fidelity deterministic neutronics simulation system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, W. S.; Lee, C. H. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2008-05-16

    Under the fast reactor simulation program launched in April 2007, development of an advanced multigroup cross section generation code was initiated in July 2007, in conjunction with the development of the high-fidelity deterministic neutron transport code UNIC. The general objectives are to simplify the existing multi-step schemes and to improve the resolved and unresolved resonance treatments. Based on the review results of current methods and the fact that they have been applied successfully to fast critical experiment analyses and fast reactor designs for last three decades, the methodologies of the ETOE-2/MC{sup 2}-2/SDX code system were selected as the starting set of methodologies for multigroup cross section generation for fast reactor analysis. As the first step for coupling with the UNIC code and use in a parallel computing environment, the MC{sup 2}-2 code was updated by modernizing the memory structure and replacing old data management package subroutines and functions with FORTRAN 90 based routines. Various modifications were also made in the ETOE-2 and MC{sup 2}-2 codes to process the ENDF/B-VII.0 data properly. Using the updated ETOE-2/MC{sup 2}-2 code system, the ENDF/B-VII.0 data was successfully processed for major heavy and intermediate nuclides employed in sodium-cooled fast reactors. Initial verification tests of the MC{sup 2}-2 libraries generated from ENDF/B-VII.0 data were performed by inter-comparison of twenty-one group infinite dilute total cross sections obtained from MC{sup 2}-2, VIM, and NJOY. For almost all nuclides considered, MC{sup 2}-2 cross sections agreed very well with those from VIM and NJOY. Preliminary validation tests of the ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries of MC{sup 2}-2 were also performed using a set of sixteen fast critical benchmark problems. The deterministic results based on MC{sup 2}-2/TWODANT calculations were in good agreement with MCNP solutions within {approx}0.25% {Delta}{rho}, except a few small LANL fast assemblies

  17. Development and application of proposed ASME Section XI Code changes for risk-based inspection of piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    This synopsis has been written to describe a perspective on the development and application of ASME Section XI Code changes for risk-based inspection of piping. The content is specifically related to the use of risk-based technology for Inservice Inspection (ISI) of piping and efforts made to support the ASME Research/Westinghouse Owners Group/Millstone Unit 3 approach for use of this technology. The opinions contained herein may or may not reflect those of the ASME Codes and Standards Committees responsible for these activities. In order to take such a detailed technical subject and put it into an understandable format, the author has chosen to provide an analogy to simplify what is actually taking place. Risk-based technology in the ISI of piping can be likened to the process of making and using specifically ground prescription glasses to allow for better vision. It provides a process to develop and use these uniquely ground glasses that will dynamically focus on all the locations and obstacles within a plant's piping systems that could cause that plant to trip and fall; more importantly it identifies the locations where the fall could possibly hurt someone else. In this way, Nuclear Safety is being addressed

  18. Do we develop public health leaders?- association between public health competencies and emotional intelligence: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Malho, André; Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Popa, Daniela; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-04-17

    Professional development of public health leaders requires a form of instruction which is competency-based to help them develop the abilities to address complex and evolving demands of health care systems. Concurrently, emotional intelligence (EI) is a key to organisational success. Our aim was twofold: i) to assess the relationship between the level of self-assessed public health and EI competencies among Master of European Public Health (MEPH) students and graduates at Maastricht University, and; ii) to determine the relationship between different groups of public health competencies and specific EI skills. A cross-sectional study was conducted including all recent MEPH graduates and students from 2009-2012, out of 67 eligible candidates N = 51 were contacted and N = 33 responded (11 males and 22 females; overall response: 64.7%).Two validated tools were employed: i) public health competencies self-assessment questionnaire, and; ii) Assessing Emotions Scale. Females scored higher than males in all seven domains of the self-assessed key public health competencies (NS) and emotional intelligence competences (P = 0.022). Overall, the mean value of public health competencies was the lowest in students with "staff" preferences and the highest among students with mixed job preferences (P leadership.

  19. Are French general practitioners consulted before travel to developing countries? A cross-sectional study conducted in a French airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, C; Buffel du Vaure, C; Partouche, H

    2015-08-01

    General practitioners (GPs) could play a central role in preventing travel-related health issues. The aim of this study was to assess, in travellers departing to developing countries from a French airport, the proportion of individuals having sought GP counseling before departure and to identify determinants for having consulted a GP. Cross-sectional study conducted between November 2012 and July 2013, in all adults living in France. Sociodemographic, health characteristics, type of travel and resources consulted before departure were collected. A descriptive analysis was performed. Determinants for having consulted a GP before departure were investigated using a logistic regression analysis. Of the 360 travellers included, 230 (64%) sought health counseling before departure. GPs were the main source of information for 134 (58%) travellers having sought health information and the only one for 49 (21%). Almost half of the travellers (48%) departing to sub-Saharan countries did not seek health counseling from a medical doctor (GP, non-GP specialist, specialist consulted in an international vaccination center or occupational physician). Individuals significantly more likely to travel without having consulted a GP were young and male, held foreign nationality, had travelled more than five times before, rarely consulted their GP and were travelling to a non-malarious area. GPs were the main but not the only source of information and counseling before traveling to a developing country. This study helps identify the characteristics of individuals likely to travel without having consulted a GP before departure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. The development and characterization of sol-gel substrates for chemical and optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kevin William

    1998-12-01

    The sol gel process can be used to make monolithic porous glass for various scientific and engineering uses. The porosity of the material imparts a large surface area which is advantageous in applications such as catalyst supports or in the study of surface mediated chemical reactions. The chemical stability and transparency of the porous glass also make it suitable for use in the emerging field of optical sensors. In this study fluoride catalysis is used to produce sol gel monoliths with pore radii of up to 400 Angstroms, four times larger than any previously reported using conventional drying techniques. Gel monoliths with pore radii of 200 Angstroms were found to have the best combination of surface area, pore volume and optical transparency. Typical monoliths have surface areas of 150 m2/g and pore volumes of 1.60 cm3/g with good transparency. The monoliths are chemically stable, have good mechanical strength and can be easily rehydrated without cracking. The substrates are also suitable for sintering into dense high purity silica glass with little tendency towards foaming. An in-depth study of the catalytic effect of fluoride on the sol gel process is also included. It has been theorized that fluoride serves to expand the coordination sphere of the silicon center making it more subject to nucleophilic attack. In this work an ion-specific fluoride electrode is used to monitor free fluoride concentrations in HF catalyzed sols while silicic acid is added in the form of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). It is found that fluoride is rapidly bound by the silicic acid in a ratio of four to one, indicating the formation of silicon tetrafluoride. A concurrent decrease in pH suggests that a pentacoordinate species is formed that is more stable than previously thought. A polymerization mechanism is proposed that explains the hydrophobicity of fluoride catalyzed gels and the difficulty in retaining structural fluoride in fluoride catalyzed sol gel glasses. Finally, several

  1. SU-E-U-02: The Development of a Practical Ultrasonic System for Cross-Sectional Imaging of Small Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamp, J [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Karmanos Cancer Institute - International Imaging Center, Detroit, MI (United States); Malyarenko, E [Karmanos Cancer Institute - International Imaging Center, Detroit, MI (United States); Tessonics Corp, Birmingham, MI (United Kingdom); Chen, D [Karmanos Cancer Institute - International Imaging Center, Detroit, MI (United States); Wydra, A [True Phantoms Solutions, Windsor, ON (Canada); University of Windsor - Institute for Diagnostic Imaging Research, Windsor, ON (Canada); Maev, R [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Karmanos Cancer Institute - International Imaging Center, Detroit, MI (United States); Tessonics Corp, Birmingham, MI (United Kingdom); True Phantoms Solutions, Windsor, ON (Canada); University of Windsor - Institute for Diagnostic Imaging Research, Windsor, ON (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To test the feasibility of developing a practical medium frequency ultrasound tomography method for small animal imaging. The ability to produce cross-sectional or full body images of a live small animal using a low-cost tabletop ultrasound scanner without any special license would be very beneficial to long term biological studies, where repeated scanning is often required over an extended period of time. Methods: The cross sectional images were produced by compounding multiple B-scans of a laboratory phantom or an animal acquired at different projection angles. Two imaging systems were used to test the concept. The first system included a programmable 64-channel phased array controller driving a 128-channel, 5–10 MHz linear probe to produce 143 B-Mode projections of the spinning object. The second system designed and manufactured in house, produced 64 or 128 B-Mode projections with a single unfocused 8 MHz transducer scanning with a 0.116 mm step size. Results: The phased array system provided good penetration through the phantoms/mice (with the exception of the lungs) and allowed to acquire data in a very short time. The cross-sectional images have enough resolution and dynamic range to detect both high- and low-contrast organs. The single transducer system takes longer to scan, and the data require more sophisticated processing. To date, our images allow seeing details as small as 1–2 mm in the phantoms and in small animals, with the contrast mostly due to highly reflecting bones and air inclusions. Conclusion: The work indicates that very detailed and anatomically correct images can be created by relatively simple and inexpensive means. With more advanced algorithms and improved system design, scan time can be reduced considerably, enabling high-resolution full 3D imaging. This will allow for quick and easy scans that can help monitor tumor growth and/or regression without contributing any dose to the animal. The authors would like to acknowledge

  2. Efficient 2-Nitrophenol Chemical Sensor Development Based on Ce2O3 Nanoparticles Decorated CNT Nanocomposites for Environmental Safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M Hussain

    Full Text Available Ce2O3 nanoparticle decorated CNT nanocomposites (Ce2O3.CNT NCs were prepared by a wet-chemical method in basic medium. The Ce2O3.CNT NCs were examined using FTIR, UV/Vis, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM, X-ray electron dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD. A selective 2-nitrophenol (2-NP sensor was developed by fabricating a thin-layer of NCs onto a flat glassy carbon electrode (GCE, surface area = 0.0316 cm2. Higher sensitivity including linear dynamic range (LDR, long-term stability, and enhanced electrochemical performances towards 2-NP were achieved by a reliable current-voltage (I-V method. The calibration curve was found linear (R2 = 0.9030 over a wide range of 2-NP concentration (100 pM ~ 100.0 mM. Limit of detection (LOD and sensor sensitivity were calculated based on noise to signal ratio (~3N/S as 60 ± 0.02 pM and 1.6×10-3 μAμM-1cm-2 respectively. The Ce2O3.CNT NCs synthesized by a wet-chemical process is an excellent way of establishing nanomaterial decorated carbon materials for chemical sensor development in favor of detecting hazardous compounds in health-care and environmental fields at broad-scales. Finally, the efficiency of the proposed chemical sensors can be applied and utilized in effectively for the selective detection of toxic 2-NP component in environmental real samples with acceptable and reasonable results.

  3. Development of an international nuclear decay data and cross-section database. Summary report of an IAEA specialists` meeting, Vienna, 24-28 October 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmel, H D [ed.

    1994-12-01

    An IAEA Specialists` Meeting proposes procedures describing how an internationally accepted database of high-priority nuclear decay data and thermal neutron cross-sections can be developed through a network of experts coordinated by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author).

  4. Development of an international nuclear decay data and cross-section database. Summary report of an IAEA specialists' meeting, Vienna, 24-28 October 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1994-12-01

    An IAEA Specialists' Meeting proposes procedures describing how an internationally accepted database of high-priority nuclear decay data and thermal neutron cross-sections can be developed through a network of experts coordinated by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  5. Annette Bunge: developing the principles in percutaneous absorption using chemical engineering principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcomb, A L

    2013-01-01

    Annette Bunge and her research group have had the central theme of mathematically modeling the dermal absorption process. Most of the research focus has been on estimating dermal absorption for the purpose of risk assessment, for exposure scenarios in the environment and in the occupational setting. Her work is the basis for the United States Environmental Protection Agency's estimations for dermal absorption from contaminated water. It is also the basis of the dermal absorption estimates used in determining if chemicals should be assigned a 'skin notation' for potential systemic toxicity following occupational skin exposure. The work is truly translational in that it started with mathematical theory, is validated with preclinical and human experiments, and then is used in guidelines to protect human health. Her valued research has also extended into the topical drug bioavailability and bioequivalence assessment field.

  6. Development of the chemical decontamination process of uranium enrichment gas centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mita, Yutaka; Endo, Yuji; Yamanaka, Toshihiro; Oohashi, Yusuke

    2002-01-01

    In Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center, many of the centrifuges that were tested for uranium enrichment are kept in storage. In the future, it will be necessary to dispose of them properly. By categorizing these centrifuges as 'items that are not required to be treated as radioactive waste', chemical decontamination tests were conducted with the wet process (diluted sulfuric acid) to reduce the amount of such radioactive waste. As a result, concerning the rotors, the assumed radioactive level was attained as items that are not required to be treated as radioactive waste', but the effectiveness of the casings varied. As a future subject, in order to find the optimal decontamination process, the basic test shall be conducted continuously. By taking economical efficiency and the processing time into consideration, the decontamination process will be evaluated and a rational method examined. (author)

  7. Development of an Electrolyte CPA Equation of state for Applications in the Petroleum and Chemical Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn

    to the CPA EoS in the absence of electrolytes, making it possible to extend the applicability of the CPA EoS while retaining backwards compatibility and resuing the parameters for non-electrolyte systems . There are many challenges related to thermodynamic modeling of mixtures containing electrolytes......This thesis extends the Cubic Plus Association (CPA) equation of state (EoS) to handle mixtures containing ions from fully dissociated salts. The CPA EoS has during the past 18 years been applied to thermodynamic modeling of a wide range of industrially important chemicals, mainly in relation...... rarely been applied to all types of thermodynamic equilibrium calculations relevant to electrolyte solutions. This project has aimed to determine the best recipe to deliver a complete thermodynamic model capable of handling electrolytes in mixed solvents and at a wide range of temperature and pressure...

  8. Development of catalysts for chemical reactions driven by concentrated solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, A.; Levitan, R.; Levy, M.

    1992-03-01

    The aim of this phase of the work is to study commercially available low priced catalysts, for the methanation and reforming processes in the closed-loop solar chemical heat pipe. This report summarized some long term tests of commercially available methanation catalysts and the measurement of their active surface before and after reaction. It was found that the 1%Ru on alumina stars catalysts (prepared by Englehard Company according to our request) is very active and stable at 350-750 C. The catalyst 'A' produced in Russia, is less active, however, did not lose the mechanical strength. The 50% Ni/SiO 2 catalyst is active as the 'A' catalyst but loses its activity after treatment at temperature > 600 C, its geometrical size shrinked. (authors). 25 refs., 25 figs., 36 tabs

  9. Cement for oil well developed from ordinary cement: characterization physical, chemical and mineralogical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, D.N.S.; Neves, G. de A.; Chaves, A.C.; Mendonca, A.M.G.D.; Lima, M.S. de; Bezerra, U.T.

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to characterize a new type of cement produced from the mixture of ordinary Portland cement, which can be used as an option in the cementing of oil wells. To enable this work we used the method of lineal programming for the new cement composition, then conducted tests to characterize through particle size analysis by laser diffraction, chemical analysis by EDX, TGA, X-ray diffraction, time grip, resistance to compression. The overall result showed that the new cement had made low-C3A, takes more time to the CPP, thermal stability up to 500 ° C, the kinetics of hydration and low levels of major components consistent with the specifications of ABNT. (author)

  10. Development and Validation of Chemical Kinetic Mechanism Reduction Scheme for Large-Scale Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poon, Hiew Mun; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Gan, Suyin

    2014-01-01

    This work is an extension to a previously reported work on chemical kinetic mechanism reduction scheme for large-scale mechanisms. Here, Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) was added as a criterion of data source for mechanism reduction instead of using only auto-ignition condition. As a result......) simulations were performed to study the spray combustion phenomena within a constant volume bomb. Both non-reacting and reacting conditions were applied in this study. Liquid and vapor penetration lengths were replicated for non-reacting diesel spray. For reacting diesel spray, both ignition delay and lift......-off length were simulated. The simulation results were then compared to the experimental data of Sandia National Laboratories and No. 2 Diesel Fuel (D2) was designated as the reference fuel. Both liquid and vapor penetrations for non-reacting condition were well-matched, while ignition delay was advanced...

  11. Prenatal Exposure to Unconventional Oil and Gas Operation Chemical Mixtures Altered Mammary Gland Development in Adult Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapouckey, Sarah A; Kassotis, Christopher D; Nagel, Susan C; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2018-03-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) operations, which combine hydraulic fracturing (fracking) and directional drilling, involve the use of hundreds of chemicals, including many with endocrine-disrupting properties. Two previous studies examined mice exposed during early development to a 23-chemical mixture of UOG compounds (UOG-MIX) commonly used or produced in the process. Both male and female offspring exposed prenatally to one or more doses of UOG-MIX displayed alterations to endocrine organ function and serum hormone concentrations. We hypothesized that prenatal UOG-MIX exposure would similarly disrupt development of the mouse mammary gland. Female C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to ~3, ~30, ~ 300, or ~3000 μg/kg/d UOG-MIX from gestational day 11 to birth. Although no effects were observed on the mammary glands of these females before puberty, in early adulthood, females exposed to 300 or 3000 μg/kg/d UOG-MIX developed more dense mammary epithelial ducts; females exposed to 3 μg/kg/d UOG-MIX had an altered ratio of apoptosis to proliferation in the mammary epithelium. Furthermore, adult females from all UOG-MIX-treated groups developed intraductal hyperplasia that resembled terminal end buds (i.e., highly proliferative structures typically seen at puberty). These results suggest that the mammary gland is sensitive to mixtures of chemicals used in UOG production at exposure levels that are environmentally relevant. The effect of these findings on the long-term health of the mammary gland, including its lactational capacity and its risk of cancer, should be evaluated in future studies. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  12. Environmental Impact Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Section is concerned with preparation of environmental statements and assessments and development of assessment methodologies for energy technologies. During 1976, activities involved nuclear, fossil, and geothermal energy; this work was supported by the U.S.Army, HUD, US ERDA, and US NRC. Two special studies--one on the effects of power plant intake structures on fish impingement and another on multiple uses of cooling lakes--were completed and should serve as references for future analyses. Two research projects sponsored by NRC--the Unified Transport Approach (UTA) to Power Plant Assessment and the Environmental Monitoring Data Evaluation Study--were continued. The purpose of the UA program is to develop fast-transient, one- and two-dimensional transport models for estimating thermal, radiological, chemical, and biological impacts in complicated water bodies. The impact of public use of various products that contain radioactive isotope is being evaluated. The Environmental Impact Sections assistance to NRC expanded to include assessments of fuel-fabrication facilities being considered for relicensing and two uranium in-situ solution mining facility proposals. The work for HUD comprises an assessment of the first application of MIUS in a new town development. A generic environmental statement was prepared and an environmental monitoring program for the facility was designed

  13. Leadership training in a family medicine residency program: Cross-sectional quantitative survey to inform curriculum development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Erin; Moore, Ainsley; Schabort, Inge

    2017-03-01

    To assess the current status of leadership training as perceived by family medicine residents to inform the development of a formal leadership curriculum. Cross-sectional quantitative survey. Department of Family Medicine at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ont, in December 2013. A total of 152 first- and second-year family medicine residents. Family medicine residents' attitudes toward leadership, perceived level of training in various leadership domains, and identified opportunities for leadership training. Overall, 80% (152 of 190) of residents completed the survey. On a Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree, 4 = neutral, 7 = strongly agree), residents rated the importance of physician leadership in the clinical setting as high (6.23 of 7), whereas agreement with the statement "I am a leader" received the lowest rating (5.28 of 7). At least 50% of residents desired more training in the leadership domains of personal mastery, mentorship and coaching, conflict resolution, teaching, effective teamwork, administration, ideals of a healthy workplace, coalitions, and system transformation. At least 50% of residents identified behavioural sciences seminars, a lecture and workshop series, and a retreat as opportunities to expand leadership training. The concept of family physicians as leaders resonated highly with residents. Residents desired more personal and system-level leadership training. They also identified ways that leadership training could be expanded in the current curriculum and developed in other areas. The information gained from this survey might facilitate leadership development among residents through application of its results in a formal leadership curriculum. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  14. Development of method to chemical separation of gallium-67 by thermal diffusion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Patricia de Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Radioisotopes of gallium have been studied and evaluated for medical applications since 1949. Over the past 50 years 67 Ga has been widely used in the diagnosis of various diseases, including acute and chronic inflammatory lesions, bacterial or sterile and several types of tumors. In Brazil 30% of clinics that provide services for Nuclear Medicine use 67 Ga citrate and the demand for 67 G a at IPEN-CNEN/SP is 37 GBq (1 Ci)/week. The 67 Ga presents physical half-life of 3.26 days (78 hours) and decays 100% by electron capture to stable 67 Zn. Its decay includes the emission of γ rays with energies of 93.3 keV (37%), 184.6 keV (20.4%), 300.2 keV (16.6%) and 888 keV (26%). In the past 67 Ga was produced by the reaction 68 Zn (p, 2n) 67 Ga at IPEN-CNEN/SP. After irradiation, the target was dissolved in concentrated HCl and the solution percolated through a cationic resin DOWEX 50W-X8, 200-400 mesh, conditioned with 10 mol L -1 HCl. Zinc, nickel and copper were eluted in 10 mol L -1 HCl and 67 Ga 3.5 mol L -1 HCl. The final product was obtained as 67 Ga citrate. This work presents a new, fast, direct and efficient method for the chemical separation of 67 G a by thermal diffusion (heating of the target) combined with concentrated acetic acid extraction. Purification was performed by ion exchange chromatography. Natural zinc electrodeposition was performed on nickel/copper plates as substrate and the zinc deposits were adherent to the substrate, slightly shiny and uniform. The targets were irradiated with 26 MeV protons and integrated current of 10 μA.h. After irradiation, the targets were heated at 300 deg C for 2 hours and placed in contact with concentrated acetic acid for 1 hour. The average yield of extraction of 67 Ga was (72 ± 10)%. This solution was evaporated and the residue was taken up in 0.5 mol L -1 NH 4 OH. The 67 G a was purified on cationic resin Dowex 50WX8 in NH 4 OH medium. The 67 Ga recovery was (98 ± 2)%. This solution was evaporated and taken up

  15. Investigation of discharged aerosol nanoparticles during chemical precipitation and spray pyrolysis for developing safety measures in the nano research laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, Еvgeny; Karunakaran, Gopalu; Godymchuk, Anna; Vera, Levina; Yudin, Andrey Grigorjevich; Gusev, Alexander; Kuznetsov, Denis

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, the demands for the nanoparticles are increasing due to their tremendous applications in various fields. As a consequence, the discharge of nanoparticles into the atmosphere and environment is also increasing, posing a health threat and environmental damage in terms of pollution. Thus, an extensive research is essential to evaluate the discharge of these nanoparticles into the environment. Keeping this in mind, the present investigation aimed to analyze the discharge of aerosol nanoparticles that are synthesized in the laboratory via chemical precipitation and spray pyrolysis methods. The results indicated that the chemical precipitation method discharges a higher concentration of nanoparticles in the work site when compared to the spray pyrolysis method. The aerosol concentration also varied with the different steps involved during the synthesis of nanoparticles. The average particle's concentration in air for chemical precipitation and spray pyrolysis methods was around 1,037,476 and 883,421particles/cm 3 . In addition, the average total discharge of nanoparticles in the entire laboratory was also examined. A significant variation in the concentration of nanoparticles was noticed, during the processing of materials and the concentration of particles (14-723nm) exceeding the daily allowed concentration to about 70-170 times was observed over a period of 6 months. Thus, the results of the present study will be very useful in developing safety measures and would help in organizing the rules for people working in nanotechnology laboratories to minimize the hazardous effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a Systems Engineering Model of the Chemical Separations Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Lijian; Li, Jianhong; Chen, Yitung; Clarksean, Randy; Ladler, Jim; Vandergrift, George

    2002-01-01

    Work is being performed to develop a general-purpose systems engineering model for the AAA separation process. The work centers on the development of a new user interface for the AMUSE code and on the specification of a systems engineering model. This paper presents background information and an overview of work completed to date. (authors)

  17. Design and development of genetically encoded fluorescent sensors to monitor intracellular chemical and physical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germond, Arno; Fujita, Hideaki; Ichimura, Taro; Watanabe, Tomonobu M

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades many researchers have made major contributions towards the development of genetically encoded (GE) fluorescent sensors derived from fluorescent proteins. GE sensors are now used to study biological phenomena by facilitating the measurement of biochemical behaviors at various scales, ranging from single molecules to single cells or even whole animals. Here, we review the historical development of GE fluorescent sensors and report on their current status. We specifically focus on the development strategies of the GE sensors used for measuring pH, ion concentrations (e.g., chloride and calcium), redox indicators, membrane potential, temperature, pressure, and molecular crowding. We demonstrate that these fluroescent protein-based sensors have a shared history of concepts and development strategies, and we highlight the most original concepts used to date. We believe that the understanding and application of these various concepts will pave the road for the development of future GE sensors and lead to new breakthroughs in bioimaging.

  18. Evaluation of occupational exposure to chemicals in research and development laboratories in the petrochemical industry; Avaliacao da exposicao ocupacional a substancias quimicas em laboratorios de pesquisa e desenvolvimento na area petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebelo, Paulo Antonio de Paiva [Seguranca, Meio Ambiente, Eficiencia Energetica e Saude (SMES). Gerencia de Saude (Brazil)], e-mail: prebelo@petrobras.com.br; Coeli, Medina [Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao do Rio de Janeiro (UN-RIO). Gerencia de Seguranca(Brazil)], e-mail: leo.medina@petrobras.com.br; Rosa, Henrique Vicente Della; Nascimento, Elizabeth de Souza [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas (Brazil)], e-mails: hdellarosa@toxikon.com, esnasci@usp.br

    2009-04-15

    A sectional study was conducted on workers in 137 laboratories, 30 pilot units and support areas of a research center in order to evaluate the level of occupational exposure based on environmental measurements from the 2004's workplace environmental protection program with the aim of assessing the risk of health injury arising from occupational exposure to chemical agents. The recognition task was developed using interviews and secondary data from safety programs covering health and environmental risks of all procedures, facilities / equipment and activities. 2,738 cases of exposure were identified, involving exposure to 484 chemicals (with 246 agents and 238 chemicals mixtures), ranging in purity and concentration, found in 243 jobs. The target population comprised 1,563 workers exposed to chemical agents, subdivided into 168 different Homogeneous Group of Expose with an average of 4.55 employees per group. In each workplace were identified, on average, 4.91 HGE and, on average, 3.73 chemicals. Regarding the 2,738 cases of chemical agents versus activity, in 14% of the cases (382 cases) there was daily exposure, in 82.1% (2,249 cases) the frequency of use varied from two to three times a week and in the remaining 3.9% (107 cases) the use was sporadic, about once a week or less. Nine of the ten most frequently used substances were hydrocarbons. 977 samples (485 samples of chemicals and 492 samples of benzene) were measured. Out of the total number of measurements taken, 91.9% of the evaluations corresponding to 92.5% of workers who work with chemicals, presented environmental measurement results below the action level, demonstrating, therefore, exposure to low concentrations.Chemical were found in most areas of work and accounts for 81% of occupational exposure in the evaluated laboratories. There is evidence of presence of one given substance in various locations, as well as of a great diversity of frequently used chemicals, since in every workplace 3

  19. Chemical, physical, and sensory characteristics of analog rice developed from the mocaf, arrowroof, and red bean flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahjuningsih, S. B.; Susanti, S.

    2018-01-01

    This research was aimed to analyze the chemical, physical, and sensory characteristics of the analog rice developed from a composite formula consisting of mocaf, arrowroot, and red bean flour. Experiment was designed into 5 different composition types i.e B1 (90%: 0%: 10%), B2 (80%:10%: 10%), B3 (70% : 20% : 10%), B4 (60%: 30%:10%), and B5 (50%: 40%: 10%) which in each type was repeated in 4 times. Carrageenan was used as a binder in the making process of those analog rice. Investigation procedure was carried out into several stages such as preparation and characterization of raw materials, production of analog rice in composite formula, then the testing of its chemical and sensory properties. Chemical characteristics were evaluated about the level of starch, amylose, dietary fiber, and resistant starch while sensory characteristics were examined about the texture, flavor, and aroma. The result showed that based on the sensory test, the best composite formula of rice analog was B2 (ratio flour of mocaf: Arrowroot: Red bean = 80:10:10). In addition, B2 formula possessed the chemical characteristics similar with the truth rice either in water content (12.18%), ash (2.63%), protein (6.17%), fat (1.31%), carbohydrate (89.88%), starch (73.29%), amylose (24.91%), total dietary fiber (7.04%), or resistant starch (6.71%). Furthermore, the higher of arrowroot flour proportion, the greater of amylose, dietary fiber and resistant starch containing in the rice analog. In the opposite, its starch content was getting down.

  20. Development of a mathematical model for a single alkaline membrane fuel cell (AMFC) with fixed volume and general square section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Elise Meister; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Setor de Tecnologia], Email: jvargas@demec.ufpr.br; Martins, Lauber de Souza; Ordonez, Juan Carlos [Florida State University, Tallahasse, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Center for Advanced Power Systems], Emails: martins@caps.fsu.edu, ordonez@eng.fsu.edu

    2010-07-01

    The Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell (AMFC) is a recently developed fuel cell type, which has shown good experimental results in the laboratory. This paper introduces a mathematical model for the single AMFC with fixed volume and general square section. The main objective is to produce a reliable model (and computationally fast) to predict the response of the single AMFC according to variations of the physical properties of manufacturing materials and operating and design parameters. The model is based on mass, momentum, energy and species conservation, and electrochemical principles, and takes into account pressure drops in the gas channels and temperature gradients with respect to space in the flow direction. The simulation results comprise the AMFC temperature distribution, net power and polarization curves. It is shown that temperature spatial gradients and gas channels pressure drops significantly affect fuel cell performance. Such effects are not usually investigated in the models available in the literature, with most of them assuming uniform pressure and temperature operation. Therefore, the model is expected to be a useful tool for AMFC design and optimization. (author)

  1. A numerical study on the flow development around a rotating square-sectioned U-Bend( II )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gong Hee; Baek, Je Hyun

    2002-01-01

    The present study investigates in detail the combined effects of the Coriolis force and centrifugal force on the development of turbulent flows in a square-sectioned U-bend rotating about an axis parallel to the center of bend curvature. When a viscous fluid flows through a curved region of U-bend, two types of secondary flow occur. One is caused by the Coriolis force due to the rotation of U-bend and the other by the centrifugal force due to the curvature of U-bend. For positive rotation, where the rotation is in the same direction as that of the main flow, both the Coriolis force and the centrifugal force act radially outwards. Therefore, the flow structure is qualitatively similar to that observed in a stationary curved duct. On the other hand, under negative rotation, where these two forces act in opposite direction, more complex flow fields can be observed depending on the relative magnitudes of the forces. Under the condition that the value of Rossby number and curvature ratio is large, the flow field in a rotating U-bend can be represented by two dimensionless parameters : K LC = Re 1/4 / √ λ and a body force ratio F= λ/Ro. Here, K TC has the same dynamical meaning as K LC = Re/√ λ for laminar flow

  2. Quantum mechanical reactive scattering theory for simple chemical reactions: Recent developments in methodology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.H.

    1989-08-01

    It has recently been discovered that the S-matrix version of the Kohn variational principle is free of the ''Kohn anomalies'' that have plagued other versions and prevented its general use. This has made a major contribution to heavy particle reactive (and also to electron-atom/molecule) scattering which involve non-local (i.e., exchange) interactions that prevent solution of the coupled channel equations by propagation methods. This paper reviews the methodology briefly and presents a sample of integral and differential cross sections that have been obtained for the H + H 2 → H 2 +H and D + H 2 → HD + H reactions in the high energy region (up to 1.2 eV translational energy) relevant to resonance structures reported in recent experiments. 35 refs., 11 figs

  3. Development of improved space sampling strategies for ocean chemical properties: Total carbon dioxide and dissolved nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyet, Catherine; Davis, Daniel; Peltzer, Edward T.; Brewer, Peter G.

    1995-01-01

    Large-scale ocean observing programs such as the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) and the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) today, must face the problem of designing an adequate sampling strategy. For ocean chemical variables, the goals and observing technologies are quite different from ocean physical variables (temperature, salinity, pressure). We have recently acquired data on the ocean CO2 properties on WOCE cruises P16c and P17c that are sufficiently dense to test for sampling redundancy. We use linear and quadratic interpolation methods on the sampled field to investigate what is the minimum number of samples required to define the deep ocean total inorganic carbon (TCO2) field within the limits of experimental accuracy (+/- 4 micromol/kg). Within the limits of current measurements, these lines were oversampled in the deep ocean. Should the precision of the measurement be improved, then a denser sampling pattern may be desirable in the future. This approach rationalizes the efficient use of resources for field work and for estimating gridded (TCO2) fields needed to constrain geochemical models.

  4. Recent developments of the quantum chemical cluster approach for modeling enzyme reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegbahn, Per E M; Himo, Fahmi

    2009-06-01

    The quantum chemical cluster approach for modeling enzyme reactions is reviewed. Recent applications have used cluster models much larger than before which have given new modeling insights. One important and rather surprising feature is the fast convergence with cluster size of the energetics of the reactions. Even for reactions with significant charge separation it has in some cases been possible to obtain full convergence in the sense that dielectric cavity effects from outside the cluster do not contribute to any significant extent. Direct comparisons between quantum mechanics (QM)-only and QM/molecular mechanics (MM) calculations for quite large clusters in a case where the results differ significantly have shown that care has to be taken when using the QM/MM approach where there is strong charge polarization. Insights from the methods used, generally hybrid density functional methods, have also led to possibilities to give reasonable error limits for the results. Examples are finally given from the most extensive study using the cluster model, the one of oxygen formation at the oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II.

  5. An approach to develop chemical intuition for atomistic electron transport calculations using basis set rotations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, A.; Solomon, G. C. [Department of Chemistry and Nano-Science Center, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, 2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2016-05-21

    Single molecule conductance measurements are often interpreted through computational modeling, but the complexity of these calculations makes it difficult to directly link them to simpler concepts and models. Previous work has attempted to make this connection using maximally localized Wannier functions and symmetry adapted basis sets, but their use can be ambiguous and non-trivial. Starting from a Hamiltonian and overlap matrix written in a hydrogen-like basis set, we demonstrate a simple approach to obtain a new basis set that is chemically more intuitive and allows interpretation in terms of simple concepts and models. By diagonalizing the Hamiltonians corresponding to each atom in the molecule, we obtain a basis set that can be partitioned into pseudo-σ and −π and allows partitioning of the Landuaer-Büttiker transmission as well as create simple Hückel models that reproduce the key features of the full calculation. This method provides a link between complex calculations and simple concepts and models to provide intuition or extract parameters for more complex model systems.

  6. Development of Functional Inorganic Materials by Soft Chemical Process Using Ion-Exchange Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qi

    Our study on soft chemical process using the metal oxide and metal hydroxide nanosheets obtained by exfoliation their layered compounds were reviewed. Ni(OH)2⁄MnO2 sandwich layered nanostructure can be prepared by layer by-layer stacking of exfoliated manganese oxide nanosheets and nickel hydroxide layers. Manganese oxide nanotubes can be obtained by curling the manganese oxide nanosheets using the cationic surfactants as the template. The layered titanate oriented thin film can be prepared by restacking the titanate nanosheets on a polycrystalline substrate, and transformed to the oriented BaTiO3 and TiO2 thin films by the topotactic structural transformation reactions, respectively. The titanate nanosheets can be transformed anatase-type TiO2 nanocrystals under hydrothermal conditions. The TiO2 nanocrystals are formed by a topotactic structural transformation reaction. The TiO2 nanocrystals prepared by this method expose specific crystal plane on their surfaces, and show high photocatalytic activity and high dye adsorption capacity for high performance dye-sensitized solar cell. A series of layered basic metal salt (LBMS) compounds were prepared by hydrothermal reactions of transition metal hydroxides and organic acids. We succeeded in the exfoliation of these LBMS compounds in alcohol solvents, and obtained the transition metal hydroxide nanosheets for the first time.

  7. Organocatalysts for enantioselective synthesis of fine chemicals: definitions, trends and developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Palumbo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Organocatalysis, that is the use of small organic molecules to catalyze organic transformations, has been included among the most successful concepts in asymmetric catalysis, and it has been used for the enantioselective construction of C–C, C–N, C–O, C–S, C–P and C–halide bonds. Since the seminal works in early 2000, the scientific community has been paying an ever-growing attention to the use of organocatalysts for the synthesis, with high yields and remarkable stereoselectivities, of optically active fine chemicals of interest for the pharmaceutical industry. A brief overview is here presented about the two main classes of substrate activation by the catalyst: covalent organocatalysis and non-covalent organocatalysis, with a more stringent focus on some recent outcomes in the field of the latter and of hydrogen bond-based catalysis. Finally, some successful examples of heterogenization of organocatalysts are also discussed, in the view of a potential industrial exploitation.

  8. An in vivo model fish system to test chemical effects on sexual differentiation and development: exposure to ethinyl estradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, Diana M.; Noltie, Douglas B.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2000-01-01

    A model system was characterized which may be used as an in vivo screen for effects of chemicals or environmental mixtures on sexual differentiation and development of reproductive organs and gametes. We evaluated the effects of a model environmental estrogen, ethinyl estradiol (EE2), on the d-rR strain of medaka, Oryzias latipes, using a nano-injection exposure. Gonad histopathology indicated that a single injection of 0.5–2.5 ng EE2/egg can cause phenotypic sex-reversal of genetic males to females. Sex-reversals could be detected as early as 7 days post-hatch. Sex-reversed males had female-typical duct development and the secondary sex characteristics we measured were generally consistent with phenotype, with the exception of a few EE2-exposed XX and XY females which possessed ambiguous anal fins. Using discriminant analysis, we determined that the presence or absence of the secondary sex characteristic, a dorsal fin notch, was a very reliable indicator of gonadal sex. No instances of gonadal intersexes were observed. Ethinyl estradiol also appeared to reduce growth but not condition (weight-at-length) and exposed XX females appeared to have a higher incidence of atretic follicles relative to controls. Our results suggest that estrogenic chemicals may influence sexual differentiation and development and that the medaka model is well suited to assessing these effects.

  9. Development of a method for environmentally friendly chemical peptide synthesis in water using water-dispersible amino acid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukumori Yoshinobu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to the vast importance of peptides in biological processes, there is an escalating need for synthetic peptides to be used in a wide variety of applications. However, the consumption of organic solvent is extremely large in chemical peptide syntheses because of the multiple condensation steps in organic solvents. That is, the current synthesis method is not environmentally friendly. From the viewpoint of green sustainable chemistry, we focused on developing an organic solvent-free synthetic method using water, an environmentally friendly solvent. Here we described in-water synthesis technology using water-dispersible protected amino acids.

  10. Experimental research subject and renovation of chemical processing facility (CPF) for advanced fast reactor fuel reprocessing technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Tomozo; Shinozaki, Tadahiro; Nomura, Kazunori; Koma, Yoshikazu; Miyachi, Shigehiko; Ichige, Yoshiaki; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki; Nemoto, Shin-ichi

    2002-01-01

    In order to enhance economical efficiency, environmental impact and nuclear nonproliferation resistance, the Advanced Reprocessing Technology, such as simplification and optimization of process, and applicability evaluation of the innovative technology that was not adopted up to now, has been developed for the reprocessing of the irradiated fuel taken out from a fast reactor. Renovation of the hot cell interior equipments, establishment and updating of glove boxes, installation of various analytical equipments, etc. in the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF) was done to utilize the CPF more positivity which is the center of the experimental field, where actual fuel can be used, for research and development towards establishment of the Advanced Reprocessing Technology development. The hot trials using the irradiated fuel pins of the experimental fast reactor 'JOYO' for studies on improved aqueous reprocessing technology, MA separation technology, dry process technology, etc. are scheduled to be carried out with these new equipments. (author)

  11. Delayed Development of Feeding Skills in Children with Feeding Difficulties—Cross-sectional Study in a Brazilian Reference Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia C. Ramos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDelays in gross motor development, sensory processing issues, and organic and behavioral problems are known to interfere in the development of feeding skills (FS; and—therefore—in the success of the process of feeding a child. Children with feeding difficulties (FD commonly present inadequacy of FS.ObjectivesAssessment of five FS in Brazilian children with FD, and search of associations with types of FD.MethodsCross-sectional study with 70 children below 10 years old. Data were obtained from medical records: age, gender, age at texture transitions, feeding phase (breastfeeding, weaning to solids or full solids at first complaint; characteristics of the meal (duration, environment, and shared meals with adults, self-feeding practices, use of feeding equipment and bottle, mouthing, feeding position and FD diagnosis. Skills were categorized according to standards for age. Chi-Square, Anova Test (or non-parametric equivalent and Multinomial logistic regression tests were used, with a significance level of 5%.ResultsThere was no difference in FS (p > 0.05 or in the number of FS inadequateness (p = 0.84 according to FD diagnosis. The majority (94% of children presented at least one delayed development of FS; 1/3 presented delays in more than half of the FS. The most prevalent inadequacies in FS were inadequate feeding position (73.5%, prolonged bottle feeding (56.9%, and inadequate self-feeding practices (37.9%. Feeding complaints first appeared at 10.9 ± 11.4 months, and picky eating was the most prevalent type of FD (37.1%. Most children were fed in inadequate environments (55.2%, without the company of adults (78%. Transition to solid foods occurred at 16 ± 5.6 months. Multinomial logistic regression showed no difference in likelihood of presenting any type of FD compared to picky eating, according to FS. Age at texture transition both from breastfeeding to complementary feeding (p = 0.95, and from

  12. Development of the adjusted nuclear cross-section library based on JENDL-3.2 for large FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kenji; Ishikawa, Makoto; Numata, Kazuyuki

    1999-04-01

    JNC (and PNC) had developed the adjusted nuclear cross-section library in which the results of the JUPITER experiments were reflected. Using this adjusted library, the distinct improvement of the accuracy in nuclear design of FBR cores had been achieved. As a recent research, JNC develops a database of other integral data in addition to the JUPITER experiments, aiming at further improvement for accuracy and reliability. In 1991, the adjusted library based on JENDL-2, JFS-3-J2 (ADJ91R), was developed, and it has been used on the design research for FBR. As an evaluated nuclear library, however, JENDL-3.2 is recently used. Therefore, the authors developed an adjusted library based on JENDL-3.2 which is called JFS-3-J3.2(ADJ98). It is known that the adjusted library based on JENDL-2 overestimated the sodium void reactivity worth by 10-20%. It is expected that the adjusted library based on JENDL-3.2 solve the problem. The adjusted library JFS-3-J3.2(ADJ98) was produced with the same method as the adjusted library JFS-3-J2(ADJ91R) and used more integral parameters of JUPITER experiments than the adjusted library JFS-3-J2(ADJ91R). This report also describes the design accuracy estimation on a 600 MWe class FBR with the adjusted library JFS-3-J3.2(ADJ98). Its main nuclear design parameters (multiplication factor, burn-up reactivity loss, breeding ratio, etc.) except the sodium void reactivity worth which are calculated with the adjusted library JFS-3-J3.2(ADJ98) are almost the same as those predicted with JFS-3-J2(ADJ91R). As for the sodium void reactivity, the adjusted library JFS-3-J3.2(ADJ98) estimates about 4% smaller than the JFS-3-J2(ADJ91R) because of the change of the basic nuclear library from JENDL-2 to JENDL-3.2. (author)

  13. Development of pure component property models for chemical product-process design and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hukkerikar, Amol Shivajirao

    information on the degree of accuracy of the property estimates. In addition, a method based on the ‘molecular structural similarity criteria’ is developed so that efficient use of knowledge of properties could be made in the development/improvement of property models. This method, in principle, can...... modeling such as: (i) quantity of property data used for the parameter regression; (ii) selection of the most appropriate form of the property model function; and (iii) the accuracy and thermodynamic consistency of predicted property values are also discussed. The developed models have been implemented...

  14. Effects of the in vitro chemical environment during early embryogenesis on subsequent development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, D. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Animal Biotechnology Embryo Lab.

    1998-12-31

    The development of the preimplantation embryo seems morphologically very simple, and embryologists previously assumed that an embryo that developed to the blastocyst stage was fully capable of normal development after transfer to the uterus of a recipient female. This complacency was disturbed by reports that exposure of early embryos to mutagens such as methylnitrosourea led to fetal abnormalities, decreased birth rates, and decreased life-span. Even more disturbing are recent reports that culture of early embryos in supposedly benign conditions can adversely affect their subsequent development. Techniques have been developed for the production of cattle and sheep embryos by in-vitro fertilization and by cloning. Such embryos must be cultured for several days before they can be transferred, and, in some cases, this has been related to abortion, very high birthweight, physical abnormalities and peri-natal mortality of the calves and lambs. This syndrome may result from an unbalanced development of the trophoblast relative to the inner-cell mass, possibly related to the presence of serum, glucose, or ammonium in the culture medium. An analogous phenomenon has been observed in human in-vitro fertilization where babies from single pregnancies have below-normal birth-weight. There is also evidence to suggest that the in-vitro environment of the gametes before fertilization can affect subsequent embryonal and fetal development. Exposure of mouse oocytes to vitrification solutions has been shown to lead to fetal malformations, and treatment of bull sperm with glutathione improves early embryo development. The common thread in these diverse observations is that development can be affected by events that occur long before any defect is apparent. Consequently, the production of a morphologically normal embryo is no guarantee that fetal development and post-natal life will be normal. This is of immediate concern in human reproductive medicine due to the increasing use of

  15. Nuclear Facilities Management Section Mutsu Office, Aomori Research and Development Center operations report. FY 2012 and 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Yoshihiro; Kuwabara, Jun; Oyokawa, Atsushi; Kabuto, Shoji; Araya, Naoyuki; Kikuchi, Kaoru; Miyamoto, Shingo; Nemoto, Hideyuki; Ohe, Osamu

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear Facilities Management Section implements the operation, maintenance and decommissioning of the first nuclear ship “MUTSU” and the operation and maintenance of the liquid waste facility and the solid waste facility where a small amount of nuclear fuel is used. This is the report on the operations of the Nuclear Facilities Management Section for FY 2012 and FY 2013. (author)

  16. Other Perspectives for Developing Exposure Estimates: “SHEDS-Lite: Rapid Scenario-Based ExposurePredictions for Chemicals with Near-Field and Dietary Pathways”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creative advances in exposure science are needed to support efficient and effective evaluation and management of chemical risks, particularly for chemicals in consumer products. This presentation will describe the development of EPA’s screening-level, probabilistic SHEDS-Li...

  17. Development of hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) procedures to control organic chemical hazards in the agricultural production of raw food commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, Karl; Ferguson, Andrew; Beck, Angus J

    2003-01-01

    Hazard Analysis by Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards in the food chain. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all chemical microbiological, and physical hazards. However, current procedures focus primarily on microbiological and physical hazards, while chemical aspects of HACCP have received relatively little attention. In this article we discuss the application of HACCP to organic chemical contaminants and the problems that are likely to be encountered in agriculture. We also present generic templates for the development of organic chemical contaminant HACCP procedures for selected raw food commodities, that is, cereal crops,raw meats, and milk.

  18. Development of Chemically Amplified Optical Sensors for Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring Final Report CRADA No. TSB-1162-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Stephen M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Livermore, CA (United States); Mastrototaro, John J. [Minimed Technologies, Inc., Sylmar, CA (United States)

    2018-01-22

    Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects 14 million people in the U.S. and more than 110 million people worldwide. Each year in this country 27,000 diabetic patients become blind, 15,000 have kidney failure, and over 54,000 have peripheral limb amputations. In 1992, total healthcare costs in the U.S. for diabetes were more than $105 billion, approximately 15% of our healthcare budget. Conventional therapy for the most severe form of diabetes, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or Type I diabetes, is to administer one or two injections per day of various forms of insulin while monitoring blood glucose levels twice or three times daily with commercial glucometers that require blood samples. Near normal blood sugar levels (glycemic control) is difficult to achieve with conventional therapy. In the fall of 1993, the results of the 10-year $165 million Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) were published which showed that intensive insulin management would lead to dramatically fewer cases of retinopathy (which leads to blindness), nephropathy (which leads to kidney failure), and neuropathy (which can lead to limb amputations) [New England Journal of Medicine, Vo1239, No.14 977-986 (1993)]. If existing commercial insulin pumps could be combined with a continuous glucose sensor, a more physiological and fine-tuned therapy could be provided - in effect, an artificial biomechanical pancreas would be available. Existing research suggested that such a development would dramatically improve glucose control, thus greatly reducing morbidity and mortality from this disease. MiniMed Technologies in Sylmar, CA, identified a number of optically based sensor strategies as well as candidate chemical reactions that could be used to implement a minimally invasive opto-chemical glucose sensor. LLNL evaluated these sensor strategies and chemical reactions. These evaluations were the first steps leading to development of a sensor of considerable importance that could

  19. Cesarean Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... birth after a C-section, called a VBAC ) Emergency C-Sections Some C-sections are unexpected emergency ... side to nurse or using the clutch (or football) hold can take the pressure off your abdomen. ...

  20. Development and Application of a Probabilistic Risk-Benefit Assessment Model for Infant Feeding Integrating Microbiological, Nutritional, and Chemical Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boué, Géraldine; Cummins, Enda; Guillou, Sandrine; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2017-12-01

    A probabilistic and interdisciplinary risk-benefit assessment (RBA) model integrating microbiological, nutritional, and chemical components was developed for infant milk, with the objective of predicting the health impact of different scenarios of consumption. Infant feeding is a particular concern of interest in RBA as breast milk and powder infant formula have both been associated with risks and benefits related to chemicals, bacteria, and nutrients, hence the model considers these three facets. Cronobacter sakazakii, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were three risk/benefit factors selected as key issues in microbiology, chemistry, and nutrition, respectively. The present model was probabilistic with variability and uncertainty separated using a second-order Monte Carlo simulation process. In this study, advantages and limitations of undertaking probabilistic and interdisciplinary RBA are discussed. In particular, the probabilistic technique was found to be powerful in dealing with missing data and to translate assumptions into quantitative inputs while taking uncertainty into account. In addition, separation of variability and uncertainty strengthened the interpretation of the model outputs by enabling better consideration and distinction of natural heterogeneity from lack of knowledge. Interdisciplinary RBA is necessary to give more structured conclusions and avoid contradictory messages to policymakers and also to consumers, leading to more decisive food recommendations. This assessment provides a conceptual development of the RBA methodology and is a robust basis on which to build upon. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.